JAZZ MASTERS

Art 'Iarum

ArtTatunI
by Jed Distler

JAZZ MASTERS

Amseo Pabllcatioas New York/LondoniSydDey

Umitcd . A. Mos[ of all. NSW 2018. as well as Gary Giddens and Felicity Howlett for providinr recordings and vital information.fll "-b PriMIIta by 0lIpanIi0II .ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank CUfford Jay Safane for his help in getting this project offihe ground and contributing research material. I thank two exceptional musicians and friends.7 3xcIusive Distribu1ors. Civilion ofMUIic Slies Corporation. 'riMed hl:b ~. Copyright C 1981 by Consolidated Music Publishers. Rosebery. Australia yon. Sydney. No part of thi.4085. London WI V STZ England \tusic Sales Ply. New NY 10010 USA \tusie Sales Umitcd U9 Prlth Street. NY. Edited by Patricia Ann Neely Cover design by Barbara Hoffman Book desirn by Tina Cemano Cover pboCo by Robert Parent Ibis book published 1986 by Amsco Publications. Dick Hyman and Andrew Thomas. l20 Rodlechild S1Ieet. M ::>rder No.1114 111_ UaiWd s. without penniuian in wri1inJ from the publisher :xcept by • reviewer who may quo1C brief passages in a review. book may be reproduced in any fonn or by any electronic or mechanical means Including information ItOrap and retrieval sylletru. \tusic Sales Corporatkm l57 Park Avenue South. AM 30719 International StaDdard Book Number: 0. New Yol'k. Their insights and suggestions were invaluable to me in my wode. rights reserved.8256.

~onteDts ArtTatum 6 The Art Tatum Style 7 Notes on the Solos 10 Ain't Misbehavin' 15 Fine and Dandy 22 Moonglow 35 I Surrender Dear 46 Sweet Lorraine (I) 56 Sweet Lorraine (TI) 62 A Selected Discography 70 .

He studied the violin for two years and then changed over to the piano when he was about fourteen years old. although he still made frequent nightclub appearances as a solo artist and with his trio." he played background music for Ellen Kay's daily shopping chat program." on August 5th. however. His first major concert appearance.Art Tatum (1910-1966) Art Tatum was born October 18th. Afte:r 1945 Tatum began to play jazz concerts regularly. Almost twenty-five years after his death and with the significant developments in jazz piano. WSPD. Tatum died of uremia on November 4th.: Within a few years. was-with a band consisting of the winners of the lint annual Esquire poll at the Metropolitan Opera House in January. Tatwn first came to New York in 1932 as an accompanist for singer Adelaide Hall and it was with her that he made his first recordings. Tatum had made incredible progress. 1944. Tatum worked primarily in nightclubs throughout the 30s. Ohio. He cut his f"ll'st solo record. 1910 in Toledo. establishing an unprecedented degree of pianistic control and maturity for a teenager. 1966. He led a small band for a long run at the Three Deuces in Chicago and played at the legendary Onyx Club in New York. . Art Tatum's music still remains the standard by which the mainstream of jazz solo piano is measured. Toledo's blind pianist. totally blind in one eye and with only slight vision in the other. As "Arthur Tatum. In late 1937 he embarked on a small European tour. "Tiger Rag. The concert was recorded in its entirety (on Radiala 2MR·5051) and is a rare and instructive example of Tatum successfully working with his peers in a live performance. in Los Angeles. Tatum also placed first in the 1945 Metronome Readers' Poll and in the Down Beot Critics' PoU from 1964 to 1956. 1932. At eighteen Tatum became staff pianist on a Toledo radio station.

" and "Humoresque." "Tiger RBi. seldom uses the hemiola or dropboss left·hand patterns developed by James P. frequently destroying the momentum of a ballad. Tatum recorded sporadically from 1946 to the middle of 1949. vemons at IUch . linear improVi· sations that hinted at what Bud Powell would be doing in the late 40& and what OlCar Peterson would do very aoon after.tandardJ 1. These seuions in· elude hia most famOUll." "Get Happy. and extended harmonic structu:rea to embellish the melodies he used. and sopnuticated harmonically. with the notable exceptions of George Shearin".hand chords with tenths as the outside interval. by suddenly falling into very fast stride tempOs and embroidering his naturally swinging melodic phrases with glib arpeggios. Art Tatum made hiB first commercial solo piano recordings in 1932 and 1983. non-stop. along with an e~jstiri. The overall importance of these recordings lieaintheit awesome pian· istic authority and control.hortly before his death in 1956.. d&liver driving.The Art Tatum Style .however.tum shows off his technique. and probably definitive. tor o." All the facets ot his style have become more foeuted. Like Waller. and Hank Jones.1 "Tea for Two. Lee Sims: was a "pop" pianist who often UJ8d arpeggios. has a ereater bearlnr on Tatum's style in term5 of his left·hand conception and hiJ overal1 tenle of swing. 1934 aircheck. runs. Iharine roles and embellishments and proVidinll countermelodies. Tatum'l baas lines are more adventurous. rhythmically adventurous. The role of the lett hand has increaaed considerably. These records. The fust recordings of the Art Tatum Trio appeared in 1943. Dave McKenna. (CoJDPue. guitarist Tiny Grimes.. Tatum often "strides in tenths" (the left hand using patterns alternating tenths in the bassrePater with tuU chords in the middle register) and also like Waller.oris upon the young Tatum. .. Johnson and Willie "The Lion" Smith." "Sweet Lorraine." .) Tatum's lett hand frequently breaks away from its accompanying role and becomes an equal partner with the right hand. His playing on the three 1010 seesions for Capitol and on the Columbia LP reo corded in concert is richly textured. however.. Between 1934 and 1941 Tatum recorded many solos tor the Brunalrick and Decca labels (reissued in the United States by MeA).ona ot "Sweet Lor- cord_ TIin. 'The clever ensemble arrangements and often humoroUi interplay between Tatum. show an accompliIhed Yirtuoeo steeped in the roots of Fats Waller and Lee Sims. (This is particularly significant since the bop pianists who were coming of age left their left hands at home. revealaignificant musical FOWtb and are important in comparison to bis subsequent recordings. and basBiit Slam Stewart added to the group's popularity. He worked on and off in a trio letting until . Thia mUlical development can be obeerved in the transc:ript. The Waller influence.ample. frequently uain& walking left. and often did." 'IEJeaie. Art T8. two pianiBb who made deep impreai. Although the trio was a tempting format for diJplaying the flashy aide of hit talent Tatum could.fI. "Ain't Misbehavin' " with "MooIlllow" or the two ve. Even at breakneck tempos Tatum managed to lOund completely relaxed and at ease.Wns in thia volume. He uaes runs and arpeggios more discreetly and the piania:tic textures are both traruparent and yet full bodied. The youn. His refrom the latter part of that year. From a musical standpoint these recordings are fascinating and overwhelming.

1953 and January." Most of the tunes were recorded in one take. 28. Buddy de Franco. it was only partially successful. The clarity of theb ass tegister is all but totally lost and in general the piano sounds muffled .for transcribers and listeners alike.. However. little of Art Tatum's music has been transcribed for publication. the sound on The Tatum Group Masterpieces is very good. The solo piano project however was probably the most ambitious arid.~onsid_ering Granz's intentions. There are times when it seems that Tatum was searching for a new musical language. Jazz Masters: Art Tatum is the first book consisting exclusively of complete piano 8010s transcribed. # 8 . Unfortunately.What~one hears on these recent presaings simply cannot compare to the beautifully clear and olose-miked piano sound captured on the ori8inal Clef and Verve LPs. in a project undertaken to preserve huge doaea of exceptional pianism. Jo Jones. Granzalso reo corded Tatum ht:a myriati of small group settings with such featured artists as Idonel Hamp~:'Be~riy Carter. Unlike the music making of other major jazz figures. The six piecesincluded herein were recorded between 1938 and 1955 and together display a good :representation of Art Tatum's multi-faceted style.. According to his liner notes on the original Clef and Verve LPs Granz iritended to record and release as many Art Tatum solo selections as possible.. Roy Eldridge. the remastering of the Norman Granz solo ~ions that were reissued on Pablo is extremely poor. and some of the startling harmonic and rhythmic complexities in these selections partly indicate that Tatum listened to and had absorbed the innovations of the bop musicians. The end results are always diffuse and uneven because Tatum's health was' tailing around the time ot these sessions. A very fine tnmscription of the 1949" Aunt Hagar'. Blues" is available in John Mehegan's book Jazz Rhythm and the Improviled Line (Amsco Music Publishing Company)... 1955 Tatum recorded four marathon solo pifmo sessions for jazz producer and entrepreneur Norman Granz thatresulted:hi the release of fourteen lonrt-playing albums.. There were two books published in the 40s that consisted of one chorus piece edited from longer Improvisationsand which cannot be considered representative of Tatum '8 improvisational techniques. (To be fair. Tatwn remained a swing player in his overall conceptions of time and phrasing. I have used parentheses encasing 1) certain notes that are not clearly audible but which were possibly played and 2) notes that are not actually played but which are indisputably parts of a musical phrase.) _" .-. Although Tatum played informally with Charlie Parker and other modem musicians one wonders how Tatum's music would have been affected if he had collaborated with these players on a regular basis (as Coleman Hawkins did throughout his career. successfully and uncompromisingly). It is alao a pity that. and Ben Webster. Nevertheless. the producer apparently assumed that his pianist could do no wrong. This writer thinks the Norman Granz sessions were more of a token to posterity thanan attempt to preserve a finished product. Tatum's accomplishmentlare often fascinating. from Art Tatum's released recordings.. (There is a private tape existinl of Tatum improvising on the ChopinC minor waltz that must be heard to be believed. there~y building an "Art Tatum library.'·. 16. Dlc~ber. Buddy Rich. No. Between -. "Ain't Misbehavin' " and "Fine and Dandy" were not originally recorded for commercial release and their sound quality is poor. Tatum re-recorded his "semi-classical" arrangements of uHumoreaque" and "Elegie" when he could very well have recorded some of the e)assical piano literature that he knew t such as the Chopin waltzes or the Chopin Prelude in B& minor op. The sound quality of the original· recordings used for these transcriptions varies from each session.

arpeggiated tenth emphasizing the upper note--a "clipping" device that Tatum often used. or else execute a quick. the strong rhythmic underpinning of the stride pilnists. Whenevez poaaible one can substitute the right hand for the upper voice of the tenth.clualeal pianista VliWimir de Pechmann and Alfred Cortot and that. be encouraged to interpolate your own improvised phzases or runi into these pieces.v piano technique and phenomenal ear Tatum created a style that juxtaposed the elepnt melodies of Teddy Wilson..." bnpgse Art Tatum '8 approach to improvisation has fascinated and eluded musicians and critics for years.esbed toptber such a high lev· el that he made everythinl he played sound euy. here and there in his so-ealled "set pieces. the iniprovisinl of JOMson. the real essence of this music lies in the originaireeoniinp and not in the printed tranecriptions. and the delicate pusage work tound in the works of Chopin and LiUt. only his mentor Fats Waller could match. the Tatum style was hard to IIlUP at first hearin. a throwback to an older era of jazz pianists. to aim tor a style with a certain kind of sound and phrasing than to tl:y to play every last grace note verbatim. AI far as realizina: a eonvincing musical interpretation of the notes.lmOPlPianilts 1 have not indi· cated any fingerings (not wishing to my own bad babitl!l!). It was a style that had a vacillating. Tatum was anatavist. the rhythmic syncopations and trumpet-like ph!8Se8 of Earl Hinea. when all is said and done. Yet. By virtue of his extraordinar. For this reason. Like Tatum. in jazz. and Teddy Wilson.-. mercurial nature with Bubtley chan.Because of divergencies infinprinl' babitt. and Willie ''The Lion" Smith. haps because it presented something outside of the mainltream of what moat jazz musicians were doing. Indeed. After all Tatum himself was always making chan. on 9 . and Smith consisted mostly of embelliahments and different turns of phruea in the pieces that they played.. as weD as the popular or semi-classical piano stylists of the day. and his touch at tbe key· board had an elegance and clarity that can easily be compared to the. Compaxed with his contemporaries Roy Eldridge. Some pianists may find many ot the left-h~d tenth. if you are io inclined. beyond their natural span. and alIo per. Johnson. But it muat be remembered -thattbeir repertoires mainly coDJisted of their own elaborately ttruetured multisectioned stride pieces which grew out of the forms that SCott Joplin and JeDy Roll Morton used. his technique and his musicianship JD. Tatum's improviling material almost ucl\Uivel:y consisted.. ing pianistic textures and harmonic nuances. who was often accused of playing "set" improvisations. of standard Tin Pan Alley songs.. Tatum's method of adhering cloaely to the melody by use of omamentation and embellishment comea from James P. Waller. Coleman Hawkins. Fats Waller. 1 feel it is more important to emulate the spirito! the music.

This technique is explicitly used in the opening and in the last chorus of uMoonglow. and blues licks (patterns using the flatted Intervals of the 3rd. beat-up piano and the presence ot the tune-keeping whiskbrooms player. The first time through he keeps the melody virtUally intact. partially due to the deficiencies of the out-of-tune. This is." Notice how Tatum uses pure melodic phrases in the transitory measures before the beginning of the following A or B sections of the tune (measures 7-8. engulfed with thick chords and brash oetaves and the third :tQ:neit is quieter. most notably at the beginning of the second _10 . The opening chorus eontains all his stylistic traits tuing different registers in an orchestral way.v. The bridge is the point of greatest harmonic tension. 23-24. no doubt. paraphrasing the melody with runs. The en. In this rare document ot Tatum playing in one ot those legeridary Harlem after·hours clubs.In contrast to the chromatic movement of the bass line in the A section the root and third remain stationary while the fifth chromatically ascends to the major sixth and again rises to the seventh along with the third forming a dominant seventh chord that unexpectedly resolves to a Va chord. 2. With elaborate right-hand runs and embellishments totally replacing the melody (for how many times do we need to hear it?). There is a structural momentum that builds throughout each chorus baaed upon the chord voicings and rhythmic pattems set up in the thematic exposition and the stark fmt chorus (measures 39-40). the Hines influence is apparent throughout this recording. Tatum takes advantage of this structure by fashioning a stoptime chorus each time. Indeed. Tatum '8 unique fusion of blues. and straight-ahead swing is particularly successful here. 15-16. ~ Fine and Dandy (1941) 'Ibis is perhaps the most revealing ot all Art Tatum recordings.t sequence. He takes full advantage of the whiskbrooms. and 7th degrees of the major scale). altematingwillking tenths with stride puaages. the second bridge is much louder. What sets this ~on of "Fine and Dandy" apU1: froiD. classical piano literature. 6th. leaving his thumb on the upper note (see measures I. trills.31-32). 24) . iridillging himself Insome telling stoptime passages that are interspersed with intricate rilht-hand phrases. One significant aspect of Tatum's use of left-hand tenths is the way he "clips" or shortens the bass note. we find his playfug to be leaner in texture and completely uncluttered. not unlike the solo work of Earl Hines.tbellished F riff (measures 39-42) appears in different forms and functions throuahout the piece. harmonic patterns. Although this piece is as fUll of stylistic juxtapositions as any of his other recordings. extended. and occasionally using rehannonizations. . In reading through these transcriptions one 'notices-Tatum's frequent use of JlBce notes.Abi't Miabehavin' (1988) 'lbiarecording is a good introduction to the Art Tatum style. is that Tatum uses theseubluesyu embellishments as structUral cortlelltones for the ~our improvi&ed choruses following the statement of the theme. tremolos. 4. Tatum'l deft use of musical quotation is characterized in the unexpected endins where "Turkey in the straw" is tumed into a cleverly reharmonized n. his other recordilip of ltandard.

serve as a strong vehicle for expressive.the theme ana then wouldtinish with·a little coda. would again play out of tempo. transparent interplay between the right and left hands.chorus (measures 71-80). often exploring different ways of iltering and revoicing the harmony. Dear (1955) Of all the components making up the Art Tatum style it is the art of ad lib playing that is at once easy to approach pianistically yet musically very difficult to pull off. thereby giving the material at hand a smoother flow and creating a more flexible. In "Fine and Dandy. Note. the beginning of the third chorus. lyrical. two-handed blues Nn that leads right into the last chorus. Tatum's clipped·bass note technique is effectively used in the exposition of the theme (measures 9·19) and in the third chorus (measures 106-121). and it seems as though no matter what kind of trap Tatum falls into he works himself out of it quickly and painlessly (see measures 47-48. the latter measures are notable for Tatum's imaginative reharmonization Of the theme.lneswith an iliA structure he woUld close the im- . where he repeats the same procedure (measures 185-195). with some altered harmonies (measures 154-164) that serve as a deceptive ending. in the form of a trill (measures 103-112). how the swinging right-hand line in measures 57-58 actually begins on the upbeat of the bar. thereby creating greater continuity between choruses. restating the melody and suddenly bursting into a bluesy stride passage. Moonglow (1955) This little masterpiece captures Tatum in an eloquently reckless mood. Yet. and vir· tuosic music making in the hands of a skilled and sensitive pianist-musician. and 87-89 for such traps). 80~81. the melody is restated in the style of the opening. He would then use the last few bars of the theme to' establish his tempo and execute a number of choruses. When Tatum play~ t1. he would play the theme act libitum. Toward the end of the piece he. Another interesting structural feature is the way the second eight bars of the theme are restated in each chorus in rillht-hand octaves and walking tenth chords inthe left hand. then Tatum suddenly lets loose with a loud. there is an organic unity embracing these disparate elements. with the walking bass starting a bit later and then stopping abruptly to let the right-hand run continue alone. for example. sequence based on the last four bars of the theme that humorously revolves with a two-bar blues phrase. The new material introduced at the beginning of the first four choruses begins at least one bar beforehand. introduces new ideas. and in the syncopated left-hand pattern in the second part of the third chorus (measures 120-127). due to Tatum's innate sense of proportion and balance. either re-s~tingor paraphrasing. Tatum frequently begins phrases. The SUbtle harmonic shifts present in the walking left-hand chords slip by so fast that they tickle the ear. These chords are harmonized differently each time and the melody also has different rhythmic embellishmentS. . This leads into a stop-time coda which is a pretty harmonic. In ballads. the characteristic runs take on unexpected turns (measures 62-66 are particularly delicious). In the penultimate chorus. enabling them to co-exist in a larger structure that transcends the confines of the thirty-two bar song fonn. I Surrender. only to be resolved by jabbing left-hand chords in measures 6061 which in turn prepare for another stop-time passage. and changes the pianistic texture on the weak beats of a measure. Tatum created an excellent model for out-of-tempo solo piano playing that can ." Art Tatum created multi-leveled variations on a theme in which the separateness of the thematic components is maintained by the way they are individually developed throughout the piece.

. and tenths. . Indeed.prOvisation by repeating the B and the final A sections ot the tune. Within one year Tatum's approach to the tune evolved aignificantly. the 1940 version of "Sweet Lorraine" iii fuller in its realization than its earlier counterpart (also taken from a transcription disc)." "Don't Worry About Me." non-dotted. the relationships of ideas . Tatum woUld sometimes rhapsodize at length before safely settlin8 into jazz tempo. commercial and non-commerclal alike including many re-recordings ot standud tunes. of 12 . The sequence on the_later recolding ~iOlves to the tonic in$tead. ia found in the way he constantly wavers from a "straight. . The introduction to the piece 'is now four m~s inetead of two. a mOrfl! l:Nilanced . AD. 1949) Because of his penchant for setting hia improvilations into ammgements Art 1l. : - . mOlt importantly. althoush he really does not play adUb until the last five measures at the piece.." "Memories of You. See Sweet Lorraine II). 01' dotted eighths and sixteenth. HI Surrender. S~t Lorraine I (Decca. to chorus are clearer and. Tatum hu added a long introduction that sets the mood for the piece and embraces the essential structure of the song so when he finally arrives at the theme the brlsic arrangement makes a little more sense.. 1940) Sweet Lorraine U (Capitol. monic sequence at measure 7 is smoother inUle later version_ It is basically a vi V I IV progression with contrapuntal movement in seventh. The har. ." and "Jitterbug Waltz"). even rhythmic pulse to triplet. I think it's instructive to take different recordings of one common tune and compare th~ chronoloKically..tum was often accused of not being a real jazz mudelan.. 'theN is Jlluch to ~ aaidabO~tArtTatum'. whereas the earlier version has what is basically an aUgmented sixth chord on the third and fourth beats of measure? resolving to a dominant chord that lasts all of measure 8. the basic arrangement of the 1940 venion of "Get Happy" is similar to the lesser known transcription dille vemo~ from 1989." "Danny Boy. interpretations note for note. . ~. ." For example. Dear" is· aline example of Art Tatwn·sbaIlad approach.'lari(brWki~4Qftcording ~ -. In this particular selection Tatum states the theme in tempo. Not only did Tatum improvise with the melodic and harmonic materialA of these songs but he also improvised with the structure of his io-called "arrangements.. Tatum frequently follows sections of tender passage work with thick arpeggiated chords and he makes effective use of left-hand counter-melodies and decorative harmonic embellishments such as the whole tone scale in mt!uures 18 and 20. in relation to his recordinp of 1949 and after. commercially issued version is more balanced. ": . Likewise." "In a Sentimental Mood. Important and revealing upect of Tatum's ballad style. 'nle later. apir) representing ." "The Way You Look TOnight. (His Pablo recordings of"Y esterdays" and "Belin the Beguine" are not only virtwil reproductions of early recordings but they also bear out the old jazz credo AtetinS' that "familiarity breeds faster tempos." Having heard most of Tatum's complete recordings. of a standard jazz pulse-often within the aame bar (measures 38-39 and 73-81. The first sixteen bars are executed in a manner akin to classical piano styles in that the rhythmic focus is centered within the highly ornamented treatment of the melody in the right hand and in the connective runs. This technique ilhutrates Tatum's romantic impulses and there are many other tunes that utilize this vacillating rhythmic approach in the Nonnan Granz solo aesaions (these include such tunes as "Lover Come Back to Me. - Nvialon. "You're Blase.from chorus. It Iitrue that Tatum could reproduce some of hJs re(lorded.." "That Old Feeling. ~".

. Lee." 13 .iI i. Noteaiso how Tab. and rhythmically and harmonicallyrnore complex.a1lYorganized as the earlier version .notu tot. 4344. they are perpetually spiced with unusual inter_and telling accents (see measures 11-12. Of biS'later work.U8Xn8lited alfAttations. 75·76. If." It has a sparse.uenceof chromatically descending seventh chOfds--tive or take a tew8. The contours of these linea are fascinating. and the quote from ''The Monkey Wrapped His Tail Around the Flagpole" at measures 67-8). thereby repeating tbesame ."Sweet Lorraine.lmcbariges the harmony each time around on the Jut two mNlUleB of the bridle.belbert Nevin's UNucisawI. carefree.. a major characWiatk. "sWeet'Lormine U" is." .dtftwaki u~uet. Tatum's nms are naturally developed from melodic impulses and are used in such a discreet manner that they are even singable.l8CI. stride pauages with their "clipped" tenths and subtle ccuntermelodies. full-chorded. inG~" "Waitinl for the Robert E. reaching a clinlax at measures 59·60 going iDto tbi Jut eight meastireI. Note b.) 1lY contrut.Tatum utmzea more wplliaticatedbass lines and' walking left-hand chords.h1J.mediUmotem. this ~e~ the P8.po.me and Et.nventive use of quoting.(In later tecordinSS Tatum played these measures of thebriclp with the hannony u in the previous eight measures. Iyrie&dCfUalit. Tatum's harmonic genius is revealed as much in his melody line as in his chord progressions. that meshes perfectly with the gentle swing style and the effective.

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includes "Fine and Dandy") A Seleeted Song of the Vagabonds Black Lion BLP 30166 (British) (includes the complete 1945 ARA sessions) Solo Piano capitol M·ll028 (1949 sessions. Dear"') The Tatum Group Masterpieces Pablo 8 LPset 2625 708 The Complete Art Tatum Piano Discoveries Twentieth Century·FoJ: TCF 102·28 (Private party recordings from' 1956) 70 .Biseograplly Art Tatum .. includes "Sweet Lorraine") The Tatum Solo Masterpieces Pablo 18 LP set 2626 708 (1963-55 recordinp. Waller MCA24112 God I. Fat.jI SUrrender. Johmon Pl4y. "On The Air" Aircheck 21 (features his first solo recording. includes "Ain't Milbehavin' ") Art Tatum M4Iterpieces MCA24019 (includes "Sweet Lorraine") Art Tatum Masterpieces Volume 2 and James P. Shrine Auditorium. "Tiger Rag" and airchecks from 1934·1946) Piano Starts Here Columbia CS 9655 (Four 1933 recordings and the May 1949 "Just Jazz" Concert.. Los Angeles) Tatum 18 Art MUBidisc/Jazz Anthology 30 JA 5177 (French) (Piano soloe from 1938 and 1939) aet Happy! Black Lion BLP 30194 (British) Standard Transcriptions Q126 and Q135. from 1938·9. includes "Moong1ow" and . In The House Onyx 205 Musidiac/Jazz Anthology 30 JA 5111 (French) (1940·41 Harlem After·Houn Sessions.

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