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The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan guarantees

Fundamental rights, including equality of status, of opportunityand freedom ofbelief, faith, worship and association
It also provides for

Adequate provisionto safeguard the legitimate interests of minorities and backward and depressed classes. (preamble).
The constitution also guarantees the protection of the right to education of all ethnic groups (Article 22), the equality of all citizens before the law and guards against gender imbalance and exploitation of children (Article 25). It also co ntains elements of time -barred affirmative action for marginalized and disadvantaged groups (Article 27). Finally, there is protection for groups and individuals with a distinct language, script or culture (Article 28) and the discouragement of parochial, racial, tribal, sectarian and provincial prejudices (Article 33).


A simple definition of culture is that it is the human response to the forces of Nature and History According to the (World Conference on Culture Policies, Mexico 1982)

The whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a society or social group. It includes not only arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value s ystems, traditions and beliefs."
Pakistani culture seeks a synthesis of the material and the spiritual aspects of their life. Equally important is the consciousness that our spiritual culture if divorced from the realities of the times in which we live, would leave us directionless. The state can play a major role in providing support to bridge this gap.





Culture refers to the fundamental values and norms that a group of people such as an ethnic group, a nation, a corporation , or some other organization or profession holds or aspires to hold. Every culture distinguishes itself from others by the specific ways it prefers to solve certain problems, such as those that arise from relationships with other people, from the passage o f time, and in dealing with the external environment. Groups of people have "typical" cultural traits that can be identified by observing situational behaviors and predominant tendencies in problem solving. Recognizing that a group exhibits certain "typical" cultural traits does not mean that every person in that group has precisely those characteristics. That would be stereotyping. The way in which attitudes are expressed in a business organization and the way employees are evaluated and rewarded are labeled "corporate culture." Diversity is the similarities, as well as the differences, among and between individuals at all levels of the organization, and in society at large. Diversity of thought is critical to reaching the most innovative, customer-focused solutions to the many issues, problems and challenges confronting our business. As such, it is the responsibility of every manager to value and secure diversity of thought in his/her work unit by employing and developing the highest -caliber individuals di ffering from one another culturally, intellectually and experientially, as well as by race, gender, physical and mental abilities, and other factors. Training people in cultural diversity requires that each member understand that he/she is a cultural entity different from others. Most of us now understand what makes us different from each other. In this regard, teaching cultural diversity for the sake of the initiative or as a mandate is not enough. It is sometimes even counter productive. Diversity ed ucation must be taken to a higher level by bringing workers to the understanding that our diversity should be considered not as liability that hinders work relationship, but rather as assets to enhance engagement and job satisfaction and ultimately increas e productivity. Cultural diversity training must be coupled with a team building facilitation interactive activities. [1]


Apart from the physical environment of Pakistan s territory, we are heirs to a two million year old socio political background going back to the old Stone Age. Civilization in Pakistan started with the seventh millennium BCE at Mehrgarh in Balochistan and blossomed for well over thousand years into the great Indus civilization, which embraced the entire territory of Pakistan, from the mountain ranges of the north to the Arabian Sea. This makes Pakistan take its place as one of the most ancient homes of human culture in this part of the world.

Perhaps the best appreciation of Pakistani culture was offered by Dr. Mohammed Iqbal, the Poet Philosopher of the country, who stressed the fundamentals of this culture in two ways: firstly, by highlighting the spirit of Muslim culture and s econdly by emphasizing the culture of those areas which constitute todays Pakistan. In both cases Iqbal saw the culture of Islam shaping the destiny of our people




and its role in the future relationship between Pakistan and the Muslim countries of the Middle East and Central Asia. The idea of Pakistan presented by him was a concret e vision of the salient features of the Pakistani culture which were felt threatened because of the onslaught of Western colonialism, as well as the politics of some extremist religious movements. He emphasised the abolition of priesthood and hereditary kingship in Islam. His constant appeal to reason and experience in the Quran and the emphasis that is laid on Nature and History formed the basis of this new intellectual framework. According to Iqbal, any culture that lags behind the intellectual framew ork of time is doomed to decay and ultimate extinction.

With Pakistans independence, Quaid -i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah laid down the principles of the future cultural contours of Pakistan. The Quaid -i-Azam not only defended the intellectual heritage of Islam, but also the capacity of Pakistani culture to absorb modern ideas of nationalism and statehood. th His speech of 11 August 1947 delivered before the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan points clearly at culture policy: you are free: you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this state of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed that has nothing to do with the business of the state. He visualize d a culture for Pakistan where identity of the citizens will not be judged through sectarian, religious and ethnic appellations, but as members of an independent nation. He not only saw the disappearance of sectarianism amongst Muslims, but also in wider terms, where

Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, but in the political sense as citizens of Pakistan.
In addition to the historical developments of Muslim culture, the Quaid visualized the C harter of Madina (Mithaq-i-Madina) as the foundation stone of Muslim culture. Lest this notion of Islamic heritage was misinterpreted, he categorically declared.

make no mistake. Pakistan is not a theocracy or anything like it. Islam demands from us the tolerance of other creeds and we welcome in closest association with us all those who, of whatever creed, are themselves willing and ready to play their part as true and loyal citizens of Pakistan.
The Quaid emphasized the contribution of Pakistans cul tural legacy and historical experience. He stated Not only are most of us Muslims but we have our own history, customs and traditions and those ways of




thought, outlook and instinct which go to make a sense of nationality. Aware of our spiritual and material progress, he declared:

Brotherhood, equality and fraternity of man these are all the basic points of our religion, culture, and civilization


The impact of some myopic post -independence policies on our cultural heritage was almost suicidal, and the 1971 tragedy of East Pakistan was essentially a product of this unfortunate legacy. Post-1971 Pakistan represented a turning point in our history w hich points at two lessons. Firstly, no system of government could keep Pakistan as a united entity except democracy. Secondly, that religion alone could not keep us together, especially when it is not reflective of the peoples aspirations. Pakistani people identify their religion with the Holy Prophet of Islam whose treatment of his followers as well as Christians and Jews provide the ultimate framework of establishing a cosmopolitan society where religious affiliations, racial and ethnic considerations, and allusion to social and political status are not allowed to hinder the distribution of social justice, equality, and brotherhood. These dimensions of Islam form an integral part of our popular culture which has been strengthened by the messages of love and mutual respect by the saints of this land. It shows that the state can only succeed in an environment of peace, tolerance, and freedom where people feel free to practise their religion. Where the state was not able or willing to provide a conducive e nvironment, arts, theatre and film industry suffered. This however facilitated the VCR/DVD/CD culture which was nourished by uncensored foreign films, several of which depicted violence, obscenity and corruption. The unfortunate impact of this new culture is still visible in our cities and towns, and has even penetrated our countryside. Whenever the people were allowed to shape their destinies in accordance with their cultural values, it led to remarkable developments in healthy political systems, economic growth, literature, and technology.


In order to meet the objectives of the culture policy, the following steps are essential: 1. All federal and provincial cultural institutions dealing with culture in all its forms including music, dance, literature, architecture, film and broadcasting should be autonomous bodies with public private partnership. 2. A National Cultural Advisory Committee consisting of experts may be established under the aegis of the Ministry of Culture to develop, supervise and monitor the implementation strategy for the conservation and preservation of tangible heritage. 3. A National Cultural Database need to be est ablished by the federal department of Archaeology under the Ministry of culture with the task of inventorying, mapping and recording all cultural assets of the nation.




4. Information on library holdings, private collections, and other material on culture an d history for easy access and retrieval need to be undertaken by the federal department of Archives. 5. National Archives and National Documentation Centre and all other state controlled archives need to be made accessible to researchers, writers and scholars through a sliding scale fee structure for archival copies within the purview of the Freedom of Information Ordinance. 6. The federal Department of Archaeology need to sponsor a comprehensive catalogue of the various archaeological sites with maps, pictures and brief write -ups for the students, scholars, archaeologists and the lay public. 7. A Cultural Atlas of Pakistan need to be prepared by the Ministry of Culture in collaboration with the federal Ministry of Education and Survey of Pakistan showing the contiguity of the areas constituting Pakistan with detailed sketches of the centres of learning, historical monuments, urban planning and centres of culture. 8. Academy of Letters need to publish a comprehensive catalogue on the pattern of whos who containing short biographies of Pakistani poets, short -story writers, novelists, historians, and other scholars. 9. Pakistan Television Corporation and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation need to prepare catalogues of their programmes, artists and producers and will make video/audio CDs/DVDs available for public dissemination. 10. An Institute of Translatology need to be established by the National University of Modern Languages to promote mutual understanding among citizens of all Pakistani languages. 11. Non-governmental civil society stakeholders in the field of theatre, dance and music need to be supported by grants, subsidies, tax exemptions and access to state owned educational and cultural infrastructure. 12. A portion of the national budget need to be allocated sp accordance with internationally accepted best practices. ecifically for cultural activity in

13. An Endowment Fund need to be created for the Pakistan National Council of the Arts to ensure future sustainability and to reduce dependence on public funds. The Government will provide seed money for this Endowment. 14. Allama Iqbals concept of the spirit of Muslim Culture and Quaid -i-Azams statements on culture need to be highlighted by various institutes engaged in research on Islam, Iqbal and Quaid -iAzam. 15. Historical monuments such as tombs, forts, old buildings and other remnants of the past need to be preserved, repaired and documented. It has been decided that no historical building will be demolished or altered to the extent that it loses its relevance t o our history and culture, within the framework of the Antiquities Act of 1975. 16. Cultural centres need to be established at provincial and district headquarters to preserve and promote the culture of their respective areas. These Centres will have following features:-

CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN 15.1 They will be administered by professionals preferably from the local regions. 15.2 Their activities will be co-ordinated by Federal Cultural bodies.



17. The existing Copyrights Acts need to be updated to protect the intellectual property ri ghts of national and international films, music, drama, videos, CDs, DVDs, printed material and other intellectual property. 18. Pakistan Television Corporation and Radio need to promote all languages of Pakistan in its programmes to ensure an equitable and f air distribution of time to the various cultural manifestations of Pakistan. 19. All public libraries in the country libraries need to be improved in terms of their holdings and protection from neglect, theft and vandalism. 20. Cultural activities at national, p rovincial and district levels need to be promoted with the aim of discouraging intolerance, religious fanaticism, violence and parochialism. 21. Laws which may constrain the promotion of culture need to be reviewed by the Government to ensure freedom of expression and inculcation of national identity within the framework of the Constitution. The legal requirement initiated in 1876 to subject drama and theatre scripts to the district authorities should be waived; instead, a Code of Conduct may be evolved by the Government to be signed by the producers and relevant members of a dramatic company.[2]



The province of Sindh and the people inhabiting the region had been designated after the river' s name prior to partition as the Sindhu River, now known as the Indus River. In Sanskrit, sndhu means "river, stream", and refers to the Indus river in particular. The Greekswho conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Inds, hence the modern Indus. The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind from the word Sindh and when the British arrived -National-Culture-for-Pakistan

CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN here in the 17th century, they followed that example and applied the name to the entire calling it India, once again from the word Sindh.





Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements atMehrgarh to the west expanded into Sindh. This culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivalled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in both size and scope numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems. The Indus Valley civilization is the farthest visible outpost of archaeology in the abyss of prehistoric times. Evidence of a new element of pre -Harappan culture has been traced here. When the primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a highly cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji one of the most developed urban civilization of the ancient world that flourished between the 25th century BC and 1500 BC in the Indus valley sites of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. The people were endowed with a high standard of art and craftsmanship and well-developed system of quasi -pictographic writing which despite ceaseless efforts still remains un deciphered. The remarkable ruins of the beautifully planned Moenjodaro and H arappa towns, the brick buildings of the common people, roads, public baths and the covered drainage system envisage the life of a community living in a highly organized manner. According to some accounts, there is no evidence of huge palaces or burial grounds for the elite in the ruins of these ancient cities. The grand and presumably holy sites might have been the Great bath, which is built upon an artificially created elevation. This civilization is an indigenous civilization which met its downfall aroun d the year 1700 BC. The collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization is still a hotly debated topic, and may have been caused by a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River. As per some theories, the discovery of skeletons from the ruins of Moenjodaro (mount of dead) indicates that the city was suddenly attacked causing violent death and the wiping out of the populations.


In 711 AD, Muhammad bin Qasim led an Umayyad force of 20,000 cavalry and 5 catapults. Muhammad bin Qasim defeated the Raja Dahir, and captured the cities of Alor, Multan and Debal. Sindh became the easternmost province of the Umayyad Caliphate and was referred to as "Al-Sindh" on Arab maps, with lands further east known as "Hind". Muhammad bin Qasim built the city of Mansura as his capital; the city then produced famous historical figures such as Abu Mashar Sindhi, Abu Ata al Sindhi, Abu Raja Sindhi and Sind ibn Ali. At the port cit y of Debal most of the Bawarij embraced Islam and became known as Sindhi Sailors; they became famous due to their skills in: navigation, geography and languages. After Bin Qasim left the Ummayads ruled Sindh through the Habbari dynasty.




By the year 750 AD , Debal was second only to Basra; Sindhi sailors from the port city of Debal voyaged to Basra, Bushehr, Musqat,Aden, Kilwa, Zanzibar, Sofala, Malabar, Sri Lanka and Java (where Sindhi merchants were known as the Santri). During the power struggle between the Ummayyads and the Abbasids. The Habbari Dynasty became semi independent and was eliminated and Mansura was invaded by Mahmud Ghaznavi. Sindh then became an eastern most province of the Abbasid Caliphate ruled by the Soomro Dynastyuntil the Siege of Baghdad (1258).It should be noted that Mansura was the first capital of the " Soomra Dynasty " and the last of the " Habbari dynasty". Muslim geographers, historians and travelers such as al-Masudi, Ibn Hawqal , Istakhri, Ahmed ibn Sahl al -Balkhi, al-Tabari, Baladhuri, Nizami, al-Biruni, Saadi Shirazi , Ibn Battutah and Katip elebi wrote about or visited the regio n, sometimes using the name "Sindh" for the entire area from the Arabian Sea to the Hindu Kush.

The famous Pacco Qillo became one of the largest military garrisons in the region during the Mughal Era.In the year 1524, the few remaining Sindhi Amirs welcomed the Mughal Empire and Babur dispatched his forces to defeat the Arghuns and th e Tarkhans, who had violated the liberties of the inhabitants of the province. In the coming centuries Sindh became a region fiercely loyal to the Mughals. A network of forts manned by cavalry and musketeers further extended Mughal power in Sindh. In 1540 a deadly mutiny by Sher Shah Suri forced the Mughal Emperor Humayun to withdraw to Sindh, where he joined the Sindhi Emir Hussein Umrani. In 1541 Humayun married Hamida Banu Begum . She gave birth to the infant Akbar at Umarkot in the year 1542. In 1556 theOttoman Admiral Seydi Ali Reis visited Humayun; various regions of the South Asia including Sindh (Makran coast and the Mehran delta) are mentioned in his book Mirat ul Mem alik. The Portuguese navigator Ferno Mendes Pinto claims that Sindhi sailors joined theOttoman Admiral Kurtolu Hzr Reis on his expedetion to Aceh in 1565. During the reign of Akbar, Sindh produced various scholars such as and others such as Mir Ahmed Nasrallah Thattvi , Tahir Muhammad Thattvi and Mir Ali Sir Thattvi and the Mughal chronicler Abu'lFazl ibn Mubarak and his brother the poet Faizi was a descendant of a Sindhi Shaikh family from Rel, Siwistan in Sindh. Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak was the author of Akbarnama (an official biographical account of Akbar) and the Ain-i-Akbari (a detailed document recording the administration of the Mughal Empire). It was also during the Mughal period when Sindhi literature began to flouris h and historical figures such as Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai and Sachal Sarmast became prominent throughout the land. In the year 1603 Shah Jahan visited the province of Sindh; at Thatta he was generously we lcomed by the locals after the death of his father Jahangir. Shah Jahan ordered the construction of the Shahjahan Mosque, which was completed during the early years of his rule under the supervision of Mirza Ghazi Beg . Also during his reign, in the year 1659 in the Mughal Empire ,Muhammad Salih Tahtawi of Thatta created a seamless celestial globe with Arabic and Persian inscriptions using a wax casting method. Sindh was also home to very famous wealthy merchant -rulers such as Mir Bejar of Sindh, whose great wealth had attracted the alliance of Sultan bin Ahmad of Oman. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire and its institutions began to decline. Various warring Nawabs took control of vast territories; they ruled independently of the Mughal Emperor.



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In the year 1701 the Nawab Kalhora were authorized in a firman by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb to administer the province o f Sindh. In 1739, Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro challenged the invader Nadir Shah but fa iled according to legend. To avenge the massacre of his allies, the capture of Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro and the abduction of his sons.Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro sent a small force to assassinate Nadir Shah and turn events in favor of the Mughal Emperor during the Battle of Karnal in 1739, but remained unsuccessful. In 1762, Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro brought stability in Sindh, he reorganized the province and independently defeated the Marathas and their prominent vassal the Rao of Kuch in the Thar Desert and returned victoriously. After the Sikhs annexed Multan, the Kalhora Dynasty supported counterattacks against the Sikhs and d efined their borders, however due to the lack of [21] internal stability the Kalhoras could not continue further conquests. In the year 1783 Mughal Emperor Akbar Shah II issued a Firman, which designated Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur as the new Nawab of Sindh , and mediated peace particularly after the ferocious Battle of Halani and the defeat of the ruling Kalhora by theTalpur tribes.

In the year 1802 as Mir Ghulam Ali Khan Talpur succeeded as the Nawab internal tension broke out in the province and in the year 1803, prompting the Maratha Empire to declare a war of aggress ion against Sindh and Berar Subah , in which Arthur Wellesley took a leading role. Causing much early suspicion between the Emirs of Sindh and the British Empire .The British East India Company made its first contacts in the Sindhi port city of Thatta, which according to a report was:

"A city as large as London containing 50,000 houses which were made of stone and mortar with large verandas some three or four stories high th e...the city has 3000 looms...the textiles of Sind were the flower of the whole produce of the East, the international commerce of Sind gave it a place among that of Nations, Thatta has 400 schools and 4,000Dhows at its docks, the city is guarded by well-armed Sepoys"
British and Bengal Presidency forces under General Charles James Napier arrived in Sindh in the nineteenth century and conquered Sindh in 1843. The Sindhi coalition led by Talpurs and other Sindhi tribes under Mir Nasir Khan Talpur were defeated in the Battle of Miani , during which 50,000 Sindhis were killed. Shortly afterward, Hoshu Sheedi commanded another army at the Battle of Dubbo , where 5,000 Sindhis were killed. The first Agha Khan helped the British in their conquest of Sindh, and as result he was granted a lifetime pension. A British Journal[24] by Thomas Postans, mentions the captive Sindhi Amirs:

"The Amirs as being the prisoners of "Her Majesty"... they are maintained in strict seclusion; they are described as Broken -Hearted and Miserable men, maintaining much of the dignity of fallen greatness, and without any querulous or angry complaining at this unlivable source of sorrow, refusing to be comforted ."
Within weeks, Charles Napier and his forces occupied Sindh. After 1853, the British divided Sindh into districts. In each district they recognized a wadera or aristocrat. Sindh was made a part of



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the Bombay Presidency . In a highly controversial move, Sindh was later made part of British India's Bombay Presidencymuch to the surprise of the local population, who found the decision highly offensive. A powerful unrest followed, after which Twelve Martial Laws were imposed by the British authorities. Finally the decision was reversed by the British administration and Sindh became a separate province in 1935. Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi pioneered the famous SindhiMuslim, Hur Freedom Movement against colonialists for the freedom of Sindh. Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi was hanged on 20 March 1943 in Hyderabad, Sindh. His burial place is not known. During the British period, railways, printing presses and bridges were introduced in the province. Writers like Mirza Kalich Beg compiled and traced the literary history of Sindh.[3]





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Literacy has been described as the ability to read for knowledge and write coherently and thinkcritically about the written word. Literacy can also include the ability to understand all forms of communication, be it body language, pictures, video or sound (reading, speaking, listening and viewing). Evolving definitions of literacy often include all the symbol syste ms relevant to a particular community. Literacy encompasses a complex set of abilities to understand and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture for personal and community development. In a technological society, the concept of literacy is expanding t o include the media and electronic text, in addition to alphabetic and number systems. These abilities vary in different social and cultural contexts according to need and demand.

Literacy represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from print. Key to all literacy is reading development, which involves a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. Reading development involves a range of complex language underpinnings including awareness of speech sounds (phonology), spelling patterns (orthography), word meaning (semantics), grammar (syntax) and patterns of word formation (morphology), all of which provide a necessary platform for reading fluency and comprehension. Once these skills are acquired the reader can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to approach printed material with critical analysis, inference and synthesis; to write with accuracy and coherence; and to use information and insights from text as the basis for informed decisions and creative thought.[5]

Some definition of Literacy Rate:

The literacy rate is the percentage of people with the ability to read and write . The number of people that are literate (able to read and write) in an area. It is usually displayed as a percentage. Amount of people in a country with the ability to read and write .




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Nadeem Mehboob said that this old saying of invest in rubies so that you earn profit in diamonds might be one very correct formula for us to think about investing in education so that we see a substantial future. The DCO said that the government has planed education for all, and government is taking revolutionary steps to promote free education throughout the province. In this regards, he added, the government is providing free books to the students, also giving scholarships and laptops. he said.

Our country witnessed low literacy rate, lower education standards and lower growth during the last 65 years. The society as a whole is suffering due to lack of education. Narrow mindedness and intolerance prevails on a large scale. Our society has deteriorated its values, norms and culture just due to lack of awareness on many issues,


Literacy Rate of Male vs Female In Various Parts OF Pakistan From Various Sources: Total Adult Literacy Rate : 55% - (UNICEF Pakistan Statistics 2007) Total Adult Literacy Rate : 54% ( Male 66.25% , Female 41.75%) (Pakistans Ministry Of Education) Punjab : 60.8% (Male 70%, Female 51%) KPK : 47.4% (Male 63%, Female 30.8%) Sindh : 5.15% (Male 60.5%, Female 42.5%) Balochistan : 34% (Male 45%, Female 23%) Total Literacy Rate : 49% (Wiki Rankings) Total Literacy Rate : 50% (CIA Factbook Est 2005) Above are given some of the statistics of literacy rate between Male and Female in Provinces of Pakistan but we will only talk and highlight upon Sindh Province :



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It shows that a Baloch woman has the lowest fertility rate till the matriculation level, while a Sindhi woman has the highest. Another interesting outcome of the analysis of this tab le is that from among all the provinces, Balochistan has the lowest fertility rate for illiterate, literate and women educated upto the secondary level and beyond.


The above data shows that Sindh has a Low Literacy Rate And it has that of men with more literacy rate then the women, however women are also going to schools and universities to acquire Education and are standing with men.
[6]census report 1998



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Basic reason of sindh as having a low literacy rate is due to the Karachi being a Main hub of Pakistan and sindh but it remains closed 2 to 3 months in a year, and due to it almost every field of life gets disturbed. Females are low with respect to males in literacy rate because here males can go out for studies with full independence but girls have some dependencies and are not permitted in some families to go out for studies as a result literacy rate of females get down.


Overall literacy rate in the country has improved remarkabl y from previous 56% to 57 %, says the Economic Survey. The data shows that literacy remained higher in urban areas (74%) than in rural areas (48%), and is more prevalent for men (69%) compared to women (45%). However, it is evident from the data that overa ll female literacy is rising over time, but progress is uneven across the provinces. Literacy rate in Punjab is (59 %), Sindh, (59%), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (50%) and Balochistan at (45%). The literacy rate of Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has improved consider ably during 2007 -08 to 2008 -09. According to the data, the overall school attendance, as measured by the Net Enrolment Rate (NER)1, for 2008-09 was 57% as compared to 55% in 2007-08. The basic reason of rural downfall in education sector is due to the rea son that there exist a lot of thing in families that they want their children to work with them in their family work instead of going to schools and universities to study. And also they do not want their females to even go out of their homes. And there is a lot of lack of education in them that is why they also do not permit their children to go for studies. As there is a lack of awareness in them.[7]




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The above table in figure number 3 shows us the statistics of rural and urban life in the field of education. This shows that there is a lot of downfall in rural areas versus urban areas, almost in all the ag es the education is far better and far more in urban areas then rural areas and in sindh province it is more like it because of some huge reasons. These reasons are here listed below: In Urban Areas there are a lot of facilities and even modern facilities than they are in rural. Urban areas are more developed than Rural. Urban areas are having faster life than Rural. People of Urban Areas are having Open minds with respect to their children studies. Urban area people do permit their daughters to study in universities and colleges, The main reason of backwardness of rural areas is the following factors: Poverty Less resources Un availability of Universities, schools and Colleges Wad era system Kar-O-Kari Feudal Lords Education backwardness Population Expansion Political Crises Politics in Education The above mentioned factors also influence Educational life in Urban Areas of Sindh like Karachi, and most important of them to influence are last three.

Based on information collected from the Library of Congress , Pew Research Center , CIA World Facebook, Oxford University , University of Pennsylvania , U.S. State Department and others, the



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following is a list of estimations about the percentage of people professing different faiths in the country. These estimations vary considerably from source to source, depending on methods of research and databases that were used.

5% -20% 80% -95%


Approximately 2.3%

Approx. 1.6%

Approx. 1.6%







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Festivals and fairs inject life and vigor in the lives of the people living anywhere in the world. Be it tomato throwing or racing in front of fuming bull, despite the danger the show goes on with lots of fun and laughter. Likewise, people in Pakistan have their own way of sharing love and joy. Sindhis are a Sindhi speaking socio -ethnic group of people originating from Sindh now a province of Pakistan. Today Sindhis that live in Pakistan are predominantly Muslim but there are also smaller minorities of Hindus and Christians. After the Partition of India in 1947, a large number of Indian Muslims (Muhajirs) flocked into Pakistan and settled in t he prosperous Sindh region. At the same time Sindhi Hindus migrated to India in large numbers, while many of those who remained converted to Islam.


Muslim religious festival at the end of Ramzan, with cultural and social activities and exchange of sweet dishes. Marked with wearing of new clothes & is celebrated throughout Pakistan. This festival is very special for ladies of all ages who proudly wear bright clothes and decorate their hands & feet with hina and bangles. The celebration goes on for three days in a row.

Eid ul Azha is celebrated on 10th day of the Zil Hajj (the 12th Islamic month). This day is celebrated in the memory of the sacrifice made by the prophet Abraham (Abraham) wherein he offered the life of his son Prophet Ismail to fulfill the decree of the A llah. On this day, all people who can afford sacrifice a sheep or a goat in the name of Allah as was done by prophet Abraham. Here too the poor are not forgotten. The meat of the sacrificed goat/sheep/lamb is divided into



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three parts; one for distribution among the poor, second for the relatives and third for self and own family.


The Holy Prophet Mohammed's birthday. Celebrated throughout Pakistan with never ending processions featuring beautifully decorated carts, animals & vehicles & c olorfully dressed singers' groups reciting religious songs. Free food and lots of charity is given to the poors all over the country.

A religious festival featuring fireworks and light displays which is celebrated throughout Pakistan. Almost every home, small or big, rich or poor, in city or village is decorated with candles, lamps and lights. Kids and adults equally participate in firing crackers and intricate fire works.

Commemorating the death of Hazrat Imam Hussain, Grandson of Holy Prophet Mohammed. Two highly emotional days of mourning with processions and public display featuring "self -flagellation" Observed throughout Pakistan. The most unusual & colorful blend haunting blood sights, decorated horses, flags & life size models of shrines. This festival is celebrated by the Shiats Muslims only.


His festival is held every year to mark the Urs (birth) celebration of the popular Sindhi mystic Shah Abdul Sehwan Sharif. The district au thorities hold this festival during August -September each year. Pilgrims from all over Pakistan participate in hundreds of thousands. Marked with group dancing (called dhammal), qawwali (religeuos songs) and colorful stalls of regional cuisines. [8]




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The Christian community celebrates Christmas, Easter and other religious festivals as are celebrated all over the world. Although the Christmas day coincides with the birthday celebrations of the father of the nation, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, on 25th December, Muslims also visit homes of Christian friends to celebrate Christmas with them. The other minorities like Hindus, Sikhs and Parsis also celebrate their religious days with equal enthusiasm. In fact the largest community that comes from all over the world to Pakistan are the Sikhs who flock their religious sites in thousands, specially the Baba Guru Nanak birthday celebrations, in November each year.

Christmas Day is celebrated as a major festival and public holiday in countries around the world, including many whose populations are mostly non -Christian. In some non -Christian countries, periods of former colonial rule introduced the celebration (e.g. Hong Kong ); in others, Christian minorities or foreign cultural influences have led populations to observe the holiday. Countries such as Japan, where Christmas is popular despite there being only a small number of Christians, have adopted many of the secular aspects of Christmas, such as gift-giving, decorations and Christmas trees. Countries in which Christmas is not a formal public holiday include China, (excepting Hong Kong and Macao), Japan, Saudi Arabia ,Algeria, Thailand, Nepal, Iran, Turkey and North Korea . Christmas celebrations around the world can vary markedly in form, reflecting differing cultural and national traditions. Among countr ies with a strong Christian tradition, a variety of Christmas celebrations have developed that incorporate regional and local cultures. For Christians, participating in a religious service plays an important part in the recognition of the season. Christmas , along with Easter, is the period of highest annual church attendance. In Catholic countries, people hold religious processions or parades in the days preceding Christmas. In other countries, secular processions or parades featuring Santa Claus and other seasonal figures are often



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held. Family reunions and the exchange of gif ts are a widespread feature of the season. Gift giving takes place on Christmas Day in most countries. Others practice gift giving on December 6, Saint Nicholas Day, and January 6, Epiphany. In the earliest centuries of Christianity, no particular day of the year was associated with the birth of Jesus. Various dates were proposed: May 28, April 18 or 19, March 25, January 2, November 17 or 20. When celebration on a particular date began, January 6 prevailed at least in the East;but, except among Armenians (the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church), who continue to celebrate the birth on January 6, December 25 eventually won acceptance everywhere. Today, whether or not the birth date of Jesus is on December 25 is not considered to be an important issue in mainstream Christian denominations ; rather, the belief that God came into the world in the form of man to atone for the sins of humanity is considered to be the primary purpose in celebrating Christmas.


This strange custom originated in Bavaria in the fifteenth century. The priest inserted in his sermon funny stories which woul dcause his hearers to laugh ( Ostermrlein), e.g. a description of how the devil tries to keep the doors of hell locked against the descending Christ. Then the speaker would draw the moral from the story. This Easter laughter, giving rise to grave abuses of the word of God, was prohibited by Clement X (1670-1676) and in the eighteenth century by Maximilian III and the bishops ofBavaria (Wagner, De Risu Paschali, Knigsberg, 1705; Linsemeier, Predigt in Deutschland, Munich, 1886).


Because the use of eggs was forbidden during Lent, they were brought to the table on Easter Day, coloured red to symbolize theEaster joy. This custom is found not only in the Latin but also in the Oriental Churches . The symbolic meaning of a new creationof mankind by Jesus risen from the dead was probably an invention of later times. The custom may have its origin in paganism, for a great many pagan customs, celebrating the return of spring, gravitated to Easter. The egg is the emblem of the germinatinglife of early spring. Easter eggs, the children are told, come from Rome with the bells which on Thursday go to Rome and returnSaturday morning. The sponsors in some countries give Easter eggs to their god -children. Coloured eggs are used by children atEaster in a sort of game which consists in testing the strength of the shells (Kraus, Real -Encyklopdie, s.v. Ei). Both coloured and uncoloured eggs are used in some parts of the United States for this game, known as "egg -picking". Another practice is the "egg -rolling" by children on Easter Monday on the lawn of the White House in Washington.



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The Easter Rabbit lays the eggs, for which reason they are hidden in a nest or in the garden. The rabbit is a pagan symbol and has always been an emblem of fertility (Simrock, Mythologie, 551).


In France handball playing was one of the Easter amusements, found also in Germany (Simrock, op. cit., 575). The ball may represent the sun, which is believed to take three leaps in rising on Easter morning. Bishops, priests, and monks, after the strictdiscipline of Lent, used to play ball during Easter week (Beleth, Expl. Div. off., 120). This was called libertas Decembrica, because formerly in December, the masters used to play ball with their servants, maids, a nd shepherds. The ball game was connected with a dance, in which even bishops and abbots took part. At Auxerre, Besanon, etc. the dance was performed inchurch to the strains of the "Victimae paschali". In England, also, the game of ball was a favourite Easter sport in which the muni cipal corporation engaged with due parade and dignity. And at Bury St. Edmunds, within recent years, the game was kept up with great spirit by twelve old women. After the game and the dance a banquet was given, during which a homily on the feastwas read. All these customs disappeared for obvious reasons (Kirchenlex., IV, 1414).

On Easter Monday the women had a right to strike their husbands, on Tuesday the men struck their wives, as in December the servants scolded their masters. Husbands a nd wives did this "ut ostendant sese mutuo debere corrigere, ne illo tempore alter ab altero thori debitum exigat" (Beleth, I, c. cxx; Durandus, I, c. vi, 86). In the northern parts of England the men parade the streets on Easter Sunday and claim the privilege of lifting every woman three times from the ground, receiving in payment a kissor a silver sixpence. The same is done by the women to the men on the next day. In the Neumark (Germany) on Easter Day themen servants whip the maid servants with switches; on Monday the maids whip the men. They secure their release with Easter e ggs. These customs are probably of pre Christian origin (Reinsberg-Dringsfeld, Das festliche Jahr, 118).


The Easter Fire is lit on the top of mountains (Easter mountain, Osterberg) and must be kindled from new fire, drawn from wood by friction ( nodfyr); this is a custom of pagan origin in vogue all over Europe, signifying the victory of spring over winter. The bishops issued severe edicts against the sacrilegious Easter fires (Conc. Germanicum, a. 742, c.v.; Council of Lestines, a. 743, n. 15), but did not succeed in abolishing them everywhere. The Church adopted the observance into the Easter ceremonies, referring it to the fiery column in the desert and to the Resurrection of Christ ; the new fire on Holy Saturday is drawn from f lint,symbolizing the Resurrection of the Light of the World from the tomb closed by a stone (Missale Rom.). In some places a figure was thrown into the Easter

CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN fire, symbolizing winter, but to the Christians on the Rhine, in Tyrol and Bohemia, Judas the traitor(Reinsberg-Dringfeld, Das festliche Jahr, 112 sq.).


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At Puy in France, from time immemorial to the te nth century, it was customary, when at the first psalm of Matins a canon was absent from the choir, for some of the canons and vicars, taking with them the processional cross and the holy water, to go to the house of the absentee, sing the "Haec Dies", sprinkle him with water, if he was still in bed, and lead him to the church. In punishment he had to give a breakfast to his conduc tors. A similar custom is found in the fifteenth century at Nantes andAngers, where it was prohibited by the diocesan synods in 1431 and 1448. In some parts of Germany parents and children try to surprise each other in bed on Easter morning to apply the health giving switches (Freyde, Ostern in deutscher Sage, Sitte und Dichtung, 1893).

In both the Oriental and Latin Churches, it is customary to have those victuals which were prohibited during Lent blessed by the priests before eating them on Easter Day, especially meat, eggs, butter, and cheese (Ritualbucher, Paderborn, 1904; Maximilianus, Liturg. or., 117). Those who ate before the food was blessed, according to popular belief, were punished by God, sometimes instantaneously ( Migne, Liturgie, s.v. Pques).


On the eve of Easter the homes are blessed (Rit. Rom., tit. 8, c. iv) in memory of the passi ng of the angel in Egypt and the signing of the door -posts with the blood of the paschal lamb . The parish priest visits the houses of his parish; the papalapartments are also blessed on this day. The room, however, in which the pope is found by the visiting cardinal is blessed by thepontiff himself (Moroni, Dizionaria, s.v. Pasqua).


The Greeks and Russians after their long, severe Lent make Easter a day of popular sports. At Constantinople the cemetery of Pera is the noisy rendezvous of the Greeks; there are music, dances, and all the pleasures of an Oriental popular resort; the same custom prevails in the cities of Russia. In Russia anyone can enter the belfries on Easter and ring the bells, a privilege of which many persons avail themselves.[9]

Cheti Chand is a festival which is commemorated to celebrate the birth anniversary of Jhulelal, who is considered by the Sindhis to be the reincarnation of Lord Varuna or the God of Water. This is also celebrated as Sindhi New Year and it falls on the first day of the month of Chaitra which is called as Cheti in Sindhi.The Sindhi people have much regard for water and it has a special significance for in olden days



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the merchants used to have trade with different countries and used to trav el in water by ship. The people celebrate Cheti Chand by visiting Jhulelal mandirs or tikanas across his country and offer prayer ceremonies. The Hyderabadi Amils who ar e the sub sects and who follow the lines of Sikh gurudwaras also celebrate Cheti Chand.


On the day of Ram Navami or Janamashtami Lord Krishna was born and on the eve of these celebrations like bhajans and kirtans are held till midnight.Shivratri is also celebrated by visiting temples and stay awake the whole night by praying to God and bhajans. Special pooja ceremonies are held in the temple and on this special day people are offered with a drink called 'Thaadhal' with some 'bhang' in it whereas in villages and cities Taahri or the sweet rice is cooked and is distributed among friends and family and the poor.

Chailo Sahib is a festival of fasting which falls in the month of July -August. The fasting is observed for forty where it begins with the tying of a revered thread by a priest and praying to Lord Jhulelal.They pray to Lord Jhulelal for forty days and after the fast is over they celebrate the occasion as Thanks Giving Day with festivities. The final day of the occasssion is celebrated by worshipping Bahirana Sahib followed by a procession of the same in the streets. Generally during the forty days of fasting, the morning prayers include a preparation of a dish called Akho made of rice and sugar and in the ev ening they visit temples and attend kirtan.The legend behind this festival there was a muslim invader Mirkshah Badshah who was a religious fanatic and he wanted all the people of Thatta to convert into Islam. Thus to escape from this tyrant the Hindus worshipped Varun Devta or the God of Water for forty days and on the last day the God answered in the form Jhulelal,the saviour. Since majority of the population of Thatta was of Sindhi Community, Chailo Sahib became a festival of the Sindhis.

This is a festival for the brothers by the sisters. This festival is called as Rakhree Bandhan and falls on the Purnima of Sawan month. During this day the sisters tie Rakhi to their brothers. It is not only the own sisters but even cousin sisters tie rakhi to cou sin brothers. At times they even come from far off places to celebrate this occasion. They also exchange sweets during this day and in places where there are rivers or sea people visit and offer coconuts and milk to the God of Waters 'Varun Devta praying f or the people who travel by ship and boat.

Teejri falls in the Sawan month during monsoon. This festival highlights the fasting by the women of the house. On the day of Teejri women fast for their loved ones and they put Mehendi and play indoor gam es and the ladies get together singing folk songs and pass the day. They also swing in Jhulas singing songs thinking of their loved ones. When the night falls and after seeing the moon they offer the specially cooked food in the moonlight and then eat by breaking the feast.

Thadri or the cooling festival is celebrated in the month of Savan every year on the seventh day of the waning of the moon.Thadri signifies the birth of Yoga -Maya, the sister of Lord Krishna. On this day the



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mother goddess Sittal a is worshipped in various forms. This God is believed to be the God named after various diseases like small pox and measles. The people usually play card game on this day to symbolize that life is also like a game where we will have take success and failu re with happiness. As a custom the lady of the house prepare curd and cake on the previous day of the festival itself for on that particular day fire is not supposed to be lit at home. People get together and visit the local shrine by singing songs.[10]

Sindhi is the language of the historical Sindh region. It is spoken by 53,410,910 people in Pakistan and some 5,820,485 people in India. It is the second most spoken language in all of Pakistan and is theoretically the official language of the province of Sindh, although Urdu and English are still the main languages for many administrative and business purposes. In India, Sindhi is one of the scheduled languages officially recognized by the federal government. Abroad there are some 2.6 million Sindhis, out of which approximately 60% are Pakistani and 40% are Indian. Sindhi is an Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It has influences from a local version of spoken form of Sanskrit and from Balochi spoken in the adjacent province of Balochistan. Most Sindhi speakers are concentrated in the Sindh province and in Kutch, India where Sindhi is a local language. The remaining speakers in India are composed of the Hindu Sindhis who migrated from Sindh and settled in India after partition and the Sindhi diaspora worldwide

Urdu is a register of the Hindi-Urdu language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia . Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an official language of five states. Based on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi, Urdu is derived from Sanskrit and developed under the influence of Persian, Arabic, and Turkic over the course of almost 900 years. [4] It began to take shape in wh at is now Uttar Pradesh , India during the Delhi Sultanate (12061527), and continued to develop under the Mughal Empire (15261858). Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi (or Hindi-Urdu) spoken in India. Both languages share the



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same Indic base an d are so similar in phonology and grammar that they appear to be one language. combined population of Hindi and Urdu speakers is the fourth largest in the world.

Mughals hailed from the Barlas tribe which was of Mongol origin, the tribe had embraced Turkic and Persian culture , and resided in Turkestan and Khorasan. Their mother tongue was the Chaghatai language (known to them as Turk, "Turkic") and they were equally at home in Persian, the lingua franca of the Timurid elite. But after their arrival in the Indian subcontinent, the need to communicate with local inhabitants led to use of Indic languages written in the Persian alphabet , with some literary conventions and vocabulary retained from Persian and Turkic; this eve ntually became a new standard called Hindustani, which is the direct predecessor of Urdu. Urdu is often contrasted with Hindi. Apart from religious associations, the differences are largely restricted to the standard forms : Standard Urdu is conventionally written in the Nastaliq style of the Persian alphabet and relies heavily on Persian and Arabic as a source for technical and literary vocabulary, whereas Standard Hindi is conventionally written in Devangar and draws on Sanskrit. However, both have large numbers of Persian, Arabic , and Sanskrit words, and most linguists consider them to be two standardized forms of the same language,[14][15] and consider the differences to be sociolinguistic, though a few classify them separately. Mutual intelligibility decreases in literary a nd specialized contexts which rely on educated vocabulary. Due to religious nationalism since the partition of British India and continued communal tensions, native speakers of both Hindi and Urdu frequently assert them to be completely distinct languages, despite the numerous similarities between the two in a colloquial setting. However, it is quite easy to distinguish differences in vocabulary.


Saraiki transliterated as Sarik and sometimes spelled Seraiki, Siraiki andSarayeki, is a standardized written language of Pakistan belonging to the Indo-Aryan (Indic) languages. It is spoken by the Saraiki people in the Saraiki-speaking regions, also called as Saraikistan, in the heart of Pakistan. No mention of Saraiki as a unified identity is ever been made before the creation of Pakistan. Saraiki is based on a gro up of vernacular, historically unwritten dialects spoken by over 18 million people across the southern most half and the northwest of Punjab Province, southern districts of Dera Ismail Khan and Tank of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, the adjacent border regions of the Sindh and Balochistan provinces, and nearly 70,000 migrants and their descendants in India who migrated as a result of the partition of India , and about a million population of Pakistani diaspora in different parts of the world especially the Middle East. Saraiki is also spoken in Afghanistan, albeit the total number of speakers there are still unknown. Although having its roots in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization , the development of the standard written language began after the founding of Pakistan in 1947 driven by a regionalist political movement. The national census of Pakistan has tabulated the prevalence of Saraiki speakers since 1981. Saraiki is the fourth most widely spoken language in Pakistan after Punjabi, Pashto, and Sindhi; and within Punjab Province it is one of the two major languages. Saraiki is ranked 52nd largest language of the world.


Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati (11001500 AD) which is the ancestor language of the modern



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Gujarati and Rajasthani languages. It is native to the Indian state of Gujarat, where it is the chief language, and to the adjacent union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. There are about 65.5 million s peakers of Gujarati worldwide, making it the 26th most spoken native language in the world. Along with Romany and Sindhi, it is among the most western of Indo -Aryan languages. Gujarati was the first language of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , the "Father of the Nation of India", and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel , the "Iron Man of India." Other prominent personalities whose first la nguage is or was Gujarati include Swami Dayananda Saraswati , Morarji Desai , Narsinh Mehta, Dhirubhai Ambani , and J. R. D. Tata . & Muhammad Ali Jinnah the "Father of the Nation of Pakistan"

Dhatki, also known as Dhati or Thari, is one of the Rajasthani languages of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is most closely related to Marwari. Dhatki/Dhati is spoken in western parts of Jaisalmer and Barmer districts of Rajasthan in India and eastern parts of Sindh province of Pakistan by about 2,000,000 people in all. Some Dhatki -speaking communities migrated to India in 1947 after the independence and continued to do so in small numbers after that date, but the great majority of Dhatki speakers still reside in Pakistan.


Pashto also known as Afghani (Persian:  and Pathani), is the native language of the Pashtun ) people of South Central Asia . Pashto is a member of the Eastern Iranian languages group, spoken in Pakistan and Afghanistan as well as by the Pashtun diaspora around the world. Pashto belongs to the Northeastern Iranic branch of the Indo-Iranian language family, although Ethnologue lists it as Southeastern Iranic. The number of Pashtuns or Pashto-speakers is estimated 50-60 million people worldwide. Pashto is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan (the other being Dari Persian), and a regional language in western and northwestern Pakistan.

The Marwari language also variou sly Marvari, Marwadi, Marvadi), is spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Marwari is also found in the neighboring state of Gujarat and Haryana and in Eastern Pakistan. With some 13.2 mill ion speakers (as of 1997, ca.), it is the largest language by number of speakers of the Marwari subgroup of the " Rajasthani language". There are 13 million speakers in Rajasthan and rest 200,000 in Eastern Pakistan. There about 23 dialects of the Marwari Language. It is popularly written in Devanagari script, as is Hindi, Sanskrit and Nepali. Marwari currently has no official status as a language of education and government. There has been a push in the recent past for the national government to recognize this language and give it a scheduled status. The state of Rajasthan recognizes Rajasthani as a language. In Pakistan, there are two varieties of Marwari. They may or may not be close enough to Indian Marwari to be considered the same language.



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The Marwari language was used in the recent Indian movie, Paheli, where it was mixed with Hindi so it is understandable to the main stream (Hindi speakers) audience. Marwari is s till spoken widely in and around Jodhpur. There are ongoing efforts to identify and classify this language cluster and the language differences


The Memon or Memoni language is the language of Memons historically associated with Kathiawar, in West India , a Memon subgroup. Ma ny Memons have settled in Karachi,Sindh, Pakistan since the independence in 1947. The true origin of the language is still debated among the historians of the regions. However, it is common to believe that memoni language actually o riginated as a dialect of Sindhi language. Within the language itself, there are currently many different dialects, some having more influence of one language, and others having that of others. The language has not been organized greatly, hence, neither ha ving its alphabetical system of reading and writing, nor having its literature and dictionary. This is one of the reasons the disorientation among the speakers themselves for deciding which words are better for what, as there is a wide variety of vocabulary available to. The Memon community is generally divided into three major subgroups: Kathiawadi Memons , Sindhi Memons (who speak the Sindhi language ) and Kutchi Memons (who speak Kutchi) The first category (memons originating in Kathiwar) are simply called Memons, and they speak the Memon language, the subject of this article. These people are mostly Muslims (and mosly Sunni, Hanafi), who migrated from Sindh to Kathiwar several centuries ago. Sindhi and Kutchi are spoken by both Muslims and non Muslims, in contrast to the Memon language, which is exclusively spoken by Memons of Kathiwadi origin, who are almost entirely Muslim. In stress, intonation, and everyday speech, Memoni is very similar to Sindhi, but it borrowes extensively from Gujarati, Hindustani and lately English. Like most languages of the Indian subcontinent the sentence structure of Memoni generally follows subjectobjectverb order.[1] In Pakistan, Memoni has adopted many Urdu words and phrases. Even between different villages of Kathiwar, variations arose. For example, in Ranavav, the word for sugar is khand, while in Jodiya, it is chinni.


English is Pakistan's official language. All government documents, military communications, street signs, many shop signs, business contracts and other activities use English. The language of the courts is also English. English is taught to all school-level Pakistani students, and in most cases the medium of instruction is also in English. At college and university level, all instruction is in English. Pakistan boasts a large English language press and (more recently) media. All of Pakistan's major dailies are published in or have an edition in English, while DAWN News is a major English Language News Channel. Code-switching (the concurrent use of more tha n one language, or language variety, in conversation) is common in Pakistan and almost all conversations in whatever language has a significant English component.



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since Pakistan and china got better friends with each other and promoting social interest to each other so Pakistan also started to learn Chinese and getting together with china.[11]

Stratification is a hierarchy of positions with regard to economic production which influences the social rewards to those in the positions. Stratification can be defined various ways, but most commonly refers to institutionalized inequalities in power, wealth, and status between categories of persons within a single social system (e.g., classes, castes, ethnic groups)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Class is large set of people regarded by themselves or others as sharing similar status with regard to wealth, power and prestige. A social class is a homogeneous group of people in a society formed on the combined basis of education Occupation Income place of residence

And have who have similar social values similar int erest in life and they behave a like have approximately equal position of respect or status in a society.


Caste is an elaborate and complex social system that combines some or all elements of endogamy, hereditary transmission of occupation, social class, social identity, hierarchy, exclusion and power. Havilland defines caste as a closed form of social stratification in which membership is determined by birth and remains fixed for l ife; castes are also endogamous and off springs are automatically members of their parent's caste. Religious, historical and socio-cultural factors have helped define the bounds of endogamy for Muslims in some parts of Pakistan. There is a preference for endogamous marriages based on the clan-oriented nature of the society, which values and actively seeks similarities in social group identity based on several
[11] -list-of-languages-are-spoken-in-pakistan-t41671.html#ixzz1uj4rHyMw



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factors, including religious, sectarian, ethnic, and tribal/clan affiliation. Religious affiliation is itself multilayered and inc ludes religious considerations other than being Muslim, such as sectarian identity (e.g. Shia or Sunni, etc.) and religious orientation within the sect (Isnashari, Ismaili, Ahmedi, etc.). Both ethnic affiliation (e.g. Sindhi, Baloch, Punjabi, etc.) and mem bership of specific biraderis or zaat/quoms are additional integral components of social identity. Within the bounds of endogamy defined by the above parameters, close consanguineous unions are preferred due to a congruence of key features of group - and individual-level background factors as well as affinities.[12]


Primitive communalism characterized by a high degree of sharing and minimal social inequality. Slavery involving great social inequality and the ownership of some pe rsons by others. Caste in which an individual is permanently assigned to a status based on his or her parents' status. Estate in which peasants are required by law to work land owned by the noble class in exchange for food and protection from outside attacks.


Class or a set of people with similar amounts of income and wealth. Party or a set of people with similar amounts of power. Status group or a set of people with similar social prestige or positive regard from members of a society.


They are actually High status leader ship Big business man Top management of company The upper social class which generally have high level of income and belong to be most high paying profession and they live in most cleanest place of the country and money will be no problem for them and their size is 2% of the total society and approximately 3.7 million they have 60% to 65% of money of the country.


The USC and MSC education are met different like USC study in foreign country like oxf ord university and MSC are study in local university of their country but income size will found more different their houses are different their house are not huge and not think for a huge house of defense and think a house



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of Gulshan-e-iqbal their population is 28% out of the total population their population is 53 to 54 million of the total population . They are actually They are small to size in business man Middle management Low level government officer

The WSC are not much more educated they are not in very accretive profession their income is low and they build one two room poorly houses, electricity not available water etc.Their size is 70% out total population of Pakistan.[13] They are actually They are very small size shop owner, skill, semi skill and unskilled. Low level govt.staff(peons, driver) Poor former Political worker


A unit of sociopolitical organization consisting of a number of families, clans, or other groups who share a common ancestry and culture and among whom leadership is typically neither formalized nor permanent. The composition of the population of Sind Province (before Partition) the two main stocks that inhabit Sind are related to, and common, one with the Punjab and another with Baluchistan. The majority stock is that of Rajputs and Jats who are the descendants of Sakas, Kushans and Huns who also constitute the majority of the population the Punjab. During Kalhora rule a number of Jat tribes such as the Sials, Joyas and Khawars came from the Punjab and settled in Sind. They are called Sirai i.e., men from the north and speak Siraiki language. Two main Rajput tribes of Sind are: the Samma, a branch of the Yadav Rajputs who inhabit the eastern and lower Sind and Bahawalpur; and the Sumra who, according to the 1907 edition of the Gazetteer are a branch of the Parwar Rajputs. Among others are the Bhuttos, Bhattis, Lakha, Sahetas, Lohanas, Mohano, Dahars, Indhar, Chachar, Dhareja, Rathors, Dakhan, Langah etc.4 The Mohano tribe is spread over Makran, Sind and southern Punjab. They are also identified with the Mallah of the Punjab and both have



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in common a sub -section called Manjari. All these, old Sindhi tribes are known under the common nomenclature of Sammat. The smaller stock is that of Baluchi tribes setlled in various parts of Sind mostly during the last five hundred years or so Since they were martial people and ruled over Sind for some time before the arrival of the British, they a cquired vast lands in the province with the result that a large number of present -day Sindhi landlords are of Baluch origin. According to the 1941 census, which was the last one held before Partition Baluchis formed 23% of the total Muslim population of Si nd. Among the Baluchi tribes inhabiting Sind are the Rind, Dombki, Jakhrani, Leghari, Lashari, Chandio, Karmati, Korai, Jatoi, Burdi, Khosa, Jamali, Umrani, Bugti, Marri, Mazari, Talpur, Brohi, Nizamani, Buledhi, Karrani, Bozdar, Nukharni, Magsi etc. These tribes are spread over Baluchistan, Sind and the south-western districts of the Punjab. Yet a third stock of Sindhi population comprises of the descendants of Muslim conquerors, administrators and missionaries who were mostly Arabs, Persians, Turks or Mu ghals. They are a small minority settled in cities and towns but so deeply absorbed and blended with the other components of the population that all the three together have evolved a distinct language and culture. Of this third element Arabs have contributed most to the development of Sindhi language and literature and to the advancement of its intellectual and cultural activities. Since the early history of Sind is intimately related to the history of the Punjab and other provinces of Pakistan it need not be dealt with at length. Only a brief account shall be attempted here, without mentioning the Indus Valley civilization which will be discussed some other time. Before lmaduddin Mohammad Bin Qasims arrival here, Rajputs were the ruling race in Sind and in the rest of northern India. The last Rajput ruler of Sind was Raja Sahasi II whose dominions extended up to Kashmir. He was a contemporary of Prophet Mohammad and professed Buddhism as did his father Siharus. The rule of Raja Sahasi II ended in 632 A.D. the year Prophet Mohammad died. He was succeeded by his Brahmin chamberlain, Chach, who had become a favourite of Sahasis wife. Chach ruled over Sind for about 68 years from 632-700 A.D. His son Dahir was the ruler when Mohammad Bin Qasim arrived here in 711 A.D.


While the entire world celebrates the International Day of Indigenous People on August 8 (today), the day is not being observed with similar spirit in Sindh. Action Aid Pakistan, Bhandar Hari Sangat and Green Rural Development Organisation (GRDO) are jointly organising a programme in Hyderabad, gathering only farmers, who are the most marginalised people in the province. These people live like gypsies. They do not have permanent villages and migrate from one place t o another in search of livelihood. That is why majority of them are not even enrolled on the voters list and do not take part in the electoral process of the country. They have been vulnerable to landlords, the influential and law enforcement agencies in their neighbourhood. These people live like gypsies. They do not have permanent villages and migrate from one place to another in search of livelihood. That is why majority of them are not even enrolled on the voters list and do not take part in the elect oral process of the country. They have been vulnerable to landlords, the influential and law enforcement agencies in their neighbourhood.



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The irony is that not a single political party has designed any programme for the well being of these two tribes or protecting their rights to live and work. They are being dealt inhumanly. Being poor, they do not like to enrol their children in schools. Ishaq Mangrio, a folklore writer, says Bheel is believed to be a brave community in the Hindu mythology. The rulers always were frightened that these people might become a big threat to their authority. They still live in the traditional makeshift homes separately, outside of permanent villages. These people have century old tools of hunting and poach birds and animals for eating. They belong to the Indian states and speak Gujrati, Marvari, Parkari and Kachhi languages, while Sindhi is the main language that they use to communicate in the province. Mangrio, who is familiar with the activities of the communities, says that these people celebrate their religious days and happy occasions with traditional enthusiasm. They perform particular dances on the tune of traditional music tools on such occasions. Pirbhu Lal of Thardeep, belonging to Tharparkar district says there is no accurate figure of population of these scheduled caste communities in Sindh. According to him the last census shows the population of scheduled caste only 0.3 million, which is incorrect. The government has never planned to take the issues of these scheduled castes to the policy -making process so that their rights can be assured. The activists struggling for the rights of Dalites hav e underlined the need to end caste based discrimination in the country and demanded to declare it a crime. For this they suggested to set up a commission to solve the problems of the scheduled caste minorities. There are about 300 million indigenous men, women and children worldwide. They are extremely diverse - more than 5,000 different groups of indigenous peoples live in more than 70 countries. They make up one third of the worlds 800 million extremely poor rural people. In many countries, indigenous people are severely disadvantaged. They are often forced to live on the least productive terrain, denied rights to land, forests and other natural resources that they have managed sustainably for millennia, and are marginalised by modern society.[14]


A local community is a group of interacting people sharing an environment. In human communities, intent, belief, resources, preferences, needs, risks, and a number of other conditions may be present and common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness. A community has been defined as a group of interacting people living in a common location. The word is often used to refer to a group that is organized around common values and is attributed with social cohes ion within a shared geographical location, generally in social units larger than a household.[15]

[14] [15]

With the emergence of Muhajirs in urban areas of Pakistan, Urdu virtually became the lingua franca. The -tribunal-flood-hit-people-hit-out-at-govts-sluggish-relief-work/



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country's first Urdu Conference took place in Karachi in April 1951, under the auspices of the Anjuman Taraqqi-i-Urdu. The Anjuman, headed by Maulvi Abdul Haq not only published the scattered works of classical and modern writers, but also provided a platform for linguists, researchers and authors. Among them Shan -ul-Haq Haqqee, Shahid Ahmed Dehlvi, Josh Malihab adi, Qudrat Naqvi, Mahir -ul-Qadri, Hasan Askari, Jameel Jalibi and Intizar Hussain are significant names. Whereas Akhtar Hussain Raipuri, Sibte Hassan and Sajjad Zaheer were more inclined to produce left -winged literature. Among women writers, Qurratulain Hyder, Khadija Mastoor, Altaf Fatima and Fatima Surayya Bajia became the pioneer female writers on feminist issues.


Muhajirs have played an extremely important and influential role in science and technology in Pakistan. Scientists such as Ziauddin Ahmed, Raziuddin Siddiqui and Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, gave birth to Pakistan Science and later built the integrated weapons program, on request of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Muhajir later forwarded to developed the Pakistan's space pr ogram and other scientific and strategic programs of Pakistan. Many prominent scientists come from the Muhajir class including Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad, Ghulam Murtaza, Raziuddin Siddiqui, Dr. Pervez Hoodbhoy, Dr. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, and Atta ur Rahman to name a few.


The Muhajir community brings a rich culture with it. Muhajirs have and continue to play an essential role in defining and enriching Pakistani culture and more significantly, music. Some famous Muhajir Pakistani musicians include: Nazia Hassan, Mehdi Hassan, Munni Begum, and Ahmed Jahanzeb. Muhajirs contribution has not been limited to pop but has spanned various music genres, from traditional Ghazal singing to rock. Muhajirs in Pakistan are also famous for their contribution towards the art of painting.


The initial business elites of Pakistan were muhajirs. Some of the prominent ones are Habib Bank Limited, Hyesons, Isphani group, Schon group etc. Nationalization proved to be catastrphpic for muhajir business and final blow to it was given by the dictatorship of zia ul haq. But in recent years many muhajirs have established there business in Pakistan contributing in textile, garment, leather, food prodcts, cosmetics and personal goods industry. Few of Pakistan's biggest financial institution were founded or headed by muhajirs State bank of Pakistan, EOBI, PIDC, United Bank Of Pakistan, First Women Bank etc., were established by muhajir bankers.



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Muhajir are active in many sports in Pakistan. Muhajir are playing in the Pakistani cricket team with well known players such as Javed Miandad, Saeed Anwar, Mohsin Khan, Sikhander Bakht and Moin Khan. There are now younger players like A sad Shafiq, Fawad Alam, Khurram Manzoor playing for the international side. Muhajirs are notably involved hockey, tennis, squash and badminton. Bodybuilding and weightlifting are increasing in popularity among younger members of the Muhajir community.[16]

Mining allows you to take minerals, ore and stone from the ground. It works in a similar fashion to Herbalism in that you find nodes to mine from. Learning Mining gives you the Track Minerals skill which allows ore nodes to appear on your mini -map. You will also occasionally mine Gems from mineral nodes. The ore you mine can be used for Blacksmithing, Jewelcrafting, or Engineering, or sold via the AH. I dont recommend trying to smoke it.

There are two main types of Professions Primary and Secondary. There are 10 primary professions and you can learn any two of them. Three of these are considered Gathering professions and seven are considered Crafting professions. The gatheri ng professions are: Skinning, Mining and Herbalism and the Crafting professions are: Blacksmithing, Enchanting, Alchemy, Tailoring, Leatherworking, Jewel crafting and Engineering. The three secondary professions are: Fishing, Cooking and First Aid.

Herbalism allows you to pick various weeds, flowers, plants and herbs that you find in nodes all around Azeroth (and the Outlands). When you learn Herbalism, you also learn the Track Herbs skill which allows herb nodes to ap pear on your mini map. The herbs you pick can be used for Alchemy, sold via the AH, or smoked.




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Skinning works a bit differently t han the other two Gathering Professions. Instead of finding nodes to gather from, you get leather from skinning various beasts that you kill. Skinning is probably the easiest gathering profession to skill up in, as you will kill many many beasts in the cou rse of regular play and wont have to go out of your way to find them.

Blacksmithing allows you to take the metals and stone obtained from Mining and use them to create Mail and Plate armour, many different kinds of weapons, and numerous other items, such as keys to open doors and locks, rods needed by enchanters, and various Trade Goods used by other professions. There are quite a few weapons and pieces of armour that do not drop anywhere in the world and can only be crafted by Blacksmiths. At the higher levels in Blacksmithing, you can choose a specialization of armoursmithing or weaponsmithing. A choice of weaponsmithing allows you to choose a further specialization of axes, hammers or swords

Warriors and Paladins will get the most benefit from Blacksmithing, as they can use all of the crafted weapons and armor. Shaman and Rogues would be able to use some of the weapons created, but none of the armor, so this is probably not the be st profession for those classes. (Shaman can wear mail after level 40, but most 40+ Blacksmithing armor recipes are for Plate.)


Alchemy lets you create various and sundry potions, elixirs and flasks from the plants gathered by Herbalism. The potio ns created by Alchemy have a very wide range of effects: health and mana boosts, buffs and magical resist increases, and temporary weapon enchants, to name a few. Alchemists are also able to provide a valuable service by transmuting various items and mater ials used by high level players. In addition, high level alchemists are able to specialize in Potions, Elixirs or Transmutations.


All classes can benefit from Alchemy.



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Tailors take the cloth dropped by humanoids all over the world and use it to make Cloth armor, shirts, and bags. There are numerous pieces of cloth armor than can only be made by Tailors and even a few items that can only be worn by Tailors. The ability to make bags is very useful, as not only will the Tailor himself need them, but they are always in demand by other players and can often be sold at a profit. High level Tailors can choose to specialize in Mooncloth, Shadowweave, or Spellfire Tailoring.


Cloth wearing classes (Mages, Warlocks, and Priests) will get the most benefit from Tailoring. Every class can use the bags that Tailoring makes, but the majority of Tailoring recipes are for Cloth armor.

Leatherworking allows players to take the leather skinned from beasts and make it into Leather (and possibly, Mail) armor, armor kits to boost your total armor count, and quivers and ammo pouches to hold arrows and bullets. High level Leatherworkers can choose to specialize in Elemental, Tribal or Dragonscale Leatherworking.

Leather wearing classes (Druids, Rogues, Hunters and Shaman) will get the most benefit from Leatherworking. There are a few recipes that every class can use, but the vast majority are for Leather armor. Additionally the Dragonscale specialization, which produces Mail armor, allows Hunters and Shaman to continue to craft their own armor after level 40.

Enchanters have the ability to place permanent enchantments on weapons and armor, and they ca n also make a small number of trade goods (such as Mana and Wizard Oils) that can be used by themselves or other players. The enchants that they provide center around attribute bonuses (Stam, Int, Agi, Str and Spi) but they also have a number of enchants t hat focus on other areas. For example, there are enchants to increase your run speed, threat caused, attack speed, and healing and damage done by spells. To enchant items, a player uses materials obtained by Dis -Enchanting Green or higher items. Enchanting is generally considered the most difficult and expensive profession to level.

Every class can benefit from Enchanting.



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Jewelcrafting, not surprisingly, is the skill of crafting jewelry and gems. Initially, it allows a player to create rings and necklaces which can be used by themselves or sold to other players. Jewelcrafters can also create stone statues, which heal the crafter for a short time when used. At a skill level of 300, Jewelcrafters start crafting Gems, which are used in certain high -quality level 60+ armor and weapons to provide additional attribute bonuses (similar to an enchant). Jewelcrafting mats are obtained from Mining and Prospecting ore.

Every class can benefit from Jewelcrafting.

Engineering is probably the most difficult Profession to summarize. It allows a player to create many, many (many, many, many) different types of gadgets. Some examples are: Guns, Bombs (thrown at a target area and causes damage), Scopes (increases damage done by guns and bows), Jumper Cables (allows a non -rezzer to sometimes rez an ally), Charges (to blow open doors and locks), Control Devices (take control of mechanoids or humanoids for a short time), Bullets, various non -combat pets, and many more things. Engi neering use s mats obtained through Mining.

Every class can benefit from Engineering, however there are a few classes that find particular benefit from certain Engineering items. Many Paladins, who as a class have limited ranged abilities, will become Engineers for the grenades that they can make. Due to the cost involved in making them, the grenades are usually saved for PvP use, but can be used in PvE as well. Furthermore, many Hunters, taking advantage of their Feign Death ability, will take E ngineering to be able to craft and use the Jumper Cables, thus allowing them to rez their party after a wipe (sometimes). (Many Rogues do this as well, although Vanish is not quite as effective as Feign Death). Hunters are also the only class that really benefits from using a Scope on their bow or gun. [17]

Agriculture is the main profession of the people of Sindh. The prosperity of the hole province depends on agriculture. Agriculture is the the back-bone of our economy.

[17] -to-professions/



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Our farmers are playing a very important role in our daily life. But they are getting low production. The main reason for low production in our agriculture is the use of old and traditional methods of cultivation by our farmers. They do not use good quality seeds and fertilizers, where as our government has made a good help by making industries su ch as Angro, FJFC (Fauji Jordan Fertilizers Company)....etc. They even not use pesticides properly to protect their crops. Our farmers have not started using new methods of agriculture to increase their production. By using new techniques we can produce large quantities of food -gains and farm products per acre. The land of our province is very fertile. If we use modern techniques regularly in our agriculture, we shall certainly produce much more than our needs. In order to get good crops, we need sufficien t water, good quality seeds fertilizers and modern agricultural implements.

Our government has established Agriculture Department for the development of agriculture. Some very important agricultural institutions are functioning in Tando Jam, (District Hyderabad) for this purpose. There is a very big Agriculture college at Tando Jam. It provides facilities for practical training. Atomic Energy Agriculture Research Center is also established at Tando Jam. The farmers are helped by the use of atomic energy in agriculture and also to increase their farm production. Plant Protection Department is situated at Karachi. The responsibility of this department is to protect crops from germs and pests. [18]

A form of gender-based violence, an honour killing is the homicide of a member of a family or social group by other members, due to the belief the victim has brought dishonor upon the family or community. The killing is viewed as a way to restore the reputation and honour of the family. In Pakistan, honour killings are known locally as karo-kari. Karo-kari is a compound word literally meaning "black male" (Karo) and "black female (Kari). Originally, Karo and Kari were metaphoric terms for adulterer and adulteress, but it has come to
[18] [18] /sindh-agriculture.asp and-urban-societies/ -



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be used with regards to multiple forms of perceived immoral behavior. Once a woman is labeled as a Kari, family members consider themselves to be authorized to kill her and the co -accused Karo in order to restore family honour. In the majority of cases, the victim of the attacks is female with her attackers being male members of her family or community. Karo kari is a compound word literally meaning black male and black female, metaphoric terms for adulterer and adulteress. Karo Kari applies to killing of both males and females in cultures that practice it. But more often than not, only women become the real victim of the Karo Kari and lost their lives in brutal fashion. Every month dozens of women are killed in the name of Karo Kari. It is strange that even then the oppressed women and men of Sindh commit adultery after observing so many b rutal deaths around them on the same charges. Just in the last 6 years, more than 6,000 women have been killed along with 800 men. The way these people are killed must be an example for others, yet such incidents happen and the honoured ones of the area have to do karo kari. Karo Kari is not an honour killing. Honour killing is itself a heinous crime, but this archaic evil custom is proudly cherished in the rural areas of Sindh. In the name of honour, many scores are settled which mainly are related to the inheritance problem or feud -settling or just to get rid of wife to re-marry. Just couple of days ago, Hanifa was brutally killed by her spouse, Waryam, four days ago in village Muhammad Ismail Mahar in the limits of the Yaro Lund Police Station of Ghotki. Her husband accused her of having illicit relationship with the husband of her sister. Before killing and burying her without funeral, Waryam put her in a ditch with threats that she would be buried alive if she did not confess and tortured her. Hanifa refused to bow in and Waryam killed her. Initially, when Waryam accused her wife, she bolted to Rahim Yar Khan for shelter and only came back when the feudal of area Muhammad Ismail Mahar assured her that she wont be killed. As she came back, she was taken hostage by her husband, tortured and killed and Muhammad Ismail Mahar didnt do a thing. This is what happens most of the time. Women or even men manage to flee after being accused as they know that they will be now killed without their innocence or anything and then the feudal of area give them their word, and as soon as they come back they meet their gruesome fate. Feudal should be wiped out brutally by the people to end this evil, and people can only do that if they have awareness and awareness only comes through education.


Karo-Kari is an act of murder, in which a person is killed for his or her actual or perceived immoral behavior. Such "immoral behavior" may take the form of alleged marital infidelity, refusal to submit to an arranged marriage, demanding a divorce, perceived flirtatious behavior and being raped. Suspicion and accusations alone are many times enough to defile a familys honor and therefore enough to warrant the killing of the woman.



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In patriarchal cultures, womens lives are structured through a strict maintenance of an honor code. In order to preserve woman's chastity, women must abide by socially restrictive cultural practices pertaining to women's status and family izzat, or honor, such as the practice of purdah, the segregation of sexes. Honor killings are frequently more complex than the stated excuses of the perpetrators. Mor e often than not, the murder relates to inheritance problems, feud-settling, or to get rid of the wife, for instance in order to remarry. Human rights agencies in Pakistan have repeatedly emphasized that victims were often women wanting to marry of their o wn will. In such cases, the victims held properties that the male members of their families did not wish to lose if the woman chose to marry outside the family. A 1999 Amnesty International report drew specific attention to "the failure of the authorities to prevent these killings by investigating and punishing the perpetrators. According to women's rights advocates, the concepts of women as property and honor are so deeply entrenched in the social, political and economic fabric of Pakistan that the government, for the most part, ignores the daily occurrences of women being killed and maimed b y their families. The fact that much of Pakistan's Tribal Areas are semi-autonomous and governed by often fundamentalist leaders makes federal enforcement difficult when attempted.


In 2011, human rights groups reported 720 honour killings in Pakistan (605 women and 115 men).Some discrepancy exists between reports. For instance Pakistan's Human Rights Commission reported that in 2010 there were 791 honor killings in the country, while Amnesty International cited 960 incidents of women alone who were slain in honour killings that year. Over 4,000 cases were reported in Pakistan between 1998 and 2004. Of the victims, almost 2,700 were women and just over 1,300 were men; and 3,451 cases came before the courts. The highest rates were in Punjab, followed by the Sindh province. Lesser number of cases have also been reported in North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and in Balochistan. Nilofar Bakhtiar, advisor to Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz, stated that in 2003, as many as 1,261 women were murdered in honour killings.

Data and its absence is difficult to interpret. One reason is the reluctance to report honor killings to official bodies. Another reason is that honor killings are occurring in cultural and social contexts which do not recognize the criminality of honor killings. The very nature of honour killings reflects deeply entrenched notions of "honour" and "morality," in which the perpetrator is upholding justice and order when the victim commits deplorable social ac ts. Honour killings thus inverts the roles of "right" and "wrong." The perpetrator becomes the champion of justice while the victim becomes the perpetrator and accused of the criminal act. Furthermore, human rights advocates are in wide agreement that the reported cases do not reflect the full extent of the issue, as honour killings have a high level of support in Pakistan's rural society, and thus often go unreported. Frequently, women killed in honour killings are recorded as having committed suicide or died in accidents.



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In one of the most publicized honour killing cases committed in Pakistan, Samia Sarwar was murdered by her family in the Lahoreoffice of well -known human rights activists Asma Jahangir and Hina Jilani in April 1999. As Sarwar sought assistance for a divorce from her first cousin, her family arranged her murder after the shame felt in her attempt to marry a man of her choice. The police did not make any arrests or pursue p rosecution as Sarwar's family is highly well -known in elite, political circles. The 2000 award-winning BBC documentary, "License to Kill," covers Samia's killing in Pakistan. Amnesty International reported that on 27 April, 2010, Ayman Udas, a Pashtun singer from the Peshawar area, was shot to death apparently by her two brothers who "viewed her divorce, remarriage and artistic career as damaging to family honour." No one was prosecuted. In 2008, three teenage girls who were buried alive after refusing arranged marriages. A widely reported case was that of Taslim Khatoon Solangi, 17, of Hajna Shah village in Khairpur district, which was widely reported after her father, 57 -year-old Gul Sher Solangi, publicized the case. He alleged his eight months pregnant daughter was tortured and killed on March 7, 2008 by members of her village claiming that she had brought dishonour to the tribe. Solangi's father claimed that it was orchestrated by her father -in-law, who accused her of carrying a child conceived out of wedlock, potentially with the added motive of trying to take over the family farm.

One cannot accurately quantify incidents of karo kari, siyahkari, tor tora and kala kali ('honour' killings) nor of people who sell off their women. But there are still some figures availa ble. In 1999, national papers reported the following statistics concerning 'honour' killings: Total incidents Killings Girls Women Marital status known Married Unmarried 278 303 45 258 255 54 101

Out of 278 incidents, in 269 cases victims' relation to the killers was known: Killed by fathers Killed by brothers Killed by husbands Killed by in-laws Killed by sons Killed by relatives 22 96 68 11 12 60

Since reports of such cases are mostly published in Sindh, let us take a closer look at this particular province. In 1999, incidents of karo kari reported in Sindhi newspapers were as follows: Incidents 353



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Karo kari incidents cannot easily be separated from other incidents in which the cause for murder is not officially listed as honour killing or revenge even though subsequently this is seen as the primary motive. Incidents in which only women were killed 175 Incidents in which only men were killed 101 Incidents in which both men and women were killed 77 Total 353 Despite the country's legal provisions, the sanctity of life is constantly violated by family and by soc iety. Those who usurp this right are not held accountable and even if they are, they get let off too easy. In the first place, very few such casesare taken to court, and those that get there most often get lenient punishments. Even where Session Court giv es a heavy sentence, it is easily reduced during appeal. In a case at Bhakkar's Session Court, 25 years of rigorous imprisonment was awarded to three convicts but the Lahore High Court in its overruling decision said, "It is true that according to law ther e is no concession in murder if it is on the supposed basis of 'honour' but an 'honour' killing and an intentional killing are not the same and people who commit 'honour' killings deserve leniency which should be granted to them." The punishment was thus reduced to five years.

An Amnesty International report noted "the failure of the authorities to prevent these killings by investigating and punishing the perpetrators." Honour killings are supposed to be prosecuted as ordinary murder, but in practice, police and prosecutors often ignore it. The Pakistani government's failure to take effective measures to end the practice of honor killings is indicative of a weakening of political institutions, corruption, and economic decline. In the wake of civil crisis, people turn to other alternative models, such as traditional tribal customs. In Pakistan, the male-dominated jirga, or tribal council, decides affairs and its executive decisions take primacy over state legislation. A jirga arbitrates based on tribal consensus and tribal values among clients. Tribal notions of justice often include violence on client's behalf.

In the 1970s, Pakistan experienced extensive legal, political, economic, and social changes which severely curtailed the rights of women. In 1977, military ruler General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, initiated issued a series of repressive legal and political measures in the name of Islamization.



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The Hudood Ordinance was a set of laws proscribing punishments for crimes such as rape, adultery, theft, use of alochol and drugs. Haq intended to implement Islamic Sharia Law by enforcing punishments mentioned in the Qur'an and Sunnah for zina, or extramarital sex. In the provisions of zina, a rape victim is liable to prosecution of adultery if she cannot produce four male witnesses (under Islamic law, a male's testimony is equivalent to four female's testimonies). This serves to reduce or totally exclude female evidence in courts. More importantly, the Hudood Ordi nance diminishes women's legal abilities, as women become legally defined and situated as dependents of their biological family and community. Pakistani women in legal contexts are not defined as " sui juris ," that is, within the bounds of personhood, autonomy, and independent decision-making. A conference held in May 2005 in Islamabad, Pakistan addressed whether Pakistani law, governments and international agencies were having any success in reducing honour killings in the country. They found that more cases of honour killing are being reported rather than hidden, and more women are having the courage to come forward. But, they found there was a severe lack of proper implementation of laws and assurances that men who commit honour killings are not given lighter sentences. The conference found primary fault with Pakistan's Zina laws that put women in an unfair disadvantage and inferior position, often at the mercy of men to prove their innocence.

Most honor killings are encompassed by the 1990 Qisas and Diyat Ordinance, which permits the individual and his or her family to retain control over a crime, including the right to determine whether to report the crime, prosecute the offend, or demand diyat (or compensation). This allows seri ous crimes such as honor killings to become "privatized" and to escape state scrutiny, shifting responsibility from the state to the individual. Under Islamic Sharia law, the punishment for mur der, homicide or infliction of injury can either be in the form of qisas (equal punishment for the crime committed) or diyat (monetary compensation payable to the victims or their legal heirs). These concepts are applied in different ways in different Islamic systems. In Pakistan, the right to waive qisas, or punishment, is given to family of the victim. If and when the case reaches a court of law, the victim's family may 'pardon' the murderer (who may well be one of them), or be pressured to accept diyat (financial compe nsation). The murderer then goes free. Courts have used provisions like this to circumvent penalties for honor killings. Once such a pardon has been secured, the state has no further writ on the matter although often the killers are relatives of the victim. Human rights agencies in Pakistan have repeatedly emphasized that women falling prey to karo-kari were usually those wanting to marry of their own will. In many cases, the victims held properties that the male members of their families did not wish to lose if the women chose to marry outside the family. More often than not, the karo -kari murder relates to inheritance problems, feud settling, or to get rid of the wife, for instance in order to remarry.



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Human rights are natural rights , fundamentally ensured to every human, regardless of nationality, race, gender, or ethnic group. Through the ongoing work of the United Nations , the universality of human rights has been clearly established and recognized in international law. In March 1996, Pakistan ratified the CEDAW, or the the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. By ratifying CEDAW, Pakistan promises to abolish discriminatory laws and establish tribunals and public institutions to effectively protect women. CEDAW, as a human rights treaty, notably targets culture and tradition as contributing factors to gender -based discrimination. In 1993, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, entreating states not to "invoke custom, tradition, or religious consideration to avoid their obligation" to eliminate violence against women. According to Amnesty International, if a government is negligent in prosecuting perpetrators, it is liable and complicit in those abuses. The role of the modern nation -state is to ensure full prote ction of universal human rights . The prevalence of honour killings in Pakistan underscores the Pakistanis systematic government failure in ensuring fundamental human rights to women. However, international organizations and feminists globally have been criticized for upholding a Westerncentric agenda when engaging in honour -killing activism. Lon g-standing discourses on the universality of human rights versus cultural relativism indicate tensions in international activism for women's rights. But cultural relativism can be partially resolved when local activists make clear that cultural customs are harmful to women and in violation of international human rights standard. Cultural and religious customs are constantly evolving and it is necessary to partner with regional activists in Pakistan to be in the forefront for demanding change.

Human rights activists in Pakistan have been on the forefront of change and reform to end the practice of honor killings. Emphasizing universal human rights, democracy, and global feminism, Pakistani activists seek legal reform to criminalize the practice and protect victims from abuse. Asma Jehangir , chairperson of Human Rights Commission of Pakistan , and Hina Jilani are Pakistani lawyers reinvigorating civil society to become critical of the Pakistani states failure to ens ure fair rights and benefits to its female citizenry. Jehangir and Jilani founded Pakistan's first legal aid center in 1986 and a women's shelter called Dastak in 1991 for women fleeing from violence. Other notable Pakistani activists working on reporting and deterring honour killings include Ahsan, Anis Amir Ali, Ayaz Latif Palijo, and Shahnaz Bukhari. Aitzaz

In September 2010, the Punjab law minister announced that violent crimes against women, including honour killings, would be tried under the country's Anti -Terrorism Act. On December 8, 2004, under international and domestic pressure, Pakistan enacted a law that made honour killings punishable by a prison term of seven years, or by the death penalty in the most extreme cases.



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Women and human rights organizations were, however, skeptical of the law's impact, as it stops short of outlawing the practice of allowing killers to buy their freedom by paying compensation to the victim's relatives. This is problematic because most honou r killings are committed by a close relative. In many cases, the family of the victim and the family of the accused are indistinguishable, so negotiating a pardon with the victim's family under the Islamic provisions becomes ineffective. Former judge Nasira Iqbal told IRIN the bill allowed close relatives of the deceased to escape punishment with ease. In March 2005 the Pakista ni parliament rejected a bill, which sought to strengthen the law against the practice of honour killing declaring it to be un -Islamic. The bill was eventually passed in November 2006. However, doubts of its effectiveness remain. [19]

Bound by "watta satta," a cultural tradition of exchanged marriage between two families, Nuzhat (not her real name), 22, cannot disclose her H.I.V. status. The tradition of watta satta, which literally means "give and take," or "throwing a stone and receiving something back," describes the exchange of brides between families, in which a brother and sister from one family are married to a pair from another family, often close relatives. About a third of all marriages in rural Pakistan take place on a watta satta ba sis, according to research. In some parts of the country, like Sindh province, the rate is even higher. Nuzhat is a classic case of the feminization of H.I.V. and AIDS that seems to have taken a toll on younger women in the Asia -Pacific region, where the epidemic is being fueled primarily by the gender inequality that prevails. Health experts estimate there are 85,000 H.I.V. -positive people in a population of over 160 million in Pakistanbut around 50 percent of them are in Sindh. According to UNAIDS, the United Nations agency, almost 40 percent of new H.I.V. cases occur among women, and the Global Coalition on Women and AIDS, a UNAIDS initiative, says women currently represent 30 percent of adults living with the virus in Asia. Accurate figures on the number of infected women in Pakistan are not available. Entrenched age -old social attitudes, practices, and stereotyping, which often lead to violence against women, coupled with unequal access to economic resources, are hampering progress toward dealing with the spread of H.I.V./AIDS.

At the eighth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, held in August 2007 in Sri Lanka, the worrying trend of a rising rate of H.I.V. among young married women was reported. Dr. Naseem Salahuddin, an infectious disease specialist at Karachi's Liaquat National Hospital, notes the increasing transmission of the virus from husbands to their wives: a third of the 200 people living with H.I.V./AIDS that she has treated since 1998 are women, mostly wives.
[19] [19]



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"It's not just a health issue, and must be looked on as a sociocultural one,".
Keeping their illness secret out of fear while receiving no treatment is putting unbearable press women like Nuzhat. "I can't keep up a brave face any longer," she lamented. ure on

Dr. Saleem Azam has been working with injecting drug users (I.D.U.'s) for the last 25 years and has 5,000 I.D.U.'s registered with his organization, the Pakistan Society. I n the last few years he has seen a disturbing spread of the virus among I.D.U.'s and fears the impact it will have on others, particularly women. Azam convinced Nuzhat's husband to have her tested, but when he first saw her six months ago "she was at a breaking point" and he had to send her for psychiatric counseling. Azam said

"It's not the stigma she thinks she will face; it's the outright rejec tion from her family that she knows is there."
Nuzhat's husband, Taufiq, a daily wage earner, is not only an injecting drug user including heroinbut also consumes alcohol and has multiple sexual partners; knowing his H.I.V. -positive status or that he has infected his wife and possibly his daughter has made little difference to his life. When "there was nothing to eat" at home, Nuzhat decided to get a job. Without proper qualifications she had few options but to work in a local beauty parlor, though she cannot step out without a male escort. Taufiq maintains his lifestyle on his meager and sometimes uncertain income because he often beats up Nuzhat and forces her to part with her wages, or otherwise he borrows from his mother. Her health is deteriorating, but her husband takes little notice.

"I often get fevers. Boils erupt out of nowhere but I am too scared to seek medical help. I'm always accompanied by some family member. If I go to see a doctor, my mother-in-law will come. What if she suspects something and discloses it?"
This fear not only stops her from seeking help from one of the centers run by the Sindh AIDS Control Program, part of the National AIDS Control Program, but keeps her from having her two -year-old daughter tested, who is also often s ick. "I can't take the risk," she told IRIN/PlusNews.She felt that women in her family are never given the status of humans: "We are treated like cattle, beaten up regularly on the slightest of pretexts," Nuzhat commented.

"Our sole reason for existence seems to be to procreate or provide sexual pleasures for men. Even my mother thinks that way, as does my mother -in-law. They both live in the city, but it does not mean their mindset has changed. Sometimes I feel I'll become like them if I continue living in this suffocating environment." [20]

[20] [20]



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(Sindhi: ) is a name given to a unique form of block printed shawls and tiles found in Sindh, Pakistan. Ajraks are also worn by the Saraiki people of Southern Punjab and Kutch. These shawls display special designs and patterns made using block printing by stamps. Common colors used while making these patterns m ay include but are not limited to blue, red, black, yellow and green. Over the years, ajraks have become a symbol of the Sindhi culture and traditions.


Early human settlements in the region which is now the province Sindh in Pakistan along the Indus River had found a way of cultivating and using Gossypium arboreum commonly known as tree cotton to make clothes for themselves. These civilizations are thought to have mastered the art of making cotton fabrics A bust of a king priest excavated at Mohenjo-Daro shows him draped over one shoulder in a piece of cloth that resembles an ajrak "The Priest King Wearing Sindhi Ajruk" , c.2500 BC, in the National Museum of Pakistan. What came as a formidable explanation for this observation was the trefoil pattern etched on the person's garment interspersed with small circles, the interiors of which were filled with a red pigment. Excavations elsewhere in the Old World around Mesopotamia have yielded similar patterns appearing on various objects most notably on the royal couch of Tutankhamen. This symbol illustrates what is now believed to be an edifice depicting the fusion of the three sun -disks of the gods of the sun, water and the earth. Reminiscent geometry of the trefoil is evident on most of the recent ajrak prints. The level of geometry on the garment comes from the usage of a method of printing called the woodblock printing in which prints were transferred from geometric shapes etched on the wooden blocks by pressing them hard on the fabric. Block printin g is thought to have been first used in ancient China, at least as far as moveable type is concerned. On its way through the populous regions of the Indus Valley, this technique of fabric printing was adopted at Mohenjo-Daro.



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The tradition still prevails centuries later, and people still use the same methods of production that were used in the earlier days to create an ajrak. The garment has become an essential part of the Sindhi culture and apparel of Sindhis. Men use it as a turban, a cummerbund or wind it around their shoulders or simply drape it over one shoulder. Women use it as a dupatta or a shawl and sometimes as a makeshift swing for children. Ajraks are usually about 2.5 to 3 -meters long, patterned in intense colours predominantly rich crimson or a deep indigo with some white and black used sparingly to give definition to the geometric symmetry in design. Ajrak are made all over Sindh in Matiari, Hala, BhitShah, Moro, Sukkur, Kandyaro, Hyderabad, and many cities of Upper Sindh and Lower Sindh. The ajrak is an integral part of Sindhi culture and Sindhi nationalism. Its usage is evident at all levels of society, and is held in high esteem, with the utmost respect given to it. According to Sindhi traditions, ajraks are often presented as gifts of h ospitality to guests. They are also worn on festive occasions such as weddings and cultural events. Many prominent politicians from Sindh publicly adorn Ajrak, including the deceased former Pakistani Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto.

The Sindhi cap or Sindhi topi (Urdu: ) is a hat worn predominantly by the Sindhi people of Sindh, but also by the Baloch people and Saraiki people. Along with the ajrak, the Sindhi cap is regarded as an essential part of Sindhi culture and a symbol of Sindhi nationalism. The hat is circular/cylindrical except for a portion cut out in the front to expose the forehead. Intricate geometrical designs are embroidered on the hat, and very often small pieces of mirror are sewed into it. In Sindhi culture, the Sindhi cap is often given as a gift or as a sign of respect, along with the ajrak. In December 2009, Sindhi Cap Day was celebrated in Pakistan's Sindh province to celebrate the Sindhi cap, and Sindhi culture in general. In 2010, the day was renamed toSindh Culture Day.


Kameez Pakistani is the most important dress which is wear in Pakistan. Pakistans National dress is also a Salwar Kameez. Trend of Salwar Kameez is come very earlier and then now days it got very popular. Pakistani Salwar Kameez is very special and also present in many in numbers. Pakistani Salwar kameez is very unique in the modern era and it comes in many in colors. Pakistani salwar kameez is not only famous in Pakistan but also famous in the other countries of sub continents. Like India, Bangladesh and Srilanka. Indian

CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN Womens are also love to wear this salwar kameez and it is very earnable thing for Pakistan.


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All these design are Sindhi Neck (gala) design and all are hand made sindhi designs with traditional work, dark color designing with Small Mirror work (Shishe ka Kam).

Sindhi cuisine history is interesting, as this cuisine has come a long way. It has had several influences in its past, and continues to do so. Though its essential practices in cooking food are unique newer ideas always creep in. This is due to the fact th at it has neighbors that have interesting cuisine as well. With Balochistan and Punjab on its borders, it has their influence as well. In addition to the current influences, it must be asserted that Indian and Arab foods have basically influenced Sindhi c uisine. Therefore, there would be similarities



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between Sindhi cuisine and the cuisine in India at large. The spicy and aromatic features of Sindhi and Indian meals can be easily noticed. Also, just like the Indians generally take a keen interest in good fo od, in Sindhi cuisine, food is given a great deal of importance. Indeed, to Sindhi people, food is important, and it is an immensely important part of their culture. At festival time, this becomes more evident, as you can get to see the variety of fantast ically cooked dishes available. At home as well, various dishes are cooked that sends pleasant aromas through the entire neighbourhood. Combinations of dishes are also important in Sindhi cuisine. Over the years the best ones have lasted and are repeatedly presented together. Examples of these kinds of dishes include Sai bhaji Pulao along with which a number of side dishes come. Dishes such as fried potatoes or fried bhindi, dahi, etc. commonly accompany this dish. The history of Sindhi cuisine is importa nt in order to understand how it has evolved into what it is today. The variety that Sindhi cuisine has is a result of realizing what tastes best, and this includes the combinations that are common with the best dishes in Sindhi cuisine.

Sindhi cuisine has an abundance of foods. They have complete course meals, and some parts of the cuisine are plentiful. As an example, this refers to the fact that there are so many kinds of sweet dishes that could be used as desserts. However, it can al so be asserted that there are a great deal of main course meals and snacks as well. Some of these are given below. Dodo chutney is a Millet -flour kneaded food. It has spices mixed with it, and is cooked unleavened. Usually, it is cooked on a skillet and c onsumed best with garlic -based mint chutney. Seyal Pallo is cooked in a base made of onions and tomatoes. It is consumed best with chapatti. However, there are only few people who can cook this dish the way it should be cooked. Since the fish used in thi s dish is rich in oil, you need to be careful about how much oil you add when cooking it. Otherwise, the gravy becomes way too oily. Seyal Dabroti Bread or chapati is cooked in a base mixture of garlic, coriander and tomatoes. It is a breakfast item. It c an also be cooked in onions and tomato as well, which would be the more traditional way to cook it in Sindhi cuisine. Lolo is wheat dough that has a little salt added in it. It has a small amount of sugar syrup added into the flour that has to be kneaded with butter or ghee. The mass is then cooked on a

CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN skillet slowly. Lolos when cooked would be around a quarter of an inch in thickness.


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Meethi Aloo. To make this dish, you need to combine hot chili peppers, garlic, and fennel leaves (fresh or dry). With these ingredients, you can easily convert a simple potato into a curry to be consumed with puri, chapati, rice or bread. In Sindhi cuisine, you will find several dishes that have unique recipes such as the ones above.


In different cuisines, there are particular methods followed when preparing dishes. Sometimes, particular methods are followed for most of the dishes to be prepared. Alternatively, in some cuisines, there are various techniques of methods employed. In pre paring food in Sindhi cuisine, there are several things that you may need to do. Each dish may have a new way of being prepared, which means close attention has to be paid to the methods employed. As an example, there is a particular dish in Sindhi cuisine known as Tandoori Game Hen. It is a dish that may be considerably manipulated by many chefs, but has been conceptualized from older recipes. Tandoori Game Hen, according to its traditional status, is the well -known as a classic tandoori chicken dish. This dish is prepared with game hen instead of chicken. It is thought that the stronger the taste of the game hen, the better it tastes. Some say that it tastes better than tandoori chicken. However, it can be asserted that each dish has its own merit. To be gin with, the game hen is skinned, after which it is marinated. Now, marinating is one very important step in preparation of food in Sindhi cuisine. In the case of this dish, the game hen is marinated using a mixture of yogurt, lemon juice, mustard powder, paprika, ginger, garlic and garam masala. Garam masala is itself a mixture of cinnamon, toasted ground cardamom and cloves. This type of marinating is essential to bring on the flavor of the tandoori chicken even in the absence of the chicken because you will be using game hen. In addition to this, the other important point is that the game hen gets tenderized. The following step includes roasting the game hen in a tandoor/oven. This is done at a high temperature in order to obtain a dry exterior with a mo ist interior.This type of dish in Sindhi cuisine gives you a good idea of the preparation involved in such a delicious dish.

Cooking equipment in any cuisine is important because there are several things that you may need them for. Different cuisines tend to use different types of cooking apparatus. For example, cuisines that have a lot of boiled rice in the menus will largely make use of a large boiling vessel. In Sindhi cuisine as well,



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there is a wide variety of utensils used. This is because in this cuisine, they is a variety of foods cooked. Boiling, frying, toasting, etc. all require different kinds of apparatus. Since Sindhi food involves all th ree processes, several utensils are used in preparing food. Boiling vessels such as thos e used for rice and other foods are necessary. You need a separate vessel for boiling rice, as the taste of your rice will not be the same if you boil other foods in it, particularly oily foods. Therefore, for boiling meat and other ingredients, you need to have a separate large vessel. Different kinds of drainers, strainers and large spoons are also required to cook Sindhi food. Also, large cooking vessels such as deghs are needed to cook in large amounts. Among the other important cooking apparatus used are the karhai and the tawa. A tawa is used to fry food or make chapatti or parhatta. Karhais aree used for deep -frying food like purees and jalaibees. Naans may be cooked in an oven. An inverted karhai us used to cooking chapatti. Apart from these appar atus used for cooking in Sindhi cuisine, you may also have a range of smaller utensils in order to soak, season or marinate foods. Also, there may be a different range of utensils in terms of size and materials they are made from. Some are best suited to d ifferent types of meats, lentils and ingredients used in Sindhi cuisine.


Sindhi cuisine is delightful, and those who have had a taste of it will know that there is a great deal of flavor and spice in this cuisine. This does not mean that all food in Sindhi cuisine is spicy, as there are plenty of sweet dishes in it to. Traditio nally, Sindhi cuisine is known for spice, taste and sweetness too. At festivals, there is enough of everything available to eat and drink. You will come across Sindhi foods during such occasions that you can relish. Some of the dishes that are popular in Sindhi cuisine include: sai bhaji, dal pakwan, vegetable curries, and papad. However, this is not all, as there are many more dishes that could be listed here. A grand and typical Sindhi breakfast would be dal pakwan. This is quite a heavy dish to digest , and in accordance with todays views of healthy meals at breakfast, some people choose other dishes. However, dal pakwan,' used to be served to guests, as it is quite a grand meal for breakfast. It is a dense channa masala consumed with puris made of flo ur. What makes this part of the breakfast dish heavy is the fact that it deeply fried in oil.



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Thadal (Famous Sindhi drink made from almonds, khashkhaash especially) Varo (Indian sweet made with pistachio, almonds or other nuts) Tosho (Sweet made with wheat atta and Sugar chaashni, looks like stick) Dothi (Sweet made with Wheat atta and Sugar chaashni, looks like big peda) Geara (Called emarti in North India) Mohanthal (Indian sweet) Khirni (hot drink made with milk with flavours of cardamoms and saffron) Sherbet (a drink made from sandal wood) Mesu Tikki (Sweet made with Gram flour and in light orange or yellow color) Falooda (vermiclli and ice on top of ice cream)




Regarding other foods cooked besides the heavy traditional breakfast, `Sindhis tend to use a considerable amount of onions and tomatoes. These vegetables form the base of nearly all traditional Sindhi dishes. These types of dishes will be available on festive oc casions everywhere. Alternative traditional dishes might include the Sindhi kadi. It might be considered as an alternative traditional dish because of the tamarind and besan that are used in a large quantity, as opposed to using tomatoes and onions as a ba se. Yes, this dish is made up of besan and tamarind. However, there are a lot of vegetables added to it: brinjal, pumpkin, beans, yam (suran), ladies finger and potatoes. This traditional dish that is available at festivals is usually served with plain ric e and sweet boondi, and adds significantly to the festive and traditional dishes in Sindhi cuisine.[21]

[21] [21]



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The Sindhis are peaceful, hardworking, hospitable, open -minded community. They have built up the image of Indians abroad as a prosperous and dependable people. They are free from inhibitions of caste and creed. In Sindhi Temples you will find the images of Sri Rama and Sri Krishna placed, side by side, with those of Shiva and Durga and Gu ru Nanak. The Sindhis are cosmopolitan in their outlook. Someone said that today in India it is difficult to meet an Indian: every one belongs to one province or the other. The Sindhis are the only Indians in India. The Sindhis are an enterprising and indu strious people - full of the spirit of faith and courage. They know the subtle psychology of influencing the customer. 'Sindhi merchants' rightly said an Englishman, know how to "hypnotise the customers".

What exactly does the word folk lore con notes? In its simplest manifestation it symbolises the culture of the unsophisticated, the expression, mostly in song and dance, of the customs, tradition manners, aspiration, almost the entire social and religious life of the people at all levels of the common man. There is no country in the world, which has not been enriched by folklore, for folk -lore, despite the fact that it has not been looked upon as the intelligent endeavour of the literate, is in the point of fact, the very pulse-beat of the nationa l conscience manifesting itself in song, dance, riddle, proverb and even in superstition. Every Sindhi likes HOJAMALO. The song, which pertains to the BAHRANO, is a very famous song of JHULE, JHULE, JHULE -JHULELAL. It is only a Sindhi who can interpret the spirit of these songs, though any one who listens to them will, almost without exception, be carried by its rhythmic beat like no o ther rhythmic beat in the world. Like the Folk songs, the folk dances are equally rhythmic and equally enchanting. These may be rugged and simple in their rhythmic beats. But they are full of life and vitality. There is a dance JHUMIR that is a counter-part of the dance of Laada in songs.


Chhej is performed only by men. It is some what similar to Dokla Ras of Kathiawar, but considerably more intricate in pattern & steps and rhytmic beats. The instruments used are the SHARNAI and the DUDUL i.e. Shehnai and the drum. Another dance which is performed only by men is DHAMAL, performed by Fakirs and disciples of a particular sh rine at the time when the flag of the shrine goes up. This is a dance which is characterised by a sort of religious frenzy and has, therefore, a very fast tempo. Nagharo (a big drum) instrument provides both the rhythmic beat and the tempo for the Dhamal.T here are many other dances, though the BHTAGA may be called the King -pin of them all. This is properly speaking a dance-drama enacted with the aid of song, Kalams etc.


Ladda Songs which are sung before the actual weddings, the very lilt of which sug gests careless abandon and gaiety that mark a wedding. Sindhis are very famous for showmanship, and on the occasion of the marriage of the son, they will not hesitate to spend thousands of rupees only on decorations, music dance



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and photographs, movie and on video shootings, They call a Laada party of famous singers and enjoy the music one day before the marriage and even on Janiya (Thread ceremony) etc. The famous Laado:

Sonu bajuband, lado panhijee kunwar lai aanedo and dhikh je raat lade mundiyoon gharayoon, mooml mana na kar marun sa, alla son jo rupaya .
Many other Laddas are so famous among the Sindhis that on the occasion of the marriage, specially ladies and relatives are invited on Laada ceremony where they offer the GHOR of rupees on the brid e-groom whose marriage is to be performed. There are many folk songs, and many dances are composed. We cannot ignore our humorous songs. To get back however to Sindhi song, which does not treat only of love, there are some double meaning FOHIRAS too.

Bhagat is an original and pure art form of Sindhi music and dance. This is one art form which can be truly called as Sindhi folk and meant for the masses. The mere announcement of a bhagat performance brought people from near and far off place. This song-n-dance extravaganza called for expertise in both forms namely singing and dancing. One without the other was no good. Mikes and sophisticated sound systems being not-existent in those days, it is rumoured that the bhagats of yesteryears could give m any a Michael Jackson of Elton John a run for their money for not only was their singing soulful but it was loud and clear enough for a person sitting a quarter of a kilometre away from the singer. The performances were usually held in the nights and lasted till the wee hours of the morning. Requiring a minimum of two or more performers from a band of six, this folk form was highly interactive and weaved in out from pure folk and devotional songs to narratives to stories thus giving wholesome entertainment rather infotainment to the crowds. Two -three of them are usually good singers with one being the lead singer and the other two known as peechhads or boliaraas (back -up singers). The lead singer or bhagat wore a chher, jamo, pagdi and kundal with a bright tilak on the forehead and sung in a style little bit similar to those of qawals. The crowd used to sit on two sides much akin to a fashion show with a ramp running into the audience. The bhagats used to sing and move back and forth in the crowd in the cent re aisle. The back up singers usually stood in the back and faced the bhagat who would start of on a line with the back up singers interjecting with a simile or the latter half of a couplet. [22]


Among bhagats, Sant Kanwarram was one of the most legendary performer who went on to become s saint for Sindhis. His soulful voice once brought back a dead child to life, a miracle many have seen with their own eyes. Especially known for his rendition of the Sur Prabhati (which is sung early in t he morning), Sant Kanwarram was popular not only amongst the Sindhi Hindus but Muslims also. Besides Bhagat Kanwarram there were others who had carved out a niche for themselves. Notably amongst them were Bhagat Naru, Bhagat Jadaram, Bhagat Leelo (adh Kanw ar), Bhagat Tharu, Bhagat Parso, Bhagat Motan, Bhagat Sobho, Bhagat Dharmu, Bhagat Dilo, Bhagat Shewo, Bhagat Dwaru, Bhagat Ghansho and Bhagat Khanuram. The back up singers sometimes dressed up as female characters also and they were

[22] [22]



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most known by their nicknames. Notable amongst them were 'Shaman Guddi', 'Lal Chhuri' and 'Jalphatako'. The bhagats were in great demand usually at melas, annual darbar and dargah functions and sometimes for marriages also.[22]

Normally in the interior of the sindh, the wedding is pre -set or pre-fixed by the head of the family. It is like the girl fate is sealed at the moment she is born. Girls future husband is chosen by her father with his cousin or her close related relatives. It is simply like the agreement between brothers or relative ot hers that if the baby boy will be born and others wife give birth to the girl they will be married both and opposite occur in the other case. In the interior side of sindh, jahaiz does not have any priority or preferences in traditional sindhi marriages. Only the things are given that uses in daily life and some gold according to the economic conditions of brides family. But if we compared it to the other parts of Pakistan in which girls are consider a burden, this is because of jahaiz in the form of household equipments, jewelry and clothes on the marriage. Sindh weddings or marriage system also a form of slave trading it is the dark side of the marriages here. The trend increasing day by day even so it is not considering crime here in lower and poor cl ass families. The tradition of marriages in sindh is just like or resembles to the Hindu wedding in a very excited and lavish manner. The special priests specialize in match making and match horoscope of eligible boys and girls from house to house.


Normally wedding in interior Sind (Sind is 2 nd largest province of Pakistan) is arranged by the heads of the family most of the time girls fate is sealed the moment she is born. Her feature husband is chosen by her father that is mostly her cousin or any other close relative. Sometimes even before the birth of a child their marriages are fixed. It is a simple agreement between brothers: If my wife gives birth to a boy and your wife to a girl she will be married to my son and if I have girl I will give her to your son. Things get more complicated in this sort of agreement when onside decides not to value their words. This usually happens when boy grows up to be a drug addict or a killer. Then girls family refuses to give away their dearly daughter.




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In case there is a small family who do not have any suitable match in their family then they arrange the marriage of their daughter or son in their neighborhood. This is also done without asking from boy or girl. Wedding in Interior Sind V/S Wedding in other parts of Pakistan.Having a baby girl in other parts of Pakistan like Punjab, Sukkur, and Karachi etc is considered much more burden as co mpared to interior Sind. This is because they have to give her huge number of household equipments, jewelry and cloths in the shape of Jahaiz at the time of her marriage. On the contrary in interior Sind, Jahaiz does not have much priority in traditional S indhi marriage. Only few things that are used in daily life are given, with little bit of gold depending on economic conditions of brides family.


Sinds marriage system also has a black side not known to outer world. I think this is new form of slave trading! It is rapidly increasing and has evolved to the place where it is not even considered as crime in lower class and poor families. In this type of marriage there is a middle man called Dallal who arranges meeting between both families of boy and girl. In that meeting price for the girl is set that is about 1 Lac Pakistani Rupees that makes about $1180. After Boys family has made total payment then the marriage is arranged. When she is wedded she belongs to her husband as his property and does not have to do anything with her previous family, because for them she was just like baby cow they raised her and sold her. She lives or dies is none of their concern anymore. They dont even care who she is going to marry with. Even if that guy i s old geezer or he may be blind or mentally unstable even if he is drug addict they dont care. He will get the girl as long as he pays good price. More beautiful the girl is more her price.[23]

He was born in 1689 at a village called Hala Havelli near Hyderabad, Sindh. Shah Abdul Latif was the direct descendent of the Prophet Muhammad through Imam Zain -ul-Abideen, son of Imam Husayn. Shah's father, Syed Habib Shah had migrated from Matyaru, Afghanistan to Sindh. When he was young, he fell in love with the daughter of the villages landlord. The landlord however, turned against him and tried his best to harass his family. After that Shah Latif, left his ho me became a spiritual wanderer.

[23] -system-in-pakistan-sind.html

CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN In the quest of eternal love, he traveled in many parts of Sindh and and Yogis. He spent three years in the company of these Sadhus.


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adjoining lands where he met Sufis

Finally, when he arrived in Thatta, he met a Sufi saint Makhdoom Muhammad Moin. He understood the inner condition of Shah Latif, and held him there for a f ew days. He then told him, "The truth, for which you are wandering around, is inside of yourself. A man is a mirror for a man. You've seen God's manifestation in the hand of that girl." After a few days living with that Sufi saint, Shah Latif felt inner satisfaction and then he left for Hala. By the time he returned to Hala, the landlord had already died he married the love of his life Bibi Saidha Begum who died within a few years of their marriage and he never married again. After her death, he would of ten seek solitude and spend most of his time in contemplation and Muraqaba (Sufi meditation) and writing poetry. He lived a very simple life. His food was simple as well as his dress, which was often of saffron color, the color of the dress of Sufis or Yogis, stitched with a black thread. For the last eight years of his life, he lived at Bhitshah, a small village built by him. A few days before his death, he retired to his underground room and spent all his time in prayers and fasting, eating very little . The great Sufi poet died in 1752 was buried at the same place where a shrine now stands. In 1866, 114 years after the poet's death, a German scholar Ernest Trump compiled Risalo, a complete collection of [24] Shah Abdul Latif's poetry.

He was born in the Daraza village of Khairpur, Sindh in 1739 right around the when the Afghan warlord Nadir Shah invaded Sindh. His real name was Abdul Wahab but he adopted the name Sachal, which means truthful and Sarmast which means the intoxicated.Sachal l ost his father when he was very young. He was raised by his uncle who later became his spiritual master. He married his cousin who died two years later and Sachal did not marry again. During his childhood, once Sachal went to Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, an other great mystic poet of Sindh, who looked at him and said this little boy will complete what he had started. Sachal was a great lover of music. Touched by music, he would often cry profusely. Couplets would pour out from his lips, which his followers o r fellow dervishes would immediately inscribe. Sachal is well known for his kalam as well as kafis conveying his spiritual message in haunting melodies. Sachal preferred solitude and silence. He never traveled out from his village Daraza. He was very simpl e in his attire, lifestyle, and eating habits. Soup and yoghurt were his favorites. He slept on a bare wooden bed. He was a humble man with long soft flowing hair, and penetrating eyes. He wrote mystical poetry in Arabic, Sindhi, Seraiki, Punjabi, Urdu, Farsi (Persian) and Baluchi. He once said,

"He (God) is everywhere and in each and every phenomenon. He has come here just to witness His own manifestation."
[24] -latif-bhitai.html



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Three days before his death, he retreated in a small enclave where he finally became one with the Truth on the 14th day of Ram adan in 1829 at the age of 90. He was buried at the same place that was later on made into a beautiful and well-decorated shrine.[25]


Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, whose real name was Muhammad Uthman was born in 1143CE in Marand, near Tabraiz, Iran. He was the direct descendent of Imam Jafar as-Sadiq. After completing his education,Lal Shahbaz left for Baghdad where he met Baba Ibrahim Karbalai and became his disciple. Baba Ibrahim was the spiritual follower of Jamal Mujjarrad ( the celibate ). Lal Shahbaz received khilafat (spiritual sainthood) and other sacred gifts inclu ding a stone, which was attributed to Imam Zainul Abideen, from his Shaykh Baba Ibrahim. It is said to be the same stone that hangs on his shrine in Sehwan. Following instructions from his Shaykh, Lal Shahbaz left Baghdad for Sindh via Balkh and Khurasan. In Balkh(present-day Afghanistan), the childless King had asked him to pray for him so that he could have an heir to his throne. Lal Shahbaz did pray for him for the birth of his Crown prince but later told him that his future son would eventually end up w orking for him (Lal Shahbaz). That would be Crown prince is known in history as Abu Ben Adham (Abu Ibrahim Ben Adham) who after ruling the Balkh State for some years, abdicated his throne to become a wandering dervish. In the holy city of Mashad,Khurasan Lal Shabaz is said to have meditated at the shrine of Imam Ali Rida (a.k.a. Ali Reza) for forty days and nights continuously. Afterwords he also stayed at the Panjgur valley of Makran, Baluchistan. The place later became known as Dasht-e-Shahbaz, where man y Baluch tribesmen became his followers. Mughal Emperor Babur mentioned the place in his autobiography Tuzuk-e-Baburi. On his way from Baluchistan to Sindh, he also stayed near the present day Karachi's Manghopir area for muraqaba (meditation), and it is said that Manghopir's natural warm fountain is a miracle of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar. That warm fountain started to flow from beneath the hill, on which Lal Shahbaz sat for muraqba (meditation). After passing hundreds of years, that warm fountain is still flow ing continuously and is said to have miraculous healing power especially for asthma patients. In Multan, Lal Shahbaz met Bahauddin Zachariah Multani of the Suhurwardiya order, Baba Farid Ganjshakar of Chishtiya order, and Makhdoom Jahanian Surkh Bukhari. The attachment was so cordial and spiritual that their friendship became legendary. They were known as Chahar Yar (Farsi= four friends). According to some historians, the four friends visited various parts of Sindh and Pu njab, in present day Pakistan. Almost all the saints of Sindh including Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Makhdoom Bilawal, Sachal Sarmast and Qadir Bukhsh Bedal were devout follo wers of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar. The saint shed his mortal frame in 1252 and is buried in Sehwan.[26]

[25] [26] sarmast.html shahbaz-qalandar.html -



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The land of Sind is full of folk tales of divine and eternal love. Sufi saints have always given the examples of love in their Kalams. Shah Abdul Latif has also talked about seven famous folk talks in his collection of poetry calledShah jo Risalo.One of the famous folkloreused as a symbol for the musical notes Sur in his collection is Noori Jam Tamachi. Around 14 th Century A.D, in lower Sind was a Samma ruler named Jam Tamachi. He used to go to Kenjhar lake at the base of Hillaya hill for sailing and hunting in the royal bar ge. Kenjhar Lake is a lake situated 16 miles away from Thatta. During the time of Jam Tamachi, Thatta was the capital city and the lake was a good hunting ground as it was surrounded by thick woods. King Jam Tamachi loved to see the glowing waters and the fishermen and their women fishing from his palace which was built on the Hillaya hill. On one fine day, when he was relaxing and watching the fishing activities of the fishermen from his barge, he came across to see a pretty girl named Noori and her fac e was glowing like the moon. She was the daughter of a fisherman. Their eyes meet together and they bound in love. Without considering the social difference between them, King Jam Tamachi proved his true love for Noori and got married with her and made her the Queen of Sind. When Jam Tamachi returned to his dynasty with Noori, all the queens showed their hatred for Noori and failed to accept her as a queen. But the king stood for Noori and gave him all the respect and love she deserves. They both spent the rest of the life happily and when Noori died, King Jam Tamachi buried her in the middle of the Kenjhar Lake. Kenjhar has now become a tourist spot and the people who visit Kenjhar Lake, must go the grave of Noori to see the symbol of divine love.[27]


Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born in Karachi on December 25, 1876. His father Jinnah Poonja was an Ismaili Khoja of Kathiawar, a prosperous business community. Muhammad Ali received his early education at the Sindh Madrasa and later at the M ission School, Karachi. He went to England for further studies in 1892 at the age of 16. In 1896, Jinnah qualified for the Bar and was called to the Bar in 1897. Muhammad Ali Jinnah started his political career in 1906 when he attended the Calcutta session of the All India National Congress in the capacity of Private Secretary to the President of the Congress. In 1910, he was elected to the Imperial Legislative Council. He sponsored the Waqf Validating Bill, which brought him in touch with other Muslim leaders. In March 1913, Jinnah joined the All India Muslim League. As a member of the Muslim League, Jinnah began to work for Hindu -Muslim unity. In 1917, the annual sessions of both the Congress and the League were held at Lucknow. The League session was pres ided over by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. It marked the culmination of his effo rts towards Hindu -Muslim unity.Here, both the League and the Congress adopted a scheme of reforms known as the Lucknow Pact. On April 19, 1918, Jinnah married Rutanbai. Their daughter, Dina was born a year later. In 1919, Jinnah resigned from his membership of the Imperial Legislative Council as protest against the Rowlatt Act. Until the publication of Nehru Report, Jinnah continued his efforts for Hindu -Muslim unity. The Nehru Report, published in 1928, was severely criticized by all sections of the Muslim community. In December 1928, the National Convention was called to consider the Report. Jinnah proposed some amendments, but they were all rejected. He finally parted ways with the Congress.



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In 1929, Jinnah presented his famous Fourteen Points in response to the Nehru Report. When he returned from England, he reorganized the Muslim League. In 1934, he was elected as its permanent president. The Provincial Assembly elections of 1937 swept the Congress to power in eight provinces. After almost two years of oppressive rule, Muslims under the leadership of Jinnah, celebrated the Day of Deliverance at the end of Congress rule. The Muslim League held its annual session at Lahore in March 1940. This was presided over by Quaid -iAzam. The demand for Pakistan was formally put forward here. This goal was realized on August 14, 1947. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was appointed as its first Governor General. The establishment of Pakistan brought even greater responsibilities for Jinnah. The refugee problem, the withholding of Pakistani assets by India, and the Kashmir problem were a real test for the Quaid. However, his indomitable will prevailed. He worked out a sound economic policy, established an independent currency and the State Bank for Pakistan. He chose Karachi as the federal capital. However, he did not live long to witness the progress of the state that he had founded. On September 11, 1948, he died after a protracted illness at Karachi. He was buried in Karachi that witnessed the entire nation mourning over an irreparable loss.[28]

Miss Fatima Jinnah, younger sister of Quaid -i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, was born in 1893. Of his seven brothers and sisters, she was the closest to the Quaid. Jinnah became her guardian upon the death of their father in 1901. Due to her brothers keen interest, and despite strident family opposition, Miss Fatima received excellent early education. She joined the Bandra Convent in 1902. In 1919 she got admitted to the highly competitive University of Calcutta where she attended the Dr. Ahmad Dental College. After she qualified, Jinnah went along with her idea of opening a dental clinic in Bombay and helped her set it up in 1923. Miss Fatima Jinnah initially lived with her brother for about eight years till 1918, when he got married to Rutanbai. Upon Rut anbais death in February 1929, Miss Jinnah wound up her clinic, moved into Jinnahs bungalow, and took charge of his house; thus beginning the life -long companionship that lasted till Jinnahs death on September 11, 1948. In all, Miss Jinnah lived with her brother for about 28 years, including the last 19 tiring years of his life. The Quaid would discuss various problems with her, mostly at the breakfast and dinner table. Paying tribute to her sister, the Quaid once said,

My sister was like a bright ray of light and hope whenever I came back home and met her. Anxieties would have been much greater and my health much worse, but for the restraint imposed by her.
Miss Jinnah not only lived with her brother but also accompanied him on his numerous tours. In 1932, she joined him in London when he remained there after the Second Round Table Conference. When the All India Muslim League was being organized, Miss Fatima Jinnah was taken on as a member of the Working Committee of the Bombay Provincial Muslim League, and worked in that capacity until 1947.
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In March 1940, she attended the Lahore session of the Muslim L eague. Fatima was convinced that the Hindus intended to subjugate and dominate the Muslims completely. It was primarily due to her initiative that the All India Muslim Women Students Federation was organized in February 1941 at Delhi. During the transfer of power in 1947, she was an inspiration to Muslim women. She formed the Womens Relief Committee, which later formed the nucleus for the All Pakistan Womens Association. She also played a significant role in the settlement of refugees in the new state of Pakistan. Despite her old age, she continued to help social and educational associations. During the Quaids illness, she remained passionately attached to him. After his death, she often issued important statements on important occasions, as a reminder to the nation of the ideals on which Pakistan had been established. In 1965, Miss Fatima Jinnah ran for President as a candidate of the Combined Opposition Party. Even a conservative party like the Jamaat-i-Islami accepted her as a woman presidential cand idate. Miss Jinnahs greatest advantage was that she was sister of the Founder of Pakistan and had been detached from the political conflicts that had plagued Pakistan after the Founders death. The sight of this dynamic lady moving in the streets of big c ities, and even in the rural areas of a Muslim country, was both moving and unique. She proclaimed her opponent presidential candidate, Ayub Khan, a dictator. Miss Jinnahs line of attack was that by coming to terms with India on the Indus Water dispute, A yub had surrendered control of the rivers over to India. Her campaign generated such tremendous public enthusiasm that most of the press agreed that if the contest were by direct election, she would have won against Ayub. It seems that the thought of doing a biography of her illustrious brother came to Miss Jinnah about the time when Hector Bolithos Jinnah Creator of Pakistan was first published in 1954. It was felt that Bolitho had failed to bring out the political aspects of Jinnahs life in his b ook. Miss Jinnah started looking for a Pakistani author to do a biography of the Quaid. G. Allana was her choice. G. Allana assisted Miss Jinnah on the assignment but they parted company due to reasons undisclosed. Later both carried on their independent w orks on Jinnah. Her book My Brother was published by the Quaid -iAzam Academy in 1987. The people of Pakistan hold Miss Fatima in high esteem. Due to her selfless work for Pakistan, the nation conferred upon her the title of Madar -i-Millat, or Mother o f the Nation. She died in Karachi on July 8, 1967. Some historians indicate that the date of her death was actually July 2, 1967. Madar-i-Millats Message to the Nation on Eid-ul-Azha, 1967:

The immediate task before you is to face the problem and br ing the country back on the right path with the bugles of Quaid -i-Azams message. March forward under the banner of star and the crescent with unity in your ranks, faith in your mission and discipline. Fulfill your mission and a great sublime future awaits your enthusiasm and action. Remember: cowards die many times before death; the valiant never taste death but once. This is the only course of action which suits any self -respecting people and certainly the Muslim Nation.
Madar-i-Millats Message to the Nation on Eid-ul-Azha, 1965:

Let us sink all our differences and stand united together under the same banner under which we truly achieved Pakistan and let us demonstrate once again that we



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can, united, face all dangers in the cause of glory of Pakista Quaid-i-Azam envisaged for Pakistan.

n, the glory that the

Madar-i-Millats Message to the Nation on Quaid-i-Azams Birthday, 25 December, 1963:

The movement of Pakistan which the Quaid -i-Azam launched was ethical in inspiration and ideological in content. The story of this movement is a story of the ideals of equality, fraternity and social and economic justice struggling against the forces of domination, exploitation, intolerance and tyranny. [29]


Ustad Ghulam Mustafa Khan the eminent Classical Vocalist, is a living embodiment of the continuity of Indian mus ical tradition through heritage. A rare Combination of academic proficiency and musical excellence, Ustad Ghulam Mustafa Khan belongs to an illustrious school of music known as SAHASWAN RAMPUR GWALIOR GHARANA which owes its allegiance to SENIYA tradition represented by great Ustads like Ustad Wazir Khan, Ustad Bahadur Hussain Khan, Ustad Inayat Hussain Khan, Ustad Fida Hussain Khan, Ustad Mushtaq Hussain Khan and Ustad Nissar Hussain Khan. Ustad Ghulam Mustafa Khan is the grandson of Ustad Inayat Hussain Khan of SAHASWAN Gharana, who is the Son -in-law of the pioneer of Gwalior Gharana Ustad Haddu Khan Sahib, who was the court musician during t he reign of king Wajid Ali Shah By fortuitous Coincidence, Ustad Jis wife too is the grand daughter of Padma Bhushan Ustad Mushtaq Husssain Khan.Born over seven decades ago on March 3, 1931 in Badayun, Uttar Pradesh, Ustad Ghulam Mustafa Khan was initiated into music by his father Ustad Waris Hussain Khan. He was groomed by Ustad Fida Hussain Khan, Father of the famous Maestro Ustad Nissar Hussain Khan. Later, Nissar Hussain Khan himself took him over under his wings. The Traditional Styles of Rampur, Gwalior And Sahaswan Gharana are therefore distinctly to be observed in his performance Ustad Ghulam Mustafa Khan evinced particular interest in the history of Indian music and studied ancient Indian Music (Jati Gayan) with Acharya K.C Brahaspati, besides doing research work with him. He sang compositions derived from Natyashastra and Brihat Deshi written by Matang Rishi and from sharing Devs Sangeet Ratnakar Based on Jati -Gayan. These had never been dung by any musician in recent times and for the first time after 700 years. Ustad Ghulam Mustafa Khan Saheb brought to life this Ancient Indian Classical Music from the hoary era. Seven of his records of 30 minutes each are preserved in the Sangeet Natak Academy, New Delhi. Gifted with a melodious voice he has cultivated it in such a manne r that he moves with comfortable ease throughout the span of four octaves. He is versatile singer who can perform both classical and light music with great virtuosity. While his raga renditions show his refined sense of time , style and rhythm, his lighter varieties are suffused with sensitivity and feeling.[30] Thumris, as also other

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Shahnawaz Bhutto (1958 July 18, 1985) was the son of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (President/Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1971 to 1977) and Begum Nusrat Bhutto. Shahnawaz Bhutto was the youngest of Bhuttos four children. Shahnawaz was schooled in Pakistan and later travelled abroad to complete his higher education. Shahnawaz was studying in Switzerland when Zia ul Haq 's military regime executed his father in 1979. Prior to the execution, Shahnawaz and his elder brother Murtaza Bhutto had embarked on an international campaign to save their father's life, but it was to no avail. The two brothers continued to resist the military abrogation of the 1973 constitution in exile. Both brothers Murtaza Bhutto and Shahnawaz Bhutto married two Pashto sisters from the royal Afghan family. After the alleged involvement of Shahnawaz's wife Rehana in the murder of Shahnawaz, Murtaza Bhutto divorced his wife. On July 18, 1985, the 27 year old Shahnawaz was found dead in Nice, France. He died under mysterious circumstances, and the Bhutto family firmly believed he was poisoned. No one was brought to trial for murder, but Shahnawaz's wife Rehana was considered a suspect by the French authorities and remained in their custody for some time. She was found not guilty and later allowed to travel, and went to the United States. Pakistani media, which was under Zia's control, attributed his death to drug and alcohol abuse. Shahnawaz is believed to have helped organize a group dedicated to overthrowing the regime of President Mohammed Zia ul-Haq, through links to Al-Zulfiqar, increasingly active in Pakistan at that time. The funeral of Shahnawaz turned into a defiant show of opposition to Zia's military rule. It was held in a Larkana sports stadium, attended by an estimated 25,000 people.[31]


Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was born on January 5, 1928. He was the only son of Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto completed his early education from Bombays Cathedral High School. In 1947, he joined the University of Southern California, and later the University of California at Berkeley in June 1949. After completing his degree with honors in Political Science at Berkeley in June 1950, he was admitted to Oxford. Zulfiqar A li Bhutto married Nusrat Isphahani on September 8, 1951. He was called to Bar at Lincolns Inn in 1953, and the same year his first child, Benazir Bhutto, was born on June 21. On his return to Pakistan, Bhutto started practicing Law at Dingomals. In 1958, he joined President Iskander Mirzas Cabinet as Commerce Minister. He was the youngest Minister in Ayub Khans Cabinet. In 1963, he took over the post of Foreign Minister from Muhammad Ali Bogra.



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His first major achievement was to conclude the Sino -Pakistan boundary agreement on March 2, 1963. In mid 1964, Bhutto helped convince Ayub of the wisdom of establishing closer economic and diplomat ic links with Turkey and Iran. The trio later on formed the R. C. D. In June 1966, Bhutto left Ayubs Cabinet over differences concerning the Tashkent Agreement. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto launched Pakistan Peoples Party after leaving Ayubs Cabinet. In the gen eral elections held in December 1970, P. P. P. won a large majority in West Pakistan but failed to reach an agreement with Sheikh Mujib -ur-Rahman, the majority winner from East Pakistan. Following the 1971 War and the separation of East Pakistan, Yahya Kha n resigned and Bhutto took over as President and Chief Martial Law Administrator on December 20, 1971. In early 1972, Bhutto nationalized ten categories of major industries, and withdrew Pakistan from the Commonwealth of Nations and S. E. A. T. O. when Br itain and other western countries recognized the new state of Bangladesh. On March 1, he introduced land reforms, and on July 2, 1972, signed the Simla Agreement with India, which paved the way for the return of occupied lands and the release of Pakistani prisoners captured in East Pakistan in the 1971 war. After the National Assembly passed the 1973 Constitution, Bhutto was sworn -in as the Prime Minister of the country. On December 30, 1973, Bhutto laid the foundation of Pakistans first steel mill at Pi pri, near Karachi. On January 1, 1974, Bhutto nationalized all banks. On February 22, 1974, the second Islamic Summit was inaugurated in Lahore. Heads of States of most of the 38 Islamic countries attended the Summit. Following a political crisis in the co untry, Bhutto was imprisoned by General Zia -ul-Haq, who imposed Martial Law on July 5, 1977. On April 4, 1979, the former Prime Minister was hanged, after the Supreme Court upheld the death sentence passed by the Lahore High Court. The High Court had give n him the death sentence on charges of murder of the father of a dissident P. P. P. politician. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was buried in his ancestral village at Garhi Khuda Baksh, next to his fathers grave.[32]

Benazir Bhutto, the eldest child o f Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, was born on June 21, 1953, at Karachi. She attended Lady Jennings Nursery School and then Convent of Jesus and Mary in Karachi. After two years of schooling at the Rawalpindi Presentation Convent, she was sent to the Jesus and Mary C onvent at Murree. She passed her O -level examination at the age of 15. In April 1969, she got admission in the U. S. at Harvard Universitys Radcliffe College. In June 1973, Benazir graduated from Harvard University with a degree in Political Science. Afte r graduating from Harvard, Benazir joined Oxford University in the fall of 1973. Just before graduation, Benazir was elected to the Standing Committee of the most prestigious Oxford Union Debating Society. In 1976, she graduated in P. P. E. (Politics, Phi losophy and Economics). In the autumn of 1976, Benazir returned once again to Oxford to do a one -year postgraduate course. In January 1977, she was elected the President of the Oxford Union. Benazir Bhutto returned to Pakistan in June 1977. She wanted to j oin the Foreign Service but her father wanted her to contest the Assembly election. As she was not yet of age, Benazir Bhutto assisted her father as an advisor.



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In July 1977, General Zia -ul-Haq imposed Martial Law. During the Martial Law, Benazir was allowed to proceed abroad on medical grounds in January 1984, after spending nearly six and a half years in jail. She went into exile in England for two years. In July 1984, her younger brother Shah Nawaz died under mysterious circumstances in Paris. She came back to Pakistan to attend his burial ceremony. A year later she came back to Pakistan to fight the elections for National and Provincial Assemblies held by General Zia-ul-Haq. When she returned on April 10, 1986, one million people welcomed her at the Lahore airport. She attended mammoth rallies all over Pakistan and kept in close touch with the Movement for Restorat ion of Democracy. On December 18, 1987, Benazir married Asif Ali Zardari in Karachi. She contested the elections, which were held by Ghulam Ishaq Khan, who had taken over as acting President after the death of General Zia in an air crash on August 17, 1988, at Bhawalpur. Benazir Bhutto approached the Supreme Court of Pakistan, seeking enforcement of the fundamental rights guaranteed to the political parties under Article 17(2) of the 1973 Constitution, to hold the elections on Party basis. The Supreme Cour t gave its verdict in favor of the political parties. The P. P. P., without forming an alliance with any party, won 94 out of 207 seats in the National Assembly. With the cooperation of eight M. Q. M. members and 13 members of the Federally Administered Tr ibal Areas, the P. P. P. was able to get a clear majority in the National Assemblies. Benazir Bhutto was nominated as the Prime Minister on December 2, 1988, and Ghulam Ishaq Khan was nominated the President of Pakistan. At the age of 35, she was the youn gest and the first woman Prime Minister to lead a Muslim nation in modern age. During her first term, she started Peoples Program for economic uplift of the masses. Benazir Bhutto also lifted a ban on student and trade unions. The P. P. P. Government hoste d the fourth S. A. A. R. C. Summit held in Islamabad, in December 1988. On various issues, differences between her Government and the Establishment led to her dismissal by the President Ghulam Ishaq Khan, on August 6, 1990. Benazir returned to power, by winning the October 1993 elections. The P. P. P. had won the largest share with 86 seats and formed a new Government with the help of alliances, but her own -nominated President, Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari, dismissed her government again in November 1996 on corruption charges.[33]


Born November 22, 1928 British Raj Died January 10, 2012 (aged 83) London, UK Citizenship Pakistani Political party Pakistan Muslim League (F) Residence Karachi Alma mater University of Liverpool Religion Islam Syed Shah Mardan Shah-II widely known as Pir Pagara (November 22, 1928 January 10, 2012) was
[33] -bhutto/



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the spiritual leader of Hurs and president of political party Pakistan Muslim League (F) he is commonly known in Pakistan as Pir Sahib Pagara and Pir Shaab he was an instrumental figure in the Pakistani politics and the leader of Hur Force in Pakistan who also participated Indo -Pakistani War of 196 5 he was very famous in prediction about Pakistani politics he died on on January 11, 2012 in London, UK due to liver infection.


Pir Pagara is a title given to the leader of Sunni Muslim Sufi order of Hurs in Sindh province of Pakistan. It comes from the Persian word Pir (Chief) and the Sindhi word Pagara which means (Chieftains Turban).The Last Pir Pagara was Hazrat Pir Syed Mardan Shah II he was born in Pir Jo Goth, Sindh in 1928, Pir Pagara spent a major part of his life being actively engaged in Pakistans politics. His father Hazrat Pir Syed Sibghatullah Shah II was hanged on 20 March 1943 by the British colonial government during his struggle against British Colonial Rule.

After the defeat of Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah by Ayub Khan in Presidential run, Mohtarma declared the Muslim League Functional and made Pir Pagaro as the head of Muslim League, he was nominated as first president of United Muslim League as well. He was Chief of Pakistan Muslim League -Functional (PMLF), and spiritual leader of the Hur jamaat. He was one of the most influential and respected political personalities of Pakistan. He was very famous for his predictions on politics of Pakistan. He was usually visited by many senior politicians of Pakistan such as Sheikh Rasheed, Dr. Zulfiqar Mirza, Chaudhry Shujaat, Raza Haroon and Shah Mehmood Qureshi.


Following have been awarded the title of Pir Pagara: Pir Rozeh Dhani Pir Tajar Dhani Pir Mafaay Dhani Pir Banglay Dhani Pir Kot Dhani Soreh Badshah (Sibghatullah II) (19211943) Pir Pagara (1928-2012)


The administrative affairs of the Kingri House have been taken over by Shabnum Bibi, the younger wife of Pir Sahab Pagara, the PML-F chief, due to his deteriorating health. Shabnum Bibi has also removed Pir Pagaras personal secretary Dr Karim Mehar and appointed her brother Mehdi Shah in his place. The Choti Begum has also made several other officials of the Kingri House including Abdul Basit dysfunctional. The 84-year-old Pagara is presently in the Kingri House in Karachi. However, Pir Sahab Pagara said in a statement that no one could become Pir Pagara as long as he is alive. He said one of his three sons will become Pir Pagara after his death. He said he was feeling better and his friends and devotees of Harr tribes should not pay any heed to rumours about his health condition. He said that the matters of the Kingri House were being run as per tradition.



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He was admitted to Aga Khan Univer sity Hospital (AKUH) on November 24 for treatment of infected lungs, according to doctors he was in very serious condition therefore he was put on a ventilator and flown to London on special air ambulance on January 5, along with physician and family members. According to the doctors in Wellington hospital London, they had changed his medication for a while he was being fed trough Intravenous (IV) therapy however, he died at Wellington Hospital in North London on January 10, 2012 at 11:30 P.M. according to Pakistan standard time. He died due to liver infection, his body was returned to country on the next day after all formalities. Most of political parties of Pakistan including the Hurs send their condolences and grief messages to family. His body is schedu led to be [34] buried in his native town Pir jo Goth.

Mir Murtaza Bhutto was born on September 18,1954. He was the eldest son of Zulfikar and Nusrat Bhutto and it was after his birth that the Bhutto family first moved into their 70 Clifton home, outside which Murtaza was murdered 42 years later. Murtaza was schooled in Pakistan and later traveled abroad to complete his higher education. He graduated summa cum laude in Government from Harvard in 1976 and later moved on to do graduate work at Oxford's Christ Church. Murtaza was at Oxford when Zia ul Haq's military regime assassinated his father, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, in 1979. Prior to his assassination, Murtaza and his brother Shahnawaz embarked on an international campaign to save their fat her's life, but it was to no avail, and the two brothers continued to resist the military abrogation of the 1973 constitution in exile. Six years later Murtaza faced another tragedy as his brother Shahnawaz was killed in Nice. He was poisoned and subseque ntly died under mysterious circumstances, and like his father's death, no one was brought to trial. Shahnawaz's wife, however, was considered a suspect by the French authorities and remained in their custody for sometime until she was allowed to travel to the United States of America, a couple of years later. She was sentenced in absentia for failing to come to the aid of a dying man. Murtaza spent the next 16 years in exile away from his family and country. In 1993, he contested from exile for a seat in t he provincial assembly. Murtaza was a member of the Pakistan Peoples Party ever since it was founded by his father Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1967. However, the new chairperson, Benazir Bhutto, Murtazas elder sister, denied him a ticket, therefore Murtaza de cided to contest the elections independently. He was elected and became member of the provincial assembly o Sindh. Upon winning the elections Murtaza returned to Pakistan. He was arrested at the airport and spent the next eight months in jail. Even as he was released, he remained consumed in court cases until his assas sination in September of 1996. Though the cases were trumped up by Zia's regime , no democratic government attempted to dismiss them whether it was Benazir Bhutto's government or Nawaz Sharif's. It was under Benazir's second government that her brother Murtaza, an elected member of the provincial assembly, was killed under the eyes and ears of the state police. On September 20, 1996 Murtaza was shot and fatally wounded in a police ambush along six of his companions. He had just turned 42 two days before. He left behind his wife Ghinwa and
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his two children Zulfikar Ali 11, and Fatima, 20. Murtazas case has been pending in the courts for the last six years all suspects has been awarded bail. Ghinwa, Murtazas widow, was elected to head the Pakistan Peoples Party of Shaheed Bhutto, the party that Murtaza Bhutto had founded upon his return to reform the Pakistan Peoples Party that was transformed under the leadership of Benazir Bhutto from a party of the poor and down trodden to a party of the rich and the feudals. And the struggle for justice continue.[35]


Full Name: Born: Birthplace: Gender: Religion: Race or Ethnicity: Sexual orientation: Occupation: Nationality: Executive summary: Father: Wife: Son: Daughter: Daughter: High School: Asif Ali Zardari 22-Jul-1955 Karachi, Pakistan Male Shia Muslim Asian/Indian Straight Head of State Pakistan President of Pakistan(Pakistan Peoples Party.) Hakim Ali Zardari Benazir Bhutto (m. 1987, one son, two daughters) Bilawal Bhutto Zardari (b. 21-Sep-1988) Bakhtawar Asifa Saint Patricks High School, Karachi, Pakistan

President of Pakistan (9-Sep-2008 to present) Member of Pakistani Parliament Senate (1993-99) Pakistani Minister Environment (1993-96) Blackmail charged and imprisoned 1990, charges dropped 1993 Corruption imprisoned 1997-2004 Murder of Murtaza Bhutto, charged 1996 [36]


Muhammad Mian Soomro (born August 19, 1950) is a Pakistani politician who has been the Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan since 2003. Soomro comes from a renowned political family of Sindh that has been active in public life since 1923. His father, the late Ahmad Mian Soomro, was a seasoned parliamentarian who was Deputy Speaker of the West Pakistan Assembly and a member of the Senate and helped establish the Senate Committee Systems. He is grandson of Khan Bahadur Haji Moula Bux Soomro, a great political figure. He was the 16thPrime Minister of Pakistan from November 16, 2007 to March 25, 2008 and became the President of Pakistan upon the resignation of Pervez Musharraf on August 18, 2008.[37]
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Fatima Bhutto was born in Kabul, Afghanistan on May 29, 1982. She is 26 years old, single, and resides in Karachi and Larkana, Pakistan. She is American educated, as was her aunt, Benazir Bhu tto, her f ather and paternal grandfather. Ms. Bhutto graduated Barnard College (Columbia University) with a Bachelors degree in Middle Eastern studies, and received her Masters degree from the University of London from the school of Oriental and African Studies. Fatima is the daughter of Murtaza Bhutto, the son and brother of former Pakistani Prime Ministers. Her father and mother, Fauzia Fasihudin Bhutto, divorced when she was a small child. She has lived with her Lebanese step-mother, Ghinwa Bhutto and a step-brother since her father, Murtaza, was mysteriously murdered by the Pakistani police in 1996. Murtaza Bhutto was the brother of Benazir Bhutto who was in power at the time of his death. Fatima and her family believes that Benazir either had something to do with her brothers death or did nothing to stop it, or did nothing to solve and punish the murder. While Fatima is often compared to Benazir, Fatima sees little to compare. It is all far more complicated than the normal auntie -niece dynamics. Ms. Bhuttos relationship with her assassinated aunt is deep and raw and conflicted. They share a violent personal history of political upheaval, murder and deception. Murtaza Bhuttos father, and Fatimas grandfather, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) which would embroil this famous family in a lifetime of tumult and grief. Aft er years of political coups, Fatimas paternal grandfather was convicted of murder and hanged in 1979. Fatima Bhutto is taking tentative steps into the obscure world of Pakistani politics. Some say she is beginning to follow in the footsteps of her famous aunt, the twice elected Pakistani Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto, and the first woman leader of a Muslim state. The Indian Express and DNAIndia are reporting that she will run for her late aunts seat in the next general elections. At the age of 15, Bhut to published a book of poetry, Whispers in the Desert . Next came 8:50 a.m. 8 October 2005 which documents the Islamabad earthquake. She is currently working on a book about the Bhutto family. Fatima and George Clooney reportedly met at an international conference in 2008 and have stayed in touch since. Has romance blossomed? It seems those who believe this is a romance, rather than a friendship, are talking but refuse to be publicly identified. Reports indicate that Fatima believes the 47 year old Clooney may be a tad old for her.[38]


Muhammad Khan Junejo (August 18, 1932 March 16, 1993) was the tenth Prime Minister of Pakistan. He was born at Sindhri in Tharparkar of Sindh. He belongs to Sindhi Muslim Rajpu t family of Junejo clan. Junejo started his political career at the age of twenty one. In 1962, he was elected as a Member of Provincial Assembly of West Pakistan representing Sanghar. He was appointed Minister in



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the West Pakistan ca binet in July 1963 and held the portfolios of Health, Basic De mocracies and Local Government, Works, Communications and Railways. After partyless polls were held for the national and provincial assemblies in 1985, Muhammad Khan Junejo was appointed PrimeMinister by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. To his credit, Junejo had stood up to Zia on several issues during his term as prime mini ster, including the issue of the signing of the Geneva Accords to end the fighting in Soviet-occupied Afghanistan. Prime Minister Junejo was famously known for driving his Suzuki as Prime Minister. He advised the new Cabinet and the Military to start using Pakistan-built Suzukis rather than foreign Imported Mercedes. This reduced the budget expense and gained him admiration from the masses. General Zia ul -Haq did not want Pakistan to sign the Geneva Accords until after the Soviet troops withdrew from Afghanistan but Junejo had instructed his minister of state for foreign affairs t o sign them anyway. Zia was furious, but had bided his time before moving against Junejo. That time came soon after the Ojhri Camp blasts of April 1988. The Ojhri Camp ordinance depot in Rawa lpindi was being used to supply USfinanced arms and ammunition to the Afghan mujahideen to fight the Soviets. The government ordered an inquiry into the blasts. Junejo made a statement in the National Assembly promising to place the findings of the inquiry before the House. That was the last str aw as far as Zia was co ncerned, and Junejo was dismissed on May 29, 1988 by the President using discretionary powers given under the 8th amendment. All Assemblies were immediately dissolved, and mostly military cabinet members, most prominently Fazle Haq and Rahimuddin Khan, were called to form an interim government.Muhammad Khan Junejo was elected member of the National Assembly in 1990 but died three years later of a serious illness in 1993 and was buried in the village of Khan Sahab Din Muhammad Junejo near Sindhri.[39]



A great Sufi poet of 17 th century AD - was the son of Nasr -uddin Shah Usman Rizvi.He was born approximately during 1618 -1623 AD/1035 -1039 AH. He used to live in a village near Tandoallahyar called Shahpur. He is considered one of the pioneers of Sindhi folk style of verse called waee.He passed away in the year 1720 AD/ 1133 AH and his shrine is in the Shaikh Musa Ahedani graveyard, near Tandoallahyar, Sindh.

Syed Muhammad Sharif alias Shah Sharif was the son of Miyun Shah Inayat Rizvi, he grew up under the kind care and spiritual guidance of his father. He became a poet as good as his mentor, rather is considered as contemporary of his father; Miyun Shah Inaya t Rizvi. He was born around 1050 AH and probably passed away during the life of his father in the year 1115 AH.
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Syed Bilal Shah was the son of Shah Sharif and grandson of Miyun Shah Inayat Rizvi. He was born in 1075 AH approximately and passed away during the period of Miyaan Noor Muhammad Kalhora. He was greatly inspired by the works of his father & grandfather and said poems on the similar pattern & quality.


Tamar Faqir was one of the disciples of the great Sufi master Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai and the lead vocalist amongst the singers of Shah Latifs waee.He being blessed with the teac hings of his master, said poems and is often recalled along with his master. He passed away in 1181 AH / 1767 AD and was buried close to the shrine of his master at Bhit Shah.

One of the students of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai was Jubair, he too like Tamar Faqir a sufi poet. (Unfortunately not much is known about most of the personalities of that era)

He is said to be one of the poets of Shah Abdul Latifs era, [1689 1752 AD] (possibly one of his students)


A sufi poet, Buddho too is said to be one of the students of Shah Abdul Latifs era, [1689 1752 AD]

He is said to be one of the poets of Shah Abdul Latifs era, [1689 1752 AD] (possibly one of his students)

He is said to be one of the poets of Shah Abdul Latifs era, [1689 1752 AD] (possibly one of his students). Dr. N.B. Baloch writes in the Kafiyuun that one of the each of these poets poetry is recorded in the manuscripts of the Shah Abdul Latifs Risalo. (Thats how & why we learn & hear about the unknown poets. Perhaps at those times, their poems were written down & included in the manuscripts in order to preserve & to maintain a record.)


A poet ,and a spiritual leader Pir Saheb is the head of the Pagara family from the Kazmi Syeds line -age with Hazrat Shah Sadaruddin alias Shah Sad ar of Lakki (near Sehwan)Sindh. He was b orn in 1170 AH, Sindh. He became the student of the Makhdoom scholars of Khehra and mastered naqshbandi & Qadri disciplines of Sufism. He gave spiritual teachings and blessed a many folks with his guidelines. He



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departed on the 7 th of Shuabaan 1233 AH/1817 AD. One of his major works in literature is Isma -e-Allah al-Husna.


Known as Miyan Muhammad Hafiz Saheb Dino, was a Sufi master, poet & a literueatte. He was born in 1101 AH/ 1688 AD in Sindh.During the Kalhora regime, he had significant appointment which he later on gave up. The great Sufi master Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai met him. It was at that occasion, when Saheb Dinos grandson (Sachal Sarmast -who was a young boy then) was recognized by Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai as to be a le gendary master in the times ahead.Saheb Dino Farooqis ancestral lineage is connected with Hazrat Umer Farooq (RA). He passed away in the year 1192 AH/ 1776 AD and his shrine is at Daraza Sharif, Khairpur, Sindh.

A sufi poet and Master, Rooha l Faqir was the son of Shahu Khan Zangejo Baloch. He was born during 1730s, his folks resided at the high -dunes of Padmaad near the historical monument called Moomal Ji Maari in Umer Kot.He was educated in Sindhi, Arabic and Persian languages. His fat her was in the service of Miyaan Noor Muhammad, where Roohal joined up too but shortly quitted. He set out in the quest for spiritual path and went to their master Izatullah Shah (Son of Shaheed Shah Inayat) and stayed in his service. He, later, wandered in Sindh and apparently settled in the village called Kundri Makaan (District Khairpur) where he passed away in 1804 AD/1219 AH and is buried there.He said poems in Sindhi, Siraiki, Hindi, Marwari and Persian languages. Sixteen of his poems are found in t he collection titled Kandri Waran Jo Kalaam and six of those are recorded in Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K. Baloch, 1985.

He was one of the cousins & disciples of Roohal Faqir, his father was Hayat Khan. Muraad Faqir was born in 1740s AD. He lea rnt languages including Sindhi, Hindi, Siraiki and Persian. He was greatly inspired by Roohal and followed him. He composed poems in Sindhi & Siraiki languages.After the Kalhora regime, he stayed in a village called Kotli near Kot Dijji. He married the dau ghter of Roohal Faqir and fathered a son, who later on became a popular poet; Darya Khan.Murad Faqir passed away in 1796 AD 1211 AH and was buried in Kotli.Sixteen of his poems are found in the collection titled Kandri Waran Jo Kalaam and six of those are recorded in Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K. Baloch, 1985.

He was the son of Roohal Faqir and was spiritually guided and inspired by him.Two of his poems are recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K. Baloch, 1985.

Ghulam Ali Faqir Zangejo, was the second son of Roohal Faqir and a poet like his father.Four of his poems are recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K, Baloch, 1985.



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Faqir Nazer Ali belonged to the derveshes of Kandri. One of his poems is recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K. Baloch, 1985.


Faqir Darya Khan was the grandson of Roohal Faqir. Greatly inspired by poetic and derveshi environment, Darya khan became a great poet and said poems in Sindhi, Siraiki & Hindi languages and made his mark in the folks.Thirteen of his poems are recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr.N.B.K.Baloch.1985.

He too belonged to the derveshes of Kandri. One of his poems is recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr.N.B.K.Baloch.1985.

Jivan Lal of Shikarpur - was one of the disciples and a true admirer of Roohal Faqirs lineage. One of his poems is recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K, Baloch, 1985.

Thaanwer Das of Shikarpur belonged to the derveshes of Kandri. One of his poems is recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K. Baloch, 1985.


He too was one of the disciples and a true admirer of Roohal Faqirs lin eage and a devotee of the shrine. One of his poems is recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr.N.B.K.Baloch.1985.


One of the legendary poets and sufi masters of the Indus Valley was Sachal Sarmast. He was born in 1739 AD / 1152 AH in Daraza, Khairpur. Much has been written about him and his great works but of course a lot needs to be done especially in order to bring his Persian works to light. He departed at the age of 90 on 13th of Ramadan 1242AH/1827 AD and his shrine is at Daraza, Khairpur, Sindh.


Hafid Abdullah Qureshi Siddiqui was the teacher of Sachal Sarmast for basic education and Quranic teachings. He passed away in 1233 AH and is buried at the mausoleum o f Sachal Sarmast at Darazaan,Khairpur, Sindh.Four of his poems are recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K. Baloch, 1985.(The poems have been taken from the manuscript of Kafiyuun preserved at the Divisional Public Library, Khairpur, Sindh)



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The prominent most disciple and poet of Sachal Sarmast was Nanak Yousif Khokhar.He departed in the year 1853 AD / 9th Jamad-ul-Awal, 1261 AH. His shrine is at village Agrra (Gumbat, Khairpur, Sindh. Dr. Baloch has included twelv e of his poems in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K. Baloch, 1985.(A compilation of his works by Dr. Tanveer Abbasi was published by Sindhi Adabi Board, Jamshoro in early 1980s and many other books on his biography & collection of poetry in Sin dhi, Siraiki, Hindi languages have been published).


Faqir Ghulam Haider Sher alias Godrrio Faqir son of Qaim Khan Sher Baloch was born in the village of Mengho Sher in Taluka Tharee Mirwah, Khairpur in the year 1800 AD / 1215 AH. With love & thirst for divine knowledge, he became the student of Nanak Yousif. Later on he abandoned worldly life and lived in the woods. Eventually he returned to his native village, where his grandson Mengho Faqir served him, he passed away in the year 1861 AD/ 1278 AH and was buried in his village. He said poems in Sindhi & Siraiki languages.


He was one of the devotees and a true admirer of Sachal Sarmasts lineage. Five of his poems are recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K. Baloch, 1985.


One of the disciples of Sachal Sarmast was Muhammad Saleh Qadri, from Larkana, Sindh. He became a renowned spiritual master and had devotees far & wide, i.e. Qalaat, Kandhahar, Khorasaan as well as Bukhara. His neighborhood in Larkana is named Gherri Mian Sahab in his memory. Three of his poems are recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K. Baloch, 1985.


Sher Khan Bhanbhro was one of the disciples of Sachal Sarmast. He was from the north Sindh and composed poetry. Three of his poems are recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K. Baloch, 1985.

He was a devotee of Sachal Sarmast and lived in Rato Dero, Larkana.Seven of his poems are recorded in the collection titled Kafiyuun by Dr. N.B.K. Baloch, 1985.[40]




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Dr.Prof.Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy(born 11 July 1950), is a Pakistaninuclear physicist, essayist and political-defence analyst. He is the professor of nuclear and high-energy physics, and the head of the PhysicsDepartment at the Quaid-e-Azam University (QAU). He graduated and also received PhD from MIT and continues to do research in Particle physics. He received the Baker Award for Electronics in 1968, and the Abdus Salam Prize for Mathematics in 1984. He has authored various scientific research papers in peer-reviewed journals. Hoodbhoy is also a prominent environmental and socialactivist and re gularly writes on a wide range of social, cultural and environmental issues. He is the chairman of Mashal, a non-profit organization which publishes Urdu books on feminism, education, environmental issues, philosophy, and modern thought. Dr. Pervez Hoodbhoy is a strong and avid supporter for peaceful use of nuclear technology in Pakistan, nuclear non -proliferation, and nuclear disarmament ; and criticizing the United States, Israel, Pakistan's and India's nuclear program in many national and international forums.[41]

Dr.ProfessorMuhammad Raziuddin Siddiqui (January 8, 1908 January 8, 1998), ( FPAS, NI, HI, SI, Ph.D.), also known as Dr. Razi , was an eminent Pakistanitheoretical physicist and a renowned mathematician who played an instrumental and an influential role in Pakistan's education s ystem and Pakistan's integrated nuclear detterence development . An educationist and a scientist, Siddiqui had established numerous educational research institutes and universities in his country. During 1940s in Europe, he had made important and advance contributions in mathematical phys ics as well as work on the theory of relativity, nuclear energ y, and the Quantum gravity . Siddiqui was an eminent and prominent educationist of Pakistan who dedicated his life for physics and mathematics in his country. An avid supporter of Science in Pakistan , Siddiqui attended various conferences for physics, mathematics, and science in Pakistan and abroad. He had been the Vice-Chancellor of four Pakistan universities and the first V.Chancellor of Quaid-eAzam University and served as the Emeritus professor of Physics there until his death in 1998. [42]

Dr. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was one of the early scientists and research professionals at time of Pakistan's independence. His tireless efforts and groundbreaking work established a proper research infrastructure in Pakistan. Dr Salimuzzaman Siddiqui worked in India Council for
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CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN Scientific & Industrial Research before he migrated to Pakistan on personal request of Liaqat Ali Khan.


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Prime Minister

In Pakistan, Dr Salimuzzaman Siddiqui established many institutions which later became Pakistan's leading research bodies. These included: Pakistan Academy of Sciences Pakistani Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) HEJ Institute of Chemistry, Karachi University ices by

Dr Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was awarded Hilal -i-Imtiaz and Pride of Performance for his serv Government of Pakistan.

Apart from being a world class scientist and researcher, Dr Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was an artist who painted, wrote poetry and was an authority on music. His paintings were exhibited both in Pakistan and abroad.[43]



Allama Imdad Ali Imam Ali Kazi (b.1886 - d.1968), was a scholar, philosopher, jurist, and educationist. He is consideredto be a founder of the University of Sindh at its present location at Jamshoro. Many remarkable works for SindhiArt, literature, mysticism, education and history are attributed to him. He was a prolific writer, and along with his wife Elsa, he wrote a book on comparative religion, The Adventures of the Brown Girl in her Search for God , which was published by Arthur H Stockwell Ltd., England, in 1933. Kazi and his wife also worked on the translation of the verses of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai. Kazi was the second son of the second wife of Kazi Imam Ali Ansari, the District Magistrate of Hyderabad, and was born on April 18, 1886, at Hyderabad. His family was originally from Paat of Dadu District. He got his early education from Mian Abdul Aziz. Then he joined a school and passed Sindhi vernacular final examination in 1904. He took admission in higher school and passed the exam of Matriculation in 1905. He went abroad for higher education, where he studied Economics at the London School of Economics and Psychology at King's College. While in London, he married a German woman, Elsa Kazi, in 1910. Elsa (Gertrude Loesch) Kazi was a philosopher, writer and poet. Kazi was called to the bar in 1911, after which he returned home to Hyderabad with his bride. Subsequently, they left for London the next year and remained there until The First World War was over. Returning to India in 1919, Kazi had to cope with the death of his father and searched for a suitable appointment. [44]

[43] [44] salimuzzaman-siddiqui.html i_Kazi



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He was born on February 17, 1933 at Karachi, schooled at Sindh Madressa-tul-Islam and did his Matriculation in 1951. He later joined D.J. Science College, Karachi and after passing 1st Year Science Biology Group switched over to arts. After graduating in Political Science and General History from Sindh Muslim College in 1956 left for England and was admitted in Lincoln's Inn. Called to the Bar in 1959 and was an Advocate of the erstwhile High Court of West Pakistan in January 1961. Appointed as District Public Prosecutor and Government Pleader, Lasbella, with Headqu arters at Karachi in 1963 and was allowed private practice at Karachi. Appointed as Additional District & Sessions Judge against a vacancy reserved for members of the Bar in 1967. Served as District and Sessions Judge in various Districts in the Punjab during one Unit peri od and after its disintegration, in Sindh. Appointed as Joint Secretary in the Federal Ministry of Law and Parliamentary Affairs January 1974. Posted as Registrar of the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1977. Elevated as Judge of High Court of Sindh in 1987. Held extra assignments as Custodian of Evacuee Properties in the Province of Sindh, Chairman, Special Court under Suppression of Terrorist Activities (Special Courts) Act, 1975; Special Appellate Court (Customs) and Chairman, Provincial Election Authority, Sindh (for elections to the local bodies), Member Syndicate, Senate and Election Board of Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Member of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi Board of Trustees, Election Tribunal appointed by Election Commission of Pakistan in respect of General Elections held in the year 1985.Participated in a programme titled Introduction to Computer and Technology in Courts at National Judicial College , Reno, Nevada, USA Chief Justice, High Court of Sindh, Karachi from 1989-1990.Elevated to Judge, Supreme Court of Pakistan from 1990-1994. When Dr. Nasim Hasan Shah retired as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1994, Justice Saad Saud Jan should have taken his place based on seniority. But Ms Benazir Bhutto threw tradition overboard, when she by -passed two senior judges and appointed Sajjad Ali Shah as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Later, she was dismissed by President Farooq Leghari on charges of corruption and Sajj ad Ali Shah along with 6 other members of the Supreme Court upheld this decision. Reading from a 12 -page short order, Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah said:

The presidential order contained enough substance and adequate material had been provided to conclude that the government could not be run in accordance with the provisions of the constitution and that an appeal to the electorate had become necessary.[45]


Syed Muhammad Abul Khair Kashfi was an author, researcher, critic, lingui st and scholar of Urdu literature and linguistics from Pakistan. Abul Khair Kashfi was born in Kanpur on June 25th 1946. He is currently employed by University of Karachi. Kashfi graduated from University of Karachi and Columbia University. He worked as a writer. He lived in Karachi. He died in Karachi on May 15th 2008 aged 76 years, 2 months and 26 days old.[46]
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Allama Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi was the famous scholar and educator from Sindh, who's books were included in the syllabus of Al-Azhar University at that time.He was an eminent scholar of the city of Thatta during its peak in the 1700s, Allama Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim Thattvi was the leading Islamic theologian, scholar and the Imam of the Grand M osque at Thatta. He engaged in missionary duties and was famous among Sufis, he is said to have met Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai at Bhit Shah and maintained correspondence with him. He is famous for his scholastic works such as: Madah Nama Sindh (a book about Is lam in Sindhi society and culture), Dirham al -Surrat Fi Wada al -Yadayn Taht al-Surrah (a book based on the Hanafi theology), al -Baqiyat as-Salihat (a biography of great Islamic figures) and many more others about 400 in all. His wise religious dictum's, sh aped Sindhi culture and Islamic tradition in Sindh, he was also a leading expert authority on the Fatwa -e-Alamgiri. He died in 1172 Hijra/1700s. was one of the great Islamic scholars of Sindh (current day Pakistan). He belonged to the Naqshbnadi order of Sufism, and followed the Hanafi school of thought.[47]


Khan Bahadur Hassanally Effendi, the most prominent educationist and reformer of Sindh, was born on August 14, 1830, exactly 117 years before the establishment of Pakistan. He belonged to a poor family of Hala district. He educated himself by purely personal efforts and chose law as his profession. The difficulties that he encountered in his own education created in him a fiery urge to found an institution of higher learning for the Muslims. In 1884, Hassanally Effendi Organized' Anjuman -e-Islam Karachi' and was elected its President. He then strove to establish an educational institution for the Muslims of Sindh and it was through his untiring efforts that the prese nt 'Sindh Madressahtul Islam' was founded in 1885 the first Alma Mater of Quaid -e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah when he joined the Madressah in 1887, Effendi also established the first Muslim Girls' School of S indh at Marriot Road in Karachi. Hassanally Effendi was the life long President of the Managing Board of the Anjurrian and the Madressah. Besides being President of the Anjuman and the Madressah, he received other honours also. During the war between Turkey and Russia he collected substantial funds for Tur kish Soldiers. In recognition of these services he was appointed Counsellor for Turkey in Karachi and also received the Turkish titles of "Bey Majidi"and .'Effendi". He breathed his last, after a full life of service and dedication to Muslims, on August 20, 1895 at Hyderabad and was buried in his own orchard. Due to his untiring efforts toward the cause of education and emancipation of the Muslims in Sindh, he is called the .'Sir Syed of Sindh".[48]

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Prof. Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Khan, PhD, D.Litt, SI, (September 23, 1912 September 25, 2005) was a researcher, critic, linguist, author, scholar of Urdu literature and linguistics, educationist and religious and spiritual leader belonging to Naqshbandi order of Sufism. He was one of most notable people of Hyderabad, SindhPakistan. In 1928 he passed ninth grade from Anjuman Islamia High School, Jabalpur and went to Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh for the rest of his education. He received his higher education at the Aligarh Muslim University. He held LLB and M.A. in Urdu literature&Persian and in 1947 completed his PhD on Hassan Ghaznavi. In 1959 he was awarded D.Litt by Nagpur University, India He was born in th e Jabalpur city of India on September 23, 1912. During his Service life he was appointed as a lecturer at the King Edward College, Amrawati and after migration to Pakistan from India he was appointed in Urdu College, Karachi. Later in his life he also performed the duties of head of the department of Urdu in Sindh University. For his academic services he was hon oured with various level of awards like the Presidential award Sitara-i-Imtiaz, Naqoosh award, Iqbal award and Nishan-i-Sipas. He has published a large number of Research Papers and still large number of books, translations, compilations, numbering about ninety three. His book on |Iqbal & Quran" was awarded as the best book ever written on this subject and was awarded gold medal by Idara e Adbiat Pakistan. Dr Ghulam Mustafa was also a famous religious and spiritual leader. His students in number include scholar of fame like Ibn-e-Insha, Jameel Jalibi, Abul Lais Siddiqui , Aslam Farrukhi, Farman Fatehpuri , Moinuddin Aqeel, Abul Khair Kashfi and Syed Waqar Ahmed Rizvi etc. [49]


Allana was normally spoken as G. Allana was born in Karachi, in the year 1906. He became the mentor for the youth of that time. Starting his political career as General Secretary of the Sind Muslim League, he rose to be the Financial Secretary of the All P akistan Muslim League, the Mayor of Karachi, and a Member of the West Pakistan Legislative Assembly. After the establishment of Pakistan, G. Allana founded the Federation of Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Pakistan, of which he continued to be President for many years. For nine years, he was on the Governing Body of the International Labour Organization, and in 1956 he was unanimously elected as President of the International Organization of Employers, Brussels. He was a writer and poet of eminence, his poetry having been translated into many languages. He was Vice President of United Poets Laureate International which organization designated him as Poet Laureate Anthologist. G. Allana was a widely travelled person. He was elected in 1962 as Vice Presid ent of the Economic Committee of the General Assembly of the United Nations . He was elected Chairman of the United Nations Commission of Human Rights for the year 1975 76. he died in the year 1985.[50]
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He was born on May 2, 1924 in Goth Sangi, near Meher, which then w as a part of district Larkana. He started writing short stories when he was a student at DJ Science College, Karachi from where he graduated and then did his LLB from SM Law College, Karachi. Inspired by great Russian writers Maxim Gorky and Anton Chekhov, Jamal Abros collection of 13 short stories influenced several generations of Sindhi short story writers including Ali Baba, Munir Ahmed Manik, Shaukat Shoro, Noorul Huda Shah, Abdul Qadir Junejo, Murad Ali Mirza and others. His short stories were transla ted into German, English and Urdu, according to prominent Sindh poet and journalist Shamsherul Haidery. Jamal Abro was a part of Progressive Writers Association (PWA) led by Syed Sajjad Zaheer and later took an active part in Sindhi Adabi Sangat, Shamsheerul Haidery said.

I used to publish his short stories in Mehran, published by Sindhi Adabi Board.
He said in the later part of his life, his hands started tremblin g so he had to give up writing. Anwer Pirzado, another prominent Sindhi poet, said Jamal Abro was a trendsetter in the genre of the Sindhi short story. He said his last short story that was published in the early 1980s exposed the inhuman tradition of karo kari. Jamal Abro wrote four -volume biography and discussed Sindhi culture in detail , Mr Pirzada said. He was popular among Sindhi writers in Pakistan as well as in India. Jamal Abro was secretary of the Sindh Assembly when the Language Bill was passed in 1972. He also trans lated some works of Mark Twain. His first short story was Hu Hur Hu (He was a Hur), said Sultana Waqasi, another Sindhi short story writer. The characters of Jamal Abro were living human beings, she said. Hu Hur Hu was penned when a British colonialist murdered a Hur, she said. Another short story Pirani was a classic about a woman who was alive until a few years ago, she said. Jamal Abros collection of short stories Pisho Pasha was so popular that it had 17 editions published during his lifetime. His short stories were published by the Sindh Culture Department, she said. Jamal Abro hailed from a highly educated family and his father Allama Ali Khan Abro was the first postgraduate of Sindh. He leaves behind four sons and three daughters. [51]

Fahmida Riaz was born in Meerut into a literary fam ily that migrated to Hyderabad, Pakistan, at Partition where she learned Sindhi, Persian, Urdu, and English. She earned her masters degree from Sindh University. Fahmida Riaz is among the foremost writers and poets of Urdu today. She has been writing poetry and stories since the age of 15 and has been involved in social and political activism since her college days. Fahmidas work is remarkable for its emotionally charged references to social and political injustice. She has been a prominent voice in the feminist strugglein Pakistan. She was
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given the Himmett-Hellman award by Human Rights Watch, New York, in 1997, and the Al -Muftah Award in Karachi in 2005. The Government of Sindh gave her the Shaikh Ayaz award and in 2010 the Government of Pakistan gave her the Pride of Performance and the Sitara -i-Imtiaz awards. As Rakhshanda Jalil writes:

"her poetry collections include Patthar ki Zaban, Badan Dareeda, Dhoop, Kya Tum Poora Chand Na Dekh Paaoge, Hamrakab and Aadmi ki Zindaga i. She has published several collections of short stories and novels such as Godavari, set in India and Zinda Bahar Lane, based on Bangladesh, translations from Sindhi poetry as well as some marvellously nuanced prose writings such as Zinda Bahar a travelogue-cumautobiography-cum-history of the Indian subcontinent." [52]


Zamir Ali Badayuni (sometimes spelled Badayooni or Badaiyuni) was a well -known critic and broadcaster on the Karachi literary scene in which he played an important role through his writing and his support for new trends and younger writers. The son of Yaqoob Ali, he was born 20 June 1941 in Badayun, UP, India and received his early education in Bombay before migrating to Pakistan. He was associated with the Pakistan Broadcasting Cor poration where he became associated with stalwarts like Saleem Ahmed and Qamar Jameel. A keen student of literature and philosophy, he wrote two books. The first on Modernism And Post -Modernism, which received Baba-e-Urdu Award by the Pakistan Academy of Letters. The second, Mabaad-i-Jadeediat Ka Doosra Rukh, was published by Scheherzade publications. He received the Abdul Haq Award from Adbiat Pakistan.Zamir Ali died in Karachi on October 21, 2003.[53]

Ansar Burney, Advocate (Chairman and Founder Ansar Burney Trust) Born August 14th 1956 in Karachi Pakistan, Syed Ansar Ahmed Burney, son of Syed Mukhtar Ahmed Burney, was the man to introduce true human rights in Pakistan over 25 years ago. A graduate of Master's and Law from Karachi University and honorary recipient of a PhD. in Philosophy. Ansar Burney got married with Shaheen on May 28, 1981and they have three children - Fahad, Raheel and daughter Sana.


Ansar Burney, Advocate started his noble mission in 1980 by setting up the Ansar Burney Welfare Trust", "Prisoners Aid Society" and "Bureau of Missing and Kidnapped Persons" in Karachi Pakistan.

A vocal and prominent student leader in the 1970s, Ansar Burney was always known as one to raise his voice for justice, freedom of speech and for human and civil rights during the time of Martial Law in Pakistan. As such, he landed himself in trouble on many occasions with the military government.
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In 1977 at the age of 20, Ansar Burney was arrested on charges of delivering speeches against Martial Law in Pakistan and without a fair trial he was sentenced to 8 months rigorous imprisonment.Upon his release, he was again arrested by the Martial Law Authorities who sent him to Karachi Prison for a further 2 months detention. In 1979, he was again arrested for the third time and detained for a month. At all three times, Ansar Burney was imprisoned for raising his voice for democracy and against the terrible injustices being committed by the then military government.


During this time of detention in different prisons, Ansar Burney witnessed first hand the miserable conditions of Pakistani pris ons and the barbaric treatments inflicted on prisoners. He met many innocent people who had been locked up for several years without ever committing a crime or even facing trial.That was the time that he decided to help those in need; and after completing his law degree in 1980, Ansar Burney established the Prisoners Aid Society with the purpose of bringing reforms in prisons and to get the release of all innocent and illegally confined prisoners.


As a result of his continued and sel fless work, Ansar Burney has so far been able to secure release of around 700,000 prisoners from countries all around the world. These have included persons locked up on false charges, those released from private and illegal prisons, illegal immigrants and those who were released from slave labour camps; some released after as many as 55 years of illegal confinement. With the passing of time, Ansar Burney led the Trust into becoming a true human rights organisation working for justice without discrimination and against all forms of human and civil rights repressions and violations.

Working at the forefront, Ansar Burney has fearlessly led legal missions, humanitarian relief teams and fought for the rights of the innocents in many parts of the world; facing yet more imprisonment in Bosnia and various attacks on his life.


Ansar Burney, founder and chairman of Ansar Burney Trust, is an authority on human rights in Pakistan and the Middle East. He has host ed and attended hundreds of National and International conferences, groups and forums and has received over 200 awards and medals from home and abroad.

On the 23rd March 2002, he was conferred Pakistans National Civil Award "Sitar -e-Imtiaz", the first in the history of Pakistan in the field of human rights.[54]

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A living legend an example of devotion an inspiration an institution are some of the indicators of a pioneer called Abdul Sattar Edhi. - these
Edhi is a mobile institution ready to respond anxious to comfort and console the anguished souls. Endurance, perseverance, p atience, struggle, sympathy and compassion along with sacrifice of his personal comforts, are the important elements on which rests the philosophy of Abdul Sattar Edhi. Although Edhi is a self -educated person, he has an instinctive feel of contemporary the ories of Anthropology or Philosophy. He possesses the unique capability of reducing complex problems to simple forms, and producing workable practical solutions. His dress is as simple as his language, and working style. He is fond of destitute children and loves them like his own kith and kin. Finding those rare occasions to associate himself with them is a matter of immense pleasure for Edhi. He looks for such moments and whenever gets an opportunity to have their company, he fully enjoys it. Most proba bly this is the secret of his fine health even at the age of early seventy. Women volunteers act as vital force in achieving Edhis objectives. Edhi believes that women are more honest, hardworking and dutiful. "EDHI LADIES HOMES" which are permanent abod e for teenage girls, provide education and vocational training within its compound. The concept of self -reliance permeates into Edhi organisation at every level. Edhi has a fleet of 400 Pakistans best organised ambulance service. Edhis vehicles are the first to arrive at the scene of an emergency. When hijackers seized a Pan American jetliner at Karachi Airport, the authorities called Edhi for help. As negotiations dragged on whole day between hijackers and the Government, Edhi and his men with 64 ambula nces stood - by at the scene. Late that evening, when hijackers began shooting passengers, and Pakistani commandos were storming the Aircraft, the ambulances dodged bullets to pick up the dead and the injured. Edhi personally carried the body Neerja Mishra, the Indian air hostess, who was later decorated for her bravery. With became a symbol and synonym for emergency service in Pakistan.

Edhis achievements are unique in the sense that they are not funded by any religious, political group or by any govern ment. When one of the Heads of state sent him a cheque of Rs. 0.5 million as a token of his missionary work, Edhi returned it .
During the past 45 years, Abdul Sattar Edhi has spent many sleepless nights ministering to the needs of his fellow Pakistanis. Whether they are peasants starving because of draught, babies abandoned on rubbish dumps or patients too poor to pay for their medical care Edhis compassion encompasses them all. Edhi has established an extraordinary social welfare network that helps th ousands of Pakistanis each day Edhi says simply "It is a twenty hours job". Edhis network is open round the clock without observing a single holiday. A short, strongly built man in early 70s with a flowing beard and ready for any kind of emergency work round the clock. Throughout Edhi has been leading the simplest life. He is a teetotaller. He is ready to fly any where across the borders to reach any natural calamity or disaster within the shortest possible time.



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His food intake is generally based on tak ing pieces of stale bread in the morning , and raw cooked vegetables during a lunch-break. As a child, he was given two paisas daily by his mother. He was directed to spend one on himself, and give away the other to some one less fortunate than him .. He n ever forgot that simple lesson. Edhi Organisation has a different touch if compared with other sister organisations. Most of other organisations go for easy tasks like rendering scholarships or distributing sewing machines etc. On the other hand all Edhi s work is throat catching as it has to respond quickly in serious situations and disasters.[55]

Born on 21 October 1950, Ambassador Haroon compl eted his education from Karachi Grammar School and Karachi University. He began his early carrie r in publi c service as election Coordinator for Pakistan Muslim League in 1970. Later he served as Councillor, Karachi Metropolitan Corporation KMC through 1979-1985, remained Trustee Karachi Port Trust 1980 -1982, Member Sindh Provincial Assembly 1985 1988, Speaker, Provincial Assembly of Sindh 1985 -1986 and leader of opposition, Sindh Assembly from 1986 to1988. He also served as Consulta nt, Pakistan Herald Publication 1988 -1989, delegate to UN General Assembly, Me mber to the Board of Governors, Institute o f Business Administration Karachi 1996-1999, Director Board of Directors Karachi Electric Supply Corporation 1997 -1999, Ch airman Griffith College Karachi 1999-2005 and President, Pakistan -China Business Forum from 1999 to 2004. He joined the post of Perma nent Representative Pakist an to the United Nations in New York on 3rd of September 2008.Hussain Abdullah Haroon formerly speaker of the Provincial Assembly of Sindh, On28th February, 1985 General Zia-ul-Haq hold elections on non party basis, sits on the board of several educational institutes, sports association s and charity organizations. He also has the distinction of being the youngest Presid ent of the Sind Club. The elder brother of Ha meed Haroon and grandson of Sir Abdullah Haroon whom Quaid -e-Azam called one of the strongest pillars of the Muslim L eague. Hussain Abdullah Haroon belong to noble Sindhi family. He is member of many bo ards of educational institutes, sports associations and charity organizations. He also h as the distinction of being the yo ungest President of the Sindh Club. He also been part of protest against real estate development in Bundal Island by Emaar. Hussain Haroon is the chair of the English speaking club of Karachi. In July 2008, Hussain Abdullah Haroon was appointed as the Per manent Representative of Pakistan to the United Nations, replacing veteran Munir Akram. He took over the post on 3 September, 2008. The PPP government has nominated Hussain Haroo n, a Karachi -based businessman, social activist and former Sindh Assembly speaker for the key diplomatic position of Pakistan permanent representative to the United Nations in New York, The News has learnt.[56]

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Abdul Raheem Garhori was a great saint and poet of the Indian s ubcontinent. Faqir Abdul Raheem Garhori belonged to the Mangrio tribe and his father's name was Sadullah Mangrio.In 1739 CE (1152 A.H.), Garhori was born in Ranipur, Khayrpur, Si ndh. Shaikh Fakir Abdul Raheem Garhori was the caliph of Sultan -ul-Auliya Khuwaja Mohammad Zamman Lanwari Sharif. He was a great commander who fought against the Sikhs in those areas and defeated them everywhere. He was considered a Shaheed at age 40 in 11 92 A.H. The father of Abdul Raheem Garhori was dead before this occurrence but his mother remained alive till his Shahdat.[57] Garhori Sahab had five marriages and had four daughters and one son who died when he was five years old. In Garhor there is a shrine devoted to Abdul Raheem Garhori. Recently Dr. N. A Baloch reearched that the Grohirri Sahab was born in village "War r", Taluka Khipro, Dist Sanghar Abdul Raheem Garhori was a great scholar. He wrote many books but many of these books were stolen and destroyed in the era of Madad Khan Pathan. However, some of his books are available today: Fateh-ul-Fazal Sharah-e- Abyat-e-Sindhi (Arabic) Risala Gul Naama (Persian) Majmooaat-e-Sindhi (Sindhi)


Khwaja Allah Bakhsh Ghaffari Naqshbandi also known as Sohna Saeen (A person with loving, caring and beautiful personality) is noble Naqshbandi saint in Pakistan. It has been a tradition in Islamic societies where people had been giving special titles to their benefactors, one of the example is Uthman ibn Affan Uthman ibn Affan known as Ghani. He was born on March 10, 1910 in the small town of Khanwahan, Tehsil Kandyaro, Sindh, Pakistan. His father name was Muhammad Mithal who died when he was just 5 months old. He is th e successor to the Sufi Shaikh Khwaja Pir Mitha of Rahmatpur, Larkana, Pakistan.[58]


Khwaja Muhammad Tahir Bakhshi Naqshbandi (born 1962), also known as Sajjan Saeen, is a prominent Naqshbandi Sufi shaykh in Pakistan. He was born on March 21, 1962 at dargah Rahmatpur Sharif, district Larkana, Pakistan. He is successor to Khwaja Allah Bakhsh, also known as Sohna Saeen, whose lineage goes to Khwaja Ghareeb Nawaz Hadhrat Fazal Ali Shah Qureshi. His followers and partisans are all over Pakistan and in countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Spain, Australia, New Zealand and the USA.
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He is patron-in-chief of Jamaat Islah-ul-muslimeen, Rohani Talaba Jamaat and Jamiyat-e-Ulema Tahiriya. He has more than 300 deputies (Khulafa') who are dedicated to spread the Naqshbandi message across the world.[59]


One of the greatest saints of Sindh is Hazrat Abdullah Shah Ghazi (RA).He belongs to 4th generation of Hazrat Ali (AS), the 4th caliph of Islam and son in law of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). He migrated from Arb to Sindh only for the great cause of Islam. He was born in 720 AD in Madina and moved to Sindh in 760AD as a merchant. He brought a large number of horses w ith him. He was given a great respect because he belonged to "Sadaat Family" the most noble family in Islam. He started living here and continued the great mission of Islam.[60]

Sindh has a rich heritage of traditional handicraft t hat has evolved over the centuries. Perhaps the most professed exposition of Sindhi culture is in the handicrafts of Hala, a town some 30 kilometres from Hyderabad. Hala's artisans manufacture hig h-quality and impressively priced wooden handicrafts, textiles, paintings, handmade paper products, and blue pottery. Lacquered wood works known as Jandi, painting on wood, tiles, and pottery known as Kashi, hand woven textiles including khadi, susi, and ajraks are synonymous with Sindhi culture preserved in Hala's handicraft. The Small and Medium Enterprises Authority (SMEDA) is planning to set up an organization of artisans to empower the community. SMEDA is also publishing a directory of the artisans so that exporters can directly contact them. Hala is the home of a remarkable variety of traditional crafts and traditional handicrafts that carry with them centuries of skill that has woven magic into the motifs and designs used. Sindh is known the world over for its various handicrafts and arts. The work of Sindhi artisans was sold in ancient markets of Damascus, Baghdad, Basra, Istanbul, Cairo and Samarkand. Referring to the lacquer work on wood locally known as Jandi, T. Posten (an English traveller who visited Sindh in the early 19th century) asserted that the articles of Hala could be compared wi th exquisite specimens of China.Technological improvements such as the spinning wheel ( charkha) and treadle (pai -chah) in the weaver's loom were gradually introduced and the processes of designing, dyeing and printing by block were refined. The refined, lightweight, colourful, washable fabrics from Hala became a luxury for people used to the woolens and linens of the age.
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Gorakh Hill, is one of the Highest Plateaus of Sindh, in the Kerthar Mountains Range, in the North -West section of Dadu District, Dividing the Dadu and Khuzdar Districts, of Sindhh and Balochistan. Gorakh Hill Station is presently an under Development Project, but you can presently reach Gorkah Hilltop site, from Dadu City.


It is the largest fort of its kind in the region and in the world, It is situated in the of the Kirthar Range about 30 km southwest of Sann, Jamshoro district of Sindh, approximately 90 km north of Hyderabad, in Pakistan. It has an approximate diameter of 9 km. Its walls are on the average 6 meters high and are made of gypsum and lime cut sandstone and its total circumference is about 29 km of which 8 km walls are man -made. While originally c onstructed for bow and arrow warfare it was later expanded to withstand firearms.


About 64 km east of Karachi, on the National Highway, is an interesting archaeological site, Bhambore, originally the seaport of Debal where the young Arab warrior Muhammad bin Qasim landed his armies in 711 AD. Three different periods in Sindh history coincide h ere: the Scytho -Parthian, the Hindu-Buddhist and the early Islamic. There is a museum and a rest house at the site.

The Chaukundi Tombs are attributed to Jokhio and Baloch tribes and were built between 15th and 18th centuries. It is situated 20 km east of Karachi.


Once a famous center of learning, arts and commerce and provisional capital for about four centuries in the past, Thatta is situated 98 km east of Karachi. Today, it is notable for the Jamia Masjid built by the Moghal Emperor Shah Jehan, and the Makli Tombs (15th - 17th centuries), a vast necropolis spread over 15.5 km, depicting exquisite specimens of architecture, stone carvings and glazed tile decorations.



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Some 24 km north of Thatta, is the large man-made Keenjhar Lake, which is 30 km long and 10 km wide. The lake has facilities for angling and boating. PTDC motels offer food and accommodation.


Located about 48 km from Karachi in the midst of the barren rocks of the Kirthar Range in Dadu district, near Thano Boola Khan is Kirthar National Park. Designed and planned with the help of the research and planning group of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural R esources, the park is approved and recognized by international wildlife bodies. It is the last bastion of a wide variety of the region's wildlife that includes Sindh ibex, urial, deer, leopard, gray partridges and Houbara bustard . The Sindh Wildlife Management Board plans tours and provides transport from Karachi.

One of the largest necropolises in the world, with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometers, the Makli Tombs are supposed to be the burial place of some 125,000 Sufi saints. It is located on the outskirts of Thatta, the capital of lower Sind until the seventeenth century, in what is the southeaster n province of present-day Pakistan.


Situated at about 164 km northeast of Karachi, Hyderabad was the capital of Sindh during the reign of the Talpur Mirs in the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, it is known for Mehran University of Engineering & Technology(MUET) and Sindh University, Jamshoro; the provincial museum; the Institute of Sindhology and the Sindhi Adabi Board and also for colourful handicrafts such as glass bangles, glazed tiles, lacquered wood furniture, handloom cloth called 'soosi', block -printed 'Ajrak', leather shoes, etc. Historic monuments include old Mud Fort, Sheikh Makai Fort, Kalhoro Monuments, Talpur Monuments and Miani Forest.


Tomb of Mir Shahdad Talpur (who is regarded as one of the finest military commanders of Sindh) one of the historical heritages of Sindh is at Shahpur Chakar Distt: Sanghar. This is a graveyard of the family



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members of Mir Shahdad Talpur. Shahdadpur a big city of Province Sindh is named behind Mir Shahdad Talpur, whereas Shahpur Chakar is named behind his son Mir Chakar Talpur.yes


Hala is famous for its glazed pottery and enameled wood work. Situated on the National Highway about 56 km from Hyderabad, it is frequently visited by hundreds of devotees of Hazrat Makhdoom Noah (10th century Hijra), a contemporary of Mughal Emperor A kbar and a religious divine, who converted a large number of people of Islam and also translated the Quran into Persian which is one of its earliest Persian translations in South Asia.


Situated at about 56 km from Hyderabad on the National Highway, Bhitshah is the resting place of Sindh's renowned saint and mystic poet Hazrat Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai (16891752). He is remembered for the compendium of his poetry called 'Risalo', a treasure house of wisdom as well as romantic folklore and fine pottery. He also founded a musical tradition of his own which is still popular. Devotees sing with fervor and frenzy his love intoxicated Kafis to the strain s of ek -tara (single string instrument) mainly on the occasion of his "Urs" held every year between 13th and 15th of Safar, the second Islamic lunar month.


Situated on the right bank of River Indus at a distance of 135 km from Hyderabad, Se hwan is an old town of pre -Islamic period. Here are the remains of Kafir -Qila, a fort reported to have been constructed by Alexander the Great . Sehwan is famous for the resting place of the great mystic poet, saint and scholar Shaikh Usman Marvandvi (1117 1274), popularly known as Shahbaz Qalandar whose mausoleum is visited by thousands of the devotees throughout the year. During the Urs celebrations (18th Shahban - the eighth Islamic lunar month), devotees dance rhythmically and with total abandon to the beat of drums (Naqqara Dhamal), finally ending in a spiritual trance.


About 16 km from Sehwan, Manchar, the largest fresh water lake in Asia, is as old as the Indus River. Spread over 254 km, it is a perfect spot for relaxing and the best location for duck -shooting during winter.



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Daraza Sharif, a small village, some 52 km from Khairpur, is known for the tomb of Sachal Sarmast who was a great master of Islamic learning, lived a pious life and composed poetry in Sindhi, Seraiki, Persian and Urdu. Sachal Sarmast's Urs is cele brated on 14th of Ramzan (9th month of Islamic lunar calendar).


Mohen-jo-daro, discovered in 1922, is situated on the West Bank of the river Indus. It has one of the earliest and the most developed urban civilizations of ancient world. It forms a part of the Indus River civilization and was discovered in 1921. It is located 1287.48 km away from Mohen -jo-daro. The Indus River civilization flourished from somewhere third till the middle of second millennium B.C. before it vanquished from the world. Mohen-jo-daro had mud -brick and baked -brick buildings. Covered drainage system in addition to this, soakpits for disposal bins, a large state granary, a spacious pillared hall, a collage of priests, a large and imposing building (probably a palace) incorporates in its margin a system of solid burnt brick tower. Mohen-jo-daro looks like a planned, organized and master architecture of urban settlement. Beneath the citadel, parallel streets, some 30 feet wide, stretched away and are crossed by other straight streets, which divide the town into a great oblong block, each 400 yards in length, and 200 to 300 yards in width. The most imposing remains are those of a Great Hall which consisted of an open quadrangle with verandahs on four sides, galleries and rooms on the back, a group of halls on the north and a large bathing pool. It was probably used for religious or ceremonial bathing. Nearby are the remains of Great Granary, possibly a public treasury where taxes were paid. We c an assume the sensibility of the artistic mind by the discovery of necklaces, pendants of beads, earrings and ankles of ivory and mother of pearl, vessels of silver and bronze and stone weights and measures which suggests the existence of stringent civic regulations. When the first seal was found in Harappa in 1875 it was thought to be of a foreign origin. A humpless bull with an illegible inscription comprising six characters, were engraved on dark brown jasper.

and a citadel mound which

CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN The significance of this, and the multitu de of other seals to follow, was felt when it was realized that the engraved characters and pictures are not only indigenous to the Indus civilization but a thorough understanding of engravings can give a comprehensive account of the true nature of the Ind us civilization. First it was thought that the pictograph and the ideograms were related to Brahmi characters or where perhaps the forerunner of Brahmi. It was also suggested that the seal was ideo-phonographic and resembled the Hieroglyphic seal.


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On the other hand work was being carried on to prove that Dravdian had inherited many Indus signs thus proving the Dravdic affinity of the Indus seal. Its destruction was by the hands of invading Aryan hordes, as some historians believe, or was triggered by an ea rthquake, or flood the remains of which are yet to be established. The Mohen -jo-daro museum, close to the site of excavation, houses price -less relics found there, including these engraved seals, ornamental utensils, pottery, weapons and toys. Some of the precious things have been recently shifted from the site museum to the local government treasury. Interestingly, the bullock carts, boats, drinking jars, toys used even today in the all the towns of Sindh, bare strong resemblance to those used by the anci ent citizens of Mohen-jo-daro. Through the discovery of coins and potteries, archeologists believe that trade and cultural links existed between Mohen -jo-daro and the contemporary civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Various objects d'art found at Mohen-jo-daro include burnt clay male and female figurines, and models of bird, a steatite bust a noble man or a priest -king, wearing a loose robe on which the trefoil pattern is engraved and a small dancing girl of bronze with slim figures and flat Negroid fe atures. Steatite seals bearing lifelike representation of animals and mythological creatures such as the unicorn best illustrate the figural. They bear short inscription in a remarkable pictographic script, which has yet to be deciphered. The various layers of the excavated site show that upon the debris of the ancient civilization rose the buildings and edifices of a much latter settlement dating back to the Kushan period (between the first and the third centuries A.D.). The remains of the Buddhist stupa and the monastery, rising to the height of 10.66 meters (35 feet) above the surrounding area, are of this later period. How this remarkable civilization came to an end after 1800 B.C. remains a mystery. Human skeletons show signs of violent end. Weather t his came as a result of massacre is not certain. According to Father Heras the vertical fish sign meant a star, because in most of the Dravidian languages both the star and the fish are referred to as mint. There are many other examples of a similar nature quoted in his works. All this inspired many scholars including, Soviet, Scandinavian and Pakistanis, to start looking into the matter more seriously. Mohen -jo-daro promises tourists, a journey spread over thousand years in one single excursion!



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Kot Diji is situated between Ranipur and Khairpur on the highway from Hyderabad, at the east bank of the Indus close to Rohri. The discovery of Kot Diji provides the evidence that there is a civilization before Mohen -jo-daro. Archaeologists say that the discovery of this pre -historic site has furnished information of high significance since it pushed back the pre -historic of Pakistan by at least another 300 years from about 2,500 B.C. to 2,800 B.C. Evidence of new cultural elements of pre -Mohenjo-daro time has been found at Kot Diji. Excavations have proved that the Indus Valley Civilizations borrowed or developed some of the basic cultural elements of the Kot Dijians.The site consists of two parts: one comprising of the citadel area on the high ground where the ruling elite lived and an outer area inhabited by common man. The Kot Diji culture is marked by well -furnished, well-made pottery and houses built of mud -bricks on solid stone foundations. In fact, the Kot Dijian ceramics, though different in form and technique, are in no way less artistic than the sophisticated back-on-red pottery of Mohen-jo-daro civilization. A real image from Kotdigi Qilla entrance. The front door has huge protective iron nails from elephant attack. The door is situated in a 45 degree turn to avoid a straight army attach. While taking this photo a bullock cart was captured in the photo which was passing accidentally through as a part of their regular travel to local town. Similar bullock cart was in use in Mohen -jo- daro about 2500 BC years Amazingly a Pajero jeep was parked at the entrance of fort, which can be seen in the shadow of fort. This shows a historical display of modern machine and ancient Mohen-jo-daro civilization both in practice. The Mohen -jo-daro civi lization borrowed some of the basic cultural elements from Kot Dijians. They decoration designs, such as the "fish scale " intersecting circles and the piped leaf pattern were all evolved from the Kot Dijian decorated elements like the horizontal and wavy lines, loops and simple triangular patterns. There is, however, no proof yet of the place or the region from where these Kot Dijians arrived in The Indus Valley. There is so much to see and explore that tourists and researchers find themselves lost in a never ending excursion of a rich archaeological past.


Some 63km south of Mirpur Khas, Naukot town lies at the edge of the desert. Another 3km on the road to Mithi an awe -inspiring fort attracts the eye in the wilderness. It is said to have been constructed by Mir Karam Ali Khan in 1814 to consolidate his power in the desert and to subdue the Than and make effective

CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN PAKISTAN and forceful arrangements to collect dhal, revenue.


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The fort is built of burnt -bricks in mud mortar and measures about 1 13m in length and 98m in width. Another squarish construction on the souther n side of the fort, measuring 15m x 13m has in it the only entrance and narrow access to the interior of the fort. All the walls and bastions give tapering look. The narrow entrance is approached through ~a crooked passage formed by two heavy and semi -circular bastions. The bastion close to the doorway, and making a part of the squarish construction, is about 9.5m high with a diameter of about 42m at the base. The arched entrance is around 7m in height and about 4m in width. The approach to the interior of the fort is through causeway type hall and room, which make part of the squarish construction, itself a fortress. The fort has nine semi -circular bastions, two of them guarding the main entrance, four at the corners and one each in the middle of the north ern, southern and western walls. A 4m wide wall runs on the four sides of the fort. It has two burnt-brick stairs to climb the wall top, from the interior of the fort. Inside the fort there are a few remains of rooms etc., which may go to suggest that the se were the residential quarters. A small construction like a dungeon could have been the barood khana, or the place to store ammunition. The water seems to have been easily accessible by digging wells inside the fort. Even now a hand-pump serves the visitors well.


This park may be visited for recreation, education or research purposes but shooting is forbidden here. A Super Highway (for 4 WD vehicles only) takes the visitor deep into the heart of Kirthar National Park. Measuring ove r 3,000 square kilometers in the Kirthar hills and a good destination for a 3 -day trip. October to February is the most comfortable...that is, the coolest time to visit this park but the flowers blossom during the (relatively) wet monsoon in August. Kirtha r was designated a national park by the Sindh Wildlife Department in 1974, the first of Pakistan's parks to be included in the UN's listing of National Parks of 1975. In addition, Kirthar qualifies for the strict criteria fixed by IUCN for a Category II pr otected area, designated mai nly for ecosystem preservation, Kirthar National Park is the habitat of rare species that include the Sindh Ibex, Chin Kara, Gazelles, Leopards, Wild sheep, and other animals. The best season to visit is from October to February . However, it is the greenest in August during the monsoons. Five furnished rest houses with cooking facilities and running water are situated on the edge of a wide valley in the centre of the park at Karchat. They are bookable through the Sindh Wildlife M anagement Board, which also hires out tents to those who wish to camp. Some food is available if ordered well in advance, but it is better to take your own food, drink and bedding. The rolling valleys and rugged lines of the Kirthar hills form a natural h aven for urial sheep, ibex and chinkara gazelle. Jungle cats, desert cats and even the occasional leopard or desert wolf also prowl the park, but you would be extremely lucky to see them. Pangolin (scaly anteaters), porcupines and monitor lizards are in vast numbers.



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Other attractions in the park are the 18th century Chaukundi style tombs at Taung and pre -historic archaeological remains at Koh Tarash. The enormous Runni Kot Fort is also within the park, two hours by jeep from Karchat. Runii Kot is about four hours from Karachi via the Super and the Indus Highways.


Mammals in the park include Asiatic leopard, Stripped Hyena, Desert Wolf, Indian Fox, Sindh Wild Goat (Ibex), Urial (Gad), Honey Badger, Indian Pangolin, Caracal, Jungle cat, Jackal, Chinkara Gazelle, Black Buck (Reintroduced), Hedgehog, Porcupine, Mongoose, Cairo Spiny mouse and the Rock Mouse. Birds may include; Lammegier vulture (Winter Migrant), Bonnelli's eagle, Griffon vulture, Egyptian vulture, Close-Barred sandgrouse, Houbara bu stard, Grey partridge, See partridge, Stone Curlew, Finche larks, Hoopoe, shrikes and Wheatears. Reptiles found in the park are The Rock python, Sindh cobra, Russell's viper, Sawscaled viper, Sindh krait, Royal rat snake, Tortoises, Monitor lizard, Sindh Crocodile (possibly extinct) and different species of lizard and chameleon. The Kirthar Park is undoubtedly, amongst the best maintained recreation parks of Pakistan.


Masoom Shah Jo Munaro, (Munaro in Sindhi Language for Minaret) wh ich is situated in the middle of the city. It has 84 narrow steps in a spiral shape stair. Minaret was built by Historian and knight Mr. Masoom Shah in 18th century. It is believed that the stones used in the stairs were soiled in real butter Ghee for 84 d ays. While moving upward there are few small stoppages with windows in the walls for brightness and air. At the top there is a lovely balcony from where a spectacular view of the River Indus and its two bridges and almost entire city can be seen. Sukkur has a rich history. It has the oldest barrage with more than one mile length and 66 huge gates. Modern Sukkur was built by the British general Sir Charles Napier in the 1840s, the first English invader of Sindh. Sukkur Barrage on the Indus River was opened in January 1932, following almost a century of deliberations by the Government of Bombay Presidency. The largest irrigation project ever undertaken, it brought nearly 7 million acres under cultivation. Some of the project's individual canals were larger t han the Suez Canal. It paved the way for an economically depressed Sindh to become a full province, with its capital in the rapidly growing port city of Karachi. Fifteen years later, Karachi became the capital of a new country, Pakistan.



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Near Rohri Railway station towards Sukkar there is a shirine that claims to hold a holy Hair Mobarak of Prophet Mohammed (PBUH). It is beleived locally that there are thousands of sufis and saints in Rohri and its suburbs. Ruines of 'city of Aror' which is located only 9 K ilometers from Sukkur is the site where Mohammed bin Qasim built a famous Mosque in 726 AD which is present even today and an Imam still performs prayer there . If you possess an archaeologist mind you may hike to the citadel and probably can find some coins of that period of 8th to 13 Century. This shows how ignored is the historical place where government claims Sindh as bab -ul-islam (door to Islam in sub -continent) yet the first ever built mosque on the land of South East Asia is not preserved. Near the Sukkur barrage there is a Hindu/ Sikh temple known as Sadh belo. This is situated in the middle of the river Indus.At a short distance from Sukkur, there are few Hindus temples of Kali Mata & Durga. It is beleived that Kali when travelling to Hanglag (Bal uchistan ) stayed there. Many Hindus come for a pilgrmage (Teerat ) and go through a dark cave to perform their ritual. The people here are very friendly and it can be really interesting to see how rituals are performed. On the way to the caves you can als o stop at Ganjo Takar a small temple on top of a gigantic bolder if you want to test your rock climbing skills this is perfect place.


Hyderabad, Nayrun Kot as it was originally known, was constructed by Raja Nayrun, a Hindu. This Nayrun Kot, was destroyed by Arabs. Miya Gulam Shah Kalhoro decided to reconstruct and revive the city as his Capital and decided to build a new Fort at its site. He deputed Diwan Gidumal (Gidwani), the task. Diwan Gidumal, with two boat loads of money, landed at Kotri, (a village opp. Gidu Bunder at Hyderabad) on the bank of Sindhu river, and on the other bank set up a Camp for his crew. This Camp came to be known as Gidu Jo Tando, now called Gidu - Bunder. Diwan Gidumal constructed Two Forts (Qila or Qilo). One s olid (Pako), made of stone, and other katcho or katcha, made of earthen materiel.

Miya Gulam Shah Kalhoro would visit Hyderabad from time to time to supervise and would stay at Katcha Qila. In the year 1768, construction of Pako Qilo was completed. Miya Gu lam Shah Kalhoro then donated Katcho Qilo to Shah Makai's Dargah. The Trustees of Shah Makai's Dargah, until 1946, acknowledge that during the days of Raja Nayrun, Hazrat Ali and Shah Makai, had visited Hyderabad. Foot prints of Hazrat Ali are preserved i n a Dargah called "Qadam Shah", situated at the foot of Qila Chari Kalhoras were of Shia Faith, followers of Hazrat Ali. Hazrat Ali was also known as "Hyder", meaning Snake Killer. Hazrat Ali during childhood, had killed a snake, hence the name. To honour the visit of Hazrat Ali (Hyder) and as a remembrance, Miya Gulam Shah Kalhoro, changed the Nayrun Kot to "Hyderabad". The city was then sparingly inhabited as Miya Gulam Shah Kalhoro had yet to shift to live there. However, he did not live to enjoy it's co mforts.



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Miya Gulam Shah Kalhoro expired in the year 1771 and is buried at Hyderabad. After him, the Throne was inherited by Miya Sarfirar Khan Kalhoro. He built a new capital city in the year 1772, a mile and half from New Halla, known as New Khudabad. But , he is buried at Hyderabad. Towards the end of reign of Kalhoras, Talpars, (Mirs), took control of the Government. In the year 1783, their reign began. New Khudabad continued as Capital city with many Amils and Bhaibunds still living there till 1789. In the above picture one can see clearly the high -rise constructions, drainage water flowing through the walls and consequently huge trees, fungus and plantation have grown. These illegal occupations and their irresponsible way of life has damaged the histor ical fort and many walls have collapsed. The internal structure of fort has been completely erased. This is due to the ignorance of government that many illegal occupiers had made their houses inside the fort otherwise this fort is situated in the heart of City therefore it is not difficult for government to look after this historical masterpiece, however the local, provincial and federal government after creation of Pakistan has shown no interest in the preservation of this fort and its remaining. In 1980's the famous museum attached to its rich history was looted and eventually set on fire. Its illegal occupation begun after the creation of Pakistan and particularly after unplanned migration o f illiterate migrant from India


Pakistan's cosmopolita n city Karachi, is located on the eastern coast of the Arabian Sea. It is the capital of Sindh and the former capital of Pakistan. With a population of nearly 10 million (which is rising rapidly), Karachi is undoubtedly the largest city of Pakistan accommo dating people from all regions and religions. Being the largest and the most populous city of Pakistan, Karachi presents an interesting and colourful combination of the old and new traditions. The narrow twisted lanes and alleys of the old city throb with life along-side the wide metalled roads and elegant modern buildings. Within the city, one may find talented artisans with age -old skills producing handicrafts of exquisite beauty. Karachi is Pakistan's busiest commercial city hosting great activities in trade, industry, education etc. It is an ultra-modern city, equipped with the most modern cinemas, recreational clubs, hotels and restaurants. The sea is the most exciting and romantic part of Karachi. There are beautiful beaches at Sandspit, Sommiani and Hawks Bay. These places are excellent picnic resorts and with their peaceful and tranquil surroundings they provide adequate fun and enjoyment to tourists and locals alike. Adding to tourist attraction are numerous water related activities like yachting, w ater-skiing and cruising etc. The presence of huge and tall buildings have given Karachi a grandeur and majestic appearance. The Quaid (Quaid -iAzam Muhammad Ali Jinnah) mausoleum is the most important monument in Karachi. With all its splendour and beauty , The Quaid Mausoleum stands gracefully in the heart of Karachi whereby combining classical oriental architecture with modern day architectural designs. The Quaid's birthplace, Wazir Mansion, has also been preserved as a national archive. To provide conv enience to tourists, Karachi has a state -of-the-art international airport accommodating flights from all over the world. It has thus become the "Gateway to Pakistan". Karachi welcomes people from all parts of the world. It pictures a mingling of varieties; old and new, east and west. It looks as if,



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Karachi has truly absorbed the charm and beauty of modern and conventional way of life. Offering a host of cultural and social activities, Karachi has truly positioned itself to become a famous tourist temptation.


Masjid-e-Toba, otherwise known as the Defense Mosque for being situated in the Defense residential area, is Karachi's up mark. An excellent example of modern Islamic architecture., built in 1969, this Mosque is famous for its dome. It is 72m in diameter and is claimed to be the world's largest concrete shell dome.

This palace is situated in the area of Clifton, built in 1933 in a Mughal Ghothic style with imposing domes and cupolas. The palace was used as the residence of Quid-e-Azam's sister, Fatima Jinnah until her death in 1967. It is also known as Qasr-e-Fatima Jinnah.

This beach is very near from the main city and is famous for weekend outings. Developed as a health resort in the 19th Century by the B ritish, Clifton is now one of Karachi's most exclusive residential area. People of all ages comes here to enjoy. Camel and horse owners offer beach ride, there is a point called Clifton view point. The yellow sand stone pavilion on the promenade, offers go od views of the surrounding area. Close by, there is a Hindu Temple called Shree Ratnewswar Mahdevi known as the caves of Mahdevi and mentioned in the Hindu ancient religious book Ramayana.

A visit to Karachi Fish Harbour can be particularly rewarding when one sees hundreds of colourfully decorated and designed boats bringing in their daily catch. Karachi has one of the best natural harbours in the entire region and there is an abundance of prawns, crabs, and different fish. It is a 15 -minute drive from the main city.

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80 Km North of Karachi, on the way to Thatta, 5km before the village of Gharo, forming the end of a chain of street lakes, lie the beautiful waters of Haleeji. Approximately one hundred thousand birds including over 75 species of waterfowl alone find sanctuary here during the winter time. Flamingoes, Pelicans, Purple Gallinules, Pheasant, Tailed Jacanas, Herons, Ducks, and the many migrant Cyberian birds can be seen here. This spot is one of the best birds watching Paradise in the region.[61]



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In Pakistan, handicrafts are rich and diverse. Every city/village has its own handicrafts specialty ranging from fabric, material, embroidery, to jewellery, carving, mirror work and other handicraft items. Each color, style, design and motif carries with it a unique symbol port raying the culture of that particular area and builds on peoples indigenous skills. Handicrafts are characterized as products depicting a cultural trait of a specific regio n/time, produced by hand. It can also be defined as The product made with or wi thout the use of tool, simple implements or implements operated directly by the craftsman, by hand or foot, having traditional or A rtistic features driven from th e geographical cultural peculiarities of craftsman, and generally on a small or cottage indus try and not on mass production basis. Handicrafts of Pakistan are famous for their uniqueness, assortment and quality standards and therefore have established a mark within and outside the country. In more recent history, crafts in Pakistan we re influenced by the arrival of Islam. They accentuate designs and styles dating from 5000 B.C. Sindh is a region, which has been and still is very rich in handicrafts. The textiles are very famous especially block printing and tie -and-dye. It also enjoy s a reputation for reputation for textiles, pottery, clay, curved furniture, leatherwork and carpets. The craftsmanship of the people of Sindh began during the period of Mohenjo-Daro civilization and has won praise overseas.[62] However, there is severe shortage of craftswomen in the development of this sector: Not aligned with the changing trend of the global markets, Lack in planning and management, and Women in rural areas are hardly involved in this sector; therefore their skills are fading away.

The skill of the Sindhi craftsman continues to exhibit the 5000-year-old artistic tradition. The long span of time, punctuated by fresh and incessant waves of invaders and settlers, provided various exotic modes of arts which, with the passage of t ime, got naturalized on the soil. The perfected surface decorations of objects of everyday use - clay, metal, wood, stone or fabrics, with the floral and geometrical designs - can be traced back to the Muslim influence. Though chiefly an agricultural and pastoral province, Sindh has a reputation for 'Ajrak', pottery, leatherwork, carpets, textiles, and silk cloth which, in design and finish, are matchless. The chief articles produced are blankets, coarse cotton cloth (soosi) camel fittings, metalwork, lacq uered work, enamel, gold and silver embroidery. Hala is famous for pottery and tiles; Boobak for carpets; Nasirpur, Gambat and Thatta for cotton lungees and Khes. The earthenware of Johi, metal vessels of Shikarpur; relli, embroidery and leather articles o f Tharparkar; lacquered work of Kandhkot - are some of the other popular crafts.



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The pre -historic finds from different archaeological sites such as Moenjodaro, engravings in various graveyards and the architectural designs of Makli and other tombs provide ample evidence of the people in their literary and musical traditions. Modern painting and calligraphy have also developed in recent times and some young trained men have taken up commercial art collections. [63]

Pottery Glazed pottery Woodwork Lacquer work Handloom(weaving art) Embroidery Leather work Straw work(basketry) Stone and mosaic Shells and marine products Jewellery Iron implements and steel grills Fine arts, painting, sculpture and creative handicrafts

There are various handicraft of Sindh which are most popular in Pakistan as well as all over the world. The handicraft of Sindh shows Pakistan culture. They people in Sindh working hard to make the handicrafts. There are various names of handicrafts of Sindh which is made i n Pakistan and send to various part of world for selling.


Traditional handicrafts from Sindh on display, including magnificent lacquer art (left) and instantly recognizable Sindhi caps featuring Thar embroidery and rill work (right). A large number of residents attended the event and praised the artists outstanding performances. The musicians who performed at the event included Humaira Channa, Taj Mastani, Mai Dhai, Jamaluddin Faqir, Mazhar Hussain, Zulfiqar Ali, Ustad Fateh Ali Khan and Diba Kanwal. Sindh Culture Minister Sassi Palijo was scheduled to be the chief guest at the event but was unable to come due to prior commitments. Sindh is famous for a wide range of folk crafts including lacquer art, Persian weaving, blue pottery , ajrak, block printing, traditional carpet weaving, rilli (applique work), khes weaving, wood works,
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Thar embroidery and several others handicrafts, all of which are being exhibited at the festival. The contingent from Sindhi consists of more than 100 artists, craftsmen, musicians, dance groups and other officials. The Sindhi craftspeople at the festival are Sahib Dino, Mitho Khan Bhutto, Samila, Jani, Khan Chand, Naseem Sultan, Gopal Das, Imdad Ali, Arbab Ali Soomro, Siani Khatoon, Muhammad Suleman, Zameer, Kha dim Hussain Solangi, Pari, Poonam, Faqeer Muhammad, Gaino, Munawwar Khatoon, Sara and Sumaira. The most prominent among these artists is Sahib Dino, from Ranipur village in Khairpur. Dino specialises in khes weaving and acquired the skill from his father at a very early age. He has more than 36 years of experience in this field and comes to Lok Virsa every year. Apart from that, several folk musicians from Sindh are also participating in the festival. They include folk singers Raza Allan and Lakha Dao, mu rli player Misri Jogi, algoza nawaz Urs Bhatti, flute player Ghaus Bukhsh Brohi, harmonium player Ahmed Ali, dholak player Manzoor Bhatti, matka nawaz Ali Hassan, banjo nawaz Ahsan Bhatti and surinda nawaz Muhammad Hassan. The folk dance group comprises Sa in Dad Faqir, Imam Dino, Chandi Faqir, Vishno Mal, Ajmal and Khuda Bakhsh. Talking to media, he said, It is important to have cultural activities which provide healthy entertainment to people who are severely affected by war and terror. It also gives a c lear message to the world that we are a peaceful nation. He praised the efforts of Lok Virs a management and added that even the remotest regions of the country can be seen at the festival, which gives a sense of unity among the provinces. The 10-day fest ival started on June 4 and will conclude on Sunday, where cash awards and certificates will be distributed among prominent artists and craftspeople.


The name of Ajrak is derived from Azrak which means Blue in Persian & Arabic. It is a textile item with rich crimson & deep indigo. It relates with the ancient civilization of Indus valley. The civilization was found its existence around 1500 BC to 2500 BC. While excavation of Mohenjo -Daro. A kind priest was found with a shawl around his shoulders, decorated with a trefoil pattern (like a three leafed clover) with small circles and the interior of which with red pigment. Similar trefoil pattern has been discovered in Mesopotamia and also on the royal of Tutankhamen (of the ancient pharaoh s). The combination of three colors is a symbol of three sun disks to -gathers to represent unity of gods of the Sun, Water & Earth. It also reflects i n the current / modern Ajrak.



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Ajrak is an un -avoidable part of clothing culturally inherited by males of Sindh province. Normally men wear it around the shoulder, where as female use it as Dupatta / Chaddar as shawls. Ajrak is usually around 2.5 to 3 meter piece of cotton sheeting / silk sheeting (some time in two parts) duly hand block printed in mostly three dominating colours where as a little black and white is also used to define geometric pattern. In Sindh Ajrak is also offered as token of high respect to the guest. Further more ajrak also place on the caffen of departed persons as taken of respect from society. It is extensively used as gift on happy & sorrow occasions.

Now a days Bhit shah, Khyber, Matiyari, Matli, Tando Mohammad Khan are the main and well known centres in which artisans are settled and engaged in the production. Core Actors of Ajrak: i. ii. Number of manufacturing units. Around 50 to 55 small manufacturing units are engaged in the production of Ajrak in Bhit Shah, Khyber, Matiyari, Matli, Tando Mohammad Khan.[64]


Ralli (also known as rilli, rehli, rallee, gindi or other names), or patchwork quilt, is another Sindhi icon and part of the heritage and culture. Most Sindhi homes have many Rallisone for each member of the family and a few spare for guests. Ralli is made with small pieces o f cloth of different geometrical shapes and patters sewn together to create intricate designs. They may be used as a bedspread or a blanket, and are often given as gifts to friends and guests.

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Sindhi Embroidery shows ethnic allure in dresses... When we speak about Sindh the main clothing comes in mind is "Ajrak". Ajrak has existed in Sindh since the birth of its civilization. The color blue is predominantly used for ajraks. Sindh was traditionally a large producer of indigo and cotton cloth and both used to be exported to the Middle East. Traditional elements bring a heady tribal beat to summer.



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Pakistan has tradition of carpet -making going back thousands of years. Weaving was a developed form of art in the Mohenjo -Daro in Sind 4000 -5000 year ago. Thehandmade carpets produced in Lahore in the 16th Century are on display in museums in Lahore and elsewhere. Knotted woolen carpets with Islamic designs are part of the culture in both South Asia and the Middle East. In Pakistan, Karachi and Lahore are importantcenters for the production of fine carpets. Textiles such as bedspreads and shawls are popular, and the Sindh and Baloch people are known for their mirror embroidery, where small mirrors are stitched into the fabric to create glittery masterpieces.[65]


The Handicrafts manifested through Brass, onyx and wood, are known to maintain a proud tradition of handicrafts since 1994 in Pakistan and truly signifying the worth of the products. The art of carving on Metal & Wood items are the real beauties of our hard working Craftsmen. These items are manufactured in small villages by diligent craftsman, and can easily be purchased in big cities. Such crafts include, metal lanterns, mirror frames, decoration pieces and more.


Metalwork, including inlaid or engraved swords, boxes, dishes, and tea sets made from silver and gold, as well as jewelry with precious stones and pearls, are important crafts. Jewelry is not limited to necklaces, bracelets , rings but also includes hair and forehead decorations and nose ornaments. Leatherwork and basketry are also important crafts. Sindh baskets are colorful and intricate, while weavers in the Northwest Frontier prefer geometric patterns.[65]




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An activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others. An athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess andoften of a competitive nature, as racing, baseball, tennis,golf, bowling, wrestling, boxing, hunting, fishing, etc A particular form of this, especially in the out of doors.

Regional sports are the sports that that are played in side a local region or area. The sports that are played in a region and are specifically of that region are called regional sports of that region. An activity involving physical exertion and skill in which an individual or team competes against another or others and is played inside a specific region or area. Basically regional sports of any region are dependent on the culture of that specific region. Sindh is home to cultural sports like: Malakhiro (Malakhra) is one of the famous sports of Sindh. Wanjh wati, Kodi Kodi, Beelarhoo, Thipai Rand Notinn Biloor



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Sindh Malakra Association (SMA) Secretary Saran Mari stated that holding traditional occasions at more compact venues rather than the primary stadium can also be putting the game, and tradition from the province, lower. Sindh hosts cultural sports like malakra, wanj watti and kabaddi. Kabaddi is not only played in sindh, it is played almost all over the Pakistan, mostly in Punjab Province.

Sindh hosts cultural sports like malakra, wanj watti and kabaddi which, based on their particular associations, are now being neglected through the SOA. Mumtaz Shoro, leader of Sindh Wanj Watti Association, stated that traditional sports ought to be the heart of these occasions. The SOA, based on Shoro, has given them Rs10,000 to organise the wanj watti competition for 3 days and also the gamers, owned by a humble background, werent even provided decent equipment.

Kodi kodi is also a mostly played game in Sindh Pakistan. It is a two teams game played by two teams one of the player from one team go to the other one and the other team has to catch him and his aim is to touch one of them and run away back to his team. This game is also played in Punjab Province. Not only Punjab this is also played in India and Internationally. Some other games that are played in Sindh are: Dogs Fighting Dogs Racing Cattle Race Horse Dancing Horse Racing Cock Fighting Now a days Most Played Sport in Sindh and all Over the Pakistan is Cricket. It has become very common game in Sindh. The above games mentioned are played in Sindh and are of a big importance for people in rural areas, they also gamble in these sports and win and lose thousands and lacks of their money.



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Regional sports of the Sindh are also played in Sindh but now a day the regional sports of Sindh are being edited by the sports of this world. Now a days cricket, football, hockey and other modern sports are becoming a part of the regional sports of Sindh. We can say that Sindh is inheriting the sports of this world.

It shows the average number of years that persons can expect to Live from the time of birth if they experience currently prevail the age specific death rates throughout their life. The expectation of life at birth is independent of the age structure of a population and therefore provides a more reliable index for international comparisons of the level of mortality, social and economic condition of a country.

Year 2000 2001 2002 Life span 61.07 61.45 61.82

2003 62.2

2004 2005 62.61 63

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 63.39 63.75 64.13 64.49 65.63 65.66



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