UMTS Uplink Budget

Housam Al-Houasmi
08-May -2005

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Main Objectives
In this presentation you will be able to:


1. Understand how the UMTS uplink budget works.

2. Learn how each parameter in the link budget is derived (or calculated).

3. Differentiate between customer specific and vendor specific parameters.


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What is a “Power” Link Budget?
Power Link Budget

A calculation of the achievable path loss while accounting for all
sources of gain, attenuation and noise

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“Power” Link Budget

Tx power + All Gains – Path Loss – Other losses = Rx power


Path loss = Tx Signal + All Gains – Other losses – Rx power


Max Path loss = Tx Signal + All Gains – Other losses – Rx sensitivity

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What is Receiver Sensitivity?
Receiver Sensitivity:
The minimum required received signal strength to achieve the
desired quality of service (measured in BLER) in the presence of a
predicted level of interference.
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o All users use the same frequency.
o Users are separated by code.
o UMTS is an interference limited system
o More load = more interference.
You !
Interference
Interference
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What is Receiver Sensitivity?
Receiver Sensitivity:
The minimum required received signal strength to achieve the
desired quality of service (measured in BLER) in the presence of a
predicted level of interference.
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Interference
-120 dBm
-117 dBm -171+4 dBm/Hz
-171+1 dBm/Hz
Case 1
Case 2
3dB less
interference
Rx signal is
3dB less
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Signal to Noise Ratio

SNR (dB) = Rx power - noise


SNR (dB) = Tx power + all gains - path loss - other losses - noise


Path loss (dB) = Tx power + all gains - other losses - ( SNR + Noise)

SNR : Signal to Noise Ratio.

Indicates the level of the Rx signal in comparison to the level
of noise (+ Rx interference) so that communication could
be established effectively.

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Bit rate bit/s 64000 a
Total TX power available dBm 21 b
TX antenna gain dBi 2 c
Body loss dB 0 d
TX EIRP per traffic channel dBm 23 e=b+c-d
RX antenna gain dBi 18 f
RX cable and connector losses dB 3 g
Receiver noise figure dB 3 h
Thermal noise density dBm/Hz -174 j
Cell loading % 70 k
Noise rise due to interference dB 5.23 l=10*log10(1/(1-(k/100)))
Total effect of noise dBm/Hz -171 m=h+j
Information rate dBHz 48.06 n=db(a)
Effective required Eb/No dB 2.54 o
RX sensitivity dBm -115.40 p=l+m+n+o+correction factor
Soft Handoff Gain dB 4.5 q
Fast fading Margin dB 2.5 r
Log normal fade margin dB 11.6 s
In-building penetration loss (urban) dB 20 t
Maximum path loss urban dB 123.80 pl=e+f+q-g-p-r-s-t
Uplink Budget
Service
Bit Rate
Max. UE power
Tx antenna gain,
e.g. 2dBi for a
dipole
Attenuation due
to body
obstruction.
Rx antenna
gain in the
boresight
direction
Cable and
connector losses
between the Rx
antenna and the
cabinet
Source
thermal noise
Loading
converted to
noise rise
Loading in the cell
due to other users
Added
system noise
Bit rate
converted to
dB
+
Attenuation
through building
walls
We will
study these
parameters
in more
detail in
subsequent
sections
Effective
Isotropic Power
from the Tx
antenna
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Bit rate bit/s 64000 a
Total TX power available dBm 21 b
TX antenna gain dBi 2 c
Body loss dB 0 d
TX EIRP per traffic channel dBm 23 e=b+c-d
RX antenna gain dBi 18 f
RX cable and connector losses dB 3 g
Receiver noise figure dB 3 h
Thermal noise density dBm/Hz -174 j
Cell loading % 70 k
Noise rise due to interference dB 5.23 l=10*log10(1/(1-(k/100)))
Total effect of noise dBm/Hz -171 m=h+j
Information rate dBHz 48.06 n=db(a)
Effective required Eb/No dB 2.54 o
RX sensitivity dBm -115.40 p=l+m+n+o+correction factor
Soft Handoff Gain dB 4.5 q
Fast fading Margin dB 2.5 r
Log normal fade margin dB 11.6 s
In-building penetration loss (urban) dB 20 t
Maximum path loss urban dB 123.80 pl=e+f+q-g-p-r-s-t
Path loss = Tx signal + all gains - losses - ( SNR + Noise)
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•Required Eb/Io
•Receiver Sensitivity
•Fast Fading margin
•Shadow Fade Margin & Soft handoff gain
•Path Loss Calculation

Topics
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Required Eb/Io
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Required E
b
/I
o

The quality of a link can be defined by the error rate; in UMTS networks we
can measure the Block Error Rate, (BLER). We will use this as our
fundamental measure of quality in the uplink direction.
For the up-link, it is possible to relate the BLER to the ratio E
b
/I
o
, where:
• E
b
is the received energy per bit from the wanted user,
• I
o
is the total received power density, from both interference and
thermal noise, excluding the power of the wanted signal.
Therefore, we can use E
b
/I
o
as an indication of link quality on the up-link.
Required E
b
/I
o
depends on the channel conditions.
Power Control eliminates the near-far problem, i.e. if all users experience
the same channel, they will require the same average E
b
/I
o.
SNR can be assumed to be equal to (E
b
/I
o
)X(R/W)
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Required Eb/Io – Dependence on speed
Eb/Io
Speed
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Typical Average Eb/Io values

BLER
Voice 12.2kbps
Pedestrian A
3km/hr
Vehicular A
50km/hr
Vehicular A
120km/hr
Pedestrian B
3km/hr
Vehicular B
50km/hr
Vehicular B
120km/hr
0.10% 7.46 6.71 7.42 7.60 7.21 6.88
1% 6.37 5.95 6.44 6.85 6.32 5.91
3% 5.78 5.40 5.97 6.57 5.74 5.45
5% 5.53 5.17 5.76 6.28 5.46 5.22
10% 5.33 4.82 5.32 5.81 5.10 4.90
BLER
64kbps CS
Pedestrian A
3km/hr
Vehicular A
50km/hr
Vehicular A
120km/hr
Pedestrian B
3km/hr
Vehicular B
50km/hr
Vehicular B
120km/hr
0.10% 2.32 3.47 3.62 3.93 2.98 3.01
1% 1.71 2.70 2.85 3.28 2.2 2.38
3% 1.45 2.20 2.35 2.93 1.66 1.82
5% 0.80 1.91 2.00 2.75 1.30 1.49
10% 1.28 1.43 2.50 0.80 1.05
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Typical Average Eb/Io values

BLER
144kbps PS
Pedestrian A
3km/hr
Vehicular A
50km/hr
Vehicular A
120km/hr
Pedestrian B
3km/hr
Vehicular B
50km/hr
Vehicular B
120km/hr
0.10% 2.21 3.24 3.27 3.94 3.21 3.92
1% 1.60 2.63 2.75 3.51 2.59 3.32
3% 1.30 2.27 2.41 3.24 2.23 2.92
5% 1.85 2.07 2.25 2.92 2.05 2.72
10% 0.94 1.76 1.95 2.77 1.78 2.40
BLER
384kbps PS
Pedestrian A
3km/hr
Vehicular A
50km/hr
Vehicular A
120km/hr
Pedestrian B
3km/hr
Vehicular B
50km/hr
Vehicular B
120km/hr
0.10% 4.96 6.15 6.23 6.74 6.32 6.43
1% 3.65 5.14 5.23 5.85 5.40 5.65
3% 3.24 4.68 4.72 5.50 4.93 5.11
5% 2.90 4.38 4.62 5.27 4.64 4.82
10% 2.90 3.50 4.37 4.88 4.13 4.39
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Receiver Sensitivity

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What is Receiver Sensitivity?
Receiver Sensitivity:
The minimum required received signal strength to achieve the
desired Eb/Io and consequently the target performance (BLER) in
the presence of a known amount of interference.
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Receiver Sensitivity VS.
Noise Rise
The link quality for user i can be found as follows:


Which makes the receiver sensitivity:




Where
Si : Received signal strength of user i.
Ri : Rate of user i.

Noise Rise


i
b
N i
R
I
E
N S ·
|
.
|

\
|
· A · =
0
0
NF kT N · =
0
:
N
A
W I
S
noise ce Interferen
y sensitivit Rx
SNR
i
i
·
= =
0
&
_
W
N
I
N
W I
R E
W I SNR S
b
i i
· · · = · · =
0
0
0
0
0
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Same cell interference
You !
Other
users in
the same
cell !
Noise
Same Cell Interference:
All users are power controlled.





( ) 1 . . ÷ · = N R E I
b samecell
o
Energy
per Bit
Data
Rate
Number of
Users
Activity
(Energy/bit )X(bit/s)=Energy /s = power
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Other cell interference
Other Cell Interference:
Users in other cells are not power controlled by your site.
The other cell interference depends on:
- The location and density of mobiles in neighboring sites.
- Antenna radiation pattern.
- The overlap between the sites (soft handoff).

Usually:
Interference
You !
otal t
samecell
I
I
f ÷
Depends on:
•Antenna Radiation Pattern
•Site Configuration
•Mix of services
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Other cell interference
Configuration Interference Ratio
(Isc/total)
Isolated Cell 1
Omni site with equally loaded neighbors 0.65
A sector in a 3-sectored site with equally loaded
neighbors
0.55
A sector with neighbors highly loaded 0.5
A sector with neighbors extremely loaded 0.45
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Total Interference
( ) 1 . . ÷ · = N R E I
b samecell
o
We know that:
samecell othercell
I
f
f
I ·
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
1
and that:
( ) W N
f
N R E W I
b
.
1
1 . .
0 0
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
· ÷ · =o
Hence:
W N I I W I
othercell samecell 0 0
+ + =
Total interference to one link is calculated like this:
densities
Chip Rate
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Pole Capacity
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ·
· ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
0
0
0
1
1
) 1 (
I
N
I
E
f
R
W
N
b
o
Pole Capacity occurs when interference is much higher than noise.
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ·
· ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
0
0
0
1
1
) 1 (
I
N
I
E
f
R
W
N
b
pole
o
1
1
. .
/
0
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
f I
E
R W
N
b
pole
o
Constant (K)
( ) W N
f
N R E W I
b
.
1
1 . .
0 0
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
· ÷ · =o
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Loading vs Noise Rise
pole
N
N
Loading = ÷q
Let us define loading as follows:
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷ ·
=
+
+
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ·
K
K I
N
K
K
K I
N
K
K
I
N
K
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
0
0
0
0
0
0
K
N
I
N
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
+
·
÷
= = A
q
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Receiver sensitivity
The Receiver Sensitivity becomes:
i
b
b
i
R
I
E
W
R
I
E
f
N S ·
|
.
|

\
|
·
(
¸
(

¸

· · · +
·
÷
· =
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
o
q
In the link budget, it is assumed that:
q ÷
= = A
1
1
0
0
N
I
N
(
¸
(

¸

· · · +
=
W
R
I
E
f
CF
b
0
1
1
1
o
So the correction factor :
i
b
N i
R
I
E
CF N S ·
|
.
|

\
|
· · A · =
0
0
has been applied to the receiver sensitivity calculation instead of
the noise rise calculation:
i
b
N i
R
I
E
N S ·
|
.
|

\
|
· A · =
0
0
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Receiver sensitivity
Path loss = Tx signal + all gains - other losses - ( SN
0
R + Noise density)
i
b
N i
R
I
E
CF N S ·
|
.
|

\
|
· · A · =
0
0
Path loss = Tx signal + all gains - other losses - ( SNR + Noise)
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Fast Fading Margin
(Fast Power Control Margin)
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Fast Fading Margin

The required Eb/Io used in the Link Budget, is the average Eb/Io for a
given channel condition.

The link budget does not reflect fast fading effects. The Maximum
available transmitted power from the mobile side is used to achieve
the average required Eb/Io .

There are two power control mechanisms in the uplink direction , inner
loop power control and outer loop power control.
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Fast Fading Margin
0.14 0.145 0.15 0.155 0.16 0.165 0.17
-15
-10
-5
0
5
seconds
d
B
transmit power
90 km/hr Rayleigh Channel
Time
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Fast Fading Margin



0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
10
20
seconds
d
B
transmit power
3 km/hr rayleigh channel
Time
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Fast Fading Margin
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Normalised TX power
P
r
o
b

(
T
X

p
o
w
e
r

<

X
)
Pedestrian A
Vehicular A
95%
1.5dB
The fast fade margin is the
range required above the
average transmit power to be
able to follow fades for a
certain percentage of the time.
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Shadow Fade Margin &
Soft Handoff Gain
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Soft Handoff Gain - Definition


Generally defined as:
The improvement in edge of cell path loss, due to soft handoff.



Two components:
The reduction in slow-fading margin due to site diversity.
The Improvement in Eb/Io due to soft handoff.
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Slow Fading Margin and Handoff
Gain
Calculate needed margin to achieve the required edge of cell coverage
with no handoff - i.e. only one site.

Calculate needed margin to achieve the required edge of cell coverage
assuming handoff - i.e. one of two possible sites.

The amount of reduction in the margin required is called: handoff gain.

Handoff gain is purely due to site diversity.
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When the median path loss is equal to
maximum achievable path loss in the
link budget, the probability of coverage
at the edge of cell is 50%.
A margin is required to improve the
coverage probability.
With an added power margin M, the
probability becomes:

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
o 2
M
2
1
2
1
erf P
edge
Slow Fading Margin and Handoff Gain
Standard Deviation of Shadow Fading
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Coverage probability at the edge of cell
- the best of two receivers
With a margin M, the probability of
coverage at the point exactly in the
middle:


Viterbi*:

( ) { } M ] [min Pr 1
2 1
> ÷ = Ls , Ls P
edge
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
| ·
· ÷ =
}

· ÷
÷
dx
b
x a
Q e P
x
edge
2
2 /
- M
2
1
1
2
o
o
t
* Viterbi, A.J , CDMA Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication, Addison Wesley 1995
BTS1 BTS2
Shadow Fading Components
to BTS1 and BTS2
Shadow Fade Margin
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
2
1
2
1 t
erf t Q
Correlation coefficients
Standard Deviation of Shadow Fading
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0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Normalised Radius
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e
Coverage Prob. Without margin (M)
Coverage Prob. With margin
(M=6.2dB) - One Receiver
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
normalised Radius
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
normalised Radius
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e
Coverage Prob. With margin
(M=6.2dB) - The best of two receivers
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Normalised Radius
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e
2.5dB Margin
6.2dB Margin
6.2dB Margin
Gain =3.7 dB
Coverage Prob. With margin
(M=2.5dB) - The best of two receivers
Interpretation of Soft Handoff Gain
Soft Hanodff Gain is 3.7dB in this example
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Edge of cell Coverage VS. fade
margin
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
Soft handoff and No handoff edge of cell Performance
Margin
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

o
f

s
i
g
n
a
l
<
r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

a
t

t
h
e

e
d
g
e

o
f

c
e
l
l
Soft handoff
No handoff
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Overall cell Coverage VS. fade
margin
Calculate needed margin to achieve the required overall cell coverage
with no handoff - i.e. only one site.

Calculate needed margin to achieve the required overall cell coverage
assuming handoff - i.e. one of two possible sites.

The amount of reduction in the margin required is called: handoff gain.

Handoff gain is purely due to site diversity.
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0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
Margin (dB)
O
v
e
r
a
l
l

C
e
l
l

C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e

P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Soft handoff
Without handoff
Sigma=4dB
Sigma=8dB
Sigma=12dB
Margin (dB)
O
v
e
r
a
l
l

C
e
l
l

C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e

P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

Overall cell Coverage VS. fade
margin
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If a mobile is in 2-way soft handoff the RNC will have two active
connections with two distinct base stations.


The RNC will choose the better block. If the block error rate (BLER)
on the first connection is a and the BLER on the second connection
is b, then the effective BLER is: a× b (if statistically independent
events)

To operate at the desired BLER, the required Eb/Io target for each
individual leg in soft handoff can be reduced.
Soft Handoff Gain:
Block Selection Diversity Gain
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RNC
A
B
Example:
P(A)=5% and P(B)=20%
If A and B are statistically independent, then P(A+B)=P(A).P(B)=1%
If A and B are 100% dependent, then P(B/A)=100% and P(A+B)=5%.
If A and B are x% dependent, then P(B/A)=P(B)*(100%-x%)+ (x%*100%)
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Soft Handoff Gain:
Block Selection Diversity Gain
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
Eb/Io
B
L
E
R
5%
20%
Difference in path loss
gain for
primary leg
1% A
B
C
Eb/Io
B
L
E
R

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0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 2.75 3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
Difference in path loss (dB)
B
l
o
c
k

S
e
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

D
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
Block Selection Diversity Gain due to soft handoff
Difference in path loss (dB)
B
l
o
c
k

S
e
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

D
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

G
a
i
n

Soft Handoff Gain:
Block Selection Diversity Gain

Gain is specific to “soft” systems

It also improves the link budget
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Maximum Path Loss Calculation
Bit rate bit/s 64000 a
Total TX power available dBm 21 b
TX antenna gain dBi 2 c
Body loss dB 0 d
TX EIRP per traffic channel dBm 23 e=b+c-d
RX antenna gain dBi 18 f
RX cable and connector losses dB 3 g
Receiver noise figure dB 3 h
Thermal noise density dBm/Hz -174 j
Cell loading % 70 k
Noise rise due to interference dB 5.23 l=10*LOG10(1/(1-(k/100)))
Total effect of noise dBm/Hz -171 m=h+j
Information rate dBHz 48.06 n=dB(a)
Effective required Eb/No dB 2.54 o
RX sensitivity dBm -115.40 p=l+m+n+o+correction factor
Log normal fade margin dB 11.6 q
Soft Handoff Gain dB 4.5 r
Fast fading Margin dB 2.5 s
In-building penetration loss (urban) dB 20 t
Maximum path loss urban dB 123.80 pl=e+f+r-g-p-q-s-t
EIRP + all the
Gains
Rx sensitivity
+all the losses
÷
Maximum Path
Loss
=
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Conclusion
Definition of Power Link Budget.
Power budget structure.
Required Eb/Io
Receiver Sensitivity
Fast power control margin
Shadow Fade Margin & Soft handoff gain
Path Loss Calculation

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