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Manual on Module II Introduction to Hospitality
Mr Murray Mackenzie School of Hotel & Tourism Management The Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Dr Benny Chan Hong Kong Community College The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Mr Tony Tse School of Hotel & Tourism Management The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Commercial use is strictly prohibited. The copyright of this manual belongs to the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.Introduction to Hospitality Copyright © The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region All rights reserved. Hong Kong i . Requests should be directed to the: Education Bureau 13/F. All other uses should gain prior permission in writing from the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Wan Chai. Room 1319. Schools need not apply for permission to copy this manual in whole or in part for non-profit making educational or research purposes. Wu Chung House 213 Queen’s Road East. Offenders will be liable to the legal responsibility.
ANTOR (HK) Centre for Food Safety.Introduction to Hospitality Acknowledgements We would like to express our gratitude to the following organizations for giving us the permission to reprint some of the pictures and /or providing us with information for completing the curriculum support package: The Association of National Tourist Office Representatives in Hong Kong. Food and Environmental Hygiene Department ii .
should enhance students’ understanding of the dynamic nature of the tourism and hospitality industry. All comments and suggestions related to this curriculum support package may be sent to: Chief Curriculum Development Officer (PSHE) Personal. Education Bureau for the implementation of the senior secondary Tourism and Hospitality Studies curriculum in schools. and they are developed to broaden students’ knowledge of the eight different units of the Tourism and Hospitality Studies curriculum. Wu Chung House 213 Queen’s Road East. Room 1319. the manual includes activities to deepen students’ understanding and help them to apply theories and concepts. Furthermore. In addition. Social and Humanities Education Curriculum Development Institute Education Bureau 13/F. The curriculum support package is comprised of eight manuals. The content of this manual – Introduction to Hospitality. Social and Humanities Education Section of Curriculum Development Institute. problem-solving and decision-making skills through these activities. students should be able to develop enquiry.Introduction to Hospitality Introduction A set of curriculum support package of tourism and hospitality learning and teaching materials is being developed by the Personal. Wan Chai Hong Kong April 2009 iii .
2....2 2.................3 Introduction to Hospitality Industry ......3 2..................36 The Accommodation Product ........37 2..................1 3...........................................................................................2.......................2.............4..........................50 Types of Guest Requests .................................5....52 Security Procedures .....1 2..............4...2.................................2........................2 2.4 2.........................2............... 3 Relationship between the Hospitality Industry and Tourism ..............................18 Front Office Department ...49 Room Status Codes..........................................................57 Food and Beverage Operations (Hotel)...............2...........1....................... 1 The Tangible and Intangible Nature of the Hospitality Industry .......................... 17 Front Office Operations ............................................................................1 1.................................6 Classification of Accommodation Establishment ..................................................5............2...... 6 Introduction to the Hotel Operations..........2 1........1 3..................1 2.........2.........41 In-room Guest Supplies and Amenities ........................ 12 The Functions and Departments of a Hotel ........................................................................................ 15 Introduction to the Rooms Division .....................................3 2...............2............2.... 57 Classification of Food Service Establishments .................................................................1 1.....................6 2...............................................5 3 Food and Beverage Sector ..............................................2 Introduction to the Food and Beverage Sector...1 1.......4 2................2 2............................5................................... 17 Guest Cycle ........................................................................1..................................1......... 78 iv .....................55 2.......5..........................................................1................1 2......Introduction to Hospitality Table of Contents 1 Hospitality Industry ...........12 Hotel Ownership ............4 Introduction to the Accommodation Sector................................... 41 Housekeeping Department .2........1....5 Housekeeping Operations ......................................1 2.....................................................22 Types of Hotel Guest ..........1..............................................2 2..........................1 2...................................4....................................57 3............................................................2......... 3 2 Accommodation Sector..................................5...3 2...2.4....................1 The Nature of the Hospitality Industry ....
..........................Introduction to Hospitality 3................3 3................................................2 3........... 242 4........ 98 Menu Planning and Design ............ Food and Beverage Services and Kitchen Operations.....246 v ............................... Tourists and Staff ..........2. 240 4...........1 4..1..........2 The Development of Technology in the Hospitality Industry . 110 Food Safety and Personal Hygiene........ 243 References …………………………………………………………………………….. 82 Food and Beverage Service Principles .......................................1.3 The Property Management System (PMS) in Hotels..............................3 3.............1 Types of Food and Beverage Services ...... 86 Basic Knowledge of Menus.................................................3 Ambience of an Establishment .............................. 86 3.........................................................................1 4....................... 117 4 The Role of Technology in the Hospitality Industry ......2...2..... 240 The Ways Technological Changes Improve the Operational Efficiency of the Hospitality Industry for Customers..................................1....2 3........... 240 The Importance of Employing Up-to-date Information Technology .........................................................................1..............
Broadly speaking.1. Can you think of any circumstances where the phrase “away from home” would not be accurate? Resort hotel 1 . A contemporary explanation of Hospitality refers to the relationship process between a guest and a host.1 Introduction to Hospitality Industry 1.1 The Nature of the Hospitality Industry What is the meaning of HOSPITALITY? There have been different definitions of Hospitality. drink and accommodation. we are referring to the companies or organisations which provide food and/or drink and/or accommodation to people who are away from home. this definition of the “Hospitality Industry” only satisfies most situations. When we talk about the “Hospitality Industry”. Hospitality is the act of kindness in welcoming and looking after the basic needs of guests or strangers. mainly in relation to food. However.Introduction to Hospitality 1 Hospitality Industry 1.
suggest five qualities or traits that a successful staff member in the hospitality industry should possess. Do you or your group members possess any of these qualities or traits? 2 . Have you been to any of the above companies or organisations? What services did you receive from them? Were you satisfied with the way you were treated by the company or its staff? Did they understand what services you wanted? Did they provide what you wanted quickly and accurately? Was the staff member friendly or rude? Based on the discussion above. Discuss the different sectors in the hospitality industry.) You may also give the names of some companies in the hospitality industry. (Hint: A sector of hospitality industry can be profit-making or non-profit-making.Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 1 In groups. consider the hospitality industry in Hong Kong. Work on the table to see which group in your class comes up with the most appropriate examples. Hospitality industry in Hong Kong Sector Products/services provided Example Name of company/ organisation McDonald’s Food and Beverage Food and drink Fast food ACTIVITY 2 Look at the table that your group has just completed and compare the answers with other groups. One example has been given in the table below.
Think about your experience of being a customer in a restaurant or a guest in a hotel. However. Making things work for the guests 3.1. We call these the INTANGIBLE aspects of hospitality. the hospitality industry includes hotels and restaurants. do you think can make your hospitality experience more enjoyable and satisfied? A successful hospitality business does not only count on its products and services. The physical products of hospitality. e. can you think of any other guests who may need services and products provided by the hospitality industry? 3 . as well as many other types of organisations or institutions that offer food.3 Relationship between the Hospitality Industry and Tourism As we have seen.1. therefore. Making the guests feel welcome personally 2. food and drink in a restaurant or the actual hotel room. Can you think of any INTANGIBLE aspects of the hospitality industry? 1. our experience of the hospitality industry does not only rely on the tangibles. Making sure that the operation will continue to provide service and meet its budget Apart from local guests. A manager in the hospitality industry. apart from the food in restaurants and the facilities in hotel rooms. must keep in mind the following three objectives: 1. These products and services are offered not only to people away from home.Introduction to Hospitality 1.2 The Tangible and Intangible Nature of the Hospitality Industry In Activity 1. but also to local guests. What else. the price a guest paid for renting a hotel room. shelter and other related services.g. we learned about different types of products and services provided by the hospitality industry. but also how they are delivered. These are often regarded as the TANGIBLE aspects of hospitality. or the price a customer paid for buying a meal in a restaurant). drink. The qualities of staff and the way they deliver the service are often more important than the tangible products in making a hospitality experience satisfactory or unsatisfactory.g. are products that are sold at a price to the guests or customers (e.
specialist shops and leisure activities. Compare your answers with those of your partner. You plan to stay in Hong Kong for 5 days/4 nights. they all need shelter and food and drink – the basic hospitality services – at ALL points of the tourism cycle.Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 3 Now work in pairs and follow the instructions below: Tourist A – You are an 18-year-old student from Beijing. This is why hospitality can be referred to as one of the principal dimensions in tourism. Your company is a car manufacturer. write down as many as possible of the products and services you would require from the different sectors of the tourism industry for your trip. Do you have different or similar answers? How many of the points you jotted down are similar to those of your partner? Fill in the following table: A young student (Tourist A) A business traveller (Tourist B) In Activity 3 we learned there are different kinds of tourists. along with transportation. You come to Hong Kong for an international automobile exhibition. Tourist B – You are a businessman from Sweden. Regardless of what type of tourist they are. complete Activity 4. You will fly to Hong Kong and stay for two nights before you fly to Singapore for another business meeting. hospitality. however. Unlike tourism. serves both tourist and non-tourist needs. not just at the destination. you travel on a budget and are planning to come to Hong Kong round trip by train. You will stay in Singapore for two nights before going home. 4 . You visit Hong Kong for the first time with your cousin who is also from Beijing this summer. In two minutes. As you are a student. To enhance your understanding of the relationship between the hospitality and tourism industry.
g.g. Car Rental. In addition. 5 . In this Unit. we have learned that there are two main business sectors in the hospitality industry: Accommodation – To provide accommodation (and usually food and drink) to people who for whatever reason are away from home Food and beverage – To provide food and beverage to local. Hospital Catering In Activity 4 we learned the hospitality industry is a part of a wider group of economic activities called tourism. Airlines Institutional/ Welfare Catering e. Guest Houses Transportation services e. transient customers and tourists These two sectors will be covered in more detail in Units 2 and 3 respectively. Hotels.Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 4 The following diagram shows the relationship between the hospitality and tourism industry. commuting.g. not all hospitality businesses are profit-making business. Can you think of more services with examples to add to the diagram? Hospitality Industry Tourism Industry Commercial Accommodation Services e.
Introduction to Hospitality 2 Accommodation Sector 2. University Hotels Figure 1: Accommodation structure 6 .1. Shelter Institutional e.1 Introduction to the Accommodation Sector 2. Private Home Non-profit e. One method is to divide accommodation into two main groups: Non-commercial Accommodation Non-commercial Commercial Commercial Private e.1 Classification of Accommodation Establishment Guestroom There is no generic rule for classifying accommodation establishments globally.g.g.g.
2009 is the first year that international cities have been rated and received Star Awards. and the winners from Beijing. Hong Kong. health spas. now in its 51st year as one of the oldest and most respected inspection and ratings system in the world. Below is an excerpt from the following web link: http://stars. therefore. airport hotels and highway hotels/motels Function: e.” 7 .g.com/stars “Mobil Travel Guide.g. timeshares/vacation ownership and casino hotels Distinctiveness of property: e. Representing a landmark in the company's history. Macau and Beijing. Hong Kong and Macau were awarded with the most Mobil Five-Star rated hotels and spas for a given city in the history of the company. extended-stay hotels.g.g.Introduction to Hospitality The Hotel Proprietors Ordinance Chapter 158 provides a clear definition of a hotel: Hotel means an establishment held out by the proprietor as offering sleeping accommodation to any person presenting himself who appears able and willing to pay a reasonable sum for the services and facilities provided and who is in a fit state to be received. resorts. city centre hotels. 151-300 rooms. under 150 rooms. In November.and Five-Star Winners.g. we. all-suite hotels. 301-600 rooms. the Mobil Travel Guide used its own rating system to give awards to some hotels in Hong Kong. will discuss in depth about how hotels can be classified. is pleased to announce its 2009 Four.g. and Macau are included. suburban hotels.mobilinternationalratings. boutique hotels. historic conversions and bed and breakfast inns Price and staff/room ratio Size: e. Hotels can be classified by: Location: e. more than 600 rooms Rating (grading) : e. As Hotel is the predominant type of commercial accommodation in Hong Kong. one-star to five-star or one-diamond to five-diamond In 2008. commercial hotels and convention hotels Market segment: e.
The type may vary greatly from business. Most of them provide an in-house laundry. often with very Highway hotels/Motels basic facilities. They are often in close proximity to convention centres and other convention hotels. Look up the information from the PartnerNet website (http://partnernet. Local example: ____________________ Suburban hotels tend to be smaller properties which usually provide full-service. suites. residential. There are banquet areas within and around the hotel complex. Local example: ____________________ Convention hotels These hotels can have 2000 rooms or more. economy. ACTIVITY 6 The Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB) has developed its own hotel classification system. The majority offer guests transportation to and from the airport. The rooms usually have direct access to an open parking lot.hktb. mid-scale to luxury. In addition to accommodation. airport shuttle service. Local example: ____________________ Suburban hotels Airport hotels They are designed for overnight stays for car travellers. They offer a mix of facilities and amenities. a business centre. list the five-star hotels and spas in Hong Kong as awarded by the Mobil Travel Guide in November 2008. Local example: ____________________ 8 .Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 5 With the aid of the above web link. They are often smaller than most hotels. They are located on the outskirts of towns and cities. they provide extensive meeting and function space for holding conventions. and locate in suburban area. Local example: ____________________ These hotels are designed especially to accommodate air travellers. and 24-hour room service.jsp) and answer the following questions: a) How does HKTB define the hotels in Hong Kong? b) Does HKTB make public the listing of hotels by category? The following chart shows various types of accommodation used by travellers and their respective characteristics: Name(s) City centre hotels Characteristics These hotels are located within the heart of a city.com/pnweb/jsp/comm/index.
Usually. They may include relaxation/stress management. and some properties offer a kitchen set-up in the rooms. Spas have professional staff that often include dieticians. A wide variety of luxury amenities. This indicates that ownership the buyer can use the property each year at the time specified for the number of years based on the deed and the purchase can be handed down to the buyer’s heirs. In many cases. Local example: ____________________ Timeshares/ This is a type of shared ownership where a buyer purchases the right to use the property for a portion of each year. Local example: ____________________ All-suite hotels The guest rooms in these hotels are larger than normal hotel rooms. as well as a variety of food & beverage outlets ranging from informal to fine-dining restaurants. sometimes remote settings. Local example: ____________________ 9 . Resorts typically provide a comprehensive array of recreational amenities. with separate areas for working. They tend to be smaller than convention hotels. they tend to stay longer. grief/life change and pilates/yoga. sleeping and relaxing. suburban. Meeting and function space are smaller. Guests travel long distance to resorts. physicians. A living area or parlour is typically separated from the bedroom. the buyer receives a deed. exercise physiologists. The amenities and services can vary widely. or residential.Introduction to Hospitality Commercial They are located in downtown areas. Programs offered vary widely. weight management. and there hotels are fewer banquet areas. They provide accommodations. Local example: ____________________ Resort hotels These hotels are located in picturesque. They can be found in various locations such as urban. hotel services including fine and casual dining and shopping centres are typically available on site. fitness. spa treatments. Local example: ____________________ Casino hotels They have gambling operations which are the major revenue centres. masseurs. when the Vacation timeshare is purchased. programs and cuisine. and in some cases. therapists. They also provide live entertainment. Local example: ____________________ Spa hotels They are located in resort-type settings or as part of city spa hotels.
skiing and Local example: ____________________ beach resorts) Cabins 10 . most rooms are air-conditioned with en-suite shower and toilet. They are very different in their “look and feel” from traditional lodging properties. For example. e. A popular term is “B&Bs” (i. usually rented to prestigious or renowned guests.Introduction to Hospitality Boutique hotels Boutique hotels differentiate themselves from traditional hotels and motels by providing personalized accommodation and services/facilities. beach found in houses. They have been converted into lodging establishments with retention of their historic character. They usually offer full kitchen facilities. air conditioning. The amenities vary greatly depending on what the hotel’s environment and theme chosen. The price varies greatly. or cable/pay TV if it is focus on comfort and solitude. The host often provides guests with assistance regarding directions. They are sometimes known as "design hotels" or "lifestyle hotels". They tend to be like small hotels in bigger cities.e. and stand out as an individual. Local example: ____________________ They are bedrooms on a ship or train for passengers. Though the facilities are limited. Local example: ____________________ Guest houses Guest houses are similar to bed and breakfast inns. bed and breakfast provided). and. They are private homes whose owner Bed and lives on or near the premises and rents out rooms to overnight guests. a boutique hotel may not offer Wi-Fi Internet. perhaps. business services and limited housekeeping services. more luxurious. and information regarding the local area including sightseeing suggestions. Local example: ____________________ Hostels They are very cheap accommodation. Local example: ____________________ Villas/Chalet They are self-catering accommodation in a private bungalow. In many cases. Local example: ____________________ These properties cater to guests who stay for an extended period. It is usually located in rural areas and villages. Local example: ____________________ Extendedstay hotels/ Serviced Apartments Historic conversion hotels They are usually family-owned.g. shopping services. The sleeping arrangements are usually in dormitory style and there may also be self-catering facilities on site. They range from low-budget rooms to luxury apartments. breakfast inns (B&Bs) The paid accommodation typically includes breakfast. it refers to a s (usually small cottage with an overhanging roof in a seaside resort. They are more intimate. Local example: ____________________ These properties have historic significance.
and 24-hour concierge and business services. 24-hour butler service and in-room dining. In Activity 7 we learned that a hotel may fall under more than one classification. LCD televisions. The Landmark Mandarin Oriental.Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 7 Based on the characteristics of various types of accommodation listed above. browse the website and fill in a local example. Hong Kong is a luxury city centre and spa hotel. DVD/CD home entertainment sound systems. 11 . For example. different types of hotel will offer different kinds of products and services for their guests and will be run differently to meet their guests’ needs. A luxury hotel may provide more personalised services and facilities that may not appear in a limited-service hotel. Examples include high-speed broadband Internet access. In addition.
Introduction to Hospitality 2. Harbour Grand Hong Kong.2. which can be: Private An independent hotel owned by a person/partnership/private company e.1 Hotel Ownership Another way to classify hotels is by their ownership. The Kowloon Hotel. JW Marriott Hotel Hong Kong is part of the Marriott International. Harbour Plaza Hong Kong.2 Introduction to the Hotel Operations Hotel swimming pool Hotel fitness centre 2.g. Inc. 12 . Harbour Plaza North Point and Harbour Plaza Resort City are all owned by Harbour Plaza Hotels & Resorts International group A hotel which is part of an international chain of hotels e.g.g. Shamrock Hotel Local group Several hotels owned by a local company e. Harbour Plaza Metropolis.
The franchisee has complete control and responsibility over the daily operation of the property In return. central reservation system.Receive a management fee during the contract period Franchising Some investors prefer to use the franchising concept in running the hotel. pre-opening training. the hotel owners may arrange to run their properties through a management contract with a company that specialises in managing hotels. Management contract Management contracts are hotel management companies which operate properties owned by other entities. advertising.Have the necessary expertise . marketing. new products and concepts . the franchisor receives a joining fee and an ongoing fee from the franchisee. planning. that are being managed by the owners of the properties. field support. Franchising in the hospitality industry is a concept that: .Is made up of properties where the franchisees agree to run the hotel in accordance with the strict guidelines set by the franchisor .Manage the property for the contract period such as five.Desire to become involved in the operation of the hotel Benefits for the hotel management company: .Little or no up-front financing or equity involved .Obtain from the franchisor the expertise in doing business such as site selection. The reason for this is that the owner may not: . with no affiliation. operations manuals.Allows a company to expand more rapidly by using others’ capital Benefits for the franchisee: . quality control. information management.Introduction to Hospitality Hotel management Hotels can be operated in one of the following ways: Independently owned and operated These can be independent hotels. ten or twenty years . In some cases. 13 .Allows interested investors to use a company’s (the franchisor) name and business format . purchasing.
However. management. or advertising slogan. ACTIVITY 8 State two drawbacks for a franchisee joining a franchise company. ACTIVITY 9 Browse the website and find out two international hotel chains that provide management contract and franchising services to the hotel owners. advertising. As the property has already been physically developed. 14 . but at a lower cost. e. guests may find more variation among the referral properties as size and appearance standards are less stringent than those in a franchise agreement. In addition. Some hotels choose to become a referral property. the owner may want assistance only with marketing. image.g. a common logo. These hotels refer guests to one another’s properties and share a centralised reservation system. or reservation referral. offer to hotels similar benefits as franchising. Leading Hotels of the World (LHW).Introduction to Hospitality Referrals Referral associations. This means that the property is being operated as an independent hotel in association with a certain chain. every hotel is assessed and checked regularly to ensure that it maintains the highest standards. Hotels pay an initial fee to join a referral association and further fees are based on services required.
reviewing and summarizing statistical reports and sharing them with the general manager Assuming responsibilities for the daily operations and management of the hotel 15 . It is necessary to understand the structure of hotels in order to get an overview of how the organisation fits together. General Manager Resident Manager Rooms Division Engineering Security Human Resources Food & Beverage Sales & Marketing Accounts Figure 2: Major departments of a five-star hotel Regardless of the size of a hotel. the general manager and other members of the management team Checking on operations. The duties of key executives 1. Resident Manager The main responsibilities of the resident manager include: Holding a major responsibility in developing and executing plans developed by the owner(s). the organisational structure will be basically the same.2 The Functions and Departments of a Hotel The day-to-day operations of a hotel are the key factors determining the success or failure of its service. providing feedback and offering assistance when needed Completing. environmental and community responsibilities Assuming full responsibilities for the overall performance of the hotel 2. It is usually divided into several distinct departments. each responsible for a particular area of work.2. the front office and housekeeping department are under the control of the director of rooms.Introduction to Hospitality 2. the more specialised the departments become. The larger the hotel is and the more facilities it offered. For example. General Manager The main responsibilities of the general manager (GM) include: Providing leadership to the management team Coordinating the work of all departments Participating in the formulation of hotel policies and strategies Leading the hotel staff in meeting the financial.
payroll. and for overseeing all mechanical and technical conditions of the hotel. 5. accounts payable. restaurants.3. labour relations. orientation. 6. Examples include lounge. room service (also called in-room dining) and cake shop. and staff development.2. keeping records of assets. training. Accounts The accounts department is headed by the financial controller who. heating and elevator systems. this department is responsible for monitoring all of the financial activities of a hotel. 4. air conditioning. liabilities and financial transaction of the hotel. coffee shop. 3. hotel employees and the hotel itself. as well as sales promotions and public relations activities aiming at enhancing the hotel’s image. visitors. 16 . coordinating advertising.Introduction to Hospitality Functions of major hotel departments 1. Sales and Marketing The main functions of the sales and marketing department involve generating new businesses for the hotel. Examples include overseeing accounts receivable. 2. Examples include monitoring surveillance equipments. patrolling the hotel premises and maintaining security alarm systems. plumbing. wages and benefit administration. Human Resources The human resources (personnel and training) department is responsible for hiring. and handling guests’ inquiries about billing. The functions of Rooms Division will be covered in detail in Unit 2. banquet service. coordinating with purchasing department and information technology department. and cost control systems of the hotel. bar. as a key member of the management team. Food and Beverage The food and beverage (F&B) department provides food and beverage services to the hotel guests and visitors through a variety of outlets and facilities/services. ACTIVITY 10 Browse the website and find a five-star hotel in Hong Kong/Macau that has a video in English and Chinese promoting its services and facilities to the guests. preparing the monthly profit-and-loss statement. Security Security is an important concern in every hotel. In addition. Engineering The engineering department is responsible for maintaining the physical plant of the hotel such as electricity. The security department is responsible for implementing procedures which aim at protecting the safety and security of hotel guests. can guide the hotel to an increasing profitability through better control and asset management. employee relations.
Front desk counter 2. In general.4 Front Office Operations The front office is the nerve centre or hub of a hotel. which are involved in the sales or services of rooms to guests. The director of rooms is responsible to the general manager for the effective leadership and smooth operation of all departments that make up the rooms division. It is the department that makes the first and last impression on the guests. and the place that guests approach for information and service throughout their stays. the rooms division comprises two major departments.Introduction to Hospitality 2.3 Introduction to the Rooms Division Rooms Division Front Office Department Housekeeping Department Figure 3: Organisation of the rooms division The main source of income for most hotels comes from the rooms division and the food and beverage department. the front office and housekeeping. 17 .2.2.
Selling rooms 2.2.4. Maintaining balanced guest accounts 3.1Guest Cycle The operation of the front office department is mainly determined by the type and number of guest transactions which take place during the four different phases of the guest cycle as shown in Figure 4 and listed below: Pre-arrival The stage where the guest makes room reservation. Occupancy The period during which the guest stays in the hotel.Introduction to Hospitality Front desk clerk The three main functions of the front office are as follows: 1. Departure The point when the guest checks out and leaves the hotel. Arrival The point when the guest arrives at the hotel. Providing services and information to guests 2. 18 .
Introduction to Hospitality Figure 4: The guest cycle Complete Activity 11 to enhance your understanding of the various types of transactions and services which may occur between the guest and the hotel during different phases of the guest cycle. 19 .
No. 10. 11. a) Fill in the Answer column below with the correct alphabet (A-D) which denotes the four different stages of the guest cycle. 13. 2. 1. 9. 17. A – Pre-arrival B – Arrival C – Occupancy D – Departure The first one has been done as an example for you. 16. 5. Guest Transaction or Service Reservation Mail and information Transportation Telephone call and message Check-in and registration Flight confirmation Room assignment Safe deposit Issuing of key Baggage handling Maintaining guest account Bill settlement Issuing of breakfast coupon Currency exchange Wake-up call Check-out Booking of theatre ticket 20 Answer(s) A . 15. 8. 7. 3. 6.Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 11 Determine at which stage(s) of the guest cycle the following guest transaction or service could occur. 4. 14. 12.
In Activity 11.2. we have learned that different types of guest transactions and services could occur in the four different phases of the guest cycle which are being handled mainly by the front office department. The following will explain how different sections of the front office department are being organised to handle these guest transactions. 21 .Introduction to Hospitality b) When you complete studying this section .4 Front Office Operations.2. try this activity again by filling in your answers using the guest cycle provided below.
meeting VIPs and entertaining them 22 . This illustrates the structure and lines of communication which operate within the front office.Introduction to Hospitality 2. checking VIP rooms. The FOM performs the following duties: Monitoring reservation status Looking over market mix and preparing occupancy forecasts Determining rate structures and supervising implementation of rate policies Reviewing previous night’s occupancy and average room rate Reviewing arrivals and departures for the day and the next day Making staffing adjustments needed for arrivals and departures Reviewing the VIP list.2.4. The front office department is headed by the front office manager (FOM) whose main duty is to enhance guest services by constantly developing services to meet guests’ needs.2 Front Office Department Front Office Manager Assistant Front Office Manager Assistant Manager Guest Relations Telephone Services Manager Reservations Manager Reservations Supervisor Front Desk Manager Front Desk Supervisor Baggage Supervisor Chief Concierge Senior Airport Representative Executive Floor Manager Executive Floor/Business Centre Telephone Supervisor Telephone Operator Reservations Clerk Front Desk Clerk Baggage Porter Door Attendant Parking Parking Attendant/Driver Attendant Airport Representative Figure 5 Front office organisation chart of a large hotel Figure 5 shows an organizational chart for a front office.
if a guest called in and wanted to place a booking with the coffee shop. This can speed up the booking process and leave the guest a better impression. fax. engineering. some hotels have introduced the “one-stop service” with all guest requests being carried out through the telephone department. to stop taking room reservations or to allow overbooking of rooms. For example. there is a larger number of room cancellations than usual. The telephone supervisor and telephone operator process all incoming and outgoing calls through the hotel switchboard. morning calls and wake-up calls as required by guests Administer the paging system of the hotel. letter. The members need to: Provide general information regarding the hotel or local attractions to guests over the telephone Place international calls. The reservations clerk will: Handle reservation request and prepare reservation confirmation slips Request guests to confirm or guarantee their room reservations Keep records of the details of each reservation and the number of room reservation taken for each night Provide the front desk with details of room reservation due to arrive the next day Prepare VIP lists Update guest history records Reservations may originate from different sources: Direct reservation via telephone. That is. the telephone operator will take the booking for the guest. security and guests Perform the role of communications centre in the event of emergency In order to provide better service.Introduction to Hospitality (1) Telephone The telephone department is headed by the telephone services manager. For example. With the “one stop service”. the line would be transferred by the telephone operator to the coffee shop in the past. Staff in this department generally possesses good language and communication skills. which provides a communication service between certain hotel staff and management staff who are not always in their offices Administer the in-room movie system of the hotel Stay familiar with the names of Very Important Persons (VIPs) in the hotel Protect guest privacy by not disclosing room number. The reservations supervisor will monitor closely all the room reservations taken and report to the reservations manager when abnormal situations happen. e-mail or Internet Reservation network systems such as Leading Hotels of the World (LHW) Travel agents Tour operators Meeting planners Walk-in 23 . (2) Reservations The reservations manager takes charge of this section and makes decisions on whether room reservations/bookings should be accepted when the hotel is fully booked. guest information and reporting suspicious person Communicate weather emergency to management.
a non-guaranteed reservation means that the hotel will hold the room until a stated cancellation time. staying period. It is common practice for hotels to overbook during peak season in order to ensure full occupancy as some guests are likely not to show up. guest contact information and special requests will be recorded on a reservation form. method of payment. the details of the room reservation such as guest name(s). reservations clerk will request guests to guarantee their booking during peak season. on the arrival date and then release the room for sale if the guest does not arrive. as shown in figure 6. normally up to 6 p. 24 . room type and rate. hotel will hold the room for the guest overnight or during the guaranteed period as the guest has prepaid for the room and no refund will be given if the guest does not show up. and in the computer.Introduction to Hospitality When a reservation request is accepted. Therefore. By contrast.m. For guaranteed reservation. Overbooking refers to a situation when the hotel takes more reservations than the number of its rooms to accommodate.
Introduction to Hospitality RESERVATION FORM ________ Title Arrival Date: Flight/Time: No.: ________________________________ Expiry Date: ____________ Company Name: Telephone/Fax no. of Rooms/Room Type: __________________ Second Name Room Rate: _____________________________________ Corporate Discount Travel Agent Airline Discount Discount Courtesy Discount Package Transportation Required: Airport to Hotel Hotel to Airport Round Trip Billing Instruction: Guest A/C Room on Company All Expenses on Company Other: __________________ Guaranteed By: Company letter/fax/e-mail Fax Deposit Credit Card No. of Persons: ____________________ Surname ___________________ First Name Departure Date: Flight/Time: No.: E-mail Address: Confirmation: Yes/No Remarks: Approved by: Taken by: Date: Reserved by: Figure 6: Reservation form 25 .
airport shuttle and bus Taking hotel room bookings Assisting departing guests at the airport Liaising with airlines for special arrangements such as wheelchair for guests and the handling of guest baggage lost by the airlines Driver Duties include: Taking guests to and from the airport Acting as personal driver for guest upon request such as taking guest to his office or for sightseeing tour Parking Attendant Duties include: Parking cars for guests patronising the hotel Assisting the door attendant in ensuring that traffic at the main entrance is smooth 26 . e. He/she normally works at a desk in the main foyer. including: Chief Concierge Airport Representative Driver Parking Attendant Door Attendant Baggage Porter Baggage Supervisor The chief concierge is the overall in charge of this section.g. sightseeing tours and local restaurants Confirming airline passages and purchasing airline tickets Reserving tables at restaurants and tickets to shows Arranging the hire of hotel limousine and other transportation service such as a private jet Handling guest requests and inquiries.Introduction to Hospitality (3) Concierge The concierge comprises of a large group of uniformed staff. shopping request and an inquiry concerning the direction to a local bank Airport Representative Duties include: Greeting hotel guests at the airport Arranging hotel transportation for guests from the airport to the hotel Answering inquiries from guests about the different means of transportation available from the airport to the hotel such as airport express train. entertainment. attractions. The following guest services are provided by the concierge: Providing information/advice on hotel products/services.
mail. Hotel entrance Baggage Porter (Bell Attendant) Duties include: Handling guest baggage in and out of the hotel Escorting check-in guests from the front desk to their rooms and introducing facilities in the room Running errands for the executive office and hotel guests such as going to the post office buying stamps/sending parcels. etc Handling storage of guest baggage/belongings for late check-out. fax. message and parcel. the door attendant works outside the hotel’s entrance. such as a tailor-made shirt from outsider.Introduction to Hospitality Door Attendant Duties include: Greeting all new arrivals Providing door service to guests Summoning baggage porter to assist arriving guests Calling taxis and providing the hotel address card for guests Paying taxi fare on behalf of the hotel guests who do not have local currencies Directing traffic and parking of vehicles at the main entrance In general. next arrival or outsiders to pick up Baggage Supervisor (Bell Captain) Duties include: Answering telephone calls from guests regarding luggage pick up from room Assigning baggage porter to handle the guest baggage Receiving guest article. and assigning a baggage porter to deliver it to the guest room Handling guest requests for postal services such as collecting the postage fee of sending a parcel from the guest 27 . doing grocery shopping and obtaining visa to China for guests Delivering to guest room newspapers.
Introduction to Hospitality
(4) Front Desk (Reception) The front desk is headed by the front desk manager whose main duty is to ensure that the hotel achieves the highest possible level of room occupancy and the maximum revenue. Front Desk Supervisor (Reception Supervisor) Duties include: Overseeing the smooth running of the front desk Compiling duty roster Greeting important guests (VIPs) Assigning rooms to guests Dealing with group arrivals Handling guest requests such as room change and complaints not being able to be handled by subordinates Front Desk Clerk (Receptionist) Duties include: Greeting the guest Providing information and promoting hotel facilities and services to guests Checking in the guest Maintaining guest account Checking out the guest Administering the safe deposit system of the hotel Providing foreign currency exchange service to guest Registration (Check-in) The purposes of registration include the following: Recording the arrival of guest Confirming the personal details of guest Satisfying legal requirements Stages of registration Preparing for guest arrival such as check for arrivals with special requests Greeting the guest Determining the room rate and assigning room Assisting guest to complete the registration form Checking guest’s method of payment Handing over mail, message, article received before guest arrival and breakfast coupon (if applicable) to guest Issuing room key to guest Escorting guest to the room and introducing room facilities as required by individual hotel Figure 7 shows the sample of a completed registration form. During the process of registration, the front desk clerk will request to see the guest’s identity card or passport to check if the guest is an alien, for verification purpose. When all formalities are completed, the front desk clerk will issue the room key to the guest. The baggage porter will then take the guest’s baggage and escort the guest to the guest room.
Introduction to Hospitality
Guests who arrive at the hotel without having made a reservation are known as walk-ins. It is common practice for hotel staff to obtain from the guest a substantial deposit or credit card imprint before checking the guest into the hotel. ACTIVITY 12 Mr Christie, a walk-in guest, will stay in your hotel for one night only and will be fully responsible for all charges incurred. As a front desk clerk, how would you explain to the guest that you have to collect one night room rate (HK$2,000.00) + 10% service charge + prevailing government room tax (e.g. 3%) + an extra HK$ 1,000.00 for hotel signing privileges from him as the deposit for check-in?
Introduction to Hospitality
Guest Name: Address:
Welcome to Parkside Hotel
Mr. Brent David Ritchie 8200 River Road Richmond BC Canada V6X 3P8 Nationality: Passport No.: britchie201@yahoo. com Engineer Next Destination: Arrival Date: Flight/Time: Departure Date: Flight/Time: Canadian JP089556 Canada
12 Sep 07 CX839/20:55 14 Sep 07 CX838/16:35
Room Number : Date of Birth:
1718 11 Oct 77
Tel/Fax No.: E-mail Address: Occupation: Company Name:
Room Type: Room Rate:
Deluxe Suite $2300 (HKD)
Room rate is subject to 10% Service Charge & 3% Government Tax
No. of Nights: No. of Guests: (Adult/Child)
Brent D. Ritchie
I understand that the guest signature on the registration form is authorized for use of the credit card on the file for payment of my account for this and future stays. I agree that my liability for this bill is not waived, and agree to be held personally liable in the event that the indicated person, company, or other third party billed fails to pay part or all of these charges.
Express Check Out Service:
I hereby authorize Parkside Hotel to charge my credit card for all expenses pertaining to my stay. *Express check for out is card
Signature of Credit Card Holder: ______________________
I understand that Parkside Hotel is not responsible for money, jewels or other valuables that have been misplaced, stolen or left in the guest rooms, meeting rooms, public areas, and family and/or hotel vehicles. Safe deposit boxes are available at the Front Desk.
Figure 7 A completed registration form
Introduction to Hospitality
ACTIVITY 13 Role play In groups of 2, one student will act as a front desk clerk helping a guest, i.e. another student, to check-in. Answer the following questions asked by the check-in guest: Question 1: Is it possible for me to check-out two hours later than the hotel’s standard check-out time with no additional charge? Question 2: Is there any show or concert that you could recommend to me? Question 3: Where could I find foreign currency exchange service? Question 4: Where would you recommend me to go for delicious Chinese cuisine?
During the guest’s stay, all transactions will be posted to the guest’s account/folio/bill. When checking out a departing guest, the front desk clerk should follow the following procedures: 1. 2. 3. Check the name of guest and the room number against the guest’s account. Check the departure date. If the guest leaves earlier than expected, other departments will need to be informed. Check whether late check-out charges should be applied. This would occur if a non-frequent guest leaves after the hotel’s stated check-out time such as 12 noon; the relevant late check-out charge will have to be added to the guest account. In general, hotels will charge guests an extra 50% of the standard room rate if the guest leaves before 6p.m. and an extra 100% of the standard room rate if the guest leaves after 6p.m. Check for late charges such as mini-bar or laundry charges. Produce guest folio(s) for guest inspection and master folio(s) for tour escort’s inspection. Master account/ folio/ bill is the main account on which all charges to a company or travel agent have been recorded. For example, the master folio shows that the company or travel agent is only responsible for the room and breakfast charges. All other incidental charges are the guest’s own responsibility which could be found in the incidental account. Check the guest’s method of payment and help the guest to settle the account. Provide front office services such as handing over to guests any last minute message, fax, mail or parcel, helping guest to empty the safe deposit box opened at the front desk during their stays and offering the assistance of the baggage porter to collect the baggage. Check if the guest would like to make a future room reservation or an onward reservation in another hotel within the chain. Update the front office record to ensure that other departments can accurately know the guest and room status.
Introduction to Hospitality
ACTIVITY 14 As a front desk clerk, you have been informed by Mr Schneider, a regular guest on own account, who receives daily newspaper and fruit basket that he has decided to leave now; one day earlier than expected. Fill in the reason(s) column below showing why the following departments need to be informed. The last one has been done for you as an example. Department(s) Housekeeping Reason(s)
Room Service (In-room Dining)
Stop delivering fruit basket the next day
The Assistant Manager and the Guest Relations Officer also serve the guests from a separate desk located in the lobby of the hotel.
Assistant Manager The Assistant Manager represents the management in handling the daily operations of the hotel and could directly report to the General Manager in some hotels. Duties include: Welcoming VIPs upon check-in Conducting guest relations role Handling efficiently all inquiries and complaints of guests Ensuring the smooth functioning of all departments in the hotel Guest Relations Officer The Guest Relations Officer reports to the Assistant Manager. Duties include: Greeting all arriving individual guests, especially those under commercial accounts Providing local information for guests Promoting in-house functions, facilities and services Assisting front desk staff when they are busy and assisting guest to check out
The Executive Floor Business travellers who require an environment conducive to business and privacy will choose to experience enhanced services in the executive floor for an additional fee. computers. The range of services and facilities provided may include business equipments. presentation supplies. The executive floor(s) is usually the top floor(s) of a hotel. 33 . cocktails. such as baby cot or extra blanket. Relationship between front office department and other departments in a hotel The front office is the centre of guest transactions in a hotel and so often acts as the centre for collection and distribution of guest information. meeting and function space with wired or wireless Internet access. Guests of the executive floor will enjoy a range of complimentary exclusive privileges and benefits which vary from one hotel to another. Examples are as follows: Express check-in and check-out services on the executive floor Complimentary breakfast buffet. afternoon tea. Economy properties typically offer limited business services with self-serve options. Housekeeping Department The housekeeping department requires the following information from the front desk: Check-in. etc.Introduction to Hospitality (6) The executive floor manager oversees the smooth operation of the executive floors and business centre. so that extra amenities and services can be provided to guests In return. evening hors d’oeuvres and all-day refreshments in the executive floor’s lounge Complimentary in-room local calls and high-speed Internet access Garment ironing service Complimentary use of the hotel’s fitness centre. Engineering The engineering department is responsible for maintaining properly the hotel facilities under the care of the front office department such as the proper of functioning of the guest lift. the housekeeping department will provide the actual room status to the front desk for comparison with the computer record which ensures that the front desk has the correct room status. secretarial and translation services. Such information may help other departments providing the best service to guests throughout the different stages of the guest cycle. Any discrepancy found will be double checked by the Assistant Manager.. occupied and check-out rooms in order to organise room cleaning Special requests from guests. swimming pool and private use of the boardroom for one-hour per stay Personalised business and concierge services such as flight confirmation and hotel limousine arrangement Business Centre Many hotels provide a business centre to both their business and leisure guests.
34 . such as fire alarm. checking credit limits and seeking settlements of guest accounts.Introduction to Hospitality Security The front office needs to provide guest information to the security department in the event of emergency. Sales and Marketing Department The sales and marketing department needs to work closely with the front desk and reservations department for reservations of groups. It also sets up the staff grooming and discipline standard for staff to follow. When guest reports loss of property to the front office. security department will be informed to handle the case together with front office’s assistant manager. chocolates and wine to be put in the guestroom. see example on page 35. tours and corporate bookings. The food & beverage department then arranges for item such as welcome fruit basket with fruits. The front desk will provide to the sales and marketing department an updated rooming list. Accounts Department Information concerning advance deposits received by the reservations department and payments received by the front desk must be recorded and passed to the accounts department which is responsible for monitoring guest accounts. Accounts department is responsible for compiling a list of credit-approved companies. the food & beverage department will need the front desk to provide information on meal arrangements so as to reserve seats in the outlets or conference rooms for guests’ meals. with guest room number upon the arrival of tours or groups. which is needed by reservations and front desk when receiving bookings. Human Resources The human resources department provides staff training and recruitment service to the front office. For groups. power failure and so on. Food and Beverage Department The front desk will provide the food and beverage department with a guestroom special amenities request form.
May 5 May 4 . G45889246 G27205533 E2007201 E6572458 107225422 E4470237 E4589632 197520409 S7127001H E2477082 E7142355 E7568933 Period of Stay May 1 .May 10 May 1 .Introduction to Hospitality Rooming List of Samson Trading Company Ltd. 804 1811 1501 1503 1410 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1112 1113 Figure 8: Rooming list 35 . 2009) Guest Name Ms Wong Mei Bo Mr Chen Wei Kit Mr Peter Gibbs Ms Patricia Sand Mr Bill Lewis Ms Devon Morton Mr Dan Morris Mr Anthony Beer Mr Tey Wing Fatt Ms Yetty Thomson Mr Jason Herrick Ms Jill Steward Title Liaison Officer Vice President Financial Controller Trading Manager Project Manager Marketing Manager Marketing Manager Treasury Manager Sales Manager Sales Manager Technical Support Manager Technical Support Manager Nationality Chinese Chinese Australian Australian American Australian Australian American Singaporean Australian Australian Australian Passport No.May 8 Preference NonSmoking Room Smoking Room NonSmoking Room NonSmoking Room Smoking Room Non-Smoking Room NonSmoking Room NonSmoking Room NonSmoking Room NonSmoking Room NonSmoking Room NonSmoking Room Room Type Standard Room Harbour Suite Deluxe Room Deluxe Room Deluxe Room Deluxe Room Deluxe Room Deluxe Room Deluxe Room Deluxe Room Superior Room Superior Room Room No.May 12 May 5 .May 10 May 5 . (May 1-12.May 8 May 5 .May 8 May 5 .May 9 May 5 .May 10 May 5 .May 12 May 4 .May 8 May 5 .May 12 May 1 .
FITs are international tourists who purchase their own accommodation and make their own travel arrangements. Conference participants Individuals who travel to attend conference and whose accommodation is usually reserved by himself/herself. Free independent travellers (FITs) They are sometimes referred to as "foreign independent travellers".2. Group inclusive tours (GITs) Tourists who travel together on package tours with accommodation and sometimes meals which are booked through travel agencies.4. Very important persons (VIPs) Very important persons may include celebrities. Domestic tourists They are local residents who stay at a hotel for special occasions and functions. 36 .Introduction to Hospitality 2. outdoor recreation. and engage in selling or purchasing products. relaxation. guests in expensive rooms. Business travellers travel to conduct business. attend business meetings or workshops. guests with security risks and top executives from companies. Incognito They are guests who stay in a hotel with concealing identities so as to avoid notice and formal attention. visiting friends and relatives or attending sports or cultural events. Group tourists tend to spend less and budget their spending allowance.3 Types of Hotel Guest Hotel guests can be classified according to their: Trip purpose – pleasure or business travellers Numbers – independent or group travellers Origin – local or overseas travellers Pleasure travellers They are individuals who travel to engage in leisure activities. frequent-stay guests. Corporate business travellers They are individuals whose frequent bookings are usually made by companies with reduced room rates. his/her company or a conference organiser before their arrival.
Many hotels offer a number of different room rates to attract different guests who will provide repeat business and help ensure full occupancy. Examples include: Room rates Size of beds Frequent-guest programme Other services provided to the guest Room rates Front desk personnel need to know how the room rates are derived. It includes the facilities and services provided by the hotel staff. Corporate rate Room rate offered to executive personnel who are regular guests or employees of a corporation that has a contract rate with the hotel which reflects all businesses from that corporation. size. Group rate Room rate given to bookings for a large group of people made through a travel agency or professional organisation. Children’s rate Each hotel has a specific age limit for the child to stay with their parents in the same room free of charge or at a nominal rate.2.4The Accommodation Product Accommodation is one of the largest sources of revenue for the operation of a hotel. décor and location of room Meal plan Season and seasonal events Kind of guest Length of stay and day of the week The room rate categories have variations in all hotels. Examples of different room rates are as follows: Rack rate The standard rate charged for the room only. 37 . Airline rate The rate agreed between an individual airline and the hotel as determined by the volume of business the hotel obtains from the airline. front office staff must have a clear understanding of the accommodation product and describe it accurately and clearly to the guest.Introduction to Hospitality 2. A guest who books accommodation receives more than just a room with a bed. It is the main product provided by a hotel.4. Commercial rate Room rate offered to executive personnel of a company who have infrequent visit. The following criteria will influence the room rate charged to the guests: Type. Since guests in general cannot examine the hotel product before purchase.
Modified American Plan (MAP) Room rate that includes room and two meals. e. Hotel brochures and tariffs Hotel brochures and tariffs are sales and marketing tools used by the hotel to provide information on the room rate (rack rate) charged and the facilities and services provided to the guests. restaurant outlets and other facilities. as the price may change every season or year. as they may not be familiar with the hotel terminology. is developed by the hotel to attract guests in during low sales periods. Hotel staff should explain these clearly to customers. usually breakfast and dinner. Tariffs are usually printed separately as an insert. Types of room and bed A hotel has different types of guestroom and bed for the guests to choose from. 39” x 75” 54” x 75” 60” x 80” 78” x 80” Types and sizes of bed 38 . local dignitaries. Complimentary rate (Comp) Guest is assessed no charge for staying in a hotel. the brochures contain pictures of guestrooms.Introduction to Hospitality Package rate Room rate.g. executives from the hotel’s head office and so on. In general. which includes goods and services and the rental of a room. American Plan (AP) Room rate that includes room and three meals. The management of the hotel may grant comp rooms for guests who are tour directors. Types of bed Twin Double Queen King Figure 9: Sizes. European Plan (EP) Room rate that includes room only.
A room that can accommodate two persons with two twin beds joined together by a common headboard. i. Figure 10: Types of room Twin bedroom Double bedroom 39 . Two rooms that are side by side and have a connecting door between them. double or queen-size bed. A room that can accommodate two to four persons with two twin. but do not have a connecting door between them. one double bed and one twin bed or two double beds. double or queen-size beds. Rooms close by or across the corridor. A room that is fitted with a murphy bed. A room that can accommodate two persons with a double or queen-size bed. The bedrooms might be singles. doubles or twin doubles. Room with one or more bedrooms and a living space. A room that can accommodate three persons and has been fitted with three twin beds. a bed that folds out of a wall or closet.Introduction to Hospitality Types of room Single Twin Double Twin double (also double-double or queen double) Triple Hollywood twin Murphy Suite Adjacent Adjoining Connecting Explanations A room that sleeps only one person and has been fitted with a single. Rooms that are side by side. A room that can accommodate two persons with two twin beds. but are not side by side.e.
often called the guest history. and a variety of on-property benefits and services. 40 . The most important features of a hotel program were room upgrades and airline miles. no amount of miles or points is ever going to replace a warm welcome and being recognized by the hotel as a loyal customer.Introduction to Hospitality Frequent-guest program Hotels build guest profiles. However. The loyalty program is a strong factor in persuading hotel owners to become franchisees or give a particular hotel brand the management contract to run their property. Loyalty programs let the most valuable guests be recognized on-property and have been at the core of how chain hotel brands attract and retain their best customers. that keep track of preferences of guests and enable the hotels to provide customized guest services. Some studies found that members wanted a streamlined reward redemption process. followed by free hotel stays. ACTIVITY 15 Give an example of how a chain hotel could customize a frequent guest’s hotel experience using the frequent-guest program. and points that did not expire.
Use as many adjectives or phrases as possible to describe your ideal hotel.2. and recommend to the Managing Director on the choice of hotel within the assigned budget. imagine yourself as a tourist or business traveller. what kind of a hotel would you like to stay in? In three minutes. the housekeeping department is the largest department in the hotel. An ideal hotel should have . It is clear that without clean rooms to rent.. an essential requirement is that the guest room be clean. Here are examples of statements to use to start the brainstorming process: An ideal hotel should be .1Housekeeping Department The housekeeping department is responsible for cleaning and maintaining the guestrooms. The housekeeping department and its staff play a role that is critical to the profit and success of the hotel. public areas.2.5 Housekeeping Operations 2. Your boss needs to travel to Hong Kong and asks you to book a hotel having rooms with all the amenities required for a comfortable stay. office spaces and back of the house areas in the hotel so that the property is as fresh and attractive as its first day of business. 41 .. but within a budget of around HK$2. a hotel would have to close. Although the roles that housekeeping performs vary from one hotel to another. For both business and leisure travellers staying in a hotel. Surveys conducted by the hotel industry constantly indicate that cleanliness is a prime factor in a guest's selection of a hotel.. You have to compare the room features of different types of hotels by browsing through various hotel websites. ACTIVITY 16 Brainstorming – Using the information you learned in the previous sections.. brainstorm with your partner a list of the qualities of an ideal hotel.00 per night.5. it maintains the cleanliness of guestrooms and public areas in such a way that reflects the hotel's commitment to standards of excellence.Introduction to Hospitality 2. the tasks performed by the housekeeping department are critical to the smooth daily operations of any hotel.000. In general. ACTIVITY 17 Imagine yourself as the secretary to the Managing Director of ABC Company in Australia. In many hotels.
to suit the need of your hotel? 42 . who is often assisted by an assistant and several supervisors. This helps reduced the bottom line. Some hotels maintain their own laundry. Due to the recent financial tsunami. your hotel decided to cut cost by streamlining the organisation structure. In either case. Examples of linen follow: Towels Blankets Sheets Pillowcases Mattress protector Tablecloths Napkins Cleaning cloths ACTIVITY 18 Imagine yourself as the executive housekeeper of a large-sized hotel. dry cleaning and pressing services to guests. As a result many hotels have substantially reduced the number and role of housekeeping staff. comprises of the following sections: Laundry department Uniform and linen room Housekeeping office Guest floors Public areas Health club Floral and plant arrangement The laundry department provides laundry. close teamwork is necessary to assure a steady flow of linen back and forth for restaurants. see figure 11 below. banquet areas. As the Executive Housekeeper. This department is usually headed by an executive housekeeper. how would you redesign the organisational chart of your department. The housekeeping department of a large-sized hotel. However. while others rely on commercial operators. set standards may be scarified and staff must assume a larger responsibility.Introduction to Hospitality Organisation of the Housekeeping Department The organisation of the housekeeping department will vary from one hotel to another depending on the number of rooms and the hotel management. Increasingly hotel management are streamlining their organisational structures and employing casual employees. In the case of a small hotel. see figure 11. an executive housekeeper might have no assistant and is assisted by smaller number of supervisors. floor pantry and recreational areas.
Introduction to Hospitality Figure 11 Housekeeping Organisation Chart of a large-sized hotel 43 .
Do you think some of the responsibilities of one post can be taken up by another post in the housekeeping department? Why or why not? Executive Housekeeper interviews. it is important for every housekeeping staff to clearly understand his own responsibilities in order to provide the most efficient service to guests. materials and linen handles complaints key control Assistant Executive Housekeeper assists executive housekeeper in day-to-day operation assumes responsibilities of executive housekeeper in his/her absence revises daily work schedule depending on the occupancy prepares master list for carpet spotting. the housekeeping department is generally the largest department in hotel operations. trains new employees and recommends disciplinary actions or dismissals Assistant Housekeeper assists executive housekeeper in day-to-day operation dispatches room attendants and floor supervisors to assigned floor checks equipment and recommends new purchases inspects guest rooms. Owing to its sometimes complex organisational structure. holiday lists. inspects work to ensure prescribed standard of cleanliness inspects rooms. etc. A sizeable hotel in Hong Kong would typically employ more than 100 staff. selects and engages staff in conjunction with human resources manager training deployment prepares work schedules. curtains. work procedures and job descriptions compiles duty rotas. Study the following list of job descriptions for housekeeping staff. lobbies and back stairs keeps records of extra work performed by housekeeping department takes inventory prepares attendance records Floor supervisor checks staff on duty redeployment supervision of staff 44 .Introduction to Hospitality Duties of Housekeeping Staff As mentioned. lobbies and restaurants for cleanliness and also determines need for renovations and makes recommendations coordinates with the front office screens applicants. etc. personnel records arranges supervision staff welfare orders and controls equipment.
curtains and drapes distributes and measures uniforms for new employees and keeps record discards uniforms. bathrooms and suites handle dirty and clean linen provide turn-down service reports faults. carpets. supplies in public areas meet the standard and needs for immediate repair is reported makes maintenance report for restaurant or item in need of repair and follows up to make sure work is completed satisfactorily supervises cleaning of public areas. upholstered furniture using vacuum cleaner. advises executive housekeeper if performance is not satisfactory liaises with other departments such as food and beverage department regarding the cleaning schedule Cleaner maintains the cleanliness and order of the hotel premises spots rugs. maintenance and peculiarities Public area supervisor inspects public areas cleaned to see whether cleaning is adequate.Introduction to Hospitality checks section/floor of rooms by filling in the room inspection list conducts induction and general training orders and issues cleaning materials linen checks maintenance checks liaises with reception on guest arrivals and departures Room attendant cleans rooms. uniforms. corridors and offices trains cleaners. broom and shampooing machine keeps corridors dust free moves and arranges furniture carries out special work assigned by the public area supervisor Tailor and seamstress alters and repairs linens. room and table linen keeps records of all discarded items prepares inventory repairs guest clothing 45 .
all hotel staff must work as a team to provide consistently high quality service that promotes customer loyalty.Introduction to Hospitality Uniform and linen room attendant sorts and counts dirty linen and uniform checks and counts clean linen and uniform issues and receives linen and uniform assists in inventory taking of all linen/uniform The relationship between housekeeping department and other departments No matter what the type of hotel or the category of traveller. especially in peak season. hotels are in the service industry and their goal is to meet the guest expectations. If housekeeping cannot provide cleaned rooms quickly enough to front office for sale. An example would be when the housekeeping and front office departments work closely as a team to ensure that the guestrooms are cleaned and made ready for arriving guests. the result is a loss of sales and customers. can you think of other departments which work closely with the housekeeping department? What is the result if communications breakdown between housekeeping and these departments? The following diagram shows the relationship between the housekeeping department and other departments: Figure 12 Relationship of Housekeeping Department with Other Departments 46 . To help achieving this goal. Apart from the front office.
thus requiring special planning to assure the required quantity of linen is available and in good condition. and windows. The banquet department. Since housekeeping personnel work in every area of the hotel. The housekeeping department needs to report to the front office any unusual guest behaviours that may result in loss of revenue or bad publicity for the hotel. 47 . although the revenue goes to food and beverage department. Security – Security’s responsibilities may include patrolling the property.Introduction to Hospitality The following are brief descriptions of the relationship of housekeeping department with other departments: Front Office – Rooms are the main concern of both departments. They must work closely as a team to do preventive maintenance and renovations with minimum disturbance to guests. They must continually exchange information on room status so that check-out rooms can be returned as quickly as possible. e. room attendants are usually responsible for locking and securing sliding glass doors. housekeeping is also responsible for minibar replenishment. and in general. In some hotels. A good relationship should be maintained between housekeeping and room service to ensure provision of timely housekeeping services. and employees are safe and secure at the hotel. in particular. ensuring that guests. The food and beverage department has a responsibility to separate stained or damaged linens that requiring special treatment. For example. renovations. repairs and maintenance can be scheduled during periods of low occupancy. Engineering – It is the housekeeping staff’s responsibilities to request the engineering department for minor repairs in order to avoid a major breakdown. when cleaning guestrooms. The engineering department also expects housekeeping staff to contribute to the efforts of conserving heat. monitoring surveillance equipment. they are in a position to significantly contribute to the hotel’s security efforts. and the cleaning of their outlets. visitors. removal of trays and tables from the corridors to service landings. Human Resources – The relationship between human resources department and housekeeping department is similar to those mentioned earlier with the front office department.g. Food and Beverage – The relationship between the housekeeping department and food and beverage department involves the supply of table linen and uniform. In addition. water and electricity. must advise housekeeping of its anticipated needs since banquet business may fluctuate considerably. connecting doors. VIP set-ups etc.
Accounts – The hotel’s controller manages the accounting division which is responsible for monitoring the financial activities of the property. 48 . The major problem they face together. cost and availability of the products. 4. linen. 2. A guest wants to get a bouquet and some chocolate for her girlfriend’s birthday. When it comes to deciding what brand. and other guest amenities. As the housekeeping department maintains inventories of cleaning supplies. Front office. An old lady feels sick in her room. 3. Its relationship with the housekeeping department is self-evident. ACTIVITY 19 Fill in the right column with the correct hotel department(s)/staff involved so as to meet guest needs in the following scenarios. A guest orders room service.the executive housekeeper and the purchasing agent must pool their knowledge to consider the characteristics. the executive housekeeper must often work closely with for example the storeroom manager. quality or size should be stocked . especially in large hotels. sales and marketing and housekeeping share the responsibility to ensure that rooms are ready and cleaned for the arriving groups of guests. 5. Scenario Department(s)/Staff Involved 1. Purchasing – The Purchasing department buys all cleaning and guest supplies. uniform. A business traveller discovers that his personal computer left in the guestroom has been stolen. equipment.whether the item is cleaning powder or mattresses . A guest calls the housekeeping department to complain that there is no hot water in the bathroom. is back-to-back conventions and groups. etc who reports to the hotel’s controller.Introduction to Hospitality Sales and Marketing – The sales and marketing department relies heavily on the housekeeping department for prompt delivery of goods/services as promised to the guests.
2. e. Guest Amenities Minibar 1. ACTIVITY 20 Browse the website of Hong Kong hotels.g. 49 . Guest amenities refer to the non-essentials that enhance the guest’s stay. Note that some properties provide only the basic items of guest supplies to guests. 3. while others pamper guests with extra items like fresh fruits and flowers etc.5. 3.g. e. hangers etc. Complete the table by filling the columns with three appropriate guest supplies and amenities.2. The first one has been done as an example for you. Guest supplies refer to items the guest requires as part of the hotel stay.Introduction to Hospitality 2. in-room safe etc. toilet tissues. Guest Supplies Bath towels 1. controlling and maintaining adequate inventory levels of both guest supplies and guest amenities.2 In-room Guest Supplies and Amenities Hotels provide a variety of guest supplies and amenities for the guest’s needs and convenience. distributing. The housekeeping department is responsible for storing. 2.
The following is a set of commonly used Room Status Codes: DND : Do not disturb OOO : Out-of-order OOT : Out-of-town NB : No baggage LB : Light baggage SO : Sleep out CO : Check-out Other special terminologies include: Terminology Skipper Sleeper Complimentary Stay-on Late check-out Lock-out Check-out Description Room is vacant and guest has left without settling the bill Room is occupied by guest.5. returned the room keys. and left the hotel OC : Occupied clean OD : Occupied dirty VC : Vacant clean VD : Vacant dirty ED: Expected departure NNS : No need service XB : Extra bed 50 . This permits housekeeping staff to make up the room promptly for arriving guests. A sample Housekeeping Room Status Report is given as Fig. but has not been checked into the computer The room is occupied. 13.g. but the guest is assessed no charge for its use The guest will stay for the night The guest is allowed to check out later than the hotel’s standard check-out time The room has been locked so that guest cannot re-enter until he/she is cleared by a hotel official The guest has settled his/her account.Introduction to Hospitality 2. As the ‘vacant dirty’ room is made ready for sale. housekeeping will notify the front desk through changing the room status to ‘vacant clean’ (‘VC’) or ‘Inspected Clean’.3 Room Status Codes Special codes and terminology are used between the housekeeping and other departments (e. the front office) for effective communication.2. the front desk computer system will automatically change the room status to ‘vacant dirty’ or ‘VD’. One typical example of how these special codes and terminology are used is that when a guest check-out from the front desk and settles his account.
Introduction to Hospitality Housekeeping Room Status Report Date Code : CO DND ED LB Check-out Do Not Disturb Expected Departure Light Baggage NB NNS OC OD No Baggage No Need Service Occupied Clean Occupied Dirty OOO OOT SO VC Out-of-order Out-of-town Sleep Out Vacant Clean VD XB Vacant Dirty Extra Bed Floor Floor Floor Floor Floor Floor Room No Room No Room No Room No Room No Room No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 " " " 18 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 " " " 18 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 " " " 18 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 " " " 18 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 " " " 18 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 " " " 18 Checked By: Figure 13 Housekeeping Room Status Report 51 .
Such items also vary from hotel to hotel. table.4 Types of Guest Requests Housekeeping staff may be called upon to provide special amenities and stock guest loan items to meet requests. Some examples of such items are: Adapter Additional furniture. chair Air-purifier Bed board Crib/Baby cot Dehumidifier Extension cord Extra bedding supplies. e.2.5. e.Introduction to Hospitality 2. blanket *Stands for chargeable item Fan Heater Humidifier Iron and ironing board Morning set (tooth brush & paste…) Rollaway bed* Transformer Vase Tapes Stationery & Service Directory 52 . These items include everyday items that the guest may have forgotten to pack or items such as irons and ironing board (if they are not routinely provided in the guest room) and personal care items. pillow.g.g. depending on the market segment the hotel attempts to reach and satisfy.
g. what other services you would require or expect the hotel to provide to you? Guests with special needs Wheelchair Facilities for the disabled Business travellers Broadband Internet service International direct dialing (IDD) service Local & international newspapers Laundry/valet service Shoes polishing service Other business facilities. business centre. conference and meeting facilities 53 .Introduction to Hospitality Iron & roning Board Most items mentioned above are free of charge upon request. executive floor. fax machine. laptop computer. some hotels may charge the guest if they request to add a rollaway bed in the guestroom. guests may also request other services from the housekeeping department. e. However. If you were a hotel guest. Apart from these items.
g. gymnasium.g. hydrotherapy. massage. hours and location of meals 54 . swimming pool Spa facilities for beauty and health treatments. facials and intensive foot and hand therapies Baby sitting service Other requests In-room dining (Room service) Doctor service Smoke-free guestroom Room make-up service Alteration & mending service Repair and maintenance service Food & beverage enquiries.Introduction to Hospitality Leisure travellers and holiday makers Rollaway bed/ baby cot Connecting rooms In-room movies Sports facilities. e.g. e. e.
5 Security Procedures In a hotel of any size. the name of finder. Keys issued to the employees must be kept under their own custody and never be left hanging on the trolley or in the door lock. Any unauthorized disclosure of guest information to anyone by hotel staff will be regarded as misconduct. keys and telephone calls.Introduction to Hospitality 2. The housekeeping co-ordinator is responsible for the distribution and control of keys. All keys are kept in the housekeeping office in a locked cabinet and are properly coded. All keys must always be returned to the housekeeping office. The housekeeping co-ordinator takes inventory of the keys at the beginning of each shift and prior to the handover of keys to the subsequent shift in charge. The security division is responsible for maintaining systems and implementing procedures which protect the personal property of guests and employees and the hotel itself. 55 . All keys issued must be properly signed for and cancelled after return. item(s) found. Every member of staff in the housekeeping department is trained to handle the different keys and use the correct procedures when someone asks to open a guestroom. room number. floor supervisor and the security officer arrive at the scene. The misplacing or loss of key is a very serious matter and should be reported to the executive housekeeper or assistant manager and security officer immediately. security is a major concern. The guestroom will then be double locked until the guest returns. Key Control The room key is an important instrument that housekeeping staff use to access the guestroom and carry out their duties. Hotel staff should never disclose guest’s information such as guest name and room number to anyone calling in. The case must then be recorded very clearly in the Housekeeping Log Book with the time. Keys must never be taken out of the hotel premises. Handling Guests’ Valuables A room attendant must report to the housekeeping office any guests’ valuables found inside the guestroom during cleaning. and the name of whom the case is reported to and handled by for future reference. The key cabinet must remain locked at all times. It is important that the room attendant stays in the room until the assistant manager. The room attendant must complete or sign “The sign in and out” log book listing the number of keys issued.5. Every room attendant is responsible for taking care of the keys under their charge and not allowing anyone else access to their keys.2. Every hotel has its own procedures and guidelines for staff on how to handle guests’ valuables. All keys must be kept securely and distributed properly. An immediate search must be made until the key can be located.
the assistant manager and the security officer. The housekeeping coordinator will in turn inform the floor supervisor/assistant housekeeper. or a place or an office where reports of missing items. How would you handle this situation if you were the assistant executive housekeeper? 56 . may be kept for a shorter period. All information is recorded in the Lost and Found Logbook for prompt and easy reference in case of a guest enquires about a lost item. but the Lost and Found Log book has no record of it. All items found by the guests and staff should be stored in a ventilated room and kept for three months before being releasing to the finder. regardless of their value. or the Security department. Most hotels assign this duty to the housekeeping department. such as perishable food or drink. The storage area must be secure. are kept and followed up.Introduction to Hospitality Suspicious Person The housekeeping staff must report any suspicious person loitering on guest floors and public areas to the housekeeping office. Lost and Found 'Lost and Found' refers to: a place or an office that keeps any items found inside the hotel. ACTIVITY 21 Discuss the following scenario: A guest enquires about a missing item in his room. All staff should hand in items found inside the hotel premises. reported by either guests or staff. Some items.
The purpose of a kitchen is to produce the right quality of food of the highest standard for the required number of people. there may be a variety of kitchens catering to different needs from breakfast. internal and external Banqueting. luncheon and dinner to events such as gala dinners and conferences. A kitchen can be divided into separate areas: Production kitchen Banqueting kitchen À la carte kitchen Grill room Pastry kitchen Food preparation area 57 . Divisions Kitchens Restaurants Catering. by the most effective use of staff. The food and beverage department within a hotel consists of many areas and personnel that cater to internal or external guests.1.Introduction to Hospitality 3 Food and Beverage Sector 3. In some hotels. equipment and materials. the number of staff employed and the equipment being used.1 Introduction to the Food and Beverage Sector 3. on time. The number of guests being catered for varies depending on the size of the dining facilities and kitchen. dining experience or general catering. internal and external Room service (In-room dining) Minibars Lounge bars Stewarding Food and beverage operation Kitchens A kitchen is a place for the storage and preparation of food for consumption.1 Food and Beverage Operations (Hotel) Functions of the food and beverage department within a hotel FOOD & BEVERAGE is a term the hospitality industry uses to refer to all food and beverage needs for an event.
Introduction to Hospitality Production kitchen Production kitchen The correct design and layout of food preparation and production areas can make a major contribution to good food hygiene. themselves and their environment. clean and dirty must be followed to reduce the risks of food contamination. Production kitchen 58 . Staff respond better under good working conditions by taking more pride in their work. Adequate working space must be provided for each process in the kitchen and the separation of raw and cooked.
Containers/Equipment/Utensils – equipment should. therefore good time management. or as in the food production for a counter area where smaller numbers of customers are catered for.Introduction to Hospitality Production kitchen Production kitchens produce foods for separate service areas in the hotel. The amount of food produced can be as large as in the production for airlines or functions centre dealing with several hundred people. with temperatures monitored where necessary. Storage areas should be kept clean and tidy. Features of a good production kitchen: Designed so that it can be easily managed. Products – raw materials to finished product must have an easy flow Personnel – how people work and move in the kitchen must have a good work flow. Management must have easy access to the areas under their control and have good visibility in the areas which have to be supervised. hygiene and work flow. and be close to the production areas for improved time management. where possible. 59 . be separated into specific process areas to increase efficiency.
Number of staff employed and their skill levels. Type of operation. with adequate equipments. breakfast. Storage areas for chemicals and equipments. Kitchen design 60 . materials and work space. The market that the business is catering for and the style of food operation. e. Size of dining area if applicable.Introduction to Hospitality Factors that influence the design of a kitchen Kitchens are designed for easier management. luncheon and dinner. storage and handling of foods. perishable and non-perishable foods. are all needed to be considered. are essential if practical work is to be carried out efficiently. which includes the menu structure. tools. Other important factors include: Properly planned layouts.g. Working methods of staff employed. The movement.
Introduction to Hospitality Kitchen design Chinese kitchen Western kitchen 61 .
Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 22 There are many factors that can influence the design of a kitchen. Take your kitchen at home as an example. with simple food served in simple settings at low prices. Tokyo 62 . How have these two things had an effect on your kitchen? ACTIVITY 23 List four factors that you think could influence the design of a newly-built hotel’s kitchen in Central. to expensive establishments serving refined food and wines in a formal setting. Can you think of some factors that have influenced its design? Look at its size and shape. Hong Kong restaurant Ritz-Carlton. The term covers many types of venue and a diversity of styles of cuisine and service. Food is generally for eating on the premises. Hong Kong. The main kitchen will be located four floors above ground level. Restaurants A restaurant is a retail establishment that serves prepared food to customers. Think of the hotel’s location and possible problems that they may have. although ‘restaurant’ can also describe take-out establishments and food delivery services. Restaurants can range from modest lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby.
63 . From the web sites eatdrinkhongkong. Tokyo ACTIVITY 24 There are many different restaurants offering an array of foods and cultures in Hong Kong. Ritz-Carlton.Introduction to Hospitality Dining room.com/restaurants/search.vibesasia.com and www. Some specialise in foods from different countries.htm. see how many different types of foods from different countries are offered in Hong Kong.
Banquet is a term used to describe a large formal occasion. anniversaries. restaurants selling "local" food are simply called restaurants. there are seafood restaurants. while restaurants selling food of foreign origins are called accordingly. for example a Thai restaurant or a French restaurant. The use of refrigerated vans and trucks is necessary for the transportation of food items. the customers pay the bill before leaving.Introduction to Hospitality Typically. Some examples of hospitality functions include: Business functions: Conferences. For example. customers sit at tables and their orders are taken by food service personnel who bring the food to them when it is ready. Hotels may have different restaurants to cater for different events and times of the day. Then.g. Banqueting and catering (internal and external) A banquet. e. breakfast and luncheon may be served in the same restaurant whereas dinner may be in a more formal setting. Restaurants often specialise in certain types of food or sometimes present a certain theme. working breakfasts. event or function can be described as the service of food and drink at a specific time and place. luncheons and dinners. weddings Some hotels can cater for functions/banquets outside their establishment. Generally speaking. For example. Chinese wedding. to a given number of guests at a known price. Conference in a hotel 64 . vegetarian restaurants or ethnic restaurants. meetings Social functions: Gala dinners.
where necessary ACTIVITY 25 From the list below. drying and storage of all equipment used in the preparation and cooking of food is critical to prevent the spread of bacteria and cross-contamination. banquet or event? Service style Chinese wedding Hong Kong Hotels Association Gala Ball Premiere of a new film starring Tony Leung Chui Wai The launch of a new car for the Hong Kong market Conference dinner for the management of Hong Kong Tourism Board Function Banquet Event 65 .Introduction to Hospitality Special function at a Hong Kong hotel Stewarding Department The correct cleaning. china and cutlery Inventory of chemical stock Maintenance of dishwashing machines Pest control. Responsibilities of the Chief Steward are: Cleanliness of back-of-house Washing of pots and pans and other kitchen equipments Cleanliness of glassware. which can be described as a function.
Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 26 Can you think of any outside catering opportunities here in Hong Kong. especially airport hotels Level of service and menu vary Challenges o Delivery of orders on time o Making it a profitable department within food and beverage o Avoiding complaints. This service will depend upon several factors: Typically found in larger city hotels. for example a hospitality tent or booth at the Annual Dragon Boat Racing at Stanley? Give three other opportunities that you consider would be profitable in Hong Kong.com for more examples. e. Outside catering Outside catering Outside catering Room service This is the service provided in a hotel that allows guests to order food and drink to be delivered to their rooms.g.discoverhongkong. food being cold or delivered late o Forecasting when the busy times will be during a day or week Room service 66 . Browse through the following website: www.
Other duties may include: Supervising the ordering and storage of wines Preparation of wine list Overseeing staff. a bar manager’s responsibilities often include coordinating. staffing. beers and spirits. brewing and distillation of wines. rotas and training Scheduling of staff Maintaining cost control Assisting in wine selection by guests Correctly serving wine Knowledge of other beverages Hotel bar Restaurant bar in Hong Kong 67 . organising.Introduction to Hospitality Bar management Bar management involves the functions of planning. and also the ability to make alcoholic and non-alcoholic cocktails. training and evaluating the staff. leading and controlling. Besides. Bars are run by managers that have a sound knowledge in the making.
receiving. Hotel lobby and Front Desk 68 . Complying with health and safety regulations.Introduction to Hospitality Lobby bar in a Hong Kong hotel Staff Duties Food and Beverage Manager The responsibilities of a Food and Beverage Manager will typically cover a number of areas. Interviewing and selecting staff. They will also be involved in the recruitment and supervision of a highly skilled F&B team and be responsible for the creation and implementation of seasonal F&B marketing strategies including input into menu planning. Ensuring that the profit margins are achieved for each food and beverage outlet. storing and issuing liquor as well as controlling the overall inventory. Co-ordinating requests from other departments within the hotel. Purchasing. Their responsibilities can also include: Dealing with all matters concerning spirits. Promotion of the beverage department and marketing. They will have the sole responsibility for the day-to-day running of the F&B department and ensuring budgetary controls while overseeing pricing and purchasing in all food and beverage areas. wines and beers. Holding regular meetings with section heads to ensure that all departments are working efficiently. Training of staff for supervisory level.
They will assume full responsibility when the Restaurant Manager is unavailable. finance. ACTIVITY 28 You are employed as a Bar Manager in a major hotel in Hong Kong. accounting. In some localities or traditions. Their duties include daily operations. the post is also known as the headwaiter. this is known as a station. staffing and human resources. marketing. legal aspects of the business. Make a list of the duties that you think you would be responsible for during the course of one week’s work. host or restaurant manager. and dividing the dining area into areas of responsibility for the various waiting staff on duty. Make a list of the duties that you think you would be responsible for during the course of one week’s work. He or she may also be the person who receives and records advance reservations for dining. 69 . particularly small organisations like a single restaurant. Their duties also extend to the followings: Responsibilities to the guests Responsibilities to the employer Responsibilities for health and safety Responsibilities for staff training Interviewing and selecting new staff Assistant Restaurant Manager An Assistant Restaurant Manager will assist the Restaurant Manager in the organisation and running of the restaurant. In a suitably staffed restaurant or hotel this person is in charge of assigning customers to tables in the establishment. as well as dealing with any customer complaint and making sure all servers are completing their tasks in an efficient manner. on leave or absent. Restaurant Manager A Restaurant Manager can also be referred to as the maitre d' (short for maitre d'hotel which literally means "master of the hall"). advertising and public relations.Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 27 You are employed as a Food and Beverage Manager with a major hotel in Hong Kong. Their duties will include daily operations and staffing and will also extend to: Responsibilities to the guests Responsibilities to the employer Responsibilities for health and safety Responsibilities for staff training Helping and assisting the Restaurant Manager with interviewing and selecting new staff Station Head Waiter/Section Supervisor This person is responsible for a team of staff serving a set number of tables in the restaurant or function.
Introduction to Hospitality Station Waiter In larger hotels this position is sometimes called a chef de rang. Waiter/Waitress This employee will work under the direction of the Station Waiter and is usually an apprentice or a person who is just beginning to learn the skills of serving guests. This employee will work under the direction of the Station Head Waiter and serve guests. ACTIVITY 29 Describe the roles of the staff positions listed below: Position Restaurant Manager Assistant Manager Section Supervisor/ Captain Station Waiter Waiter/Server Responsible to: Manager Assistant Manager(s) Host and/or Cashier Captain (A) Captain (B) Captain (C) Bartender Station Waiter (A) Station Waiter (B) Station Waiter (C) Waiter (A) Waiter (B) Waiter (C) Figure 14 Restaurant Structure 70 .
Introduction to Hospitality Waiting staff at work Helping a guest 71 .
Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 30 You are employed as a maitre d’ in a restaurant that can seat 56 customers. 3 Station Waiters in each section 2 Waiters/Waitresses in each section Kitchen BAR Reception Entrance 72 . There are: 4 tables for two customers 3 tables for four customers 3 round tables for six customers 3 oblong tables for six customers Divide the restaurant into three sections with a Station Supervisor for each. Your task is to draw a restaurant plan for the seating for the night.
only in small establishments would it be necessary for the Head Chef to be engaged in handling the food. working unsociable hours at any time of the day or night. still room and the washing up of silver crockery etc. either wholly or partially. for the stores. Instructing kitchen staff Chef at work Head Chef (le chef de cuisine) In large establishments the duties of the Executive Chef.Introduction to Hospitality Kitchen organisation Executive Chef To become a Head Chef or an Executive Chef takes many years of hard work with long hours standing on your feet. The functions of the Head Chef are to: Organise the kitchen Compile the menus Order the food Show the required profit Engage the staff Supervise the kitchen (particularly during service hours) Advise on purchases of equipment Be responsible. Be responsible for guest satisfaction Ensure food quality and consistency 73 . in many cases. Head Chef or person in charge are mainly administrative. It takes years to learn the skills and knowledge necessary to become proficient in different cooking methods and styles.
Their main function is to supervise the work in the kitchen so that it runs smoothly and according to the Chef’s wishes. fish. Second Chef (le sous-chef) The Second Chef/sous chef relieves the Head Chef when they are off duty and is the Chef’s 'right hand'. skilled and plentiful. vegetables. the public demand was for elaborate and extensive menus. The Chefs de Partie organise their own sections. delegate the work to assistants and are in fact the 'backbone' of the kitchen. such as sauces and soups. This is the job of the specialist. when labour in Europe was relatively cheap. one of the most respected chefs of the era. larder or meat. This system is still used to some extent in today's large hotel kitchens such as The Peninsula and The Marco Polo Hotels.Introduction to Hospitality Head Chef giving instructions to staff An Executive/Head Chef also has to work in conjunction with: • Other chefs and cooks • Food and beverage staff • Function staff • Kitchen stewards In the late nineteenth Century. devised what is known as the partie system. The number of parties required and the number of staff in each will depend on the size of the establishment. 74 . Chef de Partie The Chefs de Partie are each in charge of a section of the work in the kitchen. In large kitchens there may be several sous-chefs with specific responsibility for separate services such as banquets and grill room. Auguste Escoffier. In response to this.
and in some cases will take charge of the partie when the Chef is off duty. For those of you who still desire to become a Chef. such as croissants.Introduction to Hospitality Kitchen staff at work Pastry Chef (le patissier) All the sweets and pastries are made by the Pastry Chefs. you will still have the chance to observe and understand what is needed for the preparation of meals for a large number of people. Here you will be taught the fundamentals of cuisine and hotel management. perhaps by working in a restaurant while you are in high school. noodles etc. may be made by the Pastry Chef when there is no separate bakery. such as vol-au-vents. e. 75 . and also the coverings for meat and poultry dishes when pastry is required. so there are more assistants in that partie. Formerly. but now most of them are produced in factories. the vegetable partie is larger than the fish partie due to the quantity of work to be prepared. Hong Kong Polytechnic University. brioche. This experience coupled with an education in the culinary arts has the potential to give you an opening in the culinary world. The Assistant Cook is usually capable of taking over a great deal of responsibility. Apprentice (l’apprenti) The apprentice is learning the trade and rotates among the parties to gain knowledge of all the sections in the kitchen.g. e. the main element that is required is hands-on experience. You should gain this experience as early as possible.. As an educational backdrop you should see if there are any first-class culinary schools that you can enrol in. Even if you are not cooking food.g. Ice cream and petits fours are also made here. as well as items required by other parties. Assistant Cooks (les commis chefs) The Chefs de Partie are assisted by commis or assistants. breads etc. bouchees. the number varying with the amount of work done by the partie. a glacier was employed to make all the ice creams. The bakery goods. From this starting point you can decide whether you want to become a chef.
Introduction to Hospitality Staff training in a Hong Kong kitchen 76 .
Introduction to Hospitality Figure 15 Example of a traditional kitchen brigade in a large hotel Head Chef Sous Chef Sous Chef Sauce Chef Roast Chef Fish Chef Vegetable Chef Pastry Chef Larder Chef Relief Chef Commis Commis Commis Commis Commis Commis Apprentice Apprentice Apprentice Apprentice Apprentice Apprentice 77 .
Originally guests had two choices: • Luxury hotels • Budget hotels In some countries. resort. Housekeeping services available include laundry and dry-cleaning. business.1. Nowadays guests would usually have access to a wireless computer network and also to a business centre. hotels were built to serve middle-class families and.Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 31 Explain the differences between a Sous Chef and a Chef de Partie. telephone. from luxury. A standard room will have a bed. Most major hotels will have restaurants and bars available for guests and if they are situated in a large city they are usually located near the business districts. when the economy in general boomed and room supply increased. 78 . Anyone who can pay (within reason) can rent a room for a night in a hotel. tourist destinations and/or airports. 3. townhouse to boutique and budget. Use the criteria listed above and give six important functions that you think would be necessary for this position.2 Classification of Food Service Establishments Guestroom A hotel is classified as a commercial establishment providing lodging. What are their roles within a kitchen? ACTIVITY 32 Describe the role that an Executive Chef would have in a large hotel in Hong Kong today. lounge area and minibar. bathroom facilities. TV. shower. hoteliers then focused on setting themselves apart by offering specialised accommodation for: • Conventioneers • Business groups • Special weekend events and families As diversity flourished so did competition and brand loyalty. meals and other guest services. Hotels vary greatly in style and services.
Asia and other parts of the world. however. Examples of independent ownership of food service establishments in Hong Kong would be family-owned and operated restaurants. King Parrott Group and Igor’s. 79 . Burger King. Local foodservices chain – Maxim’s Catering Limited. Examples are: International foodservices chain – McDonald’s. Subway. Burger King and KFC.Introduction to Hospitality Independent ownership Usually refers to small family-run restaurants where the owners have complete control. Lan Kwai Fong. This was the only existing option before the emergence of chain restaurants. mainland China. Caffe Habitu. KFC. Igor’s. Pizza Hut. Chain ownership There are many chain establishments in Hong Kong. Chain establishments can be grouped into single-concept chains and multiple-concept chains. The general public usually has no idea multiple-concept foodservices chains are owned by the same company. Single-concept chains include McDonald’s. The opportunities for promotion are considerable as they usually have a strong local and international brand identity. depending on the location of restaurants the clientele may vary accordingly. Many non-adventurous tourists prefer these international foodservices chains given their consistency in quality and service. business usually relies on local customers or its neighbourhood. TGI Friday’s. Lan Kwai Fong. Starbucks Coffee. MOSS Burgers. Tanyoto Hotpot. King Parrott Group. Multiple-concept chains include Maxim’s Catering Limited. Haagen-Dazs and Outback Steakhouse. You often find that groups are made up of independently-run restaurants. Usually they have a centralised reservation system and some chains offer franchise opportunities. Normally. Café de Coral. Depending on the location of the restaurant the clientele may vary accordingly. a percentage of sales is automatically taken for advertising. Moss Burgers. COVA. Again. Subway. These restaurants do however have the highest failure rate.
Non Genetic Modified (organic) food and beverage. The concepts range from quick services to fine dining with an emphasis on unique features such as health-conscious market – salad bar. pastry shops. Café De Coral with an example. luncheon and dinner meals. ACTIVITY 34 • Can you give three examples where a major restaurant brand name is operating inside a hotel in Hong Kong? 80 . breakfast and coffee shop restaurant. • The restaurants cater for both the hotel guests and the general public. formal dining room. and niche market – specialty coffee shops. • A major chain hotel generally has at least two restaurants: a signature or upscale formal restaurant and a casual coffee-shop restaurant. with the number and type depending on the type and service of the hotel. Hotels will promote their restaurants to hotel guests. There are some hotels that do not have a restaurant.Introduction to Hospitality In-hotel restaurants Most hotels have at least one dining room that can be used for breakfast. Specialty Hospitals. ice cream bars. banqueting facilities.g. Typically these food and beverage areas are run by a Restaurant Manager. The other types of specialty food service establishments are those whose focus is on maximizing the uniqueness of food and beverage concepts. Prisons and the Military are all food service establishments whose focus is on minimising costs by optimising efficiency and in some cases they are non-profit-making. or in some cases a hotel will allow a brand name restaurant to operate within their hotel as this helps to reduce the hotel’s food and beverage costs. in this case guests will have their meals at a local establishment. Colleges.g. e. Universities. ACTIVITY 33 • Explain the differences between an Independent and Chain Ownership Restaurant e. Some larger and higher-grade hotels may have several restaurants and dining areas.
Introduction to Hospitality Food Service Establishments Independent Chain In hotel Specialty Hotels Hotels Own restaurants Universities / Colleges Restaurants Restaurants Brand name restaurants Prisons Cafés Cafés Coffee shops Military Fast food outlets Fast food outlets Themed restaurant Niche market Figure 16 Chart of typical food service establishment 81 .
menu. and it is integrated with atmosphere.1.Introduction to Hospitality 3. We patronise restaurants several times a week to socialise. • There is little or no waiting time • Food can be consumed either on the premises or taken away Hong Kong fast food Hong Kong fast food Traditional restaurants Food and restaurants are an important part of life in Hong Kong because of the type of society and culture here. Fast food outlets Customer demand has resulted in a rapid growth in fast food outlets here in Hong Kong. marketing. and ambience. image. school colleagues and associates. luncheon or dinner. Some establishments may be small and suited to the local area offering local delicacies. They offer a place to relax and enjoy the company of family. location. on family and celebratory occasions such as birthdays and Lunar New Year celebrations. and also to eat and drink for breakfast. the type of food and range of items available depends on the type and location of the establishment. Concept is formulated to attract a certain group or groups of people. e.g. There are a variety of establishments offering a limited to very comprehensive choice of popular foods at reasonable prices. friends. As a society we are spending an increasing amount of our money on food items away from home. whereas others may be part of a national or international chain employing a particular theme.3 Types of Food and Beverage Services The different types of food and beverage services are the result of the formulation of restaurant concept. 82 .
• Because of their popularity they are now often developed into more of a restaurant with a full range of food and beverage services. • Free flow: The selection is counter service. The menu items available at cafeterias usually cover a variety of tastes. if necessary. Alternatively meals may be brought in from elsewhere and consumed on the premises. meat or fish. • Hong Kong is gradually developing a "Cafė Culture". • Supermarket: Island service points within a free flow area. In Europe. 83 . the Americas and Australasia. Customers order their food from a counter and serve themselves before paying. Cafés are also: • Somewhere you can go for afternoon/morning tea. rice or noodles with a choice of vegetable. It is either a restaurant or within an institution such as a large office building or school. Café A small social gathering place (shop) which sells food and drink. Soups.g. Customers move at will to random service points exiting via a payment point. Different methods of self-service for customers • Counter: Customers line up in a queue at a service counter and then choose their menu items. light lunch or coffee. A school dining location is also often referred to as a canteen or dining hall. sweets and beverages are also available. The chosen items are then placed on a tray and taken to the payment point. e. cafés have developed widely over the last few years. It is also a dining area in an institution where customers may select meals at a counter which are then purchased. • There is a more casual atmosphere. A cafeteria can also be a restaurant in which customers select their food at a counter and carry it on a tray to a table available after making payment.Introduction to Hospitality Traditional restaurants: • Use local ingredients • Cook and serve a variety of traditional foods and beverages o Cater to dietary requirements o Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages are available • Cater to a local clientele as well as international visitors Formal dining Cafeteria A cafeteria is a type of food service establishment in which there is little or no table service.
The physical set-up of bars is critical to set the ambience and the theme of the establishment. unlike food. A bar also allows guests to meet and socialise for both business and pleasure. Tsim Sha Tsui. mostly in tourist areas and scenic locations.Introduction to Hospitality Café in Hong Kong Activity 35 Explain the differences between a Cafeteria and a Café. Lan Kwai Fong 84 . eg Mexican cantina. Themes of bars vary according to their location. Most bars will have a quick snack menu available for the guests to choose from. eg Lan Kwai Fong. Wan Chai. like a restaurant. or it can be an individual business. along the harbour front and The Peak. African bar. British pub. Which would you prefer and why? What type of service style is used in each? Bars A bar can be part of a larger operation. There are many bars in Hong Kong. SoHo. The profit percentage from beverages is higher than that from food and. beverages can be held over if not sold.
Search the following areas and list four different theme bars that you can find? Lan Kwai Fong SoHo Tsim Sha Tsui Wan Chai 85 .Introduction to Hospitality Bar in a Hong Kong restaurant ACTIVITY 36 There are many theme bars in Hong Kong.
eggs. rice. grouper. chicken. sugar-containing ice cream 86 . Not until the 19th Century did menus become more individual with different courses defined. fatty cuts of meat.Introduction to Hospitality 3. other things began to influence their structure such as the artistry and flair of different cookery methods and the creation of different styles or dishes named after famous people. sea bream. bacon. With the formulation of menus. eggs and dairy foods: Cream. As more people moved and settled from country to country they brought with them different styles of food and service resulting in a broad variety of restaurants offering an assortment of ethnic dishes. Fat-containing Foods and sugar-containing foods: Cheese. beef. service styles and menus on offer in Hong Kong that satisfy different budgets and tastes. sour cream 5. sauces and soups. non-dairy e. red beans. tofu. Fruit and Vegetables: Mango. There must be at least one food item from each category on the menu: 1. Meat. Peach Melba.g. fish e. cheese. fish and other non-dairy sources of protein: Meat e. noodles 2. a famous opera singer of her day.2 Food and Beverage Service Principles 3.g. Milk. Food and Beverage Services and Kitchen Operations Menus were once used as a list of foods in a random order that the patron would choose from.g. pork.g. pasta. Establishing a menu format is helpful in ensuring that each of the five food groups is represented. broccoli 3.1 Basic Knowledge of Menus. melon. canned fruits. Dried fruits. Starchy foods: Potatoes. There are many types of food.2. soya products 4. including raw. This will make certain that healthy balanced items are available from the menu. yogurt. e. named after Dame Nellie Melba. prepared and cooked items.
a person should eat about 2-3 servings a day from this group. with information of each provided.Introduction to Hospitality The Five Main Food Groups There are many ways in which a person can stay healthy throughout their lifetime. The food pyramid shows the five main food groups. Fruit To maintain a balanced diet. The food from this group helps keep your body healthy as fruit contains many vitamins. An individual portion or helping of food or drink. The food from this group provides you with calcium.html 87 . Rice and Pasta To maintain a balanced diet. Vegetables To maintain a balanced diet. Poultry and Fish To maintain a balanced diet.drpbody. which makes your bones and teeth hard. The food from this group gives your body energy. Cereal. Figure 17 The Five Main Food Groups For more information on the food pyramid and health. a person should eat about 6-11 servings a day from this group. a person should eat about 2-3 servings a day from this group.com/nutrition. What is a Serving? An individual quantity of food or drink taken as part of a meal. The food from this group provides your body with protein. The five main food groups are listed below. and how much of each of them a person should eat to maintain a balanced diet. a person should eat about 3-5 servings a day from this group. visit: http://www. Bread. a person should eat about 2-4 servings a day from this group. just like the fruit group. Yogurt and Cheese To maintain a balanced diet. Nuts and beans are also in this category as they also provide protein. Meat. Milk. which helps your body grow strong. One way to stay healthy is to eat a balanced diet. The food from this group provides your body with vitamins.
assemble a well-balanced menu for the evening.Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 37 Name two menu items for each of the five food groups listed above that would be suitable when designing a well-balanced menu: Starchy foods Fruit Vegetables Meat Fish Non-dairy protein Milk Dairy foods Foods containing less fat Foods containing less sugar ACTIVITY 38 You have several friends coming to your house for a dinner this weekend. From the items that you have listed in activity 37. including one non-alcoholic cocktail. 88 .
For example: Soup.Introduction to Hospitality Types of menu A table d’hote menu (non-selective menu) A non-selective menu A table d’hote menu may only offer one food item from each category of the menu format and therefore offers little choice. Or it can be a menu at a set price. offering two or three courses with no choice. 89 . main course and dessert.
The guest is seated and served at a table by the waiting staff. Banqueting menus can also be table d’hote menus (set menu at a set price) when a large number of people are served at their table at the same time. changing every day and rotating through the month. The menu is at a fixed price with set items. Sit-down wedding banquets are a good example. It can also be a cyclical menu.g. course by course. which of them offer a table d’hote menu? Make a list and see how many you can name. A non-selective menu would be used in establishments for the following reasons: • Additional staff are not required in the production • Simpler and easier to control purchasing • Less costly due to the limited items required • Better and easier portion control ACTIVITY 39 Give three good reasons why a restaurant in Hong Kong would choose to serve a table d’hote menu to its customers during the Lunar New Year. All items on the menu are listed at a separate price and the guest is served at a table. Items on the menu are prepared and cooked to order. A good example of a selective menu would be: À la carte menu This is a menu with all the dishes individually priced. Selective menu A table d’hote menu (non-selective menu) A selective menu offers at least two choices from each of the food groups in each category.Introduction to Hospitality Table d’hote menus are a good example of a non-selective menu. e. 90 . ACTIVITY 40 Among the restaurants that you know or have been to recently.
• Completely fixed menu • Fixed menu with seasonal changes • Fixed menu with changing specials • Complete daily changes • Cyclical daily changes • Daily changes with standard items A common arrangement is to have a fixed menu for breakfast and changing menus for lunch and dinner.net/menu/menus. The dishes can be prepared very quickly with smaller portion size and lower pricing when compared to a normal menu. Customers can choose from this list which may be given to them as a menu card. There is usually a selection of items – canapés.htm Children’s menu A children’s menu can be à la carte or table d’hote and offered in conjunction with an adults’ menu. ACTIVITY 42 Among the restaurants that you know or have been to recently. Visit these two web sites to look at some children’s menus.about. A fixed menu is much simpler than a daily-change menu. which of them offer an à la carte menu? Make a list and see how many you can name.com http://allears.com/od/horsdoeuvres/Hors_DOeuvres_Canapes_and_ Finger_Foods.htm The first decision to be made in developing a menu is to determine the frequency of change.joetheismanns. Carte du jour This menu is a list of dishes that are available from the restaurant on a particular day. Service staff will circulate with a tray of items which are offered to the standing guests. • Usually no menu card • Dishes can be hot or cold Visit this website to learn more about cocktail foods. Puzzles and pictures are often found on the menu. Daily-change menus are required for many types of institutional food services. 91 . hors d’oeuves. http://entertaining. written on a blackboard or introduced verbally by the waiter/waitress.Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 41 Give three good reasons why a restaurant in Hong Kong would choose to serve an à la carte menu to its customers during the Lunar New Year. www. This kind of menu is usually available in theme restaurants. Cocktail menu (finger food) This menu consists of small items (no more than two bites).
g. Table d'hote c. A selective menu would be used in establishments for the following reasons: • Often less expensive as the menu can be balanced with less expensive items. two. The length of the cycle depends on: • Management policy • The time of year • Foods available • Cost of items to prepare ACTIVITY 43 There are several reasons why a restaurant or hotel may choose to use a cyclical menu. • Can also encourage correct eating habits from the five food groups. These menus are usually available in industrial catering establishments. • Fewer leftovers as customers will eat what they have selected. À la carte b. hospitals. ACTIVITY 45 What are the differences between a selective and a non-selective menu? ACTIVITY 46 Match the description on the left with the appropriate menu on the right. Limited e. Of the day's menu 3. • There is an increased level of food acceptance as customers can make their own choices. and usually consists of a number of set menus for use in the business. Repeats menu after a predetermined period 4. one. colleges. Spark your imagination in creative ways to mix and match the recipes and the foods to create deliciously satisfying meals. 1. Use the five main food groups to balance the menu. Menu items are restricted in number 2. cafeterias. prisons. Offers several food items at a single price a. Cyclical 92 . Du jour d. Can you give two good reasons? ACTIVITY 44 Among the restaurants that you know or have visited recently. three month(s). Offers separate food items at separate prices 5. e. can you name any of them that use a cyclical menu? Healthy menu You can plan your own menu so as to enjoy delicious food easily while providing your body with important nutrients that are most needed for specific health conditions.Introduction to Hospitality Cyclical menu A cyclical menu is compiled to cover a given length of time. • A large quantity of food is not required as you have more varieties to choose from.
Plate service means waiters serve only plates. It means all the glass and silver. À la carte setting À la carte setting À la carte setting 93 . French and Russian. plus napkin and perhaps a service plate.Introduction to Hospitality Different styles of table service There are three main table service styles: American. which are plated (prepared) in the kitchen. This is the style of service used in hotels and restaurants today. American service is particularly suited to banquet service. are on the table when guests arrive.
Introduction to Hospitality French service: All the food is presented to the guests seated at the table at the same time. 94 . Service à la russe ("Service in the Russian style") is a manner of dining that involves courses being brought to the table in succession. The service keeps coming until guests indicate that they have finished. This is also called Full Silver Service. time and staffing constraints. This style also helps to control food costs – an innovative idea when it first appeared. Restaurants have not found this service appropriate due to money. When a guest places his knife and fork together on the plate it signals that he has finished his meal. Russian service became the norm until the 1970s when the use of large dinner plates that were elaborately prepared for presentation by the kitchen became the trend. all the food is brought out at once in an impressive display. In Service à la française ("Service in the French style"). This style of service may also be called Family service (the main dish may be plated or silver served – see below). The guests serve themselves. Its main feature is the preparation of a large platter in the kitchen which is served by the waiter to the guests. Essentially this service was appropriate for banquets in private homes of the aristocracy and rich. using usually a fork and a spoon in the right hand while holding the platter in the left hand. The presentation of the platter to the guests is part of the visual presentation of the food. Because of this. (American service) Banquet setting Modern restaurant setting Russian service is essentially derived from French service. as often as each of them wants.
where customers pay a fixed price and help themselves consume as much food as they wish in a single meal. i. customers take whatever food items they want as they walk along and pay at the end for each dish. Service style Waiter service Silver service Guests Plated food serve items themselves served Serving utensils used American French Russian Buffet is a meal-serving system where patrons serve themselves. making it easier for the guests to select the portion they desire. are arranged spatially but presented to guests all at once. Well-known in Hong Kong is the all-you-can-eat buffet. Tick the appropriate boxes. at least in each course. French and Russian service styles. It is a popular method of feeding large numbers of people with minimal staff. and it is consumed either seated at a table or standing. Instead of offering each guest a different assortment of dishes. everyone is offered the same dishes throughout the meal. roasts are carved in the kitchen or on a sideboard. Customers select food from a display. Seating for a large booking at a Hong Kong restaurant ACTIVITY 47 Indicate the differences between American. with Service à la russe. luncheon or dinner and is found often in restaurants. One form is to have a line of food serving sections filled with fixed portions of food. In Service à la russe. There are different types of buffets. not passed by the guests. This type of buffet can be either breakfast. the dishes. especially in hotels here in Hong Kong. one after another. 95 . A good example is a cafeteria. served in succession. Plus the dishes are all offered to the guests by waiters. the dishes are arranged temporally. Also.e.Introduction to Hospitality In Service à la française.
Introduction to Hospitality As a compromise between self-service and full table service. Here diners bring their own plate along the buffet line and are given a portion from a server at each station. the smörgåsbord. Another style of buffet is the traditional buffet offered in Sweden. a staffed buffet may be offered. This method helps reduce food wastage and is becoming more common in Hong Kong. which literally means table of sandwiches. Buffet in Hong Kong Buffet in Hong Kong Dessert buffet in a Hong Kong restaurant 96 .
• Capacity of the operation o Fast food o Fine dining for 150 guests o Banqueting for 500 guests o Family restaurant • Equipment available and efficient use of equipment • Extent and size of the menu • Methods of services – serviced or self-serviced: o Serviced facilities include .Takeaway . Customers may stand or sit while dining. number of staff employed. positioning of the business and the type of customer. Cafeteria or Self-service Customers collect a tray or plate from the beginning of the service counter and move along selecting their meal and then pay and collect appropriate cutlery. 97 .Table service .Counter service – Japanese sushi restaurants. Kitchen layout for different food and beverage services The choice of service methods and kitchen layouts will depend upon: • The customer service specifications o Methods of service o Hours of opening – breakfast.Fast food .Room service – primarily in hotels o Self-serviced facilities include . and may also take food away. Cross traffic should be minimized.Vending machines (snacks and soft drinks) Before a kitchen is planned.Cafeteria (used primarily in universities and hospitals) . lunch and dinner • Capability of the staff • Workers’ safety – layout should safeguard the workers by eliminating hazards • Movement – the layout should provide easy movement of materials and workers. salad specialty shops.Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 48 Write about the last experience you attended a buffet. the management must consider their goals and an objective in relation to the establishment’s marketing strategies. The menu will determine the type of equipment required. Schools and work cafeterias are good examples. How may different food items were offered? What was the service like? Was there sufficient food offered during the entire buffet? Counter. Tray line Queuing in a line past a service counter and choosing menu requirements. either in Hong Kong or abroad. ice-cream and pastry shops .
2 Ambience of an Establishment Atmosphere refers to the overall feel within the restaurant. An intimate ambience can be created by low-key lighting reflecting deep shadows. and the types of service. the menus. The special atmosphere or mood created by a particular restaurant environment is its ambience. cakes or chocolate are always alluring to guests and in some cases conjure up happy memories from childhood. or bright lighting which could convey a cheerful ambience of joyfulness and happiness. the colour of the lighting can also affect the atmosphere and customers’ feelings. Scent is another way to set an appealing ambience of a restaurant. sad or joyful songs. Besides.Introduction to Hospitality Hotel Kitchen Floor Plan Figure 28 Hotel kitchen floor plan Figure 18: Hotel kitchen floor plan 3. loud or soft music can set a subdued. 98 .2. freshly brewed coffee or the aroma of freshly baked bread. and it conveys an image as related to the guests. formal or informal scene and atmosphere in a restaurant. so as the music being played in the restaurant which can have an emotional effect on people. creating feelings of romance.
99 . and each hotel or restaurant can be decorated individually – conventional. For a business in hospitality to survive it needs to measure up to every detail that ensures a comfortable and pleasurable stay for the guests as well as the food and service. Entrance to a Hong Kong restaurant Lounge area in a Hong Kong restaurant Uniforms A uniform is a set of standard clothing worn by an employee of a hospitality organisation while participating in that organisation's activities. The use of uniforms by hospitality businesses is often an effort in branding and developing a standard image. classical or contemporary as the case may be. Along with other factors. It should provide both psychological and physical sense of freedom. Senses Sight – the perception of visual space depends on a combination of lighting. In some establishments a laundry department will launder the working uniforms or clothing for the employees. Interiors of many hotels are in line with the particular hotel design concept. If this is not the case then laundering can be outsourced. decoration is an integral part of the hotel and restaurant business.Introduction to Hospitality Other factors can also affect the ambience of a restaurant: Décor The décor of a hotel or restaurant is the style of interior furnishings. freshness and cleanliness. uniforms need to reflect image and brand identity through their colour. It also has important effects on the employees required to wear the uniform. decoration and colour. To maintain the high standard and ambience of a business.
alfresco dining). microwave ovens). tableware. Smell – the perception of cooking aromas. kitchen sounds. Hearing – the perception of overall noise levels including guests’ conversation. machinery and equipment (air conditioners. 100 .Introduction to Hospitality Touch – the perception of comfort while a guest is sitting in the restaurant including physical contact with table. coffee makers. effectiveness of ventilation and air pollution in the neighbourhood. Temperature – the perception of air temperature in particular outdoor dining (poolside dining. improvement works). in-house music. servers’ conversation and outside noises (cars. shoppers. seat and floor coverings. cooking heat and relative humidity.
The setting should have a centerpiece that performs a solely decorative function. Napkins can be folded into many different designs and shapes to add a decorative atmosphere to the restaurant. Table setting: Large joint knife and fork 101 . High standard hotels and restaurants usually have white linen table cloths and napkins. À la carte setting Figure 19 Table d’hote setting Figure 20 À la carte Menu with all the dishes individually priced. Cooked to order.Introduction to Hospitality Table settings The table setting also portrays the image of the business and the ambience of the dining areas. Care should be taken not to make the centrepiece too large so that there will be sufficient room to place serving dishes. List of dishes.
Table setting: Formal dinner setting Formal dinner setting in a Hong Kong Restaurant Depending on the type of service. The glasses are positioned about an inch from the knives. usually with two or three courses. Fixed price. also in the order of use: white wine. red wine. dessert wine and water tumbler. Formal dinner setting 102 .Introduction to Hospitality Table d’hote Menu is at a set price. utensils are placed about one inch from the edge of the table. each one lining up at the base with the one next to it. A well-laid table can add atmosphere and ambience to any restaurant.
pepper mill. sugar bowl. flower vase.Introduction to Hospitality Lunch setting in a Hong Kong restaurant Lunch setting Items of silverware and glassware used in hotels and independent restaurants follow: White wine glass. red wine glass. toothpick holder 103 . salt and pepper shakers. water goblet.
escargot fork. dinner fork 104 .Introduction to Hospitality Table set for luncheon Toothpick holder Butter dish Soup spoon Dessert spoon Butter knife Fish knife Salad/dessert knife Dinner knife Salt and pepper shakers. salad/dessert fork. escargot tongs. service fork and spoon.
Pasta. Dessert. Coffee cup & Saucer Sugar bowl Milk jug Hot water pot. tea pot. Dinner Demi-tasse cup and saucer.Introduction to Hospitality Entrée plate Soup Bowl Flower Vase Soup Cup & Saucer Bread and Butter Plate Salad. coffee pot 105 .
Introduction to Hospitality Champagne flutefute Pilsner glass Margarita glass Special cocktail glass Martini glass Irish Coffee Glassware Water goblet Wine glass Champagne flute Balloon glass Liqueur glass Port glass 106 .
Hawthorne strainer.Introduction to Hospitality Cocktail shaker Measuring jug Ice bucket and tongs Boston shaker Jigger Wine stopper. zester. Does each have an impact on customer expectations of service and quality? 107 . wine bottle opener. ACTIVITY 50 Describe the differences between the ambience of a restaurant and the décor. Describe the place setting for a table d’hote lunch at a local restaurant. ice scoopbar knife & spoon Bar equipment Wine bucket and stand ACTIVITY 49 Describe the place setting for an à la carte dinner at an up-market restaurant. wine pourer.
influencing the architecture. glamorizing or romanticizing an activity such as sports. planes.Introduction to Hospitality Theme restaurants Theme restaurants are those in which the concept of the restaurant takes priority over everything else. and TV • Travel – trains. and steamships • Ecology and the world around us Popular theme restaurants in Hong Kong (excluding ethnic cuisines) include: • Hard Rock Café – Records • Charlie Brown’s –TV /The good old days • TGI Friday’s – Theme of fun • Jumbo and Tai Pak Floating Restaurants – Travel • Modern Toilets –Theme of fun Some restaurants and hotels theme their business for a particular event or occasion. theme restaurants are divided into six categories: • Hollywood and the movies • Sports and sporting events • Time – the good old days • Records. According to Martin Pegler (Pegler. to dress for the occasion. Lunar New Year or Mid-Autumn Festival. an era in time or almost anything (Walker. travel. or for different promotions. It is usually emphasing fun and fantasy. Many hotels are decorated for special occasions such as festivals. 2005). Christmas. food.1997). music and overall 'feel' of the restaurant. and these restaurants attract customers solely on the basis of the theme itself. or certain parts of it. radio. The food usually takes a back seat to the presentation of the theme. Food and wine festivals organised by different F&B outlets and special events like book and product launches or corporate events and private functions are also reasons for hotels. 108 .
109 .Introduction to Hospitality Themed menu Chinese New Year ACTIVITY 51 How many different theme restaurants are there in Hong Kong? Type “Hong Kong Restaurants” into your search engine and locate restaurants that fall into this category. ACTIVITY 52 Name three factors that will make a hospitality outlet into a good Theme Restaurant.
the extent to which it meets its goals. or bill of fare. and even how the building itself – certainly the interior – should be designed and constructed.3 Menu Planning and Design Everything starts with the menu. The menu influences every basic operating activity in a food service organization. It is the foundation upon which the layout and other design functions are based. is a/an: • basic document in food and beverage operations • printed document which informs patrons of the products offered • integral part of all other functions of any food or beverage outlet We can therefore consider the menu to have two broad uses: • As a working document for the back of house (kitchen) • As a published announcement to patrons out front Book menus 110 . The menu dictates much about how your operation will be organised and managed.2. it affects management decisions about: • menu items which reflect a balance between profitability and popularity and are some of the most important decisions that food service managers have to make • the usage and the space of and equipment requirements for the food service facility • the production methods • sources of food and staples suppliers The menu.Introduction to Hospitality 3.
Important points to consider when planning a menu • The type of customer to be attracted • The cost and price of the menu. using all available ingredients. quantities and quality of food and beverage ingredients to be purchased The menu and service style contribute in a big way to the business’s market image Menus are effective marketing tools if they are designed with the needs of the target markets in mind • • • ACTIVITY 53 Consider: The factors which influence or constrain the choice of products to be offered on a menu. and then back to light again) A well-planned menu must satisfy guest expectations: • Reflect your guests’ tastes • Reflect your guests’ food preferences • Ascertain your guests’ needs 111 . and food items • The supplies that are needed to deliver the menu requirements • The kitchen size and the staffing skills needed • The type of equipment that is available in the kitchen • The balance of the menu (light to heavy. Planning The menu is the plan used to achieve the organisation’s profit objectives and to satisfy customers’ desires. portions to be served.Introduction to Hospitality Objectives of the menu • Menu items are selected which please the customer and are either profitable (for a commercial operation) or affordable (for a non-commercial operation) • To establish standards on which to base other activities in the operation. Imagine that you are having a dinner party with some friends. equipment. and how the resulting menu will affect other activities in a business. physical surroundings and skills of its employees at a reasonable cost. The main objective of Menu Planning is for the business to make a profit while catering to its customers needs. eg either a large five-star hotel in Hong Kong or a small restaurant in Tsim Sha Tsui or Causeway Bay To identify the food and drink to be offered. What are the factors you would take into account when deciding what to serve them for dinner? ACTIVITY 54 List five objectives that need to be considered when planning a menu for a new restaurant in either Happy Valley or Yau Ma Tei.
due to the many nationalities present in Hong Kong. located on Nathan Road or in Central or Causeway Bay • Times of opening and closing • Prices that cater to the market segment are identified • Quality of food and service. assuming you're planning a dinner party. near an MTR station or other public transport services. high-fibre diets and vegetarian food items also need to be considered. Hard Rock Café • Socio-cultural elements. e. colour.Introduction to Hospitality Besides. ACTIVITY 55 Again. e. the planning of a menu must achieve its marketing objectives by taking into account the followings: • Location of the business. Quality standards: • Flavour. When planning a menu.g. write down a menu you feel would be suitable to serve your friends. Menu Planning Buffet menu Themed menu A la carte menu Table d’hote menu Customer Price Items offered Skill of staff Equipment available 112 . e. formal dining at first class hotels or restaurants • Specific food items available to the customers at certain theme restaurants.g.g.g. jot down how your proposed menu would affect the followings: • Purchasing the ingredients • Storing the ingredients • Production of menu items • Serving menu items ACTIVITY 56 Indicate which points need to be considered when planning the following menus? Tick the appropriate boxes. shape and flair of the dishes offered • Consistency. TGI Friday’s. customers’ preferences for low-fat. each needs to be considered when planning a menu Planning a menu will also help to achieve the quality objectives of the business. texture. e. palatability and visual appeal • Aromatic appeal and temperature of each item Nutritional concerns: A balanced diet is important in this fast-paced modern city of Hong Kong. Now.
Book-folded menus The task of the menu writer and designer is to direct the customers’ attention to the menu items that the restaurant wishes to sell. therefore it is important to use the centre panel to promote items you most wish to sell. the cultural setting. Clip-on inserts in menus may be used to advertise daily specials and upcoming events. A well-identified pattern of customers’ eye movement can be followed: What the customer sees first after opening a window-folded menu is the centre inside panel. simple. cuisine or theme of the restaurant. which is effective in creating the correct image. durable. and should develop a relationship with customers. navigation lights for shipping and aircraft – red port side. The paper or card chosen needs to be of good quality. highly recognisable. heavy. fast food outlets design menus to attract customers quickly. Recognisable designs and symbols can be carefully chosen to appeal to the target market identified. The style of print should be easily read and well spaced. stain and grease resistant. Colours are often identified with elegance. wealth.g. sophistication and other symbols. Some menus are built around the history of the establishment or the local area. 113 . the entire menu should complement the operation of the business.Introduction to Hospitality Design Basic factors of menu design First impression is always important. Menu design should be unique. Customers also recognise and interpret colour differently. green starboard side. The menu cover should reflect the identity or the décor of the restaurant and should also pick up the theme. Through the use of colour. e. With a book-folded menu the customers’ eyes move from the lower right-hand panel to the upper left-hand panel.
There are different types of menus including traditional hand-held menus. 114 . list six factors that will make your menu design unique and therefore stand out from those of competitors.Introduction to Hospitality Menus that contain little information and no descriptions usually fail to inspire customers. elaborately-printed menus. Unfortunately many restaurateurs underestimate the role a menu plays in influencing guests’ selections and miss out on major sales and profit-building opportunities. above all. A menu should be accurate and honest in its attempt to inform and describe and. it is probably the single biggest merchandising and marketing tool you have. A Window-folded menu A window--folded menu ACTIVITY 57 From the information you have read above. Not only does a menu play a major role in establishing market position and reaching customer expectations. reach customers’ expectations. menu boards and even verbal menus. Take into account the following aspects of menu design: • Book-folded or a single sheet • Colour • Type of card or paper used • Language used and the font size and type • Size of the menu • Cover design • Artwork used in the design Menus as a promotional tool A menu is anything you use to communicate with your potential customers by showing them what your restaurant has to offer. think of a theme you like and design a menu you feel would be suitable to serve your friends involving this theme. ACTIVITY 58 Again assuming you're planning a dinner party.
Introduction to Hospitality Virtually everything that is undertaken in the restaurant and how the establishment is perceived in the identified market is linked to the food and menu. ACTIVITY 59 Can a menu be used as a marketing tool? List three changes you would like to make on the menu below to improve its marketing potential: 115 .). A book-folded menu In addition to the above basic factors of menu design. dog-eared menu handed to you is not a great way to set the tone for a memorable dining experience. Some common categories of frequency of change of menus are: Type of menu Completely fixed menu Fixed menu with seasonal changes Fixed menu with changing specials Complete daily changes • • • • • • • • Cyclical daily changes • • Features Most fast food operations Items in the fixed menu are added or dropped for popularity or profitability consideration Most food operations Changes a few times a year for seasonal food items Most food operations Specials in the fixed menu may be changed daily Most food operations open for a limited period of time during the year such as summer camps or resorts Menu has a limited number of food items Universities. Foodservice facilities planning (3rded. hospitals and institutions Fixed with a number of set menus Source: Kazarian. Having a stained. E. (1989). Periodic changes of menus allow restaurants to offer customers with new dining experience. the frequency of change of menus could be another marketing tool a restaurateur should consider in communicating with potential customers. The menu in large part defines your restaurant’s image and elevates or lowers your guests’ expectations.
Look at their menus and identify the areas that are good and not so good. either in person or through their web sites. What can be changed to improve its potential as a promotional tool for marketing the establishment? Comment on the followings: • Typeface • Page design • Colour • Language • Size • Cover • Paper • Shape and form • Artwork 116 .Introduction to Hospitality A book-folded menu ACTIVITY 60 Visit several restaurants or hotels.
Food and Environmental Hygiene Department. Food and Environmental Hygiene Department covering key points in food safety and personal hygiene.Introduction to Hospitality 3. 117 .3 Food Safety and Personal Hygiene Information from the Centre for Food Safety. Acknowledgement: Reproduced with permission from Centre for Food Safety.
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In addition. When a potential guest calls the hotel to make a reservation. Whether it is a small hotel or a large international one.1 The Importance of Employing Up-to-date Information Technology Front Office The front office is always regarded as the "heart" of a hotel. they help the hotel to yield its room sales and revenues. the room status can be updated at once and the reservations clerk can take new bookings. such as arrival and departure lists.1 The Development of Technology in the Hospitality Industry 4. During a guest's stay in a hotel. any transaction can be input directly into the computer system. the staff can put the caller on the waiting list if a room is not available on certain dates. the hotel reservations clerk can accept or reject a booking immediately by searching through the computer. Once the guest has checked out. From reservations to revenue management. In addition. Front Office 240 .Introduction to Hospitality 4 The Role of Technology in the Hospitality Industry 4.1. to relevant departments. Those reports can help departments plan and organise resources in advance. the front office can generate useful reports. property management systems (PMS) are needed for day-to-day operations. The computer systems provide the most up-to-date information to both front office staff and guests.
hotels and restaurants use generic systems that provide the kitchen manager (head chef) and restaurant manager (maître d') with financial modelling and forecasting. a food & beverage management system can become an asset to the business. For instance. the room inspection list can be retrieved from the computer whenever needed. For example. the consumption of cleaning chemicals can be stored in the computer. thereby giving staff the correct selling price to achieve the correct profit margin. Data about storage of equipment and materials. The housekeeping coordinator in the housekeeping office can update the room status of guestrooms so that the front office can offer the room to new guests. It thus provides valuable information for the executive housekeeper to prepare the budget. In addition. provided it has been inspected by the floor supervisor. kitchen staff can order goods from the stores using these recipes and the order will be automatically scaled to the correct quantities required and cost of the menu items. Using this information. distribution of these products throughout the food & beverage department and new products now available can be accessed. Computerised systems can help monitor work as it is being carried out. Computers have given the food & beverage department the ability to provide information more effectively and efficiently to the management and general staff. Once data has been input. The PMS system can speed up the process and cut down on communication breakdowns between departments. 241 . Besides. Food and Beverage The most valuable commodity for any business is reliable and up-to-date information. The executive housekeeper can input the cleaning schedules of guestrooms in order to maintain the high standard of a hotel. the housekeeping department can make use of the system to block any room for general cleaning and maintenance.Introduction to Hospitality Housekeeping The PMS can provide the housekeeping department with the most up-to-date information in order to help the department arranging the cleaning of guestrooms. especially in reviewing the performance of staff. thereby warning of possible errors before they happen. this type of system can store all the recipes used in the organisation's outlets. Most catering businesses.
room service. They take the form of a single cash register with a processor. Once the information has been input. Information of this type can further assist the management to ensure that the business is operating at its maximum efficiency and profitability. all incorporated into one unit.1. memory and printer. Tourists and Staff Electronic Point-of-Sale Systems (POS) take the place of traditional cash registers. bar. a copy will be sent to the responsible outlet.2 The Ways Technological Changes Improve the Operational Efficiency of the Hospitality Industry for Customers. Typical functions include the ability to store multiple totals which enables overall sales for a shift to be analysed as required. A touch screen with programmed prices of menu items makes the process faster and more efficient.g. kitchen.Introduction to Hospitality 4. Management reports are very comprehensive. giving details such as the sales of each item on the menu. All orders will show the time it is processed which in turn eliminates the errors of hand-written chits. They have a greater capacity than traditional cash registers. Electronic POS system Electronic POS system in a Hong Kong restaurant 242 . e.
remote point-of-sale equipment.The internal operations of a hotel can be standardised in a way that is easy to control and will be almost impossible to duplicate in a manual system. the use of electricity and other mechanical devices. the control of virtually all operations in the hotel. . reduce waiting time of guests and maintain a competitive advantage? 4. These stock-control systems are relatively easy to use for bar stock but become more complex when dealing with food items. apart from providing the basic features. including telephones. .Introduction to Hospitality Stock Control Systems Using it at its simplest. in-room movies. thus automatically making new orders.1.The information needed by the management to make decisions is current and easily accessible. This is because quantities and weights are not always standard.The service provided to guests can be improved with regard to the timing and accuracy of pertinent information. include a range of others such as suppliers. ACTIVITY 61 Can you think of any other departments within a hotel that may use technology to improve efficiency. and systems that link the hotel to worldwide information networks. . 243 .3 The Property Management System (PMS) in Hotels PMS is an integrated computer system that includes the computerisation of the front desk processes and. The system will ultimately calculate the value and quantity of the remaining stock. this system will allow stock to be entered when received and issued to different food & beverage units in an establishment. Benefits of implementing PMS: .The operation of a hotel can be improved by reducing repetitive tasks. There are more sophisticated systems that. management information systems. It can also control food and beverage operations and information. new products on the market and alerts when stocks fall below pre-determined levels. at most.
Introduction to Hospitality Figure 21 Hotel property management system Certain functions of PMS Reservations Individual reservations Group reservations Room blocking Mails and messages VIP guests Deposits and refunds Availability Travel agents Groups and plans Reservation module reports Arrivals and departures Group reports Departure list Master list Front Desk and cashier systems Registrations and changes Selecting a room Transferring a guest Messages and mails 6pm hold reservations Billing of groups Locating a guest Posting charges Printing in the cashier area Night audit Room rate variance Credit limit report Daily report Room revenue report City ledger activities Interfacing Checklists Housekeeping functions Room status changes Discrepancies Telephone department 244 .
Daily housekeeping report . check-outs. occupancies.Daily reports on check-ins.Inventory .Change status from "dirty" to "clean" .Introduction to Hospitality Housekeeping systems .General cleaning management Reservation Module Availability/ Forecasting Reservation records Reservation Confirmations Room Pricing Revenue Management Guest Accounting Module Folio Management Credit Monitoring Transaction Tracking General Management Module Revenue Analysis Operating Statistics Financial Analysis Guest History Rooms Management Module Room Status Registration Room Assignments Room Rate Information Figure 22 Rooms Division computer applications ACTIVITY 62 Do you think PMS can totally replace staff in hotel operations? 245 .Change to "block" if room is undergoing maintenance .Assigns room for cleaning at the beginning of the day . vacancies and maintenance .
(1997). New York: Reporting Corporation Walker. E... R. K. and Construction: A survival manual for owners. Food Safety and Sanitation. (1997).. D. Introduction to Hospitality.. D. Inc. Vallen. R. Ceseriani. Food and beverage service. (2004). Donald. Michigan: Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Lodging Association Lillicrap. & Kinton. P (1990). D. (7th ed. J. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Polytechnic Chon. (2006). (1989). & Lundberg. Jeff. United States: John Wiley & Sons. D. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. A. M. Inc. (2006). V.. & Hayes. S & Bradley.. N. H. L. Foodservice facilities planning (3rd ed. Design.). J.. K. & Cousins. Restaurant Operations Management Principles and Practice. McSwane. The restaurant: from concept to operation. J. operators. Welcome to Hospitality…an Introduction. D. Kivela. United States: John Wiley & Sons. J R. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. United States: Prentice Hall 246 . United States: Thomson Learning Foskett. Food-Safe Kitchens. (1994). New Jersey: Pearson Education Ltd.). Melbourne: Hospitality Press Pty Ltd. (2005).. R. London: Hodder Marchiony. Theme Restaurant Design – Entertainment and Fun in Dining. & Tanke.. Inc. & Sparrowe. J R.). J J (2000). London: Hodder & Stoughton Katz. L. Martin. R T (2000). & Linton. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Ninemeier. Managing Bar and Beverage Operations. (2006).Introduction to Hospitality References Baker. Kazarian. Kotschevar. Menu Planning for the Hospitality Industry. Restaurant Planning. Front Office Operations.B. Check-In Check-Out. United States: Prentice Hall Walker. (2003). The Theory of Catering (10th ed. (2004). and developer. Pegler. Rue. G K & Vallen. (1996). E.
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