Substantial motion al-harakah al-jawhariyyah

• Everything undergoes substantial change and transformation as a result of the self-flow (fayd) and penetration of being (sarayan al-wujud) which gives every concrete individual entity its share of being. •In contrast to Aristotle and Avicenna who had accepted change only in four categories, i.e., quantity (kamm), quality (kayf), position (wad’) and place (‘ayn), Sadra defines change as an all-pervasive reality running through the entire cosmos including the category of substance (jawhar).

• technically substance, • one of the fundamental terms with the philosophers: the first of the ten Aristotelian categories (al-maqulat al-‘ashr, q.v.). • As a general term jauhar signifies everything that exists in reality, all bodies and parts of bodies, the sky and the stars and the earth, water and fire and air, plants and animals, in short all things in the visible world.

‫• ‪Jawhar‬‬ ‫هر جوهری یا جسم است یا غیر جسم‬ ‫اگر غیر جسم باشد یا جزء جسم است یا مفارق اجسام است‬ ‫در صورتی که جزء جسم باشد یا صورت آن است یا ماده آن‬ ‫در صورت مفارق بودن با آن را تصرفی به تحریک در اجسام هست یا نیست‬ ‫اگر باشد آن را نفس و اگر نباشد آن را عقل می گویند.‬ ‫‪• Jawhar: bodies or non-bodies‬‬ ‫‪• Body: is composed essentially of prime matter (hayula, q.v.) and‬‬ ‫).‪form (surah, q.v‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬




Mufaraq Form Aql Nafs

NonMufaraq Prim matter