q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Preface

Corrosion is both costly and dangerous. Billions of dollars are spent annually for the replacement of corroded structures, machinery, and components, including metal roofing, condenser tubes, pipelines, and many other items. In addition to replacement costs are those associated with maintenance to prevent corrosion, inspections, and the upkeep of cathodically protected structures and pipelines. Indirect costs of corrosion result from shutdown, loss of efficiency, and product contamination or loss. Although the actual replacement cost of an item may not be high, the loss of production resulting from the need to shut down an operation to permit the replacement may amount to hundreds of dollars per hour. When a tank or pipeline develops a leak, product is lost. If the leak goes undetected for a period of time, the value of the lost product could be considerable. In addition, contamination can result from the leaking material, requiring cleanup, and this can be quite expensive. When corrosion takes place, corrosion products build up, resulting in reduced flow in pipelines and reduced efficiency of heat transfer in heat exchangers. Both conditions increase operating costs. Corrosion products may also be detrimental to the quality of the product being handled, making it necessary to discard valuable materials. Premature failure of bridges or structures because of corrosion can also result in human injury or even loss of life. Failures of operating equipment resulting from corrosion can have the same disastrous results. When all of these factors are considered, it becomes obvious why the potential problem of corrosion should be considered during the early design stages of any project, and why it is necessary to constantly monitor the integrity of structures, bridges, machinery, and equipment to prevent premature failures. To cope with the potential problems of corrosion, it is necessary to understand 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mechanisms of corrosion Corrosion resistant properties of various materials Proper fabrication and installation techniques Methods to prevent or control corrosion Corrosion testing techniques Corrosion monitoring techniques

Corrosion is not only limited to metallic materials but also to all materials of construction. Consequently, this handbook covers not only metallic materials but also all materials of construction.
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Chapter 1 through Chapter 4 covers polymeric (plastic) materials, both thermoplastic and thermoset. An explanation is presented as to the type of corrosive effects of each polymer, its ability to withstand sun, weather, and ozone, along with compatibility tables. Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 cover elastomeric materials in the same manner that polymers are covered in Chapter 1 through Chapter 4. It is the intention of this book that regardless of what is being built, whether it be a bridge, tower, pipeline, storage tank, or processing vessel, information for the designer/engineer/maintenance personnel/or whoever is responsible for the selection of material of construction will be found in this book to enable them to avoid unnecessary loss of material through corrosion. Philip A. Schweitzer

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Author

Philip A. Schweitzer is a consultant in corrosion prevention, materials of construction, and chemical engineering based in York, Pennsylvania. A former contract manager and material specialist for Chem-Pro Corporation, Fairfield, New Jersey, he is the editor of the Corrosion Engineering Handbook and the Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook, Second Edition; and the author of Corrosion Resistance Tables, Fifth Edition; Encyclopedia of Corrosion Technology, Second Edition; Metallic Materials; Corrosion Resistant Linings and Coatings; Atmospheric Degradation and Corrosion Control; What Every Engineer Should Know About Corrosion; Corrosion Resistance of Elastomers; Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems; Mechanical and Corrosion Resistant Properties of Plastics and Elastomers (all titles Marcel Dekker, Inc.), and Paint and Coatings, Applications and Corrosion Resistance (Taylor & Francis). Schweitzer received the BChE degree (1950) from Polytechnic University (formerly Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn), Brooklyn, New York.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Polymers.............................................................. 1 1.1 Additives ....................................................................................................... 5 1.2 Permeation .................................................................................................... 6 1.3 Absorption .................................................................................................. 12 1.4 Painting of Polymers ................................................................................. 15 1.5 Corrosion of Polymers .............................................................................. 16 Chapter 2 Thermoplastic Polymers ............................................................. 19 2.1 Joining of Thermoplastics......................................................................... 30 2.1.1 Use of Adhesive .......................................................................... 32 2.2 Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene (ABS) ................................................. 37 2.3 Acrylics ........................................................................................................ 37 2.4 Chlotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) .................................................................. 41 2.5 Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE).............................................. 46 2.6 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE)...................................................... 51 2.7 Fluorinated Ethylene–Propylene (FEP) .................................................. 51 2.8 Polyamides (PA)......................................................................................... 60 2.9 Polyamide–Imide (PAI)............................................................................. 65 2.10 Polybutylene (PB) ...................................................................................... 66 2.11 Polycarbonate (PC) .................................................................................... 68 2.12 Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)................................................................... 70 2.13 Polyether–Imide (PEI) ............................................................................... 73 2.14 Polyether Sulfone (PES) ............................................................................ 75 2.15 Perfluoralkoxy (PFA)................................................................................. 77 2.16 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ............................................................... 81 2.17 Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)............................................................. 82 2.18 Polyethylene (PE)....................................................................................... 91 2.19 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)......................................................... 100 2.20 Polyimide (PI)........................................................................................... 102 2.21 Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO) .................................................................. 103 2.22 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS).................................................................. 104 2.23 Polypropylene (PP).................................................................................. 108 2.24 Styrene–Acrylonitrile (SAN) .................................................................. 113 2.25 Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC).......................................................... 114 2.26 Polysulfone (PSF) ..................................................................................... 118 2.27 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)....................................................................... 121 2.28 Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) ............................................. 129 2.29 Chlorinated Polyether (CPE) ................................................................. 134
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2.30 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)......................................................................... 2.31 Polyurethane (PUR)............................................................................... 2.32 Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) ...................................................... 2.33 Acetals...................................................................................................... References .......................................................................................................... Chapter 3 Thermoset Polymers.................................................................. 3.1 Corrosion of Thermosets ........................................................................ 3.2 Joining of Thermosets ............................................................................. 3.3 Ultraviolet Light Stability ....................................................................... 3.4 Reinforcing Materials .............................................................................. 3.4.1 Glass Fibers ................................................................................ 3.4.1.1 E Glass ......................................................................... 3.4.1.2 C Glass......................................................................... 3.4.1.3 S Glass.......................................................................... 3.4.1.4 Glass Filaments .......................................................... 3.4.1.5 Chopped Strands ....................................................... 3.4.1.6 Glass Mats ................................................................... 3.4.1.7 Glass Fabrics ............................................................... 3.4.2 Polyester ..................................................................................... 3.4.3 Carbon Fiber .............................................................................. 3.4.4 Aramid Fibers............................................................................ 3.4.5 Polyethylene Fibers .................................................................. 3.4.6 Paper ........................................................................................... 3.4.7 Cotton and Linen ...................................................................... 3.5 Polyesters .................................................................................................. 3.5.1 General Purpose Polyesters .................................................... 3.5.2 Isophthalic Polyesters............................................................... 3.5.2.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.5.3 Bisphenol A Fumarate Polyesters .......................................... 3.5.3.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.5.4 Halogenated Polyesters ........................................................... 3.5.4.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.5.5 Terephthalate Polyesters (PET)............................................... 3.5.5.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.6 Epoxy Polyesters ...................................................................................... 3.6.1 Resin Types ................................................................................ 3.6.2 Curing ......................................................................................... 3.6.2.1 Aromatic Amines ....................................................... 3.6.2.2 Aliphatic Amines ....................................................... 3.6.2.3 Catalytic Curing Agents ........................................... 3.6.2.4 Acid Anhydrides ....................................................... 3.6.3 Corrosion Resistance ................................................................ 3.6.4 Typical Applications................................................................. 3.7 Vinyl Esters ...............................................................................................
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134 138 141 143 146 147 147 151 151 151 152 152 152 154 154 155 155 155 155 156 156 157 157 158 158 160 161 165 166 173 173 178 178 180 180 181 182 183 183 183 183 184 184 188

.12..................................19 Polyimides........11...7................. 221 Reference .... 5........................................................................................... 5...................................................................4 Neoprene (CR)....1 Typical Applications...........1.......................................................................8 Chapter 4 194 194 199 199 199 204 204 207 210 210 211 211 211 211 213 213 213 214 214 215 218 219 219 219 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers......1 Typical Applications.................................. 3..... Weather................................................1 Resistance to Sun.......................................................................17 Allyls ...................... 3................................................. 5....3 Isoprene Rubber (IR) ......................................... 5.......................................................6 Corrosion Resistance ................................................................................................................2 Similarities of Elastomers and Thermoplastic Polymers .... 5..................... 3............................................................18 Polybutadienes ................. 5...........................................................................8...... 3....................................................1 Typical Applications.................................................... 5............................................... 3.........................................................20 Cyanate Esters ..1..........10...........................11 Silicones .....13 Polyurethanes ................................................................................1 Typical Applications.............. 3................................................................................................4 Causes of Failure........................................................................................................................... 3...... 3.......1........................................................................................................... 441 Chapter 5 Elastomers............................... 5............................................................. 3...................................... 3..... Furans ...................... 5.........2...................2 Natural Rubber..............................7 Applications..............................................................1 Typical Applications......................................................................................................... 3............8 Elastomer Designations ......1 Importance of Compounding ............................................................................ 5....................3 Differences between Elastomers and Thermoplasts .............................. 5.15 Alkyds.. References ................5 Selecting an Elastomer ... 3.......... q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.....................1 Typical Applications.................................................2..............................................................................2 Chemical Resistance .................................. 3............ 5.......1 Introduction ......1 Typical Applications...................................1...........................1 Typical Applications.....................12 Siloxirane..............1 Typical Applications..............................1..13.... LLC 443 443 445 446 446 447 448 451 452 453 453 454 454 459 459 460 .................................... 3...................................3..........................................................................9................1............. 3..............1..........1 Typical Applications.....................................................................................................................1...... 5.............10 Phenol-Formaldehyde........................................ 5.. 3.....16 Ureas (Aminos) ............................................14 Melamines .... 3............................................................................ 3................2......................19....................................................... 3..... and Ozone ....3 Applications........ 3.........9 Phenolics........15. 3.......................................... 5......................14....... 3...........

................. 5...2 Chemical Resistance .......... 5....... Weather..................... Weather.......2 Chemical Resistance .........................9.......................7......10........ Nitrile Rubber (NBR............................... 5............8....................... and Ozone ......... Acrylate–Butadiene Rubber (ABR) and Acrylic Ester–Acrylic Halide (ACM) Rubbers ....3 Applications ..........................5.........1 Resistance to Sun.3 Applications. 5....................... Weather........................ Weather.........................................2 Chemical Resistance .... Weather....13.......... Weather...... and Ozone .. 5.............6.....2 Chemical Resistance ........................5 5....................... Styrene–Ethylene–Butylene–Styrene (SEBS) Rubber ....3 Applications...........5....... and Ozone ..1 Resistance to Sun..................................................1 Resistance to Sun................................. and Ozone ........ and Ozone ........................1 Resistance to Sun..... 5..................... 5...7 5..........9......... Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene (SBS) Rubber .8............................... 5........... 5...........2 Chemical Resistance ........................11.... 5........................................................10..........................1 Resistance to Sun....... 5.............. 5..........................14 5....................... and Ozone .................13....................2 Chemical Resistance ....3 Applications............................................... 5........................... Buna-N) ... 5...................... 5.............3 Applications............... Weather............... Styrene–Butadiene Rubber (SBR..................6.1 Resistance to Sun.................................... and Ozone .......................................4............................2 Chemical Resistance ... and Ozone .....................................4.... Weather....................................7...................11 5..............1 Resistance to Sun.....................3 Applications....... Polybutadiene Rubber (BR)......... 5................................................................. Polysulfide Rubbers (ST and FA) .................9 5..........5......13 5.............10..................................................... 5........ Ethylene–Acrylic (EA) Rubber ..5.......... 5.................................................15......8..............................................10 5........................................... 5..................... Weather..2 Chemical Resistance ...... Weather............. 5................................................ 5..............................12........... 5.....................2 Chemical Resistance . and Ozone ..... Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber (Hypalon)............. 5.........................1 Resistance to Sun.............................. 460 460 465 467 467 468 469 470 470 470 470 472 472 473 478 478 479 479 479 484 484 484 486 486 487 487 487 487 487 488 488 488 489 489 489 497 497 497 497 497 498 498 498 498 498 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.............................................11....... Ethylene–Propylene Rubbers (EPDM and EPT)................14............................. and Ozone ............2 Chemical Resistance .....1 Resistance to Sun..............1 Resistance to Sun.............12........... Butyl Rubber (IIR) and Chlorobutyl Rubber (CIIR).... 5...........3 Applications.................. LLC ...............................12 5............................ Weather.....................1 Resistance to Sun..................... 5......2 Chemical Resistance ............... 5.4...........6. 5.... 5........................ 5.11......................................3 Applications.6 5...........3 Applications... Weather......7.14..............15 5.......................................9............................................8 5..........14...1 Resistance to Sun............. 5...............12....... and Ozone ............ 5........ 5............ 5.......................3 Applications........ GR-S).......................................... Buna-S................. and Ozone .................13.........3 Applications..........

..........2 Chemical Resistance ........ Weather.........................23....... 5...................21.......... 5.....................2 Chemical Resistance ........................................................................... 5........... Polyester (PE) Elastomer . Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) Olefinic Type (TEO) ....... Vinylidene Fluoride (HFP.26.........................20............................. Weather.15............ Silicone (SI) and Fluorosilicone (FSI) Rubbers....2 Chemical Resistance ...........1 Resistance to Sun..................24.............16.......... and Ozone ...................3 Applications.... and Ozone ..................................................18................ 5.......................... 5........1 Resistance to Sun....................22... 5.........26......2 Chemical Resistance ......1 Resistance to Sun........................1 Resistance to Sun..........................1 Resistance to Sun..... 5......... 5...3 Applications................ Weather......................... Polyamides......................................................26................................. 5...................1 Resistance to Sun........... 5......2 Chemical Resistance ........................ Weather.....................................17...................................... and Ozone ....17 5.20................ 5.. 5........... and Ozone ........... Ethylene–Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) Elastomer....................................................................17..........23............. Weather.........................1 Resistance to Sun................1 Resistance to Sun.......................................................... Ethylene–Chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) Elastomer. 5.... 5........2 Chemical Resistance ........ LLC ... 5..............23 5.............3 Applications... 5............................. 5...22....... and Ozone .................................................................................21.....................16................................... 5......... and Ozone .... 5........................................ PVDF)....25 5....... Weather.............. 5.................3 Applications........... and Ozone .... 5.24..........19 5.......3 Applications..................... 5........... 5......................21 5..............15. Weather...........2 Chemical Resistance ..............................................3 Applications........................2 Chemical Resistance ........ 5............2 Chemical Resistance ................2 Chemical Resistance ..................... and Ozone ........................................... Epichlorohydrin Rubber ...25........................3 Applications....23............................................................................1 Resistance to Sun................................5.........16 5.22 5.20. 5........19...................... Weather........................1 Resistance to Sun....................................... 499 502 502 503 504 509 510 511 511 514 514 515 515 515 518 519 519 519 519 520 520 523 524 525 525 525 530 531 531 531 537 537 537 541 541 542 542 546 546 548 548 560 561 561 561 561 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group..................3 Applications.......................19....................................3 Applications.....21...................................................... Perfluoroelastomers (FPM).................24 5....................................... 5....................................25. 5..................22........................20 5....... Weather.. and Ozone ........... and Ozone ........... 5...............................................2 Chemical Resistance ........18.........24................2 Chemical Resistance ...................1 Resistance to Sun............ 5........................ Weather............................................................... 5..................................................................16................................ 5..........................................3 Applications...........3 Applications......25.......19..............17...... 5...................................................18.......18 5....................... 5.......................... 5...........26 5. and Ozone ..................................................... Urethane Rubbers (AU) .................... Weather..................3 Applications................. Fluoroelastomers (FKM) .

............27..... and Ozone .....................................27....... and Ozone .......3 Applications...... 5.............................................28 Chlorinated Polyethylene (CM)....................................... Weather.........2 Chemical Resistance ..... 5........28....................1 Resistance to Sun.. 562 562 562 562 562 562 562 562 Chapter 6 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers ....27 Ethylene–Vinylacetate Copolymer (EVM) ..................... LLC ............................................1 Resistance to Sun.............................................27....................................................................................... 5............................2 Chemical Resistance ... Weather.... 5.............. 5.................3 Applications.............................................................. 5................28...................................... 5.................5........28......... 563 Reference ....... 575 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group....................

from toys to boat hulls. Plastics are polymers. LLC .” such as putty or wet clay. Unfortunately. Applications range from small food containers to large chemical storage tanks. they can be reheated and reformed into new shapes and can be recycled. some will set at room temperature. The glass temperatures for many polymers are above room temperature. When properly designed and applied. sturdy/economic/resistant. and once they are formed they cannot be molded. The term plastics was originally adopted to describe the early polymeric materials because they could be easily molded. Examples of a thermoset that will set at room temperatures are epoxies that result from combining an epoxy polymer with a curing agent or catalyst at room temperature. and a multitude of other products. Thermosets are polymers that assume a permanent shape or set when heated. Thermoplasts are long-chain linear molecules that can be easily formed by heat and pressures at temperatures above a critical temperature referred to as the glass temperature. the term polymer will be used throughout the book. The term plastic is defined as “capable of being easily molded. However. This term was originally applied to glass and was the temperature where glass became plastic and formed. many current polymers are quite brittle. In view of this. from plastic wrap to incubators. The thermosets begin as liquids or powders that are reacted with a second material or that through catalyzed polymerization result in a new product whose properties differ from those of either starting material. these polymers are brittle at room temperature. thermosetting polymers called thermosets. There are three general categories of polymers: thermoplastic polymers called thermoplasts. from domestic water piping systems to industrial piping systems that handle highly corrosive chemicals. therefore. and elastomers called rubbers. although. Rather than a long-chain molecule.1 Introduction to Polymers Plastics are an important group of raw materials for a wide array of manufacturing operations. thermosets consist of a three dimensional network of 1 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and corrosion products. plastic provides light weight.

they must be cooled below room temperature to become brittle. Because their glass temperature is below room temperature. a chain reaction appends new monomer units to the growing molecule one at a time. Because they decompose on heating. The process begins with a monomer of ethylene gas in which the carbon atoms are joined by covalent bonds as below: H C H H C H Each bond has two electrons. forming the long-chain molecule shown below: H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. usually water. In condensation polymerization. is now free to react with other mers. which satisfies the need for the s and p levels to be filled. silk. are broken to form single bonds as below: H C H H C H This resultant structure. the double bonds. Wool. This is an equilibrium reaction that will halt unless the by-product is removed. The polymerization of ethylene gas (C2H4) is a typical example. they unlink or uncoil and can be extended in length by approximately 100% with a minimum force and return to their original shape when the force is released. The molecules are extensively linked so that when a force is applied. In addition polymerization. Through the use of heat. Each new unit creates an active site for the next attachment.2 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers atoms. The monomeric building blocks are chemically bonded by a process known as polymerization that can take place by one of several methods. but they return to their original values when the force is released. Polymers are the building blocks of plastics. pressure. they cannot be reformed or recycled. and cotton are examples of natural polymers. Thermosets are amorphous polymers. LLC . Elastomers are polymeric materials whose dimensions can be drastically changed by applying a relatively modest force. Polymers produced by this process will degrade when exposed to water and high temperatures. and a catalyst.” They are large molecules composed of many repeat units that have been chemically bonded into long chains. believed to be unsaturated. the reaction between monomer units or chain endgroups release a small molecule. The term is derived from the Greek meaning “many parts. called a mer.

polystyrene. This produced a molded plastic material that became very hard when dried. engineering polymers.” Others have limited the term to thermoplastics only. In 1953. graphite. and understanding their structure paved the way for the development of the synthetic condensation polymers such as polyesters. The function of the resin is to bond the fibers together to provide shape and form and to transfer stresses in the structure from the resin to the fiber.H. engineering plastics are defined as “Synthetic polymers of a resin-based material that have loadbearing characteristics and high-performance properties which permit them to be used in the same manner as metals and ceramics. has come into play. once initiated. According to the ASM Handbook. the major products of the polymer industry. the resin matrix is the continuous phase. The chronological order of the development of polymers is shown in Table 1. Only high-strength fibers with high modulus are used. It has been used interchangeably with the terms high-performance polymers and engineering plastics. polyamides. In 1934. By the late 1930s. Further development of linear condensation polymers resulted from the recognition that natural fibers such as rubber. and boron fibers are also used. These are natural condensation polymers. Many engineering polymers are reinforced and/or alloy polymers (a blend of polymers). Carothers demonstrated that chain polymers could be formed by condensation reactions that resulted in the invention of nylon through polymerization of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid. and cellulose were giant molecules of high molecular weight.1. but carbon.Introduction to Polymers 3 Most addition polymerization reactions follow a method of chain growth where each chain. Polyethylene. In a reinforced polymer. Because of the increased stiffness resulting from the fiber q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. A relatively recent term. LLC . The year 1868 marked the beginning of the polymer industry with the production of celluloid that was produced by mixing cellulose nitrate with camphor. polyimides. it cannot grow any more except by side reactions. Commercial nylon was placed on the market in 1938 by the DuPont Company. Reinforced polymers are those to which fibers have been added that increase the physical properties—especially impact resistance and heat deflection temperatures. and polystyrene. PVC. polypropylene. sugars. and polycarbonates. W. and polymethyl methacrylate (Plexiglass) were in commercial production. Glass fibers are the most common additions. he was awarded the Nobel prize for this work in establishing polymer science. Synthetic polymers appeared in the early twentieth century when Leo Bakeland invented Bakelite by combining the two monomers. grows at an extremely rapid rate until terminated. phenol and formaldehyde. are not considered engineering polymers. polyvinyl chloride (PVC). An important paper published by Staudinger in 1920 proposed chain formulas for polystyrene and poloxmethylene. aramid. and the fiber reinforcement is the discontinuous phase. Once terminated.

Polyester resins are particularly useful on reinforced polymers. ABS plastics Polyester-reinforced urethane Polyamide plastics (nylon) Polyolefin plastics. Reinforced molding materials such as phenolics.1 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Chronological Development of Polymers Year 1868 1869 1907 1912 1919 1926 1928 1931 1933 1937 1938 1940 1942 1943 1947 1948 1950 1954 1955 1956 1957 1961 1962 1964 1965 1970 1971 1978 1979 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1988 Material Celluloid Cellulose nitrate. polyphenylene oxide (PPO) Polysulfones. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. alkyls.4 TABLE 1. large tankage. vinyl plastics Glass-bonded mica Alkyl polyester Polyvinyl acetate Acrylic plastics Polystyrene plastics. methyl pentene polymers Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) Polyphenylene sulfide Polyarylate (Ardel) PET–PC blends (Xenoy) Polyether block amides (Pebax) Polyetherether ketone (PEEK) Polyetheramide (Ultem) Liquid crystal polymers (Xydar) Liquid crystal polymers (Vectra) PVC–SMA blend reinforcement. PVC plastisols Unsaturated polyester Fluorocarbon resins (Teflon). Virtually all thermosetting polymers can be reinforced with fibers. They are used extensively in manufacturing very large components such as swimming pools. polyallomers Polyimides. silicones. shower enclosures. and building components. cellulose propionate. these polymers that are noted for their flexibility are not normally reinforced. ethyl cellulose PF resin (Bakelite) Cellulose acetate. LLC . boat hulls. polyurethanes Epoxy resins Copolymers of butadiene and styrene (ABS) Polyester fibers. or epoxies are extensively used in the electronics industry. polyvinylidene chloride Polypropylene plastic Urethane POM (acetals) PC (polycarbonate) Polyvinylidene fluoride Phenoxy plastics. polyvinyl aldehyde. PVC.

and the chemical enduse environment. Common additives used to improve the performance of thermoplastic polymers are listed here: Antioxidants Colorants Coupling agents Fillers or extenders Protect against atmospheric oxidation Dyes and pigments Used to improve adhesive bonds Minerals. The wear resistance and abrasion resistance of the thermoplastics polymers are improved by the use of aramid reinforcing. Other polymers benefiting from the addition of glass fibers include polyphenylene sulfide. the engineer can design an attractive shape that favors plastic forming and achieve a savings in cost and weight and a cosmeticimprovement. Although fibers can be used with any thermoplastics polymer. In some instances. LLC . In addition. polypropylene. 3. 2. polymers can be easily formed into shapes that are difficult to achieve with metals. Polymers chosen for structural application are usually selected as a replacement for metal. In many cases a polymer’s corrosion resistance is reduced as a result of additives being used. Tensile strengths are increased by a factor of 3 and heat deflection temperature increases from 150 to 5008F (66 to 2608C). metallic powders. A like replacement of a polymer section for a metallic section will result in a weight savings. 30. 1. and organic compounds used to improve specific properties or to reduce costs q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrosion resistance is a property most often affected by the use of additives. Glass fibers are the most commonly used reinforcing material. the use of additives to improve a specific property may have an adverse effect on certain other properties. Selection of the specific polymer will be based on the mechanical requirements. An additional cost savings is realized since the polymer part does not require painting for corrosion protection as would the comparable metal part. and 40% glass–fiber loading have their physical properties greatly improved. 20. By using a polymer.Introduction to Polymers 5 Many thermoplastic polymers are reinforced with fibers. the following are the most important: 1. the temperature.1 Additives Various properties of polymers may be improved by the use of additives. Polyamide polymers use glass fiber to control brittleness. and polyether sulfone. Polycarbonate compounds using 10. Reinforcement is used to improve physical properties—specifically heat deflection temperature.

polycarbonate. or liquids will permeate polymers. heat. vapors.1 shows the increase in impact strength of nylon. However. Many thermoplastic polymers have useful properties without the need for additives. polypropylene. Figure 1. permeation can be detrimental when a polymer is q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. polycarbonate. Examples of the effects of additives on specific polymers will be illustrated. polycarbonate. but plastic materials tend to be an order of magnitude greater in their permeability than metals. other thermoplasts require additives to be useful. LLC .2 and Figure 1. However. This action is strictly a physical phenomenon. The addition of 20 wt% of glass fibers also increases the heat distortion temperature. PVC benefits from all additives and is practically useless in its pure form. 1. and certain polymer blends by the use of additives. polypropylene.2.3 shows the increase in the HDT when glass fibers have been added to polymers. For example.2 Permeation All materials are somewhat permeable to chemical molecules. Glass fibers also increase the strength and moduli of thermoplastic polymers. and polystyrene when 30 wt% glass fiber additions have been made. PVC. and polystyrene by the addition of 30 wt% of glass fibers. Figure 1. Impact resistance is improved in polybutylene terephathalates. and impact strength Improve hot processing characteristics Control for adjustment of deteriorative physicochemical reactions during processing and subsequent life A list of specific fillers and the properties they improve is given in Table 1. Table 1. In neither case is there an attack on the polymer.6 Flame retardants Foaming agents Impact modifiers Lubricants Optical brighteners Plasticizers Reinforcing fibers Processing aids Stabilizers Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Change the chemistry/physics of combustion Generate cells or gas pockets Materials usually containing an elastomeric compound to reduce brittleness Substances that reduce friction.3 illustrate the effect on the tensile stress and flexural moduli of nylon. Permeation is molecular migration through microvoids either in the polymer (if the polymer is more or less porous) or between polymer molecules. modulus. Gases. polypropylene. and wear between surfaces Organic substances that absorb UV radiation below ˚ ˚ 3000 A and emit radiation below 5500 A Increase workability Increase strength. acetals (POM).

chopped fibers Orlon Rayon Silica.2 Fillers and Their Property Contribution to Polymers Chemical Resistance Heat Resistance Electrical Insulation Impact Strength Tensile Strength Dimensional Stability Electrical ConduHardness ctivity Thermal Conductivity X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Moisture Resistance X X Hardenability Filler Alumina powder Alumina tetrahydrate Bronze Calcium carbonate Calcium silicate Carbon black Carbon fiber Cellulose Alpha cellulose Coal. chopped fibers Fibrous glass Graphite Jute Kaolin Mica Molybdenium disulfide Nylon. amorphous TFE Talc Wood flour Stiffness X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 7 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. powdered Cotton. LLC .Introduction to Polymers TABLE 1.

U. In lined equipment. reinforced. used to line piping or equipment.1 Izod impact change with glass reinforcement of thermoplastic polymers. unreinforced. Bond failure and blistering. 2. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. In unbonded linings. Failure of the substrate from corrosive attack. permeation can result in: 1. 3 R 2 1 U U U U R R Nylon Polycarbonate Polypropylene Polystyrene FIGURE 1. U.8 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5 R 4 ft-lb/in. R. reinforced. R. Loss of contents through substrate and liner as a result of the eventual failure of the substrate. resulting from the accumulation of fluids at the bond when the substrate is less permeable than the liner or from corrosion/reaction products if the substrate is attacked by the permeant. 3. it is 30 25 20 psi× 103 15 10 5 U U U R U R R R Nylon Polycarbonate Polypropylene Polystyrene FIGURE 1.2 Increase in tensile strength with glass reinforcement of thermoplastic polymers. unreinforced. LLC .

some polymers are not affected by permeation.Introduction to Polymers 9 15 R psi × 106 10 R R R U 5 U U U Nylon Polycarbonate Polypropylene Polystyrene FIGURE 1. The fluoro-polymers are TABLE 1. not only to allow minute quantities of permeant vapors to escape. All polymers do not have the same rate of permeation.3 Increase of HDT with 20 wt% Glass Fiber Addition to the Polymer Polymer Acetal copolymer Polypropylene Linear polyethylene Thermoplastic polyester Nylon 6a Nylon 6/6a ABS Styrene–acrylonitrile Polystyrene Polycarbonate Polysulfone a HDT at 264 psi 20% Glass (8F/8C) 325/163 250/121 260/127 400/207 425/219 490/254 215/102 215/102 220/104 290/143 365/185 Increase over Base Polymer (8F/8C) 95/52 110/61 140/77 230/139 305/168 330/183 25/14 20/12 20/12 20/12 20/12 30 wt% glass fibers. In fact. R.3 Increase in flexural modulus with reinforcement of thermoplastic polymers. reinforced. Solubility is a function of the affinity of the permeant for the polymer. The driving force of diffusion is the partial pressure of gases and the concentration gradient of liquids. but also to prevent expansion of entrapped air from collapsing the liner. Permeation is a function of two variables: one relating to diffusion between molecular chains and the other to the solubility of the permeant in the polymer. U. important that the space between the liner and support member be vented to the atmosphere. unreinforced. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

01 3.80 Based on PTFE having a specific gravity of O2.06 0.77 0.37 2.01 0.57 1.2/24 h/mil) at 738F/238C Gases Nitrogen Oxygen Vapors Acetic acid Acetone Acetophenone Benzene n-Butyl ether Carbon tetrachloride Decane Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Hexane Hydrochloric acid 20% Methanol Sodium hydroxide Sulfuric acid 98% Toluene 0. particularly affected.47 0. Table 1.42 0.13 0.8!10K5 0.4 Vapor Permeation into PTFEa Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Permeation g/100 in.03 2.31 0.5 Vapor Permeation into FEP Permeation (g/100 in.11 !0.11 0.15 0.5 shows the vapor permeation of FEP.22 !0.9 938F/358C 1228F/508C 0. 98% a 738F/238C 868F/308C 0.13 !0.66 0.39 0.01 0.06 0.18 0.2/24 h/mll Gases Carbon dioxide Helium Hydrogen chloride.56 0. Vapor permeation of PTFE is shown in Table 1.64 0.6 provides permeation data of various gases into PFA and Table 1.72 0.7 gives the relative gas permeation into fluoropolymers.11 0.95 0.08 0.2.29 5.4 while Table 1.61 4!10K5 8!10K6 0. anhydrous Nitrogen Acetophenone Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Ethyl alcohol Hydrochloric acid.36 0.69 0. 50% Sulfuric acid. 20% Piperdine Sodium hydroxide. TABLE 1. LLC .07 5!10K5 1.10 TABLE 1.93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

6 Permeation of Gases into PFA Gas Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Oxygen Permeation at 778F/258C (cc/mil thickness/100 in. permitting more permeant to diffuse among the chains more easily. LLC . The greater the density of the polymer.2/24 h/atm) 2260 291 881 11 There is no relationship between permeation and passage of materials through cracks and voids. UnitsZcm3/m2 deg bar. the fewer voids through which permeation can take place. The thickness will generally decrease permeation by the square of the thickness. and the same effect is experienced with the concentration of gradients of liquids. The thickness of the polymer Increasing the temperature will increase the permeation rate because the solubility of the permeant in the polymer will increase. polymer chain movement is stimulated. and as the temperature rises. A comparison of the density of sheets produced from different polymers does not provide an indication of the relative permeation rates. in both cases. although. However. The density of the polymer as well as the thickness will have an effect on the permeation rate. migrating chemicals travel through the polymer from one side to the other.000 FEP 600 2900 1200 18. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.000 7000 Permeation through a 100 mm film at 738F/238C. The permeant concentration 3. If the permeant is highly soluble in the polymer.7 Relative Gas Permeation into Fluoropolymersa Gas Air Oxygen Nitrogen Helium Carbon dioxide a PVDF 27 20 30 600 100 PTFE 2000 1500 500 35. a comparison of the sheets’ density TABLE 1. Some control can be exercised over permeation that is affected by: 1.000 15. Temperature and pressure 2. the permeability increase may be nonlinear.000 4700 PFA 1150 — — 17.Introduction to Polymers TABLE 1. The permeation rates of many gases increase linearly with the partialpressure gradient.

such as storage tanks. 2. LLC . the thermal stresses on the boundary increase that can result in bond failure. and penetration to the substrate of a lined component. as thickness increases.3 Absorption Polymers have the potential to absorb varying amounts of corrodents they come into contact with. 5. This can result in swelling.010–0. the lower the permeation rate. Lowering these will reduce the rate of permeation. particularly organic liquids. The thickness of the liner is a factor affecting permeation. The rate of permeation is also affected by the temperature and the temperature gradient in the lining. 6. Chemical similarity between the polymer and permeant when the polymer and permeant both have similar functional groups. the lower the permeation rate. van der Waals hydrogen bonding) of the polymer. the permeation rate will increase. The greater the degree of cross-linking within the polymer. are usually satisfactory. The denser the sheet. Chemicals that readily condense will permeate at higher rates. The higher the intermolecular chain forces (e. Ease of condensation of the permeant. Temperature changes and large differences in coefficients of thermal expansion are the most common causes of bond failure. that are used under ambient conditions provide the best service. thicknesses of 0. the lower the permeation rate. Lined vessels. The plastic’s thickness and modulus of elasticity are two of the factors that influence these stresses. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. the greater the permeation rate. as the thickness of the lining increases.g.020 in. thicker linings may be required. Second. 3. there are some disadvantages. The higher the level of crystallinity in the polymer. installation becomes more difficult with a resulting increase in labor costs. The smaller the molecule of the permeant.. Increasing a lining thickness will normally decrease permeation by the square of the thickness. When mechanical factors such as thinning to cold flow. and permeation rates are a consideration. cracking. 4. For general corrosion resistance.12 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers produced from the same polymer will provide an indication of the relative permeation rates. Other factors affecting permeation consist of these chemical and physiochemical properties: 1. mechanical abuse. the lower the permeation rate. Although this would appear to be the approach to follow to control permeation. First. depending on the combination of lining material and the specific corrodent. 1.

Prolonged retention of the chemicals may lead to their decomposition within the polymer.01 !0. the entrapped water can expand to vapor. decompose. causing absorption of a small quantity of steam that condenses to water within the inner wall. Table 1.01 !0.029 !0.01 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The repeated pressure and thermal cycling enlarge the micropores. Eventually. Several steps can be taken to reduce absorption.02 0. The steam creates a temperature and pressure gradient through the liner. thereby TABLE 1.05 0. permeation will probably take place. This is repeated for 100 cycles. or solidify within the structure of the polymer.01 !0. In an actual process.10 provides the absorption rates of representative liquids by PFA. Related effects occur when process chemicals are absorbed that may later react. A section of lined pipe is subjected to thermal and pressure fluctuations.05 !0.04 Nil !0. introduce high stresses. the polymer may absorb process fluids. The failures because of absorption can best be understood by considering the “steam cycle” test described in ASTM standards for lined pipe. the corrodent may find its way to the substrate. LLC .03 0.9 gives the absorption rates of various liquids by FEP. This data is usually available.8 Water Absorption Rates of Polymers Polymer PVC CPVC PP (Homo) PP (Co) EHMW PE ECTFE PVDF PVCP (Saran) PFA ETFE PTFE FEP Water Absorption 24h at 738F/238C (%) 0.8 provides the water absorption rates for the more common polymers. Although it is unusual. Upon pressure release or on the reintroduction of steam. Table 1. and repeated temperature or pressure cycling can cause blisters. causing an original micropore. and cause failure of the bond on lined components. ultimately producing visible water-filled blisters within the liner. and Table 1.03 0. it is possible for absorbed monomers to polymerize. Thermal insulation of the substrate will reduce the temperature gradient across the vessel.Introduction to Polymers 13 Swelling can cause softening of the polymer. If the polymer has a high absorption rate. An approximation of the expected permeation and/or absorption of a polymer can be based on the absorption of water.

anh. Chlorine.2 1.03 0.7–0. Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid 50% Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid 37% Phosphoric acid.7 0.6–0.3–0.8 0.7–0.01 0. Zinc chloride a Temp.4 2.7–2.7–0.8 0.3–0.3–0. (8F/8C) 365/185 394/201 354/179 400/204 172/78 172/78 372/190 117/47 210/99 410/210 250/121 154/68 230/110 392/200b K5/–22 248/120 302/150 248/120 212/100 248/120 212/100 212/100 Range of Weight Gains (%) 0.10 Absorption of Representative Liquids in PFA Liquida Aniline Acetophenone Benzaldehyde Benzyl alcohol n-Butylamine Carbon tetrachloride Dimethylsulfoxide Freon 113 Isooctane Nitrobenzene Perchlorethylene Sulfuryl chloride Toluene Tributyl phosphate Bromine.6 0. The acidic reagents were exposed for 168 h.3 1. (8F/8C) 365/185 394/201 354/179 400/204 172/78 172/78 372/190 410/210 250/121 154/68 230/110 392/200b Range of Weight Gains (%) 0.3–2.7 0. Not boiling.9 2.4 0.9 2.0–0. b Not boiling.4–0.0 Exposure for 168 hours at their boiling points.4–0.3 1. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.0–2.8 0.7–2.01 0.03 Liquids were exposed for 168 h at the boiling point of the solvents.5 0.4 0.8–2.4 0.2 0. TABLE 1.8 0.5–0.4 0.1–0.00–0.5 0.8 1.8–2.0–0.14 TABLE 1.9 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Absorption of Selected Liquids by FEPa Chemical Aniline Acetophenone Benzaldehyde Benzyl alcohol n-Butylamine Carbon tetrachloride Dimethyl sulfide Nitrobenzene Perchlorethylene Sulfuryl chloride Toluene Tributyl phosphate a b Temp.4 0.3–0.8 1.3–0. LLC .01 0.00–0. conc.5 0.3–0.7–0.6–0.2 0. anh.0–2.7–0.00–0.7–0.4 0.0 0.4 2.1–0.3–2.

Molded parts may have localized areas of stress. 3. and proper consideration must be given to the following: 1. They are also painted when necessary to provide UV protection. Because different polymers are subject to attack by different solvents. A coating applied in these areas may swell the polymer and cause crazing.4 Painting of Polymers Polymers are painted because this is frequently a less expensive process than precolored resins or molded-in coloring. Some softening of the surface is desirable to improve adhesion. If excessive amounts of mold-release compounds remain on the part. this will dictate the choice of the paint system. To prevent such a problem. Residual stress. This determines whether a bake-type paint can be used. However. the maximum baking temperature the polymer can tolerate. Mold-release residues. 4.11 Wavelength Regions of the UV Region UV-A UV-B Wavelength (nm) 400–315 315–200 Characteristics Causes polymer damage Includes the shortest wavelengths found at the earth’s surface Causes severe polymer damage Absorbed by window glass Filtered out by the earth’s atmosphere Found only in outer space 15 UV-C 280–100 preventing condensation and subsequent expansion of the absorbed fluids. the polymer should be thoroughly rinsed or otherwise cleaned. LLC . and if so. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Heat distortion point and heat resistance. 2. adhesion problems are likely. Annealing of the part prior to coating will minimize or eliminate the problem. Solvent resistance. keeping blisters to a minimum. 1. The use of operating procedures or devices that limit the ratio of process pressure reductions or temperature increases will provide added protection. This also reduces the rate and magnitude of temperature changes.Introduction to Polymers TABLE 1. they are difficult to paint. but a solvent that aggressively attacks the surface and results in cracking or crazing must be avoided.

Radiation 5. where ester linkages are attacked 4. where chemical bonds are attacked 3. The specific polymer should be checked to determine whether the coating will cause short. Disintegration or degradation of a physical nature because of absorption. Polymeric materials do not experience specific corrosion rates. and ultimate failure. They are usually completely resistant to a specific corrodent (within specific temperature ranges) or they deteriorate rapidly. Consequently. softening. 1. Plasticizers and other additives.or long-term softening or adhesion problems. delamination. embrittlement. discoloration. This is not the case with polymeric materials. and in the case of thermoset resins.16 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. the cure. dissolving. Any combination of the above Results of such attacks will appear in the form of softening. Improper or insufficient cure will adversely affect the corrosion q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The long-term adhesion of the coating is affected by the properties of the polymer such as stiffness or rigidity. permeation.5 Corrosion of Polymers Corrosion of metallic materials takes place via an electro-chemical reaction at a specific corrosion rate. charring. Oxidation. Polymers are attacked either by chemical reaction or solvation. or swelling. dimensional stability. Solvation is the penetration of the polymer by a corrodent that causes swelling. LLC . Most polymers are formulated with plasticizers and chemical additives. Dehydration (rather uncommon) 7. 6. solvent action. or other factors 2. crazing. the life of a metallic material in a particular corrosive environment can be accurately predicted. and coefficient of expansion. Corrosion of plastics can be classified in the following ways as to attack mechanism: 1. Thermal degradation involving depolymerization and possibly repolymerization 6. Other factors. These materials have a tendency to migrate to the surface and may even soften the coating and destroy adhesion. The physical properties of the paint film must accommodate to those of the polymer. The corrosion of polymer matrix composites is also affected by two other factors: the nature of the laminate. Hydrolysis.

The most harmful weather component. during the winter months. the shortwavelength solar cutoff shifts from approximately 295 nm in summer to approximately 310 nm in winter. much of the damaging shortwavelength UV light is filtered out. there is a critical threshold wavelength of light with enough energy to cause a reaction. Many of the physical property and chemical resistance differences of polymers stem directly from the type and arrangement of atoms in the polymer chains. the higher molecular weigh grades of a resin generally exhibit better weatherability than the lower molecular weight grades with comparable additives. elements and compounds that exhibit similar behavior. The electromagnetic energy from the sunlight is normally divided into ultraviolet light. visible light. The effects of the various wavelengths are shown in Table 1. Photochemical degradation is caused by photons or light breaking chemical bonds. lower overall mechanical performance.. Infrared energy consists of wavelengths longer than visible red wavelengths and starts above 760 nm. alkaline earth q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Light of any wavelength shorter than the threshold can break a bond. During winter months. UV-B. The UV portion of the spectrum is further subdivided into UV-A. For each type of chemical bond.Introduction to Polymers 17 resistance. the intensity of UV at 320 nm changes about 8 to 1 from summer to winter. and UV-C. Polymeric materials in outdoor applications are exposed to weather extremes that can be extremely deleterious to the material. and other factors. and chalking. and a change in appearance. Because UV is easily filtered by air masses. the amount and spectrum of natural UV exposure is extremely variable. Many resin grades are available with UV-absorbing additives to improve weather-ability. it will never experience photochemical deterioration outdoors. However. the short wavelength cutoff of a light source is of critical importance. Ultraviolet light consists of radiation below 400 nm. the basic elements of nature are placed into classes with similar properties.11. exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. most polymers exhibit reduced impact resistance. For example. If a particular polymer is only sensitive to UV light below 290 nm (the solar cutoff point). materials sensitive to UV below 320 nm would degrade only slightly. surface cracking. if at all. but longer wavelengths cannot break it. Therefore. The ability to withstand weathering varies with the polymer type and within grades of a particular resin. it is filtered through a greater air mass. After exposure to direct sunlight for a period of years. can cause embrittlement fading.e. some colors tend to weather better than others. In addition. Because the sun is lower in the sky during the winter months. and infrared energy. Visible light is defined as radiation between 400 and 760 nm. This creates two important differences between summer and winter sunlight: changes in the intensity of the light and in the spectrum. i. pollution. As a result. LLC . These classes are alkali metals. whereas proper cure time and procedures will generally improve corrosion resistance. cloud cover. In addition. In the periodic table.

they are the most likely to attract an electron from another element and become part of a stable structure. other metals. nonmetals. a key bond of PVC. and the partially fluorinated polymers such as ETFE. is weaker yet. that such plastics as PPE and PP are composed. The fluoroplastic materials are divided into two groups: fully fluorinated fluorocarbon polymers such as PTFE. The carbon–chlorine bond. the symmetry of the structure. Of particular importance and interest for thermoplasts is the category known as halogens that are found in the nonmetal category. the predominant bond in PVDF and PTFE that gives it such important properties. fluorine is the most electronegative. is considerably weaker. and noble (inert) gases. transition metals. The carbon–hydrogen bond. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. permitting it to strongly bond with carbon and hydrogen atoms. The polymeric characteristics within each group are similar. bromine. FEP. rare earth series. and PPA called perfluoropolymers. Since these are the most electro-negative elements in the periodic table. chlorine. and the carbon–chlorine bonds such as PVC and ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene are different in the important property of chemical resistance from a fully fluorinated polymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene. LLC .18 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers metals. and ECTFE that are called fluoropolymers. and the polymer chains’ degree of branching are as important as the specific elements contained in the molecule. is among the strongest known organic compounds. The elements included in this category are fluorine. but there are important differences between the groups as will be seen later. The fluorine acts as a protective shield for other bonds of lesser strength within the main chain of the polymer. Of all the halogens. but not well with itself. and iodine. The latter has a much wider range of corrosion resistance. Polymers containing the carbon–hydrogen bonds such as polypropylene and polyethylene. This class of polymers is known as polyolefins. The arrangement of elements in the molecule. The carbon–fluorine bond. PVDF.

Polymers are formed as the result of a polymerization reaction of a monomer that is a single molecule or substance consisting of single molecules. it is referred to as a homopolymer in contrast to a copolymer. similar to metallic materials. Second. lower-cost processing of 19 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. When the chain of a polymer is made up of a single repeating section. higher-performance polymers that can be reinforced with fiber filler to increase their stability even further. they are chains where one mer has been substituted with another mer. all thermoplasts do not fall into this category. thermosets have offered a performance advantage. so they can be used without the need for incorporating fillers. Because of three major developments. By virtue of their basic structure. Thermoplastic polymers can be either homopolymers or copolymers. LLC . Some tend to craze or crack easily. However. Alloy polymers are blends of different polymers. thermal aging that results from repeated exposure to the high temperatures required for melting causes eventual degradation of the polymer and limits the number of reheat cycles. so each case must be considered on its individual merits. has been the development of the so-called engineering or high-stability. to offset the gains in thermoplastics. thermosets and thermoplastics are now considered on the basis of their performance. the lower processing costs for thermoplastics have given the latter a cost advantage. However. In essence. Therefore. although. stability of thermoplastics has been greatly improved by the use of fiber reinforcement. Third.2 Thermoplastic Polymers Thermoplastic materials can be repeatedly re-formed by the application of heat. these materials can be recycled. Because of this ability to be re-formed by heat. thermoplastic materials tend to be tougher and less brittle than thermoset polymers. thermoplastics have been less dimensionally and thermally stable than thermosetting polymers. Copolymers are long-chain molecules formed by the addition reaction of two or more monomers. First. In general. They are long-chain linear molecules that are easily formed by the application of heat and pressure at temperatures above a critical temperature referred to as the glass temperature.

Table 2. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . 80% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. sat. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride.20 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers thermoset polymers. 10% Ammonium fluoride. the thermoplast is known as a composite. Compatibility of the reinforcing material with the corrodent must be checked as well as the compatibility of the thermoplast. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. has been developed specifically the screw-injectionmolding technology. and Table 2. When a reinforcing material is used in a thermoplast. Ammonium fluoride.2 provides the compatibility of carbon fiber TABLE 2. 10% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Amyl acetate 8F 450 270 400 400 400 400 250 250 210 120 250 250 250 180 X 250 100 190 250 X 250 250 250 250 X X 250 250 200 200 90 200 200 8C 232 132 204 204 204 204 121 121 99 49 121 121 121 82 X 121 38 88 121 X 121 121 121 121 X X 121 121 93 93 32 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The two most common materials used as reinforcement are glass fiber and carbon.1 provides the compatibility of glass fibers with selected corrodents. 50% Ammonium chloride.1 Compatability of Borosilicate Glass with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.

LLC . liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid 8F 250 250 200 250 200 250 250 250 250 250 200 200 200 200 200 200 250 300 250 90 90 250 200 200 250 250 200 200 250 X 200 100 250 160 160 250 450 200 200 160 250 250 450 400 140 200 200 200 8C 121 121 93 121 93 121 121 121 121 121 93 93 93 93 93 93 121 149 121 32 32 121 93 93 121 121 93 93 121 X 93 38 121 71 71 121 232 93 93 71 121 121 232 204 60 93 93 93 (continued) 21 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. dry Chlorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.1 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. sat. wet Chlorine.

70% Phenol 8F 200 200 200 200 250 200 200 160 160 200 310 250 210 290 280 180 200 300 X 200 200 200 200 200 200 X X X 190 200 200 200 200 250 160 200 200 200 400 400 400 250 400 200 200 200 8C 93 93 93 93 121 93 93 71 71 93 154 121 99 143 138 82 93 149 X 93 93 93 93 93 93 X X X 88 93 93 93 93 121 72 93 93 93 204 204 204 121 204 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ketones. 20% Nitric acid.1 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. dil. 10% Perchloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Citric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Copper chloride Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 15% Citric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. general Lactic acid.22 TABLE 2. LLC . 70% Nitric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. conc. 5% Nitric acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. dry Fluorine gas.

Incompatibility is shown by an X. Many of the engineering plastics are copolymers or alloy polymers. polypropylene. Vols. 20% Sodium hypochloride. 10% Sodium hydroxide.1 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Phosphoric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 300 200 250 250 250 X X X 150 150 X 210 210 400 400 400 400 400 400 210 210 250 210 210 210 8C 149 93 121 121 121 X X X 66 66 X 99 99 204 204 204 204 204 204 99 99 121 99 99 99 23 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 98% Sulfuric acid. 1–4. Table 2. Table 2. LLC . to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide..4 lists the abbreviations used for the more common thermoplasts. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Schweitzer.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 2004. 50% Sulfuric acid.3 provides the compatibility of impervious graphite with selected corrodents. 10% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. with selected corrodents. 30% Silver bromide. Sodium sulfide. The engineering plastics are synthetic polymers of resin-based materials that have load-bearing characteristics and high-performance properties that permit them to be used in the same manner as metals. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. and polystyrene are not considered engineering polymers because of their low strength. 70% Sulfuric acid. conc.A. The major products of the polymer industry that include polyethylene. polyvinyl chloride. Source: From P. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Sodium hypochloride. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. 5th ed.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 10% Acetic acid. sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. 10% 8F 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 100 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 390 340 340 340 340 330 340 200 220 340 340 340 340 340 340 200 210 340 250 250 250 250 250 340 200 340 8C 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 38 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 199 171 171 171 171 166 171 93 104 171 171 171 171 171 171 93 99 171 121 121 121 121 121 171 93 171 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride.24 TABLE 2. LLC . 10% Ammonium fluoride.2 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Carbon Fiber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride.

sat. LLC . 50% Citric acid. 10% Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. dry Bromine gas. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol 8F 350 250 210 X X X 340 340 210 100 90 340 340 340 340 140 340 200 250 170 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 250 340 200 340 340 180 80 340 340 340 X X 340 340 340 340 340 340 400 8C 177 121 99 X X X 171 171 99 38 32 171 171 171 171 60 171 93 121 77 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 121 171 93 171 171 82 27 171 171 171 X X 171 171 171 171 171 171 238 (continued) 25 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Chlorine acid. 15% Citric acid. dry Chlorine gas. moist Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate. conc. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chronic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzoic acid Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas.

50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 5% Nitric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. Perchloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 30% Salicyclic acid Sodium bromide Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50% Hydrochloric acid.2 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Cupric chloride. conc. 10% Perchloric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 50% in water Ferrous nitrate. 20% Nitric acid. conc. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. conc. dry Hydrobromic acid.26 TABLE 2. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. general Lactic acid. LLC . 8F 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 X 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 X X 100 340 340 340 170 100 400 340 340 340 340 180 140 X X X 340 340 340 200 100 340 340 340 340 340 240 270 260 8C 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 X 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 X X 38 171 171 171 77 38 227 171 171 171 171 82 60 X X X 171 171 171 93 38 171 171 171 171 171 116 132 127 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. dil.

2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hypochlorite. 100% Sulfurous acid Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 120 340 340 340 340 180 X X 340 340 340 100 340 8C X X 49 171 171 171 171 82 X X 171 171 171 38 171 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 70% Sulfuric acid.A.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. to 50% Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. 80% Acetic acid.. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Acetic acid. Schweitzer. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 1–4. Source: From P. LLC . 10% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide. 2004. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Aluminum chloride. New York: Marcel Dekker. Vols. Corrosion Resistance Tables. dry Aluminum fluoride Resin phenolic phenolic furan furan furan furan furan furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan 8F 460 460 400 400 400 400 400 400 460 400 460 X 120 460 460 8C 238 238 204 204 204 204 204 204 238 204 238 X 49 238 238 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 5th ed. 10% Acetic acid.3 Compatibility of Impervious Graphite with Selected Corrodent Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. TABLE 2.

dry Bromine gas.28 TABLE 2. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Resin furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic furan furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic furan furan phenolic furan phenolic 8F 250 460 460 390 460 400 400 400 460 250 210 400 460 400 210 400 X 250 250 250 250 460 400 460 460 460 X X 460 460 400 210 460 460 460 460 250 250 170 460 460 400 460 460 400 460 400 8C 121 238 238 199 238 204 204 204 238 121 99 204 238 204 99 204 X 121 121 121 121 238 204 238 238 238 X X 238 238 204 99 238 238 238 238 121 121 77 238 238 204 238 238 204 238 204 (continued) furan furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic furan furan furan furan furan furan furan phenolic phenolic furan phenolic furan q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 10% Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. moist Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . sat. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium chlotide Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid.3 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.

30% Hydrofluoric acid. 60% Ferric chloride. dry Chlorine. 100% Iodine Solution. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. conc. Magnesium chloride Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl Ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% Citric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas.3 Continued 29 Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. conc. 20% Resin phenolic furan furan furan furan phenolic phenolic furan 8F 400 460 400 400 400 130 400 400 X X X 400 400 400 460 400 400 400 400 460 330 210 260 210 400 300 X 120 250 120 400 400 460 460 X X 120 400 400 400 170 460 460 460 460 400 220 220 8C 204 238 204 204 204 54 204 204 X X X 204 204 204 238 204 204 204 204 238 166 99 127 99 204 149 X 49 121 49 204 204 238 238 X X 49 204 204 204 77 238 238 238 238 204 104 104 (continued) furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan furan phenolic furan furan furan phenolic phenolic furan phenolic Phenolic furan furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 15% Citric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Ketones. Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. dil. 5% Cupric chloride.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Chromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. general Lactic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfanic acid Chromic acid. dry Fluorine gas.

Vols.1 Joining of Thermoplastics Thermoplastic materials are joined by either solvent cementing. Schweitzer. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. or by means of adhesives.3 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. In addition to being able to resist attack by specific corrodents in plant operations. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. thermal fusion. Solvent cementing is the easiest and most q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Nitric acid anhydrous Nitrous acid conc. 5th ed. 2. Table 2. they are also able to resist corrosive fumes that may be present in the atmosphere. Sodium hypochlorite.30 TABLE 2.. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 1–4.A. LLC . New York: Marcel Dekker. and Table 2. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 98% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables.6 gives the allowable temperature range for thermoplastic polymers. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.5 provides the resistance of the more common thermoplasts to various atmospheric pollutants. Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Potassium bromide. Source: From P. 20% Sodium hypochlorite conc. 2004. One of the applications for plastic materials is to resist atmospheric corrosion. Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. conc. fuming Sulfuric acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride Resin 8F X X X X 400 400 460 340 400 400 400 400 X X X 400 400 400 400 400 X X X 400 320 400 340 400 8C X X X X 204 204 238 171 204 204 204 204 X X X 204 204 204 204 204 X X X 204 160 204 171 204 furan phenolic furan furan furan furan furan furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic furan furan phenolic The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.

Adhesive bonding is generally recommended when two dissimilar polymers are joined because of solvent and polymer compatibility problems.4 Abbreviations Used for Thermoplasts ABS CPE CPVC CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP HDPE LDPE LLDPE PA PAI PAN PAS PB PBT PC PE PEEK PEI PEK PEKK PES PET PFA PI PP PPE PPO PPS PPSS PSF PTFE PUR PVC PVDC PVDF PVF SAN UHMWPE Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene Chlorinated polyether Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride Chlorotrifluoroethylene Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene Ethylenetetrafluoroethylene Flouroethylene-propylene copolymer High-density polyethylene Low-density polyethylene Linear low-density polyethylene Polyamide (Nylon) Polyamide-imide Polyacrylonitrile Polyarylsulfone Polybutylene Polybutylene terephthalate Polycarbonate Polyethylene Polyetheretherketone Polyether-imide Polyetherketone Polyetherketoneketone Polyethersulfone Polyethylene terephthalate Perfluoralkoxy Polyimide Polypropylene Polyphenylene ether Polyphenylene oxide Polyphenylene sulfide Polyphenylene sulfide sulfone Polysulfone Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) also TFE Polyurethane Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinylidene chloride Polyvinylidene fluoride Polyvinyl fluoride Styrene-acrylonitrile Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene 31 economical method for joining thermoplasts. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and they have the same corrosion resistance as the base polymer as do joints made by a thermal-fusion process. The major disadvantages of solvent cementing are the possibility of the part’s stress cracking and the possible hazards of using low vapor point solvents. LLC . Solvent-cemented joints are less sensitive to thermal cycling than joints bonded with adhesives.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.

g L.03 0.029 !0. d Not resistant.01 0.1 !0.25 Weathering R R R R R R R Lg R Lg R Ozone X R R R R R Xd R R R R d SO2 R R R R R R Rf R R Xd R R R R R Rh R R R e NOx H2S Re Re R R R R Xd R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R RS R R R R R R RS !0. A universal solvent should never be used. Table 2.01 R R Lg R R R R R R R R R Lg R R R R R R R R R Xd R R R.5 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Atmospheric Resistance of Thermoplastic Polymers Resistance to Polymer ABS CPVC ECTFE ETFE FEP HDPE PA PC PCTFE PEEK PEI PES PF PFA PI PP PPS PSF PTFE PVC PVDC PVDF UHMWPE a b UV Degradationa. e Dry only.04 !0. Resistant. Resistant only if stabilized with a UV protector.30 !0. c Water absorption at 738F/238C (%).15 0. RS. Major elements of concern are the corrosion resistance of the adhesive.03 !0.32 TABLE 2. Large differences in the thermal expansion coefficient between the polymer and adhesive can result in stress at the polymer’s joint interface. h Type 1 only.30 0. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Limited resistance.01 0. LLC .1 Use of Adhesive The physical and chemical properties of both the solidified adhesive and the polymer affect the quality of the bonded joint.6–1.1. Solvent cements that have approximately the same solubility parameters as the polymer to be bonded should be selected. and the glass transition temperature of the polymer relative to the adhesive. f Wet only.7 lists the typical solvents used to bond the major polymers.02 0. 2.01 0.2 0.50 0.b R R R R R RS R RS R R R Moisturec Absorption 0. its thermal expansion coefficient.05 !0.

tetrahydrofuran. ethylene dichloride. solutions of resorcinol in alcohol. ethylene dichloride Aqueous phenol.6 Allowable Temperature Range for Thermoplastic Polymers Allowable Temperature (8F/8C) Polymer ABS CPVC ECTFE ETFE FEP HDPE PA PAI PB PC PCTFE PEEK PEI PES PFA PI PP PPS PSF PTFE PVC PVDC PVDF UHWMPE Minimum K40/K40 0/K18 K105/K76 K370/K223 K50/K45 K60/K51 K60/K51 K300/K190 K200/K129 K105/K76 K85/K65 K310/K190 K310/K190 K310/K190 32/0 K150/K101 K20/K29 0/K18 0/K18 K50/K45 40/4 Maximum 140/60 180/82 340/171 300/149 400/205 180/82 300/149 500/260 200/93 250–275/120–135 380/190 480/250 500/260 340/170 500/260 500–600/260–315 215/102 450/230 300/149 500/260 140/60 175/80 320/160 200/93 33 Temperature limits may have to be modified depending upon the corrodent if in direct contact. chloroform. LLC . ethylene dichloride. methylene chloride Methylene chloride.7 Typical Solvents for Solvent Cementing Polymer PVC ABS Acetate Acrylic PA (Nylon) PPO PC Polystyrene PSF Solvent Cyclohexane.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. ethylene dichloride Methylene chloride. solutions of Calcium chloride in alcohol Trichloroethylene. xylene Methylene chloride q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. chloroform. acetone. methylene chloride Methylene chloride. ethylene ketone. trichloroethylene. methyl ethyl ketone. ethyl acetate Methylene chloride. tetrahydrofuran. toluene. dichlorobenzene Methyl ethyl ketone. methyl isobutyl ketone. TABLE 2.

Engineering polymers such as polyamide or polyphenylene sulfide have very high glass transition temperatures whereas most adhesives have very low glass transition temperatures. meaning that the weakest link in the joint may be the adhesive. A structural adhesive must have a glass transition temperature higher than the operating temperature to prevent a cohesively weak bond and possible creep problems.8 Methods of Joining Thermoplasts Polymer ABS Acetals Acrylics CPE Ethylene copolymers Fluoroplastics PA PPO Polyesters PAI PAS PC PA/ABS PE PI PPS PP Polystyrene PSF PVC/Acrylic alloy PVC/ABS alloy PVC CPVC Adhesives X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Mechanical Fastening X X X X Solvent Welding X X X Thermal Welding X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Table 2. It is difficult to select an adhesive that will not degrade in two widely differing chemical environments. will provide poor resistance to bases. For example. In general.9 provides the relative compatibilities of synthetic adhesives in selected environments. Selection of the proper adhesives is important. an adhesive providing maximum resistance to acids. in all probability. All polymers cannot be joined by all of the methods cited. LLC . TABLE 2.8 lists the methods by which individual polymers may be joined. There is not a best adhesive for universal environments. the adhesives that are most resistant to high temperatures usually exhibit the best resistance to chemicals and solvents. Table 2. Which adhesive is selected will depend upon the specific operating conditions such as chemical environment and temperature.34 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers These stresses are compounded by thermal cycling and low-temperature service requirements.

poor. oil. N. thermosetting adhesive. excellent. fuels. K. 4. thermoplastic adhesive. 3. 35 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. heat. E. L. 2.b Adhesive Cyanoacrylate PolyesterCisocyanate PolyesterCmonomer Urea formaldehyde Melamine formaldehyde Resorcinol formaldehyde EpoxyCpolyamine EpoxyCpolyamide Polyimide Acrylic Cellulose acetate Cellulose nitrate Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl alcohol Polyamide Acrylic Phenoxy a Type TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TP TP TP TP TP TP TP c A X 3 X 3 2 2 3 X 1 X 2 3 X 3 X 4 4 B 2 3 3 2 2 X 2 1 3 3 3 C X 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 X X 3 3 D X 3 X X X 2 2 X 4 3 X 3 X X X 3 4 E X 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 3 3 X X 3 F X 2 X 2 2 2 2 X 2 2 2 X 3 X 2 2 G 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 H 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 X J X 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 X X 3 X X K X 2 X 2 2 2 X X 2 2 X X X 1 2 4 L X 2 X 2 2 2 X X 2 2 X X X 1 2 4 M 4 X X 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 X X X 1 2 X N 4 2 X 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 X X X 1 X 4 Environment: A. chlorinated solvents. grease. B. water. ketones. cold. fair. J. LLC . alkali. alcohols. esters. b Resistance: 1. TP. H.9 Chemical Resistance of Adhesives Environmenta. M. D. c Type: TS. C. G. acid. hot water. F. good. aromatics. not recommended. X.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.

Water can also permeate the adhesive and displace the adhesive at the bond interface. LLC . Epoxy–polyamide adhesives can be made serviceable at very low temperatures by the addition of appropriate fillers to control thermal expansion. and stress level. i. Adhesives exposed outdoors are affected primarily by heat and humidity. A combination epoxy–phenolic resin has been developed that will provide an adhesive capability at 7008F (3718C) for short-term operation and continuous operation at 3508F (1778C). q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. the elastic modulus. Structural adhesives not susceptible to the reversion phenomenon are also likely to lose adhesive strength when exposed to moisture. the rate of decline usually levels off. Silicone adhesives are primarily used in nonstructural applications. Other factors affecting the life of an adhesive bond are humidity. and in the worst case. The successful application of an adhesive at low temperatures is dependent upon the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between adhesive and polymer. Polyamide-adhesives have thermal endurance at temperatures greater than 5008F (2608C) that is unmatched by any commercially available adhesive. They have very good thermal stability but low strength. Polyurethane and epoxy–nylon systems exhibit outstanding cryogenic properties. Nitrile–phenolic adhesives have high shear strength up to 250–3508F (121–1778C). rapidly lose strength during the first six months to a year. However. 3.36 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Epoxy adhesives are generally limited to continuous applications below 3008F (1498C). Epoxy–phenolic adhesives exhibit good adhesive properties at both elevated and low temperatures. depending upon the climate zone. The following are important considerations when designing an adhesive joint for outdoor service: 1. Moisture can affect adhesive strength in two ways. Stressed panels deteriorate more rapidly than unstressed panels. will revert. ultraviolet radiation.. Thermal cycling. and outdoor weathering. strength. and cold are relatively minor factors. Some polymeric materials. After two or three years. notably ester-based polyurethanes. and the strength retention on aging at these temperatures is very good. 2. Their short-term exposure at 10008F (5388C) is slightly better than the epoxy–phenolic alloy.e. turn to fluid during exposure to warm humid air. there are epoxy formulations that can withstand short terms at 5008F (2608C) and long-term service at 300–3508F (149–1778C). Structural adhesives. adhesive. polymer. when exposed to weather. Heat-cured adhesive systems are generally more resistant than room-temperature cured systems. lose hardness. and the thermal conductivity of the adhesive. water immersion. The most severe locations are those with high humidity and warm temperatures.

ABS polymers are used to produce business machine and camera housings. piping. When an ABS alloy or a reinforced ABS is used. pump impellers. blowers. butadiene. butadiene.10 provides the compatibility of ABS with selected corrodents. greater dimensional stability and other properties can be obtained at the expense of other characteristics. Higher strength. With the better adhesives. but not to aromatic or chlorinated hydrocarbons. unstressed bonds are relatively resistant to severe outdoor weathering.3 Acrylics Acrylics are based on polymethylmethacrylate and have a chemical structure as follows: H C H CH3 C COOCH3 n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and styrene present. The manufacturer should also be checked. better toughness. 2. Pure ABS polymers will be attacked by oxidizing agents and strong acids. A more detailed listing may be found in Reference [1]. It is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. Table 2. 2. fume hoods.Thermoplastic Polymers 37 4. bearings. and styrene and have the following general chemical structure: H C H H C Cn H C H C H C H Butadiene H C H C CH X Y H Z Acrylonitrile Styrene The properties of ABS polymers can be altered by the relative amounts of acrylonitrile. all of the alloying ingredients and/or reinforcing materials must be checked for chemical compatibility. LLC .2 Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene (ABS) ABS polymers are derived from acrylonitrile. although all joints will eventually show some strength loss. and they will stress crack in the presence of certain organic compounds. and electrical conduit. ABS will be degraded by UV light unless protective additives are incorporated into the formulation. gears. chemical tanks. ducts.

and haze measurements average only 1%.11 lists the compatibility of acrylics with selected corrodents. LLC . and other similar fluids. They are attacked by strong solvents. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. duPont and Plexiglass by Rohm and Haas. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. Because of their chemical structure. The total light transmission is as high as 92%. Table 2. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. acetone. sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. acrylic resins are inherently resistant to discoloration and loss of light transmission.10 Compatibility of ABS with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. Acrylics exhibit outstanding weatherability. TABLE 2. Ammonium fluoride. gasoline. 80% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.38 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers They are sold under the tradenames of Lucite by E. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate 8F X 100 130 X X X X X 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 90 80 140 140 140 140 140 X 8C X 38 54 X X X X X 60 X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 32 27 60 60 60 60 60 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Parts molded from acrylic powders in their pure state may be clear and nearly optically perfect.I.

Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate.10 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. LLC . 25% Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. sat. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% 8F 80 X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 X X 80 140 X X 140 140 X X X X X 140 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 90 140 X 140 X 140 X X 140 140 X X X X 90 8C 27 X X 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 X X 27 60 X X 60 60 X X X X X 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X 32 60 X 60 X 60 X X 60 60 X X X X 32 (continued) 39 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Chlorine. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. dry Chlorine gas.

30% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Nitric acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 50% Citric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 50% Sodium hydroxide. dry Hydrobromic acid. conc. 10% Perchloric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 25% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 25% Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. general Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide.10 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 15% Citric acid. 70% Nitric acid.40 TABLE 2. 20% 8F X 140 140 140 140 140 X 80 80 X X 140 140 140 140 90 140 90 140 X X X 140 X 140 140 140 X X X 140 140 130 X X X X X X 130 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 8C X 60 60 60 60 60 X 27 27 X X 60 60 60 60 32 60 32 60 X X X 60 X 60 60 60 X X X 60 60 54 X X X X X X 54 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide.

fluorescent street lights. 5th ed. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. coatings. 2004.4 Chlotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) Chlorotrifluorethylene is sold under the tradename of Kel–F. 2. 98% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. and boat windshields. Incompatibility is shown by an X. it has less resistance than PTFE. It is subject to swelling in some q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Acrylics are used for lenses. 1–4. 100% Sulfuric acid. It is a fluorocarbon with the following chemical structure: Cl F C F C F n Although CTFE has a wide range of corrosion resistance. 50% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide. outdoor signs. New York: Marcel Dekker.10 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hypochlorite.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Sulfuric acid. textile fibers. and PFA.A. 90% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 70% Sulfuric acid. Vols.. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene White liquor Zine chloride 8F 140 140 140 100 140 130 X X X X X 140 X X 140 140 8C 60 60 60 38 60 54 X X X X X 60 X X 60 60 41 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Schweitzer. conc. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. FEP. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. LLC . lighting fixtures. aircraft and building glazing.

aqueous Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfate.42 TABLE 2. sat. LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Alum Aluminum chloride. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium sulfate Calcium bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 80% Acetic acid. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Borax Boric acid Bromine. 10% Acetic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid X X X X X X X R R R R R R R R R R R R X R X X R R R R X X X R R X X R X R R R R R R R R R R X R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid.11 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Acrylics with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. sat. sat.

50% Citric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. to 50% Stanninc chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Magnesium chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Sodium sulfide. 15% Citric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. conc. 10% Sodium hydroxide.11 Continued Chemical Chloroacetic acid. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid anhydrous Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 10–50% Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid. general Lactic acid. LLC . 10% Chromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 50% Dichloroethane Ethylene chloride Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 5% Cupric chloride. 20% Nitric acid. 10% X X X X X X X R R R R X X R R X R R R R R R X R X X X R X X R X X X X R R R R X R R R R R R R R R (continued) 43 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 100% Ketones.

Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 98% Sulfuric acid.A. dry Allyl alcohol Aluminum chloride. TABLE 2.. 5th ed. 2004. LLC . 95–100% Acetic acid glacial Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetyl chloride. Compatibility at 908F/328C is indicated by R. 100% Sulfuric acid fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene Zinc chloride Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R R X X X X R X R The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise specified. chlorinated solvents at elevated temperatures and is attacked by the same chemicals that attack PTFE. 70% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Amyl acetate Aniline Aqua regia Barium sulfate 8F 200 122 122 122 100 200 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 100 122 200 300 8C 93 50 50 50 38 93 38 93 93 93 93 93 93 38 50 93 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 1–4.11 Continued Chemical Sulfuric acid. Vols. 90% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. Source: From P.12 Compatibility of CTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. wet Ammonium chloride. 50% Sulfuric acid. 25% Ammonia anhydrous Ammonia.44 TABLE 2.12 for the compatibility of CTFE with selected corrodents. Refer to Table 2. conc. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

100% Hydrofluoric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dry Fluorine gas. moist Butadiene Butane n-Butylamine Butyl ether Calcium chloride Calcium sulfate Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Cellusolve Chlorine. 50% Perchloric acid Phosphorus trichloride Potassium manganate Seawater 8F 200 200 200 200 100 300 100 212 200 200 X 100 300 300 300 212 200 X 125 300 100 200 200 X 100 200 X 70 200 200 212 200 200 300 300 200 300 212 200 200 200 200 200 212 200 200 200 250 23 93 93 100 93 93 149 149 93 149 100 93 93 93 93 93 100 93 93 93 121 (continued) 38 92 52 149 38 93 93 38 149 149 149 100 93 8C 93 93 93 93 38 149 38 100 93 93 45 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Bromine gas. LLC . 50% Magnesium chloride Magnesium sulfate Mineral oil Motor oil Naphtha Naphthalene Nitromethane Oxalic acid.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzontrile Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Bromine gas. dry Chloroacetic acid Cupric chloride. moist Fuel oils Gasoline Glycerine Heptane Hexane Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cyclohexanone Dimethyl aniline Dimethyl phthalate Ethanolamine Ethylene dichloride Ethylene glycol Fluorine gas. 37% Hydrochloric acid.

unless otherwise noted. It is sold under the tradename of Halar by Ausimont U. carbon dioxide. chlorine gas. fuming Turpentine Vinegar Water. 0–100% Sulfuric acid. Included in this q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. It possesses excellent chemical resistance from cryogenic to 3408F (1178C) with continuous service to 3008F (1498C) and excellent abrasion resistance. wet Sulfur dioxide.A. 2. 10% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium sulfate Sodium thiosulfate Stannous chloride Sulfur Sulfur dioxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. LLC . The chemical resistance of ECTFE is outstanding. or hydrochloric acid is 10–100 times better than that of PTFE or FEP. It is resistant to most of the common corrosive chemicals encountered in industry. fresh Zinc sulfate 8F 300 140 300 250 250 300 300 212 260 300 300 212 200 200 200 250 212 8C 149 60 149 121 121 149 149 100 127 149 149 100 93 93 93 121 100 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution. dry Sulfuric acid.S.46 TABLE 2.5 Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) ECTFE is a 1:1 alternating copolymer of ethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene having a chemical structure as follows: H H H H C C C C H H F Cl This chemical structure provides the polymer with a unique combination of properties. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.12 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bisulfate Sodium carbonate Sodium chromate.01%. ECTFE’s resistance to permeation by oxygen. Water absorption is less than 0.

sat. that does not impair the usefulness of the polymer. Table 2. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 8F 250 250 150 200 100 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 8C 121 121 66 93 38 66 66 66 66 149 149 149 149 149 149 66 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. liquid oxygen. aqueous Aluminum chloride. LLC . ECTFE will be attacked by metallic sodium and potassium. Some halogenated solvents can cause ECTFE to become slightly plasticized when it comes into contact with them. As with other fluoropolymers. alkalies. TABLE 2. dimethylamine. and high-temperature wire and cable insulation.13 Compatibility of ECTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. Under normal circumstances. 50% Ammonium chloride.13 shows the compatibility of ECTFE with selected corrodents. chemical process equipment. The useful properties of ECTFE are maintained on exposure to cobalt-60 radiation of 20 Mrads. When the part is removed from contact with the solvent and allowed to dry. its mechanical properties return to their original values. metal etchants.Thermoplastic Polymers 47 list of chemicals are strong mineral and oxidizing acids.) No known solvent dissolves or stress cracks ECTFE at temperatures up to 2508F (1208C). and practically all organic solvents except hot amines (aniline. indicating that no chemical attack has taken place. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. Reference [1] provides a more extensive listing. ECTFE also exhibits excellent resistance to weathering and UV radiation. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. etc. 10% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. ECTFE has found application as pipe and vessel liners and in piping systems.

10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry 8F 300 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 160 300 300 90 100 250 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 250 300 300 300 300 X 150 250 150 300 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 220 80 300 8C 149 149 149 149 149 66 149 149 149 71 149 149 32 38 121 149 149 149 149 149 66 66 66 121 149 149 149 149 X 66 121 66 149 121 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 104 27 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium fluoride. sat. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . dry Bromine. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.48 TABLE 2.

25% Lactic acid. conc.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.13 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon dioxide. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. moist Hydrobromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. LLC . 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 10% Lactic acid. 15% Citric acid. Hydrobromic acid. dry Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 8F 300 80 150 300 300 300 250 250 150 250 250 150 250 80 250 250 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 X 80 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 240 240 300 250 150 150 8C 149 27 66 149 149 149 121 121 66 121 121 66 121 27 121 121 149 149 66 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 X 27 149 149 149 149 149 149 121 116 116 149 121 66 66 (continued) 49 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellsolve Chloroacetic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% Citric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. wet Chlorine. dil.

Sodium hypochlorite. 90% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. conc.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 100% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 300 250 300 150 150 300 300 250 150 150 250 X 150 150 150 250 80 300 250 300 300 300 250 150 300 300 300 300 300 250 250 250 150 150 80 300 250 150 150 150 250 300 8C 149 121 149 66 68 149 149 121 66 66 121 X 66 66 66 121 27 149 121 149 149 149 121 66 149 149 149 149 149 121 121 121 66 66 27 149 121 66 66 66 121 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 98% Sulfuric acid. conc. 1–4. 70% Sulfuric acid. 2004.50 TABLE 2. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. A blank space indicate that data is unavailable.A. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 70% Nitric acid. Source: From P. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. conc. Vols. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. LLC . 50% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Oleum Perchloric acid.. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 5th ed. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.

organic bases such as amines. stiffness. Reference [1] provides a more extensive listing. LLC . 2. chlorocarbons. but it mainly consists of linear chains having the following formula: F F F F F F F F F C F F F C C C C C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. inorganic bases. creep resistance.Thermoplastic Polymers 51 2. halogens. Because the resin will bond to the fibers. wire insulation. and pump components. being the first fluoroplastic that can be reinforced. not merely filled. aldehydes. Very strong oxidizing acids such as nitric. tubing. chemical ware. Tefzel is a rugged thermoplastic with an outstanding balance of properties. ketones. ETFE is inert to strong mineral acids. It can be reinforced with carbon or glass fibers. piping. esters.14 for the compatibility of ETFE with selected corrodents. Tefzel is also weather resistant and ultraviolet ray resistant. heat distortion temperature. aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. and classic polymer solvents have little effect on ETFE. alcohols.6 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) ETFE is an alternating copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene by duPont under the tradename of Tefzel and has the following structural formula: H H H H C C C C H H F F ETFE is a high-temperature fluoropolymer with a maximum service temperature of 3008F (1498C). ETFE finds applications in process equipment.7 Fluorinated Ethylene–Propylene (FEP) Fluorinated ethylene-propylene is a fully fluorinated thermoplastic with some branching. strength. and metal salt solutions. Carboxylic acids. and sulfuric acid at high concentrations and near their boiling points will affect ETFE to various degrees. and dimensional stability are enhanced. Refer to Table 2.

LLC . sat. Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 200 250 250 250 230 230 300 150 150 150 280 210 190 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 300 300 300 230 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 230 210 210 300 300 300 300 300 8C 93 121 121 121 110 110 149 66 66 66 138 99 88 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 149 149 149 110 149 149 149 149 121 149 149 110 99 99 149 149 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium fluoride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat.52 TABLE 2.14 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of ETFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.

10% Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Chlorine gas. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 15% Copper chloride 8F 210 210 210 270 300 300 300 300 150 230 250 230 300 120 150 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 260 300 210 150 300 300 150 300 270 300 300 230 230 210 250 100 210 230 80 150 150 210 120 300 8C 99 99 99 132 149 149 149 149 66 110 121 110 149 49 66 121 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 127 149 99 66 149 149 66 149 132 149 149 110 110 99 121 38 99 110 27 66 66 99 49 149 (continued) 53 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Chlorine gas. wet Chlorine. sat. dry Bromine water.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC . wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. water Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.

50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 30% Salicylic acid 8F 300 300 270 300 300 250 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 100 100 300 300 300 300 300 300 270 250 230 300 250 250 300 270 120 300 230 300 300 150 150 80 X 210 150 230 150 210 270 130 300 250 8C 149 149 132 149 149 121 66 66 149 149 149 149 149 38 38 149 149 149 149 149 149 132 121 110 149 121 121 149 132 49 149 110 149 149 66 66 27 X 99 66 110 66 99 132 54 149 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. dil. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . Oleum Perchloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 70% Nitrous acid. conc.54 TABLE 2. 20% Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. moist Hydrobromic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid.14 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.15 for the compatibility of FEP with selected corrodents. 70% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide. Refer to Table 2. Some chemicals will attack FEP when present in high concentrations at or near the service temperature limit. After prolonged exposure at 4008F (2048C).. 98% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. To improve some physical and mechanical properties. and other process equipment. it exhibits changes in physical strength. FEP has a maximum operating temperature of 3758F (1908C). 1–4. Schweitzer. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 10% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Vols. FEP basically exhibits the same corrosion resistance as PTFE with few exceptions but at lower operating temperatures. Source: From P. and it has excellent weathering resistance.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. the polymer is filled with glass fibers. 5th ed. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which date is available. 2004. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. It is resistant to practically all chemicals except for extremely potent oxidizers such as chlorine trifluoride and related compounds.A. 100% Sulfurous acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 300 300 230 230 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 120 210 210 250 210 300 8C 149 149 110 110 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 49 99 99 121 99 149 55 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. Incompatibility is shown by an X. laboratory ware. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. FEP finds extensive use as a lining material for process vessels and piping. FEP is not degraded by UV light.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.

sat. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluorideb Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gasb Ammonium bifluoridea Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.15 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of FEP with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Anilinea Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 300 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 250 400 400 8C 93 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 93 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 149 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 121 204 204 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 50% Acetic acid. LLC . 50% Ammonium chloride.56 TABLE 2. 80% Acetic acid. 10%b Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetonea Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25%b Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.

10% Calcium hydroxide. dryb Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfideb Carbon dioxide.b Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Chlorine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. sat. moistb Bromine. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC .15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehydea Benzenea. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. wetb Chlorine.b Butadienea Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylaminea Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. liquida. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloridea.b.c Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. liquida Chlorobenzeneb Chloroformb Chlorosulfonic acida 8F 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 200 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 X 400 400 400 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 93 93 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 X 204 204 204 204 204 (continued) 57 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . conc. 50%b. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chlorideb Methyl ethyl ketoneb Methyl isobutyl ketoneb Muriatic acidb Nitric acid. 5%b 8F 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 260 260 400 400 200 X 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 300 400 400 400 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 127 127 204 204 93 X 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 149 204 204 204 204 204 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichlorideb) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.c Hydrocyanic acid. conc. 50% in watera Ferric nitrate. 20%b. 70%b Hydrofluoric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10%b Ketones.c Hydrochloric acid.c Hydrochloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 100%b Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. general Lactic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 38%b. 15% Citric acid. 20%b. dry Fluorine gas.58 TABLE 2. dil. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 50%a Chromyl chloride Citric acid.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. Hydrobromic acid.c Hydrobromic acid. 30%b Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.

. 10% Perchloric acid. 70%b Nitric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10%a Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite. fumingb Sulfurous acid Thionyl chlorideb Tolueneb Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloridec 8F 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 59 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Source: From P. a b c Material will be absorbed. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20%b Nitric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 50% Sulfuric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid.A. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which date is available. 70% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenolb Phosphoric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Incompatibility is shown by an X. conc. Material can cause stress cracking. 2004.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. anhydrousb Nitrous acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. conc. Schweitzer. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Sodium sulfide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 5th ed. Vols. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 1–4. LLC . Material will permeate.

6/6.60 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 2. both of which are compounds containing six carbon atoms. LLC . properties and best dimensional stability. For example. and grades 6. Their structural formulas are as follows: O N H Nylon 6 O N H (CH2)6 N H Nylon 6/6 O N H (CH2)6 N H Nylon 6/10 O N H Nylon 11 O N H Nylon 12 (CH2)11 C (CH2)10 C C (CH2)8 O C C (CH2)4 O C (CH2)5 C n n n n n Grades 6 and 6/6 are the strongest structurally. 11. Polyamide resins retain useful mechanical properties over a temperature range of K60 to C4008F (K51 to C2048C. grades 6/10 and 11 have the lowest moisture absorption. Nylon 12 has the same advantages as grades 6/10 and 11. nylon 6/6 is the reaction product of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid. and 12. but it is available at a lower cost because it is more easily and economically processed. 6/6.8 Polyamides (PA) Polyamides are also known as nylons. Polyamide polymers are available in several grades and are identified by the number of carbon atoms in the diamine and dibasic acid used to produce the particular grade.) Both short-term and long-term q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 6/10. best electrical. and 6/10 are the most flexible. Some of the commonly commercially available nylons are 6.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. even at elevated temperatures and to sodium and potassium hydroxides at ambient temperatures. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Allyl alcohol Alum Aluminum chloride.Thermoplastic Polymers 61 temperature effects must be considered.16 Compatibility of Polyamides with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. They also display good resistance to almost all inorganic salts and to almost all hydrocarbons and petroleum-based fuels. weathering.16 for the compatibility of PA with selected corrodents. 80% Acetic acid. there is the possibility of gradual oxidative embrittlement. There is also the possibility of stress relief and its effect on dimensions. 50% Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 25% 8F X 250 200 X X X 200 80 X 80 80 X X X 80 250 80 140 200 240 200 200 80 80 250 8C X 121 93 X X X 93 27 X 27 27 X X X 27 121 27 60 93 160 93 93 27 27 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. A more detailed listing will be found in Reference [1]. Such properties as stiffness and toughness are affected by short-term exposure to elevated temperatures. LLC . Such applications should make use of a heat-stabilized grade of resin. 10% Acetic acid. In long term exposure at high temperatures. particularly ammonium hydroxide and ammonia. Refer to Table 2. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Aluminum gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Polyamides are also resistant to UV degradation. 10% Ammonium fluoride. The polyamides exhibit excellent resistance to a broad range of chemicals and harsh environments. 10% Ammonium chloride. They have good resistance to most inorganic alkalies. TABLE 2. 50% Acetic acid. and ozone.

sat. LLC . Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide. dry Bromine gas. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.62 TABLE 2. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine. sat. dry Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid 8F 250 190 X 80 80 150 200 X X X X 80 250 80 80 80 150 250 X 80 200 250 200 X X X X 80 250 200 200 X 140 200 250 150 150 X X 80 80 230 80 80 80 80 250 100 8C 121 88 X 27 27 66 93 X X X X 27 121 27 27 27 66 121 X 27 93 121 93 X X X X 27 121 93 93 X 60 93 121 66 66 X X 27 27 110 27 27 27 27 121 38 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

20% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. wet Chlorine. dil. 50% Malic acid Manganese chloride.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 100% Lactic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 25% Lactic acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 37% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone 8F 250 X X X X X 250 130 X X X 200 X 200 80 X 80 140 100 X X 250 280 80 80 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 200 200 240 X X 80 240 110 8C 121 X X X X X 121 54 X X X 93 X 93 27 X 27 60 38 X X 121 121 27 27 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 93 93 116 X X 27 116 42 (continued) 63 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 15% Chloroacetic acid Citric acid. 50% Citric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 5% Cupric chloride. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride 50% in water Ferric nitrate. LLC . 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 10% Chromic acid. Magnesium chloride. 20% Hydrobromic acid.

PA/ABS blends are used for appliances. PAs are used to produce gears. cans.A. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 1–4. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50% Sodium hypochlorite.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Muriatic acid Nitric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X X X X X X X X 210 80 240 230 250 250 X X 230 80 X X X X X X X X 90 200 X 80 X 8C X X X X X X X X X X 99 27 116 110 121 121 X X 110 27 X X X X X X X X 32 93 X 27 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. pipe fittings. to 30% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 5% Nitric acid. Sodium sulfide. Source: From P. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. and hose fittings. In the automotive industry. 70% Nitric acid. and sporting goods. power tools. lawn and garden equipment. fasteners. Incompatibility is shown by an X. conc. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate. 70% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 10% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicate that data is unavailable. Schweitzer. conc.. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.64 TABLE 2. 2004. housings. and shrouds. 10% Sodium hydroxide. New York: Marcel Dekker. 5th ed. bearings. wire insulation. 20% Nitric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. the blend is used to produce interior functional components. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Vols. 90% Sulfuric acid.

Ammonium nitrate. PAI is not resistant to sodium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers 65 2. LLC . sat. PAI is resistant to acetic acid and phosphoric acid up to 35% and sulfuric acid up to 30%. 50% Acetic acid.9 Polyamide–Imide (PAI) Polyamide–imides are heterocyclic polymers having an atom of nitrogen in one of the rings of the molecular chain. 80% Acetic acid glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride. dry Aluminum sulfate. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Benzaldehyde Benzene 8F 200 200 200 200 200 80 120 220 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 80 8C 93 93 93 93 93 27 49 104 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium sulfate. Refer to Table 2. Reference 1 provides a more detailed listing. PAI has resistance to UV light degradation. TABLE 2. and as such. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium chloride. A typical chemical structure is shown below: H R N C C C N n This series of thermoplasts can be used at high and low temperatures. it finds applications in the extreme environments of space.17 Compatibility of PAI with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. PAI finds applications in underhood applications and as bearings and pistons in compressors.17 for the compatibility of PAI with selected corrodents. 10% Amyl acetate Aniline Barium chloride. The temperature range is K3108F to C5008F (K1908C to C2608C).

Sodium sulfide. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hypochlorite conc. 5th ed. Sodium hypochlorite. New York: Marcel Dekker. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Schweitzer. moist Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Cellosolve Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid.10 Polybutylene (PB) Polybutylene is a semicrystalline polyolefin thermoplasitic based on poly-1butene and includes homopolymers and a series of copolymers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 38% Lactic acid. 10% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Ethylene glycol Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 1–4. 2004.66 TABLE 2. 25% Lactic acid conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide conc. 10% Sodium hydroxide. dry Methyl ethyl ketone Oleum Sodium carbonate. Vols. 10% Sodium hydroxide..A. to 50% Sulfuric acid. fuming Toluene 8F X 120 120 200 200 200 200 X 200 200 120 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 120 200 200 X X X 200 X X 200 120 200 93 49 93 93 93 93 49 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 49 93 93 49 49 93 93 93 93 8C The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Source: From P. 10% Benzyl chloride Bromine gas. Magnesium chloride. 2. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is shown by an X.17 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzenesulfonic acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sodium chloride.

Applications include piping. and detergents. chemical process equipment. TABLE 2. Polybutylene is partially soluble in aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons above 1408F (608C) and is not completely resistant to aliphatic solvents at room temperature.Thermoplastic Polymers 67 (butene/ethylene). and abrasion resistance. LLC . Chlorinated water will cause pitting attack.18 Compatibility of PB with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Allyl alcohol Aluminum chloride Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Butyl alcohol Calcium carbonate Calcium hydroxide Calcium sulfate Carbonic acid Chloracetic acid Chlorobenzene Citric acid Cyclohexane Detergents Lactic acid Malic acid Methyl alcohol Phenol R R X X X R X R R R R R X R R R R R R R R R R R X R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.18 for the compatibility of polybutylene with selected corrodents. and fly ash bottom ash lines containing abrasive slurries. It is resistant to acids. It possesses a combination of stress cracking resistance. PB is subject to degradation by UV light. soaps. PB is also used for molded appliance parts. Refer to Table 2. This thermoplast has the following structural formula: H H H C C C H H H C H H Polybutylene has an upper temperature limit of 2008F (938C). bases. chemical resistance.

The operating temperature range for polycarbonates is from K2008F to C250K2758F (K1298C to C120K1358C). Table 2. It also finds wide use in outdoor energy management devices. LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide.19 lists the compatibility of PC with selected corrodents.18 Continued Picric acid Propyl alcohol Salicylic acid Soaps Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide. 50% Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Water (chlorine free) Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R X R R R R R R R R R Materials in the pure state or saturated solution unless otherwise specified. R. PC is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons and weak acids and has limited resistance to weak alkalies. It is resistant to most oils and greases. Because of its extremely high impact resistance and good clarity. Polycarbonate will be attacked by strong alkalies and strong acids and is soluble in ketones. network interfaces.11 Polycarbonate (PC) This thermoplast is produced by General Electric under the tradename of Lexan. X. globes and housings. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. PB is resistant at 708F/238C. electrical wiring blocks. and lighting diffusers. The generalized formula is: CH3 O C CH3 O O C Immersion in water and exposure to high humidity at temperatures up to 2128F (1008C) have little effect on dimensions. and aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Polycarbonates are among the most stable polymers in a wet environment. PB is not resistant. Polycarbonates are classified as engineering thermoplasts because of their high performance in engineering designs. 2. esters. PC is not affected by UV light and has excellent weatherability. telephone equipment. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.68 TABLE 2. it is widely used for windows in chemical equipment and glazing in chemical plants.

10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate. 10% Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Glycerine Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Acetone Ammonia.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 5% Acetic acid. 10% Potassium hydroxide. 0–5% Ink Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Milk Nitric acid. 5% Sulfuric acid. 2% R R X X X X R X X X X R X X R X X X X R X R R X R R R R R R R X X X R R R X X R R R R R R R X X X R (continued) 69 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 30% Hydrogen peroxide. LLC . 2% Hydrogen peroxide. 10% Benzene Butyl acetate Cadmium chloride Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. 10% Sodium chloride. 2% Paraffin oil Phosphoric acid. 50% Potassium dichromate Potassium permanganate.19 Compatibility of PC with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid.

However. PEEK is subject to degradation by UV light during outdoor weathering. Refer to Table 2. cold Water. PEEK is not chemically attacked by water.19 Continued Toluene Vaseline Water. In more extreme weathering conditions. It also has excellent rain erosion resistance. It also exhibits excellent resistance to hard (gamma) radiation. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing.70 TABLE 2. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. testing has shown that over a twelvemonth period for both natural and pigmented moldings. 2.20 for the compatibility of PEEK with selected corrodents. material is resistant at 738F/208C. Because PEEK is not hydrolyzed by water at elevated temperatures in a continuous cycle environment. painting or pigmenting of the polymer will protect it from excessive property degradation. material is not resistant. the effect is minimal.12 Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) PEEK is a linear polyaromatic thermoplast having the following chemical structure: O C O O n It is a proprietary product of ICI and is an engineering polymer suitable for applications that require mechanical strength with the need to resist difficult thermal and chemical environments. It has excellent long-term resistance to water at both ambient and elevated temperatures. absorbing over 1000 Mrads of radiation without suffering significant damage. PEEK has an operating temperature range of K85 to C4808F (K65 to C2508C). hot Wax. LLC . molten Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers X R R X R X R. PEEK is insoluble in all common solvents and has excellent resistance to a wide range of organic and inorganic solvents. the material may be steam sterilized using conventional sterilization equipment. Like most polyaromatics. X.

50% Acetic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. moist Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 50% Citric acid. LLC . 38% Hydrofluoric acid. Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Fluorine gas. 10% Acetic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dil. Hydrobromic acid. dry Bromine gas. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Carbon dioxide. 80% Acetic acid. sat. 10% Chromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. glacial Acetone Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium hydroxide. 70% 8F 80 80 140 140 140 210 80 80 80 210 80 200 X 80 80 170 80 X X 80 80 80 100 80 80 80 80 X 200 80 80 80 200 170 80 160 200 X X X X X 100 100 X X 8C 27 27 60 60 60 99 27 27 27 99 27 93 X 27 27 77 27 X X 27 27 27 38 27 27 27 27 X 93 27 27 27 93 77 27 71 93 X X X X X 38 38 X X (continued) 71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine. conc. Cyclohexane Ethylene glycol Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrochloric acid.20 Compatibility of PEEK with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. sat.

10% Oxalic acid. Phenol Phosphoric acid. 100% Hydrogen sulfide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 100% Sulfuric acid. conc. 1–4. conc. 10% Sulfuric acid. Vols. 2004. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. sat. Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50–80% Potassium bromide. 5% Nitric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Source: From P. 98% Sulfuric acid.A. general Lactic acid. 70% Sulfuric acid.20 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrofluoric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables.72 TABLE 2.. wet Ketones. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitrous acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Magnesium hydroxide Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Naphtha Nitric acid. fuming Toluene Zinc chloride 8F X 200 80 80 100 100 80 370 200 200 200 80 X X X 140 200 140 210 220 180 200 80 80 80 200 X X X X X 80 100 8C X 93 27 27 38 38 27 188 93 93 93 27 X X X 60 93 60 99 104 82 93 27 27 27 93 X X X X X 27 38 The Chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 5th ed. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 25% Lactic acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. 5% Oxalic acid. conc. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Oxalic acid.

2. stable electrical properties. It is resistant to acetic and hydrochloric acids. The molecular structure has rigidity. continuous service temperature of 5008F (2608C) 6. and frequencies. chemical resistance. Excellent wear abrasion and fatigue resistance 7. High strength and load carrying capacity 2. PEI has a better chemical resistance than most noncrystalline polymers. and impact resistance in fabricated parts over a wide range of temperatures. A high. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. Low friction 3. The unfilled polymer complies with FDA regulations and can be used in food and medical applications. high tensile and flexural strength.Thermoplastic Polymers 73 PEEK is used in many bearing applications because of the following advantages: 1. LLC .13 Polyether–Imide (PEI) PEI is a high-temperature engineering polymer with the structural formula shown below: O C N C O O CH3 C CH3 O O C N C O Polyether–imides are noncrystalline polymers made up of alternating aromatic ether and imide units. Good dimensional stability 4. weak nitric and sulfuric acids. strength. PEI is one of the strongest thermoplasts even without reinforcement. over a wide range of temperatures. Long life 5. PEI is useful in applications where high heat and flame resistance low NBS smoke evolution.21 lists the compatibility of PEI with selected corrodents. Outstanding mechanical properties PEEK has also found application in a number of aircraft exterior applications such as radomes and fairings as a result of its excellent erosion resistance. and superior finishing characteristics are required. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. One such application is under the hood of automobiles for connecters and MAP sensors. and alcohol. Table 2.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Potassium permanganate. 10% Sulfuric acid. Cyclohexane Diesel oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene glycol Formic acid. Benzoic acid Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Citric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. fuming Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. 10% Citric acid. X. 80% Acetic acid.21 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PEI with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. 2% Hydrochloric acid. 2% Perchloroethylene Phosphoric acid. sat. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Iodine solution. 10% Sodium hypochlorite. 50–80% Potassium hydroxide. 50% Sulfuric acid. LLC . material resistant at 738F/208C. 10% Sodium chloride. cold Water. material not resistant. 10% Acetone Ammonia. conc. 20% Nitric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. hot R R R R X R R R R X R R R R R R X R R R R R R R R R R R R X X R R R R R R R R R R R R R X R X R R R. Sulfuric acid. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. conc. 10% Isopropanol Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl chloride Motor oil Nitric acid. glacial Acetic acid.74 TABLE 2. 25% Ammonium Hydroxide.

The water may be removed by heating at 300–3558F (149–1808C). PES is soluble is highly polar solvents and is subject to stress cracking in ketones and esters. At equilibrium water content for 65% relative humidity. It is also resistant to most inorganic chemicals. Hydrocarbons and mineral oils. in boiling water. This predrying will also prevent outgassing at elevated temperatures. Polyether sulfone has found application in Medical appliances Chemical plants Fluid handling Aircraft and aerospace appliances Instrumentation housings Office equipment Photocopier parts Electrical components Automotive (carbureter parts. it must be stabilized by incorporating carbon black or by painting. if used outdoors. these dimensional changes are of the order of magnitude of 0. PES has excellent resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons. they are approximately 0.Thermoplastic Polymers 75 2. fuse boxes) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polyether sulfone will be attacked by strong oxidizing acids. LLC .22 for the compatibility of PES with selected corrodents. and aromatics. Polyether sulfone does not have good outdoor weathering properties.14 Polyether Sulfone (PES) Polyether sulfone is a high-temperature engineering thermoplastic with the combined characteristics of high thermal stability and mechanical strength. Small dimensional changes may occur as a result of the polymer’s absorbing water from the atmosphere. but glassfiber reinforced grades are resistant to more dilute acids. and transmission fluids have no effect on PES. whereas.3%. Since it is susceptible to degradation by UV light. greases. Refer to Table 2. It is a linear polymer with the following structure: O S O O n PES also goes under the name Ultem. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. some chlorinated hydrocarbons.15%.

Corrosion Resistance Tables. New York: Marcel Dekker. Sulfuric acid. fuming Toluene 8F 80 140 200 200 X 80 X 80 100 80 80 X X X X 80 100 100 140 140 80 X 80 80 X 80 80 80 X 200 140 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 X X X X X X 80 8C 27 60 93 93 X 27 X 27 38 27 27 X X X X 27 38 38 60 60 27 X 27 27 X 27 27 27 X 93 60 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 X X X X X X 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Chromic acid. 20% Sodium hydroxide. wet Methyl ethyl ketone Naphtha Nitric acid. conc. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid.22 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PES with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. glacial Acetone Ammonia. 20% Oxalic acid. 5% Nitric acid. 5% Oxalic acid. 1–4. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Citric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Phenol Phosphoric acid. 38% Hydrogen sulfide. LLC . 20% Hydrochloric acid. 5th ed. 100% Sulfuric acid. Ethylene glycol Ferrous chloride Hydrochloric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 29% Oxalic acid. conc. 50% Acetic acid.76 TABLE 2. 80% Acetic acid. Source: From P. gas Aniline Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 90% Sulfuric acid. Vols. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Schweitzer. 2004.. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Benzoic acid Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. sat. 50–80% Potassium bromide. 10% Acetic acid. 98% Sulfuric acid.A.

00–0.5 0.3 1.9 2.00–0.4 0. Exposure of the acidic reagent was for 168 h.2 1.4–0.7–0. anhydrous Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.4 0.00–0. Like PTFE.7–2.01 0.23 Absorption of Liquids by PFA Liquida Aniline Acetophenone Benzaldehyde Benzyl alcohol n-Butylamine Carbon tetrachloride Dimethyl sulfoxide Freon 113 Isooctane Nitrobenzene Perchloroethylene Sulfuryl chloride Toluene Tributyl phosphateb Bromine.03 Samples were exposed for 168 hours at the boiling point of the solvent. b Not boiling.8 1. PFA is subject to permeation by certain gases and will absorb selected chemicals.5–0.23 for the absorption of certain liquids by PFA.7–0. LLC . TABLE 2. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1–0. Refer to Table 2.00–0.7 0.7–0. 37% Phosphoric acid. anhydrous Chlorine.4 0.6 0.0–2.3–0. Zinc chloride a Temperature (8F/8C) 365/185 394/201 354/179 400/204 172/78 172/78 372/190 117/47 210/99 410/210 250/121 154/68 230/110 392/200 K5/K22 248/120 302/150 248/120 212/100 248/120 212/100 212/100 Range of Weight Gains (%) 0.7–0.01 0.0 0.15 Perfluoralkoxy (PFA) Perfluoralkoxy is a fully fluorinated polymer having the following formula: F C F F C F F C O Rf F C F F C F Rf = CnF2n + 1 PFA lacks the physical strength of PTFE at elevated temperatures but has somewhat better physical and mechanical properties than FEP above 3008F (1498C) and can be used up to 5008F (2608C). 50% Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid.3–0.4 2.8 0.8 0. Perfluoralkoxy also performs well at cryogenic temperatures.2 0.8–2.6–0.8 0.3–0.00–0.01 0.03 0.Thermoplastic Polymers 77 2.3–2.5 0. conc.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. particularly in their molten states. and mixtures of these. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. Perfluoralkoxy will be attacked by certain halogenated complexes containing fluorine. TABLE 2. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gasa Ammonium bifluoridea Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10%a Ammonium fluoride. organic bases. Ammonium fluoride. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. alcohols. Reference [1] provides a more detained listing. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25%a Ammonium hydroxide. Refer to Table 2. This includes chlorine trifluoride. LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid. ethers. iodine pentafluoride. and fluorine.24 Compatibility of PFA with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. ketones. PFA has excellent weatherability and is not subject to UV degradation.78 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers PFA is inert to strong mineral acids. bromine trifluoride. aromatics. inorganic oxidizers. It is also subject to attack by such metals as sodium or potassium. fluorocarbons. esters. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.24 for the compatibility of PFA with selected corrodents. aldehydes. some aliphatic hydrocarbons. chlorocarbons. 50% Acetic acid.

50%b 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X 450 X 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X 232 X 232 232 232 232 232 79 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. weta Chlorine.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl chloride Anilineb Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehydeb Benzenea Benzene sulfonic acid. liquidb Chlorobenzenea Chloroforma Chlorosulfonic acidb Chromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfidea Carbon dioxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. sat.b Butadienea Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamineb Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. drya Bromine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcoholb Benzyl chloridea Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. liquida. wet Carbon disulfidea Carbon monoxide Carbon tertrachloridea. dry Chlorine gas. LLC .b. 10% Calcium hydroxide.c Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.

10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Florine gas. 5%a Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Oleum Perchloric acid. 20%a Nitric acid. conc. 50% in waterb Ferric nitrate. 20%a. 38%a.c Hydrochloric acid. anhydrousa Nitrous acid. general Lactic acid. conc. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloridea Methyl ethyl ketonea Methyl isobutyl ketonea Muriatic acida Nitric acid. 70%a Nitric acid.c Hydrochloric acid.24 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromyl chloride Citric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 15% Citric acid.80 TABLE 2. LLC . 30%a Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 70% 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X X 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X X 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Cupric chloride.c Hydrobromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene di chloride)a Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Perchloric acid.c Hydrobromic acid. oila. 10%a Ketones. Copper carbonate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 100%a Hydrochlorus acid Iodine solution. 70%a Hydrofluoric acid. 20%a.c Hydrocyanic acid. 50%a.

30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Source: From P. LLC . 50% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Material will be absorbed. 2. a b c Material will permeate. 1–4. conc. 100% Sulfuric acid. Applications includes lining for pipes and vessels. Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Sulfuric acid. 50–80%b Picric acid Potassium bromide. 2004.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. It is a fully fluorinated thermoplastic q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.4]. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.16 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) PTFE is marketed under the tradename of Teflon by DuPont and the tradename Halon by Ausimont USA. 10% Sodium hydroxide. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Corrosion Resistance Tables. conc. fuminga Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloridea Toluenea Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chlorideb a 81 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Phenol Phosphoric acid. Sodium sulfide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. New York: Marcel Dekker. Reference [2] details the use of PFA in lined process pipe and information on lining of vessels can be found in References [3. Schweitzer. Material will cause stress cracking..A. 5th ed. Vols. 10% Sulfuric acid. PFA finds many applications in the chemical process industry for corrosion resistance. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide.

it may be necessary to reduce the upper temperature limit.. PTFE is unique in its corrosion resistance properties. Refer to Table 2. aluminum chloride. high molecular weight polymer containing 50% fluorine. It is similar in chemical structure to PTFE except q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2.82 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers having the following formula: F F C C F F PTFE has an operating temperature range of from K208F to C4308C (K298C to C2128C). and certain amines at high temperatures have the same effect as elemental sodium. There are very few chemicals that will attack PTFE at normal use temperatures. Among materials that will attack PTFE are the most violent oxidizing and reducing agents known. When handling aggressive chemicals. The other alkali metals (potassium. chlorine trifluoride) are absorbed into PTFE resin to such a degree that the mixture becomes sensitive to a source of ignition such as impact. Applications for PTFE extend from exotic space-age usages to molded parts and wire and cable insulation to consumer use as a coating for cookware.25 for the compatibility of PTFE with selected corrodents. The handling of 80% sodium hydroxide. Reference [2] will provide details of the usage of PTFE in piping applications.g. compressors and shock absorbers. ammonia.17 Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polyvinylidene fluoride is a crystalline. These potent oxidizers should be only handled with great care and a recognition of the potential hazards. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. PTFE has excellent weathering properties and is not degraded by UV light. etc. It is virtually inert in the presence of most materials. This temperature range is based on the physical and mechanical properties of PTFE. lithium. LLC . One of PTFE’s largest uses is for corrosion protection. Fluorine and related compounds (e. including linings for tanks and piping. Elemental sodium removes fluorine from the molecule.) act in a similar manner. Applications in the automotive industry take advantage of the low surface friction and chemical stability using it in seals and rings for transmission and power steering systems and in seals for shafts. Slow oxidation attack can be produced by 70% nitric acid under pressure at 4808F (2508C).

50% Ammonium chloride. sat.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gasa Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. 10% Acetic acid.25 Compatibility of PTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) 83 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzenea Benzene sulfonic acid. Copper carbonate 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X 450 X 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X 232 X 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachlorideb Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid. drya Bromine. dry Carbon dioxide. weta Chlorine. conc. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. LLC . liquid Chlorobenzenea Chloroforma Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfidea Carbon dioxide. dry Chlorine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 15% Citric acid.84 TABLE 2. sat. 10% Chromic acid. liquida Butadienea Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.

5%a Nitric acid. conc. anhydrousa Nitrous acid. 70%a Nitric acid. 70% 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X X 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X X 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) 85 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50%b Hydrochloric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloridea Methyl ethyl ketonea Methyl isobutyl ketoneb Muriatic acida Nitric acid. 20%b Hydrochloric acid. 38%b Hydrocyanic acid. general Lactic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 30%a Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. dil. 10%a Ketones.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 25% Lactic acid. 20%a Nitric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride)a Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 70%a Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Oleum Perchloric acid.b Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride.a. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 100%a Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. dry Fluorine gas. LLC .25 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper chloride Copper cyanide. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 20%b Hydrobromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Perchloric acid.

Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 1–4. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 70% Sulfuric acid. a b c Material will permeate. 5th ed. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Sodium sulfide. Incompatibility is shown by an X.A. LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Phenola Phosphoric acid. Schweitzer. fuminga Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluenea Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloridec 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. New York: Marcel Dekker. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 50% Sulfuric acid.. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 98% Sulfuric acid. Material will be absorbed. 90% Sulfuric acid. The chemical structure is as follows: F F C C H H Much of the strength and chemical resistance of PVDF is maintained through an operating temperature range of K40 to C3208F (K40 to C1608C). that it is not fully fluorinated. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Material will cause stress cracking. conc. Vols. conc.86 TABLE 2. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 2004. 100% Sulfuric acid.

26 Compatibility of PVDF with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. LLC . Ammonium nitrate 8F 150 90 300 300 190 190 100 X 120 150 130 280 200 200 180 250 300 270 300 260 300 290 300 270 250 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 8C 66 32 149 149 88 88 38 X 49 66 54 138 93 93 82 121 149 132 149 127 149 143 149 132 121 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. It should not be used with strong alkalies. PVDF is chemically resistant to most acids. it stress cracks. fuming acids. and esters. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. bromine. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. bases. sat. sat. It is also resistant to wet or dry chlorine. polar solvents. Refer to Table 2. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. amines. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 80% Acetic acid.26 for the compatibility of PVDF with selected corrodents. and organic solvents. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.Thermoplastic Polymers 87 Approval has been granted by the Food and Drug Administration for repeated use in contact with food in food handling and processing equipment. ketones. 10% Ammonium chloride. TABLE 2. and other halogens. 50% Acetic acid. When used with strong alkalies.

10% Calcium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. sat. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Carbon dioxide.26 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide 8F 280 280 280 280 280 190 280 280 200 150 130 280 280 280 280 280 120 150 100 250 280 280 280 280 210 210 140 280 140 280 X 230 280 280 280 280 280 270 280 280 280 250 280 220 80 280 280 80 8C 138 138 138 138 138 88 138 138 93 66 54 138 138 138 138 138 49 66 38 121 138 138 138 138 99 99 60 138 60 138 X 110 138 138 138 138 138 132 138 138 138 121 138 104 27 138 138 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Bromine. dry Bromine gas. LLC . Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.88 TABLE 2.

15% Citric acid conc. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.26 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. Hydrobromic acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chlorides. 50% Hydrochloric acid. dil. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. dry Fluorine gas. wet. 10% Chromic acid. 50% in water Ferrous nitrate. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Chlorine. 20% Hydrochloric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 20% Hydrobromic acid. LLC . 70% 8F 280 280 280 280 210 200 210 210 210 220 250 110 220 250 110 250 250 250 250 280 280 280 210 270 270 250 210 80 120 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 80 80 260 280 280 280 280 280 260 200 8C 138 138 138 138 99 93 99 99 99 104 121 43 104 121 43 121 121 121 121 138 138 138 99 132 132 121 99 27 49 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 27 27 127 138 138 138 138 138 127 93 (continued) 89 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

general Lactic acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.26 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrofluoric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. LLC . conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Nitric acid. conc. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Ketones. 10% Sodium hydroxide. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid 8F 200 280 250 110 130 110 280 250 280 X X 110 280 200 180 120 150 210 X 210 120 200 220 80 280 220 250 280 280 230 220 150 280 280 280 280 280 250 220 220 210 140 X X 220 X X 130 8C 93 138 121 43 54 43 138 121 138 X X 43 138 93 82 49 6 99 X 99 49 93 104 27 138 104 121 138 138 110 104 66 138 138 138 138 138 121 104 104 99 60 X X 104 X X 54 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sodium sulfide. Oleum Perchloric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. anhydrous Nitric acid. conc. conc. 70% Sulfuric acid.90 TABLE 2. 25% Lactic acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 100% Sulfuric acid.

and high. Hylar by Ausimont USA. The three main classifications of density are low. Polyvinylidene fluoride finds many applications in the corrosion resistance field. 1–4. Solef by Solvay. column packing. Corrosion Resistance Tables. valving. and super Pro 230 and ISO by Asahi/America. These grades are sometimes referred to as Type I. 0.91–0.26 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 80 260 8C 27 127 91 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. being used as a lining material for vessels and piping. PVDF also withstands UV light in the “visible” range and gamma radiations up to 100 Mrad.. Physical and mechanical properties differ in density and molecular weight. 2004.940–0. Changes in the polymerizing conditions are responsible for the various types of PE.925. and III. They are a member of the olefin family. The basic chemical structure is: H H C C H H PE is produced by polymerizing ethylene gas obtained from petroleum hydrocarbons. molecular weight. Polyvinylidene fluoride is manufactured under the tradename of Kynar by Elf Atochem. and 0. 5th ed. Source: From P. These specific gravity ranges are 0. A blank space indicates that the date is unavailable. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. Vols. II. pumps. Incompatibility is shown by an X. and other processing equipment. Polyethylene is produced in various grades that differ in molecular structure.965.925–0.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. LLC . as solid piping.18 Polyethylene (PE) Polyethylenes are probably among the best-known thermoplasts. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and molecular distribution. 2. Reference [2] provides details of the usage of PVDF piping.940. crystallinity. medium.A.

the higher the density. Figure 2. and hardness increases as density increases. including sulfuric up to 70% concentrations. the ultrahigh molecular weight material has a molecular weight of at least 3.500. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polyethylene exhibits a wide range of corrosion resistance. and many organic acids.92 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers All polyethylenes are relatively soft. If the resin contains a wide variety of weights.1 Schematic illustration of molecular weight distribution. the distribution is called narrow.000 and higher Usually. inorganic salts including chlorides. The thermal stability of polyethylenes ranges from 1908F (888C) for the lowdensity material up to 2508F/1218C for the high-density material. It is not resistant to bromine. Every polyethylene resin consists of a mixture of large and small molecules.500. molecules of high and low molecular weight. the distribution is called broad. The two varieties of PE generally used for corrosive applications are EHMW and UHMW. medium. the better the dimensional stability and physical properties. If the resin contains molecules close to the average weight.1 depicts this in graph form. Industry practice breaks the molecular weight of polyethylene into four distinct classifications that are: Medium molecular weight less than 100.000 Extra high molecular weight 250.000 High molecular weight 110. The molecular weight distribution gives a general picture of the ratio of the large. alkalies.000 Ultra high molecular weight 1.000 to 1. Refer to Table 2. or chlorinated hydrocarbons. LLC .000 to 250.27 for Percent of earh molecular weight Narrow MW distribution Broad MW distribution Molecular weight FIGURE 2. particularly as a function of temperature. It is resistant to most mineral acids. aromatics. and small molecules in the resin. ranging from potable water to corrosive wastes.1 million. Generally.

80% Acetic acid.27 Compatibility of EHMWPE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium fluoride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminium sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 40% Acetamide Acetic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride 8F 90 140 140 80 X 120 8C 32 60 60 27 X 49 93 150 140 140 80 140 140 140 140 140 66 60 60 27 60 60 60 60 60 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 140 140 140 140 X 130 140 130 140 140 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 60 60 60 60 X 54 60 54 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. LLC . 50% Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride.

10% Chlorine. wet.94 TABLE 2. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. sat. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid 8F 140 140 140 X X 140 140 170 140 140 X X X X 90 140 X 130 140 80 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 8C 60 60 60 X X 60 60 77 60 60 X X X X 32 60 X 54 60 27 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X 60 60 X 60 X 60 X X 80 120 X X 80 X X X 27 49 X X 27 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Bromine. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Bromine gas.27 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. LLC . dry Carbon dioxide. 50% in water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.

general Lactic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. dry Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 5% Cupric chloride. 20% Hydrobromic acid.27 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. LLC . 10% Ketones. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid 8F 140 90 140 140 8C 60 32 60 60 95 140 140 140 80 80 130 170 80 73 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 X X 80 X 140 140 140 100 80 X X 80 140 60 60 60 27 27 54 77 27 23 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 X X 27 X 60 60 60 38 27 X X 27 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 15% Citric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. dil. 50% Hydrochloric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.

98% Sulfuric acid. Vols. 70% Sulfuric acid. Sodium Sulfide. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 5% Nitric acid.. 10% Perchloric acid. conc. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. conc. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.96 TABLE 2. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 140 140 X X 8C 60 60 X X 140 X 100 100 100 140 60 X 38 38 38 60 140 140 170 170 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 X X X X 140 X X 140 140 60 60 77 77 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 X X X X 60 X X 60 60 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 50% Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. Oleum Perchloric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.A. Schweitzer. Source: From P. 20% Nitric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 5th ed. 1–4. conc. 90% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. LLC .27 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid.

10% Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate to 40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride 8F X 140 140 140 80 X 80 X 150 140 140 110 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 150 80 140 140 140 140 140 X 130 140 44 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat.28 for HMW PE. Ammonium fluoride. sat. 50% Acetic acid. carbon black must be added to the formulation for protection against UV degradation. 10% Acetic acid.28 Compatibility of HMWPE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. TABLE 2. Polyethylene is subject to degradation by UV radiation. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers 97 the compatibility of EHMW PE with selected corrodents and Table 2. If exposed outdoors. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride. LLC 8C 60 60 60 27 27 66 60 60 43 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 66 27 60 60 60 60 60 . 80% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride.

28 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. moist Bromine. 10% Chromic acid. sat. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. wet Chlorine. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.98 TABLE 2. LLC . 50% 8F 130 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 X 140 140 X X X X 90 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 X X X X X X X X 140 90 60 32 (continued) 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 32 60 60 60 60 8C 44 60 60 60 60 60 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Carbon dioxide. dry Chlorine gas.

50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexonol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate 8F 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 80 80 80 80 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 150 80 80 150 140 140 80 X X 80 140 140 X X 120 140 X 100 100 100 140 140 140 38 38 38 60 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC 99 8C 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 27 27 27 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 66 27 27 66 60 60 27 27 60 60 49 60 . conc. 10% Perchloric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. dil. general Lactic acid. Hydrobromic acid.28 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Citric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. 70% Hydrochlorous acid Iodine solution. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Ketones. Perchloric acid. Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. dry Fluorine gas. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 15% Citric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. moist Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc.

and underground fire main water. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. and piping. Applications for polyethylene vary depending upon the grade of resin. With permission. 10% Sodium hydroxide. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Sulfuric acid. Reference [2] details usage of polyethylene piping. potable water systems. 98% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. fabricated parts. Source: From P. EHMW and UHMW polyethylenes find applications where corrosion resistance is required. 2. Sodium sulfide. 50% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 5th ed. corrosive wastes. PE pipe is used to transport natural gas.A. Vols. Among such applications are structural tanks and covers. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. The usage for piping is of major importance.19 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Polyethylene terephthalate is a semicrystalline engineering thermoplastic having the following structure: H O C H H C H O O C O C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Sulfuric acid. 2004.100 TABLE 2. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 1–4.28 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 140 150 150 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 X X X X 140 X X 80 140 27 60 60 8C 60 66 66 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Schweitzer. LLC . 100% Sulfuric acid. conc. 90% Sulfuric acid. drainage piping.

and esters with limited resistance to hot water and washing soda. LLC . It can be painted to match metal body panels and has been used as fenders. It is not resistant to alkaline and chlorinated hydrocarbons.29 for the compatibility of PET with selected corrodents. PET is also used in water purification. 2% Paraffin oil R R R X R R R R R X X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and pump and valve components. aliphatic hydrocarbons. 10% Acetone Ammonia. 5% Acetic acid. aromatic hydrocarbons. 30% Hydrogen peroxide. 38% Hydrochloric acid. Refer to Table 2.29 Compatibility of PET with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. PET has good resistance to UV degradation and weatherability. PET is used in the automotive industry for housings. food handling equipment. 0–5% Ink Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Motor oil Nitric acid. 10% Benzene Butyl acetate Cadmium chloride Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. 10% Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerine Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. racks.Thermoplastic Polymers 101 PET is resistant to dilute mineral acids. TABLE 2. and latch mechanisms. ketones. minor parts. 2% Hydrogen peroxide.

LLC . valves. molten Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R X R R R R R R R X R R X R R R R R R R R. X. and piston rings. compressors. Other applications include bearings. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate. High oxidative resistance is another important property. 10% Sodium chloride. resulting from their combination of high-temperature stability up to 500–6008F (260–3158C) continuous service and to 9908F (4828C) for intermediate use. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2% Toluene Vaseline Water. 10% Potassium hydroxide. The atom of hydrogen is in the inside ring as shown below: O C N C O n The fused rings provide chain stiffness essential to high-temperature strength retention. hot Wax. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sodium nitrate Sodium thiosulfate Sulfuric acid. 50% Potassium dichromate. Polyimides exhibit outstanding properties.20 Polyimide (PI) Polyimides are heterocyclic polymers having an atom of hydrogen in one of the rings in the molecular chain. cold Water.102 TABLE 2. material resistant at 738F/208C.29 Continued Phosphoric acid. The low concentration of hydrogen provides oxidative resistance by preventing thermal degradation fracture of the chain. 10% Potassium permanganate. Polyimides find applications that require high heat resistance and underthe-hood applications in the automotive industry. 98% Sulfuric acid. material not resistant. The polyimides have excellent chemical and radiation inertness and are not subject to UV degradation. 2.

5% Acetic acid. Plastics. 10% Acetone Ammonia.Thermoplastic Polymers 103 2. Refer to Table 2. 10% Copper sulfate Cyclohexane Cyclohexanone Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. and electrical devices. electronics. 30% R R X R X X X X R R X X R X R R R X R R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polyphenylene oxide has excellent resistance to aqueous environments. are amorphous modified polyphenylene oxide resins. or chlorinated hydrocarbons. PPO maintains excellent mechanical properties over a temperature range of from below K408F (K408C) to above 3008F (1498C). It is not resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. and dilute alkalies. esters. appliances. Reference [1] provides a more extensive listing. LLC . 10% Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. patented by G. PPO finds application in business equipment.E.21 Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO) Noryls.30 for the compatibility of PPO with selected corrodents. dilute mineral acids. The basic phenylene oxide structure is as follows: CH3 O CH3 n Several grades of the resin are produced to provide a choice of performance characteristics to meet a wide range of engineering application requirements. aromatic hydrocarbons. ketones.30 Compatibility of PPO with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. TABLE 2.

10% Sodium chloride. It has the following chemical structure: S n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 38% Hydrochloric acid. cold Water.30 Continued Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerin Hexane/heptane Hydrochloric acid. hot Wax. 30% Hydrogen peroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Potassium dichromate Potassium permanganate. X. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide.104 TABLE 2. material resistant at 738F/208C. 2% Paraffin oil Phosphoric acid. LLC . molten Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R R R R R R R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R R R R R R R R X R R X R R R R X R. material not resistant. 5% Styrene Sulfuric acid. 2% Trichloroethylene Urea. aqueous Water.22 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) Polyphenylene sulfide is an engineering polymer capable of use at elevated temperatures. 10% Potassium hydroxide. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium carbonate. 0–5% Hydrogen sulfide Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Milk Motor oil Nitric acid. 2. 2% Hydrogen peroxide.

25% Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. LLC . It is resistant to aqueous inorganic salts and bases and many inorganic solvents. The chemical process industry makes use of PPS in valve and pump components as well as other industrial applications. PPS molded components are used in electrical fuel handling and emission control systems. some halegenated gases. TABLE 2. 50% Acetic acid. It stress cracks in the presence of chlorinated solvents.31 Compatibility of PPS with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Weak and strong alkalies have no effect. Relatively few materials react with PPS at high temperatures. PPS has exceptional chemical resistance.Thermoplastic Polymers 105 PPS has a symmetrical. 10% Acetic acid. PPS has good resistance to UV light degradation that can be increased by formulating it with carbon black. 50% 8F 230 250 250 250 250 190 280 260 100 130 300 300 210 300 270 250 250 460 250 460 300 300 8C 110 121 121 121 121 88 138 127 38 54 149 149 99 149 132 121 121 238 121 238 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing.31 for the compatibility of PPS with selected corrodents. In the automotive industry. 80% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Refer to Table 2. 10% Ammonium chloride. and alkyl amines will attack PPS. rigid backbone chain consisting of recurring parasubstituted benzene rings and sulfur atoms. dry Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. It can also be used under highly oxidizing conditions. Long-term exposure in air at 4508F (2308C) has no effect on the mechanical properties of PPS. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acrylic acid. It is sold under the tradename of Ryton. Chlorinated solvents.

10% 8F 300 250 250 250 300 300 300 210 200 300 200 200 200 220 200 250 300 250 230 200 300 210 210 X X X 100 250 200 200 240 200 300 300 300 300 200 200 200 120 220 190 X X 200 150 X 200 8C 149 121 121 121 149 149 149 99 93 149 93 93 93 104 93 121 149 121 110 93 149 99 99 X X X 38 121 93 93 116 93 149 149 149 149 93 93 93 49 104 88 X X 93 66 X 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 65% Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium hydroxide.106 TABLE 2. liquid Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate. sat. LLC . Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.31 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. dry Bromine gas. wet Chlorine. sat. dry Chlorine gas. sat. 10% Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine.

conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Sodium sulfide. 88% Phosphoric acid. dil. Magnesium chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.31 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 20% Oleum Phenol. 5% Sodium hypochlorite. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50% Citric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Lactic acid. 5% Nitric acid. 15% Citric acid. 5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. conc. Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50–80% Potassium bromide. dry Hydrobromic acid. 10% 8F 200 250 250 300 220 210 250 200 300 190 250 210 300 210 210 210 210 210 X 200 200 200 230 210 250 200 250 250 300 200 250 210 150 100 80 300 220 200 300 300 210 210 200 250 230 210 250 8C 93 121 121 149 104 99 121 93 149 88 121 99 149 99 99 99 99 99 X 93 93 93 110 99 121 93 121 121 149 93 121 99 66 38 27 149 104 93 149 149 99 99 93 121 110 99 121 (continued) 107 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide.

a distinction is made between isotactic PP and atactic PP.. 10% Thionyl chloride Toluene Zinc chloride. fuming Sulfurous acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. The isotactic form accounts for 97% of the polypropylene produced. 90% Sulfuric acid. 2. Vols. Schweitzer. both of which are members of a group known as polyolefins. New York: Marcel Dekker. Incompatibility is shown by an X. The copolymer has a structure as follows: H C H H C H H C H C H H H C H n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Within the chemical structure of PP. LLC . Polypropylene can be produced either as a homopolymer or as a copolymer with polyethylene. 5th ed.23 Polypropylene (PP) Polypropylene is one of the most common and versatile thermoplastics. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 70% Sulfuric acid.108 TABLE 2. Source: From P. This form is highly ordered having the structure shown below: H C H H C H H H C Atactic PP is a viscous liquid type PP having a propylene matrix. It is closely related to polyethylene. 70% 8F 250 250 220 80 200 X 300 250 8C 121 121 104 27 93 X 149 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. The polyolefins are composed of only hydrogen and carbon. 2004. 50% Sulfuric acid.31 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid.A. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 1–4.

and physical properties. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. thermal. If exposed to sunlight. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride 8F 120 110 220 200 200 190 100 220 X X 90 100 140 140 220 100 200 220 200 200 200 220 150 200 8C 49 43 104 93 93 88 38 104 X X 32 38 60 60 104 38 93 104 93 93 93 104 66 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 80% Acetic acid. being long chain high molecular weight molecules with a minimum of random orientations. an ultraviolet absorber or screening agent should be in the formulation to protect it from degradation. For this reason. particularly where copper is involved will pose a problem.Thermoplastic Polymers 109 The homopolymers.32 Compatibility of PP with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. PP is not affected by most inorganic chemicals except the halogens and severe oxidizing conditions. homopolymer material is preferred for difficult chemical. PP should not be used with oxidizing acids. It can be used with sulfur-bearing compounds. aromatics. Copolymer PP is less brittle than the homopolymers and is able to withstand impact forces down to K208F (K298C). Refer to Table 2.32 for the compatibility of PP with select corrodents. caustics. the homopolymer is extremely brittle below 408F (48C). alcohols. low-boiling hydrocarbons. 50% Acetic acid. acids. and physical conditions. and other organic chemicals. have optimum chemical. solvents. detergents. and some organic materials. whereas. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. Thermal oxidative degradation. LLC . thermal. TABLE 2.

110 TABLE 2. 10% Ammonium chloride. dry Bromine gas. LLC . 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 8F 220 180 180 200 210 200 200 200 200 220 200 200 220 220 X 200 X 180 180 X 200 220 200 200 200 80 140 180 190 140 80 210 220 X X X X X 200 90 180 180 210 210 210 220 220 200 220 8C 104 82 82 93 99 93 93 93 93 104 93 93 104 104 X 93 X 82 82 X 93 104 93 93 93 27 60 82 88 60 27 99 104 X X X X X 93 32 82 82 99 99 99 104 104 93 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine.32 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 50% Ammonium chloride. sat.

Hydrobromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. dry Fluorine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexonol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% in water Ferrite nitrate. LLC 111 . 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. dry Carbon dioxide. dry Chlorine gas. 15% Citric acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.32 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dil. 20% 8F 210 210 220 220 140 X 220 140 X 220 X 220 200 80 180 X X X X X X 140 150 140 220 220 80 200 200 200 200 X 140 140 X 150 180 100 80 210 210 210 210 210 210 X X 230 200 8C 99 99 104 104 60 X 104 60 X 104 X 104 93 27 82 X X X X X X 60 66 60 104 104 27 93 93 93 93 X 60 60 X 66 82 38 27 99 99 99 99 99 99 X X 110 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. wet Chlorine. conc. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.

50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 10% Ketones. 20% Nitric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 90% Sulfuric acid. conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. conc.32 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrobromic acid. general Lactic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Oleum Perchloric acid. conc. 25% Lactic acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid.112 TABLE 2. 10% Sulfuric acid. 98% 8F 190 220 200 150 180 200 200 140 X 110 150 150 210 130 120 X X 80 200 140 140 X X X X 140 X 180 210 140 210 130 170 220 200 220 220 140 120 110 190 150 200 200 200 180 180 120 8C 88 104 93 66 82 93 93 60 X 43 66 66 99 54 49 X X 27 93 60 60 X X X X 60 X 82 99 60 99 54 77 104 93 104 104 60 49 43 88 66 93 93 93 82 82 49 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Sodium Sulfide. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.

24 Styrene–Acrylonitrile (SAN) SAN is a copolymer of styrene and acrylonitrile having the following chemical structure: H C H H C CH H C C H C CN q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. New York: Marcel Dekker. filter cloths. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Source: From P. Polypropylene also has many textile applications such as carpet face and backing yarn.A. Schweitzer. With this additive. In appliance areas. LLC . Because PP exhibits good flex life. Consumer goods such as straws. PP also finds application in the automotive industry for interior trim and under-the-hood components. Piping and small tanks of polypropylene are widely used. polypropylene can be used in duct systems in the chemical industry. and 90% of all battery casings are made of PP. 2004. 5th ed. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. it is useful in the construction of integral hinges. It is useful in outdoor clothing and sports clothes that are worn next to the body because its wicking qualities absorb body moisture and still leaves the wearer dry.32 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. and diaper cover stock. Polypropylene is widely used in engineering fabrics such as bale wraps. 100% Sulfuric acid. it is used in washer agitators and dishwasher components. upholstery fabrics. and strapping. ropes. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 180 100 X 150 220 200 8C X X 82 38 X 66 104 93 113 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Corrosion Resistance Tables. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.. 2. toys and recreational items also make use of polypropylene. bags. Vols. 1–4. Ignition resistant grades are available as a result of the addition of halogenated organic compounds.

housewares. and it will stress crack in the presence of certain organic compounds. 2.25 Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC) Polyvinylidene chloride is manufactured under the tradename Saran by Dow Chemical. polyvinylidene chloride is superior to polypropylene and finds many applications in the handling of municipal water supplies and waste waters.33 for the compatibility of PVDC with selected corrodents. film. LLC . bristles. and chemical resistance over that of PVC. interior refrigerator components. labware. and urine bottles. chlorides and certain other chemicals. Saran has found wide application in the plating industry and for handling deionized water. Saran is resistant to oxidants. food processing. It also finds application as a lined piping system. In applications such as plating solutions. SAN will be degraded by UV light unless protective additives are incorporated into the formulation. It will be attacked by oxidizing agents and strong acids. pharmaceuticals. Industrial applications include fan blades and filter housings. having both chlorine atoms at the same end of the monomer instead of at the opposite ends as shown below: Cl H C C Cl H Saron has improved strength. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. Saran is also resistant to weathering and UV degradation. Refer to Reference [2]. and toys.114 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers SAN is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The operating temperature range is from 0 to 1758F (K18 to 808C). It is a variant of PVC. Medical applications include tubing connectors and valves. appliances. hardness. dinnerware. Refer to Table 2. The packaging industry makes use of SAN for cosmetic containers and displays. mineral acids. and prepared coatings. and other applications where stream purity protection is critical. Saran is also used to manufacture auto seat covers. not to aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. SAN finds application as food and beverage containers. and solvents.

aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl chloride 8F 150 150 130 130 140 90 90 130 90 150 80 180 150 150 170 180 140 180 X 140 180 160 90 90 X X 120 90 150 120 80 120 150 80 X 150 120 180 180 180 180 150 X X 120 120 80 8C 66 66 54 54 60 32 32 54 32 66 27 82 66 66 77 82 60 82 X 60 82 71 32 32 X X 49 32 66 49 27 49 66 27 X 66 49 82 82 82 82 66 X X 49 49 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.33 Compatibility of PVDC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. sat. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Alum Aluminum chloride. sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium fluoride. LLC 115 . 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.

sat. 5% Cupric chloride. conc.116 TABLE 2. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. LLC . 10% Calcium hydroxide.33 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Boris acid Bromine. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry Chlorine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorine. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Chromic acid. 15% Citric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexonol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid 8F 170 X X 120 150 80 80 180 160 180 160 180 120 150 180 180 90 90 180 80 80 180 140 180 80 120 120 80 80 X 80 X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 130 180 150 160 170 120 90 180 120 8C 77 X X 49 66 27 27 82 71 82 71 82 49 66 82 82 32 32 82 27 27 82 60 82 27 49 49 27 27 X 27 X X 82 82 82 82 82 82 54 82 66 71 77 49 32 82 49 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Citric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.

moist Hydrobromic acid. dry Fluorine gas. 10% Perchloric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride 8F 80 180 140 140 130 130 80 X X 120 120 130 180 180 120 160 X 120 90 80 180 80 80 X 80 180 90 150 X X X 130 120 X 130 120 110 130 180 180 90 150 X 130 120 140 180 180 8C 27 82 60 60 54 54 27 X X 49 49 54 82 82 49 71 X 49 32 27 82 27 27 X 27 82 32 66 X X X 54 49 X 54 49 43 54 82 82 32 66 X 54 49 60 82 82 (continued) 117 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 0% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Hydrobromic acid. conc. LLC . 50% Sodium hydroxide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. general Lactic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. Sodium sulfide. 20% Nitric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.33 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. conc. dil. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. conc.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Sodium hypochlorite.

LLC . Polysulfone is unaffected by hydrolysis and has a very high resistance to mineral acids. Vols. dry heat. and salt solutions. alkali.26 Polysulfone (PSF) Polysulfone is an engineering polymer that can be used at elevated temperatures. and radiation. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and hydrocarbon oils even at elevated temperatures and under moderate stress levels. certain chemicals. PSF has an operating temperature range of from K150 to 3008F (K101 to 1498C).A. Source: From P. 2004. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 120 X X X X X X 80 X 80 80 170 8C 49 X X X X X X 27 X 27 27 77 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 1–4. It will stand exposure to soap. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.118 TABLE 2. 2. 70% Sulfuric acid. PSF is not resistant to polar organic solvents such as ketones. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 100% Sulfuric acid. ethylene oxide. chlorinated hydrocarbons.. New York: Marcel Dekker.33 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. It has the following chemical structure: CH3 O O CH3 O O S O The linkages connecting the benzene rings are hydrolytically stable. 10% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Schweitzer. detergent solutions. and aromatic hydrocarbons. 98% Sulfuric acid. PSF is resistant to repeated sterilization by several techniques including steam autoclave. Incompatibility is shown by an X.

50% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. moist Butyl acetate 8F X 200 200 200 200 X X 200 200 200 150 200 X 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 200 X X 200 200 200 200 X X X X 200 200 200 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. microwave. LLC 8C 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 66 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 . Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Ammonium chloride. switches. 10% Ammonium chloride. sat. lenses. TABLE 2. and electronic application. Refer to Table 2. Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers 119 Polysulfone has good weatherability. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. and it is not degraded by UV radiation.34 Compatibility of PSF with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Aluminum chloride.34 for the compatibility of PSF with selected corrodents. and circuit breakers. iron handles. Polysulfone finds application as hot-water piping. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid. Its rigidity and high temperature performance make it ideal for medical. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. to 40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride.

38% Hydrofluoric acid. Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Nitric acid. 30% Ketones. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. dil.120 TABLE 2. 50–80% 8F 200 X 200 200 200 200 200 X X X 200 X X X X X X 140 X 100 80 200 200 X 200 200 200 200 180 200 200 200 200 300 200 140 140 80 X 200 200 X X X X X X 80 27 (continued) 93 93 93 93 93 93 82 93 93 93 93 149 93 60 60 27 38 27 93 93 60 93 93 93 93 93 93 8C 93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Nitric acid.34 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon disulphide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine. 40% Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. Hydrobromic acid. 50% Citric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Nitric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. general Lactic acid. LLC . conc. 10% Chromic acid. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. anhydrous Phosphoric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 15% Citric acid.

90% Sulfuric acid.34 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Potassium bromide. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. normal impact (type 1) and high impact (type 2). 2004. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Corrosion Resistance Tables. and hydrocarbons. 2.27 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Polyvinyl chloride is the most widely used of any of the thermoplasts. to 50% Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. Vols. Incompatibility is shown by an X. New York: Marcel Dekker. The structure is: H H H H C C C C H H H H Two types of PVC are produced. fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene 8F 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 200 200 300 300 X X X X X 200 X 93 8C 93 93 93 93 93 149 149 93 93 149 149 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid.. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Type 1 PVC (unplasticized) resists attack by most acids and strong alkalies. PVC is polymerized vinyl chloride that is produced from ethylene and anhydrous hydrochloric acid.A. aliphatic alcohols. Schweitzer. kerosene. 98% Sulfuric acid. Type 2 has optimum impact resistance and reduced chemical resistance. 10% Sulfuric acid. LLC . unplasticized PVC having normal impact with optimum chemical resistance. It is q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Source: From P. conc. gasoline.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Type 1 is a rigid. 1–4. Sodium sulfite. 5th ed. 50% Sodium hypochlorate.

and lacquer solvents. 50% Acetic acid.36 for type 1 PVC. 80% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.35 for the compatibility of type 2 PVC with selected corrodents and Table 2. sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride. The chemical resistance of type 2 PVC to oxidizing and highly alkaline material is reduced. 50% Ammonium chloride. sat. Ammonium fluoride. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. PVC is resistant to all normal atmospheric pollutants including weather and UV degradation. LLC . Refer to Table 2.122 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers particularly useful in the handling of hydrochloric acid. PVC may be attacked by aromatics.35 Compatibility of Type 2 PVC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. chlorinated organic compounds. TABLE 2. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate 8F X X 100 90 X X X X X X X 140 90 X 140 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 90 140 140 140 140 90 90 140 140 140 140 8C X X 38 32 X X X X X X X 60 32 X 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 32 60 60 60 60 32 32 60 60 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.

35 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve 8F 140 140 140 X X X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 X 140 140 X X X 60 X X X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 X 8C 60 60 60 X X X X 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 X 60 60 X X X 16 X X X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X 60 60 X 60 X 60 X (continued) 123 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dry Bromine gas. moist Bromine. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Calcium bisulfide Carbon dioxide. LLC . sat.

conc. anhydrous 8F 105 140 X X X X 60 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 120 X 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 120 68 140 X 140 80 140 140 X X X 140 100 140 70 X 8C 40 60 X X X X 16 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 49 X 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 49 20 60 X 60 27 60 60 X X X 60 38 60 140 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. general Lactic acid. 70% Nitric acid. dil. 10% Chromic acid. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate.124 TABLE 2. dry Chlorine gas. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 5% Nitric acid.35 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Fluorine gas. LLC . 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Citric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 20% Nitric acid. 15% Citric acid. wet Chlorine. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 25% Lactic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 98% Sulfuric acid. 2004.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. electrical conduit. gas. The automotive industry makes use of PVC for exterior applications as body-side moldings. Oleum Perchloric acid. Sodium sulfide. 5th ed. Schweitzer. Incompatibility is shown by an X.. 50% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. and corrosive chemical piping. vent. Reference [2] provides details of PVC piping. 100% Sulfuric acid fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 60 X 60 60 X 140 X 140 X 105 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X X X 140 X X X 140 140 8C 16 X 16 16 X 60 X 60 X 40 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X X X 60 X X X 60 60 125 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. drain. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.A. 10% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. conc. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. conc. Sodium hypochlorite. LLC . 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. and wire insulation. 90% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Vols. 10% Perchloric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Sulfuric acid. It is also used as a liner. Its ability to be pigmented and its excellent weathering ability to retain color makes it ideal for this application.35 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 1–4. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. The primary application for PVC include water.

aqueous Aluminum chloride. 1% Ammonium fluoride. LLC . 80% Acetic acid glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F X X 140 140 140 130 X X X X X 140 90 X 140 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 90 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 120 X 140 X X 140 X 140 60 (continued) 60 60 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 32 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 49 60 32 60 60 60 54 8C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride.126 TABLE 2. 50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid.36 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Type 1 PVC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.

Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. wet Chlorine. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 10% 8F 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 X X 140 140 X X X 140 X X X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 120 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 X X 140 140 X X X X X 140 60 (continued) 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 49 60 60 60 60 60 8C 60 60 60 60 127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC . sat. moist Bromine.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.36 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine gas.

50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 15% Citric acid. 8F X 120 140 140 80 140 140 140 140 120 140 150 80 X 80 100 X 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 130 X 140 100 X 140 80 140 140 90 X X X 160 140 140 140 X 80 27 (continued) 71 60 60 60 60 27 60 60 32 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 54 60 60 60 60 27 38 49 60 60 27 60 60 60 60 49 60 66 27 8C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Nitric acid.128 TABLE 2. Hydrobromic acid. conc. general Lactic acid.36 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. dry Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrobromic acid. LLC . 10–50% Fluorine gas. 50% water Ferric nitrate. conc. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10% Ketones. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid dil. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride Cupric chloride. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. conc. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. anhydrous Nitrous acid.

8%. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Incompatibility is shown by an X. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X 140 X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X X 140 X X 90 140 140 32 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 8C 129 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Sulfuric acid. the chlorination is approximately 56.36 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Oleum Perchloric acid. LLC . 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Further chlorination of q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Sulfuric acid.. Schweitzer.28 Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) When acetylene and hydrochloric acid are reacted to produce polyvinyl chloride. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Source: From P. Sodium hydroxide. 70% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. 1–4. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide. Vols. 2004. conc.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.A. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 10% Perchloric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 2. 100% Sulfuric acid.

PVC is inert to most mineral acids. CVPC is not recommended for use with most polar organic materials including various solvents. esters. bases. 50% Acetic acid. CPVC has a maximum operating temperature of 1908F (828C). TABLE 2. It is ideally suited for handling hot water and/or steam condensate. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. There are many similarities in the chemical resistance of CPVC and PVC.130 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers PVC to approximately 67% produces CPVC whose chemical structure is: H H Cl H C C C C H Cl H Cl While PVC is limited to a maximum operating temperature of 1408F (608C). Overall.37 for the compatibility of CPVC with selected corrodents. care must be exercised because there are differences. In general. aqueous Aluminum chloride. and paraffinic hydrocarbons. chlorinated or aromatic hydrocarbons. 96% Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. and ketones. salts. LLC . However. There are special formulations of CPVC that permit operating temperatures of 2008F (938C). Refer to Table 2. 80% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride 8F X 90 X X X X X X X X 200 200 X 200 100 200 180 200 200 200 200 8C X 32 X X X X X X X X 93 90 X 93 38 93 82 93 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.37 Compatibility of CPVC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. the corrosion resistance of CPVC is somewhat inferior to that of PVC. 10% Acetic acid.

37 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. sat. LLC . liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate 8F 200 200 140 200 180 180 200 200 200 X X 200 200 200 200 200 160 X 130 X X 200 80 200 180 180 180 180 X X 180 200 X X 200 210 X X X 150 X 140 X 140 180 210 210 180 8C 93 93 60 93 82 82 93 93 93 X X 93 93 93 93 93 71 X 54 X X 93 27 93 82 82 82 82 X X 82 93 X X 93 99 X X X 66 X 60 X 60 82 99 99 82 (continued) 131 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Bromine. sat. dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Ammonium chloride. dry Bromine gas. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

5% Cupric chloride. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.132 TABLE 2. 10% Calcium hydroxide. wet Chlorine. dry 8F 180 170 210 200 180 180 180 180 X 210 160 X 210 X 180 180 100 X 140 X X X X X 210 210 180 180 180 80 180 210 180 210 X 180 180 X X 100 X 210 210 180 180 210 180 X 8C 82 77 99 93 82 82 82 82 X 99 71 X 99 X 82 82 38 X 60 X X X X X 99 99 82 82 82 27 82 99 82 99 X 82 82 X X 38 X 99 99 82 82 99 82 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.37 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. LLC . liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. sat. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 15% Citric acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 20% Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. conc. dry Carbon dioxide. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. dry Chlorine gas.

Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. conc. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. conc. Oleum Perchloric acid. 70% 8F 80 130 180 190 180 170 80 X 90 X 180 X 180 100 230 180 180 X X X 170 180 160 180 X 80 X 180 180 140 180 X 180 X 170 210 210 190 180 190 190 180 180 180 180 180 180 200 8C 27 54 82 88 82 77 27 X 32 X 82 X 82 38 110 82 82 X X X 77 82 71 82 X 27 X 82 82 60 82 X 82 X 77 99 99 88 82 88 88 82 82 82 82 82 82 93 (continued) 133 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Perchloric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. dil. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Sodium sulfide. Hydrobromic acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Sodium hypochlorite.37 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Fluorine gas. 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sulfuric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. general Lactic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 20% Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.

It is not resistant to nitric acid above 10% concentration. and common solvents. Incompatibility is shown by an X. New York: Marcel Dekker. fume ducts. 2004. LLC .. Vols. tanks. 20% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X X 180 X X 140 180 180 8C X X X X 82 X X 60 82 82 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 2. oxidizing agents.134 TABLE 2. 5th ed. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. and miscellaneous fabricated items. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. CPE is resistant to most acids and bases. 2. It has the advantage of being able to resist acids at elevated temperatures. it is somewhat similar to the other olefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene in terms of appearance. general chemical characteristics. Source: From P. 100% Sulfuric acid. With permission. The primary applications of PVC include hot water and/or steam condensate piping. valves. internal column packing. Reference [2] provides detailed information on CPVC piping. 1–4. 98% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. and in process equipment. tank linings. and electrical properties.29 Chlorinated Polyether (CPE) Chlorinated polyether is sold under the tradename of Penton. It has a maximum operating temperature of 2258F (1078C). corrosive chemical piping at elevated temperatures.A. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 2.38 for the compatibility of CPE with selected corrodents. Schweitzer. In general.30 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) PAN is a member of the olefin family.37 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. CPE finds application as bearing retainers.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers 135 PAN has the following structural formula: H H C C H C N PAN has corrosion resistance properties similar to those of polypropylene and polyethylene.38 Compatibility of CPE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride 8F 130 250 250 250 250 150 90 X 250 250 90 250 250 250 250 220 250 220 220 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 180 250 250 250 180 220 220 150 220 121 121 32 121 121 121 121 104 121 104 104 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 82 121 121 121 82 104 104 66 104 8C 54 121 121 121 121 66 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas. LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. Ammonium fluoride. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. sat. 10% Acetic acid. TABLE 2.

10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine Bromine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfate Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.136 TABLE 2. 15% Citric acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 50% Citric acid. wet Chlorine.38 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzenesulfonic acid. LLC . liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Chromic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 25% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol 8F 80 250 250 250 250 220 80 220 250 80 140 250 140 X 250 130 220 230 250 250 150 250 250 180 250 250 250 X 250 250 X 250 200 250 220 220 100 80 X 150 80 X 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 60 66 27 121 93 121 104 104 38 27 121 121 121 54 104 110 121 121 66 121 121 82 121 121 121 8C 27 121 121 121 121 104 27 104 121 27 60 121 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

5% Nitric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenol Phosgene gas. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. dry Phosphoric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 70% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Sodium hypochlorite. conc.38 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. Sodium sulfide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 90% Sulfuric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid. general Lactic acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 25% Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid 8F 220 220 X 220 250 250 250 250 250 300 104 121 121 121 121 121 149 8C 104 60 137 150 X 250 250 250 230 90 80 180 80 80 X 140 X 66 121 121 121 110 32 27 82 27 27 60 250 150 250 250 250 180 180 180 200 230 250 250 230 230 230 130 X X 200 121 66 121 121 121 82 82 82 93 110 121 121 110 110 110 54 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

2004.. 5th ed. good energy-absorbing characteristics.A. Water affects PUR in two ways. optimum abrasion resistance. good hysteresis characteristics. LLC . garden hose. vending machine tubing. bags. and good fuel and oil resistance. but they have limited life in high humidity and high temperature applications. Vols.31 Polyurethane (PUR) Polyurethanes are produced from either polyethers or polyesters. the original properties are restored. chemical apparatus. The polyester-based urethanes are generally stiffer and will have higher compression and tensile moduli. lower compression set. and good all-around chemical resistance. New York: Marcel Dekker. Because polyurethane is a polar material. Polyacrylonitrile is used to produce molded appliance parts. Incompatibility is shown by an X. and trim.39 provides the compatibility of PUR with selected corrodents.138 TABLE 2. typewriter cases. Polyurethanes exhibit excellent resistance to oxygen aging. 1–4. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. Those produced from polyether are more resistant to hydrolysis and have higher resilience. automotive parts. Table 2. When the absorbed water is removed. They are also used q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Figure 2. Moisture plasticization results in a slight reduction in hardness and tensile strength. and greases. but it will be readily attacked and even dissolved by polar organic fluids such as dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide. temporary plasticization and permanent degradation. higher operating temperature. 2. Schweitzer. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Polyurethanes are used where the properties of good abrasion resistance and low coefficient of friction are required. Source: From P.38 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Thionyl chloride Toluene White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X 200 200 250 93 93 121 8C The chemical listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.2 for the structural formula. Hydrolytic degradation causes permanent reduction in physical and electrical properties. luggage shells. higher tear strength and cut resistance. fuels. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Corrosion Resistance Tables. it is resistant to nonpolar organic fluids such as oils.

80% Acetic acid.39 Compatibility of PUR with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamine Acetic acid. Ammonium hydroxide.2 Chemical structure of PUR. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium persulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium chloride Barium hydroxide X X X X X X X X X R R R R R R X X X X X R R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers 139 H O C NH O C H O H H H H NH C O C C C C H H H H n H H H H R= C C C C H H H H or H H R= C C H C H H or H H H H O H H H H H H H H O R= C C O C C C C C C O R m n = 30 to 120 m = 8 to 50 FIGURE 2. TABLE 2. 50% Acetic acid. LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.

wet Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 5% Nitric acid. 10–50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cyclohexane Cresol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Carbon bisulfide Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Carbon dioxide. 50% Ferric nitrate. 20% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 10% Calcium hydroxide.140 TABLE 2.39 Continued Chemical Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine. 10% Chromic acid. 20% Nitric acid. 38% Magnesium chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 70% Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R X X X X X X R R X X X R R R R X R R R R X R X X X X X X X X R R R R X R R R R R X R X X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas.

50% Sodium hypochlorite. 98% Sulfuric acid. aromatic hydrocarbons. Refer to Table 2. ski-goggle frames. incompatibility is shown by an X.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 30% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. pulleys. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. to dilute mineral acids. It is not resistant to chlorinated hydrocarbons and alkalies. 2. bushings. LLC . golf balls. Sulfuric acid. These thermoplastic polyesters are highly crystalline with a melting point of approximately 4308F (2218C). PBT has good weatherability and is resistant to UV degradation. for high-impact car panels and other parts. tubing. ketones. gears. in general. aliphatic hydrocarbons. It has a structural formula as follows: H C H H C H H C H H H C O O C O C PBT exhibits good chemical resistance.40 for the compatibility of PBT with selected corrodents. shoe components. 70% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. and esters with limited resistance to hot water and washing soda. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.39 Continued Chemical Nitric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. Polyurethanes are also used for toys.32 Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) PBT is also known as a thermoplastic polyester. 100% Toluene X X X X X R R R X X X X X X X X 141 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. The medical field makes use of PUR for diagnostic devices. conc. Compatibility at 908F/328C is shown by an R. 70% Phenol Potassium bromide. and ski boots. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. and catheters.

142 TABLE 2. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2% Paraffin oil Phosphoric acid. 5% Acetic acid. 10% Potassium hydroxide. 10% Potassium permanganate.40 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PBT with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetic acid. 30% Hydrogen peroxide. 50% Potassium dichromate. 0–5% Ink Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Motor oil Nitric acid. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium bisulfate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. 2% Hydrogen peroxide. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 50% R R R X R R R R R X X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R R X R R R R R R R X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Benzene Butyl acetate Calcium chloride Calcium disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. 10% Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerine Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. 10% Acetone Ammonia. LLC .

33 Acetals Acetals are a group of high-performance engineering polymers that resemble the polyamide somewhat in appearance but not in properties. The acetals will be degraded by UV light and gamma rays. electronics. Homopolymer materials are usually implied when no identification of acetal type is made. but the copolymers are resistant to strong bases.41 for the compatibility of acetals with selected corrodents. Neither the homopolymer nor the copolymer is resistant to strong mineral acids. pulleys. material resistant at 738F/208C.40 Continued Chemical Sodium nitrate Sodium thiosulfate Sulfuric acid. molten Xylene R R X R R R R R R R 143 R. 98% Sulfuric acid. hot Wax. and writing instruments. material not resistant. radio. LLC . The general repeating chemical structure is: H C O H n There are two basic types of acetals. are resistant to the common solvents. electrical. bearings.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. electronic. Refer to Table 2. and general industrial areas. cold Water. DuPont produces the homopolymers whereas Celanese produces the copolymers. and pump components. in general. They also exhibit poor resistance to oxidizing agents but. Reinforced resins find application in the automotive. 2. The unreinforced resins are used in housings that require excellent impact in moving parts such as gears. Flame retardant formulations find application as television. X. 2% Toluene Vaseline Water. business machines.

10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Acetone Acid mine water Ammonia. wet Ammonium hydroxide.41 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Acetals with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. LLC 8C 23 23 23 38 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 . moist Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene. dry Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid Copper nitrate Cupric chloride Cyclohexanne Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanne Detergents Dichloroethane Diethyl ether Dimethyl formamide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dioxane Ethanolamine Ethers Ethyl acetate.144 TABLE 2. 10% Ethyl chloride. 5% Acetic acid. conc. 20% Calcium hypochlorite. dry Chlorine. 5% Calcium hydroxide. wet 8F 70 70 X 70 100 X X 70 X 70 70 X X X 70 70 X X X X 70 X 70 70 X X 70 X 70 X X X X X 70 70 70 70 70 70 140 70 140 70 70 200 70 23 23 23 23 23 23 60 23 60 23 23 93 23 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Aniline Aqua regia Benzene Benzyl chloride n-Butylamine Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium chlorate. 2% Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Calcium disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloric acid Chlorine.

50% Sodium carbonate. 3% Heptane Hexane Hydrochloric acid. 10% Sodium chloride. moist Kerosene Lactic acid Linseed oil Magnesium chloride.41 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ethyl ether Ethylene chloride Ethylenediamine Fatty acid Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferric sulfate Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate. 10% Formic acid. 20% Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate. LLC . 1–20% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Phosphoric acid Pyridine Silver nitrate Sodium bicarbonate. 10% Magnesium hydroxide. 4% Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen sulfide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Magnesium sulfate Mercury Methyl acetate Methyl alcohol Methylene chloride Milk Tetrahydrofuran Thionyl chloride Turpentine Mineral oil Motor oil Monoethanolamine Nitric acid. 1% Nitric acid Oxalic acid Paraffin Perchloroethylene Perchloric acid. 10% 8F 70 70 70 95 X X X X X X 70 70 X X X X 140 X 70 70 70 70 70 70 X 70 70 70 70 X 140 70 150 X X X X 70 70 X X 70 70 70 180 70 70 180 23 23 23 82 23 23 82 (continued) 23 23 60 23 71 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 60 23 23 8C 23 23 23 35 145 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Magnesium sulfate.

1996. New York: Marcel Dekker. New York: Marcel Dekker. P. 1994. 2001.146 TABLE 2.A. 1–4. 50% Sodium thiosulfate Sulfuric acid. structural components in the suspension system. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Trichloroethylene Wax 8F 70 70 70 X 70 70 X X X X 200 93 23 23 8C 23 23 23 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Incompatibility is shown by an X.A. P. LLC . 2004. New York: Marcel Dekker..41 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium chloride Sodium cyanide. Vols. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 5th ed. References 1. Corrosion Resistant Linings and Coatings. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Schweitzer. 10% Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid. P. Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems. 3. Applications also include appliance housings and plumbing fixtures. 2. New York: Marcel Dekker.A. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Schweitzer. Schweitzer. P.A. Schweitzer. 4. and bushings. 10% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium nitrate. Acetals are used in the automotive industry for fuel-system components and moving parts such as gears. Corrosion Engineering Handbook.

2 gives the operating temperature range of the thermoset polymers. In addition. making them the most widely used.1 Corrosion of Thermosets Unreinforced. and glass fiber fillers are often used for optimum strength or dimensional stability. Although fewer in number than the thermoplastic polymers. The latter is the more prominent of the two methods. they are more brittle. it is called a “condensation reaction.1 lists the principal thermoset polymers. harder. Compared to the thermoplasts. glass fibers. Phenolics represent about 43% of the thermoset market. Once set. and good electrical properties. mineral or cellulose fibers are often used as low-cost general purpose fillers. For molded products. It is a stepwise or condensation method that has been defined as “the reaction of two monomers to produce a third plus a by-product. Table 3. Most contain wood or glass-flour fillers and. creep resistance. thermosets comprise approximately 14% of the total polymer market. and generally more temperature resistant.3 Thermoset Polymers Thermoset polymers assume a permanent shape or set once cured. LLC . chemical resistance.” Because in some cases a by-product is not produced. this definition is no longer exactly correct. on occasion. 147 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. they offer the advantages of better dimensional stability. stronger. usually formed by compression or transfer molding. When the reaction results in a by-product. The reaction is now referred to as a “stepwise” polymerization. they cannot be reshaped. unfilled thermoset polymers can corrode by several mechanisms. They are formed by a large amount of cross-linking of linear prepolymers (a small amount of cross-linking will produce elastomers) or by direct formation of networks by the reaction of two monomers. Their disadvantages lie in the fact that most are more difficult to process and more expensive. They are relatively inexpensive and are readily molded with good stiffness. 3. usually water or alcohol. The type of corrosion can be divided into two main categories: physical and chemical.” Table 3.

When a polymer absorbs a liquid or gas. the original properties are restored. physical corrosion is reversible: after the liquid is removed. The diffusion of a liquid into the polymer is a typical example.1 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Principal Thermoset Polymers Alkyds Amino resins Diallyl phthalates (allyls) Epoxies Furans Melamines Phenol formaldehyde Phenolics Polybutadienes Polyurethanes Silicones Unsaturated polyesters Ureas Vinyl esters Physical corrosion is the interaction of a thermoset polymer with its environment so that its properties are altered but no chemical reactions take place.2 Operating Temperature Range of Themoset Polymers Allowable Temperature (8F/8C) Polymer Epoxy Polyesters: Bisphenol A fumarate Halogenated Hydrogenated bisphenol-A– bisphenol-A Isophthalic Terephthalic Vinyl ester Furan Phenolic Silicone Minimum K423/K252 Maximum 300/150 250–300/120–150 250–300/120–150 250–300/120–150 150/70 250–300/120–150 200–280/98–140 300–400/150–200 230/110 500/260 K423/K252 Temperatures might have to be modified depending on the corrodent. LLC . In many cases. For a cross-linked thermoset. physical corrosion has taken place. swelling caused by solvent absorption will be at a maximum when the solvent and polymer solubility parameters are exactly matched. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. that results in plasticization or swelling of the thermoset network.148 TABLE 3. TABLE 3.

chemical attack on thermoset polymers is a “go/no go” situation. The ester linkage is the most susceptible. including built-in properties of ester groups. Some environments may weaken primary and/or secondary polymer linkages with resulting depolymerization. with the water degrading bonds in the backbone of the resin molecules. Experience has indicated that if an installation has been soundly engineered and has operated successfully for 12 months. or swollen. whereas others may hydrolyze ester groupings or linkages. The attack of aqueous solutions on reinforced polymers occurs through hydrolysis. Attack or absorption at the interface between the reinforcing material and the resin will result in weakening. softened. Pyrolysis or charring of the resin quickly occurs so that within a few hours. However. The attack of solvents is of a different nature. In certain environments. Other environments may cause swelling or microcracking. There may be more than one form of chemical corrosion taking place at the same time. As result of chemical corrosion. With an improper environment. In general. LLC . delaminated. charred. The solvent penetrates the resin matrix of the polymer through spaces between the polymer chains causing the laminate surface to q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Tests show that polyesters and vinyl esters can handle up to 70% sulfuric acid for long periods of time. attack on the reinforced polymer will occur in a relatively short time. The degree and nature of the bond between the resin and the reinforcement also plays an important role. Construction of the laminate and the type of reinforcing used also affect the corrosion resistance of the laminate. Improper curing will result in a loss of corrosion resistance properties. depending upon the environment and other service conditions and the mechanisms or combination of mechanisms that are at work. crazed. The various modes of attack affect the strength of the laminate in different ways. the laminate is destroyed. This is the result of the unique molecular structure of the resins. certain chemically resistant types suffer negligible attack or exhibit significantly lower rates of attack under a wide range of severely corrosive conditions. Thermoset polymers are not capable of handling concentrated sulfuric acid (93%) and concentrated nitric acid. the polymer itself may be affected in one or more ways. Other results may be chain scission and decreases in molecular weight or simple solvent action. blistered. in all probability. it will continue to operate successfully for a substantial period of time. Chemical corrosion is usually not reversible.Thermoset Polymers 149 Chemical corrosion takes place when the bonds in the thermoset are broken by means of a chemical reaction with the polymers’ environment. the polymer may be embrittled. discolored. repolymerization can occur with a resultant change in structure. All thermosets will be attacked in essentially the same manner. For example. Cure of the resin plays an important part in the chemical resistance of the thermoset.

are attacked by mildly polar solvents. b. long-chain organic molecules. Anything over 2% is cause for concern. The ability of the resin to pack into a tight structure. The polymer’s ability to resist attack is improved by 1. the more brittle resins possess poor solvent resistance whereas the more resilient resins can withstand a greater degree of solvent absorption. such as carbon disulfide. In the first stages of solvent attack. This is why polyester gasoline tanks are so successful. 3. the better the solvent resistance. Generally. Bisphenol resin laminate in contact with toluene experiences a 19% weight gain in one month. the laminate swells considerably. The heat distortion temperature of the resin. typical of a material undergoing total failure. decrease in hardness by a substantial amount. Softening. the following occur: 1. The higher the heat distortion temperature.150 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers swell. and hardness drops from 43 to 0. 2. The cross-link density of the resin. are powerful swelling solvents and show greater swelling action than their saturated counterparts. such as polyesters and the vinyl esters. 3. weight gain has stabilized. then the resin may do fairly well in limited service. producing mechanical stresses that cause fractures in the laminate. The latter is not true of all resin systems. are handled well by polyesters. pronounced weight gain. As the solvent attack continues: a. There are many degrees of attack: 1. If there is less than a 2% weight gain and considerable retention in hardness over a 12 month period. 3. which is strongly related to its solvent resistance. and crack. the laminate will do very well. 2. In general. 2. Swelling. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Organic compounds with carbon–carbon unsaturated double bonds. saturated. and swelling has stabilized at the 12 month level. such as the straight chain hydrocarbons. Weight. a swelling of 19%. LLC . Slightly polar resins. Softening: hardness drops to zero. plus little or no swelling. The degree of similarity between solvent and resin is important. Smaller solvent molecules can penetrate a polymer matrix more effectively. If hardness is retained at a high level. Swelling: the absorption of the molecule continues. This may occur in the liquid or vapor zone. soften.

3 Ultraviolet Light Stability Thermoset resins will be degraded by ultraviolet light. an initial fiber fracture occurs that is specifically a tensile type of failure. This is particularly true of composites exposed to the combination of acid and stress.Thermoset Polymers 151 Orthophthalic. the acid is allowed to attack the next available fiber. 3. The glass filament will fray. it is necessary that UV protection be provided. carbon disulfide. The vinyl esters show improved solvent resistance. and chlorinated or brominated polyesters exhibit poor resistance to such solvents as acetone. LLC .4 Reinforcing Materials Many different reinforcing fibers are used in laminates and reinforced polymers. This can be prevented by adding an ultraviolet inhibitor to the resin. Heat-cured epoxies exhibit better solvent resistance. thermoset polymers resist weathering. trichloroethane. Polymers installed outdoors will suffer severe degradation in a year or two from ultraviolet exposure. Another approach is to apply a 3-mil-thick coat of black epoxy paint that will also effectively screen out the ultraviolet rays. the surfaces must be abraded and solvent cleaned. 3. the properties q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. they can be adhesive bonded using epoxies. If the resin matrix surrounding the failed fiber fractures. However. The process continues until total failure occurs. 3. bisphenol. Weakening of the glass fibers upon exposure to acid is believed to be caused by ion exchange between the acid and glass. Refer to Table 3.3 for the atmospheric resistance of fiberglass reinforced thermoset polymers. the phenomenon will stop far short of having any particular effect on the strength of the material. isophthalic. being resistant to normal atmospheric pollutants. They excel in this area.2 Joining of Thermosets Thermoset polymers cannot be solvent cemented or fusion welded. In view of this. the furan resins offer the best all-around solvent resistance. thermosetting acrylics. toluene. Prior to bonding. The failure rate of glassreinforced composites can be significant. With the exception of UV light stability. which subsequently fractures. Furan resins are capable of handling solvents in combination with acids and bases. and urethanes. However. trichloroethylene. Under stress. Stress corrosion is another factor to be considered. and methyl ethyl ketone. Which fiber is selected depends upon the cost. After the initial fraying.

RS. Water absorption rate 24 h at 738F/238C (%). D glass has very good electrical properties. and is used in electronic applications.06 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R.1. required. Fiberglass is the most often uses reinforcement material. and woven roving come from this source. Table 3.3 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Atmospheric Resistance of Fiberglass-Reinforced Thermoset Polymers Polymer Epoxy Polyesters Bisphenol A– fumarate Halogenated Hydrogenated bisphenol-A– bisphenol-A Isophthalic Terephthalic Vinyl ester Furan Phenolic Silicone a b c UVa Degradation R RS RS RS Moistureb Absorption 0. not resistant.65 0. It possesses excellent water resistance. 3. C glass has poor q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.2 C Glass This is a calcium aluminosilicate glass widely used for surfacing mats. The most common is E glass. and low elongation. SO3 will cause severe attack.152 TABLE 3.20 Weathering R R R R Ozone R R R R SO2 R R R Rc NO2 R R R R H2S R R R RS RS R R R 0. 3. strength. and the nature or the resin system. or flake glass linings.03 0. This glass resists moisture and results in products with excellent electrical properties. There are six formulations that are produced. and it is reasonable in cost.02–0.20 0. S glass is used for its high strength and stiffness while R glass is a lower cost fiber than S glass.20 0. 3. LLC .1 E Glass As discussed previously. Practically all glass mat. resistant.4 lists the common reinforcements and the properties they impart to the reinforced polymer. and for acid resistant cloths.1 Glass Fibers Glass fibers are formed continuously from a melt in a special fiber-forming furnace.4. C glass is designed to be used where optimum chemical resistance is required.20 0.4.20 0.1. glass flakes. resistant only if stabilized with UV protector. particularly the dielectric constant.20 2. E glass is an electrical grade borosilicate glass. continuous filaments.4. X.

LLC .Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.4 Properties Imparted to Polymer by Reinforcing Materials Reinforcing Fiber Glass strands Glass fabric Glass mat Asbestos Paper Cotton/linen Nylon Short inorganic fibers Organic fibers Ribbons Polyethylene Metals Aramid Boron Carbon/ graphite Ceramic Mechanical Strength X X Electrical Properties X X X X X Impact Resistance X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Corrosion Resistance X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Machining and Punching Heat Resistance X X X X Moisture Resistance X X X Abrasion Resistance Low Cost X X X X Stiffness X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 153 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

9 80. but it is several times as expensive as E glass.9 90.9 23. 3.0–99. These filaments are formed into strands with 204. 3.5 97.9 100.0–14.4.0–54.9 25.0–24. C veil has been used as a surfacing mat for many years when the standard specification for corrosion resistant equipment was 10-mil C veil.5 47. 1000.0 27.0–69.9 20.0–64.0–39.0–39.5 87.5 52.5 82. Filaments in the range of diameters G–T are normally used to reinforce polymers.5.5 102.9 75.5 22.5 42.3 17.) 10. Until the development of synthetic veils.0–74.5 77.9 Nominal Diameter (!105 in.0 37. S glass is widely used in the aerospace industry. The use of 20-mil C veil and brittle resins such as the bisphenols should be avoided as they are subject to impact and handling damage. It is comparable in strength to aramid fiber.5 92. 400.0–29. 2000.9 65.0–84.0–27.1.5 67.9 15.) 12.4 Glass Filaments Glass filaments are available in a variety of diameters as shown in Table 3.5 32.9 30.9 70. Because of its cost. and 30 mils.0–44.0 40. 15.0–34.154 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers water resistance and carries a premium cost.5 Glass Fiber Diameters Filament B C D DE E F G G H J K L M N P Q R S T U V W Diameter Range (!105 in.9 60.0–89.9 105. 20.5 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.0–19.9 35. It has excellent resistance to acids and water. LLC . it is not used in the corrosion industry.9 95. The filaments are bonded into a TABLE 3. It is available in thicknesses of 10. 10-mill C glass was nearly universally used.9 45. and 4000 filaments to a strand.0–104.5 72.1.9 35.9 85.5 25. 3000.0–59.5 36.0–109.9 50. 800.5 57.5 107.0–49.9 55.5 62.0–79.4.3 S Glass Because of its exceptional strength.0–94.

4.Thermoset Polymers 155 strand using a sizing agent applied to the filament.2 in widths up to 10 ft.1. The number of yarns can be varied in both warp and welt to control the weight. Glass fabrics. The physical properties of woven roving are intermediate between mats and fabrics.75 to 3 oz.1. appearance. 3. These constructions are used in low-pressure laminations and poltrusions.7 Glass Fabrics Reinforced polymers make use of many different glass fabrics./ft.4. The sizing agent also gives them environmental and abrasive protection. It may also be used in conjunction with C glass surfacing mats. glass mats. 3. and polymers./ft. and strength of fabric. Continuous mats vary in weight from 0.4. E glass is used in most and filament laminates of D.25 to 2 in. but the material is less homogenous. Continuous strand mats exhibit better physical properties than cut strand mats.2 and are available in widths up to 6 ft.75 to 4. Continuous strand mats are produced by continuously depositing the uncut strands in a swirling pattern onto a moving belt where a binder is applied. Various thicknesses are available in widths up to 10 ft. and K are common.4. 3. Woven roving is a mat fabric made by weaving multiple strands collected into a roving and into a coarse fabric.5 Chopped Strands Strands of glass. LLC . (usually E glass) are mechanically cut into lengths from 0. 3.1. such as silanes. The longer lengths are used with thermoset resins whereas the short fibers are used with thermoplastic polymers. H.5 oz. and chopped strands are the most common reinforcements used to reinforce polymers. and are used to reinforce molding compounds. Strands of glass filaments are plied into yarns and woven into fabrics on looms. Mat weights vary from 0.2 Polyester Polyester is primarily used for surfacing mat for the resin-rich inner surface of filament wound or custom contact-molded structures. These strands are then used to manufacture the various types of glass reinforcements. are added to the finished products to improve adhesion of the resin matrix to the glass fibers. The machine direction of the loom is called the warp whereas the cross section is the welt (also called “woof” or “fill”). Coupling agents. thickness. chrome complexes. G.6 Glass Mats Glass strands are cut and dipped into a moving conveyer belt where a polymer binder is applied to hold the mat together. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Kevlar is available in surfacing mats and cloth form./yd. bleaching agents. and golf shafts. tennis racquets.2. This light weight is also advantageous in the fabrication of laminated canoes and kayaks. 1. The fiber is used in the same manner as glass fibers to reinforce polymers.5. It is sold under the tradename Kevlar./yd. Carbon fibers are also available in continuous roving and as chopped fibers in sizes 1/8–2 in. typically 0. Other blends are also available such as 25% carbon filler—75% glass fiber. have been largely replaced by very high strength graphite fibers. crazing. Aramid reinforcement is also available as paper and sold under tradenames of Nomex by DuPont and TP Technora from Teijin America. Aramid composites. 3. The carbon fiber mat. and aqueous solutions of most weak acids at boiling.3 Carbon Fiber Carbon fiber is available in mat form. The Nexus surfacing veil possesses a relatively high degree of elongation that makes it very compatible with the higher elongation resins and reduces the risk of checking. Aramid paper is used in circuit boards to improve crack resistance and to q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group./yd. it essentially revolutionized pressure vessel technology. provides in-depth grounding systems and static control in hazardous areas where static sparks may result in fires or explosions. The fabrics range in size from 2-mil (1 oz. Aramid fibers are woven into fabrics for reinforcing polymers. it is not resistant to strong acids such as 93% sulfuric./yd. Because of its great tensile strength and consistency coupled with low density. The Nexus surfacing veil exhibits excellent resistance to alcohols. It is also available in a 0.2 mat as a blend with 33% glass fiber. Surfacing mats can be had in weights of 0. and 50% aluminized glass—50% carbon fiber.4 Aramid Fibers Aramid is a generic name for aromatic polyamide (nylon). hydrocarbons. Nexus (registered trademark of Burlington Industries) surfacing veils are also used on exterior surfaces of poltruded products.2) to thick 30-mil (6 oz. water. LLC .4. 0.4 and 1 oz. Other aramid fiber sport applications include downhill skis. Being a polyester derivative. manufactured by DuPont. and cracking in temperature-cycling operations. though still widely used for pressure vessels. either alone or supplemented with a ground carbon or graphite filler.2) cloths./yd. 3. Aramid fiber finds varied applications in aircraft and aerospace components because of its low density.2.156 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers The tendency of C glass to bridge and form voids is reduced or eliminated by overwinding a C glass surfacing mat with a polyester mat under tension.4.5 oz.2. and 2 oz.

up to 5 million. Because the density of Spectra is the lowest of all of the fibers. 10% Clorox 6 Months 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 91 2 Years 100 100 100 100 96 100 100 100 100 100 100 73 6 Months 100 100 100 93 72 82 40 42 70 75 91 0 Aramid 2 Years 98 87 97 X X X X X X X X 0 X. 29% Perchlorethylene Detergent solution. TABLE 3.6 Corrosion Resistance of Spectra and Aramid Fibers % Retention of Fiber Tensile Strength Spectra Chemical Seawater Hydraulic fluid Kerosene Gasoline Toluene Acetic acid. When saturated with phenolics. but it is sensitive to moisture and cannot withstand high temperatures. and difficult drilling and machining characteristics.Thermoset Polymers 157 impart a smooth surface. countertops. The polyethylene is an ultrahigh molecular weight polymer.000. samples not tested due to physical deterioration. 3.6 compares the corrosion resistance of Spectra and Aramid fibers. high-modulus polyethylene fiber under the tradename Spectra.5 Polyethylene Fibers Allied Signal.6 Paper Kraft paper is widely used as a reinforcement. It imparts good electrical properties. Two Spectra fibers are produced.4.4. it is made into a common printed wiring board. The 1000 grade has higher strength and modulus. drill. LLC . the 900 and 1000 grades. Table 3. 3. glacial Hydrochloric acid 1 M Sodium hydroxide 5 M Ammonium hydroxide. and wall panels. Paper reinforcement is inexpensive and easy to machine. and punch. poor resin adhesion. produces a high-strength. Spectra laminates must not be exposed to temperatures above 2508F (1218C). Inc. When combined with melamine. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. it becomes a decorative high-pressure laminate used in furniture. The paper is limited by such drawbacks as a high coefficient of thermal expansion. compared to conventional polyethylene that has a molecular weight of about 200. it finds many applications in aerospace laminates such as wing tips and heliocopter seats.

They have good impact strength and abrasion resistance.1 Condensation reaction.4. such as an organic peroxide. O HOn R OH + nHO C R O C OH R O O C R C O FIGURE 3. Of all the reinforced thermoset polymers used for corrosion resistance. The cross-linking reaction is a free-radical copolymerization between the resin oligomer and the unsaturated monomer. The oligomer or prepolymer is then dissolved in an unsaturated monomer such as styrene. 3. a free radical source.5 Polyesters Polyesters were first prepared in 1929 by William H. These laminates are used for gears and pulleys.1. Carothers.158 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. and they machine well. LLC O + nH2O n . is added to the liquid resin. It was not until the late 1930s that Ellis discovered that polyesters’ cross-linking increased around 30 times in the presence of unsaturated monomers. Laminates with these fabrics have better water resistance than paper-based laminates. when impregnated with phenolic resin. are used in several grades of laminates. unsaturated polyesters are the most widely used. Rubber Company that adding glass fibers to polyesters greatly improved their physical properties. and the molecular weight of the oligomer will determine the properties of the cured polyester. At least one of these components contributes sites of unsaturation to the oligomer chain. Widespread use of polyesters had been hampered because of their inherent brittleness. the manufacturing procedure. The first fiberglassreinforced boat hulls were made in 1946. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Unsaturated polyesters are produced via a condensation reaction between a dibasic organic acid or anhydride and a difunctional alcohol as shown in Figure 3.7 Cotton and Linen Fabrics of cotton or linen. The manufacturing techniques he developed are still in use today. Maleic anhydride or fumaric acid provides the source of unsaturation for almost all of the polyester resins currently produced with maleic anhydride being the most common. and fiberglass is still a major application for unsaturated polyesters. Large-scale commercialization of unsaturated polyesters resulted from the 1942 discovery by the U. To initiate cross-linking. The first successful commercial use of glass-reinforced polyesters was the production of radomes for military aircraft during World War II. The types and ratio of components used to manufacture the oligomers.S.

2. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.2 Components of unsaturated polyesters.Thermoset Polymers 159 Propylene glycol is the most common diol used because it yields polymers with the best overall properties.4 Trimethyl-1. Glycols OH HO CH2 CH CH3 OH CH2 CH2 O CH2 OH CH2 Propylene glycols CH3 CH3 CH3 C HO CH2 C CH3 C H OH HO Diethylene glycol CH3 C CH3 Bisphenol-A CH3 OH 2. Figure 3. LLC O C OH O C OH Isophthalic acid OH C O O O Maleic anhydride Cl H Cl OH Cl C Cl O Cl O C O O Chlorendic anhydride .2 lists the more common components used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyesters.3 pentanediol HO CH2 C CH3 CH2 OH Neopentyl glycol Acids O C O C O Phthalic anhydride OH O C Terephthalic acid O OH C C H C C O Fumaric acid FIGURE 3.

1 General Purpose Polyesters These resins have the following formula: O O C C C O C O CH3 C C O O C O C General purpose polyesters are based on phthalic anhydride as the saturated monomer and are the lowest-cost class of resin. 10% Citric acid Oleic acid Benzoic acid Boric acid Magnesium sulfate Nickel chloride Nickel nitrate Nickel sulfate Potassium chloride Potassium sulfate Sodium chloride. These general purpose resins are not normally recommended for use in corrosive service. Tests have indicated that general purpose resins will provide satisfactory service with the following materials up to 1258F (528C): Acids Fatty acids Lactic acid. LLC . The specific polyester resin will determine operating temperatures and corrosion resistance. They are adequate for use with nonoxidizing mineral acids and corrodents that are relatively mild. 10% Kerosene Naphtha Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride Ammonium sulfate. 1% Salts Copper sulfate Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferric sulfate Ferrous chloride Magnesium chloride Solvents Glycerine Acetic acid. 10% Calcium chloride (sat.5.160 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers The primary unsaturated polyesters are: General purpose (orthophthalic) Isophthalic Bisphenol A fumarate Hydrogenated bisphenol A Halogenated polyester Terephthalate (PET) The strength of a laminate is primarily determined by the type and amount of reinforcing used. 3.) Calcium sulfate Amyl alcohol q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

It exhibits excellent resistance to all types of water. tote boxes. 25% phosphoric. boats.7 for the compatibility of isophthalic polyester with selected corrodents. these resins find application in building panels. Most organic salts are also compatible with isophthalic polyesters. 10–25% sulfuric. This resin predominates in boat building. carbon disulfide. and fatty acids. or higher concentrations of oxidizing acids. oleic. In general. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. kerosine. amyl acetate. Solvents such as carbon disulfide. The standard corrosion grade isophthalic polyesters are made with 1:1 molar ratio of isophthalic acid to maleic anhydride or fumaric acid with propylene glycol. Solvents such as amyl alcohols. They can be formulated to be fire retardant or to protect against the effects of ultraviolet light. gasoline. Bleach solutions such as 5% sodium hypochlorite.Thermoset Polymers 161 General purpose resins are not satisfactory in contact with the following: Oxidizing acids. and naphtha are also compatible.5. including seawater. 3. They are satisfactory for use up to 1258F (528C) in acids such as 10% acetic. ethylene glycol. television satellite dishes. citric.2 Isophthalic Polyesters Isophthalic polyesters have the following formula: CH3 O CH2 CH2 O O C O C O CH2 CH3 CH2 O O C CH CH C O n These polyester resins use isophthalic acid in place of phthalic anhydride as the saturated monomer. tartaric. This increases the cost to produce. Isophthalic polyesters have a relatively wide range of corrosion resistance. car and truck bodies. salts of potassium and sodium. LLC . sodium hydroxide. fishing poles. but it improves physical properties and corrosion resistance. boric. and any application where exposure is confined to ambient conditions. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. building materials. The isophthalic polyester resins are not resistant to acetone. radomes. For the most part. and gasoline. solutions of alkaline. sodium carbonate. Refer to Table 3. hot distilled water. carbon tetrachloride. formaldehyde. Alkaline solutions such as calcium hydroxide. benzoic. the properties of isophthalic polyesters are superior to the lower-cost general purpose polyesters. benzene. not only in chemical resistance but also in physical properties.

162 TABLE 3. 50% Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. LLC . 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 10% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene 8F X 180 110 X X X X X X X 220 X X 250 180 170 140 160 160 180 90 X 160 160 180 90 90 X X 160 160 160 180 X X X 160 X X 160 X 190 140 X 160 90 X X 8C X 82 43 X X X X X X X 104 X X 121 82 77 60 71 71 82 32 X 71 71 32 32 32 X X 71 71 71 82 X X X 71 X X 71 X 88 60 X 71 32 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.7 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Isophthalic Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. sat. dry Aluminum fluoride. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium fluoride.

50% water Chloroacetic acid to 25% Chlorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. 25% Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine gas.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. dry Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 15% Citric acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. conc. LLC 163 .7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzenesulfonic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. wet Chlorine. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide 8F 180 180 X X 140 180 X X X X 80 X 129 160 150 160 160 180 160 160 120 140 160 160 160 X 160 160 X 160 X 160 X X 150 160 160 X X X X X X 140 160 200 160 180 160 8C 82 82 X X 60 82 X X X X 27 X 49 71 66 71 71 82 71 71 49 60 71 71 71 X 71 71 X 71 X 71 X X 66 71 71 X X X X X X 60 71 93 71 82 71 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. moist Bromine. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid. Calcium hypochlorite.

5% Cupric chloride. 10% Perchloric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. general Lactic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 20% Nitric acid. conc.164 TABLE 3. 20% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. dil. conc. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. Oleum Perchloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid.7 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. dry Fluorine gas. 10% 8F 200 X 170 170 80 X X 120 180 160 180 180 160 X X 120 140 140 160 160 90 X X X 90 X 160 160 180 90 X X 160 120 X X X 120 X X X X 180 X 160 100 90 200 X 8C 93 X 77 77 27 X X 49 82 71 82 82 71 X X 49 60 60 71 71 32 X X X 32 X 71 71 82 32 X X 71 49 X X X 49 X X X X 82 X 71 38 32 93 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 20% Hydrobromic acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.

Incompatibility is shown by an X. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 3. 50% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X X X 180 180 160 150 X X X X X X X 110 170 X 180 8C X X X X X 82 82 71 66 X X X X X X X 43 77 X 82 165 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. and decking can be fabricated. The range of successful commercial applications include support structures. LLC . and dimensional stability. light weight. 98% Sulfuric acid. Currently. there are more than 100 standard structural shapes available from which platforms. structures.7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. Isopolyesters used in above-ground tanks and tank linings for chemical storage provide similar protection. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. including corrosion resistance. 100% Sulfuric acid. These materials offer several advantages. and spa applications. grating. 50% Sodium hydroxide. nonconductivity. these resins withstand acids and corrosive salts encountered in foods and food handling. Recent excavations of 25-year-old FRP underground gasoline storage tanks offer evidence to the resin’s resistance to internal chemical attack or external attack by water in the surrounding soil. and guard rails. ladders. 10% Sulfuric acid.5. conc.1 Typical Applications Isophthalic polyesters provide corrosion resistance in a wide variety of end uses. tub. Other applications include their use in cooling towers and use as rail cars to transport automobiles. Isopolyester pipes and containment vaults also provide protection against failure from corrosion by acid media. 90% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 70% Sulfuric acid. The water resistance properties of the isophthlates also provide advantages in appearance and performance in cast countertops as well as pool. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. platforms. supports.2. Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. high strength. Reference [2] provides information on FRP piping systems. In food-contact applications.

wet Sulfur dioxide. The aromatic structure provided by the bisphenol-A provides several benefits.5. The number of interior chain ester groups is reduced so the resistance to hydrolysis and saponification is increased. LLC . The bisphenol polyesters will break down in highly concentrated acids or alkalies. dry Stearic Sulfonic. The bisphenol polyesters are superior in their corrosion resistant properties to the isophthalic polyesters. 25% to 1608F (718C) Calcium hypochlorite. The structural formula is shown in Figure 3. 15% Chromic. wet Linseed oil Sulfur trioxide Rayon waste gases 1508F (668C) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 80% Salt Solution to 2008F (938C) Most plating solutions Copper salts Alkalies Chlorine dioxide. 10% Lactic Maleic Oleic Oxalic Phosphoric. Standard bisphenol-A fumarate resins are derived from the propylene glycol or oxide diether of bisphenol-A and fumaric acid. These resins can be used in the handling of the following materials: Acids to 2008F (938C) Fatty acids Hydrochloric. They exhibit good performance with moderate alkaline solutions of bleaching agents. Thermal stability is improved.3 Bisphenol A Fumarate Polyesters This is a premium corrosion-resistant grade resin. It costs approximately twice as much as a general purpose resin and approximately one-third more than an isophthalic resin. Bisphenol A fumarate polyesters have the best hydrolysis resistance of any commercial unsaturated polyester.3. and the heat distortion point of the resin is mainly raised from the more rigid nature of the aromatic structure. dry Sulfur dioxide. 25% to 1608F (718C) Acetic Benzoic Boric Butyric Chloroacetic. 5% Citric All aluminum salts Most ammonium salts Calcium salts Ammonium hydroxide. 30% Tannic Tartaric Trichloroacetic. 15% to 2008F (938C) Potassium hydroxide.166 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. 50% Rayon spin bath Iron salts Zinc salts Sodium chlorite to 2008F (938C) Sodium hydrosulfate to 2008F (938C) Solvents Alcohols at ambient temperatures Glycerine Gases to 2008F (938C) Chlorine. 5% to 1608F (718C) Calcium hydroxide. 20% to 2008F (938C) Isophthalics are resistant to most all solvents plus Sour crude oil Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Chlorine.

and 30% chromic acid will also attack the resin.8 for the compatibility of bisphenolA fumarate polyester resin with selected corrodents. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. Solvents such as benzene.Thermoset Polymers 167 CH3 O CH CH2 CH3 O C CH3 O CH2 CH O CH3 O C CH CH C O n FIGURE 3. and trichloroethane will attack the resin.9 lists the compatibility of hydrogenated bisphenol-A fumarate polyesters with selected corrodents. ether. trichloroethylene. 50% 8F X 220 160 160 X 110 X X 100 X 220 X X 220 200 90 160 200 200 200 90 200 220 8C X 104 171 171 X 43 X X 38 X 104 X X 104 93 32 71 93 93 93 32 93 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sulfuric acid above 70%. xylene. 10% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. carbon disulfide. LLC . aqueous Aluminum fluoride. Table 3. Refer to Table 3. sodium hydroxide. methyl ethyl ketone. TABLE 3. 10% Acetic acid. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. 10% Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid.3 Chemical structure of bisphenol A fumarate resins. 50% Acetic acid. toluene.8 Compatibility of Bisphenol A–Fumarate Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid.

168 TABLE 3. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Ammonium fluoride. LLC . liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. sat. 10% Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide 8F 220 180 120 100 140 220 180 80 220 110 80 80 200 X X 220 X 200 220 150 220 140 X X 200 180 X X 220 220 90 100 X 80 80 X 220 180 210 200 220 180 160 80 220 220 160 X 8C 104 82 49 38 60 104 82 27 104 43 27 27 93 X X 104 X 93 104 66 104 60 X X 93 82 X X 104 104 32 38 X 27 27 X 104 82 99 93 104 82 71 27 104 104 71 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.8 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. dry Bromine gas. moist Bromine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 20% Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium fluoride.

dry Carbon dioxide. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. LLC . wet Chlorine. 50% Hydrochloric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. conc. 50% water Chloroacetic acid to 25% Chlorine gas. 10% Lactic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 30% Hypochlorous acid. 25% Lactic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrobromic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 20% Iodine solution. 15% Citric acid. dry Chlorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Chromic acid.8 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon dioxide. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. Magnesium chloride 8F 350 210 X 350 110 90 140 140 80 200 200 X X X X X X 150 220 220 180 220 220 220 X X 100 X 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 160 190 X 200 90 90 200 210 220 220 8C 177 99 X 177 43 32 60 60 27 93 93 X X X X X X 66 104 104 82 104 104 104 X X 38 X 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 71 88 X 93 32 32 93 99 104 104 (continued) 169 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dil. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.

New York: Marcel Dekker. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid. conc. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Vols. 20% Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 2004. 90% Sulfuric acid. anhydrous Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 160 X X 130 160 100 X X X X 220 110 200 150 160 220 130 220 200 X 210 200 220 220 220 160 X X X X 110 X X 180 180 250 8C 71 X X 54 71 38 X X X X 104 43 93 66 71 104 54 104 93 X 99 93 104 104 104 71 X X X X 43 X X 82 82 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed.170 TABLE 3.A. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 1–4. 10% Sulfuric acid.8 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Malic acid Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Schweitzer. 20% Nitric acid. Source: From P. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 5% Nitric acid. LLC . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Sodium hypochlorite.. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide.

dry Chlorine gas. 50% water Chlorine gas. liquid Butyl acetate n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite. 50% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride. 50% Citric acid. LLC 171 .Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. wet Chloroform Chromic acid. sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Boric acid Bromine. 8F 200 160 X X X X 200 X 200 200 200 200 100 X 200 90 X 80 X 180 200 X X 210 X X 210 X X X X 120 210 210 180 X X X 90 210 210 X X 200 210 8C 93 71 X X X X 93 X 93 93 93 93 38 X 93 32 X 27 X 82 93 X X 99 X X 99 X X X X 49 99 99 82 X X X 32 99 99 X X 93 99 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.9 Compatibility of Hydrogenated Bisphenol A–Bisphenol A Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. conc. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Carbon bisulfide Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chloroacetic acid. 15% Citric acid.

fuming Sulfurous acid 25 % Toluene 8F 210 210 210 210 X 210 X 210 200 200 210 210 90 90 180 190 X X X X 210 210 210 210 X X 190 90 X X X X 210 100 210 100 X X 160 210 210 90 X X X X 210 90 8C 99 99 99 99 X 99 X 99 93 93 99 99 32 32 82 88 X X X X 99 99 99 99 X X 88 32 X X X X 99 38 99 38 X X 71 99 99 32 X X X X 99 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Perchloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Lactic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50–80% Sodium carbonate. conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 5% Oleum Perchloric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid.9 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ferric chloride Ferric chloride.172 TABLE 3. 100% Hypochlorous acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid 70 % Sulfuric acid. LLC .

some of which may reach a temperature of 4008F (2048C). aliphatic. 5th ed. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. ketones.. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% nitric acid at room temperature. Table 3.5. These resins have the highest heat resistance of any chemically resistant polyester. and corrosion resistance properties. and the laminates. 40% chromic acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 1–4. and acid halides. glycols. 2004. Table 3. phenols.4 Halogenated Polyesters Halogenated resins consist of chlorinated or brominated polymers. Schweitzer. These are also known as chlorendic polyesters. wet chlorine.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. amides. making this the safest possible polyester for stacks. Vols. They also resist neutral and acid salts. LLC . mercaptans. mechanical. A noncombustible rating of 20 can be achieved.10 is a general application guide. primary and aromatic amines. or wherever a fire hazard might exist. The chlorinated polyester resins cured at room temperature and reinforced with fiberglass possess unique physical. New York: Marcel Dekker. Excellent resistance is exhibited in contact with oxidizing acids and solutions such as 35% nitric acid at elevated temperatures. Incompatibility is shown by an X. They are also inherently fire retardant. These resins have a very high heat distortion point. alkaline solutions with pH greater than 10. Corrosion Resistance Tables. chlorine water. aldehydes. alcohols. and 15% hypochlorites. 3. These polymers are not resistant to highly alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide. organic acids. Source: From P. fans. 3. and other alkaline organics.9 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 90 200 8C 32 93 173 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. This fire retardancy is achieved by the addition of antimony trioxide.5. and fats and oils.1 Typical Applications Bisphenol A resins find applications similar to the isophthalic resins but in areas requiring greater resistance to corrosion. nonoxidizing acids. ducts. These laminates are routinely used as chimney liners at temperatures of 240–2808F (116–1388C).11 provides the compatibility of halogenated polyesters with selected corrodents. organic esters.3. show very high retention of physical strength at elevated temperature upsets as in flue gas desulfurization scrubbers.A. concentrated sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. hoods.

demineralized.11 Compatibility of Halogenated Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. aliphatic. 10% Aluminum chloride. acid Salts. organic Fats and oils Glycols Ketones Mercaptans Phenol Salts. 10% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate 8F X 140 90 110 100 X X X X 220 X X 200 120 90 170 160 250 8C X 60 32 43 38 X X X X 104 X X 93 49 32 77 71 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. steam and condensate Comments Not recommended Resistant to 2508F/1218C Resistant to 2508F/1218C. LLC .10 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers General Application Guide for Chlorinated Polyester Laminates Environment Acid halides Acids.174 TABLE 3. other alkaline organics Esters. organic Alcohols Aldehydes Alkaline solutions pH O10 Amines. neutral Water. aqueous Aluminum fluoride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum. Lowest absorption of any polyester TABLE 3. glacial acetic acid to 1208F/498C Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 1808F/828C Not recommended for continuous exposure Can cause severe attack Can cause severe attack Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 2008F/958C Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 1808F/828C Not recommended Resistant to 2508F/1218C Resistant to 2508F/1218C Resistant to 2128F/1008C. deionized. mineral nonoxidizing Acids. 10% Acetic acid. distilled. 50% Acetic acid. primary aromatic Amides.

50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. moist Bromine. 50% Aqua regia 3:1 Barium Carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Calcium Hypochlorite. Ammonium fluoride. 20% Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium chloride. 20% 8F 150 140 200 200 200 140 140 90 90 200 140 150 200 120 100 190 200 X 120 200 X 250 250 X 180 X X 90 120 250 X X 190 180 100 100 X 80 100 X 200 X 150 210 250 250 X 80 8C 66 60 93 93 93 60 60 32 32 93 60 66 93 49 38 85 93 X 49 93 X 121 121 X 82 X X 32 49 121 X X 88 82 38 38 X 27 38 X 93 X 66 99 121 121 X 27 (continued) 175 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium fluoride. dry Bromine gas. LLC . liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.11 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride. sat.

15% Citric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Chromic acid. dil. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.176 TABLE 3. conc. 10% 8F 220 150 250 140 X 250 250 X 170 120 160 80 100 90 200 220 X X X X 180 140 210 250 250 210 250 250 250 X 140 100 100 X 250 250 250 250 250 160 200 160 200 230 180 150 120 100 8C 104 66 121 60 X 121 121 X 77 49 71 27 38 32 93 104 X X X X 82 60 99 121 121 99 121 121 121 X 60 38 38 X 121 121 121 121 121 71 93 71 93 110 82 66 49 38 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride.11 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 25% Chlorine gas. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 30% Hydrochlorous acid. wet Chlorine. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC . 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid.

Sodium hypochlorite. Schweitzer. 90% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. Magnesium Chloride Malic acid. conc. Oleum Perchloric acid. 70% Nitrous acid. 20% Nitric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. conc. 98% Sulfuric acid.. 10% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenol. 5th ed. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 10% Perchloric acid.11 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Lactic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 10% Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 2004. 5% Phosphoric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Sulfuric acid. conc. Vols. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. 1–4. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 25% Lactic acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Corrosion Resistance Tables. LLC . Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous Chloride Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid. 50% White liquor Zinc chloridex 8F 200 200 250 90 80 X 80 190 210 80 80 90 X 90 90 90 250 100 230 130 190 250 110 X X X X X 80 250 260 200 190 X X X X 80 X 110 200 X 200 8C 93 93 121 32 27 X 27 88 99 27 27 32 X 32 32 32 121 38 110 54 88 121 43 X X X X X 27 121 127 93 88 X X X X 27 X 43 93 X 93 177 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.A. conc. Source: From P. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.

but as the unsaturation increases. and chemical piping among other applications.5. chemical storage tanks. with the terephthalics having higher heat distortion temperatures and being somewhat softer at equal saturation levels. They are also used for hightemperature applications such as chimney liners.5. 10% Acetic acid. The trend was seen only at unsaturated acid levels of greater than 50 mol%. The PET’s corrosion resistance is fairly similar to the isophthalics. The PET’s loss of properties in gasoline is greater than the isophthalics at the same level of unsaturation. solvent resistance increases.4. TABLE 3.5 Terephthalate Polyesters (PET) Terephthalate polyesters are based on terephthalic acid. This was achieved with a reversal performance in 10% sodium hydroxide where the PETwith lower unsaturation was better than the isophthalic level. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. fans. sat. This follows the general trend for thermosets that as crosslink density increases. This trend is also followed where retention offlexural modulus is elevated for various terephthalic resins versus the standard grade isophthalic resin. The properties of cured terephthalic-based polyesters are similar to those of isophthalic polyesters. 8F 300 300 X X X 80 170 300 170 8C 149 149 X X X 26 77 149 77 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 3. 3.12 Compatibility of Polyester Terephthalate (PET) with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. LLC . and other areas where potential fire hazards may be present.12 for the compatibility of terephthalate polyester with selected corrodents. Testing has indicated that the benzene resistance of comparably formulated resins is lower for PET versus isophthalic polyesters.178 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. the gasoline resistance reverses with the PET performing better.1 Typical Applications Halogenated polyesters are widely used in the pulp and paper industry in bleach atmospheres where they outperform stainless steel and high-nickel alloys. 50% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Aluminum chloride aqueous Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride. Applications are also found for ductwork. the para isomer of phthalic acid.

100% Lactic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. Copper chloride Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dichloroethane Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 50% Hydrochloric acid.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Boric acid Bromine liquid Butyl acetate Butyric acid Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Carbon tetrachloride Chloroacetic acid. LLC . dry Chlorine gas. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Citric acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 20% Hydrobromic acid. conc. 50% Chlorine gas. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 15% Citric acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl ethyl ketone 8F 140 180 80 250 X 250 80 250 250 X X 250 80 250 200 80 250 250 250 250 250 X 80 80 250 250 250 150 170 170 X 80 X 250 170 250 250 250 250 90 80 X X X 250 250 250 250 8C 70 82 26 121 X 121 26 121 121 X X 121 27 121 93 27 121 121 121 121 121 X 27 27 121 121 121 66 77 77 X 27 X 121 77 121 121 121 121 32 27 X X X 121 121 121 121 (continued) 179 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. 10% Hydrochloric acid. wet Chloroform Chromic acid.

Source: From P. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable.5. Corrosion Resistance Tables.1 Typical Applications The terephthalates are used in applications similar to those of the isophthalates but where corrosive conditions and temperatures are more moderate.12 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.180 TABLE 3. encapsulants. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Vols.6 Epoxy Polyesters Epoxy-based thermosets are the most widely used and versatile thermosets. Incompatibility is shown by an X.A. and they are still widely used. conc. 100% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide. New York: Marcel Dekker. Their versatility is due to the wide latitude in properties that can be achieved by formulation. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid.. including adhesives. 5th ed. tooling compounds. 50% Sulfuric acid. They find usage in many applications. and molding compounds. 10% Perchloric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. Schweitzer. 5% Perchloric acid. coatings. They dominated the reinforcing piping field until the introduction of the vinyl esters. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. composites. fuming Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F X 90 150 X X X 250 250 250 150 X X 80 160 140 X X X X X 250 250 250 8C X 32 66 X X X 121 121 121 66 X X 27 71 60 X X X X X 121 121 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 1–4. 3. 20% Sulfuric acid.5. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 3. 90% Sulfuric acid. 2004. 50–80% Sodium carbonate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. modifiers.5 shows the general structure. The simplest 1. The most widely used thermoset epoxy is the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). They are produced by reacting a novolac resin.6. The chemical structure is shown in Figure 3.4 illustrates the structures of the most common epoxy resins in use today. Two or more epoxide groups per molecule are required to form a cross-linked network. for solid resins. Figure 3. LLC . 3.4. For liquid resins.Thermoset Polymers 181 A large variety of epoxy resins. and parts where superior thermal properties and high resistance to solvents and chemicals are required. These materials are used as transfer molding powders. It is available in both liquid and solid forms. usually formed by the reaction of o-cresol or phenol and formaldehyde with epichlorohydrin. Solids with very high meeting points have n values as high as 20. n is 2 or greater.1 Resin Types The epoxide or oxirane functionality is a three membered carbon-oxygencarbon ring. and curing agents are available that permit the epoxy formulator to tailor the epoxy system to meet the needs of each application. electrical laminates. By controlling operating conditions and varying the ratio of epichlorohydrin to bisphenol A. The novolacs are another class of epoxy resins.2-epoxide is ethylene oxide: O CH2 CH2 A common term used in naming epoxy resins is the term “glycidyl. the n in the structured formula is generally less than 1.” The terminology for the glycidyl group: O CH2 CHCH2 comes from the trivially named glycidyl O CH2 CHCH2OH and glycidic acid: O CH2 CHCOOH Figure 3. products of different molecular weight can be produced.

3.4 Common commercial epoxy resins. aldehyde condensation products. Useful agents are amines. Cross-linking takes place at the epoxy and hydroxyl groups that are the reaction sites.4epoxycyclohexane carboxylate O CH CH2 O Vinyl cyclohexane diepoxide O CH3 (CH2)2 CH2 O CH2 CH CH2 Butyl glycidyl ether CH3 O O CH3 CH CH2 O C O CH2 CH CH2 CH3 Diglycidyl ether of neopentyl glycol FIGURE 3.6. anhydrides. LLC . and Lewis acid catalysts. To achieve a balance of application properties and initial handling q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.2 Curing Epoxy resins must be cured with cross-linking agents (hardeners) or catalysts to develop desired properties.182 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers O CH2 CH2 O CH3 C OH O CH2 CH CH2 O n CH3 O CH3 O O CH2 CH CH2 CH3 Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol-A O CH2 CH CH2 O CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol-F O O CH2 CH CH2 CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 Glycidyl ether of phenolic novolac n O O CH CH2 CH2 CH N CH2 N CH CH2 CH2 CH O O Tetraglycidyl ether of Methylenedianiline O O CH2 O C O 3.4 epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3.

2. have minimum toxicity problems compared with amines.2.6.Thermoset Polymers 183 O O CH2 CH CH2 O CH2 CH O CH2 O CH2 CH O CH2 CH2 CH2 n FIGURE 3. the allowable operating temperature for epoxies cured with aromatic amines are higher than those epoxies cured with aliphatic amines. catalytic curing agents.1 Aromatic Amines Aromatic amines usually require an elevated temperature cure. 3. aliphatic amines. 3. These curing agents are relatively difficult to use because they are solids and must be melted into the epoxy.2. High exothermic temperatures develop during the curing reaction that limit the mass of material that can be cured. 3. The primary types of curing agents are aromatic amines.2 Aliphatic Amines These are widely used because the curing of the epoxies takes place at room temperature. Typical acid q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and acid anhydrides. Typical materials used include piperidine. The exothermic reaction may be critically affected by the mass of the resin mixture.6. LLC . 3. The electrical and physical properties of these aliphatic-cured resins had the greatest tendency toward degradation of electrical and physical properties at elevated temperatures. careful selection of the proper curing agent is required.6.2. However. characteristics. boron trifluoride ethylamine complex. and offer optimum high-temperature properties to the cured resin.6.4 Acid Anhydrides These curing agents are becoming more widely used because they are easy to work with.3 Catalytic Curing Agents Catalytic curing agents require a temperature of 2008F (938C) or higher to react. and benzyl dimethylamine (BDMA). Epoxies cured with aromatic amines usually have a longer working life than epoxies cured with aliphatic amines. Typical aliphatic amines used include diethylene triamine (DETA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA). These epoxy formulations exhibit a longer working life than the aliphatic amine cured epoxies.5 General structure of novolac epoxy resins.

Formulations range from flexible to rigid in the cured state and from thin liquids to thick pastes and molding powders in the uncured state. Refer to Reference [2] for more details. and many solvents.3 Corrosion Resistance The epoxy resin family exhibits good resistance to alkalies. encapsulating. hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA). 70% Methylene chloride Wet chlorine gas Hydrogen peroxide Wet sulfur dioxide Refer to Table 3. LLC . Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.4 Typical Applications Epoxy resins find many applications in the chemical process industry as piping. 10% (1508F (668C)) Benzoic acid Butyric acid Fatty acids Hydrochloric acid. and alkendic anyhydride. 3.6. Embedding applications (potting. 20% to 1808F (828C) Bases Calcium hydroxide Rayon spin bath Oxalic acid Sodium hydroxide.13 for the compatibility of epoxies with selected corrodents. casting. and impregnating) in molded parts and laminated construction are the predominant uses. 10% Sulfamic acid. dodecenyl succenic anhydride (DDSA).6. epoxies are compatible with the following materials at 2008F (938C) unless otherwise noted: Acids Acetic acid. Typically. 10% Aluminum Calcium Iron Alcohols Methyl Ethyl Magnesium hydroxide Distilled water Seawater White liquor Bromine water Chromic acid Bleaches Trisodium phosphate Salts Magnesium Sodium Metallic salts Most ammonium salts Potassium Solvents Isopropyl to 1508F (668C) Naphtha Benzene to 1508F (668C) Toluene Ethylacetate to 1508F Xylene (668C) Miscellaneous Sour crude oil Diesel fuel Jet fuel Black liquor Gasoline Epoxies are not satisfactory for use with Fluorine Sulfuric acid above. 3.184 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers anhydrides used include nadic methyl anhydride (NMA). 50% to 1808F (828C) Sodium sulfide. They are also widely used in the electronics field because of the wide variety of formulations possible. non-oxidizing acids.

10% Benzoic acid 8F 150 90 190 110 110 X 110 X X 90 250 X 140 300 300 90 180 180 250 300 210 90 140 180 150 140 150 250 250 140 300 100 80 140 80 150 180 X 240 250 200 250 300 X 160 160 200 8C 66 32 88 43 43 X 43 X X 32 121 X 60 149 149 32 82 82 121 149 99 32 60 82 60 60 66 121 121 60 149 38 27 60 27 66 82 X 116 121 93 121 149 X 71 71 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Acetic acid. sat. 10% Acetic acid. dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. Ammonium nitrate. aqueous. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 1% Aluminum chloride.13 Compatibility of Epoxy with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide. LLC 185 .Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.

wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. LLC .186 TABLE 3. moist Bromine. sat. 37. 70% Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Calcium acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 50% Citric acid. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Chromic acid. Calcium hypochlorite. 50% 8F X 60 250 200 X X X 100 170 140 X 210 200 300 200 190 180 150 250 250 X 100 200 100 80 170 200 140 150 X 150 X 150 110 X 110 X 190 190 200 150 250 150 210 100 80 80 8C X 16 121 93 X X X 38 77 60 X 99 93 149 93 88 82 66 121 121 X 38 93 38 27 77 93 60 66 X 66 X 66 43 X 43 X 88 88 93 66 121 66 99 38 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 15% Citric acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride. 92% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Bromine gas. 4% Bromine gas. 17% Cresol Cupric chloride. 32% Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate.5% Calcium hydroxide.

dil. Magnesium chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 38% Hydro cyanic acid. 20% Nitric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. general Lactic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. dry Hydrobromic acid. conc.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. LLC . conc. Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid.13 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 70% Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 8F 90 80 X X 300 300 250 250 250 90 180 180 110 200 140 160 X X X 200 X 220 200 190 X 90 140 140 160 100 X X X X 90 80 X 110 80 200 140 300 210 190 200 X X 8C 32 27 X X 149 149 121 121 121 32 82 82 43 93 60 71 X X X 93 X 104 93 88 X 32 60 60 71 38 X X X X 32 27 X 43 27 93 60 149 99 88 93 X X (continued) 187 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Perchloric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.

Source: From P. 2004. Vinyl ester resins are also available in halogenated modifications for ductwork and stack construction where fire retardance and ignition q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.. changes in the molecular structure of the vinyl esters produced resins that found extensive use in corrosion-resistant equipment. Composites produced from vinyl esters have improved bonding to the reinforcements and improved damage resistance. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Schweitzer. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. The structural formulas for typical vinyl ester resins are shown in Figure 3. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Vinyl esters were first used as dental fillings. Vols. 20% Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 250 200 160 140 110 110 X X X X 240 X 150 X 90 250 8C 121 93 71 60 43 43 X X X X 116 X 66 X 32 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 90% Sulfuric acid. They provide improved toughness in the cured polymer while maintaining good thermal stability and physical properties at elevated temperatures. 98% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. New York: Marcel Dekker. These resins have improved bonding to inorganic fillers and reinforcements as a result of the internal hydroxyl group. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid.6. This improved toughness permits the resins to be used in castings as well as in reinforced products. 5th ed.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium sulfide to 10% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.7 Vinyl Esters The vinyl ester class of resins was developed during the late 1950s and early 1960s. fuming Sulfurous acid. LLC . 3. Over the next several years.188 TABLE 3. Present-day vinyl esters possess several advantages over unsaturated polyesters. 50% Sulfuric acid. replacing acrylic materials that were being used at that time.A. 1–4.

The vinyl esters have better impact resistance and greater tolerance to cyclic temperatures.6 Structural formula for typical vinyl ester resins. They provide excellent fiber wet-out and good adhesion to the glass fiber. 3. it is more resistant to hydrolysis and oxidation or halogenation than the polyesters. they are similar to the amine-cured epoxies but less than the heat-cured epoxies. LLC . The vinyl ester resins have an upper temperature limit of approximately 2258F (1078C). highly chlorinated. These resins can be used at 325–3508F (163–1778C). As a result. vinyl esters can be used to handle most hot. pressure fluctuations. Vinyl esters have a number of basic advantages including: 1. and acid mixtures at elevated temperatures. Vinyl esters excel in alkaline and bleach environments and are used extensively in the very corrosive conditions found in the pulp and paper industry. resistance are major concerns. 2. 5. and mechanical shock than the chlorendic and bisphenol polyester resins. In many cases. Because of the basic structure of the vinyl ester molecule. This results in a tough laminate that is resistant to cracking and crazing. but they are not as high as the heat-cured epoxies. there can be differences in the compatibility of formulations among q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. They also provide excellent resistance to strong mineral acids and bleaching solutions. Vinyl ester laminates have slightly higher strengths than polyesters.Thermoset Polymers 189 CH3 O H2C C C OH CH3 C CH3 DGEBA vinyl ester OH O CH3 C O CH2 CH CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 O C C CH2 n O CH3 OH CH CH2 O C C CH2 CH2 O CH2 O CH3 OH CH CH2 O C C CH2 CH2 O CH2 O CH3 OH CH CH2 O C C CH2 CH2 O n Phenolic novalac vinyl ester FIGURE 3. The family of vinyl esters includes a wide variety of formulations. 4. In general. Exceptions to this are the vinyl ester resins having a novolac backbone. They cure rapidly and give high early strength and superior creep resistance as a result of their molecular structure.

sat.14 that shows the compatibility of TABLE 3. LLC . one must keep in mind that all formulations may not act as shown. This is the case in Table 3. 10% Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. When one checks compatibility in a table. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonia bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.14 Compatibility of Vinyl Ester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. An indication that vinyl ester is compatible generally means that at least one formulation is compatible.190 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers manufacturers. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. sat. Ammonium fluoride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite 8F X 200 180 150 150 100 X X 100 X 180 90 90 240 210 260 140 100 200 200 250 100 150 150 200 200 200 140 140 100 130 250 180 200 220 120 220 8C X 93 82 66 66 38 X X 38 X 82 32 32 116 99 127 60 38 93 93 121 38 66 66 93 93 93 60 60 38 54 121 82 93 104 49 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 50% water 8F 110 210 120 X 160 X 260 200 150 200 180 X X 200 180 100 90 210 200 100 100 X 80 120 X 130 180 180 260 180 180 180 180 210 160 250 220 X 200 220 X 350 180 120 140 150 8C 38 99 49 X 71 X 127 93 66 93 82 X X 93 82 38 32 99 93 38 38 X 27 49 X 54 82 82 127 82 82 82 82 99 71 116 104 X 93 104 X 177 82 49 60 66 (continued) 191 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. moist Bromine. 10% Calcium hydroxide. LLC . sat.

38% Hydrocyanic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. dil. dry Fluorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10% Chromic acid. general Lactic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 15% Citric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.192 TABLE 3. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. wet Chlorine. Magnesium chloride 8F 200 250 250 X 110 X X 150 X 210 210 210 210 220 210 240 X 260 220 150 150 200 100 110 210 210 210 200 200 200 X X 180 180 200 220 180 160 X X X 150 150 X 210 200 260 8C 93 121 121 X 43 X X 66 X 99 99 99 99 104 99 116 X 127 104 66 66 93 38 43 99 99 99 93 93 93 X X 82 82 93 104 82 71 X X X 66 66 X 99 93 127 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.14 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. Hydrobromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. LLC . 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Ketones.

New York: Marcel Dekker. 1–4. 5th ed. 70% Nitric acid. 10% Oleum Perchloric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables.. 10% Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 5% Nitric acid. Schweitzer. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 10% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 50% Sulfuric acid. LLC . anhydrous Nitrous acid. 10% Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. Source: From P. 98% Sulfuric acid. Vols. 20% Nitric acid. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.A. 10% Perchloric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 100% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Malic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 2004. 50% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 140 210 X X 180 180 150 X X 150 X 150 X X 210 200 160 150 180 180 170 220 180 100 220 210 200 200 210 180 X X X X 120 X 120 210 180 180 8C 60 99 X X 82 82 66 X X 66 X 66 X X 99 93 71 66 82 82 77 104 82 38 104 99 93 93 99 82 X X X X 49 X 49 99 82 82 193 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. fuming Sulfurous acid.

Curing for a fresh laminate should start with an initial temperature of 508F (668C) for 4 h. Too fast a cure can result in a blistered or cracked laminate. which generates heat and a by-product of water. 3. the supplier should be consulted as to the compatibility of a particular resin with the corrodents to be encountered. They are considered to have the best overall chemical resistance of all the thermosets. The resin manufacturer must be consulted to verify the resistance. LLC . and combinations of solvents with acids and bases. All furan laminates must be postured to drive out the reaction condensate to achieve optimum properties.8 Furans Furan polymers are derivatives of furfuryl alcohol and furfural. caustics. which all handling corrosive materials. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. Because there are different formulations of furans.194 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers vinyl ester laminates with selected corrodents. Furan resin catalysts should have exotherms above 658F (188C) but not over 858F (308C). With an acid catalyst. The exotherm must be controlled to prevent the water vapor from blistering and cracking the laminate. Reference [2] provides detailed information concerning vinyl esters as piping materials. polymerization occurs by the condensation route.1 Typical Applications Vinyl ester laminates are used in industrial equipment and scrubbers such as absorption towers. The structural formula for the resin is: O CH2 O CH2 CH2 O O CH2 Furan thermosets are noted for their excellent resistance to solvents. storage tanks. piping. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. hood scrubbers.7. which is slowly raised to 1808F (828C) for 8 h of curing. They also exhibit excellent resistance to strong concentrated mineral acids. 3. A final Barcol hardness of 40–45 is necessary to develop optimum laminate properties. process vessels. and exhaust stacks. ducts.

and concentrated sulfuric acid. TABLE 3. Refer to Table 3. chlorine. 25% Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum. LLC . dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonium carbonate 8F X 212 160 80 80 80 80 200 80 80 280 300 300 140 300 300 280 260 160 240 8C X 100 71 27 27 27 27 93 27 27 138 149 149 60 149 149 138 127 71 116 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.15 for the compatibility of furan resins with selected corrodents. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid. 5% Aluminum chloride.Thermoset Polymers 195 Typical materials with which furan resins are compatible are: Acetone Benzene Carbon disulfide Chlorobenzene Perchloroethylene Acetic acid Hydrochloric acid Diethylamine Sodium carbonate Demineralized Pulp mill liquor Solvents Styrene Toluene Ethanol Ethyl acetate Acids Nitric acid. 60% to 1508F (668C) Sodium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. aqueous Aluminum chloride. phenol. 5% Phosphoric acid Bases Sodium sulfide Water Distilled Others Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Trichloroethylene Xylene Sulfuric acid.15 Compatibility of Furan Resins with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 50% Furan resins are not satisfactory for use with oxidizing media such as chromic or nitric acids. hypochlorites. peroxides. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid.

3% max Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.196 TABLE 3. LLC . wet Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Cellosolve 8F 250 200 250 260 260 260 260 240 260 278 X 80 250 X 240 260 260 260 80 160 160 260 80 140 140 300 X X 300 260 212 X 260 260 160 260 X 260 260 250 160 90 80 260 212 240 8C 121 93 121 127 127 127 127 116 127 137 X 27 121 X 116 127 127 127 27 71 71 127 27 60 60 149 X X 149 127 100 X 127 127 71 127 X 127 127 121 71 32 27 127 100 116 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. liquid. dry Bromine gas. sat. sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. dry Carbon dioxide.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide.

20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. general Lactic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroacetic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 5% Cupric chloride. Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. dry Fluorine gas.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. LLC . 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Ketones. Magnesium chloride 8F 100 240 260 260 X 260 X 260 X X 250 250 250 260 260 240 300 260 300 300 140 X 250 160 260 160 160 160 X X 212 212 212 212 80 160 230 140 140 X X 100 212 160 260 8C 38 116 127 127 X 127 X 127 X X 121 121 121 127 127 116 149 127 149 149 60 X 121 71 127 71 71 71 X X 100 100 100 100 27 71 110 60 60 X X 38 100 71 127 (continued) 197 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. conc. conc. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. wet Chlorine. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 15% Citric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid.

fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 70% Nitric acid. 50% Picric acid Potassium bromide. anhydrous Nitrous acid. conc.A. 1–4. 70% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. LLC .15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Malic acid. 2004. Source: From P. 50% Sulfuric acid. conc. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. 20% Nitric acid. 30% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 260 200 120 80 160 80 X X X X X 190 X 260 X 212 260 260 212 260 X X X X X 260 260 250 160 80 80 X X X X 160 X 212 80 140 160 8C 127 93 49 27 71 27 X X X X X 88 X 127 X 100 127 127 100 127 X X X X X 127 127 121 71 27 27 X X X X 71 X 100 27 60 71 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 15% Sodium hypochlorite. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Sodium sulfide to 10% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10% Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 5th ed.198 TABLE 3. Vols.. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. conc. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 90% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 10% Perchloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. Schweitzer. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 100% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide.

Strong mineral acids also attack the phenolics. and the catalysts. Refer to Table 3.9 Phenolics These are the oldest commercial classes of polymers in use today.8. LLC . 3.16 for the compatibility of phenolics with. Refer to Reference [2] for more information regarding furan piping systems. and acids such as nitric. formic. Although phenolics have an aromatic character. The structural formula is: OH CH2 O CH2 OH n Phenolic compounds are available in a large number of variations. and q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sulfuric and phosphoric acids may be suitable under some conditions. chromic.Thermoset Polymers 199 3. and special equipment such as scrubbing columns. lubricants. and transmission bands. plasticizers. They find application as piping. can attack phenolics. the water-resistant adhesive for exterior grade plywood. and hydrochloric cause severe degradation. that the development and application of phenolic molding compounds became economical. it was not until. fillers. Bakeland.1 Typical Applications Furan resins cost approximately 30–50% more than polyester resins and do not have as good of an impact resistance as the polyesters. Phenolic resins exhibit resistance to most organic solvents. alcohols and ketones. An extremely large number of phenolic materials are available as a result of the many resin and filler combinations. Although first discovered in 1876. and pigments employed. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. Phenolics are not suitable for use in strong alkaline environments. tanks. and oxalic. clutch parts. 3. after the “heat and pressure” patent was applied for in 1907 by Leo H. especially aromatics and chlorinated solvents. the ratios used. They serve as binders for core material in furniture. binders for wood particle boards. Phenolic resin precursors are formed by a condensation reaction and water is formed as a by-product. depending on the nature of the reactants. selected corrodents. the phenolic hydroxyls provide sites for hydrogen bonding and attack by caustics.9. There is some loss of properties when phenolics are in contact with organic acids such as acetic. Organic polar solvents capable of hydrogen bonding.1 Typical Applications In addition to molding compounds. phenolics are used to bond friction materials for automotive brake linings.

glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. Ammonium fluoride. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride 8F 8C 212 100 70 70 X 21 21 X 90 32 300 90 90 80 80 80 149 32 32 27 27 27 X X 160 X X 71 300 149 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Acetic acid. LLC . Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 50% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride.200 TABLE 3. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonia bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride.16 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Phenolics with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.

moist Bromine. wet Chlorine.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 25% Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. LLC . 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. 10% Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% 8F 8C 201 70 160 70 21 71 21 70 21 X X 160 71 300 149 X X 300 300 149 149 200 200 93 93 X X 260 160 X X X 127 71 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 20% 8F X 160 160 8C X 71 71 300 149 70 300 300 21 149 149 200 200 200 300 300 X X X 93 93 93 149 149 X X X 160 71 160 X 160 300 X X 71 X 71 149 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10–50% Ferrous chloride. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 40% Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 25% Lactic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 5% Nitric acid.202 TABLE 3. conc. dil. dry Fluorine gas. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 15% Citric acid. 10% Ketones. LLC . 60% Hydrofluoric acid. general Lactic acid.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution.

15% Sodium hypochlorite. Incompatibility is shown by an X. conc. Corrosion Resistance Tables. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Schweitzer. 100% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. Decorative or electrical laminates are produced by impregnating paper with phenolic resins. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Sodium hypochlorite. or cushioning for home. New York: Marcel Dekker. 1–4. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. and automotive applications. 98% Sulfuric acid. They also find applications as gears. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 5th ed. 70% Sulfuric acid. Vols. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. The excellent water resistance of phenolics makes them particularly suitable for marine applications. 10% Sodium hydroxide. the bonding agent for converting organic and inorganic fibers into acoustical and thermal insulation pads. conc. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide.. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 30% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 8C X X 203 X 212 X 100 300 X X X X X 149 X X X X X 250 250 200 70 X X 80 200 121 121 93 21 X X 27 93 300 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Sulfuric acid. industrial. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 10% Perchloric acid.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid.A. Source: From P. 2004. baths. 70% Nitric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. conc. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 90% Sulfuric acid.

dirt. Phenol-formaldehyde laminates are generally used with mineral acids. and pulleys.10. and piping. usually brown or black. Reference [2] provides details on phenol-formaldehyde H C H H H C H FIGURE 3. these resins are derived from phenol and formaldehyde.1 Typical Applications Applications include gears. and pulleys because of their wear and abrasion resistance. they have somewhat poor resistance to electric arcs. Haveg. Phenol-formaldehyde is crosslinked phenolic resin and. 3. The laminates are only available in dark colors. and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Refer to Table 3. Second. Although they maintain their properties in the presence of water. wheels. has approximately the same basic physical and mechanical properties as other phenolic resins. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The structural formula is shown in Figure 3. However. the laminate is suitable for use with hydrofluoric acid and certain fluoride salts. they are used in printed circuits and terminal blocks. When graphite is used as a filler.7 Structural formula for phenol-formaldehyde resins. or high voltage usually result in complete arcing breakdown. their water absorption is high. a division of Ametek. It is sold under the tradename of Haveg SP. Inc.10 Phenol-Formaldehyde As the name implies. produces a phenolic piping system using silica filaments and filler. Refer to Reference [2] for more details. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing.17 for the compatibility of phenol-formaldehyde with selected corrodents.204 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers wheels. terminal blocks. because of the nature of the resin. 3. printed circuits. reaching 14% in some paper-based grades of laminates. and even though high filler loading can improve the low-power arc resistance. Their use is limited because of two disadvantages. salts. LLC H OH OH C C C C C H H H C C C C H C H H C C C C C . moisture. in general. Because of their suitability in a variety of environments. it does not have the impact resistance of the polyesters or epoxies.7.

liquid. dry Aluminum sulfate Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid. LLC 205 . 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. 3% max Butyric acid Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.17 Compatibility of Phenol-Formaldehyde with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. 8F X 212 160 120 120 X X 80 X 300 300 300 X X 160 X X 160 160 160 300 300 260 300 X X X 160 212 160 160 160 80 X X 300 300 300 80 300 300 300 212 8C X 100 71 49 49 X X 27 X 149 149 149 X X 71 X X 71 71 71 149 149 127 149 X X X 71 100 71 71 71 27 X X 149 149 149 27 149 149 149 100 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Benzyl chloride Boric acid Bromine. 10% Acetic acid. sat. dil. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. sat. dry Chlorine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorine gas. 5% Cupric chloride.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride. 50% Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. 90% Acrylonitrile Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 40% Hydrobromic acid. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid.

10% Sulfuric acid. Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Because of this. 15% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sodium hydroxide. LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide. and rocket motor chambers. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which date are available. Schweitzer. Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. piping systems. they find application as ablative shields for re-entry vehicles. 5th ed.A. They also produce less smoke and toxic by-products of combustion and are often used as interior aircraft panels. 90% Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable.206 TABLE 3. 1–4. conc. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. Vols. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. anhydrous Phenol Phosphoric acid.. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Source: From P. 10% Lactic acid. 30% Zinc chloride 8F 212 300 300 160 X X X X 160 160 300 X X 300 X X X X X 212 X X X X X X 300 300 250 100 160 80 212 80 300 8C 100 149 149 71 X X X X 71 71 149 X X 149 X X X X X 100 X X X X X X 149 149 121 38 71 27 100 27 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Sodium hypochlorite.17 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrobromic acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. conc. Phenol-formaldehyde resins have high heat resistance and good char strengths. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid. rocket nozzles. 50% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. nose cones. conc.

toluene. The basic structure is: CH3 Si CH3 O CH3 Si CH3 O n Typically. lubricity. Chemical inertness 2. but it is a more stable element. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . They have a backbone structure of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms rather than a backbone of carbon–carbon atoms. These groups impact properties such as solvent resistance.11 Silicones Silicon is in the same chemical group as carbon. Although they exhibit excellent resistance to water and weathering. These materials are also useful in the cryogenic temperature range. and lubrication oils. depending upon the properties required and the application. They are also resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. they are not resistant to high-pressure. Uniform properties over a wide temperature range 5. Low surface tension 7. These are 1.Thermoset Polymers 207 3. Inertness and compatibility both physiologically and in electronic applications Silicone resins and composites produced with silicon resins exhibit outstanding long-term thermal stability at temperatures approaching 5728F (3008C) and excellent moisture resistance and electrical properties. generally phenol (CH6H5–). Excellent electrical properties over a wide range of temperature and frequencies 6. alcohol. but aromatic solvents such as benzene. methyl (CH3). Silicone laminates can be used in contact with dilute acids and alkalies. High degree of slip or lubricity 8. or vinyl (CH2aCH–) units. Silicone polymers possess several properties that distinguish them from their organic counterparts. gasoline. and reactivity with organic chemicals and polymers. Silicone polymers may be filled or unfilled. the silicon atoms will have one or more organic side groups attached to them. Excellent release properties 9. high-temperature steam. animal and vegetable oils. Weather resistance 3. The silicones are a family of synthetic polymers that are partly organic and inorganic. and chlorinated solvents will cause excessive swelling. Extreme water repellency 4.

20% 8F 90 90 90 90 100 80 X 220 410 X 80 80 80 X 210 80 X X X 80 X X X 390 80 400 300 200 400 X X 400 400 X X 400 400 X 90 8C 32 32 32 32 43 27 X 104 210 X 27 27 27 X 99 27 X X X 27 X X X 189 27 204 149 99 204 X X 204 204 X X 204 204 X 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Carbon bisulfide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbonic acid Chlorobenszen Chlorosulfonic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Hydrobromic acid. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium nitrate Amly acetate Amly alcohol Amly chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Benzene Benzyl chloride Boric acid Butyl alcohol Calcium bisulfide Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. glacial Acetone Acrylic acid. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 75% Acrylonitrile Alum Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride. The addition of these side groups has an effect on the corrosion resistance. LLC . 10% Ammonium chloride.208 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers As previously discussed. Table 3. sat. the silicon atoms may have one or more organic side groups attached.18 lists the compatibility of a silicone laminate with methyl-appended side groups. sat. it is necessary to check with the supplier as to the properties of the silicone laminate being supplied. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium fluoride. 50% Acetic acid. TABLE 3. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 80% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. Therefore.18 Compatibility of Methyl Appended Silicone Laminate with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid.

Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Lactic acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. acid mine Water. Source: From P. 20% Nitric acid.A. 5% Nitric acid..Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 30% Lactic acid. anhydrous Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. conc. sea Xylene Zinc chloride 8F X X 80 80 400 410 X X 80 X X X X X X 400 300 400 90 90 90 X 400 80 X X X X X X X X 400 X X X X 400 210 210 210 210 210 X 400 8C X X 27 27 204 210 X X 23 X X X X X X 204 149 204 32 32 32 X 204 27 X X X X X X X X 204 X X X X 204 99 99 99 99 99 X 204 209 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 98% Sulfuric acid. 1–4. 90% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. salt Water. distilled Water. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. demineralized Water. 5th ed. 50–80% Propyl alcohol Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 70% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. fuming Sulfurous acid Tartaric acid Tetrahydrofuran Toluene Tributyl phosphate Turpentine Vinegar Water. 50% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium sulfate Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. Vols. New York: Marcel Dekker. Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sodium hydroxide.18 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrochloric acid. 2004. Magnesium chloride Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. conc. LLC . all conc. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Nitric acid. Schweitzer.

The absence of the hydroxyl (found in epoxies) and ester groups (found in vinyl esters) eliminates the built-in failure modes of other polymers and provides superior performance. coil forms. 3. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Aluminum chloride Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide Aqua regia Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Black liquor Bromine hypochlorite Carbon tetrachloride Chloric acid Chlorine water Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chromic acid. The operating temperature will be tempered by the material being handled. Siloxirane is a homopolymerized polymer with an ether crosslinkage (carbon–oxygen–carbon) having a very dense. LLC . 10% Chromic acid. The end products are extremely resistant to material abrasion and have an operating temperature range of K80 to C5008F (K62 to C2608C). 17% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Dibutyl phthalate Dichlorobenzene Dimethylformamide Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ferric chloride Formaldehyde Furan Furfural alcohol Gasohol Gasoline Green liquor Hydraulic oil Hydrazine Hydrochloric acid. highly cross-linked molecular structure. structures in electronics.12 Siloxirane Siloxirane is the registered trademark for Tankenitics homopolymerized polymer with a cross-linked organic–inorganic (SiO) backbone with oxirane endcaps. 0–37% Hydrofluoric acid. ablation shields. deionized Water. salt White liquor (paper) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.210 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. and terminal boards. Siloxirane laminates have a wide range of chemical resistance. fuming oleum Tallow Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroethylene Tricresyl phosphate Water. rocket components.11.1 Typical Applications Silicone laminates find application as radomes. aged Sulfate liquor (paper) Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid. Following is a list of some of the chemicals with which siloxirane is compatible: Acetamide Acetic acid. 85% Sodium chloride Sodium dichromate Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite. 52% Iodine Jet fuel Kerosene Ketones Latex Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Methylene chloride Molten sulfur Monochloroacetic acid Nickel plating solutions Nitrous oxide Phosphoric acid Phosphoric acid. 1% Hydrochloric acid. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. 1–98% Sulfuric acid. slot wedges. heaters.

Aromatic hydrocarbons. They are also resistant to greases. and shock and vibration mounts. esters. storage tanks.8. Class 11 vessels may be a maximum of 144 inches in diameter. and ketones will attack urethane.1 Typical Applications Applications include large automotive parts and building components. However. They are used in refrigerators.Thermoset Polymers 211 3. the best properties are obtained when glass cloth is used as the q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 3. depending on the formulation. Because of the hazards involved in handling free isocyanate. Polyurethanes can be formulated to produce a range of materials from elastomers as soft as Shore A of 5 to tough solids with a Shore D of 90. ductwork. and the product of pressure (psig) and the diameter in inches may not exceed 7200.13. aqueous. Vessels produced from Siloxirane have been approved to receive ASME Section X Class 11 certification and stamping as code vessels. 3. 3. butane-diol-cured polyurethanes have been approved by the FDA for use in applications that will come into contact with dry. Their structural formula is shown in Figure 3. Melamine resin can be combined with a variety of reinforcing fibers.12. LLC . packaging.13 Polyurethanes Polyurethanes are reaction products of isocyanates. Flexible foam has also been used in furniture. This makes these materials particularly useful for service in contact with lubricating oils and automotive fuels. and fatty foods.1 Typical Applications Siloxirane laminates are used in piping. and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Polyurethane thermosets can be rigid or flexible. and tank liners. they are also referred to as melamine formaldehydes. picnic boxes. Some 1–4. polyols. and curing agents. fuels. Polyurethane resin is resistant to most mineral and vegetable oils.14 Melamines Melamine is a polymer formed by a condensation reaction between formaldehyde and amino compounds containing NH2 groups. aliphatic. Consequently. prepolymers of the isocyanate and the polyol are generally used in casting. Foam materials blown with halocarbons have the lowest thermal conductivity of any commercially available insulation. and building construction. polar solvents.

The basic material properties are not affected by the addition of color. Included are such materials as Beet juice Bluing Dyes Ink Iodine solution Mercurochrome solution Phenol (lysol) Tea Vinegar q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Finished melamine products exhibit excellent resistance to moisture. Melamines exposed outdoors suffer little degradation in electrical or physical properties. Low temperatures have relatively little effect on the properties of the melamine.8 Structural formula for melamine-formaldehyde resins. resist scratching and marring. Melamine laminates are compatible with the following chemicals: Acetone Alcohol Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Amyl acetate Carbon tetrachloride Citric acid Coffee Detergent Fly spray Gasoline Moth spray Mustard Naphtha Olive oil Soaps Shoe polish Sodium bisulfite Trisodium phosphate Urine Water Wax and crayons There are certain chemicals and household preparations that tend to stain the melamine laminate.212 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers CH2 N H H CH2 N C N N C N H C N N H (CH2)2 N N C H C N N C N H (CH2)2 H N C N N C H C N CH2 N N H CH2 CH2 FIGURE 3. reinforcement material. and offer excellent electrical properties. greases. The clarity of melamine resins permits products to be fabricated in virtually any color. are selfextinguishing. the stain can be removed by buffing with a mild abrasive. and solvents. but some color changes may take place. LLC . However. oils. are tasteless and odorless. Prolonged exposure at high temperature will affect the color and cause a loss of some strength characteristics. Melamine formulations filled with cellulose are capable of producing an unlimited range of light-stable colors with a high degree of translucency.

14. Alkyd compounds are chemically similar to polyester compounds but make use of higher viscosity or dry monomers. and electrical properties. 3. The decorative pattern may be a solid color. or any design. LLC .15. Alkyd compounds often contain glass fiber filler but may contain clay. However. The alkyds exhibit poor resistance to solvents and alkalies. Alkyd-modified acrylic latex paints are excellent architectural finishes.1 Typical Applications Alkyds are used for finishing metal and wood products but not to the degree previously used. they are used in fillers. The ability to use any of the many suitable polyfunctional alcohols and acids permits selection of a large variation of repeating units. and their color and gloss retention are inferior. Formulating can provide resins that demonstrate a wide variety of characteristics involving flexibility heat resistance. Their resistance to dilute acid is fair. and caulks for wood finishing. They are still used for finishing by the machine tool and other industries. calcium carbonate. The greatest limitations of alkyds are in the extremes of temperature above 3508F (1178C) and in high humidity. they are not as durable to long-term exposure as the acrylics. melamine-surfaced decorative laminates find wide application in the home. a wood grain. but their durability to exterior exposure is only fair. sealers. Their durability to interior exposure is good. Although alkyds are used outdoors. or alumina. they exhibit good resistance to weather.15 Alkyds Alkyds are saturated resins produced from the reaction of organic alcohols with organic acids. chemical resistance. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Typical Applications The heat resistance and water-white color of melamine polymers make them ideally suited for use in the home as high-quality molded dinnerware. Because of their formulating flexibility. 3.Thermoset Polymers 213 The following chemicals and household preparations may damage melamine laminates: Berry juices Gentian violet Hydrogen peroxide Hypochlorite bleaches Lye solutions Mineral acids Potassium permanganate Silver nitrate Silver protein (argyrol) Sodium bisulfate 3.

9. 3. The general chemical structure of urea formaldehyde is shown in Figure 3. but the most commonly used are Diallyl phthlate (DAP) and diallyl isophthalate q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . cracks develop. and resist scratching and marring. oils. are produced in several variations. However. Certain strength characteristics also experience a loss when amino moldings are subjected to prolonged elevated temperatures. and solvents. When urea moldings are subjected to severe cycling between dry and wet conditions.9 Chemical structure of urea-formaldehyde. Finished products containing an amino resin surface exhibit excellent resistance to moisture. The addition of alpha cellulose produces an unlimited range of light-stable colors and high degrees of translucency. Therefore. heat. They are reaction products of formaldehyde with amino compounds containing NH2 groups. Basic material properties are unaffected by the addition of color. are tasteless and odorless. the melamine resins exhibit better chemical. Aminos are unsuitable for outdoor exposure. they are often referred to as urea formaldehydes. Amino polymers are self-extinguishing and have excellent electrical insulating properties.16 Ureas (Aminos) Ureas (commonly referred to as aminos) are polymers formed by condensation reactions and do not produce by-products. The most commonly used filler for the amines is alpha cellulose. Amino resins are used in modifying other resins to increase hardness and accelerate cure. greases. and moisture resistance than the amines.17 Allyls The allyls. 3.214 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers CH2 N C CH2 O CH2 N C CH2 N C CH2 O CH2 N C CH2 O CH2 N C N C CH2 O N CH2 O N C N CH2 O CH2 N CH2 O CH2 N N C CH2 O CH2 N N C CH2 O CH2 N N C CH2 O N N C CH2 O N FIGURE 3. or diallyl phthalates.

compressive. Allyl carbonate (diethylene glycol) is marketed as CR-39 by PPG Industries. When physical abuse is likely.18 Polybutadienes Polybutadienes have essentially hydrocarbon structure as follows: CH CH CH2 CH2 The basic materials are monopolymers or copolymers that react through terminal hydroxyl groups. DAP and DAIP are seldom used as cast homopolymers except for small electrical parts because of their low tensile strength and impact resistance. 1% Sodium hydroxide. DAP finds application for the impregnation of ferrous and nonferrous castings because of its low viscosity.7 0.19 for the chemical resistance of DAP and DAIP.9 DAIP K0. It is used largely in optical castings in competition with glass.6 0.03 0. low resin bleed out. and shear strengths.8 0. 10% Sulfuric acid. 3. 30% Water DAP 1. and ease of cleanup. terminal carboxyl groups. or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) where abrasion resistance and high heat distortion or impact resistance are required.7 0.5 0. It is also used to impregnate wood to reduce water absorption and increase impact.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.4 0. vinyl groups. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. or a combination of these materials.8 215 (DAIP). Refer to Table 3.7 0.3 0. excellent sealing properties. the polymer is provided with a glass or mineral filling.4 0. LLC . DAP and DAIP glass laminates have high-temperature electrical properties superior to those of most other structural laminates. 3% Sulfuric acid. Cure cycles are shorter and little or no post cure is required to provide usable strength up to 4828F (2508C). The primary difference between the two is that DAIP will withstand somewhat higher temperatures than DAP.19 Chemical Resistance of DAP and DAIP % Gain in Weight after 30 Days Immersion at 778F/258C Corrodent Acetone Sodium hydroxide.

216

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Polybutadiene polymers that have a 1,2 microstructure varying from 60 to 90% offer potential as moldings, laminating resins, coatings, and cast liquid and formed sheet products. Outstanding electrical and thermal stability results from the structure that is essentially pure hydrocarbon. Peroxide catalysts used to cure polybutadienes produce carbon–carbon double bonds in the vinyl group. The final product is 100% hydrocarbon except where the starting polymer is the –OH or –COOH radical. Poly BD marketed by Atochem North America, Inc. is a family of hydroxyl-terminated butadiene homopolymers and copolymers with styrene or acrylonitrile. These materials are usually reacted with isocyanates to produce polyurethanes that have excellent resistance to boiling water. The B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company produces monopolymers and copolymers with acrylonitrile. These are known as the Hylar series. Acrylonitrile increases the viscosity and imparts oil resistance, adhesion, and compatibility with epoxy resins. Carboxy-terminated butadieneacrylonitrile copolymer (CTBN) improves impact strength, low-temperature shear strength, and crack resistance in epoxy formulations. Amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers (ATBN) are also used to modify epoxy resins. These are formulated on the amine-hardener side of the mix. Applications for these formulations include electrical potting compounds (with transformer oil) sealants and moisture block compounds for telephone cables. The hydrocarbon structure is responsible for the excellent resistance shown by polybutadiene to chemicals and solvents and for the electrical properties that are good over a range of frequencies, temperatures, and humidity, and resistance to high temperature. Refer to Table 3.20 for the compatibility of polybutadiene with selected corrodents.

TABLE 3.20 Compatibility of Polybutadiene with Selected Corrodents
Maximum Temperature Chemical Alum Alum ammonium Alum ammonium sulfate Alum chrome Alum potassium Aluminum chloride, aqueous Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride, 10% Ammonium chloride, 28% 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 (continued)

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Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.20 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride, 50% Ammonium chloride, sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium sulfate, 10–40% Calcium chloride, sat. Calcium hypochlorite, sat. Carbon dioxide, wet Chlorine gas, wet Chrome alum Chromic acid, 10% Chromic acid, 30% Chromic acid, 40% Chromic acid, 50% Copper chloride Copper sulfate Fatty acids Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate Hydrochloric acid, dil. Hydrochloric acid, 20% Hydrochloric acid, 35% Hydrochloric acid, 38% Hydrochloric acid, 50% Hydrochloric acid fumes Hydrogen peroxide, 90% Hydrogen sulfide, dry Nitric acid, 5% Nitric acid, 10% Nitric acid, 20% Nitric acid, 30% Nitric acid, 40% Nitric acid, 50% Nitric acid, 70% Nitric acid, anhydrous Nitric acid, conc. Ozone Phenol Sodium bicarbonate, 20% Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate Sodium hydroxide, 10% Sodium hydroxide, 15% Sodium hydroxide, 30% Sodium hydroxide, 50% Sodium hydroxide, 70% Sodium hydroxide, conc. 8F 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 X 90 X X X X 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 80 80 X X X X 80 X 80 90 80 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 X 32 X X X X 32 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 27 27 27 X X X X 27 X 27 32 27 32 32 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 (continued)

217

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218 TABLE 3.20 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hypochlorite to 20% Sodium nitrate Sodium phosphate, acid Sodium phosphate, alkaline Sodium phosphate, neutral Sodium silicate Sodium sulfide to 50% Sodium sulfite, 10% Sodium dioxide, dry Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid, 10% Sulfuric acid, 30% Sulfuric acid, 50% Sulfuric acid, 60% Sulfuric acid, 70% Toluene 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 X 90 80 80 80 80 90 X 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 X 32 27 27 27 27 32 X

The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. Source: From P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

3.19 Polyimides
Polyimides can be prepared as either thermoplastic or thermoset resins. There are two types of polyimides, condensation, and addition resins. Condensation polyimides are available as either thermosets or thermoplastics. The additional polyimides are available only as thermosets. The polyimides are heterocyclic polymers having an atom of nitrogen in the inside ring as shown below:
O C N C O

n

The fused rings provide stiffness that provides high-temperature strength retention. The low concentration of hydrogen provides oxidative resistance by preventing thermal fracture of the chain.
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Thermoset Polymers

219

Polyimides have continuous high-temperature stability up to 500–6008F (260–3158C) and can withstand 9008F (4828C) for short-term use. Polyimides are sensitive to alkaline chemicals and will be dissolved by hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide. They are also moisture sensitive, gaining 1% in weight after 1000 hours at 50% relative humidity and 728F (238C). The polyimides exhibit excellent resistance to ionizing radiation and very low outgassing in high vacuum. 3.19.1 Typical Applications Polyimides find use in various forms, including laminates, moldings, films, coatings, and adhesives (specifically in the areas of high temperature). Coatings are used in electrical applications as insulating varnishes and magnet wire enamels at high temperatures. They also find application as a coating on cookware as an alternative to fluorocarbon coatings.

3.20 Cyanate Esters
Cyanate esters are a family of aryl dicyanate monomers that contain the reactive cyanate (–O–CaN) functional group. When heated, this cyanate functionality undergoes an exothermic cyclotrimerization reaction to form triazine ring connecting units, resulting in the formation of a thermoset polycyanate polymer. The cyanate ester monomers are available from low-viscosity liquids to meltable solids. Ciba-Geigy produces a series of cyanate esters under the trademark AroCy L-10. Cyanate esters are used in manufacturing structural composites by filament winding, resin transfer molding, and pultrusion.

References
1. 2. P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker. P.A. Schweitzer. 1994. Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems. New York: Marcel Dekker.

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4
Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers
The corrosion tables on the following pages are arranged alphabetically according to the corrodent. The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is indicated by an x. A blank space indicates that data is not available. A greater range of corrodents can be found in Reference [1]. The following polymers are identified in the table by abbreviations:
Halar–ECTFE Noryl–PPO Kynar–PVDF Penton–CPE Polyetheretherketone–PEEK Polypropylene–PP Polysulfone–PSF Kel-F–CTFE Ultem–PEI Ryton–PPS Polyamide imide–PAI Polyether sulfone–PEF Polybutadiene–PB Polyurethane–PUR Tefzel–ETFE Telflon–PTFE Saran–PVDC

Because many of the polymers may be compounded, the manufacturer should be checked to see that the material being furnished is satisfactory for the service. For example, there are three different formulations of polyamides.

221
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Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Acetaldahyde
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE, 40% HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 130/54 200/93 200/93 X 80/27

450/232 450/232 150/66 90/32 X

230/110 120/49 150/66 X X X X 140/60 X 80/27 X X X X 150/66 X X X

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223

Acetamide
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C

200/93 250/121 400/204 250/121

450/232 450/232 90/32 140/60

240/116 110/43 80/27 X X

X

X 90/32

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Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Acetic Acid, 10%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 X 250/121 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 240/116 220/104 150/66 200/93 140/60 100/38 180/82 250/121 X X 220/104 140/60 200/93 180/82 300/149 190/88 200/93 260/127 210/99 90/32

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225

Acetic Acid, 50%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 130/54 X 250/121 250/121 400/204 X 200/93 140/60 80/27 140/60 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 90/32 X

90/32 160/71 90/32 160/71 110/43 300/149 110/43 200/93 160/71 90/32

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Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Acetic Acid, 80%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 150/66 230/110 400/204 X 200/93 140/60 80/27 200/93 450/232 450/232 190/88 80/27 80/27 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 X X 250/121 X 90/32 160/71 90/32 X 300/149 110/43 150/66 200/93 120/49 90/32

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LLC . Glacial Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE. 40% HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 200/93 230/110 400/204 X 200/93 140/60 80/27 200/93 400/204 460/238 190/88 100/38 80/27 300/149 150/66 250/121 190/88 140/60 200/93 130/54 X X 250/121 X X X 110/43 X 300/149 150/66 270/132 120/49 120/49 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 227 Acetic Acid.

228 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Acetic Anhydride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 100/38 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 450/232 450/232 100/38 X X X X 280/138 100/38 90/32 X X X 150/66 X X 130/54 100/38 X X X X 100/38 90/32 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 229 Acetone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 80/27 210/99 80/27 X 450/232 450/232 X 120/49 80/27 X X 260/127 220/104 90/32 X X X X 90/32 X 120/49 X X X X X 110/43 X 200/93 X 100/43 Corrodent will be absorbed.

230 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Acetyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI DRY PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 100/38 150/66 150/66 400/204 X 120/49 460/238 460/238 120/49 X 80/27 X X 130/54 X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X X 200/93 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

25% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 231 Acrylic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. 75% PB 8F/8C 200/93 80/27 460/238 150/66 100/38 X X X X 100/38 X X X 100/38 100/38 90/32 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 90% Methyl appended silicone. LLC .

LLC .232 Acrylonitrile Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 80/27 460/238 460/238 130/54 140/60 150/66 130/54 90/32 90/32 X X X 150/66 X X X X 80/27 90/32 X 260/127 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

25% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 280/138 400/204 460/227 460/227 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 150/66 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 220/104 220/104 250/121 180/82 280/138 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 233 Adipic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans.

90% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 200/93 210/99 400/204 90/32 430/221 430/221 200/93 140/60 140/60 140/60 80/27 90/32 90/32 200/93 250/121 X X X X 90/32 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .234 Allyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 235 Allyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 300/149 190/88 400/204 450/232 450/232 200/93 80/27 110/43 X 140/60 X X X 90/32 X X X 140/60 90/32 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

5% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 450/232 450/232 210/99 140/60 140/60 150/66 120/49 300/149 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 200/93 250/121 150/66 300/149 240/116 140/60 220/104 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .236 Alum Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans.

10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 200/93 460/238 250/121 210/99 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 250/121 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 237 Aluminum Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. LLC .

1% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 200/93 300/149 300/149 400/204 90/32 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 300/149 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 120/49 200/93 180/82 170/77 300/149 260/127 300/149 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.238 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aluminum Chloride. LLC . Aqueous Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE. 10% PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF. 25% ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides. 10% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy.

10% Halogenated.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 239 Aluminum Fluoride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVCS Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 80/27 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 90/32 X 140/60 180/82 100/38 280/138 Corrodent will penetrate. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. LLC .

LLC .240 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aluminum Hydroxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 450/232 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 300/149 250/121 200/93 170/77 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 160/71 170/77 160/71 300/149 200/93 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 241 Aluminum Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 250/121 210/99 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 160/77 160/77 250/121 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .242 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aluminum Oxychloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 300/149 400/204 450/232 450/232 280/138 460/238 200/93 140/60 150/66 140/60 200/93 220/104 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 140/60 220/104 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 300/149 200/93 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 250/121 200/93 180/82 300/149 300/149 250/121 260/127 290/143 410/210 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 243 Aluminum Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI.

244 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonia Gas Polymer ABS DRY Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC DRY CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy dry Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 400/204 200/93 210/99 80/27 450/232 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 150/66 80/27 250/121 150/66 X X 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 200/93 160/71 90/32 150/66 210/99 150/66 90/32 100/38 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 245 Ammonium Bifluoride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 450/232 450/232 260/127 140/60 200/93 140/60 90/32 90/32 200/93 230/110 90/32 150/66 Corrodent will be absorbed. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will permeate.

246 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 430/221 430/221 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 100/38 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 90/32 140/60 X 300/149 160/71 150/66 240/116 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 247 Ammonium Chloride. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 290/143 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 410/210 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 300/149 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 80/27 200/93 200/93 160/71 170/77 200/93 200/93 220/104 90/32 X 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides.248 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Chloride. 37% PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 430/221 460/238 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 300/149 180/82 200/93 140/60 180/82 90/32 220/104 200/93 160/71 170/77 270/132 200/93 220/104 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 410/210 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 300/149 200/93 160/71 200/93 140/60 140/60 190/88 250/121 90/32 220/104 200/93 200/93 180/82 170/77 260/127 200/93 260/127 80/27 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sat.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 249 Ammonium Chloride. LLC .

LLC . Synthetic veil or surfacing mat should be used.250 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Fluoride. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurateb Halogenatedb Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalicb PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 430/221 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 90/32 140/60 90/32 200/93 250/121 180/82 140/60 90/32 200/93 280/177 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 251 Ammonium Fluoride. Synthetic veil or surfacing mat should be used. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurateb Halogenatedb Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalicb PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 420/216 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 200/93 90/32 140/60 90/32 200/93 250/121 120/49 140/60 90/32 150/66 220/104 260/127 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .

252 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Hydroxide. LLC . 25% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 X 200/93 140/60 140/60 X 250/121 90/32 X 100/38 90/32 X 300/149 140/60 150/66 260/127 90/32 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 253 Ammonium Hydroxide. Sat. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl estersa Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 80/27 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 80/27 80/27 370/188 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 X 200/93 140/60 140/60 X 250/121 80/27 X 90/32 X 300/149 160/71 130/54 200/93 X Synthetic veil or surfacing mat should be used.

25% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 230/110 400/204 200/93 200/93 350/177 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 240/116 220/104 220/93 200/93 160/77 140/66 250/121 250/121 260/127 200/93 210/99 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.254 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. LLC .

5% PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 150/66 300/149 400/204 X 450/232 460/238 280/138 140/60 150/66 180/82 140/60 220/104 90/32 140/60 140/60 200/93 180/82 X 180/82 140/60 200/93 160/71 180/82 250/121 180/82 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 255 Ammonium Persulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE. LLC .

65% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 300/149 450/232 280/138 80/27 140/60 300/149 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 90/32 250/121 80/27 150/66 160/71 140/60 200/93 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .256 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Phosphate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS.

Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. sat. Furans.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 257 Ammonium Sulfate. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET. PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 10% PET. Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 200/93 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 300/149 200/93 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 200/93 180/82 170/77 300/149 220/104 260/127 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. Epoxy Vinyl esters. LLC . sat. sat. 10–40% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. sat.

LLC .258 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Sulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 220/104 80/27 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 110/43 120/49 100/38 X 120/49 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 259 Amyl Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 100/38 160/71 250/121 400/204 150/66 200/93 200/93 450/232 190/88 140/60 80/27 80/27 X 300/149 X 120/49 X X X X 180/82 X 80/27 190/88 X X 80/27 80/27 110/43 260/127 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

260 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Amyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 100/49 210/99 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 X 130/54 220/104 X 200/93 200/93 200/93 160/71 250/121 200/93 210/99 260/127 190/88 160/71 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 261 Amyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 450/232 280/138 X X X 200/93 X 80/27 X X X X 220/104 X X 90/32 X 80/27 120/49 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

262 Aniline Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 90/32 230/110 400/204 X 200/93 200/93 X 200/93 450/232 200/93 130/54 130/54 X X 300/149 180/82 X X X X X 150/66 X 80/27 X 120/49 X X X 150/66 X 260/127 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 263 Antimony Trichloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. LLC . 50% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 100/38 220/104 400/204 X 300/149 460/238 150/66 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 180/82 160/71 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 220/104 200/93 80/27 160/71 250/121 220/104 220/104 250/121 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .264 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aqua Regia 3:1 Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 200/93 250/121 210/99 400/204 X X 240/116 450/232 170/77 130/54 130/54 80/27 X X 120/49 X X X 80/27 80/27 X X X X X X 80/27 X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

80% CPVC. 80% PVDC PSF PVC Type 1. 80% PVC Type 2. 198 Be Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/183 140/60 140/60 60/15 210/99 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 180/82 180/82 180/82 180/82 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 80% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 80% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 265 Arsenic Acid Polymer ABS.

266 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Barium Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 260/183 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 200/93 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 250/121 180/82 160/71 250/121 240/116 260/127 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 267 Barium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 30% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 200/93 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 90/32 220/104 250/121 200/93 140/60 250/121 250/121 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% PPS PP PVDC PSF. LLC . 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO.

10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 350/177 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 X 140/60 200/93 200/93 180/82 200/43 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 150/66 X X X 200/93 150/66 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.268 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Barium Hydroxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. LLC . 10% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic to 10% PET Epoxy.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 269 Barium Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 400/204 80/27 450/232 270/132 140/60 170/77 210/99 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 170/77 200/93 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .270 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Barium Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 330/166 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 X 140/60 200/93 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 220/104 180/82 160/71 X 250/121 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 271 Barium Sulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 360/182 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 140/60 220/104 200/93 150/66 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 90/32 140/60 X 90/32 300/149 180/82 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.272 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Benzaldehyde Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 200/93 150/66 210/99 400/204 150/66 200/93 80/27 300/149 450/232 120/40 X X X X 250/121 80/27 X X X X X 80/27 X X X X X X X X 260/127 60/15 Corrodent will be absorbed. Material is subject to stress cracking.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 273 Benzene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 150/66 210/99 400/204 250/121 80/27 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 150/66 X X X X 300/149 140/60 80/27 X X X X 150/66 X 90/32 X 90/32 X X X 180/82 X 260/127 160/77 X Corrodent will be absorbed. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will permeate. LLC .

274 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Benzene Sulfonic Acid. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. LLC . 30% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 150/66 210/99 400/204 X X X 90/32 380/139 450/232 100/38 140/60 90/32 250/121 200/93 250/121 180/82 120/49 X 140/60 140/60 180/82 220/104 X 200/93 120/49 180/82 250/121 220/104 200/93 266/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 250/121 200/93 400/204 200/93 170/77 90/32 80/27 400/204 450/121 250/121 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 230/110 190/88 150/66 X 140/60 140/60 90/32 250/121 X 200/93 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 200/93 180/82 260/127 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 275 Benzoic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides. 10% PAI PEEK PEI. LLC .

276 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Benzyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 200/93 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 X 300/149 450/232 280/138 170/77 X 80/27 X 200/93 140/60 X X X 220/104 X 90/32 X X X 80/27 X 100/38 260/177 60/15 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 277 Benzyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 110/48 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 120/49 300/149 450/232 280/138 250/121 X 300/149 80/27 80/27 X X X 80/27 X X X X X 250/121 80/27 90/32 260/127 170/77 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

pH7 Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 400/204 450/232 260/127 140/60 150/66 140/60 140/60 200/93 230/110 X 220/104 X 210/99 180/82 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.278 Black Liquor Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 279 Borax Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 210/99 210/99 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 220/104 170/77 140/60 250/121 210/99 140/60 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

280 Boric Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF. 10% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 80/27 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 200/93 140/60 210/99 220/104 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 220/104 180/82 210/99 180/82 200/93 220/104 200/93 260/127 300/149 390/189 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 281 Bromine Gas. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 100/38 X 150/66 200/93 X 210/99 210/99 X X X X X X X 90/32 100/38 X X 100/38 Corrodent will penetrate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Moist Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 210/99 200/93 X 120/49 X 200/93 250/121 210/99 X X X 200/93 X X X X 100/38 100/38 X X 100/38 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.282 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Bromine Gas. LLC .

b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Liquid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 283 Bromine.b PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde 3% Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 150/66 400/204 X 300/149 450/232 140/60 X X 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X 60/15 300/149 Corrodent will be absorbed. Corrodent will penetrate.

LLC .284 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Bromine Water. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 250/121 400/204 210/99 300/149 450/232 210/99 X X X X 140/60 X X X 180/82 X 100/38 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sat.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 285 Butadiene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 200/93 250/121 250/121 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 X X X 100/38 X 150/66 X 140/60 X 150/66 250/121 X 80/27 150/66 110/43 X Corrodent will be absorbed. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will permeate.

286 Butyl Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 150/66 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 400/204 450/232 140/60 90/32 90/32 250/121 X 250/121 X 120/49 X X X X 140/60 X 80/27 80/27 X X 250/121 170/77 80/27 260/127 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 287 Butyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 100/38 200/93 200/93 150/66 200/93 X X 140/60 220/104 X 80/27 100/38 80/27 100/38 140/60 120/49 210/99 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

288 n-Butylamine Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 120/49 400/204 200/93 200/93 400/204 450/232 X X X X 200/93 90/32 X X X X X X X X X X X Corrodent will be absorbed. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 289 Butyl Ether Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 200/93 200/93 400/204 210/99 200/93 400/204 450/232 200/93 X 210/99 X 200/93 140/60 X 150/66 80/27 X 80/27 210/99 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

290 Butyric Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC !1% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 20% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 250/121 250/121 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 210/99 130/54 X 250/121 250/121 180/82 80/27 130/54 X X 140/60 230/110 X 220/104 200/93 X 120/49 250/121 210/99 130/54 260/127 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Halogenated. LLC . 20% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 291 Calcium Bisulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 400/204 450/232 260/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 120/49 160/71 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .292 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Bisulfite Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 400/204 140/60 400/204 450/232 260/138 80/27 140/60 X 80/27 200/93 210/99 80/27 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 180/82 150/66 150/66 X 270/132 260/127 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 293 Calcium Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 250/121 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 210/99 210/99 160/71 250/121 300/149 180/82 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

5% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 380/193 450/232 280/132 140/60 140/60 220/104 160/71 140/60 140/60 200/93 150/66 90/32 200/93 250/121 210/99 160/71 200/93 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.294 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Chlorate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 295 Calcium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. LLC . 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. 37.5% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 230/110 200/93 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 150/66 80/27 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 190/88 180/82 260/127 200/93 300/149 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

296 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Hydroxide. LLC . 30% PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 150/66 90/32 400/204 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 250/121 300/149 220/104 160/71 100/38 140/60 140/60 200/93 90/32 80/27 180/82 170/77 160/71 250/121 210/99 180/82 260/127 X 200/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone.

Sat. 25% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 150/66 90/32 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 180/82 100/38 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 160/71 X 160/71 250/121 180/82 180/82 260/127 X 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 297 Calcium Hydroxide. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters.

20% Vinyl esters. 10% Isophthalic PET Epoxy.298 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Hypochlorite. 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. LLC . 20% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 400/204 450/232 200/93 140/60 100/38 210/99 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 X X 210/99 170/97 180/82 120/49 150/66 160/71 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 299 Calcium Hypochlorite. Sat. 20% PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 70% Vinyl esters Furans. 10% Isophthalic. LLC . 20% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. 20% Halogenated. 10% PET Epoxy. to 20% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 X 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 200/93 X X 80/27 80/27 180/82 120/49 250/121 150/66 180/82 240/116 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO.

300 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 260/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 210/99 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 220/104 160/71 170/77 250/121 210/99 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 301 Calcium Oxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 270/132 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 80/27 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 150/66 150/66 80/27 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

302 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Sulfate Polymer ABS. LLC . 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 160/71 170/77 250/121 250/121 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 303 Caprylic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 220/104 210/99 400/204 250/121 390/199 450/232 220/104 250/121 140/60 90/32 120/49 180/82 220/104 160/71 140/60 160/71 250/121 X 220/104 250/121 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

304 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Carbon Dioxide. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 200/93 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 350/177 250/121 160/71 200/93 200/93 90/32 300/149 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Wet Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 220/104 170/77 140/60 140/60 160/71 250/121 80/27 210/99 250/121 150/71 250/121 220/104 80/27 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 305 Carbon Dioxide. LLC .

Corrodent will be absorbed.306 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Carbon Disulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 80/27 80/27 150/66 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 80/27 X X 80/27 60/15 200/93 X 90/32 X X X X X 80/27 X X X X 80/27 100/38 X 260/127 180/82 X Corrodent will permeate. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 307 Carbon Monoxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 140/60 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 350/177 170/77 160/71 210/99 200/93 350/177 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

c PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b c 8F/8C X X 300/149 270/132 400/204 250/121 80/27 80/27 80/27 380/193 450/232 280/138 X X 250/121 X 120/49 X 140/60 X X X X 200/93 X 80/27 110/43 120/49 X X 250/121 170/77 260/127 200/93 Material is subject to stress cracking. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will be absorbed.b.c Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. Corrodent will permeate.308 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Carbon Tetrachloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.b.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 309 Carbonic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 100/38 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 140/60 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 80/27 90/32 160/71 160/71 210/99 200/93 120/49 200/93 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

35% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC. 10–50% FEP Polyamides. 50% PPO. 10–50% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 210/99 400/204 120/49 80/27 390/199 450/232 180/82 140/60 140/60 X 90/32 170/77 80/27 130/54 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 80/27 170/77 120/49 X X 200/93 150/66 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.310 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Caustic Potash (Potassium Hydroxide) Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE. LLC . 50% Epoxy Vinyl esters. to 50% PAI PEEK PEI. 10–50% Halogenated. 10% PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET. 50% PSF. 50% CPE PUR. 10–50% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET. 50% PPS PP PVDC. to 50% Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

311

Cellosolve
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 200/93 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93

380/193 450/232 280/138 X 80/27 X X 200/93 200/93 80/27 X X X X 220/104 80/27 140/60 80/27 X X 140/60 140/60 240/116

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

312

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorine Gas, Dry
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE, 10% PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 150/66 210/99 X X 80/27

X 240/116 80/27 80/27 80/27 X X X 80/27 X 140/60 140/60 X 100/38 X X 350/177 200/93 210/99 160/71 80/27 150/66 240/116 260/127 160/171

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

313

Chlorine Gas, Wet
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF, 10% EHMWPE, 10% HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C 140/60

250/121 250/121 400/204 X

400/204 450/232 250/121 120/49 X 80/27 80/27 X X 80/27 X X X X 80/27 X 80/27 200/93 220/104 210/99 160/71 80/27 X 250/121 260/127 150/66 X

Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

314

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorine Liquid
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X

250/121 400/204 X X

X 210/99 X X X 200/93 X X X X X X X

X X X

X X X

Corrodent will be absorbed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

315

Chloracetic Acid
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE, 50% FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA, 50% PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated, 25% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic, to 25% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters, 25% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 120/49 250/121 230/110 400/204 X

400/204 450/232 200/93 X X 80/27 200/93 180/82 120/49 X 140/60 X X 220/104 X X 80/27 90/32 150/66 80/27 X 200/93 240/116 X

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

316

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorobenzene
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI DRY PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals, dry Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 150/66 210/99 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 X 390/199 450/232 220/104 X X X X 200/93 X 80/27 X X X X 150/66 X 80/27 X X X X X 190/88 110/43 260/127 250/121 X

Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

317

Chloroform
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 250/121 230/110 400/204 200/93 120/49 80/27

390/199 450/232 250/121 80/27 X 230/110 X 150/66 X X X X X X 80/27 X X X X X X 230/110 110/43 X 240/116 160/171

Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

318

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorosulfonic Acid
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 80/27 80/27 400/204 X 80/27 X 390/199 450/232 110/43 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 260/127 130/54 X

Corrodent will be absorbed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

319

Chromic Acid, 10%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF, 12% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 X 250/121 150/66 400/204 X 200/93 90/32 X 380/193 450/232 220/104 140/60 140/60 250/121 X 200/93 140/60 180/82 140/60 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 X 80/27 X 180/82 X 250/121 110/43 150/66 260/127 X

X

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

320

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chromic Acid, 50%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 250/121 150/66 400/204 X 200/93 X 380/193 450/232 250/121 90/32 90/32 250/121 X 200/93 150/66 180/82 X X X 210/99 200/93 X 80/27 X 140/60 X X 250/121 X X X X

X

Corrodent will be absorbed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

321

Citric Acid, 15%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 120/49 400/204 200/93 170/77

390/199 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 250/121 120/49 250/121 220/104 180/82 100/38 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 160/71 250/121 190/88 210/99 250/121 160/71

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF. 32% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 400/204 200/93 170/77 250/121 80/27 370/188 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 170/77 90/32 250/121 220/104 180/82 80/27 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 200/93 170/77 190/88 200/93 250/121 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Polymer ABS. 40% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. Conc.322 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Citric Acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 323 Copper Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 290/143 450/232 250/121 300/149 80/27 80/27 200/93 180/82 210/99 210/99 180/71 200/93 210/99 260/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .324 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Copper Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 150/66 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 250/121 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 160/83 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 325 Copper Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 220/104 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 170/77 250/121 220/104 260/127 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

10% PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 210/99 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 220/104 250/121 210/99 160/71 150/66 210/99 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.326 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Copper Cyanide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 327 Copper Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. LLC . 17% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 300/149 300/149 400/204 140/60 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 250/121 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 200/93 170/77 210/99 240/116 260/127 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

328 Cresol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 300/149 270/132 400/204 X 390/199 450/232 210/99 140/60 X X X 200/93 X 150/66 X 130/54 X X 140/60 X X X X X X X 100/38 X 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

5% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 270/232 140/60 250/121 150/66 300/149 140/60 160/71 200/93 150/66 X 170/77 250/121 80/27 270/132 300/149 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 329 Cupric Chloride.

5% FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF. LLC . PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE. 5% PP PVDC PSF. Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 270/132 80/27 140/60 250/121 170/77 300/149 140/60 170/77 200/93 150/66 180/82 200/93 X 140/60 250/121 80/27 220/104 300/149 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 5% EHMWPE. Sat. 10% HMWPE PET PPO PPS.330 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cupric Chloride.

10% PVDC. 10% PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE. 10% EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP. 10% PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 240/116 90/32 220/104 240/116 210/99 160/71 250/121 150/66 210/99 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 331 Cupric Cyanide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF.

332 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cupric Fluoride Polymer ABS. LLC . 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 250/121 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 200/93 160/71 140/60 140/60 182/82 250/121 150/66 120/49 X 250/121 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 333 Cupric Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 380/193 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 200/93 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 240/116 X 220/104 140/60 210/99 160/71 170/77 240/116 210/99 280/183 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

334 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cupric Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 X 300/149 300/149 390/199 140/60 390/199 450/232 280/132 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 250/121 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 230/110 200/93 170/77 250/121 200/93 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 335 Cyclohexanol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 250/121 400/204 250/121 200/93 390/199 450/232 210/99 170/77 80/27 190/88 250/121 150/66 90/32 200/93 X X X 220/104 80/27 120/49 150/66 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .336 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cyclohexanone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 400/204 450/232 110/43 140/60 X 250/121 X 200/93 X X X X X X 80/27 80/27 X 100/38 X X 250/121 X 120/49 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 337 Detergents Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 110/43 390/199 450/232 140/60 140/60 140/60 90/32 290/143 220/104 80/27 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 90/32 90/32 90/32 140/60 250/121 100/38 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Heavy Duty Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 100/38 390/199 450/232 140/60 140/60 120/49 300/149 150/66 140/60 140/60 160/71 80/27 80/27 120/49 250/121 120/49 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .338 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Detergent Solution.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 339 Dextrin Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 300/149 400/204 390/199 450/232 230/110 140/60 140/60 160/71 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .340 Dextrose Polymer ABS. 20% PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 140/60 300/149 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 X 220/104 220/104 160/71 80/27 200/93 240/116 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 341 Dibutyl Ether Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 200/93 200/93 400/204 200/93 200/93 400/204 350/177 200/93 X 210/99 X 200/93 140/60 X 150/66 80/27 X 80/27 200/93 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .342 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Dibutyl Phthalate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 150/66 400/204 80/27 200/93 380/193 450/232 X 140/60 X 80/27 120/49 300/149 110/43 120/49 180/82 X X X X 180/82 100/38 230/121 160/71 80/27 250/121 200/93 230/110 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

20% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 150/66 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 80/27 100/38 100/38 120/49 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 X 100/38 X 100/38 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 343 Dichloroacetic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC.

LLC .344 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Dichlorobenzene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 150/66 400/204 250/121 380/193 450/232 120/49 X X 250/121 200/93 150/66 X X X X X 110/43 X X X 250/121 190/88 110/43 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 345 Dichloroethane (Ethylene Dichloride) Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 340/171 450/232 180/138 X X X X X 80/27 X X X X 120/49 90/32 X X X X X X 110/43 250/121 200/93 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

346 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ethyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 80/27 90/32 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/38 180/82 150/66 100/38 140/60 140/60 210/99 220/104 X 90/32 150/66 90/32 80/27 250/121 150/66 100/38 260/127 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 347 Ethyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/127 200/93 390/199 450/232 260/138 X X 250/121 X 200/93 X X X X X X 220/104 X 80/27 80/27 X 250/121 X X 260/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .348 Ethyl Ether Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 150/66 210/99 400/204 200/93 80/27 370/188 450/232 150/66 X X 250/121 X 150/66 90/32 X X X X X 220/104 X 80/27 X X X X 250/121 X X 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 349 Ethylene Glycol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 205/121 200/93 160/71 80/27 90/32 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 200/93 140/60 300/149 230/110 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 220/104 90/32 180/82 220/104 250/121 250/121 200/93 300/149 210/99 260/177 100/38 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .350 Fatty Acids Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 200/93 60/15 250/121 140/60 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 150/66 100/38 200/93 250/121 220/104 180/82 200/93 200/93 250/121 260/127 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 351 Ferric Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE. LLC . 50% FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 210/99 140/60 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 300/149 210/99 260/127 300/149 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

352 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ferric Nitrate. 10–50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 210/99 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 220/104 250/121 200/93 180/82 170/77 250/121 200/93 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

40% Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 90/32 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 210/99 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 250/121 200/93 260/127 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 353 Ferrous Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics.

LLC .354 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ferrous Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 210/99 80/27 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 220/104 160/71 210/99 160/71 200/93 220/104 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 X X 100/38 200/93 440/227 X X 310/154 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X X X X 80/27 X 90/32 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 355 Fluorine Gas.

Moist Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 80/27 100/38 X X X X 200/93 250/121 X 80/27 80/27 X X X X X X X 80/27 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.356 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Fluorine Gas. LLC .

Dil. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 140/60 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 300/149 120/49 140/60 140/60 240/116 200/93 200/93 140/60 200/93 140/60 140/60 220/104 80/27 80/27 150/66 220/104 140/60 240/116 110/43 150/66 160/71 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 357 Formaldehyde.

LLC . 35% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 150/66 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 450/232 140/60 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 200/93 120/49 200/93 140/60 100/38 140/60 220/104 80/27 80/27 150/66 200/93 140/60 250/121 110/43 140/60 160/71 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.358 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Formaldehyde.

37% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 150/66 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 450/232 120/49 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 200/93 210/99 140/60 200/93 140/60 100/38 140/60 220/104 80/27 80/27 150/66 210/99 140/60 250/121 150/66 200/93 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 359 Formaldehyde. LLC .

50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 80/27 400/204 250/166 450/232 280/138 250/121 200/93 200/93 130/54 140/60 120/49 150/66 220/104 80/27 120/49 190/88 250/121 110/43 140/60 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .360 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Formaldehyde.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 361 Formic Acid. 10% PEI. to 25% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 250/121 270/132 400/204 X 90/32 90/32 80/27 390/199 450/121 250/121 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 150/66 200/93 110/38 90/32 180/82 220/104 X 150/66 150/66 90/32 X 250/121 X 100/38 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC. 10–85% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK.

362 Furfural Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 210/99 400/204 90/32 80/27 390/199 450/232 110/43 80/27 130/54 80/27 X 300/149 X 80/27 X X X X 140/60 X X X X 80/27 X X 260/127 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 363 Gallic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 210/99 400/204 80/27 200/93 450/232 160/71 140/60 140/60 250/121 250/121 180/82 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X 250/121 200/93 250/121 120/49 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

364 Gas. Natural Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 140/60 80/27 200/93 450/232 X X 140/60 160/71 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 90/32 200/93 200/93 280/138 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Refined Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 200/93 400/204 250/127 120/49 380/193 450/232 X 250/121 90/32 300/149 X 90/32 200/93 120/49 X X 80/27 80/27 80/27 200/93 90/32 90/32 250/121 150/66 180/82 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 365 Gasoline.

366 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Gasoline. Sour Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 80/27 370/160 450/232 280/138 250/121 300/149 X 140/60 140/60 X 250/121 80/27 X 90/32 80/27 250/121 300/149 200/93 190/88 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Unleaded Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 X 250/121 X 300/149 X 150/66 200/93 140/60 X 250/121 80/27 80/27 90/32 200/93 90/32 100/38 250/121 250/121 100/38 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 367 Gasoline.

368 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Glycerine (Glycerol) Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 75% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 300/149 210/99 180/82 80/27 140/60 140/60 210/99 220/104 90/32 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 280/138 300/149 260/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 369 Green Liquor Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 400/204 380/193 450/232 280/138 250/121 140/60 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 220/104 X X 190/88 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Corrodent will permeate.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa.b PTFEa.370 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrobromic Acid. Dil. LLC .b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 200/93 230/110 120/49 300/149 140/60 140/60 130/54 250/121 220/104 200/93 140/60 250/121 180/82 180/82 250/121 200/93 Material is subject to stress cracking. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.b PTFEa.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 371 Hydrobromic Acid. Corrodent will permeate.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 120/49 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 200/93 200/93 120/49 180/82 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 220/104 160/71 90/32 140/60 250/121 180/82 180/82 250/121 200/93 Material is subject to stress cracking. LLC .

Corrodent will permeate. 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 200/93 190/88 130/54 140/60 140/60 190/88 250/121 160/71 200/93 90/32 150/66 250/121 110/43 200/93 260/127 200/93 X X Material subject to stress cracking.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa.b PTFEa.372 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrobromic Acid. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 373 Hydrochloric Acid.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 90/32 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 90/32 90/32 140/60 250/121 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 160/71 210/99 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X X 210/99 230/110 180/82 160/71 250/121 200/93 220/104 260/127 300/149 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking.b PTFEa. Corrodent will permeate. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Corrodent will permeate. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 38% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.b PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 90/32 140/60 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 90/32 190/88 210/99 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 140/60 170/77 250/121 X X 180/82 170/77 160/71 90/32 140/60 180/82 250/121 300/149 X 90/32 Material subject to stress cracking.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa.374 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrochloric Acid.

10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 380/183 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 250/121 150/60 120/49 140/60 140/60 80/27 250/121 200/93 150/66 X 90/32 80/27 160/71 160/71 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 375 Hydrocyanic Acid.

376 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrofluoric Acid. LLC . Synthetic veil surfacing mat should be used. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurateb Halogenatedb Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 200/93 250/121 270/132 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 X 90/32 200/93 180/82 160/71 100/38 130/54 130/54 X 250/121 X 90/32 120/49 X X X X X X X X Corrodent will permeate.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 377 Hydrofluoric Acid. 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X 240/116 250/121 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 210/99 X X X 200/93 X 80/27 90/32 X X X X X X X X X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

378 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Chloride Gas. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 150/66 220/104 180/82 90/32 80/27 250/121 100/38 250/121 230/110 140/60 250/121 Corrodent will permeate.

Moist Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 450/232 270/132 140/60 80/27 210/99 210/99 120/49 350/177 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 379 Hydrogen Chloride Gas.

Polymer ABS. 3% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 270/132 250/121 400/204 80/27 200/93 80/27 200/93 450/232 250/121 120/49 120/49 120/49 90/32 100/38 120/49 90/32 140/60 X 150/66 80/27 150/66 200/93 80/27 180/27 120/49 150/66 140/60 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Dil. 5% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. 5% PET Epoxy.380 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Peroxide. LLC .

LLC . 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 270/132 250/121 400/204 80/27 200/93 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 120/49 90/32 100/38 120/49 180/82 140/60 X 180/82 150/66 X 90/32 100/38 90/32 X 120/49 140/60 170/77 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 381 Hydrogen Peroxide.

LLC . 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 200/83 90/32 80/27 200/93 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 80/27 X 150/66 130/54 80/27 140/60 100/38 90/32 150/66 X X 100/38 X 80/27 X 110/43 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.382 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Peroxide.

LLC . 90% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 200/23 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 120/49 80/27 140/60 80/27 X 110/43 120/49 100/38 140/60 X 80/27 140/60 X X X 80/27 X 150/66 80/27 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 383 Hydrogen Peroxide.

384 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Sulfide. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 80/27 250/121 170/77 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/60 220/104 80/27 200/93 250/121 140/60 80/27 250/121 250/121 250/121 300/149 90/32 Corrodent will permeate.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 385 Hydrogen Sulfide. Wet Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/232 X 200/93 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 X 180/82 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 X 210/99 210/99 140/60 80/27 300/149 180/82 250/121 300/149 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 120/49 140/60 140/60 180/82 150/66 90/32 100/38 210/99 90/32 200/93 150/66 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. 50% Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters.386 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hypochlorous Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 20% Halogenated. LLC . 50% Furans.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 387 Ketones. LLC . General Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 400/204 150/66 80/27 400/204 450/232 110/43 80/27 80/27 X X 110/43 90/32 X X X X X X X X X 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . 25% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 150/66 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 60/15 400/204 450/232 130/54 140/60 150/66 250/121 190/88 250/121 150/66 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 210/99 200/93 210/99 160/71 250/121 220/104 210/99 250/121 160/71 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.388 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Lactic Acid.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 389 Lactic Acid. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals. 10% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 150/66 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 90/32 400/204 450/232 110/43 140/60 250/121 190/88 250/121 150/66 80/27 200/93 80/27 80/27 X 150/66 80/27 220/104 200/93 210/99 160/71 250/121 200/93 200/93 260/127 160/71 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Conc.

LLC .390 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Magnesium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals. 10% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 380/193 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 300/149 210/99 180/82 140/60 140/60 230/110 270/132 80/27 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 190/88 260/127 260/127 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 391 Malic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 270/132 400/204 X 390/199 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 80/27 130/54 80/27 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 160/71 90/32 90/32 80/27 140/60 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Corrodent will permeate. LLC .392 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Methyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 300/149 300/149 400/204 210/99 X 390/199 450/232 X X X 80/27 X X 80/27 X X X X 230/110 X 80/27 80/27 X X 120/49 300/149 Material is subject to stress cracking. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 393 Methyl Ethyl Ketone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 230/110 400/204 240/116 200/93 370/188 X X 400/204 450/232 X X X 250/121 X 200/93 150/66 X X X X X 90/32 X X X X X X 250/121 90/32 X 170/77 X X Corrodent will permeate. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 150/66 300/149 400/204 110/43 400/204 450/232 110/43 80/27 80/27 X X 250/121 80/27 80/27 X X X 80/27 X 80/27 X X X 140/60 160/71 X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.394 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa. Material subject to stress cracking. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 395 Muriatic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 140/60 60/15 80/27 210/99 200/93 160/71 150/66 180/82 130/54 190/88 180/82 160/71 80/27 140/60 180/82 80/27 300/149 Corrodent will permeate. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 150/66 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 200/93 140/60 140/60 150/66 140/66 150/66 140/60 90/32 X 140/60 100/38 150/66 180/82 X X 160/71 210/99 90/32 120/49 150/66 160/71 180/82 200/93 X 80/27 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .396 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Nitric Acid.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 397 Nitric Acid. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 130/54 X 250/121 160/71 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 X 400/204 450/232 180/82 140/60 140/60 80/27 90/32 100/38 140/60 150/66 X 140/60 140/60 160/71 80/27 X X 100/38 80/27 X 80/27 100/38 150/66 X X 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 250/121 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 X X 80/27 X X X X 140/60 140/60 110/43 80/27 X X 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X Corrodent will permeate.398 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Nitric Acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . Anhydrous Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 399 Nitric Acid. 90% PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 X 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 150/66 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 250/121 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 X X 80/27 X X X X 140/60 140/60 110/43 80/27 X X 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X Corrodent will permeate. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.400 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Nitric Acid.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 401 Oleum Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 60/15 150/66 400/204 X 120/49 400/204 450/232 X X X 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 190/88 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

402 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Perchloric Acid. LLC . 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 200/93 150/66 230/110 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 X X 150/66 130/54 X 140/60 60/15 180/82 140/60 X X 90/32 X X X 90/32 150/66 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 200/93 150/66 150/66 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 X X X X X 120/49 60/15 60/15 180/82 X X X 90/32 X X X 80/27 X 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 403 Perchloric Acid.

404 Phenol. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 5% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 90/32 150/66 230/110 400/204 X 140/60 X X 400/204 450/232 210/99 100/38 100/38 X X 290/143 200/93 80/27 X X 90/32 90/32 X X X 90/32 X X X X 100/38 210/99 90/32 X 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 405 Phenol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 85% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X 90/32 150/66 210/99 400/201 X 140/60 X 400/202 450/232 200/93 100/38 100/38 X 300/149 180/82 X 60/15 X 140/60 90/32 X X X 90/32 X X X X X 210/99 X X 80/27 Corrodent will permeate.

406 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Phosphoric Acid. LLC . 50–80% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 130/54 80/27 250/121 250/121 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 200/93 200/93 450/232 250/121 100/38 100/38 250/121 140/60 220/104 210/99 130/54 80/27 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 110/43 210/99 260/127 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 407 Picric Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters. 10% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 90/32 80/27 120/49 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 80/27 100/30 X X 140/60 120/49 X X X 150/66 110/43 100/38 X X 80/27 200/93 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated.408 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Potassium Bromide. 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides. LLC . 30% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 210/99 140/60 140/66 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 140/60 200/93 210/99 110/43 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 200/93 230/110 160/71 80/27 220/104 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 409 Salicylic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 250/121 250/121 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 220/104 140/60 130/54 130/54 100/38 140/60 X X 220/104 150/66 130/54 100/38 250/121 150/66 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

410 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Silver Bromide. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 450/232 250/121 170/77 140/60 90/32 170/77 180/82 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

20% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 411 Sodium Carbonate Polymer ABS. 50% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 300/149 300/149 400/204 240/116 200/93 210/99 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 300/149 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 160/71 190/88 100/38 90/32 250/121 300/149 180/82 260/127 X 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. LLC . 10% Isophthalic. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A.

10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals. 10% PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 100/38 300/149 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 180/82 220/104 250/121 210/99 200/93 250/121 210/99 180/82 260/127 300/149 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone.412 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. LLC .

10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 230/110 400/204 250/121 X 220/104 90/32 80/27 400/204 450/232 210/99 170/77 150/66 130/54 140/66 210/99 220/104 90/32 200/93 140/60 140/60 190/88 180/82 80/27 130/54 110/43 100/38 X 130/54 190/88 170/77 X X 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 413 Sodium Hydroxide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.414 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Hydroxide. 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 230/110 400/204 250/121 X 180/82 80/27 400/204 450/232 220/104 170/77 150/66 X 140/60 210/99 220/104 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 X X X X 200/93 220/104 X X 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 415 Sodium Hydroxide. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 150/66 400/204 200/93 450/232 150/66 X 140/60 X 80/27 140/60 140/60 190/88 180/82 X X X X 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking. Conc.

10% Isophthalic PET Epoxy. 10% PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. 5% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 80/27 200/93 120/49 130/54 300/149 140/60 140/60 200/93 180/82 X X X X 160/71 X 80/27 80/27 180/82 X X X 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.416 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Hypochlorite. 20% PPS. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO. LLC . 15% CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics. 5% PP PVDC.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 417 Sodium Hypochlorite. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 80/27 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 80/27 250/121 110/43 120/49 300/149 140/60 140/60 200/93 200/93 X X 140/60 X X 80/27 100/38 X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Conc.

10% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 X 400/204 450/232 260/138 140/60 140/60 240/116 140/60 250/121 190/88 140/60 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 230/110 210/99 X X 240/116 250/121 220/104 260/127 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. LLC . sat. all Furans.418 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Sulfide. to 10% Vinyl esters. PET Epoxy. 25% PPS. Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. all PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. to 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO.

all PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 419 Stannic Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. all Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 90/32 230/110 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 80/27 180/82 170/77 200/93 210/99 260/127 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

dry PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. LLC .420 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Stannous Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides. all PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 210/99 300/149 300/149 400/204 450/232 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 210/99 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 250/121 180/82 170/77 220/104 200/93 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 421 Sulfuric Acid. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 300/149 400/204 80/27 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 160/71 140/60 250/121 200/93 120/49 300/149 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X X 220/104 260/127 210/99 160/71 160/71 140/60 200/93 250/121 300/149 X 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .422 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfuric Acid. 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 130/54 90/32 230/110 250/121 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 X 400/204 450/232 220/104 140/60 140/60 140/60 90/32 250/121 200/93 X 300/149 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X X 220/104 200/93 210/99 150/66 140/60 110/43 210/99 260/127 280/138 X 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 423 Sulfuric Acid. 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 230/110 250/121 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 220/104 80/27 80/27 X 90/32 250/121 180/82 X X 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 X X 160/71 190/88 90/32 X X 110/43 180/82 260/127 200/93 X 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . 90% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 210/99 150/66 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 210/99 X X X 80/27 220/104 180/82 X X 140/60 X 120/49 140/60 X X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.424 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfuric Acid.

98% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 210/99 150/66 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 140/60 X X X 180/82 120/49 X X X X 120/149 X X X X X X X X X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 425 Sulfuric Acid.

100% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 210/99 80/27 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.426 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfuric Acid. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 427 Sulfuric Acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Fuming Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 200/93 300/149 120/49 400/204 X 120/40 X X X 400/204 450/232 X X X 60/15 X X X X X X X X X X X X Corrodent will permeate. LLC .

10% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. to 20% Vinyl esters.428 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfurous Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. LLC . 10% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 210/99 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 200/93 180/82 80/27 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 220/104 X 110/43 80/27 210/99 X 240/116 120/49 160/71 160/71 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PET Epoxy. 25% Isophthalic. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 429 Thionyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X 150/66 210/99 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 X X X X 100/38 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 200/93 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

430 Toluene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 150/66 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 210/99 X X 250/121 X 300/149 60/15 80/27 X X X X 80/27 X X X 110/43 90/32 110/43 250/121 150/66 120/49 260/127 200/93 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

50% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde. 20% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 50% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC. 30% Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 150/66 210/99 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 130/54 140/60 80/27 250/121 140/60 210/99 150/66 80/27 90/32 X 140/60 X 180/82 200/93 90/32 170/77 250/121 X 210/99 260/127 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 431 Trichloroacetic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE. 50% Halogenated. 50% HMWPE PET PPO. 50% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters. 10% PPS. LLC .

LLC . Acid Mine Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 210/99 400/204 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 220/104 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 100/38 210/99 110/43 300/149 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.432 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Water.

Demineralized Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 210/99 400/204 80/27 150/66 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 160/71 210/99 210/99 150/66 250/121 250/121 210/99 250/121 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 433 Water.

434 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Water. LLC . Distilled Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 210/99 400/204 80/27 200/93 90/32 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 170/77 210/99 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 80/27 180/82 200/93 210/99 210/99 180/82 250/121 210/99 210/99 200/93 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Potable Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 450/232 280/138 180/82 170/77 140/60 140/60 210/99 210/99 170/77 210/99 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 435 Water. LLC .

Salt Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy.436 Water. 10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 250/121 400/204 140/60 90/32 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X 80/27 180/82 210/99 160/76 250/121 210/99 180/82 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Sea Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 300/149 250/121 400/204 140/60 150/66 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 300/149 220/104 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 180/82 200/93 120/49 250/121 300/149 180/82 250/121 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 437 Water. LLC .

Sewage Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 270/132 400/204 110/43 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 220/104 170/77 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.438 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Water. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 439 White Liquor Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 200/93 90/32 220/104 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 180/82 X X 200/93 180/82 140/60 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.440 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Zinc Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. 70% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 90/32 400/204 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 250/121 200/93 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 250/121 200/93 200/93 180/82 250/121 250/121 180/82 260/127 300/149 400/204 Corrodent will be absorbed.

LLC . 1–4. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 5th ed.A. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 441 Reference 1. New York: Marcel Dekker. 2004.. Schweitzer. P. Vols.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Vulcanizing agents are also added because the vulcanizing process extends the temperature range within which they are flexible and elastic. In the raw state. elastomers tend to be soft and sticky when hot and hard and brittle when cold. tougher. Ingredients are added to make elastomers stronger. Depending on the application of the elastomer. in general. or harder. these coils tend to stretch or compress but exert an increasing resistance as additional stresses are applied. either natural or synthetic. More commonly. an elastomer is generally considered to be any material that is elastic or resilient and. LLC . resembles natural rubber in feeling and appearance. similar to a coiled spring. These materials are sometimes referred to as rubbers. that are attached to each other at infrequent intervals. states: An elastomer is a polymeric material which at room temperature can be stretched to at least twice its original length and upon immediate release of the stress will return quickly to its original length.5 Elastomers 5. This property is illustrated by the reaction of an elastic band. as given by ASTM. is achieved by compounding. and in general. The following examples illustrate some of the important properties that are required of elastomers and the typical services that require these properties: 443 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. certain specific properties may be required.1 Introduction The technical definition of an elastomer. to make them age better. to color them. As a small stress is applied. The maximum utility of elastomers. to impart specific properties to meet specific application needs. Elastomers are primarily composed of large molecules that tend to form spiral threads.

soles and heels (shoes). suction hose. gaskets. cables. LLC . thread. transmission belts. valve diaphragms. paint hose. V belts. O-rings Resistance to oils: gasoline hose. soles and heels (shoes). hose covers. gasoline hose. windshield wipers Resistance to sunlight: wearing apparel. O-rings Resistance to flexing: auto tires. special belts. Synthetic rubbers now produced are similar to. jar rings. auto tires.444 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Resistance to abrasive wear: automobile tires. O-rings High rigidity: packing. balloons Lack of odor or taste: milk tubing. and footwear Resistance to high temperatures: auto tires. jar rings. nonstatic hose. special footwear Stickiness: cements. stack linings Resistance to ozone: ignition distributor gaskets. hose for chemicals. nipples. matting Impermeability to gases: balloons. hose covers Resistance to tearing: tire treads. brewery and winery hose. mountings. steam packing. life rafts. transmission belts. ignition cables. special diaphragms. switchboard mats. electrician’s tape. gaskets. belt covers. hose covers. automotive parts. mountings. forestry hose. wire insulation Electrical conductivity: hospital flooring. life rafts. windshield wipers Resistance to chemicals: tank linings. welding hose These materials are sometimes referred to as rubbers. O-rings. sandblast hose. creamery hose. valve cups. packing house hose. mountings High resilience: sponge rubber. electrician’s gloves. but not identical q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. pressuresensitive tapes Low specific gravity: airplane parts. refrigeration hose. O-rings Acceptance of color pigments: ponchos. transmission belts. oil suction hose. elastic bands. footwear. tubing Electrical resistivity: electrician’s tape. O-rings Resistance to cold: airplane parts. steam hose. battery boxes Long life: fire hose. V belts. belts conveying hot materials. Natural rubber is polymerized hydrocarbon whose commercial synthesis proved to be very difficult. bathing caps. O-rings Minimum heat buildup: auto tires. conveyor belt covers. gaskets. adhesive tapes. tank linings. hot-water bags.

However.1. TABLE 5. Improvement in one property can come at the expense of another property. As development work continued in the production of synthetic rubbers. it is important that these effects be taken into consideration.1 illustrates some of these effects.1 Compounding Trade-Offs An Improvement in Tensile strength. this does involve trade-offs. hardness Dynamic properties Balanced properties Optimized properties Compression set resistance Oil resistance Abrasion resistance Dampening Can Be at the Expense of Extensibility Dynamic properties Thermal stability Compression set resistance Processability Higher cost Flex fatigue strength Resilience Low-temperature flexibility Resilience Resilience Compression set resistance q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Natural rubber has the hydrocarbon butadiene as its simplest unit. the units link together to form long chains that contain over 1000 units. LLC . In early attempts to develop a synthetic rubber. Butadiene.Elastomers 445 to. it was found that simple butadiene does not yield a good grade of rubber because the chains are too smooth and do not sufficiently interlock strongly. CH2aCH–CHaCH2. Therefore. It is commercially produced by cracking petroleum and also from ethyl alcohol. Two of them were isobutylene and ethylene. other compounds were used as the parent material in place of butadiene. Natural rubber is a polymer of methyl butadiene (isoprene): CH3 CH2 C CH CH2 When butadiene or its derivatives become polarized.1 Importance of Compounding The rubber chemist is able to optimize selected properties or fine-tune the formulation to meet a desired balance of properties. natural rubber. 5. has two unsaturated linkages and is easily polarized. Table 5. Better results are obtained by introducing side groups into the chain either by modifying butadiene or by making a copolymer of butadiene and some other compound.

Engineering thermoplastics have glass-transition temperatures that fall in a wide temperature range. The glass transition temperature of the polymer is determined by the cumulative effect of these factors. deformation is the greatest. In principle. Typical examples include styrene. Below this temperature. a cross-linked elastomer will display rubber-like properties. LLC . ethylene. This only slightly increases the resistance of deformation. causing it to spring back to its original shape when deforming stress is removed. The distinction refers to a modulus of the material—a ratio between an applied force and the amount of resulting deformation. the presence of side chains. The cross-links join the elastomer’s molecular chains together at a cross-link density such that many molecular units exist between cross-link sites. extending well above and below room temperature. When the molecular resistance to motion is the least. are carbon-based. Between the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature. The major physical differences between a cured elastomer and an engineering thermoplastic is the presence of cross-links. most amorphous thermoplastic materials could be converted into elastomers in some appropriate temperature range by the controlled addition of a limited number of cross-links. Molecular mobility is the fundamental property that accounts for the differences among elastomers and the differences between elastomers and engineering thermoplasts. 5. The behavior of a thermoplast above its glass transition temperature will depend on its level of crystallinity.446 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. flexible solid. crystallinity. propylene. A noncrystalline (amorphus) polymer will display a large decrease in modulus at the glass transition temperature. Above this temperature. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1. but it increases the resilience of the elastomer. pliable gum or a leathery.3 Differences between Elastomers and Thermoplasts At room temperature. the modulus is relatively insensitive to temperature. An elastomer is in a thermoplastic state prior to vulcanization. Elastomers in the uncured state have glass-transition temperature well below room temperature. a thermoplast or elastomeric polymer is a supercooled liquid that behaves in many ways like a rigid solid. The factors that influence the resistance to motion include various intermolecular attractions. an uncured elastomer can be a soft. Many of the same monomers are found in both thermoplastic and elastomeric polymers. whereas an engineering thermoplastic is a rigid solid. and physical entanglements of the molecular strands. and acrylic acid and its esters.2 Similarities of Elastomers and Thermoplastic Polymers All thermoplastic polymers and elastomers. acrylonitrile. with the exception of silicones. They are made up from the linking of one or more monomers into long molecular chains. A partially crystalline thermoplast will display a relatively small modulus change at the glass transition temperature followed by a steady decreasing modulus as the temperature increases.1.

for which data are usually available. the chemical attack is greater as the temperature and/or concentration of the corrodent increases. Thick linings may be required when mechanical factors such as thinning because of cold flow. cracking. but the permeability rate of some elastomers tends to be an order of magnitude greater than that of metals. However. in a lined vessel. elastomers absorb varying quantities of the material they are in contact with. This can result in 1.Elastomers 447 5. it comes into contact with the metal substrate that is then subject to chemical attack. For general corrosion resistance. This attack results in a swelling of the elastomer and a reduction in its tensile strength. mechanical abuse. LLC . especially organic liquids. are usually satisfactory. Failure of the substrate because of corrosive attack 3. Loss of contents through lining and substrate as the result of eventual failure of the substrate The degree of permeation is affected by lining thickness. Though permeation is a factor closely related to absorption. depending on the elastomeric material and the specific corrodent. permeation usually results. Normally. are easily permeated but have very little absorption.4 Causes of Failure Chemical deterioration occurs as the result of a chemical reaction between the elastomer and the medium or by absorption of the medium into the elastomer. This can result in swelling. An approximation of the expected permeation and/or absorption of an elastomer can be based on the absorption of water. thicknesses of 0.020 in. Bond failure and blistering. Swelling can cause softening of the elastomer and. Permeation is another factor that can cause failure of a lining. caused by an accumulation of fluids at the bond when the substrate is less permeable than the lining or from the formation of corrosion or reaction products if the substrate is attacked by the corrodent 2. introduce high stresses and failure of the bond. When an elastomer exhibits a high absorption.010–0. All materials tend to be somewhat permeable to chemical molecules. Some elastomers. However. such as the fluorocarbons. The temperature and concentration of the corrodent will determine the degree of deterioration. Unlike metals. and penetration to the substrate in an elastomer-lined vessel. When the corrodent permeates the elastomer. and permeation rates are taken into consideration. Permeation can pose a serious problem in elastomer-lined equipment.1. this is not necessarily the answer to q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Increasing lining thickness will normally decrease permeation by the square of the thickness. factors that influence the permeation rate are diffusion and temperature rather than concentration and temperature. it is not necessary for an elastomer to have a high absorption rate for permeation to occur.

the thermal stresses on the boundary increase that can cause bond failure. the labor cost of installing the liner increases as the thickness increases. These three weathering agents can greatly affect the properties and appearance of a large number of elastomeric materials. The action of sunlight. and chemical resistance properties must all be taken q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. the material is weakened. it is more susceptible to mechanical damage from flowing or agitated media. These stresses are influenced by thickness and modulus of elasticity of the elastomer. When the elastomer is in a deteriorated condition. With many elastomers. Although elastomers can be damaged by mechanical means alone.2 shows the ozone resistance of selected elastomers. discoloration of colored stocks. Some elastomeric materials are subject to degradation when placed in outdoor applications as a result of weathering. when used under ambient conditions such as storage tanks. Therefore.1. In addition. and other rubber-like properties are the result of the attack. The low-temperature properties must also be taken into account for outdoor use. Elastomers in outdoor use can be subject to degradation as a result of the action of ozone. Temperature and temperature gradient in the liner also affect the rate of permeation. and other rubber-like properties. elongation. serious loss of tensile strength. ozone. and sunlight. and serious loss of tensile strength.448 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers the problem because increasing the liner thickness can introduce other problems. elongation. mechanical. Temperature changes and large differences in coefficients of thermal expansion are the most common causes of bond failure. 5. Lowering these will reduce the permeation rate. Linings can be installed either bonded or unbonded to the substrate. As the liner thickness increases.5 provides the operating temperatures of the common elastomers. oxygen. Surface cracking. and consequently.5 Selecting an Elastomer When the need arises to specify an elastomer for a specific application. crystallization takes place at low temperatures. Table 5. LLC . Table 5. Table 5. when the elastomer is brittle and will easily fracture. provide the best service. and oxygen can cause surface cracking.3 gives the relative low-temperature flexibility of the more common elastomers. Lined vessels. discoloration of colored stocks. physical. the resistance to weathering must also be taken into account when selecting an elastomer as well as other corrosion resistance properties. it is important that the space between the liner and support member be vented to the atmosphere to permit the escape of minute quantities of permeant vapors and also to prevent the expansion of entrapped air that could cause collapse of the liner. In unbonded linings. when the material is to be installed where it will be subject to weathering. Table 5. this is usually not the case.4 gives the brittle points of the common elastomers. Most mechanical damage occurs as a result of chemical deterioration of the elastomer.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.2 Ozone Resistance of Selected Elastomers Excellent Resistance EPDM Epichlorhydrin ETFE ECTFE Fluorosilicones Ethylene acrylate Ethylene vinyl acetate Chlorinated polyethylene Good Resistance Polychloroprene Fair Resistance Nitrile Poor Resistance Buna S Isoprene Natural rubber Chlorosulfonated polyethylene Polyacrylate Polysulfide Polyamides Polyesters Perfluoroelastomers Urethanes Vinylidene fluoride Butyl 449 Polybutadiene SBR SBS TABLE 5. fair.3 Relative Low-Temperature Flexibility of the Common Elastomers Elastomer Natural rubber NR Butyl rubber IIR Ethylene–propylene rubber EPDM Ethylene–acrylic rubber EA Fluoroelastomer FKM Fluorosilicone FSI Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (Hypalon) CSM Polychloroprene (Neoprene) CR Nitrile rubber (Buna-N) NBR Polybutadiene BR Polyisoprene IR Polysulfide T rubber Butadiene–styrene rubber (Buna-S) SBR Silicone rubber SI Polyurethane rubber AU Polyether–urethane rubber EU a Relative Flexibilitya G–E F E P–F F–G E F–G F–G F–G G–E G F–G G E G G E.Elastomers TABLE 5. P. G. good. poor. F. LLC . excellent.

450 TABLE 5.4

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Brittle Points of Common Elastomers
Elastomer NR; IR CR SBR NBR CSM BR EA EPDM; EPT SEBS Polysulfide SF Polysulfide FA AU Polyamide No. 11 PE TPE SI FSI HEP FKM ETFE ECTFE FPM 8F K68 K40 K76 K32 to K40 K40 to K80 K60 K75 K90 K58 to K148 K60 K30 K85 to K100 K94 K94 K67 to K70 K75 K75 K80 K25 to K75 K150 K105 K9 to K58 8C K56 K40 K60 K1 to K40 K40 to K62 K56 K60 K68 K50 to K100 K51 K35 K65 to K73 K70 K70 K55 to K60 K60 K60 K62 K32 to K59 K101 K70 K23 to K50

into account. The major physical and mechanical properties that may have to be considered, depending on the application are: Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Compression set resistance Tear resistance Tensile strength Adhesion to metals Adhesion to fabrics Rebound, cold and hot Resistance to heat aging and flame It should be remembered that these properties may be altered by compounding, but improvement of one property may result in an adverse effect on another. Because of this, it is best to provide a competent manufacturer with complete specifications and let that manufacturer provide an appropriate elastomer.
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Elastomers TABLE 5.5 Operating Temperature Ranges of Common Elastomers
Temperature Range 8F Elastomer Natural rubber, NR Isoprene rubber, IR Neoprene rubber, CR Buna-S, SBR Nitrile Rubber Buna, NBR Butyl rubber, IIR Chlorobutyl rubber, CIIR Hypalon, CSM Polybutadiene rubber, BR Ethylene–acrylic rubber, EA Acrylate–butadiene rubber, ABR Ethylene–propylene, EPDM Styrene–butadiene–styrene, SBS Styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene, SEBS Polysulfide, ST Polysulfide, FA Polyurethane, AU Polyamides Polyesters, PE Thermoplastic elastomers, TPE Silicone, SI Fluorosilicone, FSI Vinylidene fluoride, HEP Fluoroelastomers, FKM Ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene elastomer, ETFE Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene elastomer, ECTFE Perfluoroelastomers, FPM Min K59 K59 K13 K66 K40 K30 K30 K20 K150 K40 K40 K65 K102 K50 K30 K65 K40 K40 K40 K60 K100 K40 K10 K370 K105 K58 Max 175 175 203 175 250 300 300 250 200 340 340 300 150 220 212 250 250 300 302 277 450 375 450 400 300 340 600 Min K50 K50 K25 K56 K40 K34 K34 K30 K101 K40 K40 K54 K75 K45 K35 K54 K40 K40 K40 K51 K73 K40 K18 K223 K76 K50 8C

451

Max 80 80 95 80 105 149 149 105 93 170 170 149 65 105 100 121 121 149 150 136 232 190 232 204 149 171 316

The primary requirement of the elastomer is that it must be compatible with the corrodent to be handled. Therefore, all temperatures and concentrations of the corrodent to which it will be exposed, must be provided. Specifications should include any specific properties required for the application, such as resilience, hysteresis, static or dynamic shear and compression modulus, flex fatigue and cracking, creep resistance to oils and chemicals, permeability, and brittle point, all in the temperature ranges to be encountered in service. 5.1.6 Corrosion Resistance The corrodent’s concentration and temperature is a determining factor in the capacity of the elastomer to resist attack by the corrodent. Another important factor is the elastomer’s composition. It is a common practice in the
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manufacture of elastomers to incorporate additives into the formulation to improve certain of the physical and/or mechanical properties. These additives may have an adverse effect on the corrosion resistance of the base elastomer, particularly at elevated temperatures. Conversely, some manufacturers compound their elastomer to improve their corrosion resistance at the expense of physical and/or mechanical properties. Because of this, it is important to know whether or not any additives have been used as the corrosion resistance charts are applicable only for the pure elastomer. Keep in mind that there are several manufacturers of each generic compound. Because each may compound slightly differently, the corrosion resistance may be affected. When a generic compound is listed as being compatible with a specific corrodent, it indicates that at least one of the trade name materials is resistant to the corrodent, but not necessarily all. The manufacturers must be checked. 5.1.7 Applications Elastomeric or rubber materials find a wide range of applications. One of the major areas of application is that of vessels’ linings. Both natural and synthetic materials are used for this purpose. These linings have provided many years of service in the protection of steel vessels from corrosion. They are sheet-applied and bonded to a steel substrate. These materials are also used extensively as membranes in acid-bricklined vessels to protect the steel shell from corrosive attack. The acid-brick lining, in turn, protects the elastomer from abrasion and excessive temperature. Another major use is as an impermeable lining for settling ponds and basins. These materials are employed to prevent pond contaminants from seeping into the soil and causing pollution of groundwater and contamination of the soil. Natural rubber and most of the synthetic elastomers are unsaturated compounds that oxidize and rapidly deteriorate when exposed to air in thin films. These materials can be saturated by reacting with chlorine under the proper conditions, producing compounds that are clear, odorless, nontoxic, and noninflammable. They may be dissolved and blended with varnishes to impart high resistance to moisture and to the action of alkalies. This makes these products particularly useful in paints for concrete where the combination of moisture and alkali causes the disintegration of ordinary paints and varnishes. These materials also resist mildew and are used to impart flame resistance and waterproofing properties to canvas. Application of these paints to steel will provide a high degree of protection against corrosion. Large quantities of elastomeric materials are used to produce a myriad of products such as hoses, cable insulation, O-rings, seals and gaskets, belting, vibration mounts, flexible couplings, expansion joints, automotive and airplane parts, electrical parts and accessories. With such a wide variety of applications requiring very diverse properties, it is essential that an
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understanding of the properties of each elastomer be acquired so that proper choices can be made. 5.1.8 Elastomer Designations Many of the elastomers have common names or trade names as well as the chemical name. For example, polychloroprene also goes under the name of neoprene (DuPont’s tradename) or Bayprene (Mobay Corp’s tradename). In addition, they also have an ASTM designation that for polychloroprene is CR.

5.2 Natural Rubber
Natural rubber of the best quality is prepared by coagulating the latex of the ` Hevea brasıliensis tree that is primarily cultivated in the Far East. However, there are other sources such as the wild rubbers of the same tree growing in Central America, guyayule rubber coming from shrubs grown mostly in Mexico, and balata. Balata is a resinous material and cannot be tapped like the Hevea tree sap. The balata tree must be cut down and boiled to extract balata that cures to a hard, tough product used as golf ball covers. Another source of rubber is the planation leaf gutta-percha. This material is produced from the leaves of trees grown in bush formation. The leaves are picked and the rubber is boiled out as with the balata. Gutta-percha has been used successfully for submarine-cable insulation for more than 40 years. Chemically, natural rubber is a polymer of methyl butadiene (isoprene):
CH3 CH2 C CH CH2

When polymerized, the units link together, forming long chains that each contain over 1000 units. Simple butadiene does not yield a good grade of rubber, apparently because the chains are too smooth and do not form a strong enough interlock. Synthetic rubbers are produced by introducing side groups into the chain either by modifying butadiene or by making a copolymer of butadiene and some other compound. Purified raw rubber becomes sticky in hot weather and brittle in cold weather. Its valuable properties become apparent after vulcanization. Depending upon the degree of curing, natural rubber is classified as soft, semihard, or hard rubber. Only soft rubber meets the ASTM definition of an elastomer, and therefore, the information that follows pertain only to soft rubber. The properties of semihard and hard rubber differ somewhat, particularly in the area of corrosion resistance. Most rubber is made to combine with sulfur or sulfur-bearing organic compounds or with other cross-linking chemical agents in a process known
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as vulcanization that was invented by Charles Goodyear in 1839 and forms the basis of all later developments in the rubber industry. When properly carried out, vulcanization improves mechanical properties, eliminates tackiness, renders the rubber less susceptible to temperature changes, and makes it insoluble in all known solvents. Other materials are added for various purposes as follows: Carbon blacks, precipitated pigments, and organic vulcanization accelerators are added to increase tensile strength and resistance to abrasion. Whiting, barite, talc, silica, silicates, clays, and fibrous materials are added to cheapen and stiffen. Bituminous substances, coal tar and its products, vegetable and mineral oils, paraffin, petrolatum, petroleum, oils, and asphalt are added to soften (for purposes of processing or for final properties). Condensation amines and waxes are added as protective agents against natural aging, sunlight, heat, and flexing. Pigments are added to provide coloration. Vulcanization has the greatest effect on the mechanical properties of natural rubber. Unvulcanized rubber can be stretched to approximately ten times its length and, at this point, will bear a load of 10 tons/in.2. It can be compressed to one-third of its thickness thousands of times without injury. When most types of vulcanized rubbers are stretched, their resistance increases in greater proportion than their extension. Even when stretched just short of the point of rupture, they recover almost all of their original dimensions on being released and then gradually recover a portion of the residual distortion. The outstanding property of natural rubber in comparison to the synthetic rubbers is its resilience. It has excellent rebound properties, either hot or cold. 5.2.1 Resistance to Sun, Weather, and Ozone Cold water preserves natural rubber, but if exposed to the air, particularly in sunlight, rubber tends to become hard and brittle. It has only fair resistance to ozone. Unlike the synthetic elastomers, natural rubber softens and reverts with aging to sunlight. In general, it has relatively poor weathering and aging properties. 5.2.2 Chemical Resistance Natural rubber offers excellent resistance to most inorganic salt solutions, alkalies, and nonoxidizing acids. Hydrochloric acid will react with soft rubber to form rubber hydrochloride, and therefore, it is not recommended that natural rubber be used for items that will come into contact with that
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acid. Strong oxidizing media such as nitric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, permanganates, dichromates, chlorine dioxide, and sodium hypochlorite will severely attack rubber. Mineral and vegetable oils, gasoline, benzene, toluene, and chlorinated hydrocarbons also affect rubber. Cold water tends to preserve natural rubber. Natural rubber offers good resistance to radiation and alcohols. Unvulcanized rubber is soluble in gasoline, naphtha, carbon bisulfide, benzene, petroleum ether, turpentine, and other liquids. Refer to Table 5.6 for the compatibility of natural rubber with selected corrodents.
TABLE 5.6 Compatibility of Natural Rubber with Selected Corrodents
Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid, 10% Acetic acid, 50% Acetic acid, 80% Acetic acid, glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride, aqueous Aluminum chloride, dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride, 10% Ammonium chloride, 50% Ammonium chloride, sat. Ammonium fluoride, 10% Ammonium fluoride, 25% Ammonium hydroxide, 25% 8F X X 150 X X X X 140 X 8C X X 66 X X X X 60 X

140 140 160 X X 140

60 60 71 X X 60

140 140 140 140 X X 140

60 60 60 60 X X 60
(continued)

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456 TABLE 5.6 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide, sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate, 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia, 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid, 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas, dry Bromine gas, moist Bromine, liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide, 10% Calcium hydroxide, sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide 8F 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 X X X 140 140 140 140 140 X X X 140 X X 140 140 8C 60 60 60 60 60 X 60 X X X 60 60 60 60 60 X X X 60 X X 60 60

X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 X

X 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 X
(continued)

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Elastomers TABLE 5.6 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon dioxide, dry Carbon dioxide, wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid, 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas, dry Chlorine gas, wet Chlorine, liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid, 10% Chromic acid, 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid, 15% Citric acid, conc. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride, 5% Cupric chloride, 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride, 50% in water Ferric nitrate, 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas, dry Fluorine gas, moist Hydrobromic acid, dil. Hydrobromic acid, 20% Hydrobromic acid, 50% Hydrochloric acid, 20% 8F 8C

457

X X X 140 X X X X X X X X X X X 140 X X X 140 140 X X X X

X X X 60 X X X X X X X X X X X 60 X X X 60 60 X X X X

X 140 140 140 X 140 X X 140 140 140 X

X 60 60 60 X 60 X X 60 60 60 X
(continued)

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458 TABLE 5.6 Continued

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Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrochloric acid, 38% Hydrocyanic acid, 10% Hydrofluoric acid, 30% Hydrofluoric acid, 70% Hydrofluoric acid, 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution, 10% Ketones, general Lactic acid, 25% Lactic acid, conc. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid, 5% Nitric acid, 20% Nitric acid, 70% Nitric acid, anhydrous Nitrous acid, conc. Oleum Perchloric acid, 10% Perchloric acid, 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid, 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide, 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide, 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide, 10% Sodium hydroxide, 50% Sodium hydroxide, conc. Sodium hypochlorite, 20% Sodium hypochlorite, conc. Sodium sulfide, to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid, 10% Sulfuric acid, 50% Sulfuric acid, 70% Sulfuric acid, 90% Sulfuric acid, 98% 8F 140 X X X 8C 60 X X X

X X 140 X X X X 140 X X X X X

X X 60 X X X X 60 X X X X X

X 140 140

X 60 60

140 140 140 X X X X 140 140 140 140 X X X X

60 60 60 X X X X 60 60 60 60 X X X X
(continued)

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Elastomers TABLE 5.6 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid, 100% Sulfuric acid, fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X 8C X X X

459

140

60

The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Source: From P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

5.2.3 Applications Natural rubber finds its major use in the manufacture of pneumatic tires and tubes, power transmission belts, conveyer belts, gaskets, mountings, hose, chemical tank linings, printing press platens, sound and/or shock absorbers, and seals against air, moisture, sound, and dirt. Rubber has been used for many years as a lining material for steel tanks, particularly for protection against corrosion by inorganic salt solutions, especially brine, alkalies, and nonoxidizing acids. These linings have the advantage of being readily repaired in place. Natural rubber is also used for lining pipelines used to convey these types of materials. Some of these applications have been replaced by synthetic rubbers that have been developed over the years.

5.3 Isoprene Rubber (IR)
Chemically, natural rubber is natural cis-polyisoprene. The synthetic form of natural rubber, synthetic cis-polyisoprene, is called isoprene rubber. The physical and mechanical properties of IR are similar to the physical and mechanical properties of natural rubber, the one major difference being that isoprene does not have an odor. This feature permits the use of IR in certain food-handling applications. IR can be compounded, processed, and used in the same manner as natural rubber. Other than the lack of odor, IR has no advantages over natural rubber.
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5.4 Neoprene (CR)
Neoprene is one of the oldest and most versatile of the synthetic rubbers. Chemically, it is polychloroprene. Its basic unit is a chlorinated butadiene whose formula is
Cl CH2 C CH CH2

The raw material is acetylene which makes this product more expensive than some of the other elastomeric materials. Neoprene was introduced commercially by DuPont in 1932 as an oilresistant substitute for natural rubber. Its dynamic properties are very similar to those of natural rubber, but its range of chemical resistance overcomes many of the shortcomings of natural rubber. As with other elastomeric materials, neoprene is available in a variety of formulations. Depending on the compounding procedure, material can be produced to impart specific properties to meet specific application needs. Neoprene is also available in a variety of forms. In addition to a neoprene latex that is similar to natural rubber latex, neoprene is produced in a “fluid” form as either a compounded latex dispersion or a solvent solution. Once these materials have solidified or cured, they have the same physical and chemical properties as the solid or cellular forms. 5.4.1 Resistance to Sun, Weather, and Ozone Neoprene displays excellent resistance to sun, weather, and ozone. Because of its low rate of oxidation, products made of neoprene have high resistance to both outdoor and indoor aging. Over prolonged periods of time in an outdoor environment, the physical properties of neoprene display insignificant change. If neoprene is properly compounded, ozone in atmospheric concentrations has little effect on the product. When severe ozone exposure is expected, as for example around electrical equipment, compositions of neoprene can be provided to resist thousands of parts per million of ozone for hours without surface cracking. Natural rubber will crack within minutes when subjected to ozone concentrations of only 50 ppm. 5.4.2 Chemical Resistance Neoprene’s resistance to attack from solvents, waxes, fats, oils, greases, and many other petroleum-based products is one of its outstanding properties. Excellent service is also experienced when it is in contact with aliphatic compounds (methyl and ethyl alcohols, ethylene glycols, etc.), aliphatic hydrocarbons, and most Freon refrigerants. A minimum amount of swelling
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Highly oxidizing acid and salt solutions also cause surface deterioration and loss of strength. and consequently. Properly compounded neoprene can be buried underground successfully. since moisture. and other industrial byproducts.7 Compatibility of Neoprene with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. aromatic hydroxy compounds. only limited serviceability can be expected with them. or alkalies. organic esters. and certain ketones have an adverse effect on neoprene. if any.7 for the compatibilities of neoprene with selected corrodents. 50% Acetic acid. LLC .Elastomers 461 and relatively little loss of strength occur when neoprene is in contact with these fluids. neoprene products show little. bacteria. TABLE 5. It is unaffected by soils saturated with seawater. change in appearance or change in properties. 80% Acetic acid. When exposed to dilute mineral acids. Chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons. inorganic salt solutions. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. gasolines. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Included in this category are nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid. and soil chemicals usually found in the earth have little effect on its properties. wastes. oils. These products can be used in continuous or periodic immersion in either freshwater or saltwater without any loss of properties. 10% Acetic acid. chemicals. Neoprene formulations can be produced that provide products with outstanding resistance to water absorption. dry Aluminum fluoride 8F 200 200 160 160 160 X X X X X 140 160 120 X 200 150 200 8C 93 93 71 71 71 X X X X X 60 71 49 X 93 66 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 5.

sat. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. moist Bromine. LLC . 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine 8F 180 200 200 140 X 200 150 150 150 200 200 200 200 200 200 150 150 160 X 200 X X 140 X 150 150 230 200 200 X X 100 150 X X 200 150 X X X 140 60 200 8C 82 93 93 60 X 93 66 66 66 93 93 93 93 93 93 66 66 71 X 93 X X 60 X 66 66 110 93 93 X X 38 66 X X 93 66 X X X 66 16 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. dry Bromine gas. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.462 TABLE 5. 50% Ammonium chloride.7 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. Ammonium fluoride.

liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 15% Citric acid. dry Chlorine gas. LLC . 10% Chromic acid. sat. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 5% Cupric chloride.7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate 8F X X 200 200 150 230 230 X 150 200 150 X 200 200 X X X 150 X X X X X X X X X 140 100 150 150 160 200 160 200 X 200 160 X X 8C X X 93 93 66 110 110 X 66 93 66 X 93 93 X X X 66 X X X X X X X X X 60 38 66 66 71 93 71 93 X 93 71 X X (continued) 463 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. wet Chlorine.

conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid.464 TABLE 5. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Nitric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.7 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. Oleum Perchloric acid. dil. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Ketones. 30% Salicylic acid 8F X X 100 160 160 200 90 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X 80 X 140 90 200 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X 150 200 160 8C X X 38 71 71 93 32 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X 27 X 60 32 93 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X 66 93 71 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Hydrobromic acid. 70% Nitric acid. LLC . anhydrous Nitrous acid. 5% Nitric acid. general Lactic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 10% Perchloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate.

98% Sulfuric acid. 2004. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Molding can be accomplished by compression.A. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 200 200 230 230 230 X X 200 200 X 150 100 X X X X X 100 X X X 140 160 8C 93 93 110 110 110 X X 93 93 X 66 38 X X X X X 38 X X X 60 71 465 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. blow. Highly compressed cellular materials 3. 100% Sulfiric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5. to 50% Stanic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. injection. conc. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Schweitzer. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sulfiric acid.. 10% Sulfuric acid.3 Applications Neoprene products are available in three basic forms: 1. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 1–4. Sodium sulfide. Sodium hypochlorite.7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Silver bromide. New York: Marcel Dekker. Conventional solid rubber parts 2. Free-flowing liquids Each form has certain specific properties that can be advantageous to final products. conc. Vols. LLC . transfer. 70% Sulfuric acid. extruding. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 5th ed. 90% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. or calendering. Solid products can be produced by molding.Elastomers TABLE 5. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Source: From P.4.

household and industrial gloves. acoustical filtering. seating. O-rings. in mattresses. and as an elasticizing additive for concrete. or wrapped-mandrel methods. “Fluid” neoprene is the primary component in such products as adhesives. foams. Other applications include use as a binder for curled animal hair in resilient furniture cushioning. caulks. auto sparkplug boots. sealing strips. it has also found application as a railroad car lubricator. meteorological balloons. coatings and paints. and a foam neoprene. This material provides compressibility not found in solid rubber but still retains the advantageous properties of neoprene. pads. filaments. insulation. sealed fractionalhorsepower motors. Calendered products include sheet stock. and diaphragms. nonconnecting cells that impart the added advantage of nonabsorbency. cushioning. Open-cell neoprene is a compressible. and many types of hose. Typical products produced by these methods are instrument seals. mortar. for example. and fiber binders. Its main area of application is for cushioning. Because of the good heat and oil resistance of neoprene. This property makes closed-cell neoprene especially suitable for sealing applications where fluid contact is expected such as in wetsuits for divers. and for other appplications where a compressible nonabsorbent weather-resistant material is required. and knife-coated fabrics. shoe soles. protective coatings. Neoprene latex is an elastomer–water dispersion. LLC . and sound and vibration damping. Foam neoprene is similar to open-cell neoprene in that it is a compressible material with interconnecting cells. and asphalt. rods. It is also used extensively in latex-based adhesives. It is used primarily in the manufacture of dipped products such as tool grips. belting. radiator hose. and friction and coated fabrics. Extrusion processes provide means to economically and uniformly mass produce products quickly. absorbent material whose cells are uniform and interconnected. It is available as an open-cell sponge. shoe soles and heels. A large proportion of sheet stock is later die-cut into finished products such as gaskets. sealants. Neoprene products manufactured by these processes include tubing. It is available in two forms—as a neoprene latex or as a solvent solution. These products produced from neoprene latex possess the same properties q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. as a binder for cellulose and asbestos. This absorbent open-cell structure provides a wicking action to deliver oil to the journal bearings. and a variety of rubber-coated metal parts. Fluid forms of neoprene are important in the manufacture of many products because of their versatility. a closed-cell neoprene. boating accessories.466 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers vacuum. and carpet underlay. This material is particularly useful for gasketing and dustproofing applications where exposure to fluids is not expected. and other miscellaneous components. wire jacketing. transportation seating. and packaging. automotive deck lid seals. Closed-cell neoprene is a resilient complex of individual. Cellular forms of neoprene are used primarily for gasketing. appliance parts.

possessing many of the advantageous properties of natural rubber while also overcoming many of its shortcomings. government developed what was originally known as Government Rubber Styrene-Type (GR-S) because it was the most practical to put into rapid production on a wartime scale. it does have better water resistance than natural rubber. fuels. oils.5 Styrene–Butadiene Rubber (SBR. As with natural rubber and the other synthetic elastomers. and various bulk-shipped products. The solvent solution can be readily applied and will cure into a roofing membrane that is tough. Collapsible nylon containers coated with neoprene are used for transporting and/or storing liquids. and weather resistant. Continued development since World War II has improved its properties considerably over what was initially produced by either Germany or the United States. and most hydrocarbons. Neoprene solvent solutions are prepared by dissolving neoprene in standard rubber solvents. and chemical processing equipment. Containers have been designed to hold oils. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Major areas of application include coatings for storage tanks. chemicals. weather. a shortage of natural rubber was created when Japan occupied the Far Eastern nations where natural rubber was obtained. the U. They can be used to join a wide variety of rigid and flexible materials. and flowable dry solds. and flame.S. Neoprene. industrial equipment. elastic. Solvent-based neoprene adhesives develop quick initial bonds and remain strong and flexible most indefinitely.Elastomers 467 as those associated with solid neoprene. These coatings protect the vessels from corrosion by acids. plywood. 5. It was later designated GR-S. These solutions can be formulated in a range of viscosities suitable for application by brush. including resistance to oil. Sunlight will cause it to deteriorate. Buna-S. has proved to be a reliable. and Ozone Butadiene–styrene rubber has poor weathering and aging properties. ozone. 5. alkalies. pastes. and metal decks. or roller. Neoprene roofing applied in liquid form is used to protect concrete. LLC . in its many forms. compounding with other ingredients will improve certain properties.1 Resistance to Sun.5. Because of the great need for rubber. However. molasses. Weather. GR-S) During World War II. indispensable substitute for natural rubber. spray. The rubber is produced by copolymerizing butadiene and styrene.

8 Compatibility of SBR with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. or oxidizing agents. Formaldehyde. It is not resistant to oils. 40% Chromic acid. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dil. gasoline.468 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. 50% Copper sulfate Corn oil Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. 10–40% Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride.5. 10% Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. hydrocarbons. sat. sat. glacial Acetone Ammonium chloride. LLC . TABLE 5. 30% Calcium hydroxide.8 for the compatibility of SBR with selected corrodents. It is resistant to water and exhibits fair to good resistance to dilute acids. alkalies. sat. Ammonium sulfate. 30% Chromic acid. 37% 8F X X X X 200 200 200 200 200 X X X X X 200 200 200 200 200 200 X X X X X X X 200 X X 200 200 200 200 8C X X X X 93 93 93 93 93 X X X X X 93 93 93 93 93 93 X X X X X X X 93 X X 93 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Calcium hydroxide. Refer to Table 5. Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Chromic acid.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of Buna-S is similar to that of natural rubber. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Chromic acid. Calcium hydroxide. 28% Ammonium chloride. and alcohols.

20% Hydrochloric acid. all conc. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid. sound.. Hydrofluoric acid. gaskets. New York: Marcel Dekker. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables.Elastomers TABLE 5. all conc. salt Water. 5. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. demineralized Water. dil. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.3 Applications The major use of Buna-S is in the manufacture of automobile tires. 38% Hydrochloric acid. dil. Source: From P. 10% Potassium hydroxide. distilled Water. to 50% Propane Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 100% Hydrogen peroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X.A.5.8 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Formaldehyde. although Buna-S materials are also used to manufacture conveyor belts. 50% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid Phenol Phosphoric acid. Hydrochloric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. hoses. Vols. 2004. and dirt. moisture. 1–4. all conc. Schweitzer. Lactic acid. 5th ed. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. sea 8F 200 200 X X X X X X X X X X X 200 200 X X X X X 200 X X 200 X X X X 210 200 200 200 8C 93 93 X X X X X X X X X X X 93 93 X X X X X 93 X X 93 X X X X 99 93 93 93 469 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. all conc. LLC .. Sulfuric acid. and seals against air.

Carbonated nitrile rubber (XNBR) incorporates up to 10% of a third comonomer with organic acid functionality. and hydraulic fluids. BunaN’s major area of application is in the manufacture of aircraft hose. XNBR can be difficult to process. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 5. oil. or esters should be avoided. printing rolls. and self-sealing fuel tanks.470 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5.and oil-resistant applications. and it requires special formulation to prevent sticking to mixer surfaces and premature vulcanization.9 for the compatibility of NBR with selected corrodents. gaskets. nitro hydrocarbons. XNBR rubbers are used primarily in nonalkaline service. and solvents compared to that of neoprene is their primary advantage.6.6. They are copolymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile (CH2aCH–CaN) and are one of the four most wildely used elastomers. 5. The use of highly polar solvents such as acetone and methyl ethyl ketone. Their greater resistance to oils. appropriate compounding will improve certain properties.2 Chemical Resistance Nitrile rubbers exhibit good resistance to solvents. Very slight swelling occurs in the presence of aliphatic hydrocarbons. alcohols. and glycols. 5. LLC .6 Nitrile Rubber (NBR. As with other elastomers.6. water. gasoline and oil hose. good oil and abrasion resistance. Buna-N) Nitrile rubbers are an outgrowth of German Buna-N or Perbunan.3 Applications Because of its exceptional resistance to fuels and hydraulic fluids.1 Resistance to Sun. since these materials will attack the nitrile rubbers. Other applications include carburetor diaphragms. and machinery mountings. and their weathering qualities are not good. ozone. When compared to NBR. cables. and Ozone Nitrile rubbers offer poor resistance to sunlight and ozone. XNBR is a carboxylic-acrylomtrilebutadiene-nitrile rubber with somewhat improved abrasion resistance over that of the standard NBR nitrile rubbers. making NBR suitable for gasoline. 5. The deterioration of physical properties as a result of this swelling is small. and good low-temperature and swell characteristics. NBR has excellent resistance to water. The main advantages of nitrile rubbers are their low cost. fatty acids. chlorinated hydrocarbons. ether. fuel. Weather. XNBR has improved abrasion resistance and strength.

10% Acetic acid. LLC . 10–50% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 50% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 50–80% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride 8F X 180 X X X X X X X X X 180 180 X 150 150 180 190 200 190 X 150 150 150 X 125 150 150 150 X 100 100 150 150 X X X X X X 150 125 200 8C X 82 X X X X X X X X X 82 82 X 66 66 82 88 93 88 X 66 66 66 X 52 66 66 66 X 38 38 66 66 X X X X X X 66 52 93 (continued) 471 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.9 Compatibility of Nitrile Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. 100% Hypochlorous acid Nitric acid. 20% Nitric acid. anhydrous Phenol Phosphoric acid. aqueous Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate Amyl alcohol Aniline Barium chloride Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Calcium hypochlorite Carbonic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 70% Hydrofluoric acid.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.. LLC . weather. 5. It is a general-purpose synthetic rubber whose outstanding physical properties are low permeability to air (approximately one-fifth that of natural rubber) and high energy absorption.A. 98% Sulfuric acid. Vols. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 10% Sodium hypochlorite.7 Butyl Rubber (IIR) and Chlorobutyl Rubber (CIIR) Butyl rubber contains isobutylene CH3 C CH2 CH3 as its parent material with small proportions of butadiene or isoprene added. New York: Marcel Dekker.7.9 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. and Ozone Butyl rubber has excellent resistance to sun. 70% Sulfuric acid. It has the same general properties as butyl rubber but with slightly higher allowable operating temperatures. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 2004. Schweitzer. 5th ed. fuming Zinc chloride 8F 150 X X 150 150 150 X X X X X 150 8C 66 X X 66 66 66 X X X X X 66 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Sulfuric acid. Its weathering qualities are outstanding as its resistance to water absorption. Commercial butyl rubber may contain 5% butadiene as a copolymer. Chlorobutyl rubber is chlorinated isobutylene–isoprene.1 Resistance to Sun. 1–4. Source: From P. 90% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Weather. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 100% Sulfuric acid.472 TABLE 5. conc. Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. 5. 50% Sulfuric acid. and ozone.

7. phosphate ester oils. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.10 for the compatibility of butyl rubber with selected corrodents and to Table 5. 8F 80 150 110 110 X X 100 X X 190 X 200 200 200 200 180 100 100 200 X 190 200 200 200 150 150 190 190 8C 27 66 43 43 X X 38 X X 88 X 93 93 93 93 82 38 38 93 X 88 93 93 93 66 66 88 88 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.2 Chemical Resistance Butyl rubber is very nonpolar. except nitric and sulfuric. CIIR cannot be used with hydrochloric acid. It has exceptional resistance to dilute mineral acids. and most solvents (except oxygenated solvents). 10% Ammonium fluoride. TABLE 5. 80% Acetic acid. It has poor resistance to petroleum oils. LLC . CIIR has the same general resistance as natural rubber but can be used at higher temperatures. Refer to Table 5. 10% Acetic acid. and water. is good. gasoline.Elastomers 473 5. Unlike butyl rubber. sat.10 Compatibility of Butyl Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. sat. Resistance to concentrated acids. Unlike natural rubber. ethylene glycol. acetane. Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. alkalies. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.11 for the compatibility of chlorobutyl rubber with selected corrodents. it is very resistant to swelling by vegetable and animal oils. ethylene. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride.

10% 8F 200 190 150 150 X 150 150 150 150 190 190 90 X 90 150 190 X 190 150 X 140 X 120 150 190 190 190 190 X 190 100 190 190 190 X 90 150 150 150 100 X X X X X X 8C 93 88 66 66 X 66 66 66 66 88 88 32 X 32 66 88 X 88 66 X 60 X 49 66 88 88 88 88 X 88 38 88 88 88 X 32 66 66 66 38 X X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . dry Carbon dioxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon dioxide. dry Chlorine. sat. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.474 TABLE 5. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide.10 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.

LLC 475 . 20% Hydrobromic acid. Copper chloride Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.10 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 20% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. dry Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50–80% Salicylic acid Sodium chloride 8F X 190 190 150 190 X 150 150 X X 200 175 160 190 175 190 X 125 125 125 125 125 140 150 150 150 X 125 125 200 X 90 100 80 X 200 150 X X 125 X 150 150 150 80 200 8C X 88 88 66 88 X 66 66 X X 93 79 71 88 79 88 X 52 52 52 52 52 60 66 66 66 X 52 52 93 X 32 38 27 X 93 66 X X 52 X 66 66 66 27 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 70% Nitric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid. conc. Oleum Perchloric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. dil.Elastomers TABLE 5. conc. 5% Nitric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 50% Citric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 15% Citric acid. conc. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Phenol Phosphoric acid.

80% Acetic acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 5th ed.A.10 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 50% Sodium hydroxide.. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 150 150 150 X X 150 150 150 200 150 X X X X X 200 X X X 200 8C 66 66 66 X X 66 66 66 93 66 X X X X X 93 X X X 93 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Schweitzer. 10% Sulfuric acid.476 TABLE 5.11 Compatibility of Chlorobutyl Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. 98% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide. New York: Marcel Dekker. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% 8F 150 150 150 X X 100 200 200 190 200 200 200 8C 60 60 60 X X 38 93 93 88 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. TABLE 5. conc. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Vols. 1–4. LLC . 2004. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Alum Aluminum chloride. 50% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. aqueous Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 100% Sulfuric acid.

50% Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 25% Lactic acid. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium chloride Benzoic acid Boric acid Calcium chloride Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon monoxide Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid Chromic acid.11 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cupric chloride. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. conc. 10% Chromic acid. 20% Nitric acid. Phenol 8F 200 200 200 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 160 160 160 100 150 100 X X 90 150 160 160 150 150 200 175 100 160 175 125 125 125 X X X X 125 125 200 200 150 X X 125 150 8C 93 93 93 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 71 71 71 38 66 38 X X 32 66 71 71 66 66 93 79 38 71 79 52 52 52 X X X X 52 52 93 93 66 X X 52 66 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. conc. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 100% Lactic acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. dil. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Ammonium chloride. Magnesium chloride Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Citric acid. Hydrobromic acid. LLC 477 .

100% Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Hypalon has a broad range of service temperatures with excellent thermal properties. 5th ed.3 Applications Because of its impermeability. Applications are also found as flexible electrical insulation. LLC . high impact resistance. life boats. 98% Sulfuric acid. when properly compounded. Incompatibility is shown by an X. better electrical properties. 2004. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.. fuming Sulfurous acid Zinc chloride 8F 150 200 150 150 200 X X X X X 200 200 8C 66 93 66 66 93 X X X X X 93 93 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Schweitzer. 5. Source: From P. General-purpose compounds can operate continuously at q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Hypalon. but it does possess some advantages over neoprene in certain types of service. butyl rubber finds many uses in the manufacture of inflatable items such as life jackets. to 50% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 1–4. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Vols. also exhibits good resistance to wear and abrasion. 70% Sulfuric acid. The excellent resistance it exhibits in the presence of water and steam makes it suitable for hoses and diaphragms. and good resistance to permanent deformation under heavy loading. good flex life.7. 10% Sodium sulfide. It has better heat and ozone resistance. 10% Sulfuric acid.8 Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber (Hypalon) Chlorosulfonated polyethylene synthetic rubber (CSM) is manufactured by DuPont under the trade name Hypalon.478 TABLE 5. and molding. and inner tubes.11 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Phosphoric acid. curing bags for tire vulcanization.A. balloons. 5. better color stability. and better chemical resistance. shock and vibration absorbers. 90% Sulfuric acid. In many respects it is similar to neoprene.

It is also inherently resistant to ozone attack without the need for the addition of special antioxidants or antiozonants to the formulation. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sodium peroxide.8. even at elevated temperatures. Its physical and mechanical properties make it suitable for use in hose undergoing continuous flexing and/or those carrying hot water or steam. Sunlight and ultraviolet light have little.8. Special compounds can be produced that will retain their flexibility down to K408F (K408C). aldehydes. Hypalon. Hypalon has poor resistance to aliphatic. For the same reason. ferric chloride. alcohols. 5. Weather. Concentrated hydrochloric acid (37%) at elevated temperatures above 1588F (708C) will attack Hypalon but can be handled without adverse effect at all concentrations below this temperature. 5. 5.12 for the compatibility of Hypalon with selected corrodents. it is necessary to sacrifice performance of some of the other properties. and ketones.1 Resistance to Sun. It is also resistant to such oxidizing chemicals as sodium hypochlorite. Refer to Table 5. It is also resistant to radiation. if any. Because of its outstanding resistance to oxidizing acids.8. chromic. On the low-temperature side. Hypalon is highly resistant to attack by hydrocarbon oils and fuels. and both weak and concentrated alkalies and is generally unaffected by soil chemicals. and chlorinated hydrocarbons.Elastomers 479 temperatures of 248–2758F (120–1358C). and other deteriorating factors associated with burial in the earth. however.3 Applications Hypalon finds useful applications in many industries and many fields. Special compounds can be formulated that can be used intermittently up to 3028F (1508C). and Ozone Hypalon is one of the most weather-resistance elastomers available. and sulfuric. adverse effects on its physical properties. Long-term contact with water has little or no effect on Hypalon. moisture. Oxidation takes place at a very slow rate. conventional compounds can be used continuously down to 0 to K208F (K18 to K288C).2 Chemical Resistance When properly compounded. aromatic. it has found widespread use as an acid transfer hose. and hydrofluoric acids. LLC . it is used to line railroad tanks cars and other tanks containing acids and other oxidizing chemicals. Nitric acid at room temperature and up to 60% concentration can also be handled without adverse effects. Hypalon is also resistant to salt solutions. Many elastomers are degraded by ozone concentrations of less than 1 part per million parts of air. but to produce such a compound. is unaffected by concentrations as high as 1 part per 100 parts of air.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.12 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Hypalon with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride 8F 60 X 200 200 200 X 200 X X 140 140 200 200 200 200 180 90 140 190 190 190 200 200 200 200 80 140 200 200 60 200 X 140 140 200 200 200 200 200 X X X 200 140 X 8C 16 X 93 93 93 X 93 X X 60 60 93 93 93 93 82 32 60 88 88 88 93 93 93 93 27 60 93 93 16 93 X 60 60 93 93 93 93 93 X X X 93 60 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Acetic acid.480 TABLE 5. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride.

dry Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.Elastomers TABLE 5. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine. 10% Calcium hydroxide. conc.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol 8F 200 200 60 60 60 X 60 200 X 200 90 90 200 200 200 200 100 200 200 X 200 200 200 X 200 X X X 90 X X X 150 150 200 200 X 200 200 200 X 200 200 X X 8C 93 93 16 16 16 X 16 93 X 93 32 32 93 93 93 93 38 93 93 X 93 93 93 X 93 X X X 32 X X X 66 66 93 93 X 93 93 93 X 93 93 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Chromic acid. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. LLC 481 . Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon dioxide. 15% Citric acid. sat. dry Carbon dioxide.

conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Sodium sulfide. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. general Lactic acid. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. Magnesium chloride Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl lsobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. LLC . Sodium hypochlorite. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Hydrobromic acid. 70% Nitric acid. dil. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. to 50% 8F X 200 200 200 200 200 140 90 100 100 160 140 90 90 90 90 X X 140 80 200 180 X X X 140 100 100 X X X 100 90 X 200 80 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 8C X 93 93 93 93 93 60 32 38 38 71 60 32 32 32 32 X X 60 27 93 82 X X X 60 38 38 X X X 38 32 X 93 27 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate.12 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10% Perchloric acid.482 TABLE 5. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 25% Lactic acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid.

Hypalon protects the cork from oxidation at elevated temperatures and also provides excellent resistance to oil. and decorative and maintenance coatings. Vols. ozone. When combined with cork. advantage is taken of Hypalon’s color stability and good weathering properties by using the elastomer for exterior parts on cars. New York: Marcel Dekker. The electrical industry makes use of Hypalon to cover automotive ignition and primary wire. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. nuclear power station cable. Hypalon provides a compressible yet setresistant gasket suitable for automobile crankcase and rocker pans. trucks. pond liners. 2004. Incompatibility is shown by an X. As an added protection from storms at sea. It is also used in applicance cords. 90% Sulfuric acid. floor tiles. the properties of color stability. and air-conditioning and power-steering hoses. Source: From P. insulating hoods and blankets.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. and welding cable. grease. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. and grease makes it useful for application under the hood for such components as emission control hose.Elastomers TABLE 5. oil. 100% Sulfurous acid Toluene Zinc chloride 8F 90 200 200 200 160 X X X 160 X 200 8C 32 93 93 93 71 X X X 71 X 93 483 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. abrasion resistance. In these applications. The ability to remain soil-free and easily cleanable makes it suitable for tire whitewalls. tubing. ignition wire jacketing. and fuels. and good aging characteristics are of importance. and many other electrical accessories. spark plug boots. it is also used as a jacketing material on heating cable embedded in roadways to melt ice and on x-ray machine cable leads. Corrosion Resistance Tables. excellent weatherability.. 1–4. useful temperature range. 5th ed. power and lighting cable on offshore oil platforms are sheathed with Hypalon. Its resistance to heat. LLC . The construction industry has made use of Hypalon for sheet roofing. Schweitzer. flexibility. In the automotive industry. curtain-wall gaskets. 70% Sulfuric acid. light weight. and other commercial vehicles. Because of its heat and radiation resistance.A. 10% Sulfuric acid. reservoir covers. 98% Sulfuric acid. control cable. escalator rails. 50% Sulfuric acid.

Consumer items such as awnings.13 for the compatibility of polybutadiene rubber with selected corrodents. flexible fuel tanks. Weather.1 Resistance to Sun. These products offer the advantages of being lightweight and colorful. it will deteriorate when exposed to sunlight for prolongated periods of time. aqueous 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. TABLE 5. Better results are obtained by introducing side groups into the chain either by modifying butadiene or by making a copolymer of butadiene and some other compound. oil. When butadiene or its derivatives becomes polymerized. and gasoline. Simple butadiene does not yield a good grade of rubber.9. apparently because the chains are too smooth. the units link together to form long chains that each contains over 1000 units. convertible tops. 5. boating garb. It shows poor resistance to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. LLC . tarpaulins. and other products also make use of fabrics coated with this elastomer. but it displays fair to good resistance in the presence of mineral acids and oxygenated compounds.9 Polybutadiene Rubber (BR) Butadiene (CH2aCH–CHaCH2) has two unsaturated linkages and can be readily polymerized. Refer to Table 5. It also exhibits poor resistance to ozone. 5.484 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Application is also found in the coating of fabrics that are used for inflatable structures. and Ozone Although polybutadiene has good weather resistance.9. and hatch and boat covers. 5.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of polybutadiene is similar to that of natural rubber.13 Compatibility of Polybutadiene (BR) with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Alum Alum ammonium Alum ammonium sulphate Alum chrome Alum potassium Alum chloride.

Calcium hypochlorite. dil. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Chromic acid. Ozone Phenol Sodium bicarbonate. Carbon dioxide. sat. 40% Chromic acid. 90% Hydrogen sulfide. sat. conc. 10% Ammonium chloride. wet Chlorine gas. 28% Ammonium chloride. 50% Hydrochloric acid fumes Hydrogen peroxide. Hydrochloric acid. 10% Nitric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. 30% Nitric acid. LLC 485 . dry Nitric acid. 10–40% Calcium chloride. 50% Copper chloride Copper sulfate Fatty acids Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate Hydrochloric acid. 50% Nitric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. anhydrous Nitrous acid.13 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. sat. 70% Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 40% Nitric acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium sulfate. wet Chrome alum Chromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. to 20% Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 X 90 X X X X 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 80 80 X X X X 80 X 80 90 80 90 90 80 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 X 32 X X X X 32 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 27 27 27 X X X X 27 X 27 32 27 32 32 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 5. 50% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 10% Sodium dioxide. alkaline Sodium phosphate. Incompatibility is shown by an X. dry Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid. gaskets. Corrosion Resistance Tables. neutral Sodium silicate Sodium sulfide. 60% Sulfuric acid. It is generally used as a blend with other elastomers to impart better resiliency. New York: Marcel Dekker. Vols. the properties of the EA rubbers can be altered by q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.10 Ethylene–Acrylic (EA) Rubber Ethylene–acrylic rubber is produced from ethylene and acrylic acid.9. As with other synthetic elastomers. 30% Sodium hydroxide. particularly in the manufacture of automobile tire treads. to 50% Sodium sulfite. 70% Toluene 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 X 90 80 80 80 80 90 X 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 X 32 27 27 27 27 32 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. conc. 5th ed. and belting.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide.486 TABLE 5. acid Sodium phosphate. to 20% Sodium nitrate Sodium phosphate. 1–4. and/or low-temperature properties. Sodium hypochlorite..3 Applications Very rarely is polybutadiene used by itself. shoe heels and seals. Schweitzer. seals.A. abrasion resistance. Source: From P. 30% Sulfuric acid. 2004. 5. 15% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sodium hydroxide.

3 Applications Ethylene–acrylic rubber is used in such products as gaskets. 5. 5.1 Resistance to Sun.Elastomers 487 compounding. Neither should it be used in applications calling for long-term exposure to highpressure steam.2 Chemical Resistance Ethylene–acrylic elastomers exhibit very good resistance to hot oils and hydrocarbon. highly aromatic hydrocarbons. hot-oil-resistant rubber with good low-temperature properties. and Ozone EA elastomers have extremely good resistance to sun. oxidation. and animal and vegetable oils.10.10. 5. Ethylene–acrylic rubber is not recommended for immersion in esters. Its resistance to water absorption is very good. or concentrated acids. LLC . hoses. and ozone. Because of its fully saturated backbone. Ethylene– acrylic rubber in engine parts provides good resistance to heat. It is one of the few elastomers with higher heat resistance than EPDM. 5. and cable jackets for offshore oil platforms. Good resistance is also displayed to dilute acids. fluids. aliphatic hydrocarbons. 5.10. The swelling characteristics of EA will be retained better than those of the silicone rubbers after oil immersion. Long-term exposures have no effect on these rubbers. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. low-smoke floor tiling. damping components. and building plenum installations. ships. EA is a cost-effective. Ethylene–acrylic rubber also has outstanding resistance to hot water. gasoline. the polymer has excellent resistance to heat.11 Acrylate–Butadiene Rubber (ABR) and Acrylic Ester–Acrylic Halide (ACM) Rubbers Acrylate–butadiene and acrylic ester–acrylic halide rubbers are similar to ethylene–acrylic rubbers. weather.or glycol-based proprietary lubricants and to transmission and power steering fluids. and Ozone Acrylate–butadiene and acrylic ester–acrylic halide rubbers exhibit good resistance to sun. and ozone. and wear as well as good low-temperature sealing ability. Weather. boots.11. weather. Weather. Basically.1 Resistance to Sun. seals. ketones. and ozone.

LLC . it will perform better than other materials. excellent electrical properties. it will last longer or require less maintenance and may even cost less.11. They are unsatisfactory for use in contact with alkali. It also has very high resistance to sunlight. and silicate hydraulic fluids. aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene. and weather. acids. halogenated hydrocarbons. toluene).12 Ethylene–Propylene Rubbers (EPDM and EPT) Ethylene–propylene rubber is a synthetic hydrocarbon-based rubber made either from ethylene–propylene diene monomer or ethylene–propylene terpolymer. compounding plays an important part in tailoring the properties of EPDM to meet the needs of a q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. synthetic lubricants. and good chemical resistance. vulcanizates of EPDM elastomers are extremely resistant to attack by ozone. aging.11. it is not resistant to petroleum-based oils or flame. 5. However. This material may be processed and vulcanized by the same techniques and with the same equipment as those used for processing other generalpurpose elastomers. while also finding application at temperatures as low as K708F (K568C).488 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. The dynamic properties of EPDM remain constant over a wide temperature range. 5. Ethylene–propylene rubber possesses many properties superior to those of natural rubber and conventional general-purpose elastomers. and phosphate hydraulic fluids. As a result of this configuration. These monomers are combined in such a manner as to produce an elastomer with a completely saturated backbone and pendant unsaturation for sulfur vulcanization. good mechanical properties. oxygen. As with other elastomers. kerosene) and offer good resistance to water. EPDM has exceptional heat resistance. being able to operate at temperatures of 300–3508F (148–1768C).2 Chemical Resistance Acrylate–butadiene and ACM rubbers have excellent resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons (gasoline. whereas in other applications. being hydrocarbon based. and weather. In some applications. Hoses manufactured from EPDM have had lives several times longer than that of hoses manufactured from other elastomers. Experience has shown that EPDM has exceptional resistance to steam. making this elastomer suitable for a variety of applications. alcohol.3 Applications These rubbers are used where resistance to atmospheric conditions and heat are required.

its resistance to oil can be improved to provide adequate service life in many applications where such resistance is required. 5. It exhibits exceptional resistance to hot water and high-pressure steam. alcohols. Refer to Table 5. by proper compounding.12. Excellent weather resistance is obtained whether the material is formulated in color. or turpentine. It is also possible by special compounding to produce material that can be used in services up to 3508F (1768C). In the absence of air. Because of this. The elastomer remains free of surface crazing and retains a high percentage of its properties after years of exposure. Ozone resistance is inherent in the polymer. weak acids and alkalies. It is not necessary to add any special compounding ingredients to produce this resistance. Standard formulations can be used continuously at temperatures of 250–3008F (121–1488C) in air. It is very similar in physical and mechanical properties to EPDM.1 Resistance to Sun. this elastomer is used as the gap-filling panel between the grills and bumper. are resistant to most of the same corrodents as EPDM but do not have as broad a resistance to mineral acids and some organics. chlorinated hydrocarbons. and Ozone Ethylene–propylene rubber is particularly resistant to sun.12. and ozone attack. the properties discussed must be considered in general terms.Elastomers 489 specific application. LLC . However. Ethylene–propylene terpolymer rubbers. is not resistant to hydrocarbon solvents and oils. higher temperatures can be tolerated. Because of its paintability. Ethylene–propylene terpolymer (EPT) is a synthetic hydrocarbon-based rubber produced from an ethylene–proplene terpolymer. ethyl acetate. The elastomer.2 Chemical Resistance Ethylene–propylene rubber resists attack from oxygenated solvents such as acetone.3 Applications Extensive use is made of ethylene–propylene rubber in the automotive industry. Ethylene–propylene rubber has relatively high resistance to heat. it can be considered immune to ozone attack. Each of the properties of the elastomer can be enhanced or reduced by the addition or deletion of chemicals and fillers. being hydrocarbon-based. and for all practical purposes. 5. such as in a steam hose lining or cable insulation covered with an outer jacket. Weather. weather. detergents.12. and glycols. methyl ethyl ketone. in general. Standard compounds can be used in intermittent service at 3508F (1768C).15 compatibility of EPT with selected corrodents. phosphate esters.14 for the compatibility of EPDM with selected corrodents and to Table 5. that provides a durable and elastic q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. or black. white. 5.

14 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of EDPM Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. LLC . 50% Acetic acid. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 200 200 140 140 140 140 X 200 X 140 200 200 X 200 190 200 200 190 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 140 200 X 200 200 200 200 140 8C 93 93 60 60 60 60 X 93 X 60 93 93 X 93 88 93 93 88 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 38 38 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 X 60 93 X 93 93 93 93 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium fluoride. 80% Acetic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium chloride.490 TABLE 5. 50% Ammonium chloride.

LLC . wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. sat.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 50% Citric acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. conc.Elastomers TABLE 5. dry Carbon dioxide. moist Bromine. dry Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chlorite Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine gas. 15% Citric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate 8F 150 X X X X X 200 190 X X X X 140 200 140 X 200 140 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 200 200 200 X 200 X 200 160 X X X X X X X 200 200 100 200 8C 66 X X X X X 93 88 X X X X 60 93 60 X 93 60 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 X 93 93 93 X 93 X 93 71 X X X X X X X 93 93 38 93 (continued) 491 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide. wet Chlorine.

10% Phosphoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 5% Cupric chloride. general Lactic acid. 20% Nitric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 5% Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid.492 TABLE 5. moist Hydrobromic acid. dil. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrobromic acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 30% 8F 200 200 200 X 200 200 X X X 200 200 200 200 200 200 60 90 140 140 100 90 200 60 X X 200 140 X 140 200 X X 80 60 60 60 X X X 140 140 200 200 8C 93 93 93 X 93 93 X X X 93 93 93 93 93 93 16 32 60 60 38 32 93 16 X X 93 60 X 60 93 X X 27 16 16 16 X X X 60 60 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.14 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Ketones. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide.

LLC . 10% Acetic acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. TABLE 5. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Acetic acid. conc. Sodium sulfide. 80% Acetic acid.15 Compatibility of EPT with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 1–4. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. 2004. fuming Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 200 200 140 200 180 180 200 200 200 200 200 150 150 140 X X X X X 80 200 200 8C 93 93 60 93 82 82 93 93 93 93 93 66 66 66 X X X X X 27 93 93 493 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 28% 8F 200 X X X X X 140 180 180 8C 93 X X X X X 60 82 82 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Vols. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Ammonium chloride. Source: From P. 5th ed.A.Elastomers TABLE 5. Corrosion Resistance Tables. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. conc. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 90% Sulfuric acid. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.

Ammonium hydroxide.494 TABLE 5. Calcium hydroxide. Bromine water. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 15% Citric acid. Cane sugar liquors Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Cellosolve Chlorine water. 10% Citric acid. general 8F 180 180 140 140 140 180 180 X X 140 X X X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 210 180 X X 180 160 X 80 X X X X X X 180 180 180 180 180 X 80 100 210 100 8C 82 82 60 60 60 82 82 X X 60 X X X X 82 82 82 82 82 82 99 82 X X 82 71 X 27 X X X X X X 82 82 82 82 82 X 27 38 99 38 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dil. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Bromine water. 40% Chromic acid. LLC . sat. Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride dil. 50% Ammonium chloride. sat. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. 30% Chromic acid. Calcium chloride sat. 50% Citric acid. 5% Citric acid. Ammonium sulfate. 30% Calcium hydroxide.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. conc. 20% Calcium hydroxide. Copper sulfate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Diacetone alcohol Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. sat.

all conc. all conc. 93% Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. Potassium hydroxide. dil. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. demineralized Water. Hydrochloric acid. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. salt Water. to 70% Sodium hypochlorite. sea 8F X 180 X 180 180 180 140 180 210 X X X X 210 140 X X X X X 210 X X X X X 140 80 180 210 210 X 200 180 180 200 X 200 X X X 210 210 210 210 8C X 82 X 82 82 82 60 82 99 X X X X 99 60 X X X X X 99 X X X X X 60 27 82 99 99 X 93 82 82 93 X 93 X X X 99 99 99 99 (continued) 495 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 50% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. to 70% Sulfuric acid. dil. Lactic acid. 10% Propane Silicone oil Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. to 50% Potassium sulfate. 37% Formaldehyde. Sulfuric acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. Formaldehyde. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. 100% Hydrogen peroxide. all conc. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Muriatic acid Nitric acid Oxalic acid Phenol Phosphoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. distilled Water.Elastomers TABLE 5. all conc. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid.

ovens. seals.496 TABLE 5. New York: Marcel Dekker. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. gaskets. and insulation for automotive ignition cable. It withstands heavy corona discharge without sustaining damage. Appliance manufacturers. element. LLC . It provides excellent resistance to tearing and failure caused by high voltage contaminants and stress. Other automotive applications include body mounts.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Whiskey Zinc chloride 8F 180 180 8C 82 82 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 2004. vibration isolators. coverings for line and multiplex distribution wire. chemicals. especially washer manufacturers. exhaust emission control tubing. diaphragms. line-tap and switching devices. and insulating and semiconductor tape are also produced from EPDM. floor mats. Its heat and chemical resistance combined with its physical properties make it ideal for such appliances as door seals and cushions. have also found wide use for EPDM. inlet nozzles. Accessory items such as molded terminal covers. transformer connectors. and a variety of grommets. splices. Vols. Medium. and pedal pads. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. bleach tubing. refrigerators. drain and water-circulating hoses. spring mounting pads. and a variety of small appliances. Under hood components such as radiator hose. 5th ed. window washer tubing. and various other items make use of EPDM because of its resistance to heat.and high-voltage underground power distribution cable insulated with EPDM offers many advantages. Its excellent electrical properties make it suitable for high-voltage cable insulation. ignition wire insulation. and ozone. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Source: From P.A. It is used for medium-voltage (up to 35 kV) and secondary network power cable. One of the primary applications is as an insulating material.. 1–4. Schweitzer. overflow tubing. Ethylene–propylene rubber finds application in the electrical industry and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. jacketing and insulation for types S and SJ flexible cords. Each application takes advantage of one or more specific properties of the elastomer. Incompatibility is shown by an X. miscellaneous body seals. plugs. This elastomer is also used in dishwashers. boots.

These rubbers are used primarily in blends with other thermoplastic materials and as performance modifiers. gaskets. vibration mounts. 5. Weather.1 Resistance to Sun.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of SBS rubbers is similar to that of natural rubber.14 Styrene–Ethylene–Butylene–Styrene (SEBS) Rubber Styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene (SEBS) rubbers are either pure or oilmodified block copolymer rubbers. sporting goods.13. marine accessories. industrial tires.Elastomers 497 Manufacturers of other industrial products take advantage of the heat and chemical resistance. or coating formulations.13. and tires for garden equipment. tanks and pump linings. and bases. bicycle tires. and Ozone SBS rubbers are not resistant to ozone. short exposures can be tolerated. LLC . These compounds have a wide range of properties and provide the benefits of rubberiness and easy processing on standard thermoplastic processing equipment. Neither are they resistant to prolonged exposure to sun or weather. SBS compounds are formulations containing block copolymer rubber and other suitable ingredients. O-rings. 5. They have excellent resistance to water.13 Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene (SBS) Rubber Styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) rubbers are either pure or oil-modified block copolymers. ozone resistance. water and chemical hose. hydraulic hose for phosphate-type fluids. particularly when they are in a stressed condition. physical durability. and dynamic properties of EPDM. Standard formulations of EPDM are also used for such consumer items as garden hose. 5. and a variety of molded products.13. 5. high-temperature conveyor belting. 5. Prolonged exposure to hydrocarbon solvents and oils will cause deterioration.3 Applications The specific formulation will determine the applicability of various products. They are most suitable as performance modifiers in blends with thermoplastics or as a base rubber for adhesive. These rubbers are used as performance q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. tugboat and dock bumpers. Typical applications include high-pressure steam hose. Applications include a wide variety of general-purpose rubber items and use in the footwear industry. however. acids. sealant.

15. sporting goods. sealant.1 Resistance to Sun. 5. poor rebound. flame-resistant appliance wiring materials. these elastomers do not have great elasticity. Weather. a pungent odor. acids. and bases. For prolonged outdoor exposure. and automotive primary wire insulation. Many applications are found in the electrical industry for such items as flexible cords. Soaking in hydrocarbon solvents and oils will deteriorate the rubber. and poor abrasion resistance. Formulations of SEBS compounds provide a wide range of properties with the benefits of rubbermess and easy processing on standard thermoplastic processing equipment. Weather.1 Resistance to Sun. the use of 0. LLC . 5.3 Applications SEBS rubbers find applications for a wide variety of general-purpose rubber items as well as in automotive. they have poor tensile strength. They have excellent resistance to water.498 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers modifiers in blends with thermoplastics or as the base rubber for adhesive. 5. and exposure to ultraviolet light.14. They are also known as Thiokol rubbers. o coating formulations. If high concentrations of ozone are to be present. The sulfur forms part of the polymerized molecule. welding and booster cables. and Ozone SEBS rubbers and compounds exhibit excellent resistance to ozone. Compared to nitrile rubber. and Ozone FA polysulfide rubber compounds display excellent resistance to ozone. weathering. 5. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Modified organic polysulfides are made by substituting other unsaturated compounds for ethylene that results in compounds that have little objectionable odor. 5.5 part of nickel dibutyldithiocarbamate (NBC) per 100 parts of FA polysulfide rubber will improve the ozone resistance. high creep under strain. but they do have good resistance to heat and are resistant to most solvents. Their resistance is superior to that of ST polysulfide ribbers. the addition of an ultraviolet absorber or carbon black pigment or both is recommended. and other products.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of SEBS rubbers is similar to that of natural rubber.15 Polysulfide Rubbers (ST and FA) Polysulfide rubbers are manufactured by combining ethylene (CH2aCH2) with an alkaline polysulfide. but short exposures can be tolerated.14.14. In general.

FA polysulfide rubbers are somewhat more resistant to solvents than ST rubbers.2 Chemical Resistance Polysulfide rubbers posses outstanding resistance to solvents. 50% Ammonium chloride.Elastomers 499 ST polysulfide rubber compounded with carbon black is resistant to ultraviolet light and sunlight. ST polysulfide rubber also possesses satisfactory weather resistance. ST polysulfide rubbers exhibit better resistance to chlorinated organics than FA polysulfide rubbers. good alkali resistance. 10% Acetic acid. Contact of either rubber with strong. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline 8F X 80 80 80 80 80 X 150 150 150 90 X X X X 80 X 8C X 27 27 27 27 27 X 66 66 66 32 X X X X 27 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.16 Compatibility of Polysulfide ST Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. LLC . this addition can degrade the material’s compression set. or hydrochloric acid should be avoided. Ammonium hydroxide. They exhibit excellent resistance to oils. For high resistance to esters and ketones. TABLE 5.15. 28% Ammonium chloride. Compounding of FA polymers with NBR will provide high resistance to aromatic solvents and improve the physical properties of the blend. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. 5. however. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. nitric.16 for the compatibility of polysulfide ST rubber with selected corrodents. and fair acid resistance. and aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon solvents. Its resistance to ozone is good but can be improved by the addition of NBC. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium sulfate. neoprene W is compounded with FA polysulfide rubber to produce improved physical properties. 80% Acetic acid. gasoline. sat. Refer to Table 5. 10% Ammonium chloride. concentrated inorganic acids such as sulfuric. very good water resistance.

sat.500 TABLE 5. 40% Chromic acid. dil. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 20% Calcium hydroxide. Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. Formaldehyde. Cane sugar liquors Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Cellosolve Chlorine water. dil. LLC . 10% Chromic acid. conc. 15% Citric acid. 50% Glycerine 8F X 150 80 80 150 80 80 150 150 X X X X X X X 150 80 80 X X X X X X X X X X X X 90 90 X 80 80 90 80 80 80 150 80 80 80 80 8C X 66 27 27 66 27 27 66 66 X X X X X X X 66 27 27 X X X X X X X X X X X X 32 32 X 27 27 32 27 27 27 66 27 27 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. dil. Calcium hydroxide. 30% Chromic acid. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. 10% Citric acid. Bromine water. Calcium chloride. 50% Citric acid. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 5% Citric acid. 37% Formaldehyde. sat. Copper sulfate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Diacetone alcohol Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. general Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. sat.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzene Benzoic acid Bromine water.

to 50% Potassium sulfate.. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 38% Hydrochloric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. all conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrochloric acid. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. sea Whiskey Zinc chloride 8F X X X X X X X X X X X X X 150 80 X X X X X X 80 90 150 X X 80 X X X X X 80 80 80 80 X X 8C X X X X X X X X X X X X X 66 27 X X X X X X 27 32 66 X X 27 X X X X X 27 27 27 27 X X 501 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. all conc. all conc. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Incompatibility is shown by an X. salt Water.A. dil. Sodium hypochlorite. 5th ed. LLC . all conc. 10% Propane Silicone oil Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Oxalic acid. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Source: From P. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Phenol. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 1–4. 100% Hydrogen peroxide. Schweitzer. all conc. 2004. Hydrofluoric acid. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. distilled Water. all conc. all conc. 35% Hydrochloric acid. Sulfuric acid. Hydrochloric acid. Lactic acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. Phosphoric acid. all conc. dil. Potassium hydroxide. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Vols. demineralized Water.

balloons. life rafts. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . gasoline. and thinners.502 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. that are used as vehicles for various printing inks and coatings. both polyester and polyether types. The soft block is represented by B and can be derived from either a polyester or a polyether. aromatic hydrocarbons. and flexible mountings. The urethane linkages in the hard blocks are capable of a high degree of inter. 5.15. fuels. seals. Applications are also found in the fabrication of hose and hose liners for the handling of aromatic solvents. The major reason for this is its high degree of resistance to many types of solvents. oils. Their general structure is A–B–A–B.16 Urethane Rubbers (AU) The first commercial thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) were the thermoplastic urethanes (TPU). including ketones.1 shows typical TPU structures. ketones.3 Applications FA polysulfide rubber is one of the elastomeric materials commonly used for the fabrication of rubber rollers for printing and coating equipment. esters.1 Typical urethane rubber chemical structure. Figure 5. where A represents a hard crystalline block derived by chain extension of a diisocyanate with a glycol.and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. paints. lacquers. and plasticizers. and other inflatable items. The impermeability of the polysuldife rubbers to air and gas has promoted the use of these materials for inflatable products such as life jackets. Large amounts of material are also used to produce caulking compounds. cements. Such bonding increases the O C O NH CH2 NH C O O CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 O R n R CH2 CH2 or CH2 CH CH3 or CH2 CH2 m CH2 CH2 O C O CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 C O n = 30 to 120 m = 8 to 50 FIGURE 5. esters. paint can gaskets.

5. Urethane rubbers exhibit excellent recovery from deformation. metals. Weather. Compositions with a Shore A hardness of 95 (harder than a typewriter platen) are elastic enough to withstand stretching to more than four times their own lengths. simplifying the production of many large and intricately shaped molded products. Those based on polyether soft blocks have excellent resistance (low heat buildup. There are other factors that can have an adverse effect on aging. TPUs are noted for their outstanding abrasion resistance and low coefficient of friction on other surfaces. the nature of the soft segments determines the elastic behavior and low-temperature performance.Elastomers 503 crystallinity of the hard phase and can influence the mechanical properties— hardness. and they do not enjoy the density advantage over thermoset rubber compounds. TPUs based on polyester soft blocks have excellent resistance to nonpolar fluids and high tear strength and abrasion resistance.16. Cured urethane does not require fillers or reinforcing agents. At room temperature. or any combination of these factors will lead to a loss in physical and mechanical properties. dynamic forces. Urethane (AU) rubber is a unique material that combines many of the advantages of rigid plastics. TPUs with polyether soft blocks have greater resistance to thermal and oxidative attack than TPU based on polyester blocks. The properties exhibited are dependent upon the specific polymer and the compounding. Melting of the hard phase causes morphological changes and is reversible. LLC . TPUs slowly deteriorate but noticeably between 265 and 3408F (130 and 1708C) by both chemical degradation and morphological changes. or hysteresis). As with other block copolymers. thermal stability. When cured. both processes become progressively more rapid. oxidative degradation is slow and irreversible. and Ozone Urethane rubbers exhibit excellent resistance to ozone attack and have good resistance to weathering. and ceramics. As the temperature increases. whereas. Parts made of urethane rubbers may build up heat when subjected to high-frequency deformation. Urethane rubbers are produced from a number of polyurethane polymers.1 Resistance to Sun. a number of raw polyurethane polymers are liquid. yet still has the extensibility and elasticity of rubber. They have specific gravities comparable to that of carbon black-filled rubber. However. extended exposure to ultraviolet light q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Such factors as elevated temperature. these elastomeric parts are hard enough to be machined on standard metalworking equipment. contact with chemical agents. tear strength—of the TPU. modulus. but their high strength and load-bearing capacity may permit the use of sections thin enough to dissipate the heat as fast as it is generated. It can be formulated to provide a variety of products with a wide range of physical properties. and hydrolytic stability.

17 for the compatibility of urethane rubber with selected corrodents and to Table 5. 5. polar solvents. 10% Ammonium chloride. When irradiated with gamma rays. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. Refer to Table 5. indicated that adiprene urethane rubber.17 Compatibility of Urethane Rubbers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid.504 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers will reduce their physical properties and will cause the rubber to darken. Alcohols will soften and swell urethane rubbers. 10% Acetic acid. LLC . these rubbers were more resistant to stress cracking than other elastomers and retained a large proportion of their original flexibility and toughness. esters. TABLE 5. Aromatic hydrocarbons. and ketones will attack urethane. 80% Acetic acid. This makes these materials particularly suited for service in contact with lubricating oils and automotive fuels. Tests conducted at the Hanford Laboratories of General Electric Co. This can be prevented by the use of pigments or ultraviolet screening agents. offered the greatest resistance to the effects of gamma-ray irradiation of the many elastomers and plastics tested. 50% Acetic acid. and to aliphatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. but they are resistant to the swelling and deteriorating effects of being immersed in water. 28% Ammonium chloride. Satisfactory service was given even when the material was exposed to the relatively large gamma-ray dosage of 1!109 roentgens. ethers.16.18 the compatibility of polyether urethane rubber with selected corrodents. They are not resistant to steam or caustic. 50% 8F X X X X X X 90 90 90 8C X X X X X X 32 32 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. greases and fuels. as manufactured by DuPont.2 Chemical Resistance Urethane rubbers are resistant to most mineral and vegetable oils. Urethane rubbers have limited service in weak acid solutions and cannot be used in concentrated acids.

30% Calcium hydroxide. Copper sulfate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Dextrose Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. sat. 20% Calcium hydroxide. sat. 10% Chromic acid. 30% Chromic acid. sat. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. 5% Citric acid. sat. Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. dil. sat. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Bromine water. Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Calcium chloride. Calcium hydroxide. sat. dil. Calcium hydroxide. 15% Citric acid.17 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. Cane sugar liquors Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Cellosolve Chlorine water. Bromine water. 40% Chromic acid. general Ethyl acetate 8F 90 90 90 80 X X X X X X 100 X X X X X 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 27 X X X X X X 38 X X X X X 32 32 32 505 X 90 90 X X X X X X X X X X X 32 32 X X X X X X X X X X 90 90 X X X X X 32 32 X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Citric acid. 50% Citric acid. 10%.Elastomers TABLE 5. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. conc. Ammonium hydroxide. LLC .

all conc. dil. 30% Potassium chloride. Toluene Trichloroethylene Trisodium phosphate Turpentine Water. JP 4 Jet fuel. 10% Silver nitrate Soaps Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Fomaldehyde.17 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Fomaldehyde. 37% Formaldehyde. 50% Isoprapyl alcohol Jet fuel. salt Water. 38% Hydrochloric acid. sea 8F X 90 X X X 90 X X X X X X X X X 90 90 90 90 90 X X 90 X X 80 X 90 90 90 90 90 X X 80 90 X X X X 90 X X X 8C X 32 X X X 32 X X X X X X X X X 32 32 32 32 32 X X 32 X X 27 X 32 32 32 32 32 X X 27 32 X X X X 32 X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. all conc. LLC . Hydrochloric acid. Sulfuric acid. JP 5 Kerosene Lard oil Linseed oil Magnesium hydroxide Mercury Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Mineral oil Muriatic acid Nitric acid Oils and fats Phenol Potassium bromide. to 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid. to 50% Potassium sulfate.506 TABLE 5. dil. 30% Potassium hydroxide.

5th ed.17 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Whiskey Xylene 8F X X 8C X X 507 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 10% Ammonium hydroxide.. sat. sat. Ammonium sulfate. 8F X X X X X X X 130 130 130 130 110 110 100 120 X X X X X 90 80 X X 130 130 8C X X X X X X X 54 54 54 54 43 43 38 49 X X X X X 32 27 X X 54 54 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Elastomers TABLE 5. Vols. 2004. New York: Marcel Dekker. TABLE 5. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Ammonium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 50% Ammonium chloride.18 Compatibility of Polyether Urethane Rubbers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. 28% Ammonium chloride. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Calcium chloride. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. 1–4. 80% Acetic acid.A. dil. 10% Acetic acid. Source: From P. Schweitzer. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . 50% Acetic acid. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Ammonium chloride.

30% Hydrofluoric acid. 75% Fluorosilicic acid Formic acid Freon. sat. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Chromic acid.508 TABLE 5. 50% Citric acid. 5% Citric acid. Hydrofluoric acid. F-12 Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Chromic acid. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 20% Calcium hydroxide. dil. dil. 15% Cottonseed oil Cresylic acid Cyclohexane Dioxane Diphenyl Ethyl acetate Ethyl benzene Ethyl chloride Ethylene oxide Ferric chloride. Hydrochloric acid. 40% Chromic acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. F-11 Freon. Calcium hypochlorite Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Caustic potash Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid.18 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium hydroxide. 100% 8F 130 130 130 130 130 X X 80 130 130 X X X X X X X 90 90 90 130 X 80 X X X X X X 100 100 X X 130 130 X X X X X X X X X X X 8C 54 54 54 54 54 X X 27 54 54 X X X X X X X 32 32 32 38 X 27 X X X X X X 38 38 X X 38 38 X X X X X X X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Citric acid. LLC .

30% Potassium hydroxide Potassium sulfate. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Incompatibility is shown by an X. comprising such items as large rolls. neut. LLC . Vols. 5. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 1–4. all conc. A. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Products made from urethane rubber are available in three basic forms: solid. Included under the solid category are those products that are cast or molded.16. alk. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Muriatic acid Nitrobenzene Olive oil Phenol Potassium acetate Potassium chloride. 2004. cellular. salt Water.Elastomers TABLE 5. 5th ed. acid Sodium phosphate.18 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Isobutyl alcohol Isopropyl acetate Lactic acid. distilled Water. 10% Propane Propyl acetate Propyl alcohol Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. sea Xylene 8F X X X X X X X X 120 X X 130 130 130 X X X 130 140 X X 130 130 130 X X 130 130 130 130 X 8C X X X X X X X X 49 X X 54 54 54 X X X 54 60 X X 54 54 54 X X 54 54 54 54 X 509 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. New York: Marcel Dekker. and films and coatings. Sodium phosphate.3 Applications The versatility of urethane has led to a wide variety of applications. demineralized Water.. Schweitzer. Source: From P. impellers. 30% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium peroxide Sodium phosphate. abrasion-resistant q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water.

Their relatively high price tends to restrict their use. The structures of these commercial PEBAs are shown in Figure 5. and many other miscellaneous items. The use of urethane rubbers in manufactured products has been established as a result of their many unique properties of high tensile and tear strengths. solid tires. and treatment sumps constructed of reinforced concrete are widely used in the treatment of municipal. Nylon 11. Nylon 6/6. and thermal generating station wastewater. and thermal generating systems.17 Polyamides Polyamides are produced under a variety of trade names. impact mountings. and exterior coatings for protection against atmospheric corrosion. In many cases. Examples of products to which a urethane film or coating is often applied are tarpaulins. holding tanks. Although the polyamides find their greatest use as textile fibers. but the four major types are Nylon 6. pipe linings.2. mallets and hammers. Of these. etc. The amide linkages connecting the hard and soft blocks are more resilient to chemical attack than either an ester or urethane bond. The highest performance class of TPE are block copolymeric elastomeric polyamides (PEBAs). Amide linkages connect the hard and soft segments of these TPEs.) manufactured by DuPont. fabrics. LLC . tank linings. bowling pins. impact resistance. and the soft segment may have a polyester or a polyether structure. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conveyer belts. Nylons 11 and 12 find application as elastomeric materials. These linings provide protection from abrasion and erosion and act as a waterproofing system to combat leakage of the equipment resulting from concrete movement and shrinkage.510 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers parts for textile machines. These films also provide abrasion resistance. particularly in anaerobic. the PEBAs have higher temperature resistance than the urethane elastomers. Other products made from urethane rubbers include bearings. 5. and Nylon 12. Filtration units. Cellular products are items such as shock mountings. tooling pads. industrial. and their cost is greater. There are many varieties of polyamides in production. and paper. gears. O-rings. and gaskets. industrial. clarifiers. the most popular of which are Nylons (Nylon 6. electrical encapsulations. and load-bearing capacity. resiliency. glass. they can also be formulated into thermoplastic molding compounds with many attractive properties. shoe soles. It is possible to apply uniform coatings or films of urethane rubber to a variety of substrate materials including metal. urethane linings are used to protect the concrete from severe chemical attack and prevent seepage into the concrete of chemicals that can attack the reinforcing steel. gear couplings. wood. and small intricate parts. Consequently. contact wheels for belt grinders.

17.2 Structures of three elastomeric polyamides The hard and soft blocks’ structure also contributes to their performance characteristics.2 Chemical Resistance Polyamides exhibit excellent resistance to a broad range of chemicals and harsh environments. oxalic. and phosphoric acids at ambient temperatures. or polyetherester chains. The soft segment may consist of polyester. oleic.19 for the compatibility of Nylon 11 with selected corrodents. Refer to Table 5. particularly ammonium hydroxide and ammonia even at elevated temperatures and sodium potassium hydroxide at ambient temperatures. weather.Elastomers 511 C (CH2)6 C NH (CH2)10 C NH(CH2)8 CO O Hard x (CH2)y O z (CH2)5 C NH B NHC A C NH B NH x CH2 O C CH2 C NH Soft Where A = C19 to C21 dicarboxylic acid B= CH2 O 2 CH2 Hard CH2 O CH2 4 3 FIGURE 5. 5. and Ozone Polyamides are resistant to sun. lactic. LLC O O Soft O O O O O O O NH A C CH2 C O . Polyether chains provide better low-temperature properties and resistance to hydrolysis. They are also resistant to organic acids (citric. polyether. and ozone. 5. sulfonic. They have good resistance to most inorganic alkalies. Many metals are coated with polyamide to provide protection from harsh weather. polyester chains provide better fluid resistance and resistance to oxidation at elevated temperatures. They also display good resistance to almost all inorganic salts and almost all hydrocarbons and petroleum-based fuels. They display limited resistance to hydrochloric.1 Resistance to Sun. stearic. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Weather. and uric) and most aldehydes and ketones at normal temperatures.17. tartaric. whereas.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. sat. Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. gas Bromine. sat. 40% Chromic acid. 5% Citric acid. LLC . 28% Ammonium chloride. Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Caustic potash.19 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Nylon 11 with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. 30% Chromic acid.512 TABLE 5. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid. 20% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Bromine. liquid Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. 50% Chlorine gas Chlorine water. dil. sat. sat. 10% 8F 140 X X X X 8C 60 X X X X 200 200 200 200 200 200 80 100 X 200 200 X X 140 200 200 200 140 140 140 140 X 80 140 80 140 X X X X X X X 200 200 93 93 93 93 93 93 27 38 X 93 93 X X 60 93 93 93 60 60 60 60 X 27 60 27 60 X X X X X X X 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium sulfate. 50% Citric acid. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. Calcium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid.

50% Potassium sulfate. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Naphtha Nitric acid Oxalic acid Phenol Phosphoric acid. all conc. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid.19 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Citric acid. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Citric acid. Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . general Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Ethylene oxide Ferric chloride Formic acid Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. Copper nitrate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Cyclohexanone Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. dil. to 10% above 10% Potassium hydroxide. conc.Elastomers TABLE 5. 100% Hydrogen sulfide Iodine Lactic acid. dil. 10% Propane Silicone oil Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride 8F 200 200 X 200 X 200 80 8C 93 93 X 93 X 93 27 513 200 200 200 100 X X 200 80 X X X X X X X X X X X X 200 160 100 X 120 X 140 X 80 X 200 80 80 80 220 200 93 93 93 38 X X 93 27 X X X X X X X X X X X X 93 71 38 X 49 X 60 X 27 X 93 27 27 27 104 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

and electrical wire are also produced. and seals. these parts can withstand repeated stretching and flexing over long periods of time.19 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. gaskets. New York: Marcel Dekker. Since polyamides can meet specification SAE J844 for air-brake hose. Vols. all conc.. Sodium hypochlorite. resilient. coiled tubing is produced for this purpose for use on trucks. diaphragms. Schweitzer. LLC . High-pressure hose and fuel lines are also produced from this material. all conc. Coiled air-brake hose produced from this material has been used on trucks that have traveled over two million miles without a single reported failure. Sulfunc acid. 5th ed. distilled Water.18 Polyester (PE) Elastomer This elastomer combines the characteristics of thermoplastics and elastomers. Because of the high elastic memory of polyamides. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. automotive cables.514 TABLE 5. sea Whiskey Zinc chloride 8F 200 X X 140 160 80 80 140 140 80 X 8C 93 X X 60 71 27 27 60 60 27 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. salt Water. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 1–4. acid mine Water. and resistant to impact and flexural q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. It is structurally strong. Source: From P. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. A wide range of flexibility permits material to be produced that is soft enough for high-quality bicycle seats and other materials whose strength and rigidity are comparable to those of many metals. all conc. Superflexible grades are also available that are used for shoe soles. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 2004. Corrosion-resistant and wear-resistant coverings for aircraft control cables.17. 5.3 Applications Polyamides find many diverse applications resulting from their many advantageous properties. A. 5.

At room temperature. base. high resistance to deformation under moderate strain conditions. Their chemical resistance to oils and hydraulic fluids coupled with their high q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. they are also used for inflatables.1 Resistance to Sun.18. The standard hardnesses to which PE elastomers are formulated are 40.18. Hardnesses range from 40 to 72 on the Shore D scale. Its physical and mechanical properties vary depending upon the hardness of the elastomer. the fluid resistance of polyester rubbers increases with increasing hardness. 5. retention of flexibility at low temperatures. swimming pools. even at elevated temperatures. and Ozone Polyester rubbers possess excellent resistance to ozone. their resistance to sunlight aging is very good.3 Applications Applications for PE elastomers are varied. and glycols. Resistance to general weathering is good. Refer to Table 5. and good retention of properties at elevated temperatures. Polyester elastomers have excellent resistance to nonpolar materials such as oils and hydraulic fluids. ponds. PE elastomers are resistant to the same classes of chemicals and fluids as polyurethanes are. amines. Polyester elastomers also have good resistance to hot.18. and drums. However. outstanding flex-fatigue resistance. These rubbers should not be used in applications requiring continuous exposure to polar fluids at elevated temperatures. LLC . Resistance is very poor at temperatures of 1588F (708C) or above. Combined are such features as resilience.2 Chemical Resistance In general. Their hydrolytic stability can be further improved by compounding. Large quantities of PE materials are used for liners for tanks. 5. Weather. moist atmospheres.Elastomers 515 fatigue. Since these rubbers contain no plasticizers. Overall. elastomers are resistant to most polar fluids such as acids. they are not susceptible to the solvent extraction or heat volatilization of such additives. Polyester elastomers can successfully replace other thermoset rubbers at lower costs in many applications by taking advantage of their higher strength and by using thinner cross sections. 55.20 for the compatibility of polyester elastomers with selected corrodents. When formulated with appropriate additives. 5. causing a significant increase in stiffness (modulus) and volume shrinkage. 63. Because of their low permeability to air. good abrasion resistance. Many fluids and chemicals will extract plasticizers from elastomers. PE has better high-temperature properties than polyurethanes and can be used satisfactorily at higher temperatures in the same fluids. and 72 Shore D.

28% Ammonium chloride. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride.516 TABLE 5. Calcium hypochlorite. sat. 5% Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Castor oil Chlorine gas. 15% Citric acid. to 50% Cyclohexane Dibutyl phthalate 8F 80 80 80 100 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 X 80 80 80 80 X 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 X 80 X X X X X 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 8C 27 27 27 38 32 32 32 32 32 27 27 X 27 27 27 27 X 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 X 27 X X X X X 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Citric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. 10–40% Amyl acetate Aniline Beer Benzene Borax Boric acid Bromine. 5% Citric acid. 30% Calcium hydroxide. Copper sulfate Cottonseed oil Cupric chloride. 50% Acetic acid. liquid Butane Butyl acetate Calcium chloride. LLC . conc. vapor Ammonium chloride. Calcium hydroxide. Calcium chloride. dry Chlorine gas. dil.20 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Polyester Elastomers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 10% Citric acid. sat.

Formaldehyde. 10–85% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. dil. 50% Hydrofluoric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. LLC . dil. distilled Water. 37% Formic acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. salt Water. 40% Hydrofluoric acid.20 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Dioctyl phthalate Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hydrogen Hydrogen sulfide. 15% Stearic acid Sulfuric acid. all conc. Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. sea 8F 80 80 80 X 80 80 80 80 80 80 X X X X X X X X X X 80 80 80 80 X 80 X X X 80 X 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 X 80 160 160 160 160 8C 27 27 27 X 27 27 27 27 27 27 X X X X X X X X X X 27 27 27 27 X 27 X X X 27 X 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 X 27 71 71 71 71 (continued) 517 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. Toluene Water. demineralized Water. dry Lactic acid Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Mineral oil Muriatic acid Nitric acid Nitrobenzene Ozone Phenol Potassium dichromate. 30% Potassium hydroxide Pyridine Soap solutions Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Stannous chloride. 20% Hydrochloric acid. dil. Hydrochloric acid.

EPDM rubber and PP are the constituents of the most common TEOs. Schweitzer. pump parts. LLC . 5. Blends of NBR and PVC are also significant but less common in Europe and North America than in Japan. thermoplastic urethanes. low-pressure tires. 2004. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. The family of thermoplastic olefins (TEO) are simple blends of a rubbery polymer (such as EPDM or NBR) with a thermoplastic such as PP or PVC. Vols. The discontinuous phase should have a smaller particle size for the best performance of the TEO. flexible couplings. Elastic recovery occurs when the hard segments act to pull back the more soft and rubbery segments. Source: From P.518 TABLE 5. and the thermoplastic is favored because of its lower viscosity. Corrosion Resistance Tables. noise-damping devices. heat resistance make PE elastomers very suitable for automotive hose applications. industrial solid tires.19 Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) Olefinic Type (TEO) Thermoplastic elastomers contain sequences of hard and soft repeating units in the polymer chain. Other PE products include seals. and fasteners. Each polymer will have its own phase. piping clamps and cushions. thermoplastic copolyesters. The six generic classes of TPEs are. speciality belting. 5th ed. polyolefin blends. styrene block copolymers. flexible shafts. Since the PE elastomers do not contain any plasticizers. Cross-linking is not required. New York: Marcel Dekker. vulcanization). q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. hose and tubing produced from them do not stiffen with age. wire and cable jacketing. and thermoplastic polyamides. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. gears. 1–4. Incompatibility is shown by an X. gaskets. in order of increasing cost and performance.20 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Xylene Zinc chloride 8F 80 80 8C 27 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. The polymer present in the larger amount will usually be the continuous phase. sports equipment. and the rubber phase will have little or no cross-linking (that is. TEOs are similar to thermoset rubbers because they can be compounded with a variety of the same additives and fillers to meet specific applications. elastomeric alloys.A.. electrical connectors.

silicone rubber is produced: CH3 Si CH3 O CH3 Si CH3 O n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. all that tend to concentrate in the soft rubber phase of the TEO.19. mechanical goods. plasticizers. seals. Weather. and Ozone TPEs possess good resistance to sun and ozone and have excellent weatherability. antioxidants. 5.3 Applications These elastomeric compounds are found in a variety of applications. a TEO is highly vulnerable to fluids with a similar solubility parameter (or polarity). Blends with NBR and PVC are more resistant to aggressive fluids with the exception of the halocarbons. aqueous solutions. The nonpolar nature of EPDM/PP TEOs make them highly resistant to water.20 Silicone (SI) and Fluorosilicone (FSI) Rubbers Silicone rubbers. Their water resistance is excellent. showing essentially no property changes after prolonged exposure to water at elevated temperatures. and other polar fluids such as alcohols and glycols. The absence of unsaturation in the polymer backbone of both EPDM and PP makes these TEO blends very resistant to oxidation. are a series of compounds whose polymer structure consists of silicon and oxygen atoms rather than the carbon structures of most other elastomers. or alkyl substituted benzenes. also known as polysiloxanes. especially at elevated temperatures. 5. gaskets and profile extrusions. The EPDM/PP TEOs have very poor resistance to hydrocarbon fluids such as the alkanes.2 Chemical Resistance As a result of the low level of cross-linking.19. 5. flexible and supported tubing. 5. but they swell excessively with toss of properties when exposed to halocarbons and hydrocarbons such as oils and fuels. When the atoms are combined so that the double linkages are broken and methyl groups enter the linkages. SiO2 or OaSiaO.Elastomers 519 These additives include carbon black. and wire and cable jacketing. The silicones are derivatives of silica. including reinforced hose. functional parts and under-the-hood components.19. LLC . and fillers. automotive trim. alkenes.1 Resistance to Sun.

75% Acrylonitrile Aluminum acetate Aluminum phosphate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. animal and vegetable oils. TABLE 5. dilute acids and alkalies. but aromatic solvents such as benzene. oil and gasoline. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. and ozone.2 Chemical Resistance Silicone rubbers can be used in contact with dilute acids and alkalies. They are also resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. and lubricating oils. Refer to Table 5. They have excellent resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons and good resistance to aromatic hydrocarbons.20.20.21 Compatibility of Silicone Rubbers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. weathering. gasoline. they are not resistant to high-pressure and high-temperature steam. 5. glacial Acetic acid. 50% water Acetophenone Acrylic acid. alcohols. Although they have excellent resistance to water and weathering. 29% Ammonium chloride.21 for the compatibility of silicone rubbers with selected corrodents. and alcohols and fair resistance to concentrated alkalies. 50% Acetic acid. sat. vapors Acetone Acetone. LLC . 20% Acetic acid. Their properties are virtually unaffected by longterm exposure.520 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. Weather. and Ozone Silicone and fluorosilicone rubbers display excellent resistance to sun. animal and vegetable oils.1 Resistance to Sun. toluene. 8F 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 110 110 X 80 X X 400 410 X 80 80 80 8C 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 43 43 X 27 X X 204 210 X 27 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The fluorosilicone rubbers have better chemical resistance than the silicone rubbers. 80% Acetic acid. and chlorinated solvents will cause excessive swelling.

all conc. to 30% Calcium hydroxide. 3:1 Barium sulfide Benzene Benzyl chloride Boric acid Butyl alcohol Calcium acetate Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride.21 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide. LLC 521 . 20% Hydrochloric acid. Calcium hydroxide. dil. all conc. sat. Carbon bisulfide Carbon monoxide Carbonic acid Chlorobenzene Chlorosulfonic acid Dioxane Ethane Ethers. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 35% Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen peroxide. all conc.Elastomers TABLE 5. Ammonium nitrate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia. general Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethyl chloride Ethylene chloride Ethylene diamine Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Fluosilicic acid Formaldehyde. Fuel oil Gasoline Glucose (corn syrup) Glycerine Green liquor Hexane Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid. sat. 8F 210 400 80 X X 80 X 400 X X 390 80 X 400 300 210 400 X 400 400 X X X X X 170 400 X X 400 400 400 X 200 X X 400 410 400 X X 90 90 X X 200 8C 99 204 27 X X 27 X 204 X X 189 27 X 204 149 99 204 X 204 204 X X X X X 77 204 X X 204 204 204 X 93 X X 204 210 204 X X 32 32 X X 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

to 50% Potassium hydroxide. 20% Nitric acid. to 80% Potassium sulfate. 30% Potassium dichromate Potassium hydroxide. 10% Nitric acid. 90% Potassium nitrate. Lead acetate Lime sulfur Linseed oil Magnesium chloride Magnesium sulfate Mercury Methyl alcohol Methyl cellosolve Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Mineral oil Naptha Nickel acetate Nickel chloride Nickel sulfate Nitric acid. to 50% Ozone Palmitic acid Paraffin Peanut oil Perchloric acid Phenol Phosphoric acid Picric acid Potassium chloride.522 TABLE 5. 30% Potassium cyanide. vegetable Oleic acid Oleum Oxalic acid. 5% Nitric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid–sulfuric acid. all conc.21 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Lactic acid. 10% Potassium sulfate. pure Propane 8F 80 X 400 X 400 400 80 410 X X X X 300 X X 400 400 80 80 X X X X 400 X 400 X X 80 400 X X 400 X X X X 400 410 410 210 80 400 400 400 X 8C 27 X 204 X 204 204 27 210 X X X X 149 X X 204 204 27 27 X X X X 204 X 204 X X 27 204 X X 204 X X X X 204 210 210 99 27 204 204 204 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 50:50 Nitrobenzene Nitrogen Nitromethane Oils.

5. Schweitzer. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Sodium peroxide Sodium sulfate Sodium thiosulfate Stannic chloride Styrene Sulfite liquors Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid Tartaric acid Tetrahydroturan Toluene Tributyl phosphate Turpentine Vinegar Water. 5th ed. 1–4. heaters. New York: Marcel Dekker. Source: From P. LLC . all conc. furnaces. demineralized Water. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is shown by an X.. and automotive parts. Their excellent weathering qualities and wide temperature range have also resulted in their employment as caulking compounds. aerospace devices. salt Water. Vols. Corrosion Resistance Tables.3 Applications Because of their unique thermal stability and/or their insulating values. silicone rubbers find many uses in the electrical industries. A. distilled Water. 10% Sodium hydroxide.20. primarily in appliances.21 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Propyl acetate Propyl alcohol Propyl nitrate Pyridine Silver nitrate Sodium acetate Sodium bisulfite Sodium borate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. acid mine Water. 2004.Elastomers TABLE 5. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sea Xylene Zinc chloride 8F X 400 X X 410 X 410 400 300 400 90 X 400 400 80 X X X X 400 X X X X 400 210 210 210 210 210 X 400 8C X 204 X X 210 X 210 204 149 204 32 X 204 204 27 X X X X 204 X X X X 204 99 99 99 99 99 X 204 523 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.

Exclusion or containment plus pressure or vacuum sealing to provide both EMI/EMP attenuation and pressure containment and/or weatherproofing 4. The polymer has the characteristic stability of fluoropolymers when exposed to aggressive thermal. Shielding for exclusion to prevent the intrusion of EMI/RF/EMP created by outside sources into the protected device 3. PVDF is one of the easiest fluoropolymers to process and can be easily recycled without affecting its physical and chemical properties.524 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers When silicone or fluorosilicone rubbers are infused with a high-density conductive filler.21 Vinylidene Fluoride (HFP. LLC . Grounding and contacting to provide a dependable lowimpedance connection to conduct electric energy to ground. In general.1-difluoroethene with alternating CH2 and CF2 groups along the polymer chain. chemical. PVDF) Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a homopolymer of 1. Shielding for containment to prevent the escape of EMI internally generated by the device 2. These conductive elastomers are used as part of an EMI/RFI/EMP shielding process in forms such as O-rings and gaskets to provide 1. often used where mechanical mating is imperfect or impractical The following equipment is either capable of generating EMI or susceptible to EMI: Aircraft and aerospace electronics Analog instrumentation Automotive electronics Business machines Communication systems Digital instrumentation and process control systems Home appliances Radio-frequency instrumentation and radar Medical electronics Military and marine electronics Security systems (military and commercial) 5. As q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and ultraviolet conditions. an electric path is created. These groups impart a unique polarity that influences its solubility and electrical properties.

1 Resistance to Sun.2 Chemical Resistance In general. heat-shrinkable tubing. wide allowable operating temperature range. 5. high dielectric strength. high dielectric strength. mechanical strength and toughness. resistance to weathering. Because of cross-linking. ultraviolet light. Part 177. Strong bases will attack the material. weather. and fungi are useful. Cross-linking of the polymer chain and control of the molecular weight are also done to improve particular properties.22 for the compatibility of PVDF with selected corrodents. Its mechanical properties are retained.21. and resistance to weathering. computer q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.21. Department of Agriculture (USDA). 5. PVDF is completely resistant to chlorinated solvents. the impact strength and elongation are slightly reduced. In the electrical and electronics fields. and aromatic solvents. 2000.21. Use is also permitted under “3-A Sanitary Standards for Multiple-Use Plastic Materials Used as Product Contact Surfaces for Dairy Equipment Serial No. It can be used in applications intended for repeated contact with food per Title 21. This resistance makes PVDF useful in plutonium reclamation operations. whereas the percent elongation to break decreases to a lower level and then remains constant. Refer to Table 5. high abrasion resistance. Weather. PVDF possesses mechanical strength and toughness. high abrasion resistance. weak bases and salts.S.2520. resistance to ultraviolet and nuclear radiation. PVDF is also permitted for use in processing or storage areas on contact with meat or poultry food products prepared under federal inspection according to the U. plenum cables. strong acids. to most chemicals and solvents. high thermal stability. The broader molecular weight of PVDF gives it greater resistance to stress cracking than many other materials. anode lead wire. The original tensile strength is essentially unchanged after exposure to 1000 Mrads of gamma irradiation from a cobalt-60 source at 1228F (508C) and in high vacuum (10K6 torr). and Ozone PVDF is highly resistant to the effects of sun. halogens. resistance. Code of Federal Regulations. and resistance to fungi. strong oxidants. compounding can be used to improve certain specific properties. PVDF is used for multiwire jacketing. aliphatic solvents.” This material has the ASTM designation of MFP. but it is subject to stress cracking in the presence of sodium hydroxide. LLC . and ozone.3 Applications PVDF finds many applications where its properties of corrosion resistance. Chapter 1. high purity. radiation.Elastomers 525 with other elastomeric materials. PVDF also exhibits excellent resistance to nuclear radiation. 5.

3:1 Barium carbonate 8F 150 90 300 300 190 190 X 120 150 130 280 200 200 180 250 300 270 300 260 300 290 300 270 250 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 190 280 280 200 150 130 280 8C 66 32 149 149 88 88 X 49 66 54 138 93 93 82 121 149 132 149 127 149 143 149 132 121 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 88 138 138 93 66 54 138 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ammonium fluoride. sat.22 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PVDF with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. 10 – 40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. LLC . Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride.526 TABLE 5. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

dry Chlorine gas. dry Bromine gas. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 10% Chlorine.Elastomers TABLE 5. dry Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. LLC 527 . wet. liquid Chlorobenzene 8F 280 280 280 280 120 150 100 250 280 280 280 280 210 210 140 280 140 280 X 230 280 280 280 280 280 270 280 280 280 250 280 220 80 280 280 80 280 280 280 280 210 200 210 210 210 220 8C 138 138 138 138 49 66 38 121 138 138 138 138 99 99 60 138 60 138 X 110 138 138 138 138 138 132 138 138 138 121 138 104 27 138 138 27 138 138 138 138 99 93 99 99 99 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. sat.22 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine.

25% Lactic acid. general Lactic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. dil. 10% Chromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. conc. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. LLC . Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride 8F 250 110 220 250 110 250 250 250 250 280 280 280 210 270 270 250 210 80 120 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 80 80 260 280 280 280 280 280 260 200 200 280 250 110 130 110 280 250 280 8C 121 43 104 121 43 121 121 121 121 138 138 138 99 132 132 121 99 27 49 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 27 27 127 138 138 138 138 138 127 93 93 138 121 43 54 43 138 121 138 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Ketones. dry Fluorine gas.528 TABLE 5. Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 15% Citric acid.22 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.

5th ed. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 1–4. 50% Sodium hydroxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 5% Nitric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid.22 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. LLC . conc. 10% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. Sodium hypochlorite. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 110 280 200 180 120 150 210 X 210 120 200 220 80 280 220 250 280 280 230 220 150 280 280 280 280 280 250 220 220 210 140 X X 220 X X 130 80 260 8C X X 43 138 93 82 49 66 99 X 99 49 93 104 27 138 104 121 138 138 110 104 66 138 138 138 138 138 121 104 104 99 60 X X 104 X X 54 27 127 529 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. conc. Corrosion Resistance Tables.. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. Source: From P. 20% Nitric acid. Sodium sulfide. New York: Marcel Dekker. 100% Sulfuric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. Schweitzer. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 10% Perchloric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X.A. 98% Sulfuric acid. 2004. Vols. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide.

530 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers wiring. LLC . 5. and membranes for microporous filters and ultrafiltration. No. 33. Food and Drug Administration for use in repeated contact with food products. and dipping. Three typical materials are listed below. Tuesday January 9. extrusion. this material was used to produce O-rings for use in severe conditions. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.S. As a result of its resistance to fungi and its exceptional corrosion resistance. Subpart F—Food Additives Resulting from Contact with Containers or Equipment and Food Additives Otherwise Affecting Food—Rubber Articles Intended for Repeated Use. PVDF finds applications as gasketing material. The result is a high-performance synthetic rubber with exceptional resistance to oils and chemicals at elevated temperatures. and cable and cable ties. FKM are capable of being compounded with various additives to enhance specific properties for particular applications. Part 121—Food Additives. of a true elastomer and exhibit mechanical properties of the same order of magnitude as those of conventional synthetic rubbers. FKM are suitable for all rubber processing applications. FKM are manufactured under various trade names by different manufacturers. transfer molding. Because of its acceptance in the handling of foods and pharmaceuticals. Trade Name Viton Technoflon Fluorel Manufacturer Dupont Ausimont 3M These elastomers have the ASTM designation FKM. 1968. transfer hose are lined with PVDF. injection molding. and tetrafluoroethylene. In fluid-handling systems. calendering. Initially. spreading. hexafluoropropene. Vol. Fluoroelastomers have been approved by the U. 5. it is also used as the insulation material for underground anode bed installations. or resilience. As with other rubbers. valve diaphragms. Its corrosion resistance is also a factor in these applications. these compounds have found wide use in other applications because of their chemical resistance at high temperatures and other desirable properties. These compounds possess the rapid recovery from deformation. More details are available in the Federal Register. including compression molding.22 Fluoroelastomers (FKM) Fluoroelastomers are fluorine-containing hydrocarbon polymers with a saturated structure obtained by polymerizing fluorinated monomers such as vinylidene fluoride. Although this remains a major area of application. injection/compression molding.

No cracking occurred in a bent loop test after one year of exposure to 100 ppm of ozone in air at 1008F (388C) or in a sample held at 3568F (1808C) for several hundred hours. fuels. By proper formulation.2 Chemical Resistance Fluoroelastomers provide excellent resistance to oils. Refer to Table 5. naphtha. require resistance only to 0. for example.Elastomers 531 The biological resistance of FKM is excellent. chlorinated solvents. A typical compound tested against specification MIL-E-5272C showed no fungus growth after 30 days. Their solubility in low molecular weight ketones is an advantage in producing solution coatings of FKM. Products made of this elastomer are unaffected by ozone concentrations as high as 100 ppm. LLC . 5.22. and pesticides.5 ppm ozone. This specification covers four common fungus groups. which in turn q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. samples showed little or no change in properties or appearance. and improved reliability have resulted in higher operating temperatures. gasoline. 5.23 for the compatibility of FKM with selected corrodents. Special formulation can be produced to obtain resistance to hot mineral acids.22.1 Resistance to Sun. xylene) that act as solvents for other rubbers. certain amines. or hot anhydrous hydrofluoric or chlorosulfonic acids. and military communities.3 Applications The main applications for fluoroelastomers are in those products requiring resistance to high operating temperatures together with high chemical resistance to aggressive fluids and to those characterized by severe operating conditions that no other elastomer can withstand. in the automotive industry. After 13 years of exposure in Florida in direct sunlight. Similar results were experienced with samples exposed to various tropical conditions in Panama for a period of 10 years. This property is particularly important considering that standard tests. These elastomers are not suitable for use with low molecular weight esters and ethers. and Ozone Because of their chemically saturated structure. aerospace. many aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride. toluene. reduced costs. lubricants. energy saving. steam. Recent changes in the automotive industry that have required reduction in environmental pollution. Weather. and hot water. most mineral acids.22. cured items can be produced that will meet the rigid specifications of the industrial. benzene. FKM exhibit excellent weathering resistance to sunlight and especially to ozone. ketones. 5.

532 TABLE 5. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10%. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 50% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.23 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Fluoroelastomers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F X 210 190 180 180 X X X 400 X X 190 190 100 190 180 400 400 190 400 X 390 X 140 190 400 300 300 140 140 190 190 X 140 180 180 X X 200 190 230 190 190 250 8C X 99 88 82 82 X X X 204 X X 88 88 38 88 82 204 204 88 204 X 199 X 60 88 204 149 149 60 60 88 88 X 60 82 82 X X 93 88 110 88 88 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. LLC . Ammonium fluoride.

23 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 25% Bromine. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.Elastomers TABLE 5. sat. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. LLC . wet Chlorine. dry. moist. 25% Bromine gas. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform 8F 400 400 400 400 X 400 190 400 400 400 190 400 180 180 350 400 X 400 X 120 400 400 190 190 300 300 400 400 400 200 400 80 X 400 400 350 400 X X X 190 190 190 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 X 204 88 204 204 204 88 204 82 82 177 204 X 204 X 49 204 204 88 88 149 149 204 204 204 93 204 27 X 204 204 177 204 X X X 88 88 88 204 204 (continued) 533 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 15% Citric acid. general Lactic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid.534 TABLE 5. conc. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Ketones. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. Hydrobromic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.23 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone 8F X 350 350 300 400 X 190 400 400 400 X 180 180 400 400 80 190 400 400 400 400 180 210 X X 400 400 400 350 350 400 210 350 X 400 190 X 300 400 390 390 180 190 X X 8C X 177 177 149 204 X 88 204 204 204 X 82 82 204 204 27 88 204 204 204 204 82 99 X X 204 204 204 177 177 204 99 177 X 204 88 X 149 204 199 199 82 88 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dil. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. conc. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Citric acid. LLC . dry Fluorine gas.

conc. Vols. Sodium hypochlorite. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Nitric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 5th ed. 1–4. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 2004. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 350 400 400 190 190 90 190 400 400 210 300 400 190 300 190 400 X X X 400 400 190 400 400 350 350 350 350 350 180 200 400 X 400 190 190 400 8C 177 204 204 88 88 32 88 204 204 99 149 204 88 149 88 204 X X X 204 204 88 204 204 177 177 177 177 177 88 93 204 X 204 88 88 204 535 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. conc.23 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Muriatic acid Nitric acid. conc. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. Source: From P.. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 100% Sulfuric acid.A. 70% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 20% Nitric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Schweitzer. 50% Sodium hydroxide.

turbocharge lubricating circuit bellows. and numerous types of O-ring seals. heat-shrinkable tubing and fittings for wire and cable. diaphragms for metering pumps. Their chemical stability solves the problems of chemical corrosion by making it possible to use them for such purposes as a protective lining for power station stacks operated with high-sulfur fuels. filter casing gaskets.536 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers require a higher performance elastomer. hose. The exploitation of oilfields in difficult areas. mastic adhesive sealants. The main innovations resulting from these requirements are Turbocharging More compact. fluoroelastomers are being applied as shaft seats. The high. Fluoroelastomers provide a solution to these problems and are used for O-rings. The same problems exist in the chemical industry. U-rings. and overall reliability to reduce maintenance. carburetor accelerating pump diaphragms. O-ring (water-cooled cylinders and injection pumps). diaphragms for fuel pumps. In the field of aerospace applications. carburetor needle-valve tips. safety clothing and gloves. has increased the problems of high temperatures and pressures. a coating on rolls for the textile industry to permit scouring of fabrics. such as deserts or offshore sites. and faster engines Catalytic exhausts Cx reduction Soundproofing In addition. engine head gaskets. more efficient. thermal stability. firewall seals. These extreme operating conditions require elastomers that have high chemical resistance. At the present time. sour gasoline lubricants. water pump gaskets. valve stem seals. and seals for exhaust gas pollution control equipment. protective coatings. LLC . the reliability of materials under extreme exposure conditions is of prime importance. fuel hose. expansion joints. gaskets. specifically manifold gaskets. The ability of fluoroelastomers to seal under extreme vacuum conditions in the range of 10K9 mm Hg is an additional feature that makes these materials useful for components used in space. high viscosities. alternative fuels. linings for valves. and high acidity. and antifreeze fluids has caused automotive fluids to be more corrosive to elastomers. Another important application of these elastomers is in the production of coatings and linings. valve seats.and lowtemperature properties of the fluoroelastomers have permitted them to give reliable performance in a number of aircraft and missile components. V-rings. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and tank linings for the chemical industry. the use of lead-free fuels. coated fabrics. and maintenance coatings.

ETFE is a modified partially fluorinated copolymer of ethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride 8F 200 250 250 250 230 230 300 150 150 150 280 210 190 8C 93 121 121 121 110 110 149 66 66 66 138 99 88 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.23. Even carboxylic acids. and metal salt solutions. 5. makes the material particularly suitable for outdoor applications subject to atmospheric corrosion. inorganic bases. ethers.23 Ethylene–Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) Elastomer This elastomer is sold under the trade name Tefzel by DuPont. alcohols. 10% Acetic acid.24 Compatibility of ETFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. as will organic bases such as amines and sulfonic acids. 80% Acetic acid. and weather. aldehydes. and Ozone Ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene has outstanding resistance to sunlight. Since it contains more than 75% TFE by weight.2 Chemical Resistance Ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene is inert to strong mineral acids. Very strong oxidizing acids near their boiling points. and classic polymer solvents have little effect on ETFE. This feature.1 Resistance to Sun. 5. chloro-carbons. TABLE 5. ozone. LLC . coupled with its wide range of corrosion resistance.Elastomers 537 5. ketones.23.24 for the compatibility of ETFE with selected corrodents. such as nitric acid at high concentration. halogens. aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. will affect ETFE in varying degrees. Refer to Table 5. esters. Weather. 50% Acetic acid. it has better resistance to abrasion and cut-through than TFE while retaining most of the corrosion resistance properties. anhydrides.

sat. Ammonium fluoride. LLC . Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Bromine water. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 10% Butadiene Butyl acetate 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 300 300 300 230 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 230 210 210 300 300 300 300 300 210 210 210 270 300 300 300 300 150 230 250 230 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 149 149 149 110 149 149 149 149 121 149 149 110 99 99 149 149 149 149 149 99 99 99 132 149 149 149 149 66 110 121 110 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.538 TABLE 5. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10%.24 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Alum Aluminum chloride. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.

10% Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas.Elastomers TABLE 5. 5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. LLC . sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. water Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 50% in water 8F 300 120 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 260 300 210 150 300 300 150 300 270 300 300 230 230 210 250 100 210 230 80 150 150 210 120 300 300 300 270 300 300 250 150 150 300 300 8C 149 49 121 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 127 149 99 66 149 149 66 149 132 149 149 110 110 99 121 38 99 110 27 66 66 99 49 149 149 149 132 149 149 121 66 66 149 149 (continued) 539 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. wet Chlorine.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. 15% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.

to 50% Stannic chloride 8F 300 300 300 100 100 300 300 300 300 300 300 270 250 230 300 250 250 300 270 120 300 230 300 300 150 150 80 X 210 150 230 150 210 270 130 300 250 300 300 230 230 300 300 300 300 8C 149 149 149 38 38 149 149 149 149 149 149 132 121 110 149 121 121 149 132 49 149 110 149 149 66 66 27 X 99 66 110 66 99 132 54 149 121 149 149 110 110 149 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. dry Fluorine gas. LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Perchloric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. Sodium sulfide. conc. conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Lactic acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid. dil. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid.540 TABLE 5. Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.24 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ferric nitrate. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.

. 100% Sulfuric acid. ECTFE ranks among the best for abrasion resistance. and broad-use temperature range [from cryogenic to 3408F (1718C)] and meets the requirements of the UL-94V-0 vertical flame test in thicknesses as low as 7 mils. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Of all the fluoropolymers. Source: From P. 5.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.23. 90% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. and seals (O-rings. lip and X-rings) in areas where corrosion is a problem. good electrical properties. and thrust bearings. It possesses excellent chemical resistance. packings. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 2004. 5th ed. and for bearing pads for pipe and equipment support where expansion and contraction or movement may occur. split curled. 1–4.24 Ethylene–Chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) Elastomer Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) elastomer is a 1:1 alternating copolymer of ethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene. This chemical structure gives the polymer a unique combination of properties. ECTFE is a tough material with excellent impact strength over its entire operating temperature range. The material is also used for sleeve. Vols. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 120 210 210 250 210 300 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 49 99 99 121 99 149 541 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 70% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. LLC .Elastomers TABLE 5.3 Applications The principal applications for ETFE are found in such products as gaskets. Incompatibility is shown by an X.A. 10% Sulfuric acid. 5.

and ozone attack. liquid oxygen.542 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. 50% Acetic acid. etc. 80% Acetic acid. Included in this list of chemicals are strong mineral and oxidizing acids. 10% Acetic acid. dimethylamine. its mechanical properties return to their original values. ECTFE will be attacked by metallic sodium and potassium. The useful properties of ECTFE are maintained on exposure to cobalt-60 radiation of 200 Mrads.24. metal etchants.). Refer to Table 5. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide 8F 250 250 150 200 100 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 8C 121 121 66 93 38 66 66 66 66 149 149 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of ECTFE is outstanding. 5. and Ozone Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene is extremely resistant to sun. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. this does not impair the usefulness of the polymer. When the part is removed from contact with the solvent and allowed to dry. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Some halogenated solvents can cause ECTFE to become slightly plasticized when it comes into contact with them. weather. Weather. No known solvent dissolves or stress cracks ECTFE at temperatures up to 2508F (1208C). It is resistant to most of the common corrosive chemicals encountered in industry.25 for the compatibility of ECTFE with selected corrodents. Under normal circumstances. As with other fluoropolymers.25 Compatibility of ECTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. alkalies.1 Resistance to Sun.24. LLC . indicating that no chemical attack has taken place. TABLE 5. Its physical properties undergo very little change after long exposures. and practically all organic solvents except hot amines (aniline.

dry Bromine. LLC 543 . sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. 10% Ammonium fluoride. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate 8F 300 150 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 160 300 300 90 100 250 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 250 300 300 300 300 X 150 250 150 300 250 300 300 300 8C 149 66 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 66 149 149 149 71 149 149 32 38 121 149 149 149 149 149 66 66 66 121 149 149 149 149 X 66 121 66 149 121 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl atcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium chloride.25 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.

dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 50% in water Ferric nitrate 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. dry Chlorine gas. 50% Citric acid.544 TABLE 5. conc. 10% Chromic acid. sat. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Fluorine gas. wet Chlorine. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. LLC . 15% Citric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. moist 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 220 80 300 300 80 150 300 300 300 250 250 150 250 250 150 250 80 250 250 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 X 80 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 104 27 149 149 27 69 149 149 149 121 121 66 121 121 66 121 27 121 121 149 149 66 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 X 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.

50% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. conc. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Nitric acid. conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide.25 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrobromic acid. conc. 20% Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid. LLC 545 . 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10% Lactic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. conc. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. dil. 10% Perchloric acid. 90% 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 240 240 300 250 150 150 300 250 300 150 150 300 300 250 150 150 250 X 150 150 150 250 80 300 250 300 300 300 250 150 300 300 300 300 300 250 250 250 150 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 121 116 116 149 121 66 66 149 121 149 66 66 149 149 121 66 66 121 X 66 66 66 121 27 149 121 149 149 149 121 66 149 149 149 149 149 121 121 121 66 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

5. Vols.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. and aerospace industries. logging wire jacketing and jacketing for cathodic protection. Source: From P. wire tie wraps. plenum cable insulation. cryogenic. flexible tubing.24. These synthetic rubbers provide the sealing force of a true elastomer and the chemical inertness and thermal stability of polytetra– fluoroethylene. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. connectors. Compared with other elastomeric compounds. mass transit and automotive wire. 98% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 1–4. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 150 80 300 250 150 150 150 250 300 8C 66 27 149 121 66 66 66 121 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.A. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. they are more resistant to swelling and embrittlement and retain their elastomeric properties over the long term. Schweitzer. pumps. 2004. particularly in the chemical. Applications are also found in other industries as diaphragms.546 TABLE 5. and other equipment. LLC . coil forms. and hose.. resistor sleeves. In difficult environments. Corrosion Resistance Tables.3 Applications This elastomer finds many applications in the electrical industry as wire and cable insulation and jacketing. gaskets.25 Perfluoroelastomers (FPM) Perfluoroelastomers provide the elastomeric properties of fluoroelastomers and the chemical resistance of PTFE. there are no other elastomers that can outperform the FPMs. and flexible printed circuitry and flat cable. tapes. convoluted tubing. New York: Marcel Dekker. These compounds are true rubbers. 100% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. closures. 5. oil well wire and cable insulation. tubing. aircraft. seals. Materials of ECTFE are also used for lining vessels. 5th ed.

seals. This compound is not recommended for use in hot water/steam applications or in contact with certain hot aliphatic amines. It is not recommended for use with organic or inorganic acids at high temperatures. and other parts used in the chemical process industry. This compound should not be used in pure water/steam applications at elevated temperatures. As with other perfluoroelastomers. These have been modified to meet specific needs. This compound finds applications as O-rings. Compound 4079 This is a carbon black filled compound having low compression set with excellent chemical resistance. excellent all around chemical resistance. Kalrez is available in different compounds to meet specific needs. It exhibits good mechanical properties. Compound 1050LF This compound has good water/steam resistance. Applications include O-rings. Specialty Compounds In addition to the three standard compounds. and other parts in the chemical process industry. and outstanding hot air aging properties. Compound 1050 This compound is carbon black filled. there are six specialty compounds available. but it is recommended that the manufacturer be consulted before ordering. Such materials as carbon black. excellent amine resistance. perfluoroelastomers are compounded to modify certain of their properties. ethylene oxide. It exhibits low swell in organic and inorganic acids and aldehydes and has good response to temperature cycling effects. The ASTM designations for these elastomers is FPM. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The maximum recommended continuous operating temperature is 5508F/2888C. The maximum allowable continuous operating temperature is 5008F/2608C with short-term exposures at 5508F/2888C in nonoxidizing environments. and is slightly harder than compound 4079. seals. and various fillers are used for this purpose. and compression set properties. If the standard compounds do not meet the specified needs. LLC . and propylene oxide. perfluormated oil. diaphragms. One such perfluoroelastomer is sold by DuPont under the trade name Kalrez. good mechanical properties. and other parts used in the process and aircraft industries. It has a maximum continuous operating temperature of 6008F/3168C with short-term exposures at higher temperatures. It is the suggested compound for use with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. seals.Elastomers 547 As with other elastomers. Applications induce O-rings. contact the manufacturer for a recommendation on the use of a specialty compound.

548

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

5.25.1 Resistance to Sun, Weather, and Ozone Perfluoroelastomers provide excellent resistance to sun, weather, and ozone. Long-term exposure under these conditions has no effect on them. 5.25.2 Chemical Resistance Perfluoroelastomers have outstanding chemical resistance. They are virtually immune to chemical attack, at ambient and elevated temperatures. Typical corrodents that perfluoroeiastomers are resistant to include the following: Chlorine, wet and dry Fuels (ASTM Reference Fuel C, JP-5 jet fuel, aviation gas, and kerosene) Heat transfer fluids Hot mercury Hydraulic fluids Inorganic and organic acids (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric, and trichloroacetic) and bases (hot caustic soda) Inorganic salt solutions Metal halides (titanium tetrachloride, diethylaluminum chloride) Oil well sour gas (methane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and steam) Polar solvents (ketones, esters, and ethers) Steam Strong organic solvents (benzene, dimethyl formamide, perchloroethylene, and tetrahydrofuran) Strong oxidizing agents (dinitrogen tetroxide, and fuming nitric acid) These perfluoroelastomers should not be exposed to molten or gaseous alkali metals such as sodium because a highly exothermic reaction may occur. Service life can be greatly reduced in fluids containing high concentrations of some diamines, nitric acid, and basic phenol when the temperature exceeds 2128F (1008C). Uranium hexafluoride and fully halogenated Freons (F-11 and F-12) cause considerable swelling. The corrosion resistance given above is for the base polymer. Since the polymer is quite often compounded with fillers and curatives, these additives may interact with the environment, even though the polymer is resistant. Therefore, a knowledge of the additives present is essential in determining the material’s suitability for a particular application. A corrosion testing program is the best method whereby this evaluation can be undertaken. Kalrez compounds have virtually universal chemical resistance. They withstand attack by more than 1600 chemicals, solvents, and plasmas. Table 5.26 lists the compatibilities of Kalrez compounds with selected
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Compatibility of Kalrez Compounds with Selected Corrodents
Abietic Acid Acetic acid, glacial (4079) Acetic acid, 30% (4079) Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenetidine Acetophenone Acetyl bromide Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile (1050LF) Alkyl acetone Alkyl alcohol Alkyl benzene Alkyl chloride Alkyl sulfide Aluminum acetate Aluminum bromide Aluminum chlorate Aluminum chloride Aluminum ethylate Aluminum fluoride Aluminum fluorosilicate Aluminum formate Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxalate Aluminum phosphate Aluminum sulfate Alum Ammonia, anhydrous (1050LF) Ammonium acetate Ammonium arsenate Ammonium benzoate Ammonium bicarbonate Ammonium bisulfite Ammonium bromide Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride Ammonium citrate Ammonium dichromate Ammonium fluoride (1050LF) Ammonium fluorosilicate Ammonium formate Ammonium hydride, conc. (1050LF) Ammonium iodide Ammonium lactate
(continued)
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549

550 TABLE 5.26 Continued
Ammonium nitrate Ammonium nitrite Ammonium oxalate Ammonium salicylate Ammonium sulfate Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Ammonium thiosulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Amyl mercaptan Amyl naphthalene Amyl nitrate Amyl nitrite Amyl phenol Aniline hydrdochloride Aniline sulfate Aniline sulfite Animal fats Animal oils Anthraquinone Antimony sulfate Antimony tribromide Antimony trichloride Antimony trioxide Aqua regia Arsenic oxide Arsenic trichloride Arsenic trioxide Arsenic trisulfide Ascorbic acid Barium carbonate Barium chlorate Barium chloride, aqueous Barium cyanide Barium hydroxide Barium iodide Barium nitrate Barium oxide Barium peroxide Barium salts Beet sugar liquors Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Benzocatechol Benzoyl chloride Benzyl chloride

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Bismuth carbonate Bismuth nitrate Bismuth oxychloride Boric acid Brine Bromic acid Bromine, anhydrous Butadiene Butane Butyl acetate Butyl chloride Butyl ether Butyl lactate Butyl mercaptan Butyl chloride Cadmium chloride Cadmium nitrate Cadmium sulfate Cadmium sulfide Calcium acetate Calcium arsenate Calcium bicarbonate Calcium bisulfide Calcium hydrosulfide Calcium carbide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium chromate Calcium fluoride Calcium hydroxide Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium peroxide Calcium phosphate Calcium stearate Calcium sulfate Calcium sulfide Calcium sulfite Cane sugar liquors Capric acid Carbamate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon fluorides Carbon monoxide Caustic lime
(continued)

551

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552 TABLE 5.26 Continued
Caustic potash Chloric acid Chlorine, dry Chloroacetic acid Chloroacetone Chloroform Chlorosilanes Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid Chromic chloride Chromic fluorides Chromic hydroxide Chromic nitrates Chromic oxides Chromic phosphate Chromic sulfate Coconut oil Cod liver oil Coke oven gas Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper nitrate Copper oxide Copper sulfate Corn oil Coconut oil Cresylic acid Crude oil Cutting oils Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Denatured alcohol Detergent solution Dextrain Dextrose Diacetone Diallyl ether Diallyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroaniline o-Dichlorobenzene Dichloroethane Dichloroethylene Dichloromethane Dichlorophenol Diesel oil

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Diethanolamine (1050LF) Diethylamine (1050LF) Diethyl sulfate Diethylbenzene Diethylene glycol Difluoroethane Difluoromonochloroethane Diisobutyl ketone Diisobutylcarbinol Diisobutylene Diisopropyl ether Diisopropyl ketone Epichlorohydrin Ethane Ethanol Ethanolamine (1050LF) Ethers Ethyl acetate Ethyl acetoacetate Ethyl acrylate Ethyl alcohol Ethylamine (1050LF) Ethyl benzene Ethyl benzoate Ethyl bromide Ethyl butylate (4079) Ethyl cellulose Ethyl chloride Ethyl ether Ethyl formate (4079) Ethyl nitrite Ethyl oxalate Ethylene Ethylene chloride Ethylene dibromide Ethylene dichloride Ethylene glycol Ethylene oxide (2035) Fatty acids Ferric acetate Ferric hydroxide Ferric sulfate Ferrous carbonate Ferrous chloride Fuel oils Fuming sulfuric acid Gallic acid Gasoline Gelatin
(continued)

553

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554 TABLE 5.26 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Glauber’s salt Gluconic acid Glucose Glue Glycerine (glycerol) Helium Heptane Hexane Hydrolodic acid (4079) Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid, 40% Hydrochloric acid, 37%, cold Hydrochloric acid, conc. Hydrochloric acid, 37%, hot Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous Hydrofluoric acid, conc., cold conc., hot (4079) Hydrogen peroxide, 90% Iodic acid Iodine Iodoform Isopropyl chloride Isopropyl ether Isopropylamine (1050LF) Kerosene Lacquer solvents Lacquers Lactic acid, cold Lactic acid, hot Lauric acid Lead, molten Lead acetate Lead arsenate Lead bromide Lead carbonate Lead chloride Lead chromate Lead dioxide Lead nitrate Lead oxide Lime bleach Lime sulfur Linoleic acid Linseed oil Lithium carbonate Lithium chloride Lithium hydroxide Lithium nitrate Lithium nitrite
(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Lithium salicylate Lithopone Lye Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium sulfate Magnesium sulfite Maleic acid Manganese acetate Maleic anhydride Manganese carbonate Manganese dioxide Manganese chloride Manganese phosphate Manganese sulfate, aqueous Mercuric cyanide Mercuric iodide Mercuric nitrate Mercuric sulfate Mercuric sulfite Mercurous nitrate Mercury Mercury chloride Methane Methyl acetate Methyl acrylate Methyl alcohol (methanol) Methyl benzoate Methyl butyl ketone Methyl chloride Methyl ether Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Methyl salicylate Methylene bromide Methylene chloride Methylene iodide Mineral oil Mixed acids Morpholine Motor oils Mustard gas Myristic acid Naphtha Naphthalene Natural gas Neon Nickel acetate aqueous Nickel chloride aqueous
(continued)

555

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556 TABLE 5.26 Continued
Nickel cyanide Nickel nitrate Nickel salts Nicotine Nicotine sulfate Niter cake Nitric acid, 0–50% (4079) Nitric acid, 50–100% (4079) Nitroaniline Nitrobenzene Nitrocellulose Nitrochlorobenzene Nitrogen Nitrogen oxides Nitrogen peroxide Nitroglycerine Nitroglycerol Nitromethane Nitrophenol Nitrotoluene Nitrous acid Nonane n-Octane Octyl acetate Octyl alcohol Octyl chloride Olefins Oleic acid Oleum Olive oil Oxalic acid Oxygen, cold (4079) Paint thinner Palmitic acid Paraffins Peanut oil Pectin (liquor) Penicillin Peracetic acid Perchloric acid (4079) Perchloroethylene Petroleum Petroleum ether Petroleum crude (1050LF) Phenyl acetate Phosgene Phosphoric acid, 20% Phosphoric acid, 45% Phosphorous, molten

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Phosphorous oxychloride Phosphorous trichloride Phthalic acid Phthalic anhydride Pickling solution Picric acid Pine oil Pine tar Pinene Piperazine (1050LF) Piperidine Plating solution, chrome Potassium acid sulfate Potassum alum Potassum aluminum sulfate Potassium bicarbonate Potassium bichromate Potassium bifluoride Potassium bisulfate Potassium bisulfite Potassium bitartrate Potassium bromide Potassium carbonate Potassium chlorate Potassium chloride Potassium chromates Potassium citrate Potassium cyanate Silicone tetrachloride, dry Silicone tetrachloride, wet Silver bromide Silver chloride Silver cyanide Silver nitrate Silver sulfate Soap solutions Soda ash Sodium acetate Sodium benzoate Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bichromate Sodium bifluoride Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfide Sodium bisulfite Sodium borate Sodium bromate Sodium bromide Sodium carbonate
(continued)

557

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558 TABLE 5.26 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Sodium chlorate Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium chloroacetate Sodium chromate Sodium citrate Sodium cyanate Sodium cyanide Sodium terricyanide Sodium terrocyanide Sodium fluoride Sodium fluorosilicate Sodium hydride Sodium hydrosulfide Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite Sodium lactate Sodium nitrate Sodium oleate Sodium oxalate Sodium perborate Sodium percarbonate Sodium perchlorate Sodium peroxide Sodium persulfate Sodium phenolate Sodium phosphate Sodium salicylate Sodium salts Sodium silicate Sodium stannate Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfide Sodium sulfite Sour crude oil (1050LF) Sour natural gas (1050LF) Soybean oil Stannic ammonium chloride Stannic chloride, aqueous Stannic tetrachloride Stannous bromide Stannous chloride, aqueous Stannous fluoride Stannous sulfate Steam above 3008F/1498C (1050LF) Steam below 3008F/1498C (2035) Stearic acid Stoddard solvent Strontium acetate
(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Sulfurous acid Sulfuryl chloride Sulfonated oil Tallow Tannic acid Tar. LLC . liquefied Sulfur dioxide. conc. dil. wet Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid. dry Sulfur dioxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. aqueous Styrene (3018) Succinic acid Sucrose solution Sulfamic acid Sulfite liquors Sulfur chloride Sulfur dioxide.26 Continued Strontium carbonate Strontium chloride Strontium hydroxide Strontium nitrate. bituminous Tartaric acid Tetraethyl lead Tetrahydrofuran Thionyl chloride Thiourea Toluene Transformer oil Transmission fluid type A Triacetin Trichloroacetic acid (4079) Trichlorobenzene Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Triethanolamine (1050LF) Triethyl phosphate Triethylamine (1050LF) Trimethylamine (1050LF) Trimethylbenzene Trinitrotoluene Trisodium phosphate Tung oil Turbine oil Turpentine Uranium sulfate Uric acid Valeric acid Vanilla extract (2035) (continued) 559 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

any Kalrez compound may be used. N 2O 4 and other oxidizers. and miscellaneous sealing elements including U-cups and V-rings. any Kalrex compound may be used. cold Water. When no compound is specified. 5. a higher operating temperature may be allowable.560 TABLE 5. and other instruments. valves. The listing is based on standard compounds 4079 and 1050LF for the majority of the fluids. Freon-21 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. a higher operating temperature may be allowable. hot (1050LF) White oil White pine oil Wood oil Xenon Xylene Zinc acetate Zinc chloride Zinc chromate Zinc nitrate Zinc oxide Zinc sulfate Zinc sulfide Zirconium nitrate Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Kairez is resistant to the above chemicals up to a maximum temperature of 2128F/1008C. Custom-molded parts are also used as valve seats.3 Applications Perfluoraelastomer parts are a practical solution wherever the sealing performance of rubber is desirable but not feasible because of severe chemical or thermal conditions.25. rotameters. The listing is based on standard compounds 4079 and 1050LF for the majority of the fluids. compressor casings. hydrazine. FPM is widely used for O-ring seals on equipment. Other industries where FPM contributes importantly are aerospace (versus jet fuels. In contact with some chemicals. In some chemicals. pump housings. gaskets. corrodents. LLC . In the petrochemical industry. Kalrez will be resistent to the corrodents listed up to a maximum temperature of 2128F/1008C. When no compound is specified. diaphragms. packings. O-rings of FPM are employed in mechanical seals.26 Continued Vegetable oils Vinyl benzene Vinyl benzoate Vinyl chloride Vinyl fluoride Vinylidene chloride Water.

aminecontaining hydraulic fluids. Other industries that also extensively use FPM include Pharmaceuticals. and barges carrying hazardous and corrosive chemicals. etc. 5. and aromatic hydrocarbons. weathering. 5. Because of their cost. oil and gas recovery. The semiconductor industry makes use of FPM O-rings to seal the aggressive chemical reagents and specialty gases required for producing silicon chips.26.26. Weather. and resistant to acids.26 Epichlorohydrin Rubber The epichlorhydrin polymer group includes the homopolymer (CO). high-purity reagents. However.3 Applications Epichlorhydrin rubber applications include seals and tubes in airconditioning and fuel systems. and geothermal drilling (versus sour gas. perfluoroelastomers are used primarily as seals where their corrosion. acidic fluids.Elastomers 561 fluorocarbon.and/or heat-resistance properties can be utilized and other elastomeric materials will not do the job or where high maintenance costs results if other elastomeric materials are used. LLC .1 Resistance to Sun. high temperature). extreme temperatures and pressures). agricultural chemicals. and ozone. 5. rail cars. bases. and terpolymers (GECO). gas. ships. 5.). liquid and gas chromotography exposures. The chemical transportation industry is also a heavy user of FPM components in safety relief and unloading valves to prevent leakage from tank trucks and trailers. the copolymer with ethylene oxide (ECO). and Ozone These rubbers have excellent resistance to sun. Also the combination of thermal stability and low outgassing characteristics are desirable in furnaces for growing crystals and in highvacuum applications. water. and analytical and process control instrumentation.2 Chemical Resistance Epichlorhydrin rubbers are resistant to hydrocarbon fuels. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. nuclear power (versus radiation. high-temperature conditions). they are susceptible to devulcanization in the presence of oxidized fuels such as sour gasoline.26. and analytical and process instruments (versus high vacuum. to swelling in oils. oil.

5. 5. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.562 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5.27. increase the hydrocarbon resistance. and ozone. The elastic properties of EVM are due to the absence of crystallinity in the copolymer. flexible dust shields.1 Resistance to Sun. 5. and various wire and cable applications.3 Applications CM finds application as vinyl siding. weathering. 5.28 Chlorinated Polyethylene (CM) Unmodified polyethylene cannot be converted into an elastomer because of its molecular crystallinity. Chlorination of the polyethylene polymer disrupts the crystallinity and allows the polymer to become elastic upon vulcanization.2 Chemical Resistance The resistance of EVM to hydrocarbon fluids is dependent upon the vinyl acetate content. therefore.28. 5. and ozone.28.28.27 Ethylene–Vinylacetate Copolymer (EVM) EVM can only be cured by peroxide.27. Weather. weathering. protective boots.1 Resistance to Sun. window profiles.27. 5. 5. Higher levels of vinyl acetate increase the polarity of the polymer and.2 Chemical Resistance Chlorinated polyethylene has reasonably good resistance to fuels and oils and excellent resistance to atmospheric pollutants. Ethylene vinyl acetate is also used in the production of thermoplastic elastomers as the soft phase. and Ozone CM has excellent resistance to sun. and Ozone EVM has excellent resistance to sun. hoses.3 Applications EVM finds application as wire insulation in the automotive industry. CM can be vulcanized by peroxides or certain nitrogencontaining organic compounds that cross-link the chlorine atoms. Weather. LLC .

the compatibility of selected elastomers in contact with selected corrodents is found. it is important that the composition be verified as to its suitability for the application. The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Incompatibility is shown by X. 563 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The information is taken from Reference [1].1). The tables are based on the pure elastomer (Table 6. therefore. LLC . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. It must be remembered that many of these elastomers may be compounded.6 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers On the following pages.

50% Acetic acid.1 Natural Butyl Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyle chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride 180 82 200 93 210 99 180 82 180 82 210 99 150 66 200 93 190 88 190 88 150 66 250 121 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 99 140 60 200 93 200 93 X X 190 X 190 X X 88 X 88 200 X 93 X 140 140 200 60 60 93 140 200 300 X 200 200 60 93 149 X 93 93 100 140 80 X 140 180 38 60 27 X 60 82 160 71 X X X X 300 X 149 X X X X X X 190 X X 180 190 100 190 180 X 88 X X 82 88 38 88 82 210 210 99 99 210 210 210 110 210 99 99 99 43 99 X X X 90 80 80 X 150 X X X 32 27 27 X 66 X X X 160 160 120 X 200 X X X X 71 71 49 X 93 X X X X X 180 180 X 200 200 X X X X 82 82 X 93 93 150 66 220 104 X X X X X X 210 99 X X 90 32 200 93 150 110 110 90 66 43 43 32 8F 80 8C 27 Hypalon 8F 60 X 200 200 200 X 8C 16 X 93 93 93 X 8F 200 200 140 140 140 140 EPDM 8C 93 93 60 60 60 60 8F 210 200 X X X X EPT 8C 99 93 X X X X Viton A 8F X 210 190 180 180 X 8C X 99 88 82 82 X 8F X X 200 200 90 80 Kalrez 8C X X 93 93 32 27 Rubber 8F X X 150 X X X 8C X X 66 X X X Neoprene 8F 200 200 160 160 160 X 8C 93 93 71 71 71 X Buna-N 8F X 180 200 200 210 100 8C X 82 93 93 99 38 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. aqueous Aluminum chloride.564 TABLE 6. LLC .

Ammonium fluoride. 50% Ammonium chloride. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 100 190 38 88 250 250 121 121 210 210 99 99 140 180 60 82 190 190 X 88 88 X 88 X 60 88 88 88 88 60 60 88 210 210 99 99 150 66 180 200 82 93 180 200 82 93 190 88 200 140 93 60 210 140 300 99 60 148 149 99 99 149 99 149 38 210 140 140 180 180 180 180 210 140 140 99 60 60 82 82 82 82 99 60 60 190 X 140 190 190 190 190 140 140 190 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 160 X X 150 150 150 150 160 80 X 71 X X 66 66 66 66 71 27 X 200 140 X 200 200 190 200 100 200 200 93 60 X 93 93 88 93 38 93 93 210 190 180 200 200 200 200 200 120 200 99 88 82 93 93 93 93 93 49 93 X 190 190 190 190 150 150 190 X 88 88 88 88 66 66 88 250 121 140 200 200 200 200 60 93 93 93 93 300 210 210 300 210 300 100 190 88 250 121 100 38 140 60 190 88 210 99 90 32 210 99 200 93 (continued) 565 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. sat.

LLC .1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate 200 93 300 149 180 82 190 88 210 99 180 82 160 71 180 82 190 190 88 88 250 250 121 121 250 250 121 121 180 180 82 82 190 190 88 88 210 99 150 150 66 66 200 200 93 93 200 200 93 93 200 93 X 300 X 149 X 180 X 82 190 250 88 121 210 210 99 99 X 180 X 82 X 160 X 71 X 180 X 82 150 150 66 66 X 180 X 82 60 200 X 140 140 16 93 X 60 60 210 210 X 140 300 99 99 X 60 149 X 180 X X X X 82 X X X X 200 190 230 190 X 93 88 110 88 210 210 210 250 210 99 99 99 121 99 X 150 X X X 66 X X X 200 X X 140 X 93 X X 60 X 180 X X X 82 X X 210 99 160 71 200 93 300 149 210 99 X X 210 99 160 71 180 82 190 88 200 93 300 149 180 82 180 82 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 180 82 140 60 300 149 180 82 180 82 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 190 88 80 27 300 149 210 99 140 60 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 8F 180 8C 82 Hypalon 8F 200 8C 93 8F 250 EPDM 8C 121 8F 180 EPT 8C 82 Viton A 8F X 8C X 8F 300 Kalrez 8C 149 Rubber 8F 170 8C 77 Neoprene 8F 200 8C 93 Buna-N 8F 180 8C 82 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.566 TABLE 6.

LLC . liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Caicium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 10% 190 90 X 90 150 190 X 190 190 88 32 X 32 66 88 X 88 88 200 X X X 200 140 X 200 290 60 60 60 X 93 X X X 93 60 X 93 143 16 16 16 X 16 121 X 140 150 X X X X X 300 190 X X X X 140 200 140 60 66 X X X X X 149 88 X X X X 60 93 60 140 X X X 140 X X 210 140 X 60 X X X 60 X X 99 60 X 190 X 190 170 190 350 110 190 190 88 X 88 77 88 177 43 88 88 210 210 210 210 310 210 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 154 99 99 99 99 99 150 X X X 150 X X 150 150 66 X X X 66 X X 66 66 200 X X 100 200 X X 200 200 X X 93 X X 38 93 X X 93 93 X X X 60 16 93 X 200 X X X X 140 X 180 180 X X X 200 X X 80 X 180 93 X X X X 60 X 82 82 X X X 93 X X 27 X 82 93 82 93 82 82 X X X 180 X X X X X X 82 X X X X 60 60 82 82 350 190 X 250 X 120 190 190 190 190 190 190 177 88 X 121 X 49 88 88 88 88 88 88 140 210 210 240 210 X 210 210 200 210 210 210 60 99 99 116 99 X 99 99 93 99 99 99 120 180 150 150 200 49 82 66 66 93 X X X 150 X 66 X 140 60 200 X X 140 X X 60 X 60 250 X 120 150 190 190 190 49 66 88 88 88 250 90 90 200 200 121 32 32 93 93 X 210 140 210 210 X 99 60 99 99 X 140 140 180 180 180 60 200 200 220 82 16 93 93 104 200 180 200 180 180 (continued) 567 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Bromine gas.

568 TABLE 6. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid 160 71 X X 160 71 X X X X 210 99 X X X X X X X 150 150 X 66 66 X X X 300 X 149 X X X X X X 350 X X 177 X X 210 210 210 99 99 99 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 90 32 200 93 250 121 180 82 190 88 210 99 X X 200 93 180 82 190 X 88 X 230 X 110 X 250 X 121 X 180 X 82 X X 190 X 88 210 210 99 99 150 X 66 X X X X X 200 X 93 X 190 88 200 93 250 121 180 82 X X 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 190 88 X 200 X 93 X 250 X 121 X 180 X 82 190 X 88 X 100 38 190 88 100 200 250 38 93 121 300 210 300 149 99 149 180 82 200 93 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 X 150 X 66 X 200 X 93 X 200 X 93 180 82 180 82 190 88 210 99 150 66 200 160 160 93 71 71 200 180 180 93 82 82 190 88 250 121 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 99 200 93 220 104 80 27 8F 190 8C 88 Hypalon 8F 250 8C 121 8F 220 EPDM 8C 104 8F 180 EPT 8C 82 Viton A 8F 190 8C 88 8F 210 Kalrez 8C 99 Rubber 8F 200 8C 93 Neoprene 8F 220 8C 104 Buna-N 8F 180 8C 82 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. sat. LLC .

dry Chlorine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol X X X 90 X 32 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 190 190 190 190 190 X 350 350 88 88 88 88 88 X 177 177 210 99 X X X X X X X X X X 60 38 X X X X X X 190 190 X X X X X X 88 88 X X X X 100 X X X X X 38 X X X X 150 160 X X X 66 71 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 140 100 X X X X X X 190 190 88 88 250 250 X 121 121 X 210 210 100 210 99 99 38 99 99 99 99 X 99 99 X X 180 180 100 210 180 210 180 100 210 210 X X 82 82 38 99 82 99 82 38 99 99 X X 190 X 190 190 190 190 X 180 180 190 190 88 X 88 88 88 88 X 82 82 88 88 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 110 150 43 66 200 200 160 93 93 71 180 180 180 X 82 82 82 X 93 82 93 X 99 82 82 X 190 190 X 88 88 X 200 250 250 X 200 200 93 121 121 X 93 93 X X 210 210 210 X 210 210 X X 150 160 150 X 66 71 66 X 200 160 200 X 210 160 93 71 93 X 99 71 X X 200 180 200 X 210 180 180 X X X X X 210 210 99 99 X X X X (continued) 569 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. conc. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. LLC . wet Chlorine. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Chromic chloride Citric acid. 15% Citric acid.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Chlorine gas.

LLC . 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. dry Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrobromic acid.570 TABLE 6. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. dil. 38% X X 140 60 90 32 X X 350 177 210 99 160 71 90 32 X X X X 160 71 100 38 X X 350 177 210 99 150 66 90 32 130 54 110 43 100 38 140 60 140 60 190 88 210 99 150 66 X X X X 160 71 100 38 140 60 140 60 190 88 210 99 110 43 X X X X 150 66 90 32 90 32 140 60 190 88 210 99 100 38 X X X X 190 190 X 88 88 X 140 60 60 16 250 121 200 210 93 99 180 180 X 100 82 82 X 38 180 210 X X 82 99 X X X X X X 210 99 150 150 X X 66 66 X X 90 200 X X 32 93 X X 200 200 X X 93 93 X X 190 88 250 121 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 X 190 190 160 X 88 88 71 X 200 250 250 X 93 121 121 X 200 220 210 X 93 104 99 X 180 180 180 X 82 82 82 190 350 190 180 88 177 88 82 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 X 150 150 150 X 66 66 66 X 160 160 160 X 71 71 71 X 200 200 180 X 93 93 82 210 99 X X 8F 8C Hypalon 8F 8C 8F EPDM 8C 8F X EPT 8C X Viton A 8F 80 8C 27 8F 210 Kalrez 8C 99 Rubber 8F X 8C X Neoprene 8F X 8C X Buna-N 8F X 8C X Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. moist Hydrobromic acid.

100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Hydrocyanic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% 140 350 150 X X 60 177 66 X X 90 90 90 90 X 32 32 32 32 X 200 60 X X 300 140 93 16 X X 149 60 X 60 121 X X 140 X X 140 140 X 60 X X 60 60 190 210 350 60 190 190 X 88 99 177 16 88 88 X 88 66 82 88 82 88 X X 177 88 88 88 210 210 210 210 190 99 99 99 99 88 90 100 X X 150 32 38 X X 66 X 200 200 X X 80 X 93 93 X X 27 X 60 32 99 200 X X X X 80 X X X 180 180 93 X X X X 27 X X X 82 82 38 X X X X X X X X 120 120 200 X 49 49 93 X 180 90 100 80 X 160 160 90 32 38 27 X 71 71 32 X X X 140 100 100 X 140 80 250 X 60 27 121 X 140 250 X 210 210 210 150 210 210 99 99 99 66 99 99 X X 80 150 80 X X 27 66 27 X 140 90 210 210 210 180 80 210 99 99 82 26 99 X X X X X X X 190 150 180 190 180 190 X X 350 190 190 190 82 X X X 60 38 38 X 60 60 X 16 16 X X 80 60 X 27 16 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 93 X X X X X X X 100 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 210 210 210 210 210 160 99 99 99 99 99 71 X X (continued) 571 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Ketones. 25% Lactic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. general Lactic acid. LLC . 5% Nitric acid. conc. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.

70% Phenol Phosphoric acid.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Nitric acid. 10% 180 180 82 82 240 250 116 121 140 210 60 99 180 210 82 99 190 X 88 X 210 210 99 99 130 150 54 66 200 200 93 93 180 160 82 71 180 82 250 121 300 149 180 82 190 88 210 99 180 82 200 93 200 93 80 27 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 210 99 99 80 250 27 121 300 210 148 99 140 180 60 82 190 190 88 88 210 210 99 99 X 160 X 71 200 160 93 71 130 180 54 82 150 150 66 66 X 200 X 93 140 60 80 180 27 82 210 190 99 88 210 210 99 99 X 110 X 43 X X X X X X 90 32 140 60 190 88 X X X X X 150 X 66 X 100 X 38 X 140 X 60 X 190 X 88 190 190 88 88 210 210 99 99 X 150 X 66 X X X X X X 120 49 100 38 210 99 X X X X X X 8F X 8C X Hypalon 8F X 8C X 8F X EPDM 8C X 8F X EPT 8C X Viton A 8F 190 8C 88 8F X Kalrez 8C X Rubber 8F X 8C X Neoprene 8F X 8C X Buna-N 8F X 8C X Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Perchloric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. conc. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. Oleum Perchloric acid. LLC .572 TABLE 6. anhydrous Nitrous acid.

50% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. fuming 190 88 250 121 180 82 200 93 X X 210 99 150 66 200 93 150 66 180 82 250 121 180 82 80 27 X X 210 99 150 66 200 93 150 66 130 54 250 121 300 149 X X 190 88 90 32 X X X X 90 150 150 150 150 150 100 X X X 32 66 66 66 66 66 38 X X X 250 90 200 250 250 160 X 110 X X 121 32 93 121 121 71 X 43 X X 300 300 300 280 150 150 140 X X X X 149 149 149 138 66 66 60 X X X X X 210 210 210 210 210 210 80 X X X X 99 99 99 99 99 99 27 X X X 190 190 180 190 350 350 350 350 350 190 88 88 82 88 177 177 177 177 177 88 210 99 210 210 210 240 210 150 150 99 99 99 116 99 66 66 90 150 150 150 150 100 X X X X 32 66 66 66 66 38 X X X X X 200 210 160 200 200 200 X X X X X 93 99 71 93 93 93 X X X X X 180 180 180 150 200 X X X X X X 82 82 82 66 93 X X X X X (continued) 573 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Sulfuric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Sodium hydroxide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium sulfide. 10% Sulfuric acid. conc. LLC . 98% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite.

1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 190 88 250 121 300 300 149 149 180 180 82 82 190 210 88 99 210 210 99 99 X 150 X 66 140 160 60 71 140 190 60 88 8F 150 X X X 8C 66 X X X X X X 80 X 27 X X X X Hypalon 8F 160 8C 171 8F X EPDM 8C X 8F 180 EPT 8C 82 Viton A 8F 190 X 190 190 8C 88 X 88 88 8F 210 210 80 210 Kalrez 8C 99 99 27 99 Rubber 8F X X X X 8C X X X X Neoprene 8F X X X X 8C X X X X Buna-N 8F X X 150 X 8C X X 66 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 1–4.. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Vols. Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 2004. 5th ed. LLC . Incompatibility is shown by X. Schweitzer.A. Source: From P.574 TABLE 6. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers 575 Reference 1. 1–4. LLC . 5th ed.A. New York: Marcel Dekker. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables.. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. P. Schweitzer. Vols.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

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