ORANGE (Citrus sinesis) PEEL EXTRACT AS MOSQUITO( ) REPELLANT

A Science Investigatory Project In partial fulfillment of the requirements In Science and Technology III (Chemistry)

To: Mr. Kenny Lloyd Angon Chemistry Teacher

By: Michell Hao Johann Miro Univeer Nudas John Carlo Pancho Alexis Salamilao Christa Soledad Justin Yap March 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page Abstract Acknowledgement List of Figures List of Tables List of Plates Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Scope and Limitation 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Related Literature Conceptual Framework Hypothesis Definition of Terms METHODOLOGY Materials Collection of Orange Disposal 12 12 13 3 10 10 11 1 2 2 i ii iii iv v vi

Methodology Flow Chart RESULTS AND DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions Recommendation BIBLIOGRAPHY DOCUMENTATION APPENDICES Curriculum Vitae

14 15

16 16 17 18

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ABSTRACT ______________________________________________________________________ Orange (Citrus Sinesis) PEEL EXTRACT AS MOSQUITO (Varies) REPELLANT Michell Grace Hao Alexis Anne Salamilao Johann Vincent Miro John Carlo Pancho Justin Yap Univeer Taisho Nudas Alessandra Soledad Stella Maris Academy of Davao N. Torres St. Obrero, Davao City The researchers made this project to determine the effects of orange peel extract. Also to help in finding simple ways to prevent mosquitoes from harming people. The researchers first bought 9 oranges at the Agdao public market. Then the researchers prepared the materials needed. First the researchers peeled the oranges, the orange peels were grated. The grated orange peels were squeezed to get the extract. Set A remained concentrated with 25% water, Set B with 50% water and set C with 75% water. Then the researchers sprayed it to three different mosquitoes. The result for set A showed the same outcome after three trials, the mosquito died. The same process was done to set B and C. the researches then concluded that the more

To their friends for inspiring them to persevere and be more serious in doing their science Investigatory project. And above all.A. To Mr.J.concentrates the solutions is the more effective it is. Hao for letting the researchers use their house to do their Science investigatory Project. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers would like to thank the following people who extend their help to make this study successful: To Sir Kenny Lloyd Angon. their Chemistry teacher for guiding them in their Science Investigatory Project.U. to God the Father for His undying guidance that he shed on us throughout this project. The researches recommends that more test should be conducted and with higher amount of mosquitoes used.C .J.J. and Mrs. M.

LIST OF FIGURES Figure Number 1 Title Conceptual Paradigm Page .

LIST OF TABLES Table number 1 Title Effect of the Concentrated Orange Extract on the Mosquito Page .

LIST OF PLATES Plate Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Title Preparation of Materials Peeling of the Orange Grating of the orange Squeezing of the Orange Peel Extract Separating of the Orange peel Extract Spraying of the Extract on the Mosquito Page .

the females feed on humans.500 species of mosquitoes found throughout the world.7 Dead Mosquito INTRODUCTION Background of the study Mosquitoes are a nuisance to the society especially in our health. In some species of mosquito. Is a common insect in the family Culicidae (from the Latin culex meaning midge orgnat). and are vectors for a number of . There are about 3.

This is now causing a problem to the government because many of the affected people are dying. The researchers chose this research to help in solving the increasing number of people affected by diseases coming from mosquitoes. there were 225 million cases of malaria and an estimated 781 000 deaths in 2009. In this study we would like to prove the effectiveness of orange peel as mosquito repellant. a decrease from 233 million cases and 985 000 . The numbers of affected people are rapidly increasing. We observed that orange absorbs water fast. they used lemon peel to create a repellant. During the process we observed that the odor of the orange peel extract gets stronger as we squeeze it more thoroughly.infectious diseases affecting millions of people per year. There were similar researches about this. The other researches proved the different uses of citrus fruits in preventing diseases. According to the World Malaria Report 2010. This gives researches and experiments to think of applicable solutions to prevent these cases and an orange peel as mosquito repellant is one of these researches. As of now many people are suffering from different diseases caused by mosquito bites. Some scientists believe that eradicating mosquitoes would have serious consequences for any ecosystem. Researches and experiments evolve to investigate the effectiveness of orange peel as a mosquito repellant.

sicknesses that are caused by mosquitoes are getting more and more each day. we can help a lot of people and a lot of people would be able to lessen the risks of the mosquitoes in their lives that are surrounding them. Now a days. RELATED REVIEW OF LITERATURE (RRL) . Scope and Limitation: This study focuses on how to lessen the risks that are caused by the mosquitoes especially dengue fever that had been a threat to the people for quite some time now. that’s why we used cheap materials to create a repellant that would lessen the risks to their health. Most deaths occur among children living in Africa where a child dies every 45 seconds of malaria and the disease accounts for approximately 20% of all childhood deaths.deaths in 2000. Through this. diseases. Statement of the Problem: • Will the orange peel extract be able to repel mosquitoes? • What are the components of the orange peel extract that can repel mosquitoes? Significance of the Study: Using orange peel extract to repel mosquitoes would be a benefit to everybody because it is cheap to make and made from recycling the peels of the oranges that you eat. We also focus on how we can let people be able to reach their needs in life.

Dutch Sinaasappel. the bitter orange. it is known as a "Chinese apple" (e. Orange trees are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the delicious sweet fruit. a type of berry. "Chinese apple" generally refers to the pomegranate).wikipedia.In a number of languages. or northern German Apfelsine). primarily in Brazil and the state of Florida in the US.Orange The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin. or processed to extract orange juice. "China's apple". with its final form developing after passing through numerous intermediate languages. and also for the fragrant peel.g.5 million tons of oranges were grown worldwide.] In 2008. The orange fruit is a hesperidium. however. The name is thought to derive ultimately from the Sanskrit[ for the orange tree. 68. It is an evergreenflowering tree generally growing to 9–10 m in height (although very old speciments have reached 15 m). which is peeled or cut (to avoid the bitter rind) and eaten whole. The fruit of Citrus sinensis is called sweet orange to distinguish it from Citrus aurantium. (In English. The leaves are arranged alternately. Oranges probably originated in Southeast Asia and were cultivated in China by 2500 BC. possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata). are ovate in shape with crenulate margins and are 4–10 cm long.org/wiki/Orange_(fruit) . http://en.

Vitamin C Is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. though known not true species. ligaments. are in popular use. So far available genomic resources include more than half millions citrus ESTs. bones. Citrus. The taxonomy of citrus has been very controversial and inconsistent binomial naming are often seen. most citrus species are diploid (2n = 2x = 18). From genomic perspectives. such as sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [L. In general. for instance. However. Microcitrus (Australian and Eremocitrus (desert lime).] Osbeck). most sweet orange . sweet orange has a genome of about 380Mb. tendons. Even some same species are prefixed with different genus names because some researchers suggested all the above genera to be classified as one genus. approximately three times the size of the 125Mb Arabidopsis genome. such as Poncirus (trifoliate wild lime). Fortunella (kumquat). and blood vessels. It is used to form an important protein used to make skin. with relatively small genomes. a sister taxon to Brassicales that contains Arabidopsis. citrus includes all species and natural hybrids in Citrus and its closely related genera (sexually compatible with each other to certain extent). heal wounds and form scar tissue repair and maintain cartilage. They all belong to the family Rutaceae that is in the order Sapindales. and teeth. orange). many widely used binomial names. Citrus Citrus can refer to as a common term or a genus name.

(~90%) and next following by Clementine. and one diploid sweet orange genome sequenced using Roche 454 technology. lime (C. producing diverse fruit types including sweet orange (Citrus sinensis [L. http://www.] Osbeck). paradisi Macfad.org/organisms .). high density microarrays in several different platforms. One haploid Clementine genome are being sequenced using Sanger technology. one sweet orange physical map. pummelo (C. and the others natural hybrids or introgressions. C. and other citrus varieties. medica are believed true species.) Burm. and genomicists and bioinformaticians to preform comparative genomic studies on a new taxonomic group. trifoliate orange. reticulata. lemon (C.). and C. Satsuma. according to some characteristic traits and molecular markers. aurantifolia Christ. medica L. reticulata Blanco).citrusgenomedb. Citrus includes almost all commercially grown citrus species/cultivar groups. grapefruit (C. limon (L. and high density linkage maps for sweet orange and Clementine.). Only C. maxima. These genome sequence resources and tools will allow geneticists and breeders to more effectively manipulate various traits in breeding programs. mandarin (C.). and citron (C.). maxima Merril. several BAC libraries.

muscle weakness and cramps. insomnia. clotting blood. heart problems. Iron Iron deficiency in infants can result in impaired learning ability and behavioral problems. protein. nervousness. and in energy production. high blood pressure. It can also affect the immune system and cause weakness and fatigue.To aid in the absorption of iron. relaxing nerves and muscles. The tannin in non-herbal tea can hinder absorption of iron. vitamin C and potassium. osteoporosis. making new cells. eat foods rich in vitamin C at the same time you eat the food containing iron.Insulin secretion and function also requires magnesium. activating B vitamins. Zinc . Magnesium also assists in the absorption of calcium.Magnesium Magnesium is needed for bone.Deficiency may result in fatigue. as the iron supplements will tend to neutralize the vitamin E. Take iron supplements and your vitamin E at different times of the day.

Orange peels contain natural oil which is utilized by the body to help keep the elasticity of veins and arteries. pectin helps promote the production of healthy bacteria in the intestines. elastic and beautiful. eat foods rich in vitamin C at the same time you eat the food containing iron. adolescent girls and pregnant women.Most at risk of iron deficiency are infants. .Iron deficiency in infants can result in impaired learning ability and behavioral problems. The tannin in non-herbal tea can hinder absorption of iron. it will also help keep skin strong. Add some orange peel to a bath and let your skin absorb these beneficial oils. It can also affect the immune system and cause weakness and fatigue. To aid in the absorption of iron. Orange peel is a good source of pectin a natural fiber that can help normalize blood sugar level and helps prevent constipation. Health Benefits Orange peel also knows as orange zest (the shavings of the orange portion of the peel) contain hespetidin (this compound is also present in orange flesh but in smaller amount) an antioxidant that has a potential to lower cholesterol and helps normalize blood pressure more effectively than some prescription drugs. Additionally.

a natural reservoir on a plant.hubpages. reducing the desire to overeat. with which they are sometimes confused by the casual observer. Orange peel can aid digestion and relieve gastrointestinal problems such as acidity.com/hub/Health-Benefits-of-Orange-Peel Mosquito Mosquito is a common insect in the family Culicidae (from resemble crane flies (family the Latin culex meaning midge orgnat). Mosquitoes Tipulidae) and chironomid flies (family Chironomidae). and speed up the elimination of unwanted stored fat. Orange peel tea can help with weight loss and weight management because it is known to raise metabolism. flatulence. and adult or imago. a puddle. Adult females lay their eggs in standing water. heartburn.Pectin also works as a natural appetite suppressant. which can be a salt-marsh. diarrhea and the digestion of fatty foods. a lake. improve stamina and energy. http://len7288. larva. Mosquitoes go through four stages in their life-cycle: egg. Orange peel contains anti-inflammatory properties and has shown some promise in fighting certain types of cancer including breast cancer. Orange peel tea is a good remedy for insomnia. pupa. or an artificial water container such as a .

the gender. the female needs to obtain nutrients from a "blood meal" before she can produce eggs. depending on the species and the ambient temperature. depending on the species. http://en. Some species even overwinter as adults. There are about 3. The adult mosquito emerges from the pupa as it floats at the water surface.500 species of mosquitoes found throughout the world. While males typically feed on nectar and plant juices.wikipedia. The first three stages are aquatic and last 5–14 days. Mosquitoes have mouthparts that are adapted for piercing the skin of plants and animals. Some scientists believe that eradicating mosquitoes would not have serious consequences for the ecosystem. the season and the conditions.org/wiki/Mosquito . eggs hatch to become larvae. Bloodsucking species of mosquitoes live as adults for periods ranging from a week or two to several months.plastic bucket. In some species of mosquito. the females feed on humans. and are vectors for a number of infectious diseases affecting millions of people per year. then pupae.

Conceptual Framework Dependent Variable Independent Variable .

All of the genetic information. comprising themosq uitoes. all of the hereditary material possessed by an organism. DEFINITION OF TERMS • Culicidae . The orange will be able to kill other insects.1 Conceptual Paradigm of the Study Hypothesis 1. The orange will be able to kill the mosquito because it has properties that is hazardous to the mosquito. and having active aquatic larvae known as wrigglers • Genome . the entire genetic complement.Fig.a family of slender long legged dipteran flies having the bodyand appendages partly covered with hairs or scales and themouthparts adapted for piercing and sucking. . 2.

practitioner from New Mexico.the greatest possible. the Mexican-American healing system.(Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Anatomy) of or relating to the stomach and intestinal tract Vector METHODOLOGY Materials The materials that were used in this study were. effect or quantity.are an order of flowering plant s. • Gastrointestinal . • Introgressions .Infiltration of the genes of one species into the gene pool of another through repeated backcrossing of an interspecific hybrid with one of its parents. orange peels. Maxima . of Curanderismo. belonging to the eurosids ii group of dicotyledon s under the apg ii system. closely related to genus Arabis • • • Reticulate . a spray . Medica .the formation or presence of a network. or actual.a genus of the mustard family having white or yellow or purplish flowers.• Brassicales . • Arabidopsis .

Davao City. C. Collection We bought 8 pieces of oranges in Agdao public market. Ecoland. These are all the materials used. We caught 5 mosquitoes outside our house. set-up one (1) was made up of the extract from three (3) orange peels from different oranges and 20% of water. Preparation of the set up Three (3) set ups were prepared. Procedure A. and set-up three (3) was made up of the extract from three (3) orange peels from different oranges and 60% of water. B.. We used these materials to be able to make a mosquito repellent . mosquitoes and extractor. Davao City. Measurement of the Materials Needed One(1) orange peel at a time were put in the mortar and pestle. Then they were squished and extracted the extract from the orange peel..container. Preparation of the Orange Peels . set-up two (2) was made up of the extract from three (3) orange peels from different oranges and 40% of water. Agdao.

B. Disposal of Oranges Used The researchers threw the used orange peels in a biodegradable container. D. Extraction The researchers added a little bit of water and we pounded and sqeezed the grated orange peels in a container. Disposal of the Dead Mosquitoes The researchers threw the ten mosquitoes also in a biodegradable container. Disposal A. E. the 2nd set-up to mosquito B. the researchers waited for two minutes to see the results. the 3rd setup to mosquito C at the same time. Application of the Orange peel Extract The researchers sprayed the 1st set-up to mosquito A. . Then.The researchers peeled the peel of the oranges and put it in a container. and we grated the orange peels to turn it into smaller pieces.

METHODOLOGY FLOW CHART Preparation of the Materials Preparation of the Set-up Preparation of the Orange Peels Extraction Application of the Orange Peel Extract Evaluation of Data .

the mosquito. The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. Set A The mosquito died. 2 Flowchart on Orange Peel Extract as Mosquito Repellent RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The effects that were recorded focused more on the concentration of the extracted orange peel. Set B Set C The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. the mosquito. Table 1. The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. the mosquito. . the mosquito. the mosquito. Set A The mosquito died. the mosquito. the mosquito. Mosquito 2 The mosquito died. The mosquito died. Effect of the Concentrated Orange Extract on the Mosquito Trial 1 Mosquito 1 The mosquito died.Fig. The mosquito died. Mosquito 3 Trial 2 Mosquito 1 Mosquito 2 Mosquito 3 Trial 3 Mosquito 1 Mosquito 2 Mosquito 3 Set A The mosquito died. The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. Set B Set C The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness. The mosquito died. the mosquito. the mosquito. The mosquito died. Set B Set C The mosquito Nothing happened to showed dizziness.

As the table shows the more concentrated the solution is. Conduct more reliable tests using varied levels of water. 2. it was also concluded that the more concentrated the solution the more it is to repel or kill mosquitos.Table 1 shows the effect of orange peel extract on the mosquito during 3 trials. Furthermore. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions Based from the given data gathered. the researchers conclude that the mixture of orange peel and 25% water was the most effective among the solutions/setups of orange peel and water. To test with more mosquitoes to see the range of the product when used. the more grave is its effect on the mosquito. the researchers recommend the following: 1. . Recommendations Based from the drawn conclusions. 3. Use other fruits in testing the efficiency of the given product.

org/wiki/Mosquito Mcohee.org/wiki/Orange_(fruit).citrusgenomedb.Oranges(1996) Train.hubpages. John. http://www. John.wikipedia. Barry.org/organisms http://len7288.wikipedia.com/hub/Health-Benefits-of-Orange-Peel http://en. Orange Fruits (2006) Bones. Uses of Orange Peel in the Garden(2007) .BIBLIOGRAPHY http://en.

DOCUMENTATION .

Plate 1: Preparation of Materials .

Plate 2: Peeling of the Orange Plate 3: Grating of the Orange .

Plate 4: Squeezing of the Orange Peel .

Plate 5: Separating of the Orange Peel Extract Plate 6: Spraying of the Extract on the Mosquito .

1996 .Plate 7: Dead Mosquito CURRICULUM VITAE Name: Michell Grace Hao Address: 9 Villafuerte St. Calinan Davao City Age: 15 years old Birthday: September 20.

Emily Homes.Mother’s Name: Helen Hao Father’s Name: Luis Hao Email Address: Shiobe_hao@yahoo. 17 L7 isiah St.com Contact Number: 09228383113 Educational Background: Pre-school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao Grade school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao Name: Alexis Salamilao Address: Blk. Cabntian Davao City .

Age: 15 years old Birthday: February 18. Salamilao Father’s Name: Simon S. Salamilao Email Address: lex_ann18@yahoo.com Contact Number: 09232509573 Educational Background: Pre-school: Ebenzer Christian School Grade school: Holy Cross of Davao City High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao .1996 Mother’s Name: Nora N.

Name: Alessandra Christa L. Phase 5 Blk2 Lot1 Age: 15 years old Birthday: February 27. Soledad Father’s Name: Ruel Ignatius D.com Contact Number: 09326933360 Educational Background: Pre-school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao Grade school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao . 1996 Mother’s Name: Haydee olive L. Soledad Email Address: christa_soledad@yahoo. Soledad Address: 8 Acacia St.

com Contact Number: 09223020083 Educational Background: Pre-school: Holistic Learning Center Grade school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao . Bo.Name: Univeer Taisho Nudas Address: 37 Loyola St. 1996 Mother’s Name: Lourdes Nudas Father’s Name: Billy Nudas Email Address: Taisho_Nudas@yahoo. Davao City Age: 15 years old Birthday: April 23. Obrero.

Name: Justin Louis O. 1996 Mother’s Name: Jopsephine Yap Father’s Name: Lencio Yap Email Address: Justin_Yap123@yahoo.com Contact Number: Educational Background: Pre-school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao Grade school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao . Davao City Age: 15 years old Birthday: June 15. Yap Address: 45 Cervantes St.

phase 4-a Elrio Vista Davao City Age: 14 years old Birthday: October 13 1996 Mother’s Name: Merlina Pancho Father’s Name: Celstino Pancho Email Address: JohnCarlo_pancho@yahoo.com Contact Number: 09235140757 Educational Background: Pre-school: Methodist Davao City Grade school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao .Name: John Carlo Pancho Address: 7 Anthurium st.

Mother’s Name: Claire D. Mara.High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao Name: Johann Vincent D. Miro Email Address: Johann_Miro@yahoo. Miro Father’s Name: Julieto R.com Contact Number: 09232864316 Educational Background: Pre-school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao .. South Villa. Miro Address: 31 Zuelig St. 1996Birthday: June 11. Davao City Age: 15 years old .

Grade school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao High School: Stella Maris Academy of Davao .

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