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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 54, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2006

Correlation-Based Pattern Stability Analysis and a Figure of Merit for UWB Antennas
Tharaka Dissanayake, Student Member, IEEE, and Karu P. Esselle, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—Combining the concepts of pulse fidelity, time-domain correlation patterns, and frequency-domain pattern stability, we propose the concept of frequency-domain correlation patterns and a figure of merit, called pattern stability factor (PSF), to characterize pattern stability of wideband antennas. The frequency-domain correlation pattern represents the relationship between radiation in a reference direction to radiation in all other directions of interest, over a specified bandwidth. With practical examples, we demonstrate that this tool is very useful when selecting a single transfer function (and a reference direction) for the antenna when designing or optimizing an ultrawideband (UWB) system. Careful selection of the reference direction is crucial for antennas with relatively less stable patterns, but even antennas with relatively stable patterns can perform poorly overall if an inappropriate reference direction is chosen. The PSF represents the overall pattern stability of an antenna for a specific bandwidth and a range of directions. It is useful as a quantitative measure: a) to compare the suitability of different antennas for a given wideband or multiband application; b) to assess pattern stability improvement methods; and c) to quantify the effect of packaging, etc., on stability. We also propose the concept of PSF bandwidth and show how it can be used to identify stable frequency bands of a given antenna within its impedance bandwidth, and how it compares with the impedance bandwidth of some UWB antennas. Index Terms—Antenna bandwidth, broadband, characterization, correlation, fidelity, multiband, optimization, pattern stability factor (PSF), radiation pattern, stability, transfer function, ultrawideband (UWB), wideband.

I. INTRODUCTION ARAMETERS such as pulse fidelity and correlation energy patterns are presented in [1] for time-domain characterization of antennas. Pulse fidelity is a measure of pulse deformation caused by the antenna, whereas a time-domain correlation pattern represents relationship between radiated pulses in different directions. Furthermore, recently in [3], concepts of correlation energy pattern and correlation energy efficiency have been introduced. In this paper, we use those definitions to create new parameters to characterize and quantify performance of ultrawideband (UWB) antennas and demonstrate their use through practical applications. In UWB system design and optimization schemes, the antenna is represented by a single transfer function [4]–[7]. However, modern UWB antennas are complicated, and their transfer functions depend on the direction. Even the transfer function of an ideal monopole can become direction dependent, when the

P

antenna is integrated to the case of an electronic system. Therefore, it is necessary to select a single transfer function (or equivalently, a single reference direction) out of an infinite number of choices available, for system design and optimization. This paper describes a novel approach to select the best transfer function for a given antenna in a given application. It is based on pulse correlation concepts but conducted in the frequency domain. Its applications to antennas with relatively stable and unstable patterns are demonstrated through examples. We investigate the close relationship between antenna pattern stability and frequency-domain correlation patterns and highlight the advantages of the latter. Pattern comparison between two different frequencies is possible as presented in [2]. However, in the context of UWB antennas, stability within an entire band should be considered. Hence, we propose a new figure of merit to represent overall pattern stability performance of a UWB antenna. Based on this figure of merit: a) pattern stability performance of different antennas can be compared quantitatively; b) effects of ground-plane modifications, packaging, integration of antennas with cases, element interactions [12], etc., can be examined; c) pattern stability improvement methods can be assessed [13]; d) a pattern stability bandwidth can be defined. Section II of this paper summarizes background theory. New frequency-domain correlation patterns and the figure of merit are defined in Section III. The applications of these concepts to several UWB antenna configurations are given in Section IV to demonstrate their practical value. Sections V and VI present a brief discussion and conclusions, respectively. II. THEORY A. Basis Energy patterns for pulse radiating antennas are defined in the time domain in [3] as (1) and

Manuscript received September 15, 2005; revised March 28, 2006. This work was supported by Macquarie University under an International Scholarship. The authors are with Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia (e-mail: tharaka@ics.mq.edu.au; esselle@ics.mq.edu.au; karu@ieee.org). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TAP.2006.883965 0018-926X/$20.00 © 2006 IEEE

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as a direct consequence of (P2). the radiating transfer function depends on the direction. correlation energy depends on the relationship between the pulse in the given direction and the reference direction. the antenna need not be an in all omnidirectional radiation pattern to maximize directions. For other direcin that direction is maximized and tions. and is the template ated pulse at a far field point . from property (P1) and Fourier transform. which as it is the best direction that can be selected for optimization. stands for the relationship between the radiated fields . we select the radiated electric-field waveform in a particular direction. Moreover. where k is a constant in time. erties of B. to quantify the correlation direction. Properties of the Factor (6) where is the range of operating directions of the antenna (i. In general. Appendix A shows the importance of pattern stability in achieving pulse amplitude optimization [5] simultaneously in all directions. a the maximum value of unity if condition difficult to achieve in practice. For an antenna intended for spherical coverage. For an antenna with low dispersion. . while complying with Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations [4]. P3) It can be calculated in the frequency domain using Parseval theorem and Fourier integral theorem. Note that reaches in all directions. as phase values are cancelled out. in the frequency domain Therefore. However. azimuth). However. [7]. Obviously (5) is the condition for ideal pattern stability. The direction along which is maximum is the direction that is best correlated to all other directions on average. is the inis the time-domain raditrinsic impedance of free space. III. FREQUENCY-DOMAIN CORRELATION PATTERNS AND FIGURE OF MERIT A. the integration can be limited to any arc. It clearly shows the best reference direction(s) for the operating bandwidth concerned. This direction is considered unique. which represents how the radiated waveform in the is correlated to all other directions of reference direction interest on average. In practical system design or optimization. the integral in the numerator of (4) is real. we can define in the time domain (3) as equivalent to (4) where stands for complex conjugate and BW is the bandwidth of interest. solid angle. Then. The following observations on (3) are found useful. As an example.g. function that can be preselected. Therefore.e. reference directions under consideration. Note that as of the electric-field magnitude. hereafter called the reference . the antenna is considered as a two-port device and represented by a single transfer function [10]. or through reduced intersymbol interference. we define . We shall now show that for a pattern stable antenna. in the case of many UWB antennas. as the template of the radiated pulse in the reference direction to any other direction of interest . the condition for maximization can be expressed as (5a) or in logarithmic scale (5b) where and are independent of frequency and represents the gain (absolute or normalized) in decibels. the radiated pulse of a UWB antenna depends on the direction.DISSANAYAKE AND ESSELLE: CORRELATION BASED PATTERN STABILITY ANALYSIS 3185 where is correlated energy. In almost all of those investigations. P1) The value of and is maximum if and only . is a sphere and the integration is double over a solid angle of 4 . or polarization. Therefore. for the opGenerating the correlation pattern curve erating directional range is especially important when an antenna has unstable radiation patterns within the operating band. if P2) Its value is independent of electric-field amplitude. Hence. pulses in all the directions are highly correlated by paying attention to the propfactor in (3). is total energy. Frequency-Domain Correlation Pattern First we define the frequency-domain correlation pattern . Optimization of a UWB antenna could be to achieve the highest data rates through amplitude maximization [5]. as (3) Note that the template function is selected as equal to the electric field in the reference direction. which is identical to the normalized correlation coefficient in [3] when the radiated field in the reference direction is chosen as the template function is independent between two directions. Signal processing theorems have been extensively used in optimizing signals for UWB systems. we search for a direction in is maximized. the correlation . Likewise. Now. [6]. it becomes a line integral. If an antenna has an extremely stable patwill be close to unity for all the tern throughout the band. the transfer function in this direction is the best one to represent the antenna in UWB system design and optimization. “field of view”) and the integration is with respect to the direction of interest . value remains unchanged under radiation pattern normalization. If operation is limited to a plane (e. normalized radiation patterns can give a good feel of pattern stability and hence can be used to calculate (4). we shall consider this ideal situation as a theoretical reference... In this paper.

even though planar monopoles are considered similar to whip antennas. In this case. the range of directions of interest is discretized. we are in a position to define a single figure of merit to quantify the overall pattern stability performance of an antenna. circular. they can be substituted in (4) just like theoretical data. With this observation. one antenna is rotated with respect to the other. mainly due to the geometrical asymmetry and finiteness of the ground plane. Antenna Figure of Merit An ideally stable pattern can be expressed as (5) in the frequency domain. our investigation is limited to an component on the XY plane. From Fig. If the directions of interest are limited to one plane. In the second example. In our simulations. to cover only the directions of interest. we quantitatively estimate the improvement of the pattern stability (and pattern stability bandwidth) of a planar monopole antenna when its symmetry is improved by extending it to a cross-planar monopole configuration [13]. Based on these observations. even on the orthogonal (H) plane. When both the amplitude and phase of the measured radiation patterns are available. 4).6 GHz on the azimuth plane.95. We define the pattern stability factor (PSF) for a given frequency band as (7) where is again the range of operating directions of the antenna and the integration is now with respect to the reference direction . 2 for the range of frequencies concerned. First. For antennas with stable phase centers. In the first example. not necessarily the complete sphere surrounding the antenna.mq. the patterns of the cross-planar monopole in .3186 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. A. Finally frequency-domain correlation patterns and PSF are calculated according to (6) and (7). 2(a).e. the radiation in different directions varies significantly. 54. Since major improvement in stability is observed in the XY plane (i. it is sensible to define an antenna bandwidth based on its pattern stability performance. To understand this improvement in the conventional way. or even triangular [16].au/celane. IV. the PSF of a typical antenna tends to deteriorate. APPLICATIONS In this section. It is evident that stability has significantly improved by introducing the cross-planar element to the monopole. 0. As we increase the operating bandwidth. In both cases.. C. VOL. elliptical. It is obvious that PSF is unity for an ideally pattern stable antenna. Planar Monopoles Planar monopoles are popular as UWB antennas. Note that absolute field strength is not required. H plane). D. a scaled or normalized pattern is sufficient.edu. placed in the far field. Selection of is solely based on the application. using interpolation schemes.95 PSF bandwidth indicates a band within which overall pattern stability is better than 0. elec. The measured is substituted for the electric field values in (4). the normalized radiation patterns of the two antennas are shown in Fig. For example. Antenna engineers would like to align this PSF bandwidth with the impedance bandwidth. NOVEMBER 2006 B. Table I summarizes the PSF of the two monopole antennas under investigation for the frequency range of 3. respectively. Even when the directions of interest form a solid angle (three-dimensional shape) that normally require double integrations. we quantify the degradation of pattern stability and overall bandwidth of an L-shaped wide slot antenna when its ground plane is modified with the addition of sidewalls [14]. Then. it can be seen that the planar antenna has highly unstable radiation pattern with frequency in the directions of 90 and 270 . whereas the variation in other directions is relatively low. 11. It has been observed that. and the frequency-domain radiated electric field values (at a fixed distance in the far field) are calculated in these discrete directions over the bandwidth of interest. or time-domain solvers such as Microwave Studio followed by fast Fourier transform. In contrast. the integration may be done approximately over two two-dimensional planes using single integrals to save computation time and resources [9]. For good all-round performance in a UWB system. In other words. transmission between two identical antennas can be measured to determine PSF. PSF may be desirable. the phase values in (4) cancel out and hence only amplitude (scalar) measurements are sufficient. PSF Calculation The calculation of PSF is done as follows. and for all reference directions .1 1MATLAB codes useful for these computations will be available at www. and the transmission from the input of one antenna to the output of the other is measured using a vector network analyzer [10]. This can be achieved directly with frequency-domain software such as HFSS. Fig. to achieve good overall performance for a given wideband application. 1 m away.1–10. parallel to The correlation patterns and PSF have been calculated on the azimuth plane. an ideal antenna would have for all and . any antenna is an almost perfectly stable antenna within a sufficiently narrow bandwidth. only single integrals are required for all calculations. these electric field values are substituted in (4) to calculate for all pairs of discrete directions. The planar element of the antenna can be square. The PSF can also be calculated using experimental data. The cross-planar monopole has been proposed to improve the pattern stability of the conventional planar monopole antenna. We have simulated both antennas using CST Microwave Studio time-domain software. PSF Bandwidth One may note that (8) In other words. 1 shows a planar monopole antenna and an improved cross-planar monopole antenna. we discuss how useful the correlation patterns are when a reference direction is chosen for UWB system design and optimization. probes are in the XY plane. NO. due to their extremely wide impedance bandwidth (see Fig. Alternatively.ics. we investigate two example applications of antenna correlation patterns and PSF.

It can be seen from Fig.6 GHz. we calculated the correlation patterns of these two antennas over the azimuth plane in the frequency range of 3. The x-axis represents the reference direction (). Frequency-domain correlation patterns and P curves for planar and cross-planar monopole antennas. TABLE I PATTERN STABILITY FACTOR OF FOUR ANTENNAS Fig. 2. The inner conductor of the probe feed has a radius of 1. optimization. an optimized UWB system based on a cross-planar antenna can reach nearly maximum pulse amplitude in all directions independent of the selection of the reference direction. in case of the planar monopole. when the system is optimized for this reference direction. 1. Planar and cross-planar monopole antennas on finite ground planes. The higher PSF value of the cross-planar antenna represents this improvement in an averaged and quantified manner. The two antennas have the same dimensions. The averaging is done with respect to the direction by integrating over the azimuth plane as Fig.1–10.12 mm and the outer conductor inner radius is 4 mm. 3.33. To identify the best reference direction for system design. The that the reference direction should be in the range of 40–60 . the selection of reference direction is crucial to achieve the best curve in Fig.DISSANAYAKE AND ESSELLE: CORRELATION BASED PATTERN STABILITY ANALYSIS 3187 Fig.) The cross-planar antenna has a significantly higher correlation pattern for all directions concerned. 3 also shows the average of discussed in Appendix A) is the peak electric-field amplitude in direction when a system is optimized for peak amplitude in the reference direction . or any such purpose. divided by the peak electric-field amplitude in direction when a system is optimized for the peak amplitude in the same direction. In fact. and the results are shown in Fig. (Due to symmetry. results for only one quadrant are shown. However. 3. [17]. 2(b) have only a 4 dB variation within the whole frequency range considered. Relative dielectric constant of the coaxial line material is 2. Fig. A system optimized for any other reference direction will not perform well in all directions overall. For comparison. E radiation pattern on the XY plane (a) for planar monopole antenna and (b) for cross-planar monopole antenna. (9) We can recognize that a higher value of in a given reference direction means a better overall pulse amplitude optimization in all the directions of interest. which (as further Fig. we can reach the same conclusion simply observing the correlation pattern ( ) curve for the planar monopole an- . 3 that as a result of good pattern stability. 3 indicates optimization results overall.

it is easy to identify stable bands within the impedance bandwidth of a given antenna. This L-slot antenna on a planar ground plane (40 40 mm). Reflection coefficient magnitude against frequency for each antenna given in the examples. (a) L-slot antenna on planar ground plane and (b) modified L-slot antenna with side walls. has been proposed in [14]. 4. and hence the overall bandwidth covers the full UWB band from 3. 6. VOL. Expected degree of stability can only be achieved for less than 2. 5. 11. impedance matching degrades due to the effects of the metal walls but the antenna can be retuned to compensate for those effects by adjusting a few parameters.5–10 GHz. The return loss of the two monopole antennas is shown in Fig. Fig 5 shows their overall bandwidth against the lower limit of the band. for the two planar monopole antennas. We define the overall bandwidth with respect to both impedance matching and pattern stability. It is not easy to predict sharp variations. 54. tenna. 4. seen around 6. The correlation pattern indicates that the reference directions in the range of 40–60 are the best to use as they are more correlated with all directions on average. L-Slot Antenna A compact L-slot UWB antenna. which was used as the independent variable for each calculation. using the correlation pattern curve. for example. stub and feed at z = 0:8. Overall bandwidth as a function of the lower limit of the band.1 GHz in the planar monopole. On the other hand.6 GHz. B.5 GHz bandwidth when the operating band starts below 6. as shown in Fig. 4. which is based on radiation patterns in Fig. The upper frequency limit of operation is taken as 10. For the cross-planar monopole. in UWB applications. Within this bandwidth the return loss of the antenna is greater than 10 dB and the PSF is greater than 0. and sidewalls are from z = 0 to 40.1 GHz.95. We also calculated the overall bandwidth of the two monopole antennas. NOVEMBER 2006 Fig. 6 are well matched (with return loss dB) to operate in the band of 5. the best reference direction (and the transfer function) can be selected without cumbersome calculations of or (which also require antenna impedance over the whole frequency range of interest). 2. using conventional pattern stability analysis.6 GHz. 0 0 Fig. Both antennas in Fig. However. NO.25 to 10.6 GHz. are depicted in Fig. Hence. it is equally important to investigate the effects of sidewalls on radiation pattern stapattern on the XZ plane bility. Fig. 6. and a modified integrated L-slot antenna with two sidewalls perpendicular to the ground plane (40 mm tall). the largest overall bandwidth of the planar monopole is only from 6.1 to 10. the PSF bandwidth aligns with the impedance bandwidth. Ground plane is located at z = 0. because both and curves have the same shape.3188 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. When modified. . In this example. With this type of analysis. which can be integrated with the metal casing of a communication device. we consider (which is the azimuth plane if the antenna is mounted vertically on a UWB system).

while rotating one. Network analyzer measurement data obtained through a link between two identical antennas. measured scalar radiation patterns (normalized or otherwise) can be used in correlation pattern and PSF calculations.5–10 GHz. worst directions are only about 20 away. This example highlights the importance of correlation patterns when selecting the reference direction (and hence reference transfer function) in system design and optimization. [11]. Fig. This range may be formed by several unconnected regions. and usually the overall bandwidth falls to 1–1. Interestingly. Frequency-domain correlation patterns and P curves for the original and modified L-slot antennas. 8. etc. The return loss of the two antennas is plotted in Fig. user. for example. the PSF of the antenna with sidewalls has degraded. The correlation patterns ( curves) of the two antennas are curves for comparison.DISSANAYAKE AND ESSELLE: CORRELATION BASED PATTERN STABILITY ANALYSIS 3189 Fig. its performance is much better if most of the other reference directions are used.) should be considered when selecting the reference direction and transfer function in system design and optimization. After integration with sidewalls. Table I lists the PSF for the two antennas in the intended operating frequency range of 5. shown in Fig. Overall bandwidth as a function of lower limit of the band for the two L-slot antennas. the pattern of the modified antenna is highly unstable with frequency. to exclude patterns nulls or other uninterested directions when required. the phase values in (4) cancel out and hence all calculations can be done with amplitudes only. and for that and values are even less than those of the direction its modified antenna. The x-axis represents the reference direction (). as expected from its high PSF value. DISCUSSION Fig. 9. However. 7. 200 is the worst reference direction for the original antenna. For certain specific applications. the PSF bandwidth decreases significantly. One may note that for larger angles. To explain this. V. Therefore. E radiation pattern on the XZ plane: (a) for the original L-slot antenna and (b) for modified L-slot antenna with side walls.1 to 10 GHz. Due to the modification. 7. We note from this analysis that a) a stable antenna optimized for the wrong direction can perform more poorly than a less stable antenna optimized for the correct reference direction and b) the operating environment (case. The best reference direction for the modified antenna is 200 but the two For antennas with a fixed phase center. only the shape matters. [15]. it may be desirable to emphasize some frequencies at the . Note that correlation patterns and PSF are insensitive to the absolute values of the patterns. The range of directions used for PSF and correlation pattern calculations should be limited to the “field of view” of the application. 5 and their overall bandwidths are shown in Fig. the PSF and impedance bandwidths overlap from 6.5 GHz. the radiation patterns of the two antennas are shown in Fig. together with the The correlation pattern of the less stable modified antenna varies significantly with the reference direction. can also be used [10]. For the original antenna. 8. metal walls. 9.

it is possible to maximize the radiated pulse peak amplitude in all directions simultaneously. Although the scope of this paper is limited to transmitting antennas.. we may end up with a different source pulse and a Lagrange multiplier (A2a) (A2b) In a particular direction . Antennas Propag. user. 20–30. A relatively stable antenna optimized for the wrong direction can perform more poorly than a less stable antenna optimized for the correct reference direction. respectively. The constraint of 1 W input energy gives the Lagrange multiplier as (A1b) (10) This may be the case when the power density spectrum of the radiated field is capped by a frequency-dependent mask. In other words. PSF bandwidth calculations allow one to locate pattern-stable bands within the impedance bandwidth of a given antenna. 36. APPENDIX A To maximize the pulse amplitude. and antenna input resistance. Then from (A3). In the case of printed UWB antennas. 54. 2005. Chia. as in UWB systems developed to operate in the United States under FCC regulations. S. “Figure of merit for multiband antennas. . “Pattern descriptors for UWB antennas. 6(a). Rius. 2003. 53. Jul. X. and M. Therefore. the concepts and parameters can be extended to receiving antennas. a reference direction should be chosen. an optimum generator function is given by [5] (A1a) Note that if another direction is selected for optimization. Yang. . The overall antenna bandwidth indicates the frequency range within which an antenna is well matched and pattern-stable. W. the reference direction to be chosen for optimization is important. However. McLean. the best and worst reference directions cannot be identified by simply examining the antenna geometry or radiation patterns. resulting from the frequency dependence of radiation patterns. expect the maximum possible peak amplitude in the time domain for that direction.” IEEE Trans. H. The frequency-domain correlation patterns proposed here are a convenient and efficient tool to identify the best reference directions for a given antenna in a given application. “Consideration for source pulses and antenna in UWB radio systems. [3] J. and the transfer function in that direction is used for system design. The selection of the reference direction is vital in the case of relatively unstable antennas such as the modified L-slot antenna in Fig. CONCLUSIONS The proposed PSF helps the antenna designer to quantitatively compare wideband radiation pattern stability performance of different antennas for a given application. 2004.3190 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION. Feb. Susman. C. vol. As the transfer function of modern wideband antennas is directiondependent in general. Li.” IEEE Antennas Propag. Foltz. for an ideally pattern stable antenna. 52. VI. we may compare the plitude is expected at time-domain maximum amplitudes for the two cases (A3) where Note that if the pattern is perfectly stable (A4) where K is a constant independent of frequency. Sutton. antenna input tion . M.” IEEE Trans. Y. such as the original L-slot antenna in Fig. NO. pp. we the other is when excited by (2a). M. NOVEMBER 2006 expense of others by including a predefined frequency-depenin definition of dent weighting function is the transfer function in the reference direcwhere . Lamensdorf and L. . vol.” IEEE Trans. Santos. “Base band-pulse-antenna techniques. in a nonideal case. Chen. They are very useful even in the case of a relatively stable antenna. 553–559. Antennas Propag. Parron. as shown in Section III. to find directions not to be used as a reference. 11. can be easily detected from PSF bandwidth calculations. pp. H. impedance. When a UWB system is designed or optimized. metal walls. and R. pp. VOL. F. H. pp. N. The operating environment of the antenna should be included in its calculation as the PSF could be significantly affected by the case. REFERENCES [1] D. [2] J. In the latter case. . etc. The correlation patterns and PSF may be calculated accordingly. Wu... Mag. the maximum am. 3177–3179. the antenna is usually replaced with a single two-port transfer function. Jan. [4] Z. vol. we may consider two scenarios for and E-field: one is when the antenna is excited by (A1a). In this formulation. 6(b) because its overall performance depends strongly on the choice of the reference direction. and are generator impedance. and J. N. Nov. Subtle but significant effects on stability.. 51. vol. 1739–1748. Antennas Propag. 1994.

and A. Microw. P. A.Sc. 1997. “Waveform optimization for ultra wideband radio systems. From 2002 to 2003. and several consultancies for local and international companies. .” in IEEE Int.” in IEEE Int. 1194–1202. Sydney. Esselle. Australia. F. 132–137. University of Peradeniya. R. “Time domain simulation and characterization of TEM horns using a normalized impulse response. broadband antennas for wireless communication systems including WLANs and ultrawideband systems. and L. In 1992. J. Farr. Inst. and J. 2001. Symp. moment methods and FDTD methods for antennas and microwave circuits. 147. Esselle. vol. and Ph. Sierra Cordoba.. 2000.. Symp. 614–617. where he is an Associate Professor in electronics. Baum. Ge. he was an Assistant Lecturer at the University of Moratuwa. He pioneered the formation of the Macquarie University IEEE Student Branch and serves as the Branch Counselor at present. and Y. CA..-K. and the Senior Researcher Award from the Raj Mittra Travel Grant committee of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society (AP-S) in 2002. Greenstein. [13] M. 6. 2003. [9] F. Evans. Tharaka Dissanayake (S’02) received the B.” Microwave Opt. 1A. Zwierzchowski and P. K. Antennas Propag. in 1987 and 1990. G. 43. and microwave imaging techniques. 2005. 1998. He has been a Visiting Lecturer at Kotalawala Defence Academy and Arthur C. Dissanayake. and URSI Young Scientist Award. Wu. Zhang.DISSANAYAKE AND ESSELLE: CORRELATION BASED PATTERN STABILITY ANALYSIS 3191 [5] D. Palo Alto. Frost. Jazayeri. Ferreira. [12] G. including the IEEE AP-S International Symposium. 4. 40. He is the former Chair of the IEEE New South Wales MTT/AP Joint Chapter. 2003. Kotyrba and H. 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He was a Junior Research Assistant in statistics for the Postgraduate Institute of Science. and closed-form Green’s functions. Esselle received a Canadian Commonwealth Scholarship from 1985 to 1990.” in Asia Pacific Microwave Conf. Kumar.. [8] T. 53.D. Schwartzbatcher. pp. G. He has coauthored more than 150 papers. 51. Scheers. 384–385. Ultrawideband Syst. Dissanayake and K. His current research interests are in ultrawideband antennas. 2006. 2335–2345. Eng. pp. A. M. P. degree in electronic and telecommunication engineering (with first-class honors) from the University of Moratuwa. 2005. IEEE Vehicular Technology International Symposium. 46. [10] S. He is Director of Postgraduate Research in the Division of Information and Communication Sciences and Director of the Centre for Electromagnetic and Antenna Engineering. “Wideband planar monopole antennas. [7] G. Australia. and frequency-selective surfaces. antennas based on them. Personal. Feb. Mar. Note 412. T. P.” IEEE Trans. Canada. “A system and network analysis approach to antenna design for UWB communication. “Integrated compact ultrawideband L-shaped wide slot antenna.” IEEE Antennas Propag. J. Carlo. PBG/EBG structures. ON. His recent awards include the 2004 Macquarie University Inaugural Invention Award for best innovation. Lett. their microwave applications. pp. He led the establishment of a national antenna testing facility funded by ARC and seven collaborating institutions.A. an URSI Young Scientist Award in 1990. 2. Mag. Amman. Correia. A. M. and K. and he is currently directing it. “Transient gain of antennas related to the traditional continous wave (CW) definition of gain. Sep. and L. E. “Planar miniature tapered-slot-fed anuular slot antenna for ultrawide-band radios.. R. including five invited book chapters. degree in electronics and telecommunications engineering (with first-class honors) from the University of Moratuwa. and a member of the IEEE NSW Executive Committee. 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