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ECE355F

Fourier Properties Sheet Fourier Properties

2010

Property Synthesis Analysis


1 N

DTFS x[n] = jk0 n k=<N > ak e ak = jk0 n n=<N > x[n]e x[n] + y[n] ak + bk
1 T

CTFS
k=

DTFT
1 2

CTFT
1 2

x(t) = ak ejk0 t

x[n] = X(ej )ejn d 2


x(t) = X(j)ejt d

ak = x(t)ejk0 t dt

X(ej ) = x[n]ejn

X(j) = x(t)ejt dt

Linearity Time Shifting Frequency Shift Conjugation Time Reversal Convolution

x(t) + y(t) ak + bk x(t t0 ) ak ejk0 t0

x[n] + y[n] X(ej ) x[n n0 ] + Y (ej )

x(t) + y(t) X(j) + Y (j) x(t t0 ) ejt0 X(j) x(t)ej0 t X(j( 0 )) x (t) X (j) x(t) X(j) x(t) y(t) X(j)Y (j)

x[n n0 ] ak

ej2n0 k/N

ejn0 X(ej )

x[n]ej2mn/N akm x [n] a k x[n] ak


N 1 r=0

x(t)ejm0 t akm x (t) a k x(t) ak


T

x[n]ej0 n X(ej(0 )n ) x [n] X (ej ) x[n] X(ej ) x[n] y[n] X(ej )Y (ej )

x[r]y[n r]
N 1 r=0

x( )y(t )d T ak b k

N ak b k x[n]y[n] ar bkr

x(t)y(t) ak bk
1 2 2

x[n]y[n] X(ej )Y (ej() )d

x(t)y(t)
1 X(j) 2 dx(t) dt t

Multiplication First Dierence/ Derivative Running Sum/ Integration Parsevals Relation Real and even signals Real and odd signals
1 N

Y (j)

x[n] x[n 1] (1 ej2k/N )ak


n k= x[k] ak 1ej2k/N N 1 2 n=0 |x[n]| N 1 2 k=0 |ak |

dx(t) dt t

jk0 ak
ak jk0

x[n] x[n 1] (1 ej )X(ej )


n k=

jX(j)
X(j)

x( )d

x[k] 1ej +X(ej0 )()


n=

X(ej )

x( )d j +X(j0)()

1 T

2 T |x(t)| dt 2 k= |ak |

1 2

|x[n]|2 j )|2 d 2 |X(e

1 2

2 |x(t)| dt 2 |X(j)| d

Real and even in frequency domain Purely imaginary and odd in frequency domain

Additional Property: A real-valued time-domain signal x(t) or x[n] will have a conjugate-symmetric Fourier representation. Notes: 1. For the CTFS, the signal x(t) has a period of T , fundamental frequency 0 = 2/T ; for the DTFS, the signal x[n] has a period of N , fundamental frequency 0 = 2/N . ak and bk denote the Fourier coecients of x(t) (or x[n]) and y(t) (or y[n]) respectively. 2. Periodic convolutions can be evaluated by summing or integrating over any single period, not just those indicated above. 3. The Running Sum formula for the DTFT above is valid for in the range < .

ECE355F

Fourier Properties Sheet Fourier Pairs


Fourier Series Coefficients of Periodic Signals Continuous-Time Time Domain x(t) Aej0 t A cos(0 t) A sin(0 t) x(t) = A
n=

2010

Discrete-Time Time Domain x[n] Aej0 n A cos(0 n) A sin(0 n) x[n] = A


k=

Frequency Domain ak a1 = A ak = 0, k = 1 a1 = a1 = A/2 ak = 0, k = 1


A a1 = a = 2j 1 ak = 0, k = 1

Frequency Domain ak a1 = A, ak = 0, k = 1 a1 = a1 = A/2 ak = 0, k = 1


A a1 = a = 2j 1 ak = 0, k = 1

a0 = A, ak = 0 otherwise ak = a0 =
1 T

a0 = A, ak = 0 otherwise ak =
1 N

(t nT )

[n kN ]

Periodic square wave x(t) = 1 0 |t| < T1 T1 < |t|


T 2

2T1 T sin(k0 T1 ) ak = ,k=0 k

and x(t) = x(t + T ) Fourier Transform Pairs Continuous-Time Time Domain x(t) x(t) = 1, |t| < T1 0, |t| > T1 sin W t t (t) 1 u(t) eat u(t), Re(a) > 0 tn1 at e u(t), Re(a) > 0 (n 1)!
In

Discrete-Time Time Domain x[n] x[n] = 1, |n| N1 0, |n| > N1 sin W n n [n] 1 u[n] an u[n], |a| < 1 (n + r 1)! n a u[n], |a| < 1 n!(r 1)! Frequency Domain X(ej ) sin((N1 + 1/2)) sin(/2) 1, || W j ) = X(e 0, otherwise 1 2() 1 + () 1 ej 1 1 aej 1 (1 aej )r

Frequency Domain X(j) 2 sin(T1 ) 1, || < W X(j) = 0, otherwise 1 2() 1 + () j 1 a + j 1 (a + j)n

For

the Fourier series table, 0 = 2 and 0 = 2 , where T and N are the periods of x(t) and x[n] respectively. T N the DTFS, ak is given only for k in the range N/2 + 1 k N/2 for even N , (N 1)/2 k (N 1)/2 for odd N , j ) is given only for in the range < , and X(ej ) = X(ej(+2) ). and ak = ak+N ; for the DTFT X(e

Fourier Transform for Periodic Signals:


x(t) =
k=

ak ejk0 t X(j) = 2
k=

ak ( k0 )

x[n] =
k=<N >

ak ejk0 n X(ej ) = 2
k=

ak ( k0 )

Duality Property for Fourier Transforms x(t) X(j), X(jt) 2x()