Edexcel A2 Chemistry

Answers to questions in Student Book
page 13 1 a Put the milk in a fridge. b Warm the mixture but not too much (about 35 °C). c e.g. cover the iron with grease. d e.g. use more dilute HCl. 2 a Collect the hydrogen in a gas syringe. b Monitor the change in pH. c Use a colorimeter. Hydrogen has a very low density; there would be little change in the mass of the reaction vessel. a The gas syringe. b The gas syringe; little of the gas would collect in the measuring cylinder method.

3

4

Edexcel A2 Chemistry
Answers to questions in Student Book
page 15 1 The mixture will not change colour until all the thiosulfate has reacted with iodine. If there is too much thiosulfate, the solution will not change colour, or will take a very long time to change. 2 a1 b2 c3 d Rate = k[NO]2[Cl 2 ] e 9.15 x 10–5 mol–2 dm6 s–1

Edexcel A2 Chemistry
Answers to questions in Student Book
page 19 1 2 It would be hard to determine if the graph was truly a straight line from two points. a rate = k[A] b The graph of rate versus concentration should be a straight line showing that it is first order. c 0.010 65 s–1 d In the rate-determining step, A splits up.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry
Answers to questions in Student Book
page 23 1 a Have an excess of methanoic acid. b You should get the same half-life each time – approximately 180 s. 2 I-131 decays in a first order process, so the half-life is constant and doesn’t depend on concentration. 24 days is three half-lives. After 8 days, 1/2 of the original amount remains; after another 8 days, 1/4 remains; and after 24 days the fraction remaining is 1/8 .

. Active sites stop working. 2 The catalyst is used up but is then regenerated to be used over again.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 27 1 Lead is adsorbed onto the metal catalyst and is not desorbed.

that means that k gets smaller and so the rate of reaction gets smaller. the larger the value of E A / RT and ln k becomes less positive. that means that k gets larger and so the reaction is faster.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 29 1 a b As T increases E A / RT decreases and ln k becomes more positive. The larger E A . 2 E A = –78 kJ mol–1 .

It is the only step that matches the rate equation.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 31 1 a b Rate = k[NO2(g)][CO(g)] Step 1. tertiary carbocations are more stable than secondary carbocations. . 2 An S N 1 reaction produces a primary carbocation which rearranges to form a tertiary carbocation before reacting with hydroxide ions.

To make sure they all have the same volume. . Sodium hydrogencarbonate totally removes all H+ ions.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 33 1 a b c This method is faster. 2 Iodine does not appear in the rate-determining step. and does not require removal of samples from the reaction mixture.

the ions are free to move in the solution. and only a solid is produced. b Increase: when a solid dissolves. c Increase: one of the products is a gas.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 39 1 a CO 2 (g) b NaCl(aq) c H 2 O(l) 2 a Decrease: reactants are a gas and a solid. .

d Decrease: solid and gas to a solid – increase in order. c Increase: liquid to gas – decrease in order. .Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 41 1 a Increase: solid to solution – decrease in order. so decrease in entropy. so increase in entropy. Changes in energy and changes in order will both affect the likelihood of a reaction occurring spontaneously. so decrease in entropy. b Decrease: two gases to a liquid – increase in order. so increase in entropy. e Increase: solid to two gases – decrease in order. so increase in entropy. so increase in entropy. Entropy is a measure of the order or disorder within a system. 2a Reaction Dissolving ammonium nitrate in water Ammonium carbonate reacting with ethanoic acid Magnesium burning in air Enthalpy change endothermic endothermic Entropy change of system increase increase exothermic decrease b Answer to include points such as: Enthalpy relates to the energy within a system and gives you an idea of whether overall energy is given out or taken in during a reaction. f Increase: all gases but large molecules form an increased number of smaller molecules – decrease in order.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 43 1 3.3 J mol–1 K–1 2 NH 3 (g): it can vibrate and rotate in more ways than the simpler molecule. .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 47 1 Always spontaneous. it is not spontaneous at that temperature. 2 a The value for at 298 K is negative (263 J mol–1 K–1). b 405 K. Therefore. has a negative value less than 175 and so is . at this temperature positive.

The TΔS part of the equation outweighs the positive value of ΔH. .8 J mol–1 K–1. +63. +672. so the value for ΔG is negative.5 J mol–1 K–1 There is a large increase in entropy when RbCl dissolves.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 49 1 a b 2 a b +4 kJ mol–1 –38 kJ mol–1 +609 J mol–1 K–1.

An equilibrium would be reached more quickly at a higher temperature. there may be a different position of equilibrium.897 mol dm–3 .Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 54 1 a b Iodine molecules move from one layer to the other. The movement from the organic solvent to the aqueous solution is equal in both directions. Stretch & Challenge page 54 1 0.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

high temperatures give better yields of hydrogen. . value of K p increases with temperature.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 59 1 a b There is virtually no reaction at room temperature. 2 The value is very low at room temperature. Exothermic. higher at 1500 K.

the equilibrium expression will involve V. 3 0.9. 53.6. . there are different numbers of ions in aqueous solution on the right. no units. the concentrations of reactants and products do not change while the titration is carried out. 54.05 mol dm–3 4 54. 2 Rapid cooling slows dramatically the rates of both forward and backward reactions.3.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 61 1 Yes.and left-hand sides of the equation.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

A compromise is required. A high temperature will move the equilibrium to the right because the reaction is endothermic. entropy increases. More molecules on the right-hand side suggests that increasing the pressure will decrease the yield. therefore. However. Endothermic reaction. it may affect the total amount produced. wants any equilibrium to be as far to the right as possible.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 67 1 The manufacturer wants to produce the maximum yield of the desired product and. if the rate of reaction is very slow. This suggests a spontaneous reaction at high temperatures. CO(g) 1 2H 2 (g) → CH 3 OH(g) 2 a b .

the rate of conversion will be slow. the extra expense of increasing pressure cannot be justified. Exothermic. h Since there is a good conversion rate at low pressures. . The maximum yield will be obtained at low temperatures. Spontaneous at low temperatures. it slows the process down because there are fewer collisions between sulfur dioxide and oxygen particles. Increasing the proportion of oxygen (the cheaper raw material) pushes the equilibrium to the right. If a much greater concentration of oxygen is used.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book b c d e f g Decrease in the entropy of the system because there are more gaseous molecules on left-hand side. This is overcome by using a suitable catalyst which lowers the activation energy. At low temperature.

A fan removes air contaminated with urea dust and removes particles of urea. steps to prevent formation of biuret as a waste product. whereas the Haber process is a decrease in entropy of the system. The Haber process’s use of a catalyst allows a high atom economy at relatively low temperatures and pressures: down to 40 atm with modern catalysts. then an increase in entropy of the system. Steps to increase rate of second reaction. Atom economy is a measure of how good a reaction is at turning reactants into desired products. The urea process doesn’t have a catalyst. The Haber process is a single step process. 2 a b c 3 5 This would remove all the ammonia and carbon dioxide from the solution. Unused gases recycled. The first step has 78% conversion of carbon dioxide. Step 2 breaks down ammonium carbonate to urea and water. Dust removed to avoid air pollution. minimum temperatures used to drive reactions. excess gases all recycled. This is ‘Stretch & Challenge’ and up to students to find out what they can. pressures maintained to maximise yield. The recycling steps collect carbon dioxide and ammonia and pass them through the process again until they are converted to urea. Steps to prevent formation of biuret as waste product. while making urea takes two steps and so is less efficient.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 71 1 Maximise yield: only two steps in the process. Maintain safety: lowest possible temperatures and pressures used. . Minimise cost: pressures kept as low as possible. step 1 maximises the production of urea. This would encourage more urea to be hydrolysed. This makes it easier to achieve good atom economy in the Haber process. The urea process first has a decrease.

OH– from bases.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 75 1 Conjugate acid/conjugate base: a HSO 4 –(aq) and SO 4 2–(aq) with H 3 O+(aq) and H 2 O(l) b HClO 4 (l) and ClO 4 –(l) with CH 3 COOH 2 +(l) and CH 3 COOH(l) 2 A solution of ethanoic acid in water has very low electrical conductivity. this shows there are few ions in solution. Brønsted–Lowry definition: an acid is a proton donor. . 3 Arrhenius definition: acids and bases dissolve and separate partially or completely into charged particles in a process called dissociation: H+ from acids. and so the equilibrium lies to the left. a base is a proton acceptor.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 79 1 a b c 2 a 1. a concentrated acid contains a large number of moles of acid per unit volume of solution. A strong acid is completely dissociated into ions in aqueous solution at up to moderate concentrations. b .3 1.0 – remember that sulfuric acid is a dibasic acid.0 13. Yes.

pH = 3. pH = 2. pH = 11.0 2 a b c [H+(aq)] = 1 x 10–2 mol dm–3.5 .78 3 [H+] = 3.00 x 10–3 mol dm–3.38 [OH–] = 6. pH 5 2 [H+(aq)] = 4.12 x 10–4 mol dm–3. [H1+aq)] = 1.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 83 1 K w = [H+(aq)][OH–(aq)] = 1 x 10–14 mol2 dm–6 [H+(aq)] = [OH–(aq)] [H+(aq)]2 = 1 x 10–14 mol2 dm–6 [H+(aq)] = 1 x 10–7 mol dm–3. pH = 7.67 x 10–12 mol dm–3.4 x 10–3 mol dm–3.

4 x 10–6 mol dm–3 2 a b c This will add very little. If the same results are obtained then it suggests that the results are reliable. If the same results are obtained. . If different results are obtained then it would be worrying. The same result should be obtained three times because nothing has changed. it suggests that the solution was mixed properly and that the results are reliable. it suggests that the pH meters may not be accurate. If different results are obtained.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 85 1 Approximately 2.

the change in colour that happens on the steep part of the curve occurs on addition of one drop.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 87 1 There is no slow change in colour of an indicator to give an early warning. It is this fact that makes titration a successful technique. .

(ii) congo red. B methyl orange or bromothymol blue. The fall in pH at A is not as clear because there is not such a big decrease.0 and 8.8 .Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 89 1 a b c A phenolphthalein. 4. (iii) thymol blue. At A: Na 2 CO 3 (aq) + HCl(aq) → NaHCO 3 (aq) + NaCl(aq) At B: NaHCO 3 (aq) + HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) 2 a b (i) Any of the three.

Also. acids with lower pK a values have higher antimicrobial activity at the same pH. in general. . the solution stays the same colour. If you go beyond the end point. b 2 a b 3 The more acidic the pH. the more pronounced the antimicrobial activity.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 91 1 a Method 1 is better because a graph is plotted from a large number of points. Sodium hydroxide solution and other bases can cause glass taps to stick or seize up. Usually the alkali goes in the flask and the acid in the burette. Method 2 could be improved by carrying out the titration a number of times and using a suitable average volume. and it does not rely on getting an exact end-point by eye. The phenolphthalein then changes from pink to colourless.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book Stretch & Challenge page 94 a 4.07 .77 b 5.

ethanoic acid (4.9 3 The pK a of a buffer should be close to the ideal pH of the skin/hair and/or the product. Students need to find things out for themselves and then show an understanding of the basic principles.0 2 3.83). .14) and succinic acid (4. citric acid (3. For example. glycolic acid (pK a 5 3.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 95 1 4.76).16) are used to make acidic buffers for use where the product needs to be acidic – such as on skin with a typical pH of 5.5.

Others say that the role of the oceans is to act as a carbon dioxide ‘sponge’ and to control the atmospheric content of the gas. microorganism activity is reduced.5 x 10–2 mol dm–3). To remove the products of respiration.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 97 1 2 3 4 Pickling in vinegar lowers the pH. especially carbon dioxide. but it is a very weak acid (K a = 4. .5 x 10–7 mol dm–3) compared to the weak acid responsible largely for the acidification of rain – sulfurous acid (K a = 1. Carbon dioxide undoubtedly dissolves in water to form an acidic solution. Depends on research tool chosen.

i.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 101 1 a b c –12°. 0° Racemic mixture. . anticlockwise. 2 To remove all vibrations of light not in the same plane.e.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 103 1 S N 1 mechanism. the S N 2 mechanism resulted in only the L-isomer being formed. This planar molecule led to an S N 1 mechanism. led to the formation of a racemic mixture of products. as usual. Different compounds and processes used in large scale production resulted in the formation of a planar intermediate. . 2 In small scale production during the development of thalidomide. and so to the production of some of the D-isomer. which. which is teratogemic.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

1. but possibly impure. see table 1. 3 Perhaps propanone. .Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 109 1 Propanal. 2 Boiling temperatures are affected by atmospheric pressure and are more difficult to measure accurately. impure compounds melt at a lower temperature and over a range.6.

Iodoform test. 2 Pentan-2-one CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COCH 3 or 3-methylbutan-2-one (CH 3 ) 2 CHCOCH 3 .Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 113 1 a b Fehling’s/Benedict’s test or Tollens’ test.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry
Answers to questions in Student Book

Edexcel A2 Chemistry
Answers to questions in Student Book

Edexcel A2 Chemistry
Answers to questions in Student Book

Edexcel A2 Chemistry
Answers to questions in Student Book

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

. Serine has a chiral centre because there are four different groups attached to the central carbon atom – so it is the one that is optically active.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book 2 Glycine is not optically active because it contains a central carbon atom attached to two hydrogen atoms.

Page 1 of 1 . use small samples. can be used without destroying a sample.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 132 1 For example: quicker. more reliable.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 143 1 a b Y (less polar) and then X (polar). . X and then Y. 2 Retention times vary with conditions.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

in general. The electrode potential of a half-cell as measured against a standard hydrogen electrode. One half of an electrochemical cell. indicated as E . Ag+(aq) + Fe2+(aq) → Ag(s) + Fe3+(aq) b 2 a b c 3 4 a .Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 158 1 a b c d The potential difference between the electrodes of the two half-cells that make up an electrochemical cell. one of the two electrodes of the cell. Pb2+(aq) + Ni(s) → Pb(s) + Ni2+(aq) +0. +0. consists of hydrogen gas at 1 atm pressure and 298 K bubbling around a platinum electrode in 1. 2I–(aq) → I 2 (aq) + 2e– Zn(s) → Zn2+(aq) + 2e–. the more positive its electrode potential.00 mol dm–3 H+(aq) ions.03 V. the stronger an oxidising agent. its ability to compete for electrons. The reference half-cell used for measuring standard electrode potentials.12 V. Pb2+(aq) + 2e– → Pb(s) The standard electrode potential of a half-cell is a measure of the oxidising power or reducing power of the species in it – in other words. 2Ag+(aq) + 2e– → 2Ag(s). while a strong reducing agent has a large negative electrode potential. Cu(s) → Cu2+(aq) + 2e– Cl 2 (aq) + 2e– → 2Cl–(aq).

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 167 1 a b Fuel cell. The roadside test is a screening test that needs to be easy to administer. can give similar absorbance readings. Infrared breath analyser – IR radiation is passed through the sample and the resulting spectrum allows the concentration of ethanol to be measured accurately by a microprocessor. but the test to provide evidence for use in courts must be more accurate and reliable. . most notably aromatic rings and carboxylic acids. alcohol may have come from the mouth. An external circuit with a microprocessor measures the current and calculates the blood alcohol content. 2 Fuel cell breath tester – any alcohol is oxidised and electrons are released. however. other groups. IR spectroscopy. Unfortunately. breathalysers only give the composition of the air breathed out and it is assumed that this is exhaled from deep within the lungs. the process is both mechanised and accurate. so this evidence is admissible in court. However. throat or stomach. IR spectrometry gives very accurate results but the instrumentation is not very portable.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

polydentate – edta. In a covalent bond each bonded atom supplies one electron to the bond. 3 a b c At least one pair of electrons. 2 Both involve the sharing of a pair of electrons. . In a dative covalent bond both electrons come from one atom. bidentate – ethanedioate ions. bidentate ligands use two. 4 The colours can be used to identify transition metals and to indicate changes in oxidation state of transition metal ions. monodentate ligands use one lone pair. Monodentate – ammonia molecules. and polydentate ligands use more than two (edta uses six lone pairs).Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 174 1 Copper(II) ions have unfilled 3d orbitals. They all use lone pairs of electrons to form co-ordinate/dative covalent bonds to a metal ion. copper(I) ions have filled 3d orbitals.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

b 2 The 3d orbitals are split into three orbitals of lower energy and two orbitals of higher energy. are explained in terms of photons causing electrons to jump from the orbitals with lower energy to those with higher energy. forming co-ordinate/dative covalent bonds and a group of atoms/molecules/ions called a complex ion. what ligands it is complexed with. and colour formation. the difference between these energies depends on a number of factors – which transition metal it is. . etc. the metal ion can accommodate anions or molecules that act as electronpair donors. concentration of solution. Transitions between the partly-filled d orbitals in transition metal ions are the source of their colours.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 183 1 a The d-block ions are relatively small and have a strong electric field around them. absorption of visible light. this attracts species rich in electrons.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book Page 1 of 2 .

.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book Page 1 of 2 .

.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book Page 1 of 2 .

.

. it will react with alcohols to form esters. it will react with nucleophiles like amines to form amides. with alkalis to form butanoate salts. but weak.Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book page 244 1 Butanoic acid has a —COOH group so the compound is acidic. and with reactive metals to form hydrogen. it will react with PCl5 to form butanoyl chloride. 2 Depends on the choice made. aqueous solution will react with sodium carbonate to give carbon dioxide. they will hydrolyse to the parent acid and alcohol. Methyl propanoate and propyl methanoate are esters.

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Edexcel A2 Chemistry Answers to questions in Student Book .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.