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JOE MORELLO
studies in

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PAGE CONTENTS: PREFACE INTRODUCTION BASIC RIDE CYMBAL VARIATIONS BASIC DRUM RHYTHMS IN 3/4 HI HAT RHYTHMS IN 3/4 DEVELOPING INDEPENDENCE ._._ IN 3/4 _ __ _ .. .._ _.__ ._ ._.__ ADDING THE LEFT HAND COMBINATION EXERCISES __ _ _ IN 3/4 __.._..... _ .._............ _.-. 3 4 6 8 10 17 24

············_···_·_··_·_··_·_·_···_ 14 ._._............................

BASIC RIDE CYMBAL VARIATIONS LEFT HAND VARIATION 5/4 HI HAT RHYTHMS-

IN 5/4 ___._._._. ._ __ . . __ .

.._..... 29 -. 27 31 32 34

TO THE MUSICAL PHRASE _ _ -.-.-.---.···--················ _ _._._. . -,

5/4 BASS DRUM RHYTHMS

_.. __. .

ADDING THE LEFT HAND IN 5/4 .._._._ .._

._. _ -. _.

Sole Selling Agent

LUDWIG
1128 NORTH DAM EN AVENUE ©Copyright 1963 by

DRUM CO.

CHICAGO.. ILLINOIS 60647

dumo!'
PUBLICATIONS

Chicago, Iliinois

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2

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Never before has there been a drummer with such world wide acclaim and popularity. In an unprecedented clean sweep of four of the world's leading jazz polls, Joe Morello becomes the No.1 jazz drummer of our time as selected by jazz buffs, critics and fellow musicians who continually rave about his fantastic technical ability, his taste, his touch and his ideas. One of the main contributing factor s to Joe's great popularity, besides his fabulous musical abilities, is his warm personality and willingness to help other aspiring youngmusicians. Before and after every concert, Joe is besieged by drummers of all ages seeking guidance and advice on the art of drumming. Often Joe will still be on stage hours after the close ofa concert working with his many fans. In recent year s Joe has become one of the most popular clinic artists in the field with thousands of. drummers and music educators benefiting from his outstanding lecture demonstrations. Now NEWDIRECTIONSIN RHYTHMoffers the drumming world an authentic guide to interpreting the rhythms which Morello has made so famous in the jazz field .. Joe Morello will no doubt wear the world's jazz crown for many years to come, for few have contributed more to the field of drumming than this great artist. With Morello, it's more than artistry on his instrument that makes him great, it's his sincere desire to help his fellow man. He rightly deserves all honors which may come his way.

It should be thoroughly understood that what we are trying to develop is a musical drum- mer with ability to interpret a musical phrase and make it swing. Included are several musical examples showing how these rhythms may be actually applied to performance. the 3/4 or r-hythm of the jazz waltz and the 5/4 rhythm. The real object is your ability to play these rhythms musically and to become as much at home with these signatures as you are in the standard 2/4 and 4/4 meters.--- - - - --- - -- 3 PREFACE The purpose of this book is to develop freedom and a natural feel for playing the odd time signatures which have recently become so popular in the jazz field. I have concentrated on the presentation of two of the most commonly used odd time signatures. The figures pre sented herein are functional and will swing if executed properly. hi -hat and left hand in playing these rhythms. Certain technique must naturally be developed but technical skill is only a part of it. . The following exercises are not just "licks" to memorize and use indiscriminately while working with a group. bass drum. but constitute a systematic development of coordination and a musical approach to playing in these different time signatures. '4Z Dedicated to my sincere and honest friend and to all serious students of the art of modern per cusaion. NEW DIRECTIONS IN RHYTHM was written in answer to the numerous requests from students and professionals and shows exactly how I use the cymbals.

for example. As soon as you throw this pattern off it becomes awkward to some individuals. . musicians are very much at home when playing in 5. true. 9.11 or 13 measured signatures. or measured signatures to be exact. In India. I have found that the eastern cultures are far more rhythmically advanced than ours. we have two eyes.7 .4/4 and 6/8 which is more of a rolling rhythm. Two.4 INTRODUCTION I have always been interested in exploring new rhythmic possibilities offered by various time signatures and enj oy experimenting with the placement of accents within a given measure or musical phrase. three or four counter or cross rhythms are We of the western world are basically commonplace among these familiar and adept at the even measure signatures such as 2/4. one-two). two hands. It is more natural for us to think and react in a pulse of two. drummers. The odd rhythm signatures. Our heart beats in two. Why is this so? Stop and think of our most natural physical reactions. With the serious study of the following rhythmic patterns you should eventually develop freedom and a musical feel for these odd measured signatures. East with Dave Brubeck I began to realize the great possibilities they may be applied to my own style of playing. two ears. ofDuring a tour of India and the Far of these rhythms and how fered a new challenge because of their unnatural pulse. we walk in two (leftThis may sound ridiculous but it is right.

apply ride cymbal variation No. etc. providing thousands of additional rhythmic variations and combinations. have musical value if played correctly. as a "reading book" to develop sight reading abilities. bass drum. The purpose of this extensive study is to develop complete control of ride cymbal. Example: After you have mastered the 12 basic ride cymbal variations and have studied the bass drum patterns on pages 8 and 9. con- trol and interpretation of these different measure signatures. hi-hat and left hand so as to be able to play any combination of these rhythms at will with a natural feel. NOTATION Right Hand Ride Cymbal Left Hand Snare Drum Hi-Hat Bass Drum The following will explain musical notation used in this book: . The book is not intended It is designed to develop freedom . These rhythms will swing and COMBIN ATION STUDIES Pages 6 and 7 present the twelve basic ride cymbal variations in 3/4. This same practice applies to the hi-hat rhythms and left hand patterns presented later.2 to each of these bass drum patterns.BOOK 5 NEWDIRECTIONSIN RHYTHMis intended as supplemental study material to be used in conjunction with other established methods. 5. hi-hat and left hand rhythms. 4. then variations 3. It is designed for the student and professional whoalready has mastered the basic fundamentals of his instrument. Each of these twelvebasic patterns will later be applied to bass drum.

Practice each pattern at various tempos. 6 BASIC RIDE CYMBAL VARIATIONS IN % Westart our study of 3/4 with 12 basic ride cymbal patterns which can be used successfully when performing this modern jazz rhythm. 4. 5. Speed is of little importance. . Ride cymbal pattern No. 6.8 is most commonly used by the author in playing most standard material with variations to fit the phrasing of the particular work being performed. Relax and let the pattern flow.· ------ . Maintain the same tempo once you have started a pattern and keep repeating the same pattern until it becomes a natural reaction. always remembering that a free swinging feel is the important thing we are after. 3. 2. 1.

Now just play the first measure of each pattern reading No. 3 3 8. 12. ---- 7 3 7. start with variation No. I 9. 12.1 through 12. >.3 11. . This additional study will develop control and feel for 3/4.· .• 3 10. I also recommend that you improvise your own series of patterns that will flow together naturally and swing. After you have thoroughly mastered each of the 12 basic ride cymbal patterns at various tempos.1 and without repeats read straight down through No.

Bass drum pattern No. Explanation: In each measure the ride cymbal is ing a pattern in 3/4 with bass drum dividing two against the three feeling in the right This rhythm can be heard by the author on several recordings. 11 presents of five against three or ten against six in two bar phrases. a feel 2.8 BASS DRUM RHYTHMS Youwill note that our studies thus far have indicated the bass drum only on the first beat of every measure. 1. three playhand. Practice each rhythm slowly at first making certain you are playing the pattern ocrrectly. Pattern No.4 is an interesting study presenting a feeling of two against or six against four in two bar phrases. . 4. We are now going to study various other rhythms for bass drum and will add the hi-hat on counts 2 and 3. 5. 3. Count each measure as you are first learning the rhythm. 6.

After a complete study of each of the above eleven bass drum rhythms. IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER Play each exercise at steady even tempo. 8. . 10. . make them SWING! . 9. 11. Practice each exercise at various tempos to develop control at all speeds.9 7. Improvise your own combinations of the above rhythms at various tempos. practice reading downthe page as suggested on page 7. This will provide extensive study material for developinga swinging concept of 3/4 jazz. Do not play these rhythms mechanically. Now apply each of the twelve basic ride cymbal variations from pages 6 and 7 to each of the bass drum rhythms above. Do not try for extreme speed until you have gained complete control at lesser tempos. developing a loose feel for the particular rhythm.

The object is to develop freedom so as to respond to the musical situation spontaneously. . 2. 6. Again it is suggested that you apply the twelve basic ride cymbal variations to these studies after mastering their written form. These rhythms should be approached from a 'strict musical sense and not merely as exercises to be memorized and played mechanically.10 HI-HAT RHYTHMS Our next studies will present variations in Hi-Hatrhythms as applied to 3/4 jazz. 3. 4. 5. 1. o designates OPEN hi-hat or ringing" splashy" sound after initial attack. Note: + designates CLOSEDhi-hat or tight "click" sound.

. 12. 8.11 7. 13. 9. 10. 11.

18. 20. 19.12 14. 15. . 16. 17.

23. 26. 22.13 21. . 25. 24. 27.

1. '~ J.I <: .. 2...14 DEVELOPING INDEPENDENCE IN ~ The following combination bass drum and hi-hat exercises are designed to develop independence and control in 3/4 jazz. /' • ... RELAX and let the patterns fall natural and unrestricted. Take your time and count each study to be certain you are playing the correct rhythm. . r- r - 1 x X • I t r I I I r r I I /' 6. ~ ee "'" ee I~ -n- J " x un J . T... The independent coordination of right hand. 5.-. 4.--. •.. ~ I I .. 3. ... Apply aU twelve basic ride cymbal variations to these studies. • .. 3' J ~. bass drum and hi-hat developed in these studies will be of great value to all your future playing regardless of time signatures. n -. . " ....

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.. t .16 APPLICATION OF HI-HAT V ARIATION TO MUSICAL PHRASE The following four bar musical example demonstrates how you would apply a hi-hat variation to the rhythmic phrasing on an ensemble passage. LISTEN to what is going on around you and work with it not against it. I I Cm7 F7 Bb I F7+ 7 I' r~ u . I ee ..... Bb •.. .J ... Everything you play must fit the phrasing of the piece you are playing. ~... Are the rhythms RELAXED and do they SWING? . One of the most important facts that a drummer must learn is that his sole purpose is to keep steady time and to support and complement the musical phrase carried by the melodic instruments of the ensemble. Study other musical examples from piano sheet music to see how the material learned thus far will apply. Note that in bars three and four the hi-hat is following the melodic phrase by alternating an open and closed sound...I ..I' I~ " t X <.. It must be played in good taste and make sense. r I l- f r -:. .J . •• -... I I I 7 I' .. . - I"'" ~ ::> .J -.. ... .. ... J .I - _..J •. I ... make certain you have complete control of ride cymbal...J ..-...... I' ~ ::> • ~ • • • • ::> :: I • :- ::> I-I' ~. I I ~ .J .: J:-3 J + 1.J . r .. I I I' ..I . bass drum and hi-hat and can play the previous material at various tempos with ease.~ 'J _y L ~.-. :Ie I I f f - I I • I f f r - I I :Ie • :Ie I I' I' REVIEW Before continuing to the next page. ~J "" ... . r~ u ::J I!J . ---.~ ..nJ -l- . Your best aid to developing this musical approach is your ear. - I"'" ..

Remember speed is not important. then the bass drum rhythms and finally the hihat rhythms to each study. 5. The following seven pages should be approached as previous study material. After you have mastered all 48 of the following studies I would suggest that you then apply each of the 12 basic ride cymbal variations. the LEFT HAND.17 ADDING THE LEFT HAND We now continue our studies of 3/4 jazz by adding the fourth and final element of independence.. This will offer literally thousands of rhythmic combinations for developing complete command of your instrument. . . the feel is. Practice each rhythm over and over until it becomes relaxed and natural.. 1. . . . Then read down the pages in one and two measure phrases. . 6 .

12. 10.18 7. . 11. 9. 8. 13.

20. 17. . 18. 19. 15.19 14. 16.

26. 23. 27. 22. 25.20 21. . 24.

29. 30. . 33. 31. 34. 32.21 28.

. 38. 36. 41. 37.22 35. • • 40.

45. . 46. 44. 43.23 42.

as it would if you were following the phrasing in ensemble performance. Next develop your own improvised studies in 3/4 jazz by just establishing a tempo and creating your ownmusical phrases from combinations previously studied. You can now use the previous Left Hand patterns on your various tom toms or cymbals. By now the rhythms should be natural and flow with little or no effort.you can expand. . Again.24 COMBINATION EXERCISES The following five 12-bar phrases are designed as combination exercises with all four elements (ride cym. This provides much variation in tonal color and develops additional control over your full drum outfit. Follow the pattern indicated. hi-hat and left hand) varying from bar to bar.your study of these examples by reading down the page within the exercise. playing the left hand on drums or cymbals of your choice. bass drum..

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"" . . I em .. -:..j • -II &/ -. I t r "' - 10 I I l- I- "t ..J .... I . • '!: I 'e- el -. .._n .S:-::. .. . &I r "" J ro J I nJ ..r3 J . ...J ~. I ee J ..--.... • .. I ' -.. '..... .J se 1\ (- f [ } " . f f r ~ I x x I f f .. . Note how a repeating rhythm against the melodic line can addto the excitement and rhythmic interest of the piece. r I } -..J -I 'II! -J Bbm '_ • . . I ..27 APPLICATION OF LEFT HAND VARIATION TO THE MUSICAL PHRASE The following four musical examples will display howyou may apply left hand patterns and variation to a musical phrase. :I Ab fI.J ... . .·"" I~... I ... I -... L L/' "" u ':J @) . f 1\ f 1\ f 't I ~ " I~ f 2 . I .. -. I . I .__ D7 -:..I .J t 'I I I"'" -... . I -.· . '. V l J . :1r.I'A OJ 1. . I . ~.. el • ee I • I./ .J.~ I 1-.. . ...J ee I~ l- ..v "" r~ v .. . . :11>_.. " .. I 1-. .. &I X t l- F r .. ... . F7 I I Bb I Gm v . Bbm rJ V v .. I'.. I . :'to.. I } . I~ @) OJ I. ~ I... ~..--. -... " .... . fiI I I I I ...J .nJ J . ~.. .r3 W'II • "'\ ~ I ee t r f f r I X I -.-.nJ P...r __ ~. ~ el .Y " -J • ...e. I ee " ..n. I ...

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....n r ".... . ....._' I J .... The rhythm should flow in a relaxed swinging manner... developing a loose feel for the rhythms... . . 1. ...0 _j .. Practice each exercise' slowly and evenly.29 INTRODUCTION TO 5/4 After our extensive study of 3/4 our early exercises in 5/4 should be relatively easy.I . n. ·11 -II .. The same basic principles of study and development in previous mater-ial apply to our study of 5/4.. -...../ . I n •• J rs . The BASIC RIDE CYMBAL VARIATIONS IN 5/4 We start our study of 5/4 with 9 basic ride cymbal variations which will later be applied to bass drum and hi-hat studies. Practice each variation until it becomes natural and swings easily... . natural feel of 5/4 tends to be of a more relaxed and flowing nature. . The heavy accented first beat of each measure sets the pulse for 5/4 jazz.. . u . ' " '" r .. ......

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For additional study read down the page in one and two bar phrases. . 8. 7. 6. apply the nine basic ride cymbal variations to each.5/4 BASS DRUM RHYTHMS 31 After mastering the following eight bass drum rhythms as written. 1. 5. 3. 4. 2.

Practice each rhythm at even tempos and make them swing. Apply the nine basic ride cymbal variations and eight bass drum rhythms to the following when you have mastered their original written form. .32 5/4 HI-HAT RHYTHMS We now develop the various hi-hat patterns that are available to us in 5/4.

8. . 9.33 7. 10.

bass drum and hi-hat rhythms in 5/4 we are ready to add the left hand. . RELAX and let it SWING. Count each exercise as you are playing it to make certain you are performing exactly what is written.34 ADDING THE LEFT HAND IN 5/4 After gaining complete control of the various ride cymbal. Watch the accents as indicated. Apply all variations to these studies as indicated in previous pages.

10. . 9. 11.35 8. 12.

36 You have now completed NEW DIRECTIONSIN RHYTHM. you have spent many long hours over a period of several months to perfect your feel for the odd time signature. . These studies should have developed full control and independence of ride cymbal. hi -hat and left hand. If studied seriously. bass drum. Apply what you have learned to a1l your playing in a tasteful musical manner.