q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Preface

Corrosion is both costly and dangerous. Billions of dollars are spent annually for the replacement of corroded structures, machinery, and components, including metal roofing, condenser tubes, pipelines, and many other items. In addition to replacement costs are those associated with maintenance to prevent corrosion, inspections, and the upkeep of cathodically protected structures and pipelines. Indirect costs of corrosion result from shutdown, loss of efficiency, and product contamination or loss. Although the actual replacement cost of an item may not be high, the loss of production resulting from the need to shut down an operation to permit the replacement may amount to hundreds of dollars per hour. When a tank or pipeline develops a leak, product is lost. If the leak goes undetected for a period of time, the value of the lost product could be considerable. In addition, contamination can result from the leaking material, requiring cleanup, and this can be quite expensive. When corrosion takes place, corrosion products build up, resulting in reduced flow in pipelines and reduced efficiency of heat transfer in heat exchangers. Both conditions increase operating costs. Corrosion products may also be detrimental to the quality of the product being handled, making it necessary to discard valuable materials. Premature failure of bridges or structures because of corrosion can also result in human injury or even loss of life. Failures of operating equipment resulting from corrosion can have the same disastrous results. When all of these factors are considered, it becomes obvious why the potential problem of corrosion should be considered during the early design stages of any project, and why it is necessary to constantly monitor the integrity of structures, bridges, machinery, and equipment to prevent premature failures. To cope with the potential problems of corrosion, it is necessary to understand 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mechanisms of corrosion Corrosion resistant properties of various materials Proper fabrication and installation techniques Methods to prevent or control corrosion Corrosion testing techniques Corrosion monitoring techniques

Corrosion is not only limited to metallic materials but also to all materials of construction. Consequently, this handbook covers not only metallic materials but also all materials of construction.
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Chapter 1 through Chapter 4 covers polymeric (plastic) materials, both thermoplastic and thermoset. An explanation is presented as to the type of corrosive effects of each polymer, its ability to withstand sun, weather, and ozone, along with compatibility tables. Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 cover elastomeric materials in the same manner that polymers are covered in Chapter 1 through Chapter 4. It is the intention of this book that regardless of what is being built, whether it be a bridge, tower, pipeline, storage tank, or processing vessel, information for the designer/engineer/maintenance personnel/or whoever is responsible for the selection of material of construction will be found in this book to enable them to avoid unnecessary loss of material through corrosion. Philip A. Schweitzer

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Author

Philip A. Schweitzer is a consultant in corrosion prevention, materials of construction, and chemical engineering based in York, Pennsylvania. A former contract manager and material specialist for Chem-Pro Corporation, Fairfield, New Jersey, he is the editor of the Corrosion Engineering Handbook and the Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook, Second Edition; and the author of Corrosion Resistance Tables, Fifth Edition; Encyclopedia of Corrosion Technology, Second Edition; Metallic Materials; Corrosion Resistant Linings and Coatings; Atmospheric Degradation and Corrosion Control; What Every Engineer Should Know About Corrosion; Corrosion Resistance of Elastomers; Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems; Mechanical and Corrosion Resistant Properties of Plastics and Elastomers (all titles Marcel Dekker, Inc.), and Paint and Coatings, Applications and Corrosion Resistance (Taylor & Francis). Schweitzer received the BChE degree (1950) from Polytechnic University (formerly Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn), Brooklyn, New York.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Polymers.............................................................. 1 1.1 Additives ....................................................................................................... 5 1.2 Permeation .................................................................................................... 6 1.3 Absorption .................................................................................................. 12 1.4 Painting of Polymers ................................................................................. 15 1.5 Corrosion of Polymers .............................................................................. 16 Chapter 2 Thermoplastic Polymers ............................................................. 19 2.1 Joining of Thermoplastics......................................................................... 30 2.1.1 Use of Adhesive .......................................................................... 32 2.2 Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene (ABS) ................................................. 37 2.3 Acrylics ........................................................................................................ 37 2.4 Chlotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) .................................................................. 41 2.5 Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE).............................................. 46 2.6 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE)...................................................... 51 2.7 Fluorinated Ethylene–Propylene (FEP) .................................................. 51 2.8 Polyamides (PA)......................................................................................... 60 2.9 Polyamide–Imide (PAI)............................................................................. 65 2.10 Polybutylene (PB) ...................................................................................... 66 2.11 Polycarbonate (PC) .................................................................................... 68 2.12 Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)................................................................... 70 2.13 Polyether–Imide (PEI) ............................................................................... 73 2.14 Polyether Sulfone (PES) ............................................................................ 75 2.15 Perfluoralkoxy (PFA)................................................................................. 77 2.16 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ............................................................... 81 2.17 Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)............................................................. 82 2.18 Polyethylene (PE)....................................................................................... 91 2.19 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)......................................................... 100 2.20 Polyimide (PI)........................................................................................... 102 2.21 Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO) .................................................................. 103 2.22 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS).................................................................. 104 2.23 Polypropylene (PP).................................................................................. 108 2.24 Styrene–Acrylonitrile (SAN) .................................................................. 113 2.25 Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC).......................................................... 114 2.26 Polysulfone (PSF) ..................................................................................... 118 2.27 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)....................................................................... 121 2.28 Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) ............................................. 129 2.29 Chlorinated Polyether (CPE) ................................................................. 134
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

2.30 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)......................................................................... 2.31 Polyurethane (PUR)............................................................................... 2.32 Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) ...................................................... 2.33 Acetals...................................................................................................... References .......................................................................................................... Chapter 3 Thermoset Polymers.................................................................. 3.1 Corrosion of Thermosets ........................................................................ 3.2 Joining of Thermosets ............................................................................. 3.3 Ultraviolet Light Stability ....................................................................... 3.4 Reinforcing Materials .............................................................................. 3.4.1 Glass Fibers ................................................................................ 3.4.1.1 E Glass ......................................................................... 3.4.1.2 C Glass......................................................................... 3.4.1.3 S Glass.......................................................................... 3.4.1.4 Glass Filaments .......................................................... 3.4.1.5 Chopped Strands ....................................................... 3.4.1.6 Glass Mats ................................................................... 3.4.1.7 Glass Fabrics ............................................................... 3.4.2 Polyester ..................................................................................... 3.4.3 Carbon Fiber .............................................................................. 3.4.4 Aramid Fibers............................................................................ 3.4.5 Polyethylene Fibers .................................................................. 3.4.6 Paper ........................................................................................... 3.4.7 Cotton and Linen ...................................................................... 3.5 Polyesters .................................................................................................. 3.5.1 General Purpose Polyesters .................................................... 3.5.2 Isophthalic Polyesters............................................................... 3.5.2.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.5.3 Bisphenol A Fumarate Polyesters .......................................... 3.5.3.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.5.4 Halogenated Polyesters ........................................................... 3.5.4.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.5.5 Terephthalate Polyesters (PET)............................................... 3.5.5.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.6 Epoxy Polyesters ...................................................................................... 3.6.1 Resin Types ................................................................................ 3.6.2 Curing ......................................................................................... 3.6.2.1 Aromatic Amines ....................................................... 3.6.2.2 Aliphatic Amines ....................................................... 3.6.2.3 Catalytic Curing Agents ........................................... 3.6.2.4 Acid Anhydrides ....................................................... 3.6.3 Corrosion Resistance ................................................................ 3.6.4 Typical Applications................................................................. 3.7 Vinyl Esters ...............................................................................................
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

134 138 141 143 146 147 147 151 151 151 152 152 152 154 154 155 155 155 155 156 156 157 157 158 158 160 161 165 166 173 173 178 178 180 180 181 182 183 183 183 183 184 184 188

...... 5...................18 Polybutadienes ............... 3.................................................................2 Natural Rubber.....................................................................1 Introduction .................... 5... 3............................................................... 3...................1....12 Siloxirane....................1 Typical Applications........1........................ 3.................... 3....2 Similarities of Elastomers and Thermoplastic Polymers ........................ References ........................................................8 Chapter 4 194 194 199 199 199 204 204 207 210 210 211 211 211 211 213 213 213 214 214 215 218 219 219 219 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers.......................1 Typical Applications...................................................17 Allyls ............................... 5................................13................................................. and Ozone .....10.....1.............................1......4 Neoprene (CR)......................................... 5. 5....19 Polyimides................................ 5.................................6 Corrosion Resistance ..........9 Phenolics.3 Isoprene Rubber (IR) ..........................1 Resistance to Sun......15...........1 Typical Applications...........19.................. 3........ 5...................................................10 Phenol-Formaldehyde............................................2 Chemical Resistance ......................................................... 221 Reference ... 441 Chapter 5 Elastomers............................................... 5................................................................................................................................................. 3...... 5............................................................... 3.........2.........1 Typical Applications...........1 Typical Applications......... 3............................................................................. LLC 443 443 445 446 446 447 448 451 452 453 453 454 454 459 459 460 .............8 Elastomer Designations .....................5 Selecting an Elastomer ... Furans ........................................................................3 Applications.3 Differences between Elastomers and Thermoplasts ..................................8........................................................ 3.................................... 5..................................................................13 Polyurethanes ................11.......11 Silicones .................................................................... 3...........1.........15 Alkyds.........14 Melamines ..........................................................12...............................................1 Typical Applications................ 5.............1 Typical Applications..........................7.......3.............2........................ 3........ 3.............................. 3...................................................1 Typical Applications...................................................................................................................................... 5..........................2..................................................................1........... 3.........1 Typical Applications................................... 5.......................................................................................14.... 5....................... 3..................................................20 Cyanate Esters .....................7 Applications.......... 3............. 3............................................................................................................. 5............................. 3..................................1 Importance of Compounding ................ 3................................................................... Weather................................1................ q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group......................................................................................1 Typical Applications................................................................4 Causes of Failure.......................16 Ureas (Aminos) .............................. 3......................1.................................9. 3......................................................................

......14 5............3 Applications .... GR-S).................. Polysulfide Rubbers (ST and FA) .....................................5 5................... Weather.................................15.. 5..........3 Applications......................... 5.......................................................6 5............9...7...............................8................ and Ozone ......... 5............................... Weather................10. and Ozone ..13......6..........11 5......................................1 Resistance to Sun..........11.........1 Resistance to Sun.........2 Chemical Resistance ...................... Polybutadiene Rubber (BR).... 5....... Butyl Rubber (IIR) and Chlorobutyl Rubber (CIIR).................5........2 Chemical Resistance ..............13..........1 Resistance to Sun......................8.......... 5..14...............................12......... 5..........7.. 5.......... 5.......................12 5.1 Resistance to Sun..............................2 Chemical Resistance .............. Weather. 5............2 Chemical Resistance ..................................5.... 5.............15 5............................................3 Applications................ 5.........10...........................11..........6...................................9........................11..................3 Applications................................2 Chemical Resistance ......................................... 5............. LLC ............... Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene (SBS) Rubber ..................................2 Chemical Resistance ...................................................... Ethylene–Propylene Rubbers (EPDM and EPT)........1 Resistance to Sun.......... 5.................4...........................10........................................................... Weather.......................3 Applications.1 Resistance to Sun.......... 5........................................3 Applications....... 5.9 5. Styrene–Ethylene–Butylene–Styrene (SEBS) Rubber ................... 5........................................14....................... 5... and Ozone ................12...... and Ozone ...... and Ozone ..................2 Chemical Resistance ........................... Weather..... Weather..9...14......2 Chemical Resistance .......................................... 5.......1 Resistance to Sun................... 5................7......................... 5..............4........................................ 5............3 Applications...............2 Chemical Resistance ..1 Resistance to Sun.............3 Applications...... and Ozone ............. 5..... Ethylene–Acrylic (EA) Rubber ... Weather...... Nitrile Rubber (NBR....13......................3 Applications..................................13 5..................... 460 460 465 467 467 468 469 470 470 470 470 472 472 473 478 478 479 479 479 484 484 484 486 486 487 487 487 487 487 488 488 488 489 489 489 497 497 497 497 497 498 498 498 498 498 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group............................2 Chemical Resistance .............1 Resistance to Sun........................... 5....8 5..................... Weather.2 Chemical Resistance ........................7 5.............4...........................3 Applications................. and Ozone ................. and Ozone ........1 Resistance to Sun......... and Ozone ......... 5........ Weather............ Styrene–Butadiene Rubber (SBR........ Buna-S..................... Weather..... and Ozone ..... Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber (Hypalon).................................... 5...................3 Applications............................... 5....... 5... Weather........................................1 Resistance to Sun....6........... 5..........................1 Resistance to Sun......................................... and Ozone ...10 5............. Weather............5.............8..................... 5........................................12............................................ and Ozone ..... 5......... 5..... Acrylate–Butadiene Rubber (ABR) and Acrylic Ester–Acrylic Halide (ACM) Rubbers ............ 5........................................ 5............................................. Buna-N) ...5.

... and Ozone .............................................25................. and Ozone ...................................... 5.... 5....................................................20..1 Resistance to Sun............ and Ozone ..................................................21..............17.................24 5................... 5..................... Weather.18........................22................ 5............. 5........................................20.........................................................3 Applications.......... Polyamides......................................................26 5.......23............. Polyester (PE) Elastomer ................................21............3 Applications......... 5.............................2 Chemical Resistance .........16 5......................................................... Urethane Rubbers (AU) .......... and Ozone ...... Weather..16.3 Applications...................1 Resistance to Sun.................. LLC ............... Weather...... 5..................19...3 Applications................3 Applications......... 5........................1 Resistance to Sun..........................1 Resistance to Sun.......... 5...............25....24........ PVDF).........25..... and Ozone ................................................................................ and Ozone ....2 Chemical Resistance ........... 5.... Weather..... 5..........................24. 499 502 502 503 504 509 510 511 511 514 514 515 515 515 518 519 519 519 519 520 520 523 524 525 525 525 530 531 531 531 537 537 537 541 541 542 542 546 546 548 548 560 561 561 561 561 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group...........26...........3 Applications...3 Applications.......1 Resistance to Sun.............. Perfluoroelastomers (FPM).........15..........26...................................................................2 Chemical Resistance .................16....................2 Chemical Resistance ......................................1 Resistance to Sun......26............ Ethylene–Chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) Elastomer.......2 Chemical Resistance ..............20 5...............18............................. Epichlorohydrin Rubber ............22................................ 5... Weather..19......................................................................................................... 5..3 Applications........... 5.. 5............................... 5.......................24.....................2 Chemical Resistance .... 5........................................17.........................21......1 Resistance to Sun............................................... Weather.............................................. Silicone (SI) and Fluorosilicone (FSI) Rubbers.................19................................ Weather..5..................... 5. Weather....................... 5.......................................25 5..................................3 Applications......................................... 5............... and Ozone .....20..23 5....................... Weather............................. 5...... 5...........18....................... 5.2 Chemical Resistance ......1 Resistance to Sun...23.1 Resistance to Sun...................................................................................... 5.................16.................. Weather.......... 5................. Vinylidene Fluoride (HFP...... 5...................2 Chemical Resistance ....2 Chemical Resistance ................. and Ozone .........1 Resistance to Sun........... and Ozone ........................ 5.................... 5........... Fluoroelastomers (FKM) ....................2 Chemical Resistance ..... 5....17.......17 5.............19 5......2 Chemical Resistance ...........22.... Ethylene–Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) Elastomer.........................21 5.......18 5................................................. 5.................2 Chemical Resistance .........................3 Applications.............3 Applications....1 Resistance to Sun... Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) Olefinic Type (TEO) .... and Ozone .......................................... 5........... 5............................................................................. Weather......................23.. 5................3 Applications......................22 5......................15. 5............................... and Ozone .............

......... 5............. 562 562 562 562 562 562 562 562 Chapter 6 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers ...................................................................5......................... Weather.......1 Resistance to Sun...........................................................3 Applications..........1 Resistance to Sun........................ 563 Reference ........................................27 Ethylene–Vinylacetate Copolymer (EVM) .....................................28..........27..............3 Applications.............27..........................2 Chemical Resistance ..........28 Chlorinated Polyethylene (CM)......................................... 5................ 5........ 575 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group..................... and Ozone ..2 Chemical Resistance ............ 5....................... LLC ................... 5..................................................................................... Weather..................28.....27.. 5....... and Ozone ........ 5.........28......

Examples of a thermoset that will set at room temperatures are epoxies that result from combining an epoxy polymer with a curing agent or catalyst at room temperature. Plastics are polymers. When properly designed and applied. thermosetting polymers called thermosets. LLC . although. The thermosets begin as liquids or powders that are reacted with a second material or that through catalyzed polymerization result in a new product whose properties differ from those of either starting material. and once they are formed they cannot be molded. and corrosion products. many current polymers are quite brittle. The term plastic is defined as “capable of being easily molded. Unfortunately. However. Applications range from small food containers to large chemical storage tanks. In view of this. the term polymer will be used throughout the book. therefore. sturdy/economic/resistant.1 Introduction to Polymers Plastics are an important group of raw materials for a wide array of manufacturing operations. from domestic water piping systems to industrial piping systems that handle highly corrosive chemicals. The term plastics was originally adopted to describe the early polymeric materials because they could be easily molded. and elastomers called rubbers.” such as putty or wet clay. these polymers are brittle at room temperature. plastic provides light weight. Thermoplasts are long-chain linear molecules that can be easily formed by heat and pressures at temperatures above a critical temperature referred to as the glass temperature. This term was originally applied to glass and was the temperature where glass became plastic and formed. The glass temperatures for many polymers are above room temperature. from toys to boat hulls. from plastic wrap to incubators. thermosets consist of a three dimensional network of 1 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and a multitude of other products. they can be reheated and reformed into new shapes and can be recycled. Rather than a long-chain molecule. There are three general categories of polymers: thermoplastic polymers called thermoplasts. Thermosets are polymers that assume a permanent shape or set when heated. some will set at room temperature.

The monomeric building blocks are chemically bonded by a process known as polymerization that can take place by one of several methods. Each new unit creates an active site for the next attachment. The process begins with a monomer of ethylene gas in which the carbon atoms are joined by covalent bonds as below: H C H H C H Each bond has two electrons. a chain reaction appends new monomer units to the growing molecule one at a time. called a mer. and cotton are examples of natural polymers. Because their glass temperature is below room temperature.2 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers atoms. believed to be unsaturated. Through the use of heat. usually water. they must be cooled below room temperature to become brittle. The term is derived from the Greek meaning “many parts.” They are large molecules composed of many repeat units that have been chemically bonded into long chains. Polymers are the building blocks of plastics. they unlink or uncoil and can be extended in length by approximately 100% with a minimum force and return to their original shape when the force is released. are broken to form single bonds as below: H C H H C H This resultant structure. LLC . the reaction between monomer units or chain endgroups release a small molecule. is now free to react with other mers. which satisfies the need for the s and p levels to be filled. Elastomers are polymeric materials whose dimensions can be drastically changed by applying a relatively modest force. The polymerization of ethylene gas (C2H4) is a typical example. The molecules are extensively linked so that when a force is applied. the double bonds. Wool. Because they decompose on heating. forming the long-chain molecule shown below: H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Thermosets are amorphous polymers. they cannot be reformed or recycled. In addition polymerization. silk. Polymers produced by this process will degrade when exposed to water and high temperatures. but they return to their original values when the force is released. and a catalyst. This is an equilibrium reaction that will halt unless the by-product is removed. pressure. In condensation polymerization.

graphite.H. W. Glass fibers are the most common additions. and polymethyl methacrylate (Plexiglass) were in commercial production. are not considered engineering polymers.” Others have limited the term to thermoplastics only. In 1934. polyamides. and polycarbonates. The chronological order of the development of polymers is shown in Table 1. Because of the increased stiffness resulting from the fiber q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. the resin matrix is the continuous phase. polystyrene. LLC . Polyethylene. Commercial nylon was placed on the market in 1938 by the DuPont Company. By the late 1930s. An important paper published by Staudinger in 1920 proposed chain formulas for polystyrene and poloxmethylene. polypropylene. In 1953. aramid. A relatively recent term. has come into play. the major products of the polymer industry. Only high-strength fibers with high modulus are used. and boron fibers are also used. It has been used interchangeably with the terms high-performance polymers and engineering plastics. This produced a molded plastic material that became very hard when dried. The year 1868 marked the beginning of the polymer industry with the production of celluloid that was produced by mixing cellulose nitrate with camphor. and polystyrene. These are natural condensation polymers. PVC. and understanding their structure paved the way for the development of the synthetic condensation polymers such as polyesters. Carothers demonstrated that chain polymers could be formed by condensation reactions that resulted in the invention of nylon through polymerization of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid. once initiated. polyimides. According to the ASM Handbook. engineering polymers. Many engineering polymers are reinforced and/or alloy polymers (a blend of polymers).Introduction to Polymers 3 Most addition polymerization reactions follow a method of chain growth where each chain. phenol and formaldehyde. Reinforced polymers are those to which fibers have been added that increase the physical properties—especially impact resistance and heat deflection temperatures. and the fiber reinforcement is the discontinuous phase. and cellulose were giant molecules of high molecular weight. Once terminated.1. Synthetic polymers appeared in the early twentieth century when Leo Bakeland invented Bakelite by combining the two monomers. polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The function of the resin is to bond the fibers together to provide shape and form and to transfer stresses in the structure from the resin to the fiber. sugars. In a reinforced polymer. but carbon. engineering plastics are defined as “Synthetic polymers of a resin-based material that have loadbearing characteristics and high-performance properties which permit them to be used in the same manner as metals and ceramics. Further development of linear condensation polymers resulted from the recognition that natural fibers such as rubber. he was awarded the Nobel prize for this work in establishing polymer science. grows at an extremely rapid rate until terminated. it cannot grow any more except by side reactions.

cellulose propionate. polyallomers Polyimides. Reinforced molding materials such as phenolics. boat hulls.1 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Chronological Development of Polymers Year 1868 1869 1907 1912 1919 1926 1928 1931 1933 1937 1938 1940 1942 1943 1947 1948 1950 1954 1955 1956 1957 1961 1962 1964 1965 1970 1971 1978 1979 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1988 Material Celluloid Cellulose nitrate. They are used extensively in manufacturing very large components such as swimming pools. or epoxies are extensively used in the electronics industry. PVC plastisols Unsaturated polyester Fluorocarbon resins (Teflon). PVC. polyurethanes Epoxy resins Copolymers of butadiene and styrene (ABS) Polyester fibers. and building components. silicones. large tankage. polyphenylene oxide (PPO) Polysulfones. Polyester resins are particularly useful on reinforced polymers.4 TABLE 1. alkyls. methyl pentene polymers Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) Polyphenylene sulfide Polyarylate (Ardel) PET–PC blends (Xenoy) Polyether block amides (Pebax) Polyetherether ketone (PEEK) Polyetheramide (Ultem) Liquid crystal polymers (Xydar) Liquid crystal polymers (Vectra) PVC–SMA blend reinforcement. ABS plastics Polyester-reinforced urethane Polyamide plastics (nylon) Polyolefin plastics. shower enclosures. vinyl plastics Glass-bonded mica Alkyl polyester Polyvinyl acetate Acrylic plastics Polystyrene plastics. polyvinylidene chloride Polypropylene plastic Urethane POM (acetals) PC (polycarbonate) Polyvinylidene fluoride Phenoxy plastics. polyvinyl aldehyde. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. ethyl cellulose PF resin (Bakelite) Cellulose acetate. these polymers that are noted for their flexibility are not normally reinforced. Virtually all thermosetting polymers can be reinforced with fibers.

In some instances. 30. Other polymers benefiting from the addition of glass fibers include polyphenylene sulfide. Glass fibers are the most commonly used reinforcing material. Polycarbonate compounds using 10. Tensile strengths are increased by a factor of 3 and heat deflection temperature increases from 150 to 5008F (66 to 2608C).1 Additives Various properties of polymers may be improved by the use of additives. the temperature. Common additives used to improve the performance of thermoplastic polymers are listed here: Antioxidants Colorants Coupling agents Fillers or extenders Protect against atmospheric oxidation Dyes and pigments Used to improve adhesive bonds Minerals. In many cases a polymer’s corrosion resistance is reduced as a result of additives being used. In addition. polypropylene. An additional cost savings is realized since the polymer part does not require painting for corrosion protection as would the comparable metal part. and 40% glass–fiber loading have their physical properties greatly improved. 1. the use of additives to improve a specific property may have an adverse effect on certain other properties. the following are the most important: 1. A like replacement of a polymer section for a metallic section will result in a weight savings. and the chemical enduse environment. metallic powders. and polyether sulfone. Although fibers can be used with any thermoplastics polymer. Polymers chosen for structural application are usually selected as a replacement for metal. Selection of the specific polymer will be based on the mechanical requirements. Polyamide polymers use glass fiber to control brittleness.Introduction to Polymers 5 Many thermoplastic polymers are reinforced with fibers. 2. polymers can be easily formed into shapes that are difficult to achieve with metals. By using a polymer. the engineer can design an attractive shape that favors plastic forming and achieve a savings in cost and weight and a cosmeticimprovement. The wear resistance and abrasion resistance of the thermoplastics polymers are improved by the use of aramid reinforcing. and organic compounds used to improve specific properties or to reduce costs q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 3. 20. Reinforcement is used to improve physical properties—specifically heat deflection temperature. LLC . Corrosion resistance is a property most often affected by the use of additives.

1.2 and Figure 1. other thermoplasts require additives to be useful. Gases.2 Permeation All materials are somewhat permeable to chemical molecules. Many thermoplastic polymers have useful properties without the need for additives.6 Flame retardants Foaming agents Impact modifiers Lubricants Optical brighteners Plasticizers Reinforcing fibers Processing aids Stabilizers Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Change the chemistry/physics of combustion Generate cells or gas pockets Materials usually containing an elastomeric compound to reduce brittleness Substances that reduce friction.3 illustrate the effect on the tensile stress and flexural moduli of nylon. polycarbonate. heat. Table 1. Examples of the effects of additives on specific polymers will be illustrated.3 shows the increase in the HDT when glass fibers have been added to polymers. PVC benefits from all additives and is practically useless in its pure form. vapors.2. Permeation is molecular migration through microvoids either in the polymer (if the polymer is more or less porous) or between polymer molecules. and impact strength Improve hot processing characteristics Control for adjustment of deteriorative physicochemical reactions during processing and subsequent life A list of specific fillers and the properties they improve is given in Table 1. LLC .1 shows the increase in impact strength of nylon. polycarbonate. and wear between surfaces Organic substances that absorb UV radiation below ˚ ˚ 3000 A and emit radiation below 5500 A Increase workability Increase strength. For example. polypropylene. This action is strictly a physical phenomenon. Figure 1. polycarbonate. Figure 1. However. and polystyrene when 30 wt% glass fiber additions have been made. modulus. polypropylene. acetals (POM). but plastic materials tend to be an order of magnitude greater in their permeability than metals. and certain polymer blends by the use of additives. The addition of 20 wt% of glass fibers also increases the heat distortion temperature. polypropylene. However. In neither case is there an attack on the polymer. Impact resistance is improved in polybutylene terephathalates. Glass fibers also increase the strength and moduli of thermoplastic polymers. permeation can be detrimental when a polymer is q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and polystyrene by the addition of 30 wt% of glass fibers. PVC. or liquids will permeate polymers.

amorphous TFE Talc Wood flour Stiffness X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 7 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. chopped fibers Orlon Rayon Silica.Introduction to Polymers TABLE 1. chopped fibers Fibrous glass Graphite Jute Kaolin Mica Molybdenium disulfide Nylon. powdered Cotton. LLC .2 Fillers and Their Property Contribution to Polymers Chemical Resistance Heat Resistance Electrical Insulation Impact Strength Tensile Strength Dimensional Stability Electrical ConduHardness ctivity Thermal Conductivity X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Moisture Resistance X X Hardenability Filler Alumina powder Alumina tetrahydrate Bronze Calcium carbonate Calcium silicate Carbon black Carbon fiber Cellulose Alpha cellulose Coal.

3 R 2 1 U U U U R R Nylon Polycarbonate Polypropylene Polystyrene FIGURE 1. permeation can result in: 1.2 Increase in tensile strength with glass reinforcement of thermoplastic polymers. Failure of the substrate from corrosive attack.1 Izod impact change with glass reinforcement of thermoplastic polymers. 2. In lined equipment. reinforced. it is 30 25 20 psi× 103 15 10 5 U U U R U R R R Nylon Polycarbonate Polypropylene Polystyrene FIGURE 1. Bond failure and blistering. reinforced. LLC . unreinforced. Loss of contents through substrate and liner as a result of the eventual failure of the substrate. R. 3. In unbonded linings. U. unreinforced. resulting from the accumulation of fluids at the bond when the substrate is less permeable than the liner or from corrosion/reaction products if the substrate is attacked by the permeant.8 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5 R 4 ft-lb/in. used to line piping or equipment. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. R. U.

reinforced. important that the space between the liner and support member be vented to the atmosphere. In fact. LLC . Solubility is a function of the affinity of the permeant for the polymer. All polymers do not have the same rate of permeation.3 Increase in flexural modulus with reinforcement of thermoplastic polymers. Permeation is a function of two variables: one relating to diffusion between molecular chains and the other to the solubility of the permeant in the polymer. unreinforced. R.Introduction to Polymers 9 15 R psi × 106 10 R R R U 5 U U U Nylon Polycarbonate Polypropylene Polystyrene FIGURE 1. some polymers are not affected by permeation. The fluoro-polymers are TABLE 1.3 Increase of HDT with 20 wt% Glass Fiber Addition to the Polymer Polymer Acetal copolymer Polypropylene Linear polyethylene Thermoplastic polyester Nylon 6a Nylon 6/6a ABS Styrene–acrylonitrile Polystyrene Polycarbonate Polysulfone a HDT at 264 psi 20% Glass (8F/8C) 325/163 250/121 260/127 400/207 425/219 490/254 215/102 215/102 220/104 290/143 365/185 Increase over Base Polymer (8F/8C) 95/52 110/61 140/77 230/139 305/168 330/183 25/14 20/12 20/12 20/12 20/12 30 wt% glass fibers. U. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. but also to prevent expansion of entrapped air from collapsing the liner. not only to allow minute quantities of permeant vapors to escape. The driving force of diffusion is the partial pressure of gases and the concentration gradient of liquids.

10 TABLE 1.29 5. 50% Sulfuric acid.57 1.06 0.2.93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.66 0.31 0.7 gives the relative gas permeation into fluoropolymers.08 0.5 Vapor Permeation into FEP Permeation (g/100 in.22 !0.11 0.06 0.4 Vapor Permeation into PTFEa Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Permeation g/100 in.01 3.13 !0. particularly affected. Table 1.2/24 h/mil) at 738F/238C Gases Nitrogen Oxygen Vapors Acetic acid Acetone Acetophenone Benzene n-Butyl ether Carbon tetrachloride Decane Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Hexane Hydrochloric acid 20% Methanol Sodium hydroxide Sulfuric acid 98% Toluene 0.5 shows the vapor permeation of FEP.8!10K5 0.13 0. 20% Piperdine Sodium hydroxide.18 0.72 0. anhydrous Nitrogen Acetophenone Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Ethyl alcohol Hydrochloric acid.15 0.36 0.39 0. TABLE 1.47 0.03 2.9 938F/358C 1228F/508C 0.6 provides permeation data of various gases into PFA and Table 1.2/24 h/mll Gases Carbon dioxide Helium Hydrogen chloride.56 0.01 0.11 0.80 Based on PTFE having a specific gravity of O2.64 0. Vapor permeation of PTFE is shown in Table 1. 98% a 738F/238C 868F/308C 0. LLC .77 0.37 2.95 0.11 !0.4 while Table 1.61 4!10K5 8!10K6 0.42 0.07 5!10K5 1.69 0.01 0.

000 15. and as the temperature rises. Temperature and pressure 2. However. LLC . and the same effect is experienced with the concentration of gradients of liquids.2/24 h/atm) 2260 291 881 11 There is no relationship between permeation and passage of materials through cracks and voids. a comparison of the sheets’ density TABLE 1. The density of the polymer as well as the thickness will have an effect on the permeation rate. If the permeant is highly soluble in the polymer. UnitsZcm3/m2 deg bar. migrating chemicals travel through the polymer from one side to the other. in both cases. Some control can be exercised over permeation that is affected by: 1. polymer chain movement is stimulated. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The thickness of the polymer Increasing the temperature will increase the permeation rate because the solubility of the permeant in the polymer will increase.000 7000 Permeation through a 100 mm film at 738F/238C. The permeation rates of many gases increase linearly with the partialpressure gradient. The permeant concentration 3.000 FEP 600 2900 1200 18. although. permitting more permeant to diffuse among the chains more easily.6 Permeation of Gases into PFA Gas Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Oxygen Permeation at 778F/258C (cc/mil thickness/100 in. the permeability increase may be nonlinear.7 Relative Gas Permeation into Fluoropolymersa Gas Air Oxygen Nitrogen Helium Carbon dioxide a PVDF 27 20 30 600 100 PTFE 2000 1500 500 35. The thickness will generally decrease permeation by the square of the thickness.Introduction to Polymers TABLE 1.000 4700 PFA 1150 — — 17. The greater the density of the polymer. the fewer voids through which permeation can take place. A comparison of the density of sheets produced from different polymers does not provide an indication of the relative permeation rates.

as thickness increases. the lower the permeation rate. van der Waals hydrogen bonding) of the polymer. Increasing a lining thickness will normally decrease permeation by the square of the thickness. installation becomes more difficult with a resulting increase in labor costs. the lower the permeation rate. LLC . The smaller the molecule of the permeant. The greater the degree of cross-linking within the polymer. For general corrosion resistance. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.020 in.. there are some disadvantages. the lower the permeation rate. Although this would appear to be the approach to follow to control permeation. The plastic’s thickness and modulus of elasticity are two of the factors that influence these stresses. the lower the permeation rate.12 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers produced from the same polymer will provide an indication of the relative permeation rates. and permeation rates are a consideration. are usually satisfactory. thicker linings may be required. Temperature changes and large differences in coefficients of thermal expansion are the most common causes of bond failure. cracking. Lined vessels. mechanical abuse. The denser the sheet. thicknesses of 0. Other factors affecting permeation consist of these chemical and physiochemical properties: 1. the thermal stresses on the boundary increase that can result in bond failure.g. Ease of condensation of the permeant. the permeation rate will increase. When mechanical factors such as thinning to cold flow. The higher the level of crystallinity in the polymer. The thickness of the liner is a factor affecting permeation.010–0. 1. 3.3 Absorption Polymers have the potential to absorb varying amounts of corrodents they come into contact with. particularly organic liquids. 5. as the thickness of the lining increases. 2. Lowering these will reduce the rate of permeation. This can result in swelling. such as storage tanks. The rate of permeation is also affected by the temperature and the temperature gradient in the lining. Chemical similarity between the polymer and permeant when the polymer and permeant both have similar functional groups. Chemicals that readily condense will permeate at higher rates. Second. depending on the combination of lining material and the specific corrodent. that are used under ambient conditions provide the best service. The higher the intermolecular chain forces (e. 6. 4. and penetration to the substrate of a lined component. the greater the permeation rate. First.

8 provides the water absorption rates for the more common polymers. Prolonged retention of the chemicals may lead to their decomposition within the polymer. Eventually. and Table 1. In an actual process. it is possible for absorbed monomers to polymerize. Table 1.9 gives the absorption rates of various liquids by FEP.05 0. or solidify within the structure of the polymer. Table 1. causing absorption of a small quantity of steam that condenses to water within the inner wall. the entrapped water can expand to vapor. and cause failure of the bond on lined components.10 provides the absorption rates of representative liquids by PFA. This data is usually available. Upon pressure release or on the reintroduction of steam.04 Nil !0. Several steps can be taken to reduce absorption.03 0.01 !0.029 !0. causing an original micropore. LLC .01 !0. The steam creates a temperature and pressure gradient through the liner. This is repeated for 100 cycles. permeation will probably take place.03 0. Related effects occur when process chemicals are absorbed that may later react. The failures because of absorption can best be understood by considering the “steam cycle” test described in ASTM standards for lined pipe.05 !0. An approximation of the expected permeation and/or absorption of a polymer can be based on the absorption of water.02 0. the polymer may absorb process fluids. decompose. and repeated temperature or pressure cycling can cause blisters. The repeated pressure and thermal cycling enlarge the micropores. the corrodent may find its way to the substrate. A section of lined pipe is subjected to thermal and pressure fluctuations. If the polymer has a high absorption rate. Although it is unusual.01 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Introduction to Polymers 13 Swelling can cause softening of the polymer.8 Water Absorption Rates of Polymers Polymer PVC CPVC PP (Homo) PP (Co) EHMW PE ECTFE PVDF PVCP (Saran) PFA ETFE PTFE FEP Water Absorption 24h at 738F/238C (%) 0. thereby TABLE 1. Thermal insulation of the substrate will reduce the temperature gradient across the vessel. ultimately producing visible water-filled blisters within the liner.01 !0. introduce high stresses.

0 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.03 Liquids were exposed for 168 h at the boiling point of the solvents.03 0.7–0.4 0.0–2. (8F/8C) 365/185 394/201 354/179 400/204 172/78 172/78 372/190 410/210 250/121 154/68 230/110 392/200b Range of Weight Gains (%) 0.2 1.3 1.2 0.7 0.0–0.3 1.0 Exposure for 168 hours at their boiling points.8 0.3–2.4–0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0. conc.01 0.8 1.8–2.6–0.3–0.4–0.0–0.8–2.0–2.7–0.01 0.4 0. b Not boiling.8 1.7–0.00–0. LLC . anh. Chlorine.4 2.2 0.9 2.4 0.3–0.7–2. Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid 50% Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid 37% Phosphoric acid.7–0.9 2. Not boiling.3–0.6–0.14 TABLE 1.01 0. TABLE 1.8 0.1–0.5 0.3–0.10 Absorption of Representative Liquids in PFA Liquida Aniline Acetophenone Benzaldehyde Benzyl alcohol n-Butylamine Carbon tetrachloride Dimethylsulfoxide Freon 113 Isooctane Nitrobenzene Perchlorethylene Sulfuryl chloride Toluene Tributyl phosphate Bromine. anh. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.3–0.00–0.4 0. (8F/8C) 365/185 394/201 354/179 400/204 172/78 172/78 372/190 117/47 210/99 410/210 250/121 154/68 230/110 392/200b K5/–22 248/120 302/150 248/120 212/100 248/120 212/100 212/100 Range of Weight Gains (%) 0.00–0.4 0.1–0. The acidic reagents were exposed for 168 h.4 2.9 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Absorption of Selected Liquids by FEPa Chemical Aniline Acetophenone Benzaldehyde Benzyl alcohol n-Butylamine Carbon tetrachloride Dimethyl sulfide Nitrobenzene Perchlorethylene Sulfuryl chloride Toluene Tributyl phosphate a b Temp.3–2.7–0.7–0.5–0.3–0. Zinc chloride a Temp.7–2.

the polymer should be thoroughly rinsed or otherwise cleaned.Introduction to Polymers TABLE 1. A coating applied in these areas may swell the polymer and cause crazing. However. this will dictate the choice of the paint system. 4. but a solvent that aggressively attacks the surface and results in cracking or crazing must be avoided. adhesion problems are likely. Molded parts may have localized areas of stress. Heat distortion point and heat resistance. This also reduces the rate and magnitude of temperature changes. they are difficult to paint. 3. Residual stress. They are also painted when necessary to provide UV protection. Mold-release residues. 1. 2. Some softening of the surface is desirable to improve adhesion.4 Painting of Polymers Polymers are painted because this is frequently a less expensive process than precolored resins or molded-in coloring. Solvent resistance. LLC . and proper consideration must be given to the following: 1. Annealing of the part prior to coating will minimize or eliminate the problem. Because different polymers are subject to attack by different solvents. This determines whether a bake-type paint can be used. and if so. The use of operating procedures or devices that limit the ratio of process pressure reductions or temperature increases will provide added protection. keeping blisters to a minimum.11 Wavelength Regions of the UV Region UV-A UV-B Wavelength (nm) 400–315 315–200 Characteristics Causes polymer damage Includes the shortest wavelengths found at the earth’s surface Causes severe polymer damage Absorbed by window glass Filtered out by the earth’s atmosphere Found only in outer space 15 UV-C 280–100 preventing condensation and subsequent expansion of the absorbed fluids. To prevent such a problem. the maximum baking temperature the polymer can tolerate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. If excessive amounts of mold-release compounds remain on the part.

Consequently. Most polymers are formulated with plasticizers and chemical additives. charring. the cure. where ester linkages are attacked 4. This is not the case with polymeric materials. Corrosion of plastics can be classified in the following ways as to attack mechanism: 1. and in the case of thermoset resins. dissolving. Oxidation. Other factors. discoloration. The specific polymer should be checked to determine whether the coating will cause short. 6. Disintegration or degradation of a physical nature because of absorption.16 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. Hydrolysis. Plasticizers and other additives. Thermal degradation involving depolymerization and possibly repolymerization 6. softening.or long-term softening or adhesion problems. Improper or insufficient cure will adversely affect the corrosion q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. These materials have a tendency to migrate to the surface and may even soften the coating and destroy adhesion. LLC . embrittlement. or other factors 2. Polymers are attacked either by chemical reaction or solvation. Radiation 5. The physical properties of the paint film must accommodate to those of the polymer. crazing. permeation. Solvation is the penetration of the polymer by a corrodent that causes swelling. Polymeric materials do not experience specific corrosion rates. and coefficient of expansion. Dehydration (rather uncommon) 7. 1. The corrosion of polymer matrix composites is also affected by two other factors: the nature of the laminate. where chemical bonds are attacked 3. delamination. They are usually completely resistant to a specific corrodent (within specific temperature ranges) or they deteriorate rapidly. or swelling. Any combination of the above Results of such attacks will appear in the form of softening.5 Corrosion of Polymers Corrosion of metallic materials takes place via an electro-chemical reaction at a specific corrosion rate. dimensional stability. the life of a metallic material in a particular corrosive environment can be accurately predicted. and ultimate failure. The long-term adhesion of the coating is affected by the properties of the polymer such as stiffness or rigidity. solvent action.

The ability to withstand weathering varies with the polymer type and within grades of a particular resin. exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However. alkaline earth q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. materials sensitive to UV below 320 nm would degrade only slightly. and infrared energy. but longer wavelengths cannot break it. As a result. whereas proper cure time and procedures will generally improve corrosion resistance. the intensity of UV at 320 nm changes about 8 to 1 from summer to winter. The effects of the various wavelengths are shown in Table 1. This creates two important differences between summer and winter sunlight: changes in the intensity of the light and in the spectrum. i.11. it will never experience photochemical deterioration outdoors. some colors tend to weather better than others. Many of the physical property and chemical resistance differences of polymers stem directly from the type and arrangement of atoms in the polymer chains. In addition. UV-B. The most harmful weather component. Ultraviolet light consists of radiation below 400 nm. if at all. can cause embrittlement fading. elements and compounds that exhibit similar behavior. much of the damaging shortwavelength UV light is filtered out. surface cracking. the short wavelength cutoff of a light source is of critical importance. the amount and spectrum of natural UV exposure is extremely variable. Therefore. Because UV is easily filtered by air masses. during the winter months. Many resin grades are available with UV-absorbing additives to improve weather-ability. visible light.e. In the periodic table. For each type of chemical bond. there is a critical threshold wavelength of light with enough energy to cause a reaction. Light of any wavelength shorter than the threshold can break a bond. most polymers exhibit reduced impact resistance. In addition.Introduction to Polymers 17 resistance. Photochemical degradation is caused by photons or light breaking chemical bonds. it is filtered through a greater air mass. If a particular polymer is only sensitive to UV light below 290 nm (the solar cutoff point). and chalking. After exposure to direct sunlight for a period of years. These classes are alkali metals. Because the sun is lower in the sky during the winter months. Polymeric materials in outdoor applications are exposed to weather extremes that can be extremely deleterious to the material. and UV-C. cloud cover. the basic elements of nature are placed into classes with similar properties. For example. and other factors. pollution. The UV portion of the spectrum is further subdivided into UV-A. and a change in appearance. During winter months. Visible light is defined as radiation between 400 and 760 nm. The electromagnetic energy from the sunlight is normally divided into ultraviolet light. Infrared energy consists of wavelengths longer than visible red wavelengths and starts above 760 nm. the shortwavelength solar cutoff shifts from approximately 295 nm in summer to approximately 310 nm in winter. the higher molecular weigh grades of a resin generally exhibit better weatherability than the lower molecular weight grades with comparable additives.. LLC . lower overall mechanical performance.

Polymers containing the carbon–hydrogen bonds such as polypropylene and polyethylene. LLC . The fluoroplastic materials are divided into two groups: fully fluorinated fluorocarbon polymers such as PTFE. The arrangement of elements in the molecule. and ECTFE that are called fluoropolymers. rare earth series. FEP. and the polymer chains’ degree of branching are as important as the specific elements contained in the molecule. the predominant bond in PVDF and PTFE that gives it such important properties. The fluorine acts as a protective shield for other bonds of lesser strength within the main chain of the polymer. Of all the halogens. PVDF. and noble (inert) gases. The carbon–chlorine bond. they are the most likely to attract an electron from another element and become part of a stable structure. bromine. Of particular importance and interest for thermoplasts is the category known as halogens that are found in the nonmetal category. but there are important differences between the groups as will be seen later. is among the strongest known organic compounds. is weaker yet. Since these are the most electro-negative elements in the periodic table. The carbon–fluorine bond. permitting it to strongly bond with carbon and hydrogen atoms. fluorine is the most electronegative. The polymeric characteristics within each group are similar. nonmetals. and the partially fluorinated polymers such as ETFE. the symmetry of the structure. transition metals. and the carbon–chlorine bonds such as PVC and ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene are different in the important property of chemical resistance from a fully fluorinated polymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene. and iodine. a key bond of PVC. is considerably weaker. other metals.18 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers metals. chlorine. The carbon–hydrogen bond. that such plastics as PPE and PP are composed. The elements included in this category are fluorine. The latter has a much wider range of corrosion resistance. but not well with itself. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and PPA called perfluoropolymers. This class of polymers is known as polyolefins.

They are long-chain linear molecules that are easily formed by the application of heat and pressure at temperatures above a critical temperature referred to as the glass temperature. it is referred to as a homopolymer in contrast to a copolymer. similar to metallic materials. lower-cost processing of 19 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. thermoplastic materials tend to be tougher and less brittle than thermoset polymers. However. these materials can be recycled. LLC . thermosets and thermoplastics are now considered on the basis of their performance. thermoplastics have been less dimensionally and thermally stable than thermosetting polymers. Polymers are formed as the result of a polymerization reaction of a monomer that is a single molecule or substance consisting of single molecules. Alloy polymers are blends of different polymers.2 Thermoplastic Polymers Thermoplastic materials can be repeatedly re-formed by the application of heat. so each case must be considered on its individual merits. Second. In general. Third. thermosets have offered a performance advantage. the lower processing costs for thermoplastics have given the latter a cost advantage. In essence. stability of thermoplastics has been greatly improved by the use of fiber reinforcement. higher-performance polymers that can be reinforced with fiber filler to increase their stability even further. Copolymers are long-chain molecules formed by the addition reaction of two or more monomers. Because of three major developments. First. When the chain of a polymer is made up of a single repeating section. they are chains where one mer has been substituted with another mer. However. Some tend to craze or crack easily. By virtue of their basic structure. thermal aging that results from repeated exposure to the high temperatures required for melting causes eventual degradation of the polymer and limits the number of reheat cycles. so they can be used without the need for incorporating fillers. all thermoplasts do not fall into this category. has been the development of the so-called engineering or high-stability. to offset the gains in thermoplastics. Thermoplastic polymers can be either homopolymers or copolymers. although. Therefore. Because of this ability to be re-formed by heat.

10% Ammonium fluoride. and Table 2. Compatibility of the reinforcing material with the corrodent must be checked as well as the compatibility of the thermoplast. has been developed specifically the screw-injectionmolding technology. the thermoplast is known as a composite.2 provides the compatibility of carbon fiber TABLE 2. LLC . sat. 10% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Acetic acid. 10–40% Amyl acetate 8F 450 270 400 400 400 400 250 250 210 120 250 250 250 180 X 250 100 190 250 X 250 250 250 250 X X 250 250 200 200 90 200 200 8C 232 132 204 204 204 204 121 121 99 49 121 121 121 82 X 121 38 88 121 X 121 121 121 121 X X 121 121 93 93 32 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Table 2. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. The two most common materials used as reinforcement are glass fiber and carbon. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. When a reinforcing material is used in a thermoplast. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride.20 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers thermoset polymers. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid.1 provides the compatibility of glass fibers with selected corrodents.1 Compatability of Borosilicate Glass with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride.

50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine gas. sat.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. wet Chlorine. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. moist Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid 8F 250 250 200 250 200 250 250 250 250 250 200 200 200 200 200 200 250 300 250 90 90 250 200 200 250 250 200 200 250 X 200 100 250 160 160 250 450 200 200 160 250 250 450 400 140 200 200 200 8C 121 121 93 121 93 121 121 121 121 121 93 93 93 93 93 93 121 149 121 32 32 121 93 93 121 121 93 93 121 X 93 38 121 71 71 121 232 93 93 71 121 121 232 204 60 93 93 93 (continued) 21 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid.1 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. dry Carbon dioxide.

10% Perchloric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid.22 TABLE 2. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% Citric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Nitric acid. general Lactic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Chromic acid. dil. conc. Hydrobromic acid. conc. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas.1 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Citric acid. 10% Ketones. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 70% Nitric acid. 70% Phenol 8F 200 200 200 200 250 200 200 160 160 200 310 250 210 290 280 180 200 300 X 200 200 200 200 200 200 X X X 190 200 200 200 200 250 160 200 200 200 400 400 400 250 400 200 200 200 8C 93 93 93 93 121 93 93 71 71 93 154 121 99 143 138 82 93 149 X 93 93 93 93 93 93 X X X 88 93 93 93 93 121 72 93 93 93 204 204 204 121 204 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 5% Nitric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Copper chloride Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. dry Fluorine gas.

70% Sulfuric acid. The engineering plastics are synthetic polymers of resin-based materials that have load-bearing characteristics and high-performance properties that permit them to be used in the same manner as metals. 5th ed. Table 2. 98% Sulfuric acid. Many of the engineering plastics are copolymers or alloy polymers. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. LLC . Corrosion Resistance Tables. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Source: From P.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.1 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Phosphoric acid. with selected corrodents. and polystyrene are not considered engineering polymers because of their low strength.3 provides the compatibility of impervious graphite with selected corrodents. Sodium hypochloride. 1–4. Incompatibility is shown by an X.. Sodium sulfide. 30% Silver bromide. polyvinyl chloride.4 lists the abbreviations used for the more common thermoplasts. The major products of the polymer industry that include polyethylene. 90% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. conc.A. conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide. New York: Marcel Dekker. 100% Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 300 200 250 250 250 X X X 150 150 X 210 210 400 400 400 400 400 400 210 210 250 210 210 210 8C 149 93 121 121 121 X X X 66 66 X 99 99 204 204 204 204 204 204 99 99 121 99 99 99 23 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Sulfuric acid. Table 2. 20% Sodium hypochloride. Schweitzer. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Vols. polypropylene. 2004. 50% Sulfuric acid.

dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid.2 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Carbon Fiber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% 8F 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 100 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 390 340 340 340 340 330 340 200 220 340 340 340 340 340 340 200 210 340 250 250 250 250 250 340 200 340 8C 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 38 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 199 171 171 171 171 166 171 93 104 171 171 171 171 171 171 93 99 171 121 121 121 121 121 171 93 171 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride. sat. 80% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.24 TABLE 2. Ammonium fluoride. LLC .

50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chronic acid. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol 8F 350 250 210 X X X 340 340 210 100 90 340 340 340 340 140 340 200 250 170 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 250 340 200 340 340 180 80 340 340 340 X X 340 340 340 340 340 340 400 8C 177 121 99 X X X 171 171 99 38 32 171 171 171 171 60 171 93 121 77 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 121 171 93 171 171 82 27 171 171 171 X X 171 171 171 171 171 171 238 (continued) 25 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Chlorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. moist Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate. sat.2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzoic acid Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC . 15% Citric acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. conc. 10% Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 50% Citric acid. 10% Chlorine acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Bromine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.

70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid.26 TABLE 2. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Perchloric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 30% Salicyclic acid Sodium bromide Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. anhydrous Nitrous acid. dil. dry Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. conc. 50% Cyclohexane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. general Lactic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 8F 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 X 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 X X 100 340 340 340 170 100 400 340 340 340 340 180 140 X X X 340 340 340 200 100 340 340 340 340 340 240 270 260 8C 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 X 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 X X 38 171 171 171 77 38 227 171 171 171 171 82 60 X X X 171 171 171 93 38 171 171 171 171 171 116 132 127 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide.2 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Cupric chloride. LLC . 50% in water Ferrous nitrate. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 25% Lactic acid. Perchloric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. conc.

A. 70% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide.3 Compatibility of Impervious Graphite with Selected Corrodent Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 1–4. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 98% Sulfuric acid. LLC . conc. Schweitzer. 100% Sulfurous acid Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 120 340 340 340 340 180 X X 340 340 340 100 340 8C X X 49 171 171 171 171 82 X X 171 171 171 38 171 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Source: From P. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hypochlorite. 5th ed. TABLE 2. 10% Acetic acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 2004. dry Aluminum fluoride Resin phenolic phenolic furan furan furan furan furan furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan 8F 460 460 400 400 400 400 400 400 460 400 460 X 120 460 460 8C 238 238 204 204 204 204 204 204 238 204 238 X 49 238 238 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sulfuric acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Aluminum chloride. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Acetic acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 80% Acetic acid. Vols.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2..

10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. moist Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Resin furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic furan furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic furan furan phenolic furan phenolic 8F 250 460 460 390 460 400 400 400 460 250 210 400 460 400 210 400 X 250 250 250 250 460 400 460 460 460 X X 460 460 400 210 460 460 460 460 250 250 170 460 460 400 460 460 400 460 400 8C 121 238 238 199 238 204 204 204 238 121 99 204 238 204 99 204 X 121 121 121 121 238 204 238 238 238 X X 238 238 204 99 238 238 238 238 121 121 77 238 238 204 238 238 204 238 204 (continued) furan furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic furan furan furan furan furan furan furan phenolic phenolic furan phenolic furan q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium chlotide Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid.28 TABLE 2. dry Bromine gas. sat. sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.3 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.

moist Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 20% Resin phenolic furan furan furan furan phenolic phenolic furan 8F 400 460 400 400 400 130 400 400 X X X 400 400 400 460 400 400 400 400 460 330 210 260 210 400 300 X 120 250 120 400 400 460 460 X X 120 400 400 400 170 460 460 460 460 400 220 220 8C 204 238 204 204 204 54 204 204 X X X 204 204 204 238 204 204 204 204 238 166 99 127 99 204 149 X 49 121 49 204 204 238 238 X X 49 204 204 204 77 238 238 238 238 204 104 104 (continued) furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan furan phenolic furan furan furan phenolic phenolic furan phenolic Phenolic furan furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Citric acid.3 Continued 29 Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfanic acid Chromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Chlorine. LLC . 10% Ketones. 15% Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. Magnesium chloride Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl Ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. dil. conc. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. conc.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dry Fluorine gas. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. general Lactic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 60% Ferric chloride. 100% Iodine Solution. Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.

One of the applications for plastic materials is to resist atmospheric corrosion. 1–4. 2. Sodium hypochlorite. New York: Marcel Dekker. 100% Sulfuric acid. Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. conc. 70% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 98% Sulfuric acid. Table 2.3 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. Source: From P.1 Joining of Thermoplastics Thermoplastic materials are joined by either solvent cementing.A. In addition to being able to resist attack by specific corrodents in plant operations. 90% Sulfuric acid.6 gives the allowable temperature range for thermoplastic polymers. they are also able to resist corrosive fumes that may be present in the atmosphere. or by means of adhesives. Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide.5 provides the resistance of the more common thermoplasts to various atmospheric pollutants. Vols. and Table 2. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite conc. 50–80% Potassium bromide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 5th ed. 2004. Solvent cementing is the easiest and most q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfuric acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride Resin 8F X X X X 400 400 460 340 400 400 400 400 X X X 400 400 400 400 400 X X X 400 320 400 340 400 8C X X X X 204 204 238 171 204 204 204 204 X X X 204 204 204 204 204 X X X 204 160 204 171 204 furan phenolic furan furan furan furan furan furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic furan furan phenolic The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 70% Nitric acid anhydrous Nitrous acid conc. thermal fusion.30 TABLE 2.. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Schweitzer. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.

4 Abbreviations Used for Thermoplasts ABS CPE CPVC CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP HDPE LDPE LLDPE PA PAI PAN PAS PB PBT PC PE PEEK PEI PEK PEKK PES PET PFA PI PP PPE PPO PPS PPSS PSF PTFE PUR PVC PVDC PVDF PVF SAN UHMWPE Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene Chlorinated polyether Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride Chlorotrifluoroethylene Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene Ethylenetetrafluoroethylene Flouroethylene-propylene copolymer High-density polyethylene Low-density polyethylene Linear low-density polyethylene Polyamide (Nylon) Polyamide-imide Polyacrylonitrile Polyarylsulfone Polybutylene Polybutylene terephthalate Polycarbonate Polyethylene Polyetheretherketone Polyether-imide Polyetherketone Polyetherketoneketone Polyethersulfone Polyethylene terephthalate Perfluoralkoxy Polyimide Polypropylene Polyphenylene ether Polyphenylene oxide Polyphenylene sulfide Polyphenylene sulfide sulfone Polysulfone Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) also TFE Polyurethane Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinylidene chloride Polyvinylidene fluoride Polyvinyl fluoride Styrene-acrylonitrile Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene 31 economical method for joining thermoplasts. The major disadvantages of solvent cementing are the possibility of the part’s stress cracking and the possible hazards of using low vapor point solvents. Adhesive bonding is generally recommended when two dissimilar polymers are joined because of solvent and polymer compatibility problems.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. LLC . and they have the same corrosion resistance as the base polymer as do joints made by a thermal-fusion process. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Solvent-cemented joints are less sensitive to thermal cycling than joints bonded with adhesives.

1.b R R R R R RS R RS R R R Moisturec Absorption 0. d Not resistant. LLC .05 !0.1 !0. and the glass transition temperature of the polymer relative to the adhesive.1 Use of Adhesive The physical and chemical properties of both the solidified adhesive and the polymer affect the quality of the bonded joint. its thermal expansion coefficient. Resistant only if stabilized with a UV protector.30 0.03 !0.01 R R Lg R R R R R R R R R Lg R R R R R R R R R Xd R R R. A universal solvent should never be used.01 0. 2.01 0. h Type 1 only.25 Weathering R R R R R R R Lg R Lg R Ozone X R R R R R Xd R R R R d SO2 R R R R R R Rf R R Xd R R R R R Rh R R R e NOx H2S Re Re R R R R Xd R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R RS R R R R R R RS !0.50 0. Limited resistance.32 TABLE 2.01 0. c Water absorption at 738F/238C (%). f Wet only. g L.03 0. e Dry only. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Resistant. Solvent cements that have approximately the same solubility parameters as the polymer to be bonded should be selected.029 !0. RS. Major elements of concern are the corrosion resistance of the adhesive.30 !0.2 0.7 lists the typical solvents used to bond the major polymers.15 0.02 0.6–1. Large differences in the thermal expansion coefficient between the polymer and adhesive can result in stress at the polymer’s joint interface.5 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Atmospheric Resistance of Thermoplastic Polymers Resistance to Polymer ABS CPVC ECTFE ETFE FEP HDPE PA PC PCTFE PEEK PEI PES PF PFA PI PP PPS PSF PTFE PVC PVDC PVDF UHMWPE a b UV Degradationa. Table 2.04 !0.

ethylene dichloride Aqueous phenol. ethylene ketone. tetrahydrofuran. toluene. LLC . solutions of resorcinol in alcohol. xylene Methylene chloride q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. methylene chloride Methylene chloride. dichlorobenzene Methyl ethyl ketone. tetrahydrofuran. acetone. methylene chloride Methylene chloride. ethylene dichloride Methylene chloride.7 Typical Solvents for Solvent Cementing Polymer PVC ABS Acetate Acrylic PA (Nylon) PPO PC Polystyrene PSF Solvent Cyclohexane. ethylene dichloride. ethyl acetate Methylene chloride. chloroform. TABLE 2. ethylene dichloride. methyl isobutyl ketone. chloroform. solutions of Calcium chloride in alcohol Trichloroethylene. methyl ethyl ketone.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. trichloroethylene.6 Allowable Temperature Range for Thermoplastic Polymers Allowable Temperature (8F/8C) Polymer ABS CPVC ECTFE ETFE FEP HDPE PA PAI PB PC PCTFE PEEK PEI PES PFA PI PP PPS PSF PTFE PVC PVDC PVDF UHWMPE Minimum K40/K40 0/K18 K105/K76 K370/K223 K50/K45 K60/K51 K60/K51 K300/K190 K200/K129 K105/K76 K85/K65 K310/K190 K310/K190 K310/K190 32/0 K150/K101 K20/K29 0/K18 0/K18 K50/K45 40/4 Maximum 140/60 180/82 340/171 300/149 400/205 180/82 300/149 500/260 200/93 250–275/120–135 380/190 480/250 500/260 340/170 500/260 500–600/260–315 215/102 450/230 300/149 500/260 140/60 175/80 320/160 200/93 33 Temperature limits may have to be modified depending upon the corrodent if in direct contact.

Table 2.8 Methods of Joining Thermoplasts Polymer ABS Acetals Acrylics CPE Ethylene copolymers Fluoroplastics PA PPO Polyesters PAI PAS PC PA/ABS PE PI PPS PP Polystyrene PSF PVC/Acrylic alloy PVC/ABS alloy PVC CPVC Adhesives X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Mechanical Fastening X X X X Solvent Welding X X X Thermal Welding X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. will provide poor resistance to bases. Which adhesive is selected will depend upon the specific operating conditions such as chemical environment and temperature. an adhesive providing maximum resistance to acids. Engineering polymers such as polyamide or polyphenylene sulfide have very high glass transition temperatures whereas most adhesives have very low glass transition temperatures. For example. All polymers cannot be joined by all of the methods cited.34 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers These stresses are compounded by thermal cycling and low-temperature service requirements. There is not a best adhesive for universal environments. Table 2.9 provides the relative compatibilities of synthetic adhesives in selected environments. In general. meaning that the weakest link in the joint may be the adhesive. Selection of the proper adhesives is important. TABLE 2. A structural adhesive must have a glass transition temperature higher than the operating temperature to prevent a cohesively weak bond and possible creep problems. the adhesives that are most resistant to high temperatures usually exhibit the best resistance to chemicals and solvents.8 lists the methods by which individual polymers may be joined. LLC . in all probability. It is difficult to select an adhesive that will not degrade in two widely differing chemical environments.

c Type: TS.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. cold. 2. not recommended. water. L. E. thermoplastic adhesive. aromatics. N. X. heat.b Adhesive Cyanoacrylate PolyesterCisocyanate PolyesterCmonomer Urea formaldehyde Melamine formaldehyde Resorcinol formaldehyde EpoxyCpolyamine EpoxyCpolyamide Polyimide Acrylic Cellulose acetate Cellulose nitrate Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl alcohol Polyamide Acrylic Phenoxy a Type TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TP TP TP TP TP TP TP c A X 3 X 3 2 2 3 X 1 X 2 3 X 3 X 4 4 B 2 3 3 2 2 X 2 1 3 3 3 C X 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 X X 3 3 D X 3 X X X 2 2 X 4 3 X 3 X X X 3 4 E X 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 3 3 X X 3 F X 2 X 2 2 2 2 X 2 2 2 X 3 X 2 2 G 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 H 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 X J X 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 X X 3 X X K X 2 X 2 2 2 X X 2 2 X X X 1 2 4 L X 2 X 2 2 2 X X 2 2 X X X 1 2 4 M 4 X X 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 X X X 1 2 X N 4 2 X 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 X X X 1 X 4 Environment: A. poor. good. C. H. 4. B. grease. fuels. alkali. ketones. esters. G. D. oil. F.9 Chemical Resistance of Adhesives Environmenta. excellent. LLC . acid. 3. fair. b Resistance: 1. 35 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. J. alcohols. TP. chlorinated solvents. hot water. K. M. thermosetting adhesive.

water immersion. and stress level. The following are important considerations when designing an adhesive joint for outdoor service: 1. polymer. A combination epoxy–phenolic resin has been developed that will provide an adhesive capability at 7008F (3718C) for short-term operation and continuous operation at 3508F (1778C). i. lose hardness. Structural adhesives not susceptible to the reversion phenomenon are also likely to lose adhesive strength when exposed to moisture. rapidly lose strength during the first six months to a year. and cold are relatively minor factors. Epoxy–polyamide adhesives can be made serviceable at very low temperatures by the addition of appropriate fillers to control thermal expansion. LLC . the elastic modulus.36 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Epoxy adhesives are generally limited to continuous applications below 3008F (1498C). and the thermal conductivity of the adhesive. The successful application of an adhesive at low temperatures is dependent upon the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between adhesive and polymer. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. However.e. Water can also permeate the adhesive and displace the adhesive at the bond interface. strength. Their short-term exposure at 10008F (5388C) is slightly better than the epoxy–phenolic alloy. 2. and outdoor weathering. will revert. depending upon the climate zone. there are epoxy formulations that can withstand short terms at 5008F (2608C) and long-term service at 300–3508F (149–1778C). Some polymeric materials. After two or three years. notably ester-based polyurethanes. Heat-cured adhesive systems are generally more resistant than room-temperature cured systems. Other factors affecting the life of an adhesive bond are humidity. Adhesives exposed outdoors are affected primarily by heat and humidity. Stressed panels deteriorate more rapidly than unstressed panels. Polyamide-adhesives have thermal endurance at temperatures greater than 5008F (2608C) that is unmatched by any commercially available adhesive. They have very good thermal stability but low strength.. Polyurethane and epoxy–nylon systems exhibit outstanding cryogenic properties. Structural adhesives. ultraviolet radiation. turn to fluid during exposure to warm humid air. the rate of decline usually levels off. adhesive. Thermal cycling. 3. The most severe locations are those with high humidity and warm temperatures. Moisture can affect adhesive strength in two ways. Silicone adhesives are primarily used in nonstructural applications. Nitrile–phenolic adhesives have high shear strength up to 250–3508F (121–1778C). Epoxy–phenolic adhesives exhibit good adhesive properties at both elevated and low temperatures. and the strength retention on aging at these temperatures is very good. when exposed to weather. and in the worst case.

A more detailed listing may be found in Reference [1]. Higher strength. ABS will be degraded by UV light unless protective additives are incorporated into the formulation. Table 2. bearings. and styrene and have the following general chemical structure: H C H H C Cn H C H C H C H Butadiene H C H C CH X Y H Z Acrylonitrile Styrene The properties of ABS polymers can be altered by the relative amounts of acrylonitrile. chemical tanks. and electrical conduit.10 provides the compatibility of ABS with selected corrodents. and they will stress crack in the presence of certain organic compounds. piping. 2. better toughness. pump impellers. although all joints will eventually show some strength loss.3 Acrylics Acrylics are based on polymethylmethacrylate and have a chemical structure as follows: H C H CH3 C COOCH3 n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Thermoplastic Polymers 37 4. With the better adhesives. and styrene present. blowers. ABS polymers are used to produce business machine and camera housings. LLC . ducts. It is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. Pure ABS polymers will be attacked by oxidizing agents and strong acids. unstressed bonds are relatively resistant to severe outdoor weathering. all of the alloying ingredients and/or reinforcing materials must be checked for chemical compatibility. butadiene.2 Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene (ABS) ABS polymers are derived from acrylonitrile. greater dimensional stability and other properties can be obtained at the expense of other characteristics. 2. butadiene. gears. When an ABS alloy or a reinforced ABS is used. fume hoods. The manufacturer should also be checked. but not to aromatic or chlorinated hydrocarbons.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. acrylic resins are inherently resistant to discoloration and loss of light transmission.38 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers They are sold under the tradenames of Lucite by E. duPont and Plexiglass by Rohm and Haas. and haze measurements average only 1%. and other similar fluids. 10% Ammonium fluoride.I. TABLE 2. They are attacked by strong solvents. Because of their chemical structure.11 lists the compatibility of acrylics with selected corrodents. Parts molded from acrylic powders in their pure state may be clear and nearly optically perfect. LLC . Table 2. The total light transmission is as high as 92%. Ammonium fluoride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate 8F X 100 130 X X X X X 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 90 80 140 140 140 140 140 X 8C X 38 54 X X X X X 60 X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 32 27 60 60 60 60 60 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.10 Compatibility of ABS with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid. acetone. sat. Acrylics exhibit outstanding weatherability. gasoline. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.

25% Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorine. dry Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. sat.10 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC . Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% 8F 80 X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 X X 80 140 X X 140 140 X X X X X 140 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 90 140 X 140 X 140 X X 140 140 X X X X 90 8C 27 X X 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 X X 27 60 X X 60 60 X X X X X 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X 32 60 X 60 X 60 X X 60 60 X X X X 32 (continued) 39 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.

10 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. conc. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 5% Nitric acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Nitric acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 20% 8F X 140 140 140 140 140 X 80 80 X X 140 140 140 140 90 140 90 140 X X X 140 X 140 140 140 X X X 140 140 130 X X X X X X 130 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 8C X 60 60 60 60 60 X 27 27 X X 60 60 60 60 32 60 32 60 X X X 60 X 60 60 60 X X X 60 60 54 X X X X X X 54 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. general Lactic acid. 50% Citric acid. 25% Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.40 TABLE 2. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 15% Citric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 20% Nitric acid. 25% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. dry Hydrobromic acid.

98% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Acrylics are used for lenses. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. lighting fixtures.A. conc. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. It is subject to swelling in some q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. outdoor signs. Schweitzer. fluorescent street lights. Sodium sulfide. 100% Sulfuric acid.. 2. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 2004. and boat windshields.10 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hypochlorite. it has less resistance than PTFE. 5th ed. textile fibers. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. and PFA.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 90% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. aircraft and building glazing. coatings. 1–4. It is a fluorocarbon with the following chemical structure: Cl F C F C F n Although CTFE has a wide range of corrosion resistance. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene White liquor Zine chloride 8F 140 140 140 100 140 130 X X X X X 140 X X 140 140 8C 60 60 60 38 60 54 X X X X X 60 X X 60 60 41 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. FEP. New York: Marcel Dekker.4 Chlotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) Chlorotrifluorethylene is sold under the tradename of Kel–F. Vols.

10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Borax Boric acid Bromine.42 TABLE 2. sat. sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium sulfate Calcium bisulfide Carbon dioxide. sat. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Alum Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid X X X X X X X R R R R R R R R R R R R X R X X R R R R X X X R R X X R X R R R R R R R R R R X R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfate. aqueous Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.11 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Acrylics with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

50% Dichloroethane Ethylene chloride Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid anhydrous Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 100% Ketones. 20% Hydrochloric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. general Lactic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Citric acid.11 Continued Chemical Chloroacetic acid. 10–50% Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid. 10% Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. conc. conc. Magnesium chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Nitric acid. conc. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. to 50% Stanninc chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium sulfide. 15% Citric acid. 10% X X X X X X X R R R R X X R R X R R R R R R X R X X X R X X R X X X X R R R R X R R R R R R R R R (continued) 43 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Nitric acid. LLC .

Refer to Table 2. chlorinated solvents at elevated temperatures and is attacked by the same chemicals that attack PTFE. 25% Ammonia anhydrous Ammonia. 90% Sulfuric acid. conc. dry Allyl alcohol Aluminum chloride.11 Continued Chemical Sulfuric acid. 1–4. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 5th ed. Compatibility at 908F/328C is indicated by R. 70% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker.44 TABLE 2. Amyl acetate Aniline Aqua regia Barium sulfate 8F 200 122 122 122 100 200 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 100 122 200 300 8C 93 50 50 50 38 93 38 93 93 93 93 93 93 38 50 93 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Ammonium chloride. 2004.12 Compatibility of CTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 100% Sulfuric acid fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene Zinc chloride Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R R X X X X R X R The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise specified. LLC . 50% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. TABLE 2.12 for the compatibility of CTFE with selected corrodents. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Source: From P.. Schweitzer. Vols. 98% Sulfuric acid. 95–100% Acetic acid glacial Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetyl chloride.A.

100% Hydrofluoric acid. 37% Hydrochloric acid. dry Fluorine gas.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzontrile Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Bromine gas. dry Bromine gas. 50% Magnesium chloride Magnesium sulfate Mineral oil Motor oil Naphtha Naphthalene Nitromethane Oxalic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. moist Fuel oils Gasoline Glycerine Heptane Hexane Hydrobromic acid. moist Butadiene Butane n-Butylamine Butyl ether Calcium chloride Calcium sulfate Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Cellusolve Chlorine. LLC . 50% Perchloric acid Phosphorus trichloride Potassium manganate Seawater 8F 200 200 200 200 100 300 100 212 200 200 X 100 300 300 300 212 200 X 125 300 100 200 200 X 100 200 X 70 200 200 212 200 200 300 300 200 300 212 200 200 200 200 200 212 200 200 200 250 23 93 93 100 93 93 149 149 93 149 100 93 93 93 93 93 100 93 93 93 121 (continued) 38 92 52 149 38 93 93 38 149 149 149 100 93 8C 93 93 93 93 38 149 38 100 93 93 45 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Chloroacetic acid Cupric chloride. 5% Cyclohexanone Dimethyl aniline Dimethyl phthalate Ethanolamine Ethylene dichloride Ethylene glycol Fluorine gas.

fresh Zinc sulfate 8F 300 140 300 250 250 300 300 212 260 300 300 212 200 200 200 250 212 8C 149 60 149 121 121 149 149 100 127 149 149 100 93 93 93 121 100 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution. 10% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium sulfate Sodium thiosulfate Stannous chloride Sulfur Sulfur dioxide.01%. Water absorption is less than 0. It is sold under the tradename of Halar by Ausimont U. It is resistant to most of the common corrosive chemicals encountered in industry. 0–100% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. wet Sulfur dioxide. It possesses excellent chemical resistance from cryogenic to 3408F (1178C) with continuous service to 3008F (1498C) and excellent abrasion resistance.A.12 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bisulfate Sodium carbonate Sodium chromate.S. or hydrochloric acid is 10–100 times better than that of PTFE or FEP. The chemical resistance of ECTFE is outstanding. 2. ECTFE’s resistance to permeation by oxygen. fuming Turpentine Vinegar Water. dry Sulfuric acid. carbon dioxide. unless otherwise noted. Included in this q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. chlorine gas.46 TABLE 2.5 Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) ECTFE is a 1:1 alternating copolymer of ethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene having a chemical structure as follows: H H H H C C C C H H F Cl This chemical structure provides the polymer with a unique combination of properties.

TABLE 2. that does not impair the usefulness of the polymer. liquid oxygen. its mechanical properties return to their original values. chemical process equipment. 10% Ammonium chloride. dimethylamine. and high-temperature wire and cable insulation. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. ECTFE has found application as pipe and vessel liners and in piping systems. and practically all organic solvents except hot amines (aniline.) No known solvent dissolves or stress cracks ECTFE at temperatures up to 2508F (1208C). Reference [1] provides a more extensive listing. 10% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride.13 Compatibility of ECTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. Table 2. Some halogenated solvents can cause ECTFE to become slightly plasticized when it comes into contact with them. The useful properties of ECTFE are maintained on exposure to cobalt-60 radiation of 20 Mrads. As with other fluoropolymers. When the part is removed from contact with the solvent and allowed to dry. LLC .13 shows the compatibility of ECTFE with selected corrodents. sat. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. alkalies. etc.Thermoplastic Polymers 47 list of chemicals are strong mineral and oxidizing acids. ECTFE also exhibits excellent resistance to weathering and UV radiation. 50% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. ECTFE will be attacked by metallic sodium and potassium. Under normal circumstances. metal etchants. indicating that no chemical attack has taken place. 8F 250 250 150 200 100 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 8C 121 121 66 93 38 66 66 66 66 149 149 149 149 149 149 66 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry 8F 300 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 160 300 300 90 100 250 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 250 300 300 300 300 X 150 250 150 300 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 220 80 300 8C 149 149 149 149 149 66 149 149 149 71 149 149 32 38 121 149 149 149 149 149 66 66 66 121 149 149 149 149 X 66 121 66 149 121 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 104 27 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.48 TABLE 2. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. LLC . Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium fluoride. sat. dry Bromine.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium fluoride. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

conc. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 5% Cupric chloride. LLC . liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 50% Citric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 10% Lactic acid. 8F 300 80 150 300 300 300 250 250 150 250 250 150 250 80 250 250 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 X 80 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 240 240 300 250 150 150 8C 149 27 66 149 149 149 121 121 66 121 121 66 121 27 121 121 149 149 66 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 X 27 149 149 149 149 149 149 121 116 116 149 121 66 66 (continued) 49 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution.13 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon dioxide. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. wet Chlorine. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Citric acid. dil. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellsolve Chloroacetic acid.

13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. Vols. 5th ed. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 100% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. A blank space indicate that data is unavailable. 50% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid.50 TABLE 2. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 1–4. 10% Perchloric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Schweitzer. 98% Sulfuric acid. conc. LLC . 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 300 250 300 150 150 300 300 250 150 150 250 X 150 150 150 250 80 300 250 300 300 300 250 150 300 300 300 300 300 250 250 250 150 150 80 300 250 150 150 150 250 300 8C 149 121 149 66 68 149 149 121 66 66 121 X 66 66 66 121 27 149 121 149 149 149 121 66 149 149 149 149 149 121 121 121 66 66 27 149 121 66 66 66 121 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Sodium hypochlorite. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide.A. New York: Marcel Dekker. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. conc. 2004. 70% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide. 70% Nitric acid. conc. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Nitric acid..

chemical ware. 2. ETFE is inert to strong mineral acids. not merely filled. Carboxylic acids. stiffness. Tefzel is also weather resistant and ultraviolet ray resistant. and dimensional stability are enhanced. and classic polymer solvents have little effect on ETFE. and metal salt solutions. alcohols. Tefzel is a rugged thermoplastic with an outstanding balance of properties. being the first fluoroplastic that can be reinforced. wire insulation.Thermoplastic Polymers 51 2. esters. inorganic bases. Very strong oxidizing acids such as nitric. heat distortion temperature. It can be reinforced with carbon or glass fibers. piping. aldehydes. LLC . organic bases such as amines.14 for the compatibility of ETFE with selected corrodents. creep resistance. halogens. chlorocarbons. aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Because the resin will bond to the fibers. tubing. but it mainly consists of linear chains having the following formula: F F F F F F F F F C F F F C C C C C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.7 Fluorinated Ethylene–Propylene (FEP) Fluorinated ethylene-propylene is a fully fluorinated thermoplastic with some branching. ETFE finds applications in process equipment. Refer to Table 2. strength. ketones. and pump components.6 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) ETFE is an alternating copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene by duPont under the tradename of Tefzel and has the following structural formula: H H H H C C C C H H F F ETFE is a high-temperature fluoropolymer with a maximum service temperature of 3008F (1498C). Reference [1] provides a more extensive listing. and sulfuric acid at high concentrations and near their boiling points will affect ETFE to various degrees.

aqueous Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid.14 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of ETFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. sat. sat. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 200 250 250 250 230 230 300 150 150 150 280 210 190 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 300 300 300 230 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 230 210 210 300 300 300 300 300 8C 93 121 121 121 110 110 149 66 66 66 138 99 88 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 149 149 149 110 149 149 149 149 121 149 149 110 99 99 149 149 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.52 TABLE 2. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid.

50% water Chloroacetic acid.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 50% Chlorine gas. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. sat. wet Chlorine. dry Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 10% Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 15% Copper chloride 8F 210 210 210 270 300 300 300 300 150 230 250 230 300 120 150 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 260 300 210 150 300 300 150 300 270 300 300 230 230 210 250 100 210 230 80 150 150 210 120 300 8C 99 99 99 132 149 149 149 149 66 110 121 110 149 49 66 121 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 127 149 99 66 149 149 66 149 132 149 149 110 110 99 121 38 99 110 27 66 66 99 49 149 (continued) 53 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Bromine water. dry Chlorine gas. water Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. LLC .Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.

14 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. LLC . 10% Perchloric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 5% Nitric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitrous acid. Hydrobromic acid. conc. moist Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. dil. 30% Salicylic acid 8F 300 300 270 300 300 250 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 100 100 300 300 300 300 300 300 270 250 230 300 250 250 300 270 120 300 230 300 300 150 150 80 X 210 150 230 150 210 270 130 300 250 8C 149 149 132 149 149 121 66 66 149 149 149 149 149 38 38 149 149 149 149 149 149 132 121 110 149 121 121 149 132 49 149 110 149 149 66 66 27 X 99 66 110 66 99 132 54 149 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Lactic acid.54 TABLE 2. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 20% Nitric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.

laboratory ware.. 90% Sulfuric acid. conc. 5th ed. After prolonged exposure at 4008F (2048C). the polymer is filled with glass fibers. and other process equipment. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. FEP basically exhibits the same corrosion resistance as PTFE with few exceptions but at lower operating temperatures. New York: Marcel Dekker. FEP finds extensive use as a lining material for process vessels and piping. and it has excellent weathering resistance.A. Some chemicals will attack FEP when present in high concentrations at or near the service temperature limit. It is resistant to practically all chemicals except for extremely potent oxidizers such as chlorine trifluoride and related compounds. Source: From P. Vols. 1–4. 70% Sulfuric acid. 2004. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. 10% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfurous acid. LLC . fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 300 300 230 230 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 120 210 210 250 210 300 8C 149 149 110 110 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 49 99 99 121 99 149 55 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. FEP is not degraded by UV light.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Incompatibility is shown by an X.15 for the compatibility of FEP with selected corrodents. 10% Sodium hydroxide. it exhibits changes in physical strength. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Schweitzer. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which date is available. Sodium sulfide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Refer to Table 2. 98% Sulfuric acid. FEP has a maximum operating temperature of 3758F (1908C). To improve some physical and mechanical properties.

10%b Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 80% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride.56 TABLE 2. 50% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetonea Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. LLC . 50% Ammonium chloride. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride.15 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of FEP with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 25%b Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. sat. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Anilinea Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 300 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 250 400 400 8C 93 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 93 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 149 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 121 204 204 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Aluminum fluorideb Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gasb Ammonium bifluoridea Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.

10% Calcium hydroxide. dryb Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloridea. wetb Chlorine.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehydea Benzenea.b Butadienea Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylaminea Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. moistb Bromine. dry Chlorine gas. sat. dry Carbon dioxide.c Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. LLC . liquida.b. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfideb Carbon dioxide. liquida Chlorobenzeneb Chloroformb Chlorosulfonic acida 8F 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 200 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 X 400 400 400 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 93 93 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 X 204 204 204 204 204 (continued) 57 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.b Benzenesulfonic acid.

moist Hydrobromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chlorideb Methyl ethyl ketoneb Methyl isobutyl ketoneb Muriatic acidb Nitric acid. conc. 30%b Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 25% Lactic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.c Hydrobromic acid. 50%a Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 38%b. 50%b. 70%b Hydrofluoric acid. dil.c Hydrocyanic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. dry Fluorine gas. general Lactic acid.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. conc. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.58 TABLE 2. 20%b. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichlorideb) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10%b Ketones. 15% Citric acid. 20%b.c Hydrochloric acid. 100%b Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution.c Hydrochloric acid. 5%b 8F 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 260 260 400 400 200 X 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 300 400 400 400 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 127 127 204 204 93 X 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 149 204 204 204 204 204 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50% in watera Ferric nitrate.

a b c Material will be absorbed. Oleum Perchloric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 20%b Nitric acid.A. 10% Perchloric acid. conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Phenolb Phosphoric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Material can cause stress cracking. 10%a Sodium hydroxide. fumingb Sulfurous acid Thionyl chlorideb Tolueneb Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloridec 8F 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 59 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. anhydrousb Nitrous acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sodium hydroxide. conc. Material will permeate.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. New York: Marcel Dekker. Source: From P. conc. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 90% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. Sodium sulfide. 5th ed. 2004.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which date is available. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 1–4. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid.. 70%b Nitric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. Vols. LLC .

6/6.60 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 2. Polyamide resins retain useful mechanical properties over a temperature range of K60 to C4008F (K51 to C2048C. For example.) Both short-term and long-term q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polyamide polymers are available in several grades and are identified by the number of carbon atoms in the diamine and dibasic acid used to produce the particular grade. but it is available at a lower cost because it is more easily and economically processed. both of which are compounds containing six carbon atoms. 6/10. 6/6. Their structural formulas are as follows: O N H Nylon 6 O N H (CH2)6 N H Nylon 6/6 O N H (CH2)6 N H Nylon 6/10 O N H Nylon 11 O N H Nylon 12 (CH2)11 C (CH2)10 C C (CH2)8 O C C (CH2)4 O C (CH2)5 C n n n n n Grades 6 and 6/6 are the strongest structurally. and 6/10 are the most flexible. and 12. 11. Nylon 12 has the same advantages as grades 6/10 and 11.8 Polyamides (PA) Polyamides are also known as nylons. Some of the commonly commercially available nylons are 6. grades 6/10 and 11 have the lowest moisture absorption. and grades 6. LLC . best electrical. nylon 6/6 is the reaction product of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid. properties and best dimensional stability.

Thermoplastic Polymers 61 temperature effects must be considered. 10% Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Allyl alcohol Alum Aluminum chloride. and ozone. even at elevated temperatures and to sodium and potassium hydroxides at ambient temperatures. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium fluoride. Such properties as stiffness and toughness are affected by short-term exposure to elevated temperatures. A more detailed listing will be found in Reference [1]. particularly ammonium hydroxide and ammonia. Such applications should make use of a heat-stabilized grade of resin. 25% 8F X 250 200 X X X 200 80 X 80 80 X X X 80 250 80 140 200 240 200 200 80 80 250 8C X 121 93 X X X 93 27 X 27 27 X X X 27 121 27 60 93 160 93 93 27 27 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . there is the possibility of gradual oxidative embrittlement. In long term exposure at high temperatures. Polyamides are also resistant to UV degradation. They also display good resistance to almost all inorganic salts and to almost all hydrocarbons and petroleum-based fuels. TABLE 2. weathering. The polyamides exhibit excellent resistance to a broad range of chemicals and harsh environments. 10% Acetic acid. There is also the possibility of stress relief and its effect on dimensions.16 Compatibility of Polyamides with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Refer to Table 2. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.16 for the compatibility of PA with selected corrodents. They have good resistance to most inorganic alkalies. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 50% Ammonium fluoride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Aluminum gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.

moist Bromine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Bromine gas. LLC . dry Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid 8F 250 190 X 80 80 150 200 X X X X 80 250 80 80 80 150 250 X 80 200 250 200 X X X X 80 250 200 200 X 140 200 250 150 150 X X 80 80 230 80 80 80 80 250 100 8C 121 88 X 27 27 66 93 X X X X 27 121 27 27 27 66 121 X 27 93 121 93 X X X X 27 121 93 93 X 60 93 121 66 66 X X 27 27 110 27 27 27 27 121 38 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.62 TABLE 2.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide. sat. sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide.

50% Malic acid Manganese chloride. moist Hydrobromic acid. 15% Chloroacetic acid Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride 50% in water Ferric nitrate. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 50% Citric acid. conc.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dil. 5% Cupric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. wet Chlorine. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. Magnesium chloride. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dry Fluorine gas. conc. 37% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone 8F 250 X X X X X 250 130 X X X 200 X 200 80 X 80 140 100 X X 250 280 80 80 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 200 200 240 X X 80 240 110 8C 121 X X X X X 121 54 X X X 93 X 93 27 X 27 60 38 X X 121 121 27 27 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 93 93 116 X X 27 116 42 (continued) 63 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Chlorine gas. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 100% Lactic acid.

conc.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate. New York: Marcel Dekker. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. fasteners. In the automotive industry. 70% Sulfuric acid. housings. 98% Sulfuric acid. lawn and garden equipment. and hose fittings.A. to 30% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. PA/ABS blends are used for appliances. and shrouds. 70% Nitric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. cans. the blend is used to produce interior functional components. pipe fittings. 5th ed. 50% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. LLC . Incompatibility is shown by an X. wire insulation. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and sporting goods. Vols. power tools. fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X X X X X X X X 210 80 240 230 250 250 X X 230 80 X X X X X X X X 90 200 X 80 X 8C X X X X X X X X X X 99 27 116 110 121 121 X X 110 27 X X X X X X X X 32 93 X 27 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 1–4.64 TABLE 2. PAs are used to produce gears. 2004. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Schweitzer. 5% Nitric acid. Sodium sulfide. conc. 90% Sulfuric acid. bearings.. Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. A blank space indicate that data is unavailable. Source: From P. 20% Nitric acid.

10% Ammonium chloride. PAI is resistant to acetic acid and phosphoric acid up to 35% and sulfuric acid up to 30%. TABLE 2. PAI is not resistant to sodium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. sat. The temperature range is K3108F to C5008F (K1908C to C2608C).Thermoplastic Polymers 65 2. 10% Ammonium sulfate. and as such. Ammonium nitrate. 50% Acetic acid.9 Polyamide–Imide (PAI) Polyamide–imides are heterocyclic polymers having an atom of nitrogen in one of the rings of the molecular chain. LLC . A typical chemical structure is shown below: H R N C C C N n This series of thermoplasts can be used at high and low temperatures. 10% Amyl acetate Aniline Barium chloride. dry Aluminum sulfate.17 Compatibility of PAI with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. PAI has resistance to UV light degradation. Reference 1 provides a more detailed listing.17 for the compatibility of PAI with selected corrodents. 80% Acetic acid glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. PAI finds applications in underhood applications and as bearings and pistons in compressors. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Refer to Table 2. 10% Benzaldehyde Benzene 8F 200 200 200 200 200 80 120 220 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 80 8C 93 93 93 93 93 27 49 104 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. it finds applications in the extreme environments of space.

Sodium sulfide. Magnesium chloride. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 10% Sodium chloride. 38% Lactic acid.. Sodium hypochlorite. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 20% Hydrochloric acid. moist Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Cellosolve Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid.17 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Ethylene glycol Hydrochloric acid. Schweitzer. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2.66 TABLE 2. 10% Sulfuric acid.A. 25% Lactic acid conc. Vols. 10% Sodium hypochlorite conc.10 Polybutylene (PB) Polybutylene is a semicrystalline polyolefin thermoplasitic based on poly-1butene and includes homopolymers and a series of copolymers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 1–4. 50% Sodium hydroxide conc. 10% Benzyl chloride Bromine gas. 5th ed. dry Methyl ethyl ketone Oleum Sodium carbonate. Source: From P. New York: Marcel Dekker. to 50% Sulfuric acid. fuming Toluene 8F X 120 120 200 200 200 200 X 200 200 120 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 120 200 200 X X X 200 X X 200 120 200 93 49 93 93 93 93 49 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 49 93 93 49 49 93 93 93 93 8C The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 2004.

chemical resistance. Applications include piping. Refer to Table 2. It is resistant to acids.18 for the compatibility of polybutylene with selected corrodents. PB is subject to degradation by UV light. and detergents. PB is also used for molded appliance parts. TABLE 2. This thermoplast has the following structural formula: H H H C C C H H H C H H Polybutylene has an upper temperature limit of 2008F (938C). It possesses a combination of stress cracking resistance. LLC . chemical process equipment.Thermoplastic Polymers 67 (butene/ethylene). Chlorinated water will cause pitting attack.18 Compatibility of PB with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Allyl alcohol Aluminum chloride Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Butyl alcohol Calcium carbonate Calcium hydroxide Calcium sulfate Carbonic acid Chloracetic acid Chlorobenzene Citric acid Cyclohexane Detergents Lactic acid Malic acid Methyl alcohol Phenol R R X X X R X R R R R R X R R R R R R R R R R R X R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and fly ash bottom ash lines containing abrasive slurries. soaps. and abrasion resistance. bases. Polybutylene is partially soluble in aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons above 1408F (608C) and is not completely resistant to aliphatic solvents at room temperature.

19 lists the compatibility of PC with selected corrodents. PB is resistant at 708F/238C. it is widely used for windows in chemical equipment and glazing in chemical plants. The operating temperature range for polycarbonates is from K2008F to C250K2758F (K1298C to C120K1358C). q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. telephone equipment. globes and housings.11 Polycarbonate (PC) This thermoplast is produced by General Electric under the tradename of Lexan. network interfaces. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. esters. Table 2. and aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. 2. PC is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons and weak acids and has limited resistance to weak alkalies. Polycarbonates are classified as engineering thermoplasts because of their high performance in engineering designs. R. 50% Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Water (chlorine free) Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R X R R R R R R R R R Materials in the pure state or saturated solution unless otherwise specified. The generalized formula is: CH3 O C CH3 O O C Immersion in water and exposure to high humidity at temperatures up to 2128F (1008C) have little effect on dimensions.18 Continued Picric acid Propyl alcohol Salicylic acid Soaps Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide. LLC . and lighting diffusers. 10% Sodium hydroxide. X.68 TABLE 2. It also finds wide use in outdoor energy management devices. Polycarbonates are among the most stable polymers in a wet environment. PC is not affected by UV light and has excellent weatherability. Because of its extremely high impact resistance and good clarity. electrical wiring blocks. PB is not resistant. Polycarbonate will be attacked by strong alkalies and strong acids and is soluble in ketones. It is resistant to most oils and greases.

5% Sulfuric acid. 50% Potassium dichromate Potassium permanganate. 10% Benzene Butyl acetate Cadmium chloride Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Sodium chloride. 98% Sulfuric acid. 2% Hydrogen peroxide. 5% Acetic acid.19 Compatibility of PC with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. 2% Paraffin oil Phosphoric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. LLC . 50% Sodium hydroxide. 30% Hydrogen peroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2% R R X X X X R X X X X R X X R X X X X R X R R X R R R R R R R X X X R R R X X R R R R R R R X X X R (continued) 69 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 0–5% Ink Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Milk Nitric acid. 10% Acetone Ammonia. 10% Potassium hydroxide. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate. 10% Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Glycerine Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid.

In more extreme weathering conditions. PEEK has an operating temperature range of K85 to C4808F (K65 to C2508C). molten Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers X R R X R X R.20 for the compatibility of PEEK with selected corrodents. material is not resistant. testing has shown that over a twelvemonth period for both natural and pigmented moldings. PEEK is subject to degradation by UV light during outdoor weathering. the effect is minimal. However. cold Water. X. Refer to Table 2.70 TABLE 2. painting or pigmenting of the polymer will protect it from excessive property degradation. Because PEEK is not hydrolyzed by water at elevated temperatures in a continuous cycle environment. It also exhibits excellent resistance to hard (gamma) radiation.12 Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) PEEK is a linear polyaromatic thermoplast having the following chemical structure: O C O O n It is a proprietary product of ICI and is an engineering polymer suitable for applications that require mechanical strength with the need to resist difficult thermal and chemical environments. PEEK is insoluble in all common solvents and has excellent resistance to a wide range of organic and inorganic solvents. the material may be steam sterilized using conventional sterilization equipment. It has excellent long-term resistance to water at both ambient and elevated temperatures. absorbing over 1000 Mrads of radiation without suffering significant damage. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. LLC . PEEK is not chemically attacked by water. Like most polyaromatics. 2. It also has excellent rain erosion resistance. material is resistant at 738F/208C. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. hot Wax.19 Continued Toluene Vaseline Water.

Carbon dioxide. Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC . dry Bromine gas. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid.20 Compatibility of PEEK with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 70% 8F 80 80 140 140 140 210 80 80 80 210 80 200 X 80 80 170 80 X X 80 80 80 100 80 80 80 80 X 200 80 80 80 200 170 80 160 200 X X X X X 100 100 X X 8C 27 27 60 60 60 99 27 27 27 99 27 93 X 27 27 77 27 X X 27 27 27 38 27 27 27 27 X 93 27 27 27 93 77 27 71 93 X X X X X 38 38 X X (continued) 71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chlorine gas. Hydrobromic acid. dil. 50% Citric acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. dry Chlorine. dry Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50% Acetic acid. glacial Acetone Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium hydroxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. sat. moist Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Cyclohexane Ethylene glycol Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas.

10% Oxalic acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 100% Hydrogen sulfide.72 TABLE 2.20 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10% Oxalic acid. conc. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Incompatibility is shown by an X.A. conc. 5% Oxalic acid. 50–80% Potassium bromide. sat. 90% Sulfuric acid. 1–4. Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Magnesium hydroxide Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Naphtha Nitric acid. general Lactic acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 5% Nitric acid. fuming Toluene Zinc chloride 8F X 200 80 80 100 100 80 370 200 200 200 80 X X X 140 200 140 210 220 180 200 80 80 80 200 X X X X X 80 100 8C X 93 27 27 38 38 27 188 93 93 93 27 X X X 60 93 60 99 104 82 93 27 27 27 93 X X X X X 27 38 The Chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 2004. Phenol Phosphoric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Vols. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite. wet Ketones.. Source: From P. 25% Lactic acid. Schweitzer. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide. 20% Nitrous acid. LLC . conc. 70% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. 100% Sulfuric acid.

Low friction 3. PEI has a better chemical resistance than most noncrystalline polymers. Good dimensional stability 4. Table 2. One such application is under the hood of automobiles for connecters and MAP sensors. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and frequencies. Excellent wear abrasion and fatigue resistance 7. over a wide range of temperatures. high tensile and flexural strength. and alcohol. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. Long life 5.Thermoplastic Polymers 73 PEEK is used in many bearing applications because of the following advantages: 1. A high. and superior finishing characteristics are required. PEI is one of the strongest thermoplasts even without reinforcement. The molecular structure has rigidity. Outstanding mechanical properties PEEK has also found application in a number of aircraft exterior applications such as radomes and fairings as a result of its excellent erosion resistance. LLC . PEI is useful in applications where high heat and flame resistance low NBS smoke evolution. strength. It is resistant to acetic and hydrochloric acids. 2. The unfilled polymer complies with FDA regulations and can be used in food and medical applications. chemical resistance.21 lists the compatibility of PEI with selected corrodents. continuous service temperature of 5008F (2608C) 6. stable electrical properties.13 Polyether–Imide (PEI) PEI is a high-temperature engineering polymer with the structural formula shown below: O C N C O O CH3 C CH3 O O C N C O Polyether–imides are noncrystalline polymers made up of alternating aromatic ether and imide units. High strength and load carrying capacity 2. and impact resistance in fabricated parts over a wide range of temperatures. weak nitric and sulfuric acids.

X. Cyclohexane Diesel oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene glycol Formic acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Acetone Ammonia.21 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PEI with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. conc. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Citric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Isopropanol Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl chloride Motor oil Nitric acid. 25% Ammonium Hydroxide. 50–80% Potassium hydroxide. 2% Perchloroethylene Phosphoric acid. Sulfuric acid. 10% Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.74 TABLE 2. 2% Hydrochloric acid. fuming Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. LLC . hot R R R R X R R R R X R R R R R R X R R R R R R R R R R R R X X R R R R R R R R R R R R R X R X R R R. cold Water. 10% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Sodium chloride. conc. glacial Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. 30% Iodine solution. sat. 38% Hydrochloric acid. Benzoic acid Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Citric acid. material not resistant. 10% Potassium permanganate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. material resistant at 738F/208C. 20% Nitric acid.

in boiling water. fuse boxes) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. It is also resistant to most inorganic chemicals. LLC . greases. if used outdoors. This predrying will also prevent outgassing at elevated temperatures. It is a linear polymer with the following structure: O S O O n PES also goes under the name Ultem. these dimensional changes are of the order of magnitude of 0. PES is soluble is highly polar solvents and is subject to stress cracking in ketones and esters. Hydrocarbons and mineral oils. At equilibrium water content for 65% relative humidity. it must be stabilized by incorporating carbon black or by painting. and aromatics. but glassfiber reinforced grades are resistant to more dilute acids.15%. Polyether sulfone does not have good outdoor weathering properties. they are approximately 0. Refer to Table 2. Polyether sulfone has found application in Medical appliances Chemical plants Fluid handling Aircraft and aerospace appliances Instrumentation housings Office equipment Photocopier parts Electrical components Automotive (carbureter parts.Thermoplastic Polymers 75 2. whereas. Since it is susceptible to degradation by UV light. Small dimensional changes may occur as a result of the polymer’s absorbing water from the atmosphere. and transmission fluids have no effect on PES.14 Polyether Sulfone (PES) Polyether sulfone is a high-temperature engineering thermoplastic with the combined characteristics of high thermal stability and mechanical strength. PES has excellent resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons. some chlorinated hydrocarbons. Polyether sulfone will be attacked by strong oxidizing acids. The water may be removed by heating at 300–3558F (149–1808C).22 for the compatibility of PES with selected corrodents. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing.3%.

glacial Acetone Ammonia. 50–80% Potassium bromide. 70% Sulfuric acid. conc. 10% Acetic acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. wet Methyl ethyl ketone Naphtha Nitric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. Ethylene glycol Ferrous chloride Hydrochloric acid.22 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PES with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 5% Nitric acid. 50% Citric acid. Source: From P. Sulfuric acid.. New York: Marcel Dekker. 5% Oxalic acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hydroxide. 1–4. 10% Chromic acid. LLC . 20% Hydrochloric acid. 5th ed. 20% Oxalic acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Acetic acid. Vols. 80% Acetic acid. fuming Toluene 8F 80 140 200 200 X 80 X 80 100 80 80 X X X X 80 100 100 140 140 80 X 80 80 X 80 80 80 X 200 140 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 X X X X X X 80 8C 27 60 93 93 X 27 X 27 38 27 27 X X X X 27 38 38 60 60 27 X 27 27 X 27 27 27 X 93 60 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 X X X X X X 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 2004. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Schweitzer. conc. gas Aniline Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 29% Oxalic acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. sat. 38% Hydrogen sulfide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 50% Sulfuric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.A. 100% Sulfuric acid. 10% Benzoic acid Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Phenol Phosphoric acid.76 TABLE 2.

3 1. conc. Like PTFE.5 0.Thermoplastic Polymers 77 2.00–0.00–0.8–2.7 0.00–0. Exposure of the acidic reagent was for 168 h.4 0.01 0. LLC .4–0.00–0. Zinc chloride a Temperature (8F/8C) 365/185 394/201 354/179 400/204 172/78 172/78 372/190 117/47 210/99 410/210 250/121 154/68 230/110 392/200 K5/K22 248/120 302/150 248/120 212/100 248/120 212/100 212/100 Range of Weight Gains (%) 0.4 0.9 2.7–0.6–0. Refer to Table 2.2 1. 37% Phosphoric acid.5 0.23 Absorption of Liquids by PFA Liquida Aniline Acetophenone Benzaldehyde Benzyl alcohol n-Butylamine Carbon tetrachloride Dimethyl sulfoxide Freon 113 Isooctane Nitrobenzene Perchloroethylene Sulfuryl chloride Toluene Tributyl phosphateb Bromine.3–0. b Not boiling.1–0.6 0.7–0.0–2.8 0.7–0.8 0. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.03 0.00–0.5–0. anhydrous Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.3–2.3–0. anhydrous Chlorine.0 0.4 2.01 0. PFA is subject to permeation by certain gases and will absorb selected chemicals.8 0.2 0.4 0. Perfluoralkoxy also performs well at cryogenic temperatures.03 Samples were exposed for 168 hours at the boiling point of the solvent. 50% Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid.3–0. TABLE 2.8 1.01 0.7–2.23 for the absorption of certain liquids by PFA.15 Perfluoralkoxy (PFA) Perfluoralkoxy is a fully fluorinated polymer having the following formula: F C F F C F F C O Rf F C F F C F Rf = CnF2n + 1 PFA lacks the physical strength of PTFE at elevated temperatures but has somewhat better physical and mechanical properties than FEP above 3008F (1498C) and can be used up to 5008F (2608C).7–0.

It is also subject to attack by such metals as sodium or potassium. and fluorine. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. chlorocarbons. PFA has excellent weatherability and is not subject to UV degradation.78 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers PFA is inert to strong mineral acids. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. alcohols. some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Reference [1] provides a more detained listing. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and mixtures of these. inorganic oxidizers. TABLE 2.24 for the compatibility of PFA with selected corrodents. 10% Acetic acid. This includes chlorine trifluoride. 10%a Ammonium fluoride. ketones. 80% Acetic acid. iodine pentafluoride. aldehydes. Ammonium fluoride. esters. ethers. sat. bromine trifluoride. fluorocarbons. 50% Acetic acid. aromatics. sat. 25%a Ammonium hydroxide. Perfluoralkoxy will be attacked by certain halogenated complexes containing fluorine. 50% Ammonium chloride.24 Compatibility of PFA with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Refer to Table 2. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. LLC . organic bases. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gasa Ammonium bifluoridea Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. particularly in their molten states.

b. sat. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcoholb Benzyl chloridea Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfidea Carbon monoxide Carbon tertrachloridea. 50%b 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X 450 X 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X 232 X 232 232 232 232 232 79 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . weta Chlorine. liquidb Chlorobenzenea Chloroforma Chlorosulfonic acidb Chromic acid. liquida.b Butadienea Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamineb Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfidea Carbon dioxide. drya Bromine.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl chloride Anilineb Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehydeb Benzenea Benzene sulfonic acid.c Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dry Chlorine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.

70%a Nitric acid. 70%a Hydrofluoric acid. 50%a. 10%a Ketones.c Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Florine gas. Copper carbonate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.c Hydrochloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.80 TABLE 2.c Hydrocyanic acid. 5%a Nitric acid. 38%a. 20%a. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloridea Methyl ethyl ketonea Methyl isobutyl ketonea Muriatic acida Nitric acid. 20%a. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene di chloride)a Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 100%a Hydrochlorus acid Iodine solution.c Hydrobromic acid.24 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 20%a Nitric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 15% Citric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 70% 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X X 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X X 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. oila. LLC . 5% Cupric chloride. general Lactic acid. 25% Lactic acid. anhydrousa Nitrous acid. 50% in waterb Ferric nitrate. 30%a Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Oleum Perchloric acid.c Hydrobromic acid. conc. conc.

fuminga Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloridea Toluenea Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chlorideb a 81 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Reference [2] details the use of PFA in lined process pipe and information on lining of vessels can be found in References [3. 50% Sulfuric acid. Applications includes lining for pipes and vessels. 2004. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide.A. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2. Source: From P. 50–80%b Picric acid Potassium bromide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Vols. Material will be absorbed. Incompatibility is shown by an X. PFA finds many applications in the chemical process industry for corrosion resistance. conc. Corrosion Resistance Tables. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.4]. Sodium sulfide. 5th ed. 100% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. 1–4. Sodium hypochlorite. a b c Material will permeate. It is a fully fluorinated thermoplastic q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Phenol Phosphoric acid. conc.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 90% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid..16 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) PTFE is marketed under the tradename of Teflon by DuPont and the tradename Halon by Ausimont USA. Material will cause stress cracking. LLC .

Fluorine and related compounds (e. including linings for tanks and piping. One of PTFE’s largest uses is for corrosion protection.. This temperature range is based on the physical and mechanical properties of PTFE. compressors and shock absorbers. and certain amines at high temperatures have the same effect as elemental sodium. PTFE is unique in its corrosion resistance properties. Slow oxidation attack can be produced by 70% nitric acid under pressure at 4808F (2508C). chlorine trifluoride) are absorbed into PTFE resin to such a degree that the mixture becomes sensitive to a source of ignition such as impact. etc. high molecular weight polymer containing 50% fluorine. Applications in the automotive industry take advantage of the low surface friction and chemical stability using it in seals and rings for transmission and power steering systems and in seals for shafts. 2. Elemental sodium removes fluorine from the molecule. Reference [2] will provide details of the usage of PTFE in piping applications. These potent oxidizers should be only handled with great care and a recognition of the potential hazards. There are very few chemicals that will attack PTFE at normal use temperatures. it may be necessary to reduce the upper temperature limit. LLC . Applications for PTFE extend from exotic space-age usages to molded parts and wire and cable insulation to consumer use as a coating for cookware.17 Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polyvinylidene fluoride is a crystalline. It is virtually inert in the presence of most materials.25 for the compatibility of PTFE with selected corrodents. lithium. Refer to Table 2. It is similar in chemical structure to PTFE except q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.g.) act in a similar manner.82 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers having the following formula: F F C C F F PTFE has an operating temperature range of from K208F to C4308C (K298C to C2128C). Among materials that will attack PTFE are the most violent oxidizing and reducing agents known. PTFE has excellent weathering properties and is not degraded by UV light. The other alkali metals (potassium. When handling aggressive chemicals. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. aluminum chloride. The handling of 80% sodium hydroxide. ammonia.

80% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium fluoride.25 Compatibility of PTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gasa Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. LLC . 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) 83 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Ammonium chloride.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid.

84 TABLE 2. liquid Chlorobenzenea Chloroforma Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 15% Citric acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. Copper carbonate 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X 450 X 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X 232 X 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. drya Bromine. conc. LLC . 10% Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. sat. liquida Butadienea Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfidea Carbon dioxide. dry Carbon dioxide.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzenea Benzene sulfonic acid. weta Chlorine. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachlorideb Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid.

20%b Hydrobromic acid. conc. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 38%b Hydrocyanic acid. 20%b Hydrochloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 5%a Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% in water Ferric nitrate.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Oleum Perchloric acid. dry Fluorine gas. dil. general Lactic acid. 20%a Nitric acid. 30%a Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10%a Ketones. 100%a Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution.b Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Perchloric acid. 70%a Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride)a Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 70%a Nitric acid. LLC . Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloridea Methyl ethyl ketonea Methyl isobutyl ketoneb Muriatic acida Nitric acid. anhydrousa Nitrous acid.a. 70% 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X X 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X X 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) 85 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50%b Hydrochloric acid.25 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper chloride Copper cyanide.

New York: Marcel Dekker. Material will cause stress cracking.A. 100% Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. that it is not fully fluorinated. 2004. conc. 50% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Schweitzer. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 98% Sulfuric acid.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Phenola Phosphoric acid. a b c Material will permeate. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Source: From P. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. fuminga Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluenea Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloridec 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Material will be absorbed. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. LLC . conc. The chemical structure is as follows: F F C C H H Much of the strength and chemical resistance of PVDF is maintained through an operating temperature range of K40 to C3208F (K40 to C1608C). 1–4.86 TABLE 2. Sodium sulfide. Vols. 90% Sulfuric acid.

Ammonium fluoride. PVDF is chemically resistant to most acids. amines. 10% Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium nitrate 8F 150 90 300 300 190 190 100 X 120 150 130 280 200 200 180 250 300 270 300 260 300 290 300 270 250 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 8C 66 32 149 149 88 88 38 X 49 66 54 138 93 93 82 121 149 132 149 127 149 143 149 132 121 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. bromine. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. and other halogens. sat. It is also resistant to wet or dry chlorine. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.26 Compatibility of PVDF with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. and organic solvents. Refer to Table 2. 10% Ammonium chloride. polar solvents.Thermoplastic Polymers 87 Approval has been granted by the Food and Drug Administration for repeated use in contact with food in food handling and processing equipment. and esters. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. it stress cracks. When used with strong alkalies. It should not be used with strong alkalies. 80% Acetic acid. fuming acids. bases. TABLE 2. 50% Ammonium chloride.26 for the compatibility of PVDF with selected corrodents. ketones. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Acetic acid. LLC . Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing.

10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. moist Bromine. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. sat. LLC . dry Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide 8F 280 280 280 280 280 190 280 280 200 150 130 280 280 280 280 280 120 150 100 250 280 280 280 280 210 210 140 280 140 280 X 230 280 280 280 280 280 270 280 280 280 250 280 220 80 280 280 80 8C 138 138 138 138 138 88 138 138 93 66 54 138 138 138 138 138 49 66 38 121 138 138 138 138 99 99 60 138 60 138 X 110 138 138 138 138 138 132 138 138 138 121 138 104 27 138 138 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid.88 TABLE 2. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.26 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.

5% Cupric chloride. 50% in water Ferrous nitrate. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. 50% Hydrochloric acid.26 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 70% 8F 280 280 280 280 210 200 210 210 210 220 250 110 220 250 110 250 250 250 250 280 280 280 210 270 270 250 210 80 120 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 80 80 260 280 280 280 280 280 260 200 8C 138 138 138 138 99 93 99 99 99 104 121 43 104 121 43 121 121 121 121 138 138 138 99 132 132 121 99 27 49 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 27 27 127 138 138 138 138 138 127 93 (continued) 89 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. dry Chlorine gas. Hydrobromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride. 10% Chromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Chlorine. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chlorides. moist Hydrobromic acid. dry Fluorine gas. 15% Citric acid conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. wet. 20% Hydrochloric acid.

26 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrofluoric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Ketones. 10% Perchloric acid.90 TABLE 2. general Lactic acid. LLC . conc. 5% Nitric acid. conc. Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. anhydrous Nitric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid 8F 200 280 250 110 130 110 280 250 280 X X 110 280 200 180 120 150 210 X 210 120 200 220 80 280 220 250 280 280 230 220 150 280 280 280 280 280 250 220 220 210 140 X X 220 X X 130 8C 93 138 121 43 54 43 138 121 138 X X 43 138 93 82 49 6 99 X 99 49 93 104 27 138 104 121 138 138 110 104 66 138 138 138 138 138 121 104 104 99 60 X X 104 X X 54 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. conc. 20% Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Sodium sulfide. 70% Nitric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. conc. 10% Sodium hydroxide.

18 Polyethylene (PE) Polyethylenes are probably among the best-known thermoplasts. crystallinity. and high. The basic chemical structure is: H H C C H H PE is produced by polymerizing ethylene gas obtained from petroleum hydrocarbons.91–0. Solef by Solvay. These grades are sometimes referred to as Type I. and III. These specific gravity ranges are 0. 0. Corrosion Resistance Tables. and other processing equipment. Changes in the polymerizing conditions are responsible for the various types of PE. PVDF also withstands UV light in the “visible” range and gamma radiations up to 100 Mrad. Source: From P.A. Reference [2] provides details of the usage of PVDF piping. A blank space indicates that the date is unavailable. and super Pro 230 and ISO by Asahi/America. II. New York: Marcel Dekker.940. as solid piping. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.965. Polyvinylidene fluoride finds many applications in the corrosion resistance field. Polyethylene is produced in various grades that differ in molecular structure. 5th ed. Polyvinylidene fluoride is manufactured under the tradename of Kynar by Elf Atochem.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Physical and mechanical properties differ in density and molecular weight. Incompatibility is shown by an X. being used as a lining material for vessels and piping.. LLC . and molecular distribution. Vols.925–0. Hylar by Ausimont USA. They are a member of the olefin family. valving. 2004.26 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 80 260 8C 27 127 91 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Schweitzer. medium. column packing. 1–4. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The three main classifications of density are low.925. pumps. molecular weight. and 0.940–0. 2.

It is resistant to most mineral acids. ranging from potable water to corrosive wastes. Every polyethylene resin consists of a mixture of large and small molecules. including sulfuric up to 70% concentrations. Polyethylene exhibits a wide range of corrosion resistance. If the resin contains molecules close to the average weight. and many organic acids. medium.000 Extra high molecular weight 250. inorganic salts including chlorides. the distribution is called narrow. LLC . Figure 2.1 million. Refer to Table 2. molecules of high and low molecular weight. the better the dimensional stability and physical properties. The molecular weight distribution gives a general picture of the ratio of the large. The thermal stability of polyethylenes ranges from 1908F (888C) for the lowdensity material up to 2508F/1218C for the high-density material. the higher the density. Generally.1 depicts this in graph form.000 Ultra high molecular weight 1. or chlorinated hydrocarbons. aromatics.1 Schematic illustration of molecular weight distribution. the ultrahigh molecular weight material has a molecular weight of at least 3.000 to 250.92 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers All polyethylenes are relatively soft. Industry practice breaks the molecular weight of polyethylene into four distinct classifications that are: Medium molecular weight less than 100. the distribution is called broad. and small molecules in the resin. and hardness increases as density increases. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. If the resin contains a wide variety of weights. It is not resistant to bromine.27 for Percent of earh molecular weight Narrow MW distribution Broad MW distribution Molecular weight FIGURE 2. alkalies.500.000 High molecular weight 110.000 and higher Usually.000 to 1. particularly as a function of temperature. The two varieties of PE generally used for corrosive applications are EHMW and UHMW.500.

Ammonium fluoride. LLC . sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride 8F 90 140 140 80 X 120 8C 32 60 60 27 X 49 93 150 140 140 80 140 140 140 140 140 66 60 60 27 60 60 60 60 60 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 140 140 140 140 X 130 140 130 140 140 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 60 60 60 60 X 54 60 54 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 40% Acetamide Acetic acid.27 Compatibility of EHMWPE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminium sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 80% Acetic acid.

sat. dry Chlorine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Bromine gas. LLC . wet. 10% Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.27 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid 8F 140 140 140 X X 140 140 170 140 140 X X X X 90 140 X 130 140 80 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 8C 60 60 60 X X 60 60 77 60 60 X X X X 32 60 X 54 60 27 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X 60 60 X 60 X 60 X X 80 120 X X 80 X X X 27 49 X X 27 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.94 TABLE 2. moist Bromine. 10% Chlorine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 50% in water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide.

50% Hydrochloric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dry Fluorine gas. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10% Chromic acid. LLC . 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. conc. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid 8F 140 90 140 140 8C 60 32 60 60 95 140 140 140 80 80 130 170 80 73 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 X X 80 X 140 140 140 100 80 X X 80 140 60 60 60 27 27 54 77 27 23 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 X X 27 X 60 60 60 38 27 X X 27 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Ketones. general Lactic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.27 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 15% Citric acid. conc.

10% Perchloric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Sodium hypochlorite. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 140 140 X X 8C 60 60 X X 140 X 100 100 100 140 60 X 38 38 38 60 140 140 170 170 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 X X X X 140 X X 140 140 60 60 77 77 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 X X X X 60 X X 60 60 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.27 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. LLC . A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Nitric acid. conc. 1–4. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Source: From P. New York: Marcel Dekker. 70% Sulfuric acid. 5% Nitric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 10% Sulfuric acid. conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide.. 2004.96 TABLE 2. Sodium Sulfide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Vols. Schweitzer. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid.A. 5th ed. conc. anhydrous Nitrous acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid.

10% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate to 40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride 8F X 140 140 140 80 X 80 X 150 140 140 110 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 150 80 140 140 140 140 140 X 130 140 44 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing.Thermoplastic Polymers 97 the compatibility of EHMW PE with selected corrodents and Table 2. 10% Ammonium fluoride. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid. TABLE 2. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Polyethylene is subject to degradation by UV radiation. sat. aqueous Aluminum chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride.28 Compatibility of HMWPE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. If exposed outdoors. LLC 8C 60 60 60 27 27 66 60 60 43 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 66 27 60 60 60 60 60 .28 for HMW PE. 80% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. carbon black must be added to the formulation for protection against UV degradation.

98 TABLE 2. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. wet Chlorine. 50% 8F 130 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 X 140 140 X X X X 90 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 X X X X X X X X 140 90 60 32 (continued) 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 32 60 60 60 60 8C 44 60 60 60 60 60 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.28 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 10% Chromic acid. dry Bromine gas. moist Bromine. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC . sat. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.

Perchloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Perchloric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 20% Nitric acid. conc. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. general Lactic acid. dil. 15% Citric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate 8F 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 80 80 80 80 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 150 80 80 150 140 140 80 X X 80 140 140 X X 120 140 X 100 100 100 140 140 140 38 38 38 60 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Hydrochlorous acid Iodine solution. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexonol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. dry Fluorine gas. 25% Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. 10% Ketones. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 20% Hydrobromic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 70% Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. LLC 99 8C 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 27 27 27 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 66 27 27 66 60 60 27 27 60 60 49 60 . 50% Hydrochloric acid.28 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Citric acid. Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.

Corrosion Resistance Tables. and piping. PE pipe is used to transport natural gas. 70% Sulfuric acid. fabricated parts. drainage piping. corrosive wastes. Reference [2] details usage of polyethylene piping. Sodium sulfide. 5th ed.. Applications for polyethylene vary depending upon the grade of resin. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 140 150 150 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 X X X X 140 X X 80 140 27 60 60 8C 60 66 66 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. The usage for piping is of major importance. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Sodium hydroxide.A.100 TABLE 2. EHMW and UHMW polyethylenes find applications where corrosion resistance is required. 50% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. conc.19 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Polyethylene terephthalate is a semicrystalline engineering thermoplastic having the following structure: H O C H H C H O O C O C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2004. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. and underground fire main water. Among such applications are structural tanks and covers. 1–4. 2. potable water systems. Source: From P. With permission. 98% Sulfuric acid. LLC . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 100% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. Vols. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.28 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X.

ketones. It is not resistant to alkaline and chlorinated hydrocarbons. 10% Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerine Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. 10% Benzene Butyl acetate Cadmium chloride Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. 5% Acetic acid. food handling equipment. 38% Hydrochloric acid. aromatic hydrocarbons.29 for the compatibility of PET with selected corrodents. and pump and valve components. LLC . 30% Hydrogen peroxide. 0–5% Ink Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Motor oil Nitric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers 101 PET is resistant to dilute mineral acids. minor parts. PET is also used in water purification. and latch mechanisms. TABLE 2. It can be painted to match metal body panels and has been used as fenders. 10% Acetone Ammonia.29 Compatibility of PET with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. 2% Paraffin oil R R R X R R R R R X X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. aliphatic hydrocarbons. and esters with limited resistance to hot water and washing soda. PET is used in the automotive industry for housings. PET has good resistance to UV degradation and weatherability. racks. Refer to Table 2. 2% Hydrogen peroxide.

10% Sodium hydroxide. Polyimides exhibit outstanding properties. The polyimides have excellent chemical and radiation inertness and are not subject to UV degradation. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Potassium permanganate. 50% Sodium nitrate Sodium thiosulfate Sulfuric acid.102 TABLE 2. LLC . 50% Potassium dichromate. and piston rings. material not resistant. molten Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R X R R R R R R R X R R X R R R R R R R R. 2. compressors. Polyimides find applications that require high heat resistance and underthe-hood applications in the automotive industry. resulting from their combination of high-temperature stability up to 500–6008F (260–3158C) continuous service and to 9908F (4828C) for intermediate use. 98% Sulfuric acid. Other applications include bearings. The atom of hydrogen is in the inside ring as shown below: O C N C O n The fused rings provide chain stiffness essential to high-temperature strength retention. X. material resistant at 738F/208C.29 Continued Phosphoric acid. The low concentration of hydrogen provides oxidative resistance by preventing thermal degradation fracture of the chain. 2% Toluene Vaseline Water. valves. High oxidative resistance is another important property. 10% Sodium chloride.20 Polyimide (PI) Polyimides are heterocyclic polymers having an atom of hydrogen in one of the rings in the molecular chain. cold Water. hot Wax. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate. 10% Potassium hydroxide.

TABLE 2. are amorphous modified polyphenylene oxide resins. aromatic hydrocarbons. dilute mineral acids. and electrical devices.30 Compatibility of PPO with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. The basic phenylene oxide structure is as follows: CH3 O CH3 n Several grades of the resin are produced to provide a choice of performance characteristics to meet a wide range of engineering application requirements. and dilute alkalies. Polyphenylene oxide has excellent resistance to aqueous environments. Plastics. electronics.21 Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO) Noryls.E. patented by G. It is not resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. Reference [1] provides a more extensive listing. LLC . 5% Acetic acid. 30% R R X R X X X X R R X X R X R R R X R R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Acetone Ammonia. ketones.Thermoplastic Polymers 103 2. 10% Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. appliances. PPO finds application in business equipment. Refer to Table 2. PPO maintains excellent mechanical properties over a temperature range of from below K408F (K408C) to above 3008F (1498C). esters. 10% Copper sulfate Cyclohexane Cyclohexanone Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde.30 for the compatibility of PPO with selected corrodents. or chlorinated hydrocarbons.

5% Styrene Sulfuric acid. cold Water. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide.22 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) Polyphenylene sulfide is an engineering polymer capable of use at elevated temperatures. hot Wax. molten Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R R R R R R R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R R R R R R R R X R R X R R R R X R. X. aqueous Water. 2. LLC . 0–5% Hydrogen sulfide Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Milk Motor oil Nitric acid.30 Continued Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerin Hexane/heptane Hydrochloric acid. It has the following chemical structure: S n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Potassium dichromate Potassium permanganate.104 TABLE 2. 98% Sulfuric acid. material not resistant. 2% Hydrogen peroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Potassium hydroxide. material resistant at 738F/208C. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium carbonate. 10% Sodium chloride. 2% Paraffin oil Phosphoric acid. 2% Trichloroethylene Urea. 30% Hydrogen peroxide.

Thermoplastic Polymers 105 PPS has a symmetrical. rigid backbone chain consisting of recurring parasubstituted benzene rings and sulfur atoms. dry Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Relatively few materials react with PPS at high temperatures. and alkyl amines will attack PPS. PPS has exceptional chemical resistance.31 for the compatibility of PPS with selected corrodents. It can also be used under highly oxidizing conditions. Weak and strong alkalies have no effect. Refer to Table 2. It is resistant to aqueous inorganic salts and bases and many inorganic solvents. some halegenated gases. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. PPS molded components are used in electrical fuel handling and emission control systems. 10% Ammonium chloride. Chlorinated solvents. aqueous Aluminum chloride. PPS has good resistance to UV light degradation that can be increased by formulating it with carbon black. The chemical process industry makes use of PPS in valve and pump components as well as other industrial applications. TABLE 2. It is sold under the tradename of Ryton. 25% Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acrylic acid. Long-term exposure in air at 4508F (2308C) has no effect on the mechanical properties of PPS. 50% 8F 230 250 250 250 250 190 280 260 100 130 300 300 210 300 270 250 250 460 250 460 300 300 8C 110 121 121 121 121 88 138 127 38 54 149 149 99 149 132 121 121 238 121 238 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 80% Acetic acid. In the automotive industry.31 Compatibility of PPS with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. It stress cracks in the presence of chlorinated solvents.

wet Chlorine. LLC . 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.106 TABLE 2. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. sat. 10% 8F 300 250 250 250 300 300 300 210 200 300 200 200 200 220 200 250 300 250 230 200 300 210 210 X X X 100 250 200 200 240 200 300 300 300 300 200 200 200 120 220 190 X X 200 150 X 200 8C 149 121 121 121 149 149 149 99 93 149 93 93 93 104 93 121 149 121 110 93 149 99 99 X X X 38 121 93 93 116 93 149 149 149 149 93 93 93 49 104 88 X X 93 66 X 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 65% Ammonium sulfate.31 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. dry Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. liquid Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. sat. dry Bromine gas. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Chlorine gas. moist Bromine.

conc. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. Magnesium chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 15% Citric acid. 5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. LLC .31 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Sodium hypochlorite. 88% Phosphoric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Oleum Phenol. dil. dry Hydrobromic acid. 30% Lactic acid. 50–80% Potassium bromide. conc. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. to 50% Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. 50% Citric acid. 5% Nitric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Sodium sulfide. 10% 8F 200 250 250 300 220 210 250 200 300 190 250 210 300 210 210 210 210 210 X 200 200 200 230 210 250 200 250 250 300 200 250 210 150 100 80 300 220 200 300 300 210 210 200 250 230 210 250 8C 93 121 121 149 104 99 121 93 149 88 121 99 149 99 99 99 99 99 X 93 93 93 110 99 121 93 121 121 149 93 121 99 66 38 27 149 104 93 149 149 99 99 93 121 110 99 121 (continued) 107 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Within the chemical structure of PP. Vols. 2. 90% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Polypropylene can be produced either as a homopolymer or as a copolymer with polyethylene. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. both of which are members of a group known as polyolefins. The copolymer has a structure as follows: H C H H C H H C H C H H H C H n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Sulfuric acid. 70% 8F 250 250 220 80 200 X 300 250 8C 121 121 104 27 93 X 149 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 5th ed. It is closely related to polyethylene. 10% Thionyl chloride Toluene Zinc chloride. 1–4. LLC . Source: From P. New York: Marcel Dekker.23 Polypropylene (PP) Polypropylene is one of the most common and versatile thermoplastics. 50% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.. Schweitzer. Incompatibility is shown by an X.A. The polyolefins are composed of only hydrogen and carbon. The isotactic form accounts for 97% of the polypropylene produced. This form is highly ordered having the structure shown below: H C H H C H H H C Atactic PP is a viscous liquid type PP having a propylene matrix. a distinction is made between isotactic PP and atactic PP.108 TABLE 2.31 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. 2004. fuming Sulfurous acid.

and physical conditions. 10% Acetic acid. It can be used with sulfur-bearing compounds. acids. caustics. Copolymer PP is less brittle than the homopolymers and is able to withstand impact forces down to K208F (K298C). solvents. detergents. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride 8F 120 110 220 200 200 190 100 220 X X 90 100 140 140 220 100 200 220 200 200 200 220 150 200 8C 49 43 104 93 93 88 38 104 X X 32 38 60 60 104 38 93 104 93 93 93 104 66 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.32 for the compatibility of PP with select corrodents. PP should not be used with oxidizing acids. If exposed to sunlight. an ultraviolet absorber or screening agent should be in the formulation to protect it from degradation. and other organic chemicals. For this reason. PP is not affected by most inorganic chemicals except the halogens and severe oxidizing conditions. 80% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. whereas. alcohols. being long chain high molecular weight molecules with a minimum of random orientations.Thermoplastic Polymers 109 The homopolymers. TABLE 2. have optimum chemical. and some organic materials. and physical properties. particularly where copper is involved will pose a problem. thermal. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. Refer to Table 2. homopolymer material is preferred for difficult chemical. LLC . Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. thermal. the homopolymer is extremely brittle below 408F (48C).32 Compatibility of PP with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Thermal oxidative degradation. aqueous Aluminum chloride. aromatics. low-boiling hydrocarbons.

10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. sat. LLC . 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.32 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. dry Bromine gas. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 8F 220 180 180 200 210 200 200 200 200 220 200 200 220 220 X 200 X 180 180 X 200 220 200 200 200 80 140 180 190 140 80 210 220 X X X X X 200 90 180 180 210 210 210 220 220 200 220 8C 104 82 82 93 99 93 93 93 93 104 93 93 104 104 X 93 X 82 82 X 93 104 93 93 93 27 60 82 88 60 27 99 104 X X X X X 93 32 82 82 99 99 99 104 104 93 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.110 TABLE 2. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. moist Bromine. Ammonium fluoride.

dry Chlorine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. conc.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. LLC 111 . dil. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. dry Fluorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexonol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 15% Citric acid. wet Chlorine. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% in water Ferrite nitrate. 10% Chromic acid.32 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 20% 8F 210 210 220 220 140 X 220 140 X 220 X 220 200 80 180 X X X X X X 140 150 140 220 220 80 200 200 200 200 X 140 140 X 150 180 100 80 210 210 210 210 210 210 X X 230 200 8C 99 99 104 104 60 X 104 60 X 104 X 104 93 27 82 X X X X X X 60 66 60 104 104 27 93 93 93 93 X 60 60 X 66 82 38 27 99 99 99 99 99 99 X X 110 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride.

20% Nitric acid. conc. 70% Nitric acid. 98% 8F 190 220 200 150 180 200 200 140 X 110 150 150 210 130 120 X X 80 200 140 140 X X X X 140 X 180 210 140 210 130 170 220 200 220 220 140 120 110 190 150 200 200 200 180 180 120 8C 88 104 93 66 82 93 93 60 X 43 66 66 99 54 49 X X 27 93 60 60 X X X X 60 X 82 99 60 99 54 77 104 93 104 104 60 49 43 88 66 93 93 93 82 82 49 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 25% Lactic acid. general Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Perchloric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.32 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrobromic acid. 90% Sulfuric acid.112 TABLE 2. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. conc. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. LLC . 50% Hydrochloric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 10% Ketones. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sulfuric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Sodium Sulfide.

polypropylene can be used in duct systems in the chemical industry.32 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid.. and 90% of all battery casings are made of PP. Incompatibility is shown by an X. filter cloths. it is useful in the construction of integral hinges. Vols.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. It is useful in outdoor clothing and sports clothes that are worn next to the body because its wicking qualities absorb body moisture and still leaves the wearer dry. ropes. New York: Marcel Dekker. toys and recreational items also make use of polypropylene. and diaper cover stock. 1–4. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. PP also finds application in the automotive industry for interior trim and under-the-hood components. 2004. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 180 100 X 150 220 200 8C X X 82 38 X 66 104 93 113 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Source: From P. Piping and small tanks of polypropylene are widely used. bags. Polypropylene also has many textile applications such as carpet face and backing yarn.A. Ignition resistant grades are available as a result of the addition of halogenated organic compounds. 100% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. With this additive. and strapping. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Consumer goods such as straws. Because PP exhibits good flex life. Polypropylene is widely used in engineering fabrics such as bale wraps. LLC . A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Schweitzer. In appliance areas. 2. upholstery fabrics.24 Styrene–Acrylonitrile (SAN) SAN is a copolymer of styrene and acrylonitrile having the following chemical structure: H C H H C CH H C C H C CN q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. it is used in washer agitators and dishwasher components.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. appliances. 2. Refer to Reference [2]. In applications such as plating solutions. Saran is resistant to oxidants. and it will stress crack in the presence of certain organic compounds. food processing.114 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers SAN is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. bristles.33 for the compatibility of PVDC with selected corrodents. SAN will be degraded by UV light unless protective additives are incorporated into the formulation. not to aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. and toys. labware. The operating temperature range is from 0 to 1758F (K18 to 808C). pharmaceuticals. chlorides and certain other chemicals. Saran is also resistant to weathering and UV degradation. housewares. Saran has found wide application in the plating industry and for handling deionized water. SAN finds application as food and beverage containers. Refer to Table 2. and urine bottles. It also finds application as a lined piping system. It will be attacked by oxidizing agents and strong acids. Industrial applications include fan blades and filter housings. film.25 Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC) Polyvinylidene chloride is manufactured under the tradename Saran by Dow Chemical. LLC . mineral acids. and solvents. having both chlorine atoms at the same end of the monomer instead of at the opposite ends as shown below: Cl H C C Cl H Saron has improved strength. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. polyvinylidene chloride is superior to polypropylene and finds many applications in the handling of municipal water supplies and waste waters. Saran is also used to manufacture auto seat covers. and other applications where stream purity protection is critical. Medical applications include tubing connectors and valves. dinnerware. interior refrigerator components. and prepared coatings. It is a variant of PVC. and chemical resistance over that of PVC. The packaging industry makes use of SAN for cosmetic containers and displays. hardness.

aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl chloride 8F 150 150 130 130 140 90 90 130 90 150 80 180 150 150 170 180 140 180 X 140 180 160 90 90 X X 120 90 150 120 80 120 150 80 X 150 120 180 180 180 180 150 X X 120 120 80 8C 66 66 54 54 60 32 32 54 32 66 27 82 66 66 77 82 60 82 X 60 82 71 32 32 X X 49 32 66 49 27 49 66 27 X 66 49 82 82 82 82 66 X X 49 49 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC 115 . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Alum Aluminum chloride.33 Compatibility of PVDC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. sat. Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Acetic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. sat.

Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorine. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. conc. 50% Citric acid.33 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Boris acid Bromine. 15% Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. LLC . wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.116 TABLE 2. dry Carbon dioxide. sat. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexonol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid 8F 170 X X 120 150 80 80 180 160 180 160 180 120 150 180 180 90 90 180 80 80 180 140 180 80 120 120 80 80 X 80 X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 130 180 150 160 170 120 90 180 120 8C 77 X X 49 66 27 27 82 71 82 71 82 49 66 82 82 32 32 82 27 27 82 60 82 27 49 49 27 27 X 27 X X 82 82 82 82 82 82 54 82 66 71 77 49 32 82 49 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

20% Hydrobromic acid. dil. conc. LLC . general Lactic acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride 8F 80 180 140 140 130 130 80 X X 120 120 130 180 180 120 160 X 120 90 80 180 80 80 X 80 180 90 150 X X X 130 120 X 130 120 110 130 180 180 90 150 X 130 120 140 180 180 8C 27 82 60 60 54 54 27 X X 49 49 54 82 82 49 71 X 49 32 27 82 27 27 X 27 82 32 66 X X X 54 49 X 54 49 43 54 82 82 32 66 X 54 49 60 82 82 (continued) 117 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Perchloric acid. Sodium sulfide. dry Fluorine gas. 70% Nitric acid. 0% Sodium hydroxide. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. conc.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. conc. 10% Sodium hypochlorite.33 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. Sodium hypochlorite. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 20% Nitric acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.

PSF has an operating temperature range of from K150 to 3008F (K101 to 1498C). 100% Sulfuric acid. Vols. It will stand exposure to soap. and aromatic hydrocarbons. and salt solutions. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 98% Sulfuric acid. dry heat. PSF is not resistant to polar organic solvents such as ketones. and hydrocarbon oils even at elevated temperatures and under moderate stress levels. Polysulfone is unaffected by hydrolysis and has a very high resistance to mineral acids. 70% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 120 X X X X X X 80 X 80 80 170 8C 49 X X X X X X 27 X 27 27 77 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Sulfuric acid.A..118 TABLE 2. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. LLC . Corrosion Resistance Tables. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. It has the following chemical structure: CH3 O O CH3 O O S O The linkages connecting the benzene rings are hydrolytically stable. 90% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 2.26 Polysulfone (PSF) Polysulfone is an engineering polymer that can be used at elevated temperatures. 50% Sulfuric acid. 2004. certain chemicals. alkali. Schweitzer. and radiation.33 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5th ed. ethylene oxide. 1–4. Source: From P. detergent solutions. chlorinated hydrocarbons. PSF is resistant to repeated sterilization by several techniques including steam autoclave.

sat. lenses. moist Butyl acetate 8F X 200 200 200 200 X X 200 200 200 150 200 X 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 200 X X 200 200 200 200 X X X X 200 200 200 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Acetic acid. and it is not degraded by UV radiation. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.34 for the compatibility of PSF with selected corrodents. and electronic application. aqueous Aluminum chloride. iron handles. to 40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride.34 Compatibility of PSF with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. TABLE 2. microwave. Polysulfone finds application as hot-water piping. 10% Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. LLC 8C 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 66 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 . sat. 80% Acetic acid. and circuit breakers. 10% Ammonium chloride. switches. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Aluminum chloride. Ammonium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers 119 Polysulfone has good weatherability. Its rigidity and high temperature performance make it ideal for medical. Refer to Table 2. 10% Acetic acid.

25% Lactic acid. 20% Nitric acid. anhydrous Phosphoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Ketones. 15% Citric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% 8F 200 X 200 200 200 200 200 X X X 200 X X X X X X 140 X 100 80 200 200 X 200 200 200 200 180 200 200 200 200 300 200 140 140 80 X 200 200 X X X X X X 80 27 (continued) 93 93 93 93 93 93 82 93 93 93 93 149 93 60 60 27 38 27 93 93 60 93 93 93 93 93 93 8C 93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Nitric acid.34 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon disulphide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine. 40% Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. general Lactic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 70% Nitric acid. 50% Citric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Nitric acid. dil.120 TABLE 2. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. LLC . 10% Chromic acid. conc.

Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Source: From P. 2.27 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Polyvinyl chloride is the most widely used of any of the thermoplasts. 1–4. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Schweitzer. conc. It is q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. PVC is polymerized vinyl chloride that is produced from ethylene and anhydrous hydrochloric acid. gasoline. 70% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfite. 50% Sulfuric acid.A. unplasticized PVC having normal impact with optimum chemical resistance. 90% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 2004. 5th ed. kerosene. New York: Marcel Dekker. 100% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene 8F 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 200 200 300 300 X X X X X 200 X 93 8C 93 93 93 93 93 149 149 93 93 149 149 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Type 1 is a rigid. Type 1 PVC (unplasticized) resists attack by most acids and strong alkalies. normal impact (type 1) and high impact (type 2). Type 2 has optimum impact resistance and reduced chemical resistance. Corrosion Resistance Tables. and hydrocarbons.34 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Potassium bromide. aliphatic alcohols. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. The structure is: H H H H C C C C H H H H Two types of PVC are produced. 10% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sodium hypochlorate. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Vols. to 50% Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid.

Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . chlorinated organic compounds.35 Compatibility of Type 2 PVC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. PVC may be attacked by aromatics. and lacquer solvents. Refer to Table 2. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate 8F X X 100 90 X X X X X X X 140 90 X 140 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 90 140 140 140 140 90 90 140 140 140 140 8C X X 38 32 X X X X X X X 60 32 X 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 32 60 60 60 60 32 32 60 60 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride.122 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers particularly useful in the handling of hydrochloric acid. sat. sat. TABLE 2.35 for the compatibility of type 2 PVC with selected corrodents and Table 2. 10% Acetic acid. PVC is resistant to all normal atmospheric pollutants including weather and UV degradation. 50% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. The chemical resistance of type 2 PVC to oxidizing and highly alkaline material is reduced. 80% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.36 for type 1 PVC.

dry Carbon dioxide. sat. moist Bromine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. LLC . Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Calcium bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve 8F 140 140 140 X X X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 X 140 140 X X X 60 X X X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 X 8C 60 60 60 X X X X 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 X 60 60 X X X 16 X X X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X 60 60 X 60 X 60 X (continued) 123 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.35 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. dry Bromine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.

25% Lactic acid. dry Fluorine gas. conc.35 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 70% Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Nitric acid. LLC . 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. general Lactic acid. 5% Nitric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 10% Chromic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. wet Chlorine. dil. anhydrous 8F 105 140 X X X X 60 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 120 X 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 120 68 140 X 140 80 140 140 X X X 140 100 140 70 X 8C 40 60 X X X X 16 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 49 X 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 49 20 60 X 60 27 60 60 X X X 60 38 60 140 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.124 TABLE 2. 50% Citric acid. dry Chlorine gas. Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 15% Citric acid.

vent. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Oleum Perchloric acid. Vols. 90% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. The automotive industry makes use of PVC for exterior applications as body-side moldings. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. conc. 5th ed. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. and corrosive chemical piping. Schweitzer. Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Sulfuric acid. Reference [2] provides details of PVC piping. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Its ability to be pigmented and its excellent weathering ability to retain color makes it ideal for this application. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 1–4. drain. 50% Sulfuric acid.. Source: From P. electrical conduit. 100% Sulfuric acid fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 60 X 60 60 X 140 X 140 X 105 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X X X 140 X X X 140 140 8C 16 X 16 16 X 60 X 60 X 40 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X X X 60 X X X 60 60 125 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Sodium sulfide.A. 2004. gas. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 10% Perchloric acid. It is also used as a liner. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. conc.35 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. and wire insulation. The primary application for PVC include water. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. LLC .

1% Ammonium fluoride. 50% Ammonium chloride. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F X X 140 140 140 130 X X X X X 140 90 X 140 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 90 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 120 X 140 X X 140 X 140 60 (continued) 60 60 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 32 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 49 60 32 60 60 60 54 8C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.126 TABLE 2. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium chloride.36 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Type 1 PVC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. LLC . 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 50% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

dry Bromine gas. moist Bromine. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. sat. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC .36 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 10% 8F 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 X X 140 140 X X X 140 X X X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 120 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 X X 140 140 X X X X X 140 60 (continued) 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 49 60 60 60 60 60 8C 60 60 60 60 127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Chlorine. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.

8F X 120 140 140 80 140 140 140 140 120 140 150 80 X 80 100 X 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 130 X 140 100 X 140 80 140 140 90 X X X 160 140 140 140 X 80 27 (continued) 71 60 60 60 60 27 60 60 32 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 54 60 60 60 60 27 38 49 60 60 27 60 60 60 60 49 60 66 27 8C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 50% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid.36 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. general Lactic acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. dry Fluorine gas. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 50% water Ferric nitrate. 38% Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride Cupric chloride. 20% Nitric acid. 10–50% Fluorine gas. 10% Ketones. conc. Hydrobromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid.128 TABLE 2. conc. 15% Citric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid dil.

10% Perchloric acid. Further chlorination of q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid.28 Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) When acetylene and hydrochloric acid are reacted to produce polyvinyl chloride. Vols. 70% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 2. conc. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables.36 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Oleum Perchloric acid. 2004. 5th ed. 1–4. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Schweitzer. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Sodium sulfide. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X 140 X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X X 140 X X 90 140 140 32 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 8C 129 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. conc. Source: From P. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 50% Sodium hydroxide. the chlorination is approximately 56. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.A. New York: Marcel Dekker. 90% Sulfuric acid.8%. LLC . Sodium hydroxide.. 100% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X.

37 for the compatibility of CPVC with selected corrodents. TABLE 2. esters. There are special formulations of CPVC that permit operating temperatures of 2008F (938C). It is ideally suited for handling hot water and/or steam condensate.37 Compatibility of CPVC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. There are many similarities in the chemical resistance of CPVC and PVC. bases. the corrosion resistance of CPVC is somewhat inferior to that of PVC. and paraffinic hydrocarbons. In general. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol. CPVC has a maximum operating temperature of 1908F (828C). LLC .130 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers PVC to approximately 67% produces CPVC whose chemical structure is: H H Cl H C C C C H Cl H Cl While PVC is limited to a maximum operating temperature of 1408F (608C). and ketones. 96% Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 10% Acetic acid. salts. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride 8F X 90 X X X X X X X X 200 200 X 200 100 200 180 200 200 200 200 8C X 32 X X X X X X X X 93 90 X 93 38 93 82 93 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. PVC is inert to most mineral acids. care must be exercised because there are differences. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. CVPC is not recommended for use with most polar organic materials including various solvents. chlorinated or aromatic hydrocarbons. However. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid. Refer to Table 2. 80% Acetic acid. Overall.

10% Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium fluoride. sat.37 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. moist Bromine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate 8F 200 200 140 200 180 180 200 200 200 X X 200 200 200 200 200 160 X 130 X X 200 80 200 180 180 180 180 X X 180 200 X X 200 210 X X X 150 X 140 X 140 180 210 210 180 8C 93 93 60 93 82 82 93 93 93 X X 93 93 93 93 93 71 X 54 X X 93 27 93 82 82 82 82 X X 82 93 X X 93 99 X X X 66 X 60 X 60 82 99 99 82 (continued) 131 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. dry Bromine gas. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Ammonium chloride.

37 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. conc. dry Chlorine gas. 20% Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 15% Citric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. wet Chlorine. LLC . 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry 8F 180 170 210 200 180 180 180 180 X 210 160 X 210 X 180 180 100 X 140 X X X X X 210 210 180 180 180 80 180 210 180 210 X 180 180 X X 100 X 210 210 180 180 210 180 X 8C 82 77 99 93 82 82 82 82 X 99 71 X 99 X 82 82 38 X 60 X X X X X 99 99 82 82 82 27 82 99 82 99 X 82 82 X X 38 X 99 99 82 82 99 82 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.132 TABLE 2. sat. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.

37 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Fluorine gas. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 25% Lactic acid. dil. conc. general Lactic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 10% Perchloric acid. conc. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Sodium sulfide. LLC . 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. conc. 50% Sulfuric acid. 70% 8F 80 130 180 190 180 170 80 X 90 X 180 X 180 100 230 180 180 X X X 170 180 160 180 X 80 X 180 180 140 180 X 180 X 170 210 210 190 180 190 190 180 180 180 180 180 180 200 8C 27 54 82 88 82 77 27 X 32 X 82 X 82 38 110 82 82 X X X 77 82 71 82 X 27 X 82 82 60 82 X 82 X 77 99 99 88 82 88 88 82 82 82 82 82 82 93 (continued) 133 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 20% Nitric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid.

2. internal column packing. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5th ed. Source: From P. It has a maximum operating temperature of 2258F (1078C). CPE is resistant to most acids and bases. and in process equipment. 98% Sulfuric acid. It has the advantage of being able to resist acids at elevated temperatures. general chemical characteristics. corrosive chemical piping at elevated temperatures. It is not resistant to nitric acid above 10% concentration. oxidizing agents. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. and electrical properties.37 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. it is somewhat similar to the other olefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene in terms of appearance. tanks. The primary applications of PVC include hot water and/or steam condensate piping. and miscellaneous fabricated items. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.134 TABLE 2. With permission.29 Chlorinated Polyether (CPE) Chlorinated polyether is sold under the tradename of Penton.30 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) PAN is a member of the olefin family. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Reference [2] provides detailed information on CPVC piping. 1–4. LLC . 100% Sulfuric acid. valves. 2004. Vols. CPE finds application as bearing retainers.38 for the compatibility of CPE with selected corrodents. New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer.. tank linings. Incompatibility is shown by an X. fume ducts. 90% Sulfuric acid.A. 20% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X X 180 X X 140 180 180 8C X X X X 82 X X 60 82 82 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 2. In general. and common solvents. Refer to Table 2.

aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas.Thermoplastic Polymers 135 PAN has the following structural formula: H H C C H C N PAN has corrosion resistance properties similar to those of polypropylene and polyethylene. 50% Acetic acid. sat. 80% Acetic acid. TABLE 2. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium fluoride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride.38 Compatibility of CPE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium fluoride. sat. LLC . 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride 8F 130 250 250 250 250 150 90 X 250 250 90 250 250 250 250 220 250 220 220 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 180 250 250 250 180 220 220 150 220 121 121 32 121 121 121 121 104 121 104 104 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 82 121 121 121 82 104 104 66 104 8C 54 121 121 121 121 66 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.

50% Citric acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfate Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.38 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine Bromine. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 25% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol 8F 80 250 250 250 250 220 80 220 250 80 140 250 140 X 250 130 220 230 250 250 150 250 250 180 250 250 250 X 250 250 X 250 200 250 220 220 100 80 X 150 80 X 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 60 66 27 121 93 121 104 104 38 27 121 121 121 54 104 110 121 121 66 121 121 82 121 121 121 8C 27 121 121 121 121 104 27 104 121 27 60 121 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . dry Chlorine gas. 15% Citric acid. wet Chlorine. dry Carbon dioxide.136 TABLE 2. 10% Chromic acid.

10% Perchloric acid. 70% Phenol Phosgene gas. 70% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. general Lactic acid. Sodium sulfide. conc. 20% Nitric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. dry Phosphoric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. fuming Sulfurous acid 8F 220 220 X 220 250 250 250 250 250 300 104 121 121 121 121 121 149 8C 104 60 137 150 X 250 250 250 230 90 80 180 80 80 X 140 X 66 121 121 121 110 32 27 82 27 27 60 250 150 250 250 250 180 180 180 200 230 250 250 230 230 230 130 X X 200 121 66 121 121 121 82 82 82 93 110 121 121 110 110 110 54 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Hydrochloric acid.38 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. LLC . 38% Hydrochloric acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. conc. Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 98% Sulfuric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 5% Nitric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.

31 Polyurethane (PUR) Polyurethanes are produced from either polyethers or polyesters. automotive parts. temporary plasticization and permanent degradation. Hydrolytic degradation causes permanent reduction in physical and electrical properties. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. and trim. Polyurethanes exhibit excellent resistance to oxygen aging. chemical apparatus. Table 2. but it will be readily attacked and even dissolved by polar organic fluids such as dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide. 1–4. Polyurethanes are used where the properties of good abrasion resistance and low coefficient of friction are required. When the absorbed water is removed. garden hose. Because polyurethane is a polar material. Schweitzer. good energy-absorbing characteristics. and good fuel and oil resistance. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 5th ed. vending machine tubing. and greases. higher tear strength and cut resistance. lower compression set. 2. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Source: From P. it is resistant to nonpolar organic fluids such as oils. higher operating temperature.138 TABLE 2. bags. good hysteresis characteristics. 2004. and good all-around chemical resistance. optimum abrasion resistance. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. Water affects PUR in two ways. New York: Marcel Dekker. Incompatibility is shown by an X. They are also used q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polyacrylonitrile is used to produce molded appliance parts. Moisture plasticization results in a slight reduction in hardness and tensile strength. luggage shells. LLC . typewriter cases.A..38 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Thionyl chloride Toluene White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X 200 200 250 93 93 121 8C The chemical listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Vols. the original properties are restored.2 for the structural formula. fuels. Refer to Figure 2.39 provides the compatibility of PUR with selected corrodents. The polyester-based urethanes are generally stiffer and will have higher compression and tensile moduli. but they have limited life in high humidity and high temperature applications. Those produced from polyether are more resistant to hydrolysis and have higher resilience.

glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid.2 Chemical structure of PUR. sat. 10% Acetic acid. Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium persulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium chloride Barium hydroxide X X X X X X X X X R R R R R R X X X X X R R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium chloride.Thermoplastic Polymers 139 H O C NH O C H O H H H H NH C O C C C C H H H H n H H H H R= C C C C H H H H or H H R= C C H C H H or H H H H O H H H H H H H H O R= C C O C C C C C C O R m n = 30 to 120 m = 8 to 50 FIGURE 2.39 Compatibility of PUR with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamine Acetic acid. TABLE 2. sat. 50% Acetic acid.

sat. 5% Nitric acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Carbon bisulfide Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. dry Carbon dioxide.39 Continued Chemical Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine. 50% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cyclohexane Cresol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10% Chromic acid. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. LLC . 70% Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R X X X X X X R R X X X R R R R X R R R R X R X X X X X X X X R R R R X R R R R R X R X X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide.140 TABLE 2. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 38% Magnesium chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 10–50% Hydrochloric acid. dry Chlorine gas. 50% Ferric nitrate.

ski-goggle frames. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Perchloric acid. aromatic hydrocarbons. 50% Sulfuric acid. to dilute mineral acids. and ski boots. tubing.32 Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) PBT is also known as a thermoplastic polyester. Refer to Table 2. 98% Sulfuric acid. These thermoplastic polyesters are highly crystalline with a melting point of approximately 4308F (2218C). 90% Sulfuric acid.39 Continued Chemical Nitric acid.40 for the compatibility of PBT with selected corrodents. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. and catheters. 100% Toluene X X X X X R R R X X X X X X X X 141 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. and esters with limited resistance to hot water and washing soda. Polyurethanes are also used for toys. 2. bushings. 70% Sulfuric acid. The medical field makes use of PUR for diagnostic devices. It has a structural formula as follows: H C H H C H H C H H H C O O C O C PBT exhibits good chemical resistance. It is not resistant to chlorinated hydrocarbons and alkalies. Compatibility at 908F/328C is shown by an R. in general. PBT has good weatherability and is resistant to UV degradation. pulleys. 10% Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenol Potassium bromide. ketones. Sulfuric acid. LLC . 30% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. aliphatic hydrocarbons. golf balls. for high-impact car panels and other parts. conc. shoe components. gears.

10% Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerine Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. 0–5% Ink Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Motor oil Nitric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Acetone Ammonia. 10% Potassium permanganate. 2% Paraffin oil Phosphoric acid. 30% Hydrogen peroxide. 10% Potassium hydroxide. 5% Acetic acid. 10% Benzene Butyl acetate Calcium chloride Calcium disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid.142 TABLE 2. 50% Potassium dichromate. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium bisulfate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. LLC .40 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PBT with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetic acid. 50% R R R X R R R R R X X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R R X R R R R R R R X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2% Hydrogen peroxide.

Neither the homopolymer nor the copolymer is resistant to strong mineral acids. 2. material not resistant. Homopolymer materials are usually implied when no identification of acetal type is made. They also exhibit poor resistance to oxidizing agents but. electronic. and pump components. electrical. and writing instruments. and general industrial areas. in general. business machines. DuPont produces the homopolymers whereas Celanese produces the copolymers. The acetals will be degraded by UV light and gamma rays. material resistant at 738F/208C. hot Wax. radio. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 2. are resistant to the common solvents. X.41 for the compatibility of acetals with selected corrodents. Flame retardant formulations find application as television. but the copolymers are resistant to strong bases. cold Water. 2% Toluene Vaseline Water.40 Continued Chemical Sodium nitrate Sodium thiosulfate Sulfuric acid.33 Acetals Acetals are a group of high-performance engineering polymers that resemble the polyamide somewhat in appearance but not in properties. bearings. 98% Sulfuric acid. The unreinforced resins are used in housings that require excellent impact in moving parts such as gears. LLC . Reinforced resins find application in the automotive. pulleys. electronics.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. molten Xylene R R X R R R R R R R 143 R. The general repeating chemical structure is: H C O H n There are two basic types of acetals.

conc. LLC 8C 23 23 23 38 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 . 10% Acetone Acid mine water Ammonia. 20% Calcium hypochlorite. 10% Ethyl chloride. wet Ammonium hydroxide. dry Chlorine.144 TABLE 2. wet 8F 70 70 X 70 100 X X 70 X 70 70 X X X 70 70 X X X X 70 X 70 70 X X 70 X 70 X X X X X 70 70 70 70 70 70 140 70 140 70 70 200 70 23 23 23 23 23 23 60 23 60 23 23 93 23 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2% Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Calcium disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloric acid Chlorine. 5% Calcium hydroxide. dry Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid Copper nitrate Cupric chloride Cyclohexanne Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanne Detergents Dichloroethane Diethyl ether Dimethyl formamide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dioxane Ethanolamine Ethers Ethyl acetate. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Aniline Aqua regia Benzene Benzyl chloride n-Butylamine Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium chlorate. moist Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene.41 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Acetals with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 5% Acetic acid.

10% Magnesium sulfate Mercury Methyl acetate Methyl alcohol Methylene chloride Milk Tetrahydrofuran Thionyl chloride Turpentine Mineral oil Motor oil Monoethanolamine Nitric acid. 10% Magnesium hydroxide. 50% Sodium carbonate. LLC . moist Kerosene Lactic acid Linseed oil Magnesium chloride. 1% Nitric acid Oxalic acid Paraffin Perchloroethylene Perchloric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 3% Heptane Hexane Hydrochloric acid.41 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ethyl ether Ethylene chloride Ethylenediamine Fatty acid Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferric sulfate Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate. 10% Phosphoric acid Pyridine Silver nitrate Sodium bicarbonate. 1–20% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% 8F 70 70 70 95 X X X X X X 70 70 X X X X 140 X 70 70 70 70 70 70 X 70 70 70 70 X 140 70 150 X X X X 70 70 X X 70 70 70 180 70 70 180 23 23 23 82 23 23 82 (continued) 23 23 60 23 71 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 60 23 23 8C 23 23 23 35 145 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate. 10% Magnesium sulfate. 10% Formic acid. 10% Sodium chloride. 4% Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen sulfide.

LLC . 50% Sodium thiosulfate Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. P. 2004.A. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. 1996. 10% Trichloroethylene Wax 8F 70 70 70 X 70 70 X X X X 200 93 23 23 8C 23 23 23 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. P. 2. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. and bushings. 3. structural components in the suspension system. 1994.41 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium chloride Sodium cyanide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. References 1. Vols. New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer. P.A.146 TABLE 2. P.. New York: Marcel Dekker. Acetals are used in the automotive industry for fuel-system components and moving parts such as gears. Applications also include appliance housings and plumbing fixtures. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5th ed.A. 10% Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid. 4. 2001. 1–4. 10% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium nitrate. Corrosion Resistant Linings and Coatings. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Corrosion Engineering Handbook. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems.A.

Phenolics represent about 43% of the thermoset market. chemical resistance. Compared to the thermoplasts. harder. Although fewer in number than the thermoplastic polymers. Most contain wood or glass-flour fillers and. creep resistance. and glass fiber fillers are often used for optimum strength or dimensional stability. they offer the advantages of better dimensional stability.3 Thermoset Polymers Thermoset polymers assume a permanent shape or set once cured. on occasion.” Because in some cases a by-product is not produced. The type of corrosion can be divided into two main categories: physical and chemical. LLC . unfilled thermoset polymers can corrode by several mechanisms. and generally more temperature resistant. The latter is the more prominent of the two methods. mineral or cellulose fibers are often used as low-cost general purpose fillers. stronger. they are more brittle. 3. The reaction is now referred to as a “stepwise” polymerization. they cannot be reshaped. making them the most widely used. In addition. For molded products. it is called a “condensation reaction. They are relatively inexpensive and are readily molded with good stiffness. 147 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. thermosets comprise approximately 14% of the total polymer market. Once set. this definition is no longer exactly correct. glass fibers.” Table 3. When the reaction results in a by-product.1 Corrosion of Thermosets Unreinforced. usually formed by compression or transfer molding. usually water or alcohol. They are formed by a large amount of cross-linking of linear prepolymers (a small amount of cross-linking will produce elastomers) or by direct formation of networks by the reaction of two monomers. and good electrical properties.1 lists the principal thermoset polymers. Table 3. It is a stepwise or condensation method that has been defined as “the reaction of two monomers to produce a third plus a by-product.2 gives the operating temperature range of the thermoset polymers. Their disadvantages lie in the fact that most are more difficult to process and more expensive.

2 Operating Temperature Range of Themoset Polymers Allowable Temperature (8F/8C) Polymer Epoxy Polyesters: Bisphenol A fumarate Halogenated Hydrogenated bisphenol-A– bisphenol-A Isophthalic Terephthalic Vinyl ester Furan Phenolic Silicone Minimum K423/K252 Maximum 300/150 250–300/120–150 250–300/120–150 250–300/120–150 150/70 250–300/120–150 200–280/98–140 300–400/150–200 230/110 500/260 K423/K252 Temperatures might have to be modified depending on the corrodent. physical corrosion is reversible: after the liquid is removed. When a polymer absorbs a liquid or gas.148 TABLE 3. LLC . The diffusion of a liquid into the polymer is a typical example.1 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Principal Thermoset Polymers Alkyds Amino resins Diallyl phthalates (allyls) Epoxies Furans Melamines Phenol formaldehyde Phenolics Polybutadienes Polyurethanes Silicones Unsaturated polyesters Ureas Vinyl esters Physical corrosion is the interaction of a thermoset polymer with its environment so that its properties are altered but no chemical reactions take place. In many cases. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. swelling caused by solvent absorption will be at a maximum when the solvent and polymer solubility parameters are exactly matched. TABLE 3. For a cross-linked thermoset. the original properties are restored. that results in plasticization or swelling of the thermoset network. physical corrosion has taken place.

The ester linkage is the most susceptible. In certain environments. In general. attack on the reinforced polymer will occur in a relatively short time. The attack of solvents is of a different nature. All thermosets will be attacked in essentially the same manner. The various modes of attack affect the strength of the laminate in different ways. Improper curing will result in a loss of corrosion resistance properties. The degree and nature of the bond between the resin and the reinforcement also plays an important role. with the water degrading bonds in the backbone of the resin molecules. As result of chemical corrosion. or swollen. Some environments may weaken primary and/or secondary polymer linkages with resulting depolymerization. crazed. in all probability. This is the result of the unique molecular structure of the resins. it will continue to operate successfully for a substantial period of time. LLC . Pyrolysis or charring of the resin quickly occurs so that within a few hours. the laminate is destroyed. the polymer may be embrittled. the polymer itself may be affected in one or more ways. The solvent penetrates the resin matrix of the polymer through spaces between the polymer chains causing the laminate surface to q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The attack of aqueous solutions on reinforced polymers occurs through hydrolysis. blistered.Thermoset Polymers 149 Chemical corrosion takes place when the bonds in the thermoset are broken by means of a chemical reaction with the polymers’ environment. delaminated. Other results may be chain scission and decreases in molecular weight or simple solvent action. With an improper environment. repolymerization can occur with a resultant change in structure. whereas others may hydrolyze ester groupings or linkages. Other environments may cause swelling or microcracking. There may be more than one form of chemical corrosion taking place at the same time. charred. depending upon the environment and other service conditions and the mechanisms or combination of mechanisms that are at work. For example. However. Thermoset polymers are not capable of handling concentrated sulfuric acid (93%) and concentrated nitric acid. Construction of the laminate and the type of reinforcing used also affect the corrosion resistance of the laminate. discolored. Experience has indicated that if an installation has been soundly engineered and has operated successfully for 12 months. Attack or absorption at the interface between the reinforcing material and the resin will result in weakening. including built-in properties of ester groups. Cure of the resin plays an important part in the chemical resistance of the thermoset. certain chemically resistant types suffer negligible attack or exhibit significantly lower rates of attack under a wide range of severely corrosive conditions. Tests show that polyesters and vinyl esters can handle up to 70% sulfuric acid for long periods of time. Chemical corrosion is usually not reversible. softened. chemical attack on thermoset polymers is a “go/no go” situation.

Softening. LLC . pronounced weight gain. such as polyesters and the vinyl esters. saturated. The cross-link density of the resin. There are many degrees of attack: 1. The latter is not true of all resin systems. such as the straight chain hydrocarbons. The ability of the resin to pack into a tight structure. This may occur in the liquid or vapor zone. 2. b. 3. Swelling: the absorption of the molecule continues. which is strongly related to its solvent resistance. If there is less than a 2% weight gain and considerable retention in hardness over a 12 month period. and swelling has stabilized at the 12 month level. Organic compounds with carbon–carbon unsaturated double bonds. Smaller solvent molecules can penetrate a polymer matrix more effectively. decrease in hardness by a substantial amount. are powerful swelling solvents and show greater swelling action than their saturated counterparts. The heat distortion temperature of the resin. and hardness drops from 43 to 0. In general. producing mechanical stresses that cause fractures in the laminate. 2. the laminate will do very well. Anything over 2% is cause for concern. 3. Softening: hardness drops to zero. Weight. 3. Slightly polar resins. the following occur: 1. the laminate swells considerably. The higher the heat distortion temperature. such as carbon disulfide. are handled well by polyesters. Generally. then the resin may do fairly well in limited service. and crack. soften. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. a swelling of 19%. long-chain organic molecules. Bisphenol resin laminate in contact with toluene experiences a 19% weight gain in one month.150 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers swell. plus little or no swelling. the more brittle resins possess poor solvent resistance whereas the more resilient resins can withstand a greater degree of solvent absorption. the better the solvent resistance. If hardness is retained at a high level. As the solvent attack continues: a. are attacked by mildly polar solvents. The degree of similarity between solvent and resin is important. The polymer’s ability to resist attack is improved by 1. In the first stages of solvent attack. 2. typical of a material undergoing total failure. weight gain has stabilized. This is why polyester gasoline tanks are so successful. Swelling.

4 Reinforcing Materials Many different reinforcing fibers are used in laminates and reinforced polymers. Refer to Table 3. Another approach is to apply a 3-mil-thick coat of black epoxy paint that will also effectively screen out the ultraviolet rays. the phenomenon will stop far short of having any particular effect on the strength of the material.Thermoset Polymers 151 Orthophthalic. 3. which subsequently fractures. LLC . and methyl ethyl ketone.3 Ultraviolet Light Stability Thermoset resins will be degraded by ultraviolet light. carbon disulfide. The process continues until total failure occurs.3 for the atmospheric resistance of fiberglass reinforced thermoset polymers. it is necessary that UV protection be provided. The failure rate of glassreinforced composites can be significant. The vinyl esters show improved solvent resistance. the furan resins offer the best all-around solvent resistance. trichloroethylene. Which fiber is selected depends upon the cost. This can be prevented by adding an ultraviolet inhibitor to the resin. the properties q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. thermoset polymers resist weathering. If the resin matrix surrounding the failed fiber fractures. However. they can be adhesive bonded using epoxies. and urethanes.2 Joining of Thermosets Thermoset polymers cannot be solvent cemented or fusion welded. an initial fiber fracture occurs that is specifically a tensile type of failure. 3. However. Weakening of the glass fibers upon exposure to acid is believed to be caused by ion exchange between the acid and glass. and chlorinated or brominated polyesters exhibit poor resistance to such solvents as acetone. The glass filament will fray. Furan resins are capable of handling solvents in combination with acids and bases. Under stress. bisphenol. toluene. With the exception of UV light stability. the surfaces must be abraded and solvent cleaned. Heat-cured epoxies exhibit better solvent resistance. Polymers installed outdoors will suffer severe degradation in a year or two from ultraviolet exposure. This is particularly true of composites exposed to the combination of acid and stress. the acid is allowed to attack the next available fiber. being resistant to normal atmospheric pollutants. trichloroethane. Prior to bonding. thermosetting acrylics. They excel in this area. isophthalic. After the initial fraying. In view of this. 3. Stress corrosion is another factor to be considered.

3. glass flakes. and it is reasonable in cost. resistant only if stabilized with UV protector.4. Practically all glass mat. LLC . 3. C glass is designed to be used where optimum chemical resistance is required. and for acid resistant cloths.20 0. E glass is an electrical grade borosilicate glass. Table 3. 3. and low elongation. The most common is E glass.1 E Glass As discussed previously. S glass is used for its high strength and stiffness while R glass is a lower cost fiber than S glass.4. Water absorption rate 24 h at 738F/238C (%). RS. not resistant.1. X.1 Glass Fibers Glass fibers are formed continuously from a melt in a special fiber-forming furnace.20 2.152 TABLE 3.02–0.20 0. and is used in electronic applications. and the nature or the resin system.20 0. and woven roving come from this source.20 Weathering R R R R Ozone R R R R SO2 R R R Rc NO2 R R R R H2S R R R RS RS R R R 0. or flake glass linings.4 lists the common reinforcements and the properties they impart to the reinforced polymer. It possesses excellent water resistance. particularly the dielectric constant. SO3 will cause severe attack. continuous filaments. D glass has very good electrical properties.4.2 C Glass This is a calcium aluminosilicate glass widely used for surfacing mats.06 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R. This glass resists moisture and results in products with excellent electrical properties.03 0. required.1.3 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Atmospheric Resistance of Fiberglass-Reinforced Thermoset Polymers Polymer Epoxy Polyesters Bisphenol A– fumarate Halogenated Hydrogenated bisphenol-A– bisphenol-A Isophthalic Terephthalic Vinyl ester Furan Phenolic Silicone a b c UVa Degradation R RS RS RS Moistureb Absorption 0.65 0.20 0. resistant. C glass has poor q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Fiberglass is the most often uses reinforcement material. strength. There are six formulations that are produced.

LLC .4 Properties Imparted to Polymer by Reinforcing Materials Reinforcing Fiber Glass strands Glass fabric Glass mat Asbestos Paper Cotton/linen Nylon Short inorganic fibers Organic fibers Ribbons Polyethylene Metals Aramid Boron Carbon/ graphite Ceramic Mechanical Strength X X Electrical Properties X X X X X Impact Resistance X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Corrosion Resistance X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Machining and Punching Heat Resistance X X X X Moisture Resistance X X X Abrasion Resistance Low Cost X X X X Stiffness X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 153 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.

1.0–109.0–94. 3. The filaments are bonded into a TABLE 3. and 4000 filaments to a strand.5 62.9 15.5 67. 10-mill C glass was nearly universally used. LLC .0–74.5 57.5 87.9 80.0–39.0 27.0–27.4.9 35. Because of its cost. It has excellent resistance to acids and water.154 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers water resistance and carries a premium cost.0–104.9 85. Until the development of synthetic veils.9 100.4.0–19.) 12.0–29.0–84. 3. 3000.9 55.0–89.5 32.0–79.9 20. it is not used in the corrosion industry.9 45.5 52.5 22.9 105.0–99.5 72.5 82.9 50.3 S Glass Because of its exceptional strength.5 47.5 25.0 40.0–24. 15.5 102. 20. 800.0–39.0–54. These filaments are formed into strands with 204. It is available in thicknesses of 10.4 Glass Filaments Glass filaments are available in a variety of diameters as shown in Table 3. 400.0–69. 1000. and 30 mils.0–64.9 65.5 92.) 10. It is comparable in strength to aramid fiber.9 70.5 107. C veil has been used as a surfacing mat for many years when the standard specification for corrosion resistant equipment was 10-mil C veil. Filaments in the range of diameters G–T are normally used to reinforce polymers.5 77.9 Nominal Diameter (!105 in.9 25.0–14.9 95.5.0 37.9 75. S glass is widely used in the aerospace industry.0–49.0–44.0–59.9 35.9 60. but it is several times as expensive as E glass.5 42.9 30.5 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The use of 20-mil C veil and brittle resins such as the bisphenols should be avoided as they are subject to impact and handling damage.9 23.5 36.3 17. 2000.5 Glass Fiber Diameters Filament B C D DE E F G G H J K L M N P Q R S T U V W Diameter Range (!105 in.5 97.1.9 90.0–34.

G.4./ft. 3. but the material is less homogenous. The sizing agent also gives them environmental and abrasive protection. It may also be used in conjunction with C glass surfacing mats. are added to the finished products to improve adhesion of the resin matrix to the glass fibers. 3. E glass is used in most and filament laminates of D.4.6 Glass Mats Glass strands are cut and dipped into a moving conveyer belt where a polymer binder is applied to hold the mat together./ft. Various thicknesses are available in widths up to 10 ft. 3. glass mats.7 Glass Fabrics Reinforced polymers make use of many different glass fabrics. (usually E glass) are mechanically cut into lengths from 0.5 Chopped Strands Strands of glass.4. 3. Mat weights vary from 0.Thermoset Polymers 155 strand using a sizing agent applied to the filament. These strands are then used to manufacture the various types of glass reinforcements. thickness. The physical properties of woven roving are intermediate between mats and fabrics.1. appearance. and strength of fabric.75 to 3 oz. Continuous mats vary in weight from 0. The longer lengths are used with thermoset resins whereas the short fibers are used with thermoplastic polymers.75 to 4. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and K are common.5 oz. Woven roving is a mat fabric made by weaving multiple strands collected into a roving and into a coarse fabric. and are used to reinforce molding compounds. Continuous strand mats exhibit better physical properties than cut strand mats. These constructions are used in low-pressure laminations and poltrusions.4. and polymers. and chopped strands are the most common reinforcements used to reinforce polymers. Glass fabrics. LLC .25 to 2 in.1. such as silanes.2 in widths up to 10 ft. chrome complexes. Strands of glass filaments are plied into yarns and woven into fabrics on looms.2 and are available in widths up to 6 ft. H. The number of yarns can be varied in both warp and welt to control the weight. The machine direction of the loom is called the warp whereas the cross section is the welt (also called “woof” or “fill”). Coupling agents.2 Polyester Polyester is primarily used for surfacing mat for the resin-rich inner surface of filament wound or custom contact-molded structures. Continuous strand mats are produced by continuously depositing the uncut strands in a swirling pattern onto a moving belt where a binder is applied.1.

bleaching agents. This light weight is also advantageous in the fabrication of laminated canoes and kayaks. 1. Other blends are also available such as 25% carbon filler—75% glass fiber. hydrocarbons. The carbon fiber mat.5. Nexus (registered trademark of Burlington Industries) surfacing veils are also used on exterior surfaces of poltruded products.2./yd. manufactured by DuPont. The Nexus surfacing veil exhibits excellent resistance to alcohols. and cracking in temperature-cycling operations.2) to thick 30-mil (6 oz.2 mat as a blend with 33% glass fiber. The Nexus surfacing veil possesses a relatively high degree of elongation that makes it very compatible with the higher elongation resins and reduces the risk of checking.2. Surfacing mats can be had in weights of 0.2.3 Carbon Fiber Carbon fiber is available in mat form. Because of its great tensile strength and consistency coupled with low density. Aramid reinforcement is also available as paper and sold under tradenames of Nomex by DuPont and TP Technora from Teijin America. Other aramid fiber sport applications include downhill skis. Being a polyester derivative. Kevlar is available in surfacing mats and cloth form. though still widely used for pressure vessels. tennis racquets. The fiber is used in the same manner as glass fibers to reinforce polymers./yd. it essentially revolutionized pressure vessel technology.4 and 1 oz./yd. and aqueous solutions of most weak acids at boiling.4. it is not resistant to strong acids such as 93% sulfuric.4 Aramid Fibers Aramid is a generic name for aromatic polyamide (nylon). and golf shafts./yd. Aramid fibers are woven into fabrics for reinforcing polymers. provides in-depth grounding systems and static control in hazardous areas where static sparks may result in fires or explosions./yd.4.5 oz. 3. and 50% aluminized glass—50% carbon fiber. 3. and 2 oz. Aramid composites.156 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers The tendency of C glass to bridge and form voids is reduced or eliminated by overwinding a C glass surfacing mat with a polyester mat under tension. LLC . Carbon fibers are also available in continuous roving and as chopped fibers in sizes 1/8–2 in. The fabrics range in size from 2-mil (1 oz. It is also available in a 0. Aramid fiber finds varied applications in aircraft and aerospace components because of its low density. have been largely replaced by very high strength graphite fibers. 0. typically 0. It is sold under the tradename Kevlar.2) cloths. water. either alone or supplemented with a ground carbon or graphite filler. Aramid paper is used in circuit boards to improve crack resistance and to q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. crazing.

When saturated with phenolics. The 1000 grade has higher strength and modulus. and difficult drilling and machining characteristics.4. When combined with melamine. and punch. Inc. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. glacial Hydrochloric acid 1 M Sodium hydroxide 5 M Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Clorox 6 Months 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 91 2 Years 100 100 100 100 96 100 100 100 100 100 100 73 6 Months 100 100 100 93 72 82 40 42 70 75 91 0 Aramid 2 Years 98 87 97 X X X X X X X X 0 X. drill. it becomes a decorative high-pressure laminate used in furniture. countertops. compared to conventional polyethylene that has a molecular weight of about 200.000. poor resin adhesion. Paper reinforcement is inexpensive and easy to machine. The paper is limited by such drawbacks as a high coefficient of thermal expansion. and wall panels. but it is sensitive to moisture and cannot withstand high temperatures. samples not tested due to physical deterioration. Two Spectra fibers are produced. 3. 29% Perchlorethylene Detergent solution. it finds many applications in aerospace laminates such as wing tips and heliocopter seats. the 900 and 1000 grades. up to 5 million. high-modulus polyethylene fiber under the tradename Spectra. Because the density of Spectra is the lowest of all of the fibers.4.6 Corrosion Resistance of Spectra and Aramid Fibers % Retention of Fiber Tensile Strength Spectra Chemical Seawater Hydraulic fluid Kerosene Gasoline Toluene Acetic acid.6 compares the corrosion resistance of Spectra and Aramid fibers. Spectra laminates must not be exposed to temperatures above 2508F (1218C).6 Paper Kraft paper is widely used as a reinforcement. TABLE 3. 3. LLC . Table 3. It imparts good electrical properties. produces a high-strength. The polyethylene is an ultrahigh molecular weight polymer.Thermoset Polymers 157 impart a smooth surface.5 Polyethylene Fibers Allied Signal. it is made into a common printed wiring board.

and they machine well. a free radical source. These laminates are used for gears and pulleys. Of all the reinforced thermoset polymers used for corrosion resistance. The manufacturing techniques he developed are still in use today. Widespread use of polyesters had been hampered because of their inherent brittleness. Laminates with these fabrics have better water resistance than paper-based laminates.S.4. The cross-linking reaction is a free-radical copolymerization between the resin oligomer and the unsaturated monomer. such as an organic peroxide. Rubber Company that adding glass fibers to polyesters greatly improved their physical properties. 3. the manufacturing procedure. They have good impact strength and abrasion resistance. Carothers. To initiate cross-linking. It was not until the late 1930s that Ellis discovered that polyesters’ cross-linking increased around 30 times in the presence of unsaturated monomers. unsaturated polyesters are the most widely used. At least one of these components contributes sites of unsaturation to the oligomer chain. when impregnated with phenolic resin.158 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3.1. The first fiberglassreinforced boat hulls were made in 1946. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC O + nH2O n . Unsaturated polyesters are produced via a condensation reaction between a dibasic organic acid or anhydride and a difunctional alcohol as shown in Figure 3. and fiberglass is still a major application for unsaturated polyesters. are used in several grades of laminates.5 Polyesters Polyesters were first prepared in 1929 by William H. Large-scale commercialization of unsaturated polyesters resulted from the 1942 discovery by the U. is added to the liquid resin. Maleic anhydride or fumaric acid provides the source of unsaturation for almost all of the polyester resins currently produced with maleic anhydride being the most common. O HOn R OH + nHO C R O C OH R O O C R C O FIGURE 3.7 Cotton and Linen Fabrics of cotton or linen. The types and ratio of components used to manufacture the oligomers. and the molecular weight of the oligomer will determine the properties of the cured polyester.1 Condensation reaction. The first successful commercial use of glass-reinforced polyesters was the production of radomes for military aircraft during World War II. The oligomer or prepolymer is then dissolved in an unsaturated monomer such as styrene.

4 Trimethyl-1.Thermoset Polymers 159 Propylene glycol is the most common diol used because it yields polymers with the best overall properties.3 pentanediol HO CH2 C CH3 CH2 OH Neopentyl glycol Acids O C O C O Phthalic anhydride OH O C Terephthalic acid O OH C C H C C O Fumaric acid FIGURE 3.2 lists the more common components used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyesters.2 Components of unsaturated polyesters.2. Glycols OH HO CH2 CH CH3 OH CH2 CH2 O CH2 OH CH2 Propylene glycols CH3 CH3 CH3 C HO CH2 C CH3 C H OH HO Diethylene glycol CH3 C CH3 Bisphenol-A CH3 OH 2. LLC O C OH O C OH Isophthalic acid OH C O O O Maleic anhydride Cl H Cl OH Cl C Cl O Cl O C O O Chlorendic anhydride . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Figure 3.

10% Citric acid Oleic acid Benzoic acid Boric acid Magnesium sulfate Nickel chloride Nickel nitrate Nickel sulfate Potassium chloride Potassium sulfate Sodium chloride.5. 3.1 General Purpose Polyesters These resins have the following formula: O O C C C O C O CH3 C C O O C O C General purpose polyesters are based on phthalic anhydride as the saturated monomer and are the lowest-cost class of resin. LLC .160 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers The primary unsaturated polyesters are: General purpose (orthophthalic) Isophthalic Bisphenol A fumarate Hydrogenated bisphenol A Halogenated polyester Terephthalate (PET) The strength of a laminate is primarily determined by the type and amount of reinforcing used. 1% Salts Copper sulfate Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferric sulfate Ferrous chloride Magnesium chloride Solvents Glycerine Acetic acid. They are adequate for use with nonoxidizing mineral acids and corrodents that are relatively mild.) Calcium sulfate Amyl alcohol q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Kerosene Naphtha Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride Ammonium sulfate. The specific polyester resin will determine operating temperatures and corrosion resistance. These general purpose resins are not normally recommended for use in corrosive service. Tests have indicated that general purpose resins will provide satisfactory service with the following materials up to 1258F (528C): Acids Fatty acids Lactic acid. 10% Calcium chloride (sat.

oleic. They can be formulated to be fire retardant or to protect against the effects of ultraviolet light. kerosine. Solvents such as carbon disulfide. and gasoline. 25% phosphoric. carbon disulfide. 10–25% sulfuric. and fatty acids. gasoline.2 Isophthalic Polyesters Isophthalic polyesters have the following formula: CH3 O CH2 CH2 O O C O C O CH2 CH3 CH2 O O C CH CH C O n These polyester resins use isophthalic acid in place of phthalic anhydride as the saturated monomer. sodium carbonate. car and truck bodies. or higher concentrations of oxidizing acids. carbon tetrachloride. television satellite dishes. amyl acetate. tartaric. boats. This resin predominates in boat building.7 for the compatibility of isophthalic polyester with selected corrodents. sodium hydroxide. solutions of alkaline. For the most part. the properties of isophthalic polyesters are superior to the lower-cost general purpose polyesters. not only in chemical resistance but also in physical properties. benzoic. building materials. but it improves physical properties and corrosion resistance.5. Solvents such as amyl alcohols. ethylene glycol. Refer to Table 3. citric. Most organic salts are also compatible with isophthalic polyesters. This increases the cost to produce. salts of potassium and sodium. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. In general. 3. hot distilled water. It exhibits excellent resistance to all types of water. formaldehyde. They are satisfactory for use up to 1258F (528C) in acids such as 10% acetic.Thermoset Polymers 161 General purpose resins are not satisfactory in contact with the following: Oxidizing acids. Alkaline solutions such as calcium hydroxide. benzene. fishing poles. and any application where exposure is confined to ambient conditions. radomes. The isophthalic polyester resins are not resistant to acetone. Bleach solutions such as 5% sodium hypochlorite. and naphtha are also compatible. LLC . Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. boric. tote boxes. including seawater. these resins find application in building panels. The standard corrosion grade isophthalic polyesters are made with 1:1 molar ratio of isophthalic acid to maleic anhydride or fumaric acid with propylene glycol. Isophthalic polyesters have a relatively wide range of corrosion resistance.

10% Ammonium fluoride. sat. 10% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene 8F X 180 110 X X X X X X X 220 X X 250 180 170 140 160 160 180 90 X 160 160 180 90 90 X X 160 160 160 180 X X X 160 X X 160 X 190 140 X 160 90 X X 8C X 82 43 X X X X X X X 104 X X 121 82 77 60 71 71 82 32 X 71 71 32 32 32 X X 71 71 71 82 X X X 71 X X 71 X 88 60 X 71 32 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Ammonium fluoride. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Aluminum fluoride. LLC .7 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Isophthalic Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride.162 TABLE 3.

dry Carbon dioxide. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid. sat. wet Chlorine. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide 8F 180 180 X X 140 180 X X X X 80 X 129 160 150 160 160 180 160 160 120 140 160 160 160 X 160 160 X 160 X 160 X X 150 160 160 X X X X X X 140 160 200 160 180 160 8C 82 82 X X 60 82 X X X X 27 X 49 71 66 71 71 82 71 71 49 60 71 71 71 X 71 71 X 71 X 71 X X 66 71 71 X X X X X X 60 71 93 71 82 71 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. LLC 163 . conc. dry Chlorine gas. dry Bromine gas. 10% Chromic acid. 25% Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid to 25% Chlorine gas.7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzenesulfonic acid. moist Bromine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 15% Citric acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.

20% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid.164 TABLE 3. 10% Perchloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 50% Hydrochloric acid. dry Fluorine gas. conc. Oleum Perchloric acid. LLC . 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. Hydrobromic acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid.7 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate. 20% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. general Lactic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 5% Nitric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. moist Hydrobromic acid. dil. 10% 8F 200 X 170 170 80 X X 120 180 160 180 180 160 X X 120 140 140 160 160 90 X X X 90 X 160 160 180 90 X X 160 120 X X X 120 X X X X 180 X 160 100 90 200 X 8C 93 X 77 77 27 X X 49 82 71 82 82 71 X X 49 60 60 71 71 32 X X X 32 X 71 71 82 32 X X 71 49 X X X 49 X X X X 82 X 71 38 32 93 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

and dimensional stability. The range of successful commercial applications include support structures. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. Reference [2] provides information on FRP piping systems. nonconductivity. 70% Sulfuric acid. conc. 100% Sulfuric acid. supports. LLC . and decking can be fabricated. including corrosion resistance. Currently.7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. high strength. These materials offer several advantages. 10% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. Sodium hypochlorite. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 3.1 Typical Applications Isophthalic polyesters provide corrosion resistance in a wide variety of end uses. 98% Sulfuric acid. there are more than 100 standard structural shapes available from which platforms.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. Isopolyesters used in above-ground tanks and tank linings for chemical storage provide similar protection. conc. and spa applications. light weight. Isopolyester pipes and containment vaults also provide protection against failure from corrosion by acid media. platforms. 50% Sulfuric acid. 50% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X X X 180 180 160 150 X X X X X X X 110 170 X 180 8C X X X X X 82 82 71 66 X X X X X X X 43 77 X 82 165 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. tub. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. The water resistance properties of the isophthlates also provide advantages in appearance and performance in cast countertops as well as pool. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. ladders. Other applications include their use in cooling towers and use as rail cars to transport automobiles.5. 50% Sodium hydroxide. In food-contact applications. these resins withstand acids and corrosive salts encountered in foods and food handling. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. grating.2. structures. Recent excavations of 25-year-old FRP underground gasoline storage tanks offer evidence to the resin’s resistance to internal chemical attack or external attack by water in the surrounding soil. and guard rails.

The number of interior chain ester groups is reduced so the resistance to hydrolysis and saponification is increased. Bisphenol A fumarate polyesters have the best hydrolysis resistance of any commercial unsaturated polyester. 50% Rayon spin bath Iron salts Zinc salts Sodium chlorite to 2008F (938C) Sodium hydrosulfate to 2008F (938C) Solvents Alcohols at ambient temperatures Glycerine Gases to 2008F (938C) Chlorine. 30% Tannic Tartaric Trichloroacetic. The bisphenol polyesters will break down in highly concentrated acids or alkalies. These resins can be used in the handling of the following materials: Acids to 2008F (938C) Fatty acids Hydrochloric.5.3. 15% Chromic. The structural formula is shown in Figure 3. Thermal stability is improved. 20% to 2008F (938C) Isophthalics are resistant to most all solvents plus Sour crude oil Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Chlorine. Standard bisphenol-A fumarate resins are derived from the propylene glycol or oxide diether of bisphenol-A and fumaric acid. dry Sulfur dioxide. 5% to 1608F (718C) Calcium hydroxide. They exhibit good performance with moderate alkaline solutions of bleaching agents. The bisphenol polyesters are superior in their corrosion resistant properties to the isophthalic polyesters.3 Bisphenol A Fumarate Polyesters This is a premium corrosion-resistant grade resin. 25% to 1608F (718C) Calcium hypochlorite. wet Linseed oil Sulfur trioxide Rayon waste gases 1508F (668C) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Sulfur dioxide.166 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. 25% to 1608F (718C) Acetic Benzoic Boric Butyric Chloroacetic. dry Stearic Sulfonic. 80% Salt Solution to 2008F (938C) Most plating solutions Copper salts Alkalies Chlorine dioxide. It costs approximately twice as much as a general purpose resin and approximately one-third more than an isophthalic resin. The aromatic structure provided by the bisphenol-A provides several benefits. and the heat distortion point of the resin is mainly raised from the more rigid nature of the aromatic structure. LLC . 15% to 2008F (938C) Potassium hydroxide. 10% Lactic Maleic Oleic Oxalic Phosphoric. 5% Citric All aluminum salts Most ammonium salts Calcium salts Ammonium hydroxide.

50% Acetic acid. methyl ethyl ketone. 10% Ammonium chloride. carbon disulfide.8 Compatibility of Bisphenol A–Fumarate Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid.3 Chemical structure of bisphenol A fumarate resins. 80% Acetic acid. LLC . trichloroethylene. 10% Acetic acid. TABLE 3. Solvents such as benzene. 10% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.Thermoset Polymers 167 CH3 O CH CH2 CH3 O C CH3 O CH2 CH O CH3 O C CH CH C O n FIGURE 3. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. 50% 8F X 220 160 160 X 110 X X 100 X 220 X X 220 200 90 160 200 200 200 90 200 220 8C X 104 171 171 X 43 X X 38 X 104 X X 104 93 32 71 93 93 93 32 93 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. ether. sodium hydroxide. and trichloroethane will attack the resin. Table 3.8 for the compatibility of bisphenolA fumarate polyester resin with selected corrodents. and 30% chromic acid will also attack the resin. toluene.9 lists the compatibility of hydrogenated bisphenol-A fumarate polyesters with selected corrodents. Refer to Table 3. aqueous Aluminum fluoride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. xylene. Sulfuric acid above 70%.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. moist Bromine. 10% Calcium hydroxide. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. sat.8 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. sat. LLC . 20% Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.168 TABLE 3. dry Bromine gas. 10% Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide 8F 220 180 120 100 140 220 180 80 220 110 80 80 200 X X 220 X 200 220 150 220 140 X X 200 180 X X 220 220 90 100 X 80 80 X 220 180 210 200 220 180 160 80 220 220 160 X 8C 104 82 49 38 60 104 82 27 104 43 27 27 93 X X 104 X 93 104 66 104 60 X X 93 82 X X 104 104 32 38 X 27 27 X 104 82 99 93 104 82 71 27 104 104 71 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium fluoride.

conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 10% Lactic acid. 15% Citric acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid to 25% Chlorine gas. Magnesium chloride 8F 350 210 X 350 110 90 140 140 80 200 200 X X X X X X 150 220 220 180 220 220 220 X X 100 X 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 160 190 X 200 90 90 200 210 220 220 8C 177 99 X 177 43 32 60 60 27 93 93 X X X X X X 66 104 104 82 104 104 104 X X 38 X 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 71 88 X 93 32 32 93 99 104 104 (continued) 169 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.8 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon dioxide. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Iodine solution.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. wet Chlorine. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. conc. dil. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hypochlorous acid. Hydrobromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. dry Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC . 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 25% Lactic acid.

98% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 50% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 160 X X 130 160 100 X X X X 220 110 200 150 160 220 130 220 200 X 210 200 220 220 220 160 X X X X 110 X X 180 180 250 8C 71 X X 54 71 38 X X X X 104 43 93 66 71 104 54 104 93 X 99 93 104 104 104 71 X X X X 43 X X 82 82 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 70% Sulfuric acid.170 TABLE 3. 2004. 5% Nitric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Nitric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid.8 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Malic acid Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Vols. LLC . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. anhydrous Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 1–4.. 100% Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable.A. Schweitzer. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 5th ed. 90% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P.

50% Citric acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Boric acid Bromine.9 Compatibility of Hydrogenated Bisphenol A–Bisphenol A Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. LLC 171 . 50% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 10% Carbon bisulfide Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chloroacetic acid. conc. 8F 200 160 X X X X 200 X 200 200 200 200 100 X 200 90 X 80 X 180 200 X X 210 X X 210 X X X X 120 210 210 180 X X X 90 210 210 X X 200 210 8C 93 71 X X X X 93 X 93 93 93 93 38 X 93 32 X 27 X 82 93 X X 99 X X 99 X X X X 49 99 99 82 X X X 32 99 99 X X 93 99 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. sat. 10% Acetic acid. dry Chlorine gas. wet Chloroform Chromic acid. liquid Butyl acetate n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite. 50% water Chlorine gas. 15% Citric acid. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride.

70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 10% Sulfuric acid. 5% Oleum Perchloric acid. 50% Lactic acid.9 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% Sulfuric acid 70 % Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Sodium carbonate. Magnesium chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Perchloric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid. conc. 25% Lactic acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid 25 % Toluene 8F 210 210 210 210 X 210 X 210 200 200 210 210 90 90 180 190 X X X X 210 210 210 210 X X 190 90 X X X X 210 100 210 100 X X 160 210 210 90 X X X X 210 90 8C 99 99 99 99 X 99 X 99 93 93 99 99 32 32 82 88 X X X X 99 99 99 99 X X 88 32 X X X X 99 38 99 38 X X 71 99 99 32 X X X X 99 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Hydrobromic acid.172 TABLE 3. LLC . 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid.

Table 3. These laminates are routinely used as chimney liners at temperatures of 240–2808F (116–1388C). making this the safest possible polyester for stacks.10 is a general application guide.4 Halogenated Polyesters Halogenated resins consist of chlorinated or brominated polymers.5. Vols. Schweitzer. 1–4.3. These polymers are not resistant to highly alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide. or wherever a fire hazard might exist. phenols. and other alkaline organics. They also resist neutral and acid salts.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 3. mercaptans. and corrosion resistance properties. concentrated sulfuric acid. ketones. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Excellent resistance is exhibited in contact with oxidizing acids and solutions such as 35% nitric acid at elevated temperatures. organic acids. This fire retardancy is achieved by the addition of antimony trioxide. The chlorinated polyester resins cured at room temperature and reinforced with fiberglass possess unique physical. They are also inherently fire retardant. aldehydes.. 70% nitric acid at room temperature. some of which may reach a temperature of 4008F (2048C). amides. 3. and 15% hypochlorites. New York: Marcel Dekker. LLC . alkaline solutions with pH greater than 10.1 Typical Applications Bisphenol A resins find applications similar to the isophthalic resins but in areas requiring greater resistance to corrosion.A. glycols. wet chlorine. Corrosion Resistance Tables. chlorine water. nonoxidizing acids. ducts. aliphatic. fans. and the laminates. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. A noncombustible rating of 20 can be achieved. alcohols. mechanical. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. and fats and oils. and acid halides. primary and aromatic amines. These are also known as chlorendic polyesters. These resins have the highest heat resistance of any chemically resistant polyester. show very high retention of physical strength at elevated temperature upsets as in flue gas desulfurization scrubbers. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.5. 40% chromic acid. 5th ed. hoods. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. Source: From P. Table 3. organic esters.11 provides the compatibility of halogenated polyesters with selected corrodents. These resins have a very high heat distortion point. 2004.9 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 90 200 8C 32 93 173 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.

Lowest absorption of any polyester TABLE 3. LLC . primary aromatic Amides. neutral Water. acid Salts. demineralized. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum. aliphatic. steam and condensate Comments Not recommended Resistant to 2508F/1218C Resistant to 2508F/1218C. organic Alcohols Aldehydes Alkaline solutions pH O10 Amines. organic Fats and oils Glycols Ketones Mercaptans Phenol Salts. 10% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate 8F X 140 90 110 100 X X X X 220 X X 200 120 90 170 160 250 8C X 60 32 43 38 X X X X 104 X X 93 49 32 77 71 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Aluminum chloride. distilled.11 Compatibility of Halogenated Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. glacial acetic acid to 1208F/498C Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 1808F/828C Not recommended for continuous exposure Can cause severe attack Can cause severe attack Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 2008F/958C Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 1808F/828C Not recommended Resistant to 2508F/1218C Resistant to 2508F/1218C Resistant to 2128F/1008C. 50% Acetic acid. deionized.10 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers General Application Guide for Chlorinated Polyester Laminates Environment Acid halides Acids. mineral nonoxidizing Acids. other alkaline organics Esters.174 TABLE 3. aqueous Aluminum fluoride.

Ammonium fluoride. 50% Ammonium chloride. sat. 20% 8F 150 140 200 200 200 140 140 90 90 200 140 150 200 120 100 190 200 X 120 200 X 250 250 X 180 X X 90 120 250 X X 190 180 100 100 X 80 100 X 200 X 150 210 250 250 X 80 8C 66 60 93 93 93 60 60 32 32 93 60 66 93 49 38 85 93 X 49 93 X 121 121 X 82 X X 32 49 121 X X 88 82 38 38 X 27 38 X 93 X 66 99 121 121 X 27 (continued) 175 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride. 50% Aqua regia 3:1 Barium Carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC . sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride. dry Bromine gas. sat. Calcium Hypochlorite.11 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. moist Bromine. 20% Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.

Hydrobromic acid. 25% Chlorine gas. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 50% water Chloroacetic acid.176 TABLE 3. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Hydrobromic acid. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 15% Citric acid. conc.11 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% 8F 220 150 250 140 X 250 250 X 170 120 160 80 100 90 200 220 X X X X 180 140 210 250 250 210 250 250 250 X 140 100 100 X 250 250 250 250 250 160 200 160 200 230 180 150 120 100 8C 104 66 121 60 X 121 121 X 77 49 71 27 38 32 93 104 X X X X 82 60 99 121 121 99 121 121 121 X 60 38 38 X 121 121 121 121 121 71 93 71 93 110 82 66 49 38 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . wet Chlorine. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrochlorous acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Chromic acid. dil. dry Chlorine gas.

10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Magnesium Chloride Malic acid. Source: From P. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous Chloride Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Vols. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable.. 70% Phenol. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Perchloric acid. LLC . 5% Phosphoric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide.11 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Lactic acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitrous acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 50% Sodium hydroxide.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. Schweitzer. 5th ed. 10% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 2004. fuming Sulfurous acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. conc. 50% White liquor Zinc chloridex 8F 200 200 250 90 80 X 80 190 210 80 80 90 X 90 90 90 250 100 230 130 190 250 110 X X X X X 80 250 260 200 190 X X X X 80 X 110 200 X 200 8C 93 93 121 32 27 X 27 88 99 27 27 32 X 32 32 32 121 38 110 54 88 121 43 X X X X X 27 121 127 93 88 X X X X 27 X 43 93 X 93 177 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 98% Sulfuric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. conc. 5% Nitric acid.A. Sodium hypochlorite. 1–4. conc. conc. 10% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.

4. the gasoline resistance reverses with the PET performing better. and other areas where potential fire hazards may be present. This follows the general trend for thermosets that as crosslink density increases. the para isomer of phthalic acid.1 Typical Applications Halogenated polyesters are widely used in the pulp and paper industry in bleach atmospheres where they outperform stainless steel and high-nickel alloys. fans.12 Compatibility of Polyester Terephthalate (PET) with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. sat. The PET’s loss of properties in gasoline is greater than the isophthalics at the same level of unsaturation. solvent resistance increases. but as the unsaturation increases. Testing has indicated that the benzene resistance of comparably formulated resins is lower for PET versus isophthalic polyesters.5.5 Terephthalate Polyesters (PET) Terephthalate polyesters are based on terephthalic acid. 8F 300 300 X X X 80 170 300 170 8C 149 149 X X X 26 77 149 77 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.178 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. Refer to Table 3. Applications are also found for ductwork. 10% Acetic acid.5. This trend is also followed where retention offlexural modulus is elevated for various terephthalic resins versus the standard grade isophthalic resin. chemical storage tanks.12 for the compatibility of terephthalate polyester with selected corrodents. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. and chemical piping among other applications. with the terephthalics having higher heat distortion temperatures and being somewhat softer at equal saturation levels. 3. The trend was seen only at unsaturated acid levels of greater than 50 mol%. This was achieved with a reversal performance in 10% sodium hydroxide where the PETwith lower unsaturation was better than the isophthalic level. They are also used for hightemperature applications such as chimney liners. LLC . TABLE 3. 50% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Aluminum chloride aqueous Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride. The PET’s corrosion resistance is fairly similar to the isophthalics. The properties of cured terephthalic-based polyesters are similar to those of isophthalic polyesters.

50% Citric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. 15% Citric acid. wet Chloroform Chromic acid. Copper chloride Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dichloroethane Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. dry Chlorine gas.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Boric acid Bromine liquid Butyl acetate Butyric acid Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Carbon tetrachloride Chloroacetic acid. LLC . 30% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. conc. 100% Lactic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Chlorine gas. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Hydrochloric acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl ethyl ketone 8F 140 180 80 250 X 250 80 250 250 X X 250 80 250 200 80 250 250 250 250 250 X 80 80 250 250 250 150 170 170 X 80 X 250 170 250 250 250 250 90 80 X X X 250 250 250 250 8C 70 82 26 121 X 121 26 121 121 X X 121 27 121 93 27 121 121 121 121 121 X 27 27 121 121 121 66 77 77 X 27 X 121 77 121 121 121 121 32 27 X X X 121 121 121 121 (continued) 179 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

12 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid.5.5. Their versatility is due to the wide latitude in properties that can be achieved by formulation. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sodium hypochlorite. 3. Corrosion Resistance Tables. coatings. 10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Schweitzer. Source: From P. encapsulants.180 TABLE 3. 10% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. including adhesives. 70% Sulfuric acid. conc.6 Epoxy Polyesters Epoxy-based thermosets are the most widely used and versatile thermosets. 50–80% Sodium carbonate. 50% Sulfuric acid. composites. Vols. 3. tooling compounds. 10% Sodium hydroxide. LLC . 50% Sodium hydroxide. They find usage in many applications. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 5% Perchloric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 20% Sulfuric acid. and they are still widely used. 1–4.A.. and molding compounds.1 Typical Applications The terephthalates are used in applications similar to those of the isophthalates but where corrosive conditions and temperatures are more moderate. New York: Marcel Dekker. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. 10% Perchloric acid. fuming Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F X 90 150 X X X 250 250 250 150 X X 80 160 140 X X X X X 250 250 250 8C X 32 66 X X X 121 121 121 66 X X 27 71 60 X X X X X 121 121 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 2004. They dominated the reinforcing piping field until the introduction of the vinyl esters. 5th ed. 90% Sulfuric acid.

4 illustrates the structures of the most common epoxy resins in use today. 3.2-epoxide is ethylene oxide: O CH2 CH2 A common term used in naming epoxy resins is the term “glycidyl. and parts where superior thermal properties and high resistance to solvents and chemicals are required. The chemical structure is shown in Figure 3.4. For liquid resins.Thermoset Polymers 181 A large variety of epoxy resins. for solid resins. n is 2 or greater.1 Resin Types The epoxide or oxirane functionality is a three membered carbon-oxygencarbon ring.5 shows the general structure. usually formed by the reaction of o-cresol or phenol and formaldehyde with epichlorohydrin. Figure 3. modifiers. These materials are used as transfer molding powders. LLC . Two or more epoxide groups per molecule are required to form a cross-linked network. and curing agents are available that permit the epoxy formulator to tailor the epoxy system to meet the needs of each application.” The terminology for the glycidyl group: O CH2 CHCH2 comes from the trivially named glycidyl O CH2 CHCH2OH and glycidic acid: O CH2 CHCOOH Figure 3. They are produced by reacting a novolac resin. the n in the structured formula is generally less than 1. It is available in both liquid and solid forms. electrical laminates. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The simplest 1. The novolacs are another class of epoxy resins. By controlling operating conditions and varying the ratio of epichlorohydrin to bisphenol A.6. products of different molecular weight can be produced. The most widely used thermoset epoxy is the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). Solids with very high meeting points have n values as high as 20.

4epoxycyclohexane carboxylate O CH CH2 O Vinyl cyclohexane diepoxide O CH3 (CH2)2 CH2 O CH2 CH CH2 Butyl glycidyl ether CH3 O O CH3 CH CH2 O C O CH2 CH CH2 CH3 Diglycidyl ether of neopentyl glycol FIGURE 3. 3. To achieve a balance of application properties and initial handling q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .4 epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3.4 Common commercial epoxy resins. and Lewis acid catalysts. aldehyde condensation products. Useful agents are amines.2 Curing Epoxy resins must be cured with cross-linking agents (hardeners) or catalysts to develop desired properties. anhydrides. Cross-linking takes place at the epoxy and hydroxyl groups that are the reaction sites.182 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers O CH2 CH2 O CH3 C OH O CH2 CH CH2 O n CH3 O CH3 O O CH2 CH CH2 CH3 Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol-A O CH2 CH CH2 O CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol-F O O CH2 CH CH2 CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 Glycidyl ether of phenolic novolac n O O CH CH2 CH2 CH N CH2 N CH CH2 CH2 CH O O Tetraglycidyl ether of Methylenedianiline O O CH2 O C O 3.6.

and benzyl dimethylamine (BDMA).2.Thermoset Polymers 183 O O CH2 CH CH2 O CH2 CH O CH2 O CH2 CH O CH2 CH2 CH2 n FIGURE 3. However. the allowable operating temperature for epoxies cured with aromatic amines are higher than those epoxies cured with aliphatic amines.2.1 Aromatic Amines Aromatic amines usually require an elevated temperature cure. Typical acid q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 3. LLC . 3. 3. Epoxies cured with aromatic amines usually have a longer working life than epoxies cured with aliphatic amines. Typical materials used include piperidine.6. aliphatic amines.6. The electrical and physical properties of these aliphatic-cured resins had the greatest tendency toward degradation of electrical and physical properties at elevated temperatures.5 General structure of novolac epoxy resins.2. and offer optimum high-temperature properties to the cured resin. boron trifluoride ethylamine complex. careful selection of the proper curing agent is required. The primary types of curing agents are aromatic amines. characteristics.6.4 Acid Anhydrides These curing agents are becoming more widely used because they are easy to work with.3 Catalytic Curing Agents Catalytic curing agents require a temperature of 2008F (938C) or higher to react.6.2 Aliphatic Amines These are widely used because the curing of the epoxies takes place at room temperature. The exothermic reaction may be critically affected by the mass of the resin mixture. These curing agents are relatively difficult to use because they are solids and must be melted into the epoxy. and acid anhydrides.2. catalytic curing agents. High exothermic temperatures develop during the curing reaction that limit the mass of material that can be cured. These epoxy formulations exhibit a longer working life than the aliphatic amine cured epoxies. have minimum toxicity problems compared with amines. 3. Typical aliphatic amines used include diethylene triamine (DETA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA).

hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA). Embedding applications (potting. 10% Sulfamic acid. encapsulating. Formulations range from flexible to rigid in the cured state and from thin liquids to thick pastes and molding powders in the uncured state. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing.6. Typically. 3.184 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers anhydrides used include nadic methyl anhydride (NMA). They are also widely used in the electronics field because of the wide variety of formulations possible. 50% to 1808F (828C) Sodium sulfide. and alkendic anyhydride. epoxies are compatible with the following materials at 2008F (938C) unless otherwise noted: Acids Acetic acid. 20% to 1808F (828C) Bases Calcium hydroxide Rayon spin bath Oxalic acid Sodium hydroxide.3 Corrosion Resistance The epoxy resin family exhibits good resistance to alkalies. casting.13 for the compatibility of epoxies with selected corrodents. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Aluminum Calcium Iron Alcohols Methyl Ethyl Magnesium hydroxide Distilled water Seawater White liquor Bromine water Chromic acid Bleaches Trisodium phosphate Salts Magnesium Sodium Metallic salts Most ammonium salts Potassium Solvents Isopropyl to 1508F (668C) Naphtha Benzene to 1508F (668C) Toluene Ethylacetate to 1508F Xylene (668C) Miscellaneous Sour crude oil Diesel fuel Jet fuel Black liquor Gasoline Epoxies are not satisfactory for use with Fluorine Sulfuric acid above. dodecenyl succenic anhydride (DDSA). and many solvents. 3. 10% (1508F (668C)) Benzoic acid Butyric acid Fatty acids Hydrochloric acid. LLC . non-oxidizing acids. Refer to Reference [2] for more details. and impregnating) in molded parts and laminated construction are the predominant uses.4 Typical Applications Epoxy resins find many applications in the chemical process industry as piping.6. 70% Methylene chloride Wet chlorine gas Hydrogen peroxide Wet sulfur dioxide Refer to Table 3.

10–40% Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid.13 Compatibility of Epoxy with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. LLC 185 . Ammonium fluoride. 50% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. aqueous. Ammonium nitrate. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid 8F 150 90 190 110 110 X 110 X X 90 250 X 140 300 300 90 180 180 250 300 210 90 140 180 150 140 150 250 250 140 300 100 80 140 80 150 180 X 240 250 200 250 300 X 160 160 200 8C 66 32 88 43 43 X 43 X X 32 121 X 60 149 149 32 82 82 121 149 99 32 60 82 60 60 66 121 121 60 149 38 27 60 27 66 82 X 116 121 93 121 149 X 71 71 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 1% Aluminum chloride. 10% Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. sat. dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.

32% Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate. 5% Cupric chloride. 4% Bromine gas. 15% Citric acid. LLC . dry Chlorine gas. 92% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. Calcium hypochlorite. dry Bromine gas. sat.186 TABLE 3.5% Calcium hydroxide. 37. 17% Cresol Cupric chloride. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride. moist Bromine. 10% Chromic acid. 70% Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Calcium acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% 8F X 60 250 200 X X X 100 170 140 X 210 200 300 200 190 180 150 250 250 X 100 200 100 80 170 200 140 150 X 150 X 150 110 X 110 X 190 190 200 150 250 150 210 100 80 80 8C X 16 121 93 X X X 38 77 60 X 99 93 149 93 88 82 66 121 121 X 38 93 38 27 77 93 60 66 X 66 X 66 43 X 43 X 88 88 93 66 121 66 99 38 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid. 50% Citric acid.

general Lactic acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Oleum Perchloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. conc. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 8F 90 80 X X 300 300 250 250 250 90 180 180 110 200 140 160 X X X 200 X 220 200 190 X 90 140 140 160 100 X X X X 90 80 X 110 80 200 140 300 210 190 200 X X 8C 32 27 X X 149 149 121 121 121 32 82 82 43 93 60 71 X X X 93 X 104 93 88 X 32 60 60 71 38 X X X X 32 27 X 43 27 93 60 149 99 88 93 X X (continued) 187 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. dry Hydrobromic acid. dil. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 25% Lactic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 5% Nitric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. conc.13 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Hydrobromic acid. 20% Nitric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. conc. 70% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Perchloric acid. LLC . 38% Hydro cyanic acid.

100% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. LLC .. changes in the molecular structure of the vinyl esters produced resins that found extensive use in corrosion-resistant equipment. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Over the next several years. 5th ed. 3.188 TABLE 3. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. This improved toughness permits the resins to be used in castings as well as in reinforced products. The structural formulas for typical vinyl ester resins are shown in Figure 3. Source: From P. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sulfuric acid. These resins have improved bonding to inorganic fillers and reinforcements as a result of the internal hydroxyl group.6. 20% Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 250 200 160 140 110 110 X X X X 240 X 150 X 90 250 8C 121 93 71 60 43 43 X X X X 116 X 66 X 32 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. fuming Sulfurous acid. Vinyl ester resins are also available in halogenated modifications for ductwork and stack construction where fire retardance and ignition q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. replacing acrylic materials that were being used at that time. 2004.A. Present-day vinyl esters possess several advantages over unsaturated polyesters. 70% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Vinyl esters were first used as dental fillings.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium sulfide to 10% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.7 Vinyl Esters The vinyl ester class of resins was developed during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Vols. Composites produced from vinyl esters have improved bonding to the reinforcements and improved damage resistance. 10% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. 1–4. 98% Sulfuric acid. They provide improved toughness in the cured polymer while maintaining good thermal stability and physical properties at elevated temperatures. Corrosion Resistance Tables.

resistance are major concerns. it is more resistant to hydrolysis and oxidation or halogenation than the polyesters. pressure fluctuations. They provide excellent fiber wet-out and good adhesion to the glass fiber. Because of the basic structure of the vinyl ester molecule. they are similar to the amine-cured epoxies but less than the heat-cured epoxies. The vinyl ester resins have an upper temperature limit of approximately 2258F (1078C). 3.Thermoset Polymers 189 CH3 O H2C C C OH CH3 C CH3 DGEBA vinyl ester OH O CH3 C O CH2 CH CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 O C C CH2 n O CH3 OH CH CH2 O C C CH2 CH2 O CH2 O CH3 OH CH CH2 O C C CH2 CH2 O CH2 O CH3 OH CH CH2 O C C CH2 CH2 O n Phenolic novalac vinyl ester FIGURE 3. Exceptions to this are the vinyl ester resins having a novolac backbone. highly chlorinated. vinyl esters can be used to handle most hot. In many cases. 5. LLC . These resins can be used at 325–3508F (163–1778C). They also provide excellent resistance to strong mineral acids and bleaching solutions. there can be differences in the compatibility of formulations among q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Vinyl esters excel in alkaline and bleach environments and are used extensively in the very corrosive conditions found in the pulp and paper industry. and acid mixtures at elevated temperatures. As a result. Vinyl ester laminates have slightly higher strengths than polyesters. and mechanical shock than the chlorendic and bisphenol polyester resins. This results in a tough laminate that is resistant to cracking and crazing. Vinyl esters have a number of basic advantages including: 1. 4. The family of vinyl esters includes a wide variety of formulations. In general. 2. but they are not as high as the heat-cured epoxies. The vinyl esters have better impact resistance and greater tolerance to cyclic temperatures.6 Structural formula for typical vinyl ester resins. They cure rapidly and give high early strength and superior creep resistance as a result of their molecular structure.

LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. one must keep in mind that all formulations may not act as shown.14 Compatibility of Vinyl Ester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. This is the case in Table 3. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite 8F X 200 180 150 150 100 X X 100 X 180 90 90 240 210 260 140 100 200 200 250 100 150 150 200 200 200 140 140 100 130 250 180 200 220 120 220 8C X 93 82 66 66 38 X X 38 X 82 32 32 116 99 127 60 38 93 93 121 38 66 66 93 93 93 60 60 38 54 121 82 93 104 49 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ammonium fluoride. 50% Ammonium chloride.190 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers manufacturers. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. aqueous Aluminum chloride. sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 50% Acetic acid.14 that shows the compatibility of TABLE 3. 10% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonia bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. An indication that vinyl ester is compatible generally means that at least one formulation is compatible. When one checks compatibility in a table. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.

wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. dry Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. LLC . 50% water 8F 110 210 120 X 160 X 260 200 150 200 180 X X 200 180 100 90 210 200 100 100 X 80 120 X 130 180 180 260 180 180 180 180 210 160 250 220 X 200 220 X 350 180 120 140 150 8C 38 99 49 X 71 X 127 93 66 93 82 X X 93 82 38 32 99 93 38 38 X 27 49 X 54 82 82 127 82 82 82 82 99 71 116 104 X 93 104 X 177 82 49 60 66 (continued) 191 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. moist Bromine. dry Carbon dioxide. sat.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.

10% Ketones. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. conc. Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Chlorine gas. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. conc. wet Chlorine. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. moist Hydrobromic acid. 15% Citric acid.14 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate.192 TABLE 3. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. dry Fluorine gas. Magnesium chloride 8F 200 250 250 X 110 X X 150 X 210 210 210 210 220 210 240 X 260 220 150 150 200 100 110 210 210 210 200 200 200 X X 180 180 200 220 180 160 X X X 150 150 X 210 200 260 8C 93 121 121 X 43 X X 66 X 99 99 99 99 104 99 116 X 127 104 66 66 93 38 43 99 99 99 93 93 93 X X 82 82 93 104 82 71 X X X 66 66 X 99 93 127 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. general Lactic acid. LLC . 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% Hydrochloric acid.

Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Source: From P. 50% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 140 210 X X 180 180 150 X X 150 X 150 X X 210 200 160 150 180 180 170 220 180 100 220 210 200 200 210 180 X X X X 120 X 120 210 180 180 8C 60 99 X X 82 82 66 X X 66 X 66 X X 99 93 71 66 82 82 77 104 82 38 104 99 93 93 99 82 X X X X 49 X 49 99 82 82 193 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10% Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. Schweitzer. fuming Sulfurous acid. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. 70% Nitric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sulfuric acid.. 5th ed. conc. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 10% Perchloric acid.A. 1–4. 90% Sulfuric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. New York: Marcel Dekker. 20% Nitric acid.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Malic acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. LLC . 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 2004. 10% Oleum Perchloric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Vols.

A final Barcol hardness of 40–45 is necessary to develop optimum laminate properties. polymerization occurs by the condensation route. which generates heat and a by-product of water. storage tanks. The structural formula for the resin is: O CH2 O CH2 CH2 O O CH2 Furan thermosets are noted for their excellent resistance to solvents. LLC . process vessels. 3. which all handling corrosive materials. Because there are different formulations of furans. Reference [2] provides detailed information concerning vinyl esters as piping materials. Too fast a cure can result in a blistered or cracked laminate. which is slowly raised to 1808F (828C) for 8 h of curing.1 Typical Applications Vinyl ester laminates are used in industrial equipment and scrubbers such as absorption towers. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. Curing for a fresh laminate should start with an initial temperature of 508F (668C) for 4 h. The resin manufacturer must be consulted to verify the resistance. piping. ducts. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The exotherm must be controlled to prevent the water vapor from blistering and cracking the laminate. All furan laminates must be postured to drive out the reaction condensate to achieve optimum properties. hood scrubbers. They are considered to have the best overall chemical resistance of all the thermosets. the supplier should be consulted as to the compatibility of a particular resin with the corrodents to be encountered. caustics. They also exhibit excellent resistance to strong concentrated mineral acids.7. Furan resin catalysts should have exotherms above 658F (188C) but not over 858F (308C). and exhaust stacks. With an acid catalyst.194 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers vinyl ester laminates with selected corrodents. and combinations of solvents with acids and bases. 3.8 Furans Furan polymers are derivatives of furfuryl alcohol and furfural.

50% Furan resins are not satisfactory for use with oxidizing media such as chromic or nitric acids. LLC . peroxides. 5% Aluminum chloride.15 Compatibility of Furan Resins with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride.15 for the compatibility of furan resins with selected corrodents. chlorine. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid. phenol. 80% Acetic acid. and concentrated sulfuric acid. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing.Thermoset Polymers 195 Typical materials with which furan resins are compatible are: Acetone Benzene Carbon disulfide Chlorobenzene Perchloroethylene Acetic acid Hydrochloric acid Diethylamine Sodium carbonate Demineralized Pulp mill liquor Solvents Styrene Toluene Ethanol Ethyl acetate Acids Nitric acid. hypochlorites. TABLE 3. 60% to 1508F (668C) Sodium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. Refer to Table 3. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonium carbonate 8F X 212 160 80 80 80 80 200 80 80 280 300 300 140 300 300 280 260 160 240 8C X 100 71 27 27 27 27 93 27 27 138 149 149 60 149 149 138 127 71 116 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum. 10% Acetic acid. 5% Phosphoric acid Bases Sodium sulfide Water Distilled Others Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Trichloroethylene Xylene Sulfuric acid.

15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide. dry Bromine gas. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 3% max Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. LLC . sat. liquid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Cellosolve 8F 250 200 250 260 260 260 260 240 260 278 X 80 250 X 240 260 260 260 80 160 160 260 80 140 140 300 X X 300 260 212 X 260 260 160 260 X 260 260 250 160 90 80 260 212 240 8C 121 93 121 127 127 127 127 116 127 137 X 27 121 X 116 127 127 127 27 71 71 127 27 60 60 149 X X 149 127 100 X 127 127 71 127 X 127 127 121 71 32 27 127 100 116 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Carbon dioxide. sat.196 TABLE 3. moist Bromine. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

general Lactic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. Magnesium chloride 8F 100 240 260 260 X 260 X 260 X X 250 250 250 260 260 240 300 260 300 300 140 X 250 160 260 160 160 160 X X 212 212 212 212 80 160 230 140 140 X X 100 212 160 260 8C 38 116 127 127 X 127 X 127 X X 121 121 121 127 127 116 149 127 149 149 60 X 121 71 127 71 71 71 X X 100 100 100 100 27 71 110 60 60 X X 38 100 71 127 (continued) 197 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. conc. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 10% Ketones. wet Chlorine. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. dry Fluorine gas. dry Chlorine gas. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 15% Citric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. conc.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroacetic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate.

A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. 10% Perchloric acid. Sodium sulfide to 10% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. 1–4. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.. Corrosion Resistance Tables. New York: Marcel Dekker. Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Nitric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid.198 TABLE 3. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 50% Sulfuric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. conc. 90% Sulfuric acid. 2004.A. LLC . 5% Nitric acid.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Malic acid. 5th ed. Vols. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 260 200 120 80 160 80 X X X X X 190 X 260 X 212 260 260 212 260 X X X X X 260 260 250 160 80 80 X X X X 160 X 212 80 140 160 8C 127 93 49 27 71 27 X X X X X 88 X 127 X 100 127 127 100 127 X X X X X 127 127 121 71 27 27 X X X X 71 X 100 27 60 71 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Picric acid Potassium bromide. conc. 15% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Source: From P. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 100% Sulfuric acid.

and the catalysts. alcohols and ketones. it was not until. Phenolics are not suitable for use in strong alkaline environments. and special equipment such as scrubbing columns. depending on the nature of the reactants. Bakeland. fillers. They serve as binders for core material in furniture.9. can attack phenolics. and transmission bands. and oxalic. 3. There is some loss of properties when phenolics are in contact with organic acids such as acetic.Thermoset Polymers 199 3. phenolics are used to bond friction materials for automotive brake linings. Although phenolics have an aromatic character. Sulfuric and phosphoric acids may be suitable under some conditions. Phenolic resin precursors are formed by a condensation reaction and water is formed as a by-product. Refer to Reference [2] for more information regarding furan piping systems. and pigments employed. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing.1 Typical Applications Furan resins cost approximately 30–50% more than polyester resins and do not have as good of an impact resistance as the polyesters. formic. They find application as piping. Phenolic resins exhibit resistance to most organic solvents. chromic. especially aromatics and chlorinated solvents.8. the water-resistant adhesive for exterior grade plywood. after the “heat and pressure” patent was applied for in 1907 by Leo H.16 for the compatibility of phenolics with. clutch parts. Strong mineral acids also attack the phenolics. 3. LLC . selected corrodents. binders for wood particle boards.9 Phenolics These are the oldest commercial classes of polymers in use today. Organic polar solvents capable of hydrogen bonding. the ratios used. and acids such as nitric. The structural formula is: OH CH2 O CH2 OH n Phenolic compounds are available in a large number of variations. tanks. that the development and application of phenolic molding compounds became economical. lubricants. An extremely large number of phenolic materials are available as a result of the many resin and filler combinations. the phenolic hydroxyls provide sites for hydrogen bonding and attack by caustics. Although first discovered in 1876. Refer to Table 3. and hydrochloric cause severe degradation.1 Typical Applications In addition to molding compounds. plasticizers. and q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% Ammonium fluoride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.16 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Phenolics with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Acetic acid. LLC . 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride 8F 8C 212 100 70 70 X 21 21 X 90 32 300 90 90 80 80 80 149 32 32 27 27 27 X X 160 X X 71 300 149 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ammonium fluoride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonia bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.200 TABLE 3. sat.

50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. LLC . wet Chlorine. 25% Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine gas. Calcium hypochlorite. sat. 10% 8F 8C 201 70 160 70 21 71 21 70 21 X X 160 71 300 149 X X 300 300 149 149 200 200 93 93 X X 260 160 X X X 127 71 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Bromine gas. moist Bromine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 10% Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.

LLC . 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. general Lactic acid. conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid. dil. 5% Nitric acid. 40% Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 10% Ketones. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride. Hydrobromic acid. 60% Hydrofluoric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid. 20% 8F X 160 160 8C X 71 71 300 149 70 300 300 21 149 149 200 200 200 300 300 X X X 93 93 93 149 149 X X X 160 71 160 X 160 300 X X 71 X 71 149 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.202 TABLE 3. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. dry Fluorine gas. conc. 15% Citric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid.

industrial. 50% Sodium hydroxide.A. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 1–4. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. or cushioning for home. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 2004. 10% Sodium hydroxide.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 100% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.. Vols. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 5th ed. The excellent water resistance of phenolics makes them particularly suitable for marine applications. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 70% Nitric acid. the bonding agent for converting organic and inorganic fibers into acoustical and thermal insulation pads. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sulfuric acid. conc. 70% Sulfuric acid. conc. They also find applications as gears. Corrosion Resistance Tables. and automotive applications. New York: Marcel Dekker. conc. Decorative or electrical laminates are produced by impregnating paper with phenolic resins. 98% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. Source: From P. Sodium hypochlorite. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. 90% Sulfuric acid. LLC . Oleum Perchloric acid. baths. 15% Sodium hypochlorite. 30% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 8C X X 203 X 212 X 100 300 X X X X X 149 X X X X X 250 250 200 70 X X 80 200 121 121 93 21 X X 27 93 300 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. anhydrous Nitrous acid.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide.

It is sold under the tradename of Haveg SP. and even though high filler loading can improve the low-power arc resistance. Second. or high voltage usually result in complete arcing breakdown. Inc. Reference [2] provides details on phenol-formaldehyde H C H H H C H FIGURE 3. When graphite is used as a filler. has approximately the same basic physical and mechanical properties as other phenolic resins.7. their water absorption is high. Haveg. they are used in printed circuits and terminal blocks. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 3. and piping. printed circuits. 3. and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. they have somewhat poor resistance to electric arcs. usually brown or black. 3. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. dirt. Phenol-formaldehyde is crosslinked phenolic resin and.10 Phenol-Formaldehyde As the name implies.17 for the compatibility of phenol-formaldehyde with selected corrodents. Their use is limited because of two disadvantages. Although they maintain their properties in the presence of water. a division of Ametek. Because of their suitability in a variety of environments. wheels. because of the nature of the resin.10. and pulleys because of their wear and abrasion resistance. Refer to Reference [2] for more details. The laminates are only available in dark colors.204 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers wheels. terminal blocks. salts. Phenol-formaldehyde laminates are generally used with mineral acids. LLC H OH OH C C C C C H H H C C C C H C H H C C C C C . However. reaching 14% in some paper-based grades of laminates.7 Structural formula for phenol-formaldehyde resins. produces a phenolic piping system using silica filaments and filler. it does not have the impact resistance of the polyesters or epoxies. and pulleys. moisture. the laminate is suitable for use with hydrofluoric acid and certain fluoride salts. these resins are derived from phenol and formaldehyde. in general.1 Typical Applications Applications include gears. The structural formula is shown in Figure 3.

dry Chlorine gas. 3% max Butyric acid Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid. dry Aluminum sulfate Ammonium hydroxide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Acetic acid. sat. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 80% Acetic acid. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 8F X 212 160 120 120 X X 80 X 300 300 300 X X 160 X X 160 160 160 300 300 260 300 X X X 160 212 160 160 160 80 X X 300 300 300 80 300 300 300 212 8C X 100 71 49 49 X X 27 X 149 149 149 X X 71 X X 71 71 71 149 149 127 149 X X X 71 100 71 71 71 27 X X 149 149 149 27 149 149 149 100 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.17 Compatibility of Phenol-Formaldehyde with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 50% Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. Calcium hypochlorite Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorine gas. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. LLC 205 . liquid. 10% Benzyl chloride Boric acid Bromine. 90% Acrylonitrile Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid. Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. dil. 50% Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 40% Hydrobromic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride.

nose cones. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Lactic acid. Vols. conc. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. Sodium hypochlorite. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. piping systems. 90% Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. conc. They also produce less smoke and toxic by-products of combustion and are often used as interior aircraft panels. Source: From P.. 30% Zinc chloride 8F 212 300 300 160 X X X X 160 160 300 X X 300 X X X X X 212 X X X X X X 300 300 250 100 160 80 212 80 300 8C 100 149 149 71 X X X X 71 71 149 X X 149 X X X X X 100 X X X X X X 149 149 121 38 71 27 100 27 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. they find application as ablative shields for re-entry vehicles. conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Because of this. LLC . 1–4. 20% Hydrochloric acid. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. rocket nozzles. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which date are available. 5th ed.17 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrobromic acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. and rocket motor chambers. 2004. 50% Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide. Sulfuric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. anhydrous Phenol Phosphoric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Nitric acid. Schweitzer. Phenol-formaldehyde resins have high heat resistance and good char strengths.206 TABLE 3.A. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Nitric acid.

Thermoset Polymers 207 3. Although they exhibit excellent resistance to water and weathering. Silicone polymers possess several properties that distinguish them from their organic counterparts. but aromatic solvents such as benzene. and lubrication oils. Uniform properties over a wide temperature range 5. They have a backbone structure of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms rather than a backbone of carbon–carbon atoms. depending upon the properties required and the application. The basic structure is: CH3 Si CH3 O CH3 Si CH3 O n Typically. Excellent electrical properties over a wide range of temperature and frequencies 6. These are 1. Silicone polymers may be filled or unfilled. Excellent release properties 9. and chlorinated solvents will cause excessive swelling. Weather resistance 3. Inertness and compatibility both physiologically and in electronic applications Silicone resins and composites produced with silicon resins exhibit outstanding long-term thermal stability at temperatures approaching 5728F (3008C) and excellent moisture resistance and electrical properties. Silicone laminates can be used in contact with dilute acids and alkalies. alcohol. but it is a more stable element. The silicones are a family of synthetic polymers that are partly organic and inorganic. methyl (CH3). Extreme water repellency 4. toluene. or vinyl (CH2aCH–) units. animal and vegetable oils. generally phenol (CH6H5–). These materials are also useful in the cryogenic temperature range. lubricity. High degree of slip or lubricity 8. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Chemical inertness 2. they are not resistant to high-pressure. high-temperature steam.11 Silicones Silicon is in the same chemical group as carbon. LLC . and reactivity with organic chemicals and polymers. These groups impact properties such as solvent resistance. gasoline. Low surface tension 7. the silicon atoms will have one or more organic side groups attached to them. They are also resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons.

TABLE 3. Therefore. sat. 80% Acetic acid. it is necessary to check with the supplier as to the properties of the silicone laminate being supplied. Ammonium fluoride.208 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers As previously discussed. Carbon bisulfide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbonic acid Chlorobenszen Chlorosulfonic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Hydrobromic acid. glacial Acetone Acrylic acid. LLC . 10% Acetic acid. 20% 8F 90 90 90 90 100 80 X 220 410 X 80 80 80 X 210 80 X X X 80 X X X 390 80 400 300 200 400 X X 400 400 X X 400 400 X 90 8C 32 32 32 32 43 27 X 104 210 X 27 27 27 X 99 27 X X X 27 X X X 189 27 204 149 99 204 X X 204 204 X X 204 204 X 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat.18 Compatibility of Methyl Appended Silicone Laminate with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid.18 lists the compatibility of a silicone laminate with methyl-appended side groups. 25% Ammonium nitrate Amly acetate Amly alcohol Amly chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Benzene Benzyl chloride Boric acid Butyl alcohol Calcium bisulfide Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. The addition of these side groups has an effect on the corrosion resistance. 10% Ammonium chloride. the silicon atoms may have one or more organic side groups attached. 50% Acetic acid. Table 3. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 75% Acrylonitrile Alum Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride.

10% Sodium hydroxide. New York: Marcel Dekker. salt Water. demineralized Water.18 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrochloric acid. Vols. distilled Water. conc. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. fuming Sulfurous acid Tartaric acid Tetrahydrofuran Toluene Tributyl phosphate Turpentine Vinegar Water. all conc. acid mine Water. 1–4. 5% Nitric acid. 50–80% Propyl alcohol Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. anhydrous Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. 50% Sodium hydroxide. LLC . 20% Sodium sulfate Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid.A. 50% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. 10% Sodium hydroxide.. 5th ed. 70% Sulfuric acid. 30% Lactic acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature. 70% Nitric acid. 2004. Lactic acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Corrosion Resistance Tables. sea Xylene Zinc chloride 8F X X 80 80 400 410 X X 80 X X X X X X 400 300 400 90 90 90 X 400 80 X X X X X X X X 400 X X X X 400 210 210 210 210 210 X 400 8C X X 27 27 204 210 X X 23 X X X X X X 204 149 204 32 32 32 X 204 27 X X X X X X X X 204 X X X X 204 99 99 99 99 99 X 204 209 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 20% Nitric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 90% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid.

The end products are extremely resistant to material abrasion and have an operating temperature range of K80 to C5008F (K62 to C2608C).1 Typical Applications Silicone laminates find application as radomes. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Aluminum chloride Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide Aqua regia Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Black liquor Bromine hypochlorite Carbon tetrachloride Chloric acid Chlorine water Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chromic acid. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. slot wedges. salt White liquor (paper) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 1–98% Sulfuric acid. The operating temperature will be tempered by the material being handled. coil forms. 52% Iodine Jet fuel Kerosene Ketones Latex Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Methylene chloride Molten sulfur Monochloroacetic acid Nickel plating solutions Nitrous oxide Phosphoric acid Phosphoric acid. deionized Water. Siloxirane is a homopolymerized polymer with an ether crosslinkage (carbon–oxygen–carbon) having a very dense. 50% Dibutyl phthalate Dichlorobenzene Dimethylformamide Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ferric chloride Formaldehyde Furan Furfural alcohol Gasohol Gasoline Green liquor Hydraulic oil Hydrazine Hydrochloric acid. 10% Chromic acid. 3. structures in electronics. ablation shields. 0–37% Hydrofluoric acid. rocket components. and terminal boards.12 Siloxirane Siloxirane is the registered trademark for Tankenitics homopolymerized polymer with a cross-linked organic–inorganic (SiO) backbone with oxirane endcaps.210 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. 1% Hydrochloric acid. 17% Sodium hypochlorite. LLC . The absence of the hydroxyl (found in epoxies) and ester groups (found in vinyl esters) eliminates the built-in failure modes of other polymers and provides superior performance. aged Sulfate liquor (paper) Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid. heaters.11. Siloxirane laminates have a wide range of chemical resistance. Following is a list of some of the chemicals with which siloxirane is compatible: Acetamide Acetic acid. highly cross-linked molecular structure. fuming oleum Tallow Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroethylene Tricresyl phosphate Water. 85% Sodium chloride Sodium dichromate Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite.

12. This makes these materials particularly useful for service in contact with lubricating oils and automotive fuels. Some 1–4. Aromatic hydrocarbons. Their structural formula is shown in Figure 3. packaging. Foam materials blown with halocarbons have the lowest thermal conductivity of any commercially available insulation. aliphatic. Melamine resin can be combined with a variety of reinforcing fibers. picnic boxes.13 Polyurethanes Polyurethanes are reaction products of isocyanates. and ketones will attack urethane. prepolymers of the isocyanate and the polyol are generally used in casting. Polyurethane resin is resistant to most mineral and vegetable oils. Polyurethane thermosets can be rigid or flexible.Thermoset Polymers 211 3. 3. they are also referred to as melamine formaldehydes. and building construction. esters.1 Typical Applications Applications include large automotive parts and building components. Because of the hazards involved in handling free isocyanate. and tank liners. ductwork. polyols. They are also resistant to greases. 3. polar solvents.14 Melamines Melamine is a polymer formed by a condensation reaction between formaldehyde and amino compounds containing NH2 groups. Vessels produced from Siloxirane have been approved to receive ASME Section X Class 11 certification and stamping as code vessels. and the product of pressure (psig) and the diameter in inches may not exceed 7200. Consequently. and curing agents. LLC .13. and fatty foods.8.1 Typical Applications Siloxirane laminates are used in piping. the best properties are obtained when glass cloth is used as the q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and chlorinated hydrocarbons. 3. Class 11 vessels may be a maximum of 144 inches in diameter. Polyurethanes can be formulated to produce a range of materials from elastomers as soft as Shore A of 5 to tough solids with a Shore D of 90. butane-diol-cured polyurethanes have been approved by the FDA for use in applications that will come into contact with dry. and shock and vibration mounts. storage tanks. They are used in refrigerators. Flexible foam has also been used in furniture. fuels. aqueous. However. depending on the formulation.

reinforcement material. oils.8 Structural formula for melamine-formaldehyde resins. However. 10% Amyl acetate Carbon tetrachloride Citric acid Coffee Detergent Fly spray Gasoline Moth spray Mustard Naphtha Olive oil Soaps Shoe polish Sodium bisulfite Trisodium phosphate Urine Water Wax and crayons There are certain chemicals and household preparations that tend to stain the melamine laminate. resist scratching and marring. The clarity of melamine resins permits products to be fabricated in virtually any color. and offer excellent electrical properties. Melamine laminates are compatible with the following chemicals: Acetone Alcohol Ammonium hydroxide. the stain can be removed by buffing with a mild abrasive. Melamines exposed outdoors suffer little degradation in electrical or physical properties.212 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers CH2 N H H CH2 N C N N C N H C N N H (CH2)2 N N C H C N N C N H (CH2)2 H N C N N C H C N CH2 N N H CH2 CH2 FIGURE 3. Finished melamine products exhibit excellent resistance to moisture. Melamine formulations filled with cellulose are capable of producing an unlimited range of light-stable colors with a high degree of translucency. greases. and solvents. The basic material properties are not affected by the addition of color. Prolonged exposure at high temperature will affect the color and cause a loss of some strength characteristics. Low temperatures have relatively little effect on the properties of the melamine. Included are such materials as Beet juice Bluing Dyes Ink Iodine solution Mercurochrome solution Phenol (lysol) Tea Vinegar q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. are tasteless and odorless. but some color changes may take place. LLC . are selfextinguishing.

The greatest limitations of alkyds are in the extremes of temperature above 3508F (1178C) and in high humidity. The ability to use any of the many suitable polyfunctional alcohols and acids permits selection of a large variation of repeating units. they are not as durable to long-term exposure as the acrylics. Their durability to interior exposure is good. sealers. and caulks for wood finishing. and their color and gloss retention are inferior. calcium carbonate. Alkyd compounds are chemically similar to polyester compounds but make use of higher viscosity or dry monomers.1 Typical Applications Alkyds are used for finishing metal and wood products but not to the degree previously used. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Alkyd-modified acrylic latex paints are excellent architectural finishes. they exhibit good resistance to weather. chemical resistance.1 Typical Applications The heat resistance and water-white color of melamine polymers make them ideally suited for use in the home as high-quality molded dinnerware. melamine-surfaced decorative laminates find wide application in the home. Alkyd compounds often contain glass fiber filler but may contain clay. Because of their formulating flexibility. The alkyds exhibit poor resistance to solvents and alkalies. Their resistance to dilute acid is fair. they are used in fillers. The decorative pattern may be a solid color. or any design. Although alkyds are used outdoors. or alumina. Formulating can provide resins that demonstrate a wide variety of characteristics involving flexibility heat resistance. but their durability to exterior exposure is only fair.14.Thermoset Polymers 213 The following chemicals and household preparations may damage melamine laminates: Berry juices Gentian violet Hydrogen peroxide Hypochlorite bleaches Lye solutions Mineral acids Potassium permanganate Silver nitrate Silver protein (argyrol) Sodium bisulfate 3. LLC . a wood grain.15. and electrical properties.15 Alkyds Alkyds are saturated resins produced from the reaction of organic alcohols with organic acids. 3. However. 3. They are still used for finishing by the machine tool and other industries.

3. they are often referred to as urea formaldehydes. 3. but the most commonly used are Diallyl phthlate (DAP) and diallyl isophthalate q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and resist scratching and marring. However. Amino polymers are self-extinguishing and have excellent electrical insulating properties. They are reaction products of formaldehyde with amino compounds containing NH2 groups. heat.16 Ureas (Aminos) Ureas (commonly referred to as aminos) are polymers formed by condensation reactions and do not produce by-products. oils. When urea moldings are subjected to severe cycling between dry and wet conditions. Aminos are unsuitable for outdoor exposure. The addition of alpha cellulose produces an unlimited range of light-stable colors and high degrees of translucency.9 Chemical structure of urea-formaldehyde. Certain strength characteristics also experience a loss when amino moldings are subjected to prolonged elevated temperatures. The general chemical structure of urea formaldehyde is shown in Figure 3. are produced in several variations. Basic material properties are unaffected by the addition of color.17 Allyls The allyls. cracks develop. the melamine resins exhibit better chemical. and solvents. The most commonly used filler for the amines is alpha cellulose. Therefore. or diallyl phthalates. Finished products containing an amino resin surface exhibit excellent resistance to moisture. greases. are tasteless and odorless.9. and moisture resistance than the amines. LLC .214 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers CH2 N C CH2 O CH2 N C CH2 N C CH2 O CH2 N C CH2 O CH2 N C N C CH2 O N CH2 O N C N CH2 O CH2 N CH2 O CH2 N N C CH2 O CH2 N N C CH2 O CH2 N N C CH2 O N N C CH2 O N FIGURE 3. Amino resins are used in modifying other resins to increase hardness and accelerate cure.

5 0. or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) where abrasion resistance and high heat distortion or impact resistance are required.9 DAIP K0. Cure cycles are shorter and little or no post cure is required to provide usable strength up to 4828F (2508C).3 0.7 0. LLC . and ease of cleanup.4 0. 10% Sulfuric acid.8 215 (DAIP). 1% Sodium hydroxide. It is used largely in optical castings in competition with glass. DAP and DAIP are seldom used as cast homopolymers except for small electrical parts because of their low tensile strength and impact resistance. The primary difference between the two is that DAIP will withstand somewhat higher temperatures than DAP. low resin bleed out. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.7 0.8 0. DAP finds application for the impregnation of ferrous and nonferrous castings because of its low viscosity. 3% Sulfuric acid. excellent sealing properties. Refer to Table 3.19 for the chemical resistance of DAP and DAIP. When physical abuse is likely.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. or a combination of these materials. the polymer is provided with a glass or mineral filling.03 0.18 Polybutadienes Polybutadienes have essentially hydrocarbon structure as follows: CH CH CH2 CH2 The basic materials are monopolymers or copolymers that react through terminal hydroxyl groups. and shear strengths. compressive. 3. terminal carboxyl groups.19 Chemical Resistance of DAP and DAIP % Gain in Weight after 30 Days Immersion at 778F/258C Corrodent Acetone Sodium hydroxide.6 0. Allyl carbonate (diethylene glycol) is marketed as CR-39 by PPG Industries.7 0. DAP and DAIP glass laminates have high-temperature electrical properties superior to those of most other structural laminates. It is also used to impregnate wood to reduce water absorption and increase impact.4 0. 30% Water DAP 1. vinyl groups.

216

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Polybutadiene polymers that have a 1,2 microstructure varying from 60 to 90% offer potential as moldings, laminating resins, coatings, and cast liquid and formed sheet products. Outstanding electrical and thermal stability results from the structure that is essentially pure hydrocarbon. Peroxide catalysts used to cure polybutadienes produce carbon–carbon double bonds in the vinyl group. The final product is 100% hydrocarbon except where the starting polymer is the –OH or –COOH radical. Poly BD marketed by Atochem North America, Inc. is a family of hydroxyl-terminated butadiene homopolymers and copolymers with styrene or acrylonitrile. These materials are usually reacted with isocyanates to produce polyurethanes that have excellent resistance to boiling water. The B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company produces monopolymers and copolymers with acrylonitrile. These are known as the Hylar series. Acrylonitrile increases the viscosity and imparts oil resistance, adhesion, and compatibility with epoxy resins. Carboxy-terminated butadieneacrylonitrile copolymer (CTBN) improves impact strength, low-temperature shear strength, and crack resistance in epoxy formulations. Amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers (ATBN) are also used to modify epoxy resins. These are formulated on the amine-hardener side of the mix. Applications for these formulations include electrical potting compounds (with transformer oil) sealants and moisture block compounds for telephone cables. The hydrocarbon structure is responsible for the excellent resistance shown by polybutadiene to chemicals and solvents and for the electrical properties that are good over a range of frequencies, temperatures, and humidity, and resistance to high temperature. Refer to Table 3.20 for the compatibility of polybutadiene with selected corrodents.

TABLE 3.20 Compatibility of Polybutadiene with Selected Corrodents
Maximum Temperature Chemical Alum Alum ammonium Alum ammonium sulfate Alum chrome Alum potassium Aluminum chloride, aqueous Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride, 10% Ammonium chloride, 28% 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 (continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.20 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride, 50% Ammonium chloride, sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium sulfate, 10–40% Calcium chloride, sat. Calcium hypochlorite, sat. Carbon dioxide, wet Chlorine gas, wet Chrome alum Chromic acid, 10% Chromic acid, 30% Chromic acid, 40% Chromic acid, 50% Copper chloride Copper sulfate Fatty acids Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate Hydrochloric acid, dil. Hydrochloric acid, 20% Hydrochloric acid, 35% Hydrochloric acid, 38% Hydrochloric acid, 50% Hydrochloric acid fumes Hydrogen peroxide, 90% Hydrogen sulfide, dry Nitric acid, 5% Nitric acid, 10% Nitric acid, 20% Nitric acid, 30% Nitric acid, 40% Nitric acid, 50% Nitric acid, 70% Nitric acid, anhydrous Nitric acid, conc. Ozone Phenol Sodium bicarbonate, 20% Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate Sodium hydroxide, 10% Sodium hydroxide, 15% Sodium hydroxide, 30% Sodium hydroxide, 50% Sodium hydroxide, 70% Sodium hydroxide, conc. 8F 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 X 90 X X X X 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 80 80 X X X X 80 X 80 90 80 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 X 32 X X X X 32 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 27 27 27 X X X X 27 X 27 32 27 32 32 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 (continued)

217

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

218 TABLE 3.20 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hypochlorite to 20% Sodium nitrate Sodium phosphate, acid Sodium phosphate, alkaline Sodium phosphate, neutral Sodium silicate Sodium sulfide to 50% Sodium sulfite, 10% Sodium dioxide, dry Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid, 10% Sulfuric acid, 30% Sulfuric acid, 50% Sulfuric acid, 60% Sulfuric acid, 70% Toluene 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 X 90 80 80 80 80 90 X 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 X 32 27 27 27 27 32 X

The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. Source: From P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

3.19 Polyimides
Polyimides can be prepared as either thermoplastic or thermoset resins. There are two types of polyimides, condensation, and addition resins. Condensation polyimides are available as either thermosets or thermoplastics. The additional polyimides are available only as thermosets. The polyimides are heterocyclic polymers having an atom of nitrogen in the inside ring as shown below:
O C N C O

n

The fused rings provide stiffness that provides high-temperature strength retention. The low concentration of hydrogen provides oxidative resistance by preventing thermal fracture of the chain.
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Thermoset Polymers

219

Polyimides have continuous high-temperature stability up to 500–6008F (260–3158C) and can withstand 9008F (4828C) for short-term use. Polyimides are sensitive to alkaline chemicals and will be dissolved by hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide. They are also moisture sensitive, gaining 1% in weight after 1000 hours at 50% relative humidity and 728F (238C). The polyimides exhibit excellent resistance to ionizing radiation and very low outgassing in high vacuum. 3.19.1 Typical Applications Polyimides find use in various forms, including laminates, moldings, films, coatings, and adhesives (specifically in the areas of high temperature). Coatings are used in electrical applications as insulating varnishes and magnet wire enamels at high temperatures. They also find application as a coating on cookware as an alternative to fluorocarbon coatings.

3.20 Cyanate Esters
Cyanate esters are a family of aryl dicyanate monomers that contain the reactive cyanate (–O–CaN) functional group. When heated, this cyanate functionality undergoes an exothermic cyclotrimerization reaction to form triazine ring connecting units, resulting in the formation of a thermoset polycyanate polymer. The cyanate ester monomers are available from low-viscosity liquids to meltable solids. Ciba-Geigy produces a series of cyanate esters under the trademark AroCy L-10. Cyanate esters are used in manufacturing structural composites by filament winding, resin transfer molding, and pultrusion.

References
1. 2. P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker. P.A. Schweitzer. 1994. Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems. New York: Marcel Dekker.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

4
Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers
The corrosion tables on the following pages are arranged alphabetically according to the corrodent. The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is indicated by an x. A blank space indicates that data is not available. A greater range of corrodents can be found in Reference [1]. The following polymers are identified in the table by abbreviations:
Halar–ECTFE Noryl–PPO Kynar–PVDF Penton–CPE Polyetheretherketone–PEEK Polypropylene–PP Polysulfone–PSF Kel-F–CTFE Ultem–PEI Ryton–PPS Polyamide imide–PAI Polyether sulfone–PEF Polybutadiene–PB Polyurethane–PUR Tefzel–ETFE Telflon–PTFE Saran–PVDC

Because many of the polymers may be compounded, the manufacturer should be checked to see that the material being furnished is satisfactory for the service. For example, there are three different formulations of polyamides.

221
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

222

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Acetaldahyde
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE, 40% HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 130/54 200/93 200/93 X 80/27

450/232 450/232 150/66 90/32 X

230/110 120/49 150/66 X X X X 140/60 X 80/27 X X X X 150/66 X X X

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

223

Acetamide
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C

200/93 250/121 400/204 250/121

450/232 450/232 90/32 140/60

240/116 110/43 80/27 X X

X

X 90/32

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

224

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Acetic Acid, 10%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 X 250/121 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 240/116 220/104 150/66 200/93 140/60 100/38 180/82 250/121 X X 220/104 140/60 200/93 180/82 300/149 190/88 200/93 260/127 210/99 90/32

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

225

Acetic Acid, 50%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 130/54 X 250/121 250/121 400/204 X 200/93 140/60 80/27 140/60 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 90/32 X

90/32 160/71 90/32 160/71 110/43 300/149 110/43 200/93 160/71 90/32

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

226

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Acetic Acid, 80%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 150/66 230/110 400/204 X 200/93 140/60 80/27 200/93 450/232 450/232 190/88 80/27 80/27 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 X X 250/121 X 90/32 160/71 90/32 X 300/149 110/43 150/66 200/93 120/49 90/32

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Glacial Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE. LLC . 40% HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 200/93 230/110 400/204 X 200/93 140/60 80/27 200/93 400/204 460/238 190/88 100/38 80/27 300/149 150/66 250/121 190/88 140/60 200/93 130/54 X X 250/121 X X X 110/43 X 300/149 150/66 270/132 120/49 120/49 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 227 Acetic Acid.

228 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Acetic Anhydride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 100/38 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 450/232 450/232 100/38 X X X X 280/138 100/38 90/32 X X X 150/66 X X 130/54 100/38 X X X X 100/38 90/32 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 229 Acetone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 80/27 210/99 80/27 X 450/232 450/232 X 120/49 80/27 X X 260/127 220/104 90/32 X X X X 90/32 X 120/49 X X X X X 110/43 X 200/93 X 100/43 Corrodent will be absorbed.

230 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Acetyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI DRY PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 100/38 150/66 150/66 400/204 X 120/49 460/238 460/238 120/49 X 80/27 X X 130/54 X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X X 200/93 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

25% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde. 90% Methyl appended silicone.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 231 Acrylic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. LLC . 75% PB 8F/8C 200/93 80/27 460/238 150/66 100/38 X X X X 100/38 X X X 100/38 100/38 90/32 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .232 Acrylonitrile Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 80/27 460/238 460/238 130/54 140/60 150/66 130/54 90/32 90/32 X X X 150/66 X X X X 80/27 90/32 X 260/127 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

25% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 280/138 400/204 460/227 460/227 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 150/66 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 220/104 220/104 250/121 180/82 280/138 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 233 Adipic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. LLC .

90% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 200/93 210/99 400/204 90/32 430/221 430/221 200/93 140/60 140/60 140/60 80/27 90/32 90/32 200/93 250/121 X X X X 90/32 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .234 Allyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 235 Allyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 300/149 190/88 400/204 450/232 450/232 200/93 80/27 110/43 X 140/60 X X X 90/32 X X X 140/60 90/32 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

5% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 450/232 450/232 210/99 140/60 140/60 150/66 120/49 300/149 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 200/93 250/121 150/66 300/149 240/116 140/60 220/104 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.236 Alum Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. LLC .

LLC . 10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 200/93 460/238 250/121 210/99 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 250/121 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 237 Aluminum Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy.

1% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 200/93 300/149 300/149 400/204 90/32 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 300/149 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 120/49 200/93 180/82 170/77 300/149 260/127 300/149 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy.238 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aluminum Chloride. 10% PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF. LLC . Aqueous Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE. 25% ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. 10% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 80/27 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 90/32 X 140/60 180/82 100/38 280/138 Corrodent will penetrate. 10% Halogenated.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 239 Aluminum Fluoride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVCS Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate.

LLC .240 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aluminum Hydroxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 450/232 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 300/149 250/121 200/93 170/77 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 160/71 170/77 160/71 300/149 200/93 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 241 Aluminum Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 250/121 210/99 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 160/77 160/77 250/121 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .242 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aluminum Oxychloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 300/149 400/204 450/232 450/232 280/138 460/238 200/93 140/60 150/66 140/60 200/93 220/104 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 243 Aluminum Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 140/60 220/104 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 300/149 200/93 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 250/121 200/93 180/82 300/149 300/149 250/121 260/127 290/143 410/210 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .244 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonia Gas Polymer ABS DRY Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC DRY CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy dry Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 400/204 200/93 210/99 80/27 450/232 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 150/66 80/27 250/121 150/66 X X 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 200/93 160/71 90/32 150/66 210/99 150/66 90/32 100/38 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Corrodent will permeate.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 245 Ammonium Bifluoride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 450/232 450/232 260/127 140/60 200/93 140/60 90/32 90/32 200/93 230/110 90/32 150/66 Corrodent will be absorbed.

LLC .246 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 430/221 430/221 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 100/38 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 90/32 140/60 X 300/149 160/71 150/66 240/116 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 290/143 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 410/210 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 300/149 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 80/27 200/93 200/93 160/71 170/77 200/93 200/93 220/104 90/32 X 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 247 Ammonium Chloride.

37% PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 430/221 460/238 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 300/149 180/82 200/93 140/60 180/82 90/32 220/104 200/93 160/71 170/77 270/132 200/93 220/104 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .248 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Chloride. 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides.

Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 410/210 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 300/149 200/93 160/71 200/93 140/60 140/60 190/88 250/121 90/32 220/104 200/93 200/93 180/82 170/77 260/127 200/93 260/127 80/27 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sat.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 249 Ammonium Chloride. LLC .

LLC . 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurateb Halogenatedb Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalicb PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 430/221 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 90/32 140/60 90/32 200/93 250/121 180/82 140/60 90/32 200/93 280/177 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Synthetic veil or surfacing mat should be used.250 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Fluoride.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 251 Ammonium Fluoride. Synthetic veil or surfacing mat should be used. LLC . 25% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurateb Halogenatedb Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalicb PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 420/216 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 200/93 90/32 140/60 90/32 200/93 250/121 120/49 140/60 90/32 150/66 220/104 260/127 80/27 Corrodent will permeate.

25% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 X 200/93 140/60 140/60 X 250/121 90/32 X 100/38 90/32 X 300/149 140/60 150/66 260/127 90/32 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.252 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Hydroxide. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 253 Ammonium Hydroxide. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl estersa Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 80/27 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 80/27 80/27 370/188 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 X 200/93 140/60 140/60 X 250/121 80/27 X 90/32 X 300/149 160/71 130/54 200/93 X Synthetic veil or surfacing mat should be used. Sat. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy.254 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. LLC . 25% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 230/110 400/204 200/93 200/93 350/177 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 240/116 220/104 220/93 200/93 160/77 140/66 250/121 250/121 260/127 200/93 210/99 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . 5% PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 150/66 300/149 400/204 X 450/232 460/238 280/138 140/60 150/66 180/82 140/60 220/104 90/32 140/60 140/60 200/93 180/82 X 180/82 140/60 200/93 160/71 180/82 250/121 180/82 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 255 Ammonium Persulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE.

LLC .256 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Phosphate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. 65% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 300/149 450/232 280/138 80/27 140/60 300/149 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 90/32 250/121 80/27 150/66 160/71 140/60 200/93 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10–40% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 257 Ammonium Sulfate. sat. LLC . Furans. Epoxy Vinyl esters. sat. Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 200/93 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 300/149 200/93 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 200/93 180/82 170/77 300/149 220/104 260/127 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PET. PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET. sat. sat. sat.

258 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Sulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 220/104 80/27 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 110/43 120/49 100/38 X 120/49 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 259 Amyl Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 100/38 160/71 250/121 400/204 150/66 200/93 200/93 450/232 190/88 140/60 80/27 80/27 X 300/149 X 120/49 X X X X 180/82 X 80/27 190/88 X X 80/27 80/27 110/43 260/127 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .260 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Amyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 100/49 210/99 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 X 130/54 220/104 X 200/93 200/93 200/93 160/71 250/121 200/93 210/99 260/127 190/88 160/71 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 261 Amyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 450/232 280/138 X X X 200/93 X 80/27 X X X X 220/104 X X 90/32 X 80/27 120/49 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

262 Aniline Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 90/32 230/110 400/204 X 200/93 200/93 X 200/93 450/232 200/93 130/54 130/54 X X 300/149 180/82 X X X X X 150/66 X 80/27 X 120/49 X X X 150/66 X 260/127 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

50% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 100/38 220/104 400/204 X 300/149 460/238 150/66 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 180/82 160/71 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 220/104 200/93 80/27 160/71 250/121 220/104 220/104 250/121 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 263 Antimony Trichloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. LLC .

LLC .264 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aqua Regia 3:1 Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 200/93 250/121 210/99 400/204 X X 240/116 450/232 170/77 130/54 130/54 80/27 X X 120/49 X X X 80/27 80/27 X X X X X X 80/27 X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

80% CPVC. LLC . 80% PVDC PSF PVC Type 1. 80% PVC Type 2. 80% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 80% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP. 198 Be Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/183 140/60 140/60 60/15 210/99 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 180/82 180/82 180/82 180/82 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 265 Arsenic Acid Polymer ABS.

266 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Barium Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 260/183 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 200/93 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 250/121 180/82 160/71 250/121 240/116 260/127 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 267 Barium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 25% PPS PP PVDC PSF. 30% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 200/93 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 90/32 220/104 250/121 200/93 140/60 250/121 250/121 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO.

LLC . 10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 350/177 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 X 140/60 200/93 200/93 180/82 200/43 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 150/66 X X X 200/93 150/66 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.268 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Barium Hydroxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. 10% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic to 10% PET Epoxy.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 269 Barium Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 400/204 80/27 450/232 270/132 140/60 170/77 210/99 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 170/77 200/93 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .270 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Barium Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 330/166 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 X 140/60 200/93 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 220/104 180/82 160/71 X 250/121 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 271 Barium Sulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 360/182 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 140/60 220/104 200/93 150/66 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 90/32 140/60 X 90/32 300/149 180/82 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Material is subject to stress cracking. LLC .272 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Benzaldehyde Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 200/93 150/66 210/99 400/204 150/66 200/93 80/27 300/149 450/232 120/40 X X X X 250/121 80/27 X X X X X 80/27 X X X X X X X X 260/127 60/15 Corrodent will be absorbed.

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 150/66 210/99 400/204 250/121 80/27 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 150/66 X X X X 300/149 140/60 80/27 X X X X 150/66 X 90/32 X 90/32 X X X 180/82 X 260/127 160/77 X Corrodent will be absorbed.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 273 Benzene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa. Corrodent will permeate.

10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic.274 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Benzene Sulfonic Acid. LLC . 30% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 150/66 210/99 400/204 X X X 90/32 380/139 450/232 100/38 140/60 90/32 250/121 200/93 250/121 180/82 120/49 X 140/60 140/60 180/82 220/104 X 200/93 120/49 180/82 250/121 220/104 200/93 266/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 275 Benzoic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides. 10% PAI PEEK PEI. LLC . 10% PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 250/121 200/93 400/204 200/93 170/77 90/32 80/27 400/204 450/121 250/121 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 230/110 190/88 150/66 X 140/60 140/60 90/32 250/121 X 200/93 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 200/93 180/82 260/127 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .276 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Benzyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 200/93 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 X 300/149 450/232 280/138 170/77 X 80/27 X 200/93 140/60 X X X 220/104 X 90/32 X X X 80/27 X 100/38 260/177 60/15 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 277 Benzyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 110/48 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 120/49 300/149 450/232 280/138 250/121 X 300/149 80/27 80/27 X X X 80/27 X X X X X 250/121 80/27 90/32 260/127 170/77 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

278 Black Liquor Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. LLC . pH7 Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 400/204 450/232 260/127 140/60 150/66 140/60 140/60 200/93 230/110 X 220/104 X 210/99 180/82 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 279 Borax Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 210/99 210/99 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 220/104 170/77 140/60 250/121 210/99 140/60 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 80/27 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 200/93 140/60 210/99 220/104 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 220/104 180/82 210/99 180/82 200/93 220/104 200/93 260/127 300/149 390/189 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .280 Boric Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF.

Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 100/38 X 150/66 200/93 X 210/99 210/99 X X X X X X X 90/32 100/38 X X 100/38 Corrodent will penetrate.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 281 Bromine Gas. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

282 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Bromine Gas. Moist Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 210/99 200/93 X 120/49 X 200/93 250/121 210/99 X X X 200/93 X X X X 100/38 100/38 X X 100/38 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Corrodent will penetrate.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 283 Bromine.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .b PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde 3% Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 150/66 400/204 X 300/149 450/232 140/60 X X 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X 60/15 300/149 Corrodent will be absorbed. Liquid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.

284 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Bromine Water. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 250/121 400/204 210/99 300/149 450/232 210/99 X X X X 140/60 X X X 180/82 X 100/38 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sat. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 285 Butadiene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 200/93 250/121 250/121 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 X X X 100/38 X 150/66 X 140/60 X 150/66 250/121 X 80/27 150/66 110/43 X Corrodent will be absorbed. Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .286 Butyl Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 150/66 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 400/204 450/232 140/60 90/32 90/32 250/121 X 250/121 X 120/49 X X X X 140/60 X 80/27 80/27 X X 250/121 170/77 80/27 260/127 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 287 Butyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 100/38 200/93 200/93 150/66 200/93 X X 140/60 220/104 X 80/27 100/38 80/27 100/38 140/60 120/49 210/99 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .288 n-Butylamine Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 120/49 400/204 200/93 200/93 400/204 450/232 X X X X 200/93 90/32 X X X X X X X X X X X Corrodent will be absorbed. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 289 Butyl Ether Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 200/93 200/93 400/204 210/99 200/93 400/204 450/232 200/93 X 210/99 X 200/93 140/60 X 150/66 80/27 X 80/27 210/99 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

50% Halogenated. LLC .290 Butyric Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC !1% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 20% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 250/121 250/121 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 210/99 130/54 X 250/121 250/121 180/82 80/27 130/54 X X 140/60 230/110 X 220/104 200/93 X 120/49 250/121 210/99 130/54 260/127 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 291 Calcium Bisulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 400/204 450/232 260/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 120/49 160/71 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

292 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Bisulfite Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 400/204 140/60 400/204 450/232 260/138 80/27 140/60 X 80/27 200/93 210/99 80/27 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 180/82 150/66 150/66 X 270/132 260/127 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 293 Calcium Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 250/121 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 210/99 210/99 160/71 250/121 300/149 180/82 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .294 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Chlorate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals. 5% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 380/193 450/232 280/132 140/60 140/60 220/104 160/71 140/60 140/60 200/93 150/66 90/32 200/93 250/121 210/99 160/71 200/93 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

5% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 230/110 200/93 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 150/66 80/27 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 190/88 180/82 260/127 200/93 300/149 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 37. LLC . 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 295 Calcium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI.

296 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Hydroxide. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone. 30% PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 150/66 90/32 400/204 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 250/121 300/149 220/104 160/71 100/38 140/60 140/60 200/93 90/32 80/27 180/82 170/77 160/71 250/121 210/99 180/82 260/127 X 200/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Sat. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 297 Calcium Hydroxide. 25% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 150/66 90/32 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 180/82 100/38 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 160/71 X 160/71 250/121 180/82 180/82 260/127 X 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% Isophthalic PET Epoxy. 20% Vinyl esters.298 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Hypochlorite. 20% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 400/204 450/232 200/93 140/60 100/38 210/99 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 X X 210/99 170/97 180/82 120/49 150/66 160/71 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. LLC .

Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO. 20% Halogenated. Sat. LLC . to 20% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 X 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 200/93 X X 80/27 80/27 180/82 120/49 250/121 150/66 180/82 240/116 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Vinyl esters Furans. 10% PET Epoxy.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 299 Calcium Hypochlorite. 20% PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 10% Isophthalic. 20% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A.

LLC .300 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 260/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 210/99 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 220/104 160/71 170/77 250/121 210/99 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 301 Calcium Oxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 270/132 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 80/27 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 150/66 150/66 80/27 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

302 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Sulfate Polymer ABS. LLC . 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 160/71 170/77 250/121 250/121 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 303 Caprylic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 220/104 210/99 400/204 250/121 390/199 450/232 220/104 250/121 140/60 90/32 120/49 180/82 220/104 160/71 140/60 160/71 250/121 X 220/104 250/121 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

304 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Carbon Dioxide. LLC . Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 200/93 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 350/177 250/121 160/71 200/93 200/93 90/32 300/149 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Wet Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 220/104 170/77 140/60 140/60 160/71 250/121 80/27 210/99 250/121 150/71 250/121 220/104 80/27 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 305 Carbon Dioxide.

b PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 80/27 80/27 150/66 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 80/27 X X 80/27 60/15 200/93 X 90/32 X X X X X 80/27 X X X X 80/27 100/38 X 260/127 180/82 X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will be absorbed.306 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Carbon Disulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 307 Carbon Monoxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 140/60 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 350/177 170/77 160/71 210/99 200/93 350/177 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

c PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b c 8F/8C X X 300/149 270/132 400/204 250/121 80/27 80/27 80/27 380/193 450/232 280/138 X X 250/121 X 120/49 X 140/60 X X X X 200/93 X 80/27 110/43 120/49 X X 250/121 170/77 260/127 200/93 Material is subject to stress cracking. Corrodent will be absorbed. LLC .b.308 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Carbon Tetrachloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.c Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. Corrodent will permeate.b.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 309 Carbonic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 100/38 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 140/60 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 80/27 90/32 160/71 160/71 210/99 200/93 120/49 200/93 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10–50% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET. to 50% PAI PEEK PEI. 35% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC. 10–50% Halogenated. 50% PPO. 10% PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET.310 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Caustic Potash (Potassium Hydroxide) Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE. LLC . 10–50% FEP Polyamides. 10–50% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 210/99 400/204 120/49 80/27 390/199 450/232 180/82 140/60 140/60 X 90/32 170/77 80/27 130/54 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 80/27 170/77 120/49 X X 200/93 150/66 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% PPS PP PVDC. to 50% Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 50% CPE PUR. 50% PSF. 50% Epoxy Vinyl esters.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

311

Cellosolve
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 200/93 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93

380/193 450/232 280/138 X 80/27 X X 200/93 200/93 80/27 X X X X 220/104 80/27 140/60 80/27 X X 140/60 140/60 240/116

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

312

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorine Gas, Dry
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE, 10% PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 150/66 210/99 X X 80/27

X 240/116 80/27 80/27 80/27 X X X 80/27 X 140/60 140/60 X 100/38 X X 350/177 200/93 210/99 160/71 80/27 150/66 240/116 260/127 160/171

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

313

Chlorine Gas, Wet
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF, 10% EHMWPE, 10% HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C 140/60

250/121 250/121 400/204 X

400/204 450/232 250/121 120/49 X 80/27 80/27 X X 80/27 X X X X 80/27 X 80/27 200/93 220/104 210/99 160/71 80/27 X 250/121 260/127 150/66 X

Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

314

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorine Liquid
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X

250/121 400/204 X X

X 210/99 X X X 200/93 X X X X X X X

X X X

X X X

Corrodent will be absorbed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

315

Chloracetic Acid
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE, 50% FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA, 50% PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated, 25% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic, to 25% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters, 25% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 120/49 250/121 230/110 400/204 X

400/204 450/232 200/93 X X 80/27 200/93 180/82 120/49 X 140/60 X X 220/104 X X 80/27 90/32 150/66 80/27 X 200/93 240/116 X

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

316

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorobenzene
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI DRY PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals, dry Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 150/66 210/99 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 X 390/199 450/232 220/104 X X X X 200/93 X 80/27 X X X X 150/66 X 80/27 X X X X X 190/88 110/43 260/127 250/121 X

Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

317

Chloroform
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 250/121 230/110 400/204 200/93 120/49 80/27

390/199 450/232 250/121 80/27 X 230/110 X 150/66 X X X X X X 80/27 X X X X X X 230/110 110/43 X 240/116 160/171

Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

318

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorosulfonic Acid
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 80/27 80/27 400/204 X 80/27 X 390/199 450/232 110/43 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 260/127 130/54 X

Corrodent will be absorbed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

319

Chromic Acid, 10%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF, 12% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 X 250/121 150/66 400/204 X 200/93 90/32 X 380/193 450/232 220/104 140/60 140/60 250/121 X 200/93 140/60 180/82 140/60 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 X 80/27 X 180/82 X 250/121 110/43 150/66 260/127 X

X

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

320

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chromic Acid, 50%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 250/121 150/66 400/204 X 200/93 X 380/193 450/232 250/121 90/32 90/32 250/121 X 200/93 150/66 180/82 X X X 210/99 200/93 X 80/27 X 140/60 X X 250/121 X X X X

X

Corrodent will be absorbed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

321

Citric Acid, 15%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 120/49 400/204 200/93 170/77

390/199 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 250/121 120/49 250/121 220/104 180/82 100/38 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 160/71 250/121 190/88 210/99 250/121 160/71

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Conc. 32% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 400/204 200/93 170/77 250/121 80/27 370/188 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 170/77 90/32 250/121 220/104 180/82 80/27 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 200/93 170/77 190/88 200/93 250/121 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.322 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Citric Acid. LLC . 40% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF. Polymer ABS.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 323 Copper Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 290/143 450/232 250/121 300/149 80/27 80/27 200/93 180/82 210/99 210/99 180/71 200/93 210/99 260/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

324 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Copper Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 150/66 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 250/121 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 160/83 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 325 Copper Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 220/104 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 170/77 250/121 220/104 260/127 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

10% PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 210/99 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 220/104 250/121 210/99 160/71 150/66 210/99 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.326 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Copper Cyanide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE. LLC .

LLC . 17% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 300/149 300/149 400/204 140/60 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 250/121 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 200/93 170/77 210/99 240/116 260/127 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 327 Copper Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy.

LLC .328 Cresol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 300/149 270/132 400/204 X 390/199 450/232 210/99 140/60 X X X 200/93 X 150/66 X 130/54 X X 140/60 X X X X X X X 100/38 X 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 329 Cupric Chloride. 5% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 270/232 140/60 250/121 150/66 300/149 140/60 160/71 200/93 150/66 X 170/77 250/121 80/27 270/132 300/149 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

5% EHMWPE. 5% PP PVDC PSF. LLC .330 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cupric Chloride. Sat. Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 270/132 80/27 140/60 250/121 170/77 300/149 140/60 170/77 200/93 150/66 180/82 200/93 X 140/60 250/121 80/27 220/104 300/149 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE. 5% FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF. 10% HMWPE PET PPO PPS. PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. sat.

10% PVDC.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 331 Cupric Cyanide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF. 10% PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE. LLC . 10% PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 240/116 90/32 220/104 240/116 210/99 160/71 250/121 150/66 210/99 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP.

LLC .332 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cupric Fluoride Polymer ABS. 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 250/121 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 200/93 160/71 140/60 140/60 182/82 250/121 150/66 120/49 X 250/121 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 333 Cupric Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 380/193 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 200/93 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 240/116 X 220/104 140/60 210/99 160/71 170/77 240/116 210/99 280/183 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .334 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cupric Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 X 300/149 300/149 390/199 140/60 390/199 450/232 280/132 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 250/121 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 230/110 200/93 170/77 250/121 200/93 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 335 Cyclohexanol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 250/121 400/204 250/121 200/93 390/199 450/232 210/99 170/77 80/27 190/88 250/121 150/66 90/32 200/93 X X X 220/104 80/27 120/49 150/66 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .336 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cyclohexanone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 400/204 450/232 110/43 140/60 X 250/121 X 200/93 X X X X X X 80/27 80/27 X 100/38 X X 250/121 X 120/49 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 337 Detergents Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 110/43 390/199 450/232 140/60 140/60 140/60 90/32 290/143 220/104 80/27 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 90/32 90/32 90/32 140/60 250/121 100/38 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Heavy Duty Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 100/38 390/199 450/232 140/60 140/60 120/49 300/149 150/66 140/60 140/60 160/71 80/27 80/27 120/49 250/121 120/49 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .338 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Detergent Solution.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 339 Dextrin Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 300/149 400/204 390/199 450/232 230/110 140/60 140/60 160/71 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

30% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO. LLC . 20% PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 140/60 300/149 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 X 220/104 220/104 160/71 80/27 200/93 240/116 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.340 Dextrose Polymer ABS.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 341 Dibutyl Ether Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 200/93 200/93 400/204 200/93 200/93 400/204 350/177 200/93 X 210/99 X 200/93 140/60 X 150/66 80/27 X 80/27 200/93 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .342 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Dibutyl Phthalate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 150/66 400/204 80/27 200/93 380/193 450/232 X 140/60 X 80/27 120/49 300/149 110/43 120/49 180/82 X X X X 180/82 100/38 230/121 160/71 80/27 250/121 200/93 230/110 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 343 Dichloroacetic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC. LLC . 20% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 150/66 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 80/27 100/38 100/38 120/49 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 X 100/38 X 100/38 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

344 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Dichlorobenzene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 150/66 400/204 250/121 380/193 450/232 120/49 X X 250/121 200/93 150/66 X X X X X 110/43 X X X 250/121 190/88 110/43 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 345 Dichloroethane (Ethylene Dichloride) Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 340/171 450/232 180/138 X X X X X 80/27 X X X X 120/49 90/32 X X X X X X 110/43 250/121 200/93 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .346 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ethyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 80/27 90/32 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/38 180/82 150/66 100/38 140/60 140/60 210/99 220/104 X 90/32 150/66 90/32 80/27 250/121 150/66 100/38 260/127 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 347 Ethyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/127 200/93 390/199 450/232 260/138 X X 250/121 X 200/93 X X X X X X 220/104 X 80/27 80/27 X 250/121 X X 260/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

348 Ethyl Ether Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 150/66 210/99 400/204 200/93 80/27 370/188 450/232 150/66 X X 250/121 X 150/66 90/32 X X X X X 220/104 X 80/27 X X X X 250/121 X X 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 349 Ethylene Glycol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 205/121 200/93 160/71 80/27 90/32 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 200/93 140/60 300/149 230/110 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 220/104 90/32 180/82 220/104 250/121 250/121 200/93 300/149 210/99 260/177 100/38 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .350 Fatty Acids Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 200/93 60/15 250/121 140/60 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 150/66 100/38 200/93 250/121 220/104 180/82 200/93 200/93 250/121 260/127 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 351 Ferric Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE. 50% FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 210/99 140/60 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 300/149 210/99 260/127 300/149 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .352 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ferric Nitrate. 10–50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 210/99 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 220/104 250/121 200/93 180/82 170/77 250/121 200/93 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 353 Ferrous Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics. 40% Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 90/32 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 210/99 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 250/121 200/93 260/127 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

354 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ferrous Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 210/99 80/27 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 220/104 160/71 210/99 160/71 200/93 220/104 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 355 Fluorine Gas. LLC . Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 X X 100/38 200/93 440/227 X X 310/154 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X X X X 80/27 X 90/32 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Moist Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 80/27 100/38 X X X X 200/93 250/121 X 80/27 80/27 X X X X X X X 80/27 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.356 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Fluorine Gas. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 357 Formaldehyde. Dil. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 140/60 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 300/149 120/49 140/60 140/60 240/116 200/93 200/93 140/60 200/93 140/60 140/60 220/104 80/27 80/27 150/66 220/104 140/60 240/116 110/43 150/66 160/71 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

358 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Formaldehyde. LLC . 35% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 150/66 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 450/232 140/60 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 200/93 120/49 200/93 140/60 100/38 140/60 220/104 80/27 80/27 150/66 200/93 140/60 250/121 110/43 140/60 160/71 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

37% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 150/66 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 450/232 120/49 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 200/93 210/99 140/60 200/93 140/60 100/38 140/60 220/104 80/27 80/27 150/66 210/99 140/60 250/121 150/66 200/93 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 359 Formaldehyde.

360 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Formaldehyde. 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 80/27 400/204 250/166 450/232 280/138 250/121 200/93 200/93 130/54 140/60 120/49 150/66 220/104 80/27 120/49 190/88 250/121 110/43 140/60 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 361 Formic Acid. LLC . 10% PEI. 10–85% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK. 10% PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC. to 25% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 250/121 270/132 400/204 X 90/32 90/32 80/27 390/199 450/121 250/121 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 150/66 200/93 110/38 90/32 180/82 220/104 X 150/66 150/66 90/32 X 250/121 X 100/38 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .362 Furfural Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 210/99 400/204 90/32 80/27 390/199 450/232 110/43 80/27 130/54 80/27 X 300/149 X 80/27 X X X X 140/60 X X X X 80/27 X X 260/127 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 363 Gallic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 210/99 400/204 80/27 200/93 450/232 160/71 140/60 140/60 250/121 250/121 180/82 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X 250/121 200/93 250/121 120/49 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . Natural Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 140/60 80/27 200/93 450/232 X X 140/60 160/71 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 90/32 200/93 200/93 280/138 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.364 Gas.

Refined Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 200/93 400/204 250/127 120/49 380/193 450/232 X 250/121 90/32 300/149 X 90/32 200/93 120/49 X X 80/27 80/27 80/27 200/93 90/32 90/32 250/121 150/66 180/82 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 365 Gasoline.

366 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Gasoline. Sour Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 80/27 370/160 450/232 280/138 250/121 300/149 X 140/60 140/60 X 250/121 80/27 X 90/32 80/27 250/121 300/149 200/93 190/88 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Unleaded Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 X 250/121 X 300/149 X 150/66 200/93 140/60 X 250/121 80/27 80/27 90/32 200/93 90/32 100/38 250/121 250/121 100/38 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 367 Gasoline.

75% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 300/149 210/99 180/82 80/27 140/60 140/60 210/99 220/104 90/32 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 280/138 300/149 260/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .368 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Glycerine (Glycerol) Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 369 Green Liquor Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 400/204 380/193 450/232 280/138 250/121 140/60 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 220/104 X X 190/88 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Corrodent will permeate. LLC .b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa.b PTFEa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 200/93 230/110 120/49 300/149 140/60 140/60 130/54 250/121 220/104 200/93 140/60 250/121 180/82 180/82 250/121 200/93 Material is subject to stress cracking. Dil. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.370 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrobromic Acid.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 120/49 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 200/93 200/93 120/49 180/82 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 220/104 160/71 90/32 140/60 250/121 180/82 180/82 250/121 200/93 Material is subject to stress cracking.b PTFEa. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 371 Hydrobromic Acid.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa. Corrodent will permeate.

b PTFEa.372 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrobromic Acid.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. LLC . 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa. Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 200/93 190/88 130/54 140/60 140/60 190/88 250/121 160/71 200/93 90/32 150/66 250/121 110/43 200/93 260/127 200/93 X X Material subject to stress cracking.

LLC . 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will permeate.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa.b PTFEa.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 90/32 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 90/32 90/32 140/60 250/121 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 160/71 210/99 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X X 210/99 230/110 180/82 160/71 250/121 200/93 220/104 260/127 300/149 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 373 Hydrochloric Acid.

38% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.374 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrochloric Acid.b PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 90/32 140/60 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 90/32 190/88 210/99 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 140/60 170/77 250/121 X X 180/82 170/77 160/71 90/32 140/60 180/82 250/121 300/149 X 90/32 Material subject to stress cracking. LLC .b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will permeate.

10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 380/183 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 250/121 150/60 120/49 140/60 140/60 80/27 250/121 200/93 150/66 X 90/32 80/27 160/71 160/71 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 375 Hydrocyanic Acid.

30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurateb Halogenatedb Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 200/93 250/121 270/132 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 X 90/32 200/93 180/82 160/71 100/38 130/54 130/54 X 250/121 X 90/32 120/49 X X X X X X X X Corrodent will permeate. Synthetic veil surfacing mat should be used. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.376 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrofluoric Acid. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 377 Hydrofluoric Acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X 240/116 250/121 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 210/99 X X X 200/93 X 80/27 90/32 X X X X X X X X X Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 150/66 220/104 180/82 90/32 80/27 250/121 100/38 250/121 230/110 140/60 250/121 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .378 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Chloride Gas.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 379 Hydrogen Chloride Gas. Moist Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 450/232 270/132 140/60 80/27 210/99 210/99 120/49 350/177 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 270/132 250/121 400/204 80/27 200/93 80/27 200/93 450/232 250/121 120/49 120/49 120/49 90/32 100/38 120/49 90/32 140/60 X 150/66 80/27 150/66 200/93 80/27 180/27 120/49 150/66 140/60 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.380 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Peroxide. Dil. 5% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. 3% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. LLC . 5% PET Epoxy. Polymer ABS.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 381 Hydrogen Peroxide. LLC . 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 270/132 250/121 400/204 80/27 200/93 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 120/49 90/32 100/38 120/49 180/82 140/60 X 180/82 150/66 X 90/32 100/38 90/32 X 120/49 140/60 170/77 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

382 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Peroxide. LLC . 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 200/83 90/32 80/27 200/93 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 80/27 X 150/66 130/54 80/27 140/60 100/38 90/32 150/66 X X 100/38 X 80/27 X 110/43 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 383 Hydrogen Peroxide. 90% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 200/23 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 120/49 80/27 140/60 80/27 X 110/43 120/49 100/38 140/60 X 80/27 140/60 X X X 80/27 X 150/66 80/27 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.384 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Sulfide. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 80/27 250/121 170/77 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/60 220/104 80/27 200/93 250/121 140/60 80/27 250/121 250/121 250/121 300/149 90/32 Corrodent will permeate.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 385 Hydrogen Sulfide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Wet Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/232 X 200/93 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 X 180/82 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 X 210/99 210/99 140/60 80/27 300/149 180/82 250/121 300/149 Corrodent will permeate.

50% Furans. 10% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 120/49 140/60 140/60 180/82 150/66 90/32 100/38 210/99 90/32 200/93 150/66 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. LLC .386 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hypochlorous Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 50% Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters. 20% Halogenated.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 387 Ketones. General Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 400/204 150/66 80/27 400/204 450/232 110/43 80/27 80/27 X X 110/43 90/32 X X X X X X X X X 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

388 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Lactic Acid. 25% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 150/66 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 60/15 400/204 450/232 130/54 140/60 150/66 250/121 190/88 250/121 150/66 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 210/99 200/93 210/99 160/71 250/121 220/104 210/99 250/121 160/71 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals. 10% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 150/66 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 90/32 400/204 450/232 110/43 140/60 250/121 190/88 250/121 150/66 80/27 200/93 80/27 80/27 X 150/66 80/27 220/104 200/93 210/99 160/71 250/121 200/93 200/93 260/127 160/71 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 389 Lactic Acid. LLC . Conc.

390 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Magnesium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 10% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 380/193 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 300/149 210/99 180/82 140/60 140/60 230/110 270/132 80/27 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 190/88 260/127 260/127 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 391 Malic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. LLC . 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 270/132 400/204 X 390/199 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 80/27 130/54 80/27 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 160/71 90/32 90/32 80/27 140/60 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Corrodent will permeate.392 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Methyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 300/149 300/149 400/204 210/99 X 390/199 450/232 X X X 80/27 X X 80/27 X X X X 230/110 X 80/27 80/27 X X 120/49 300/149 Material is subject to stress cracking. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 393 Methyl Ethyl Ketone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 230/110 400/204 240/116 200/93 370/188 X X 400/204 450/232 X X X 250/121 X 200/93 150/66 X X X X X 90/32 X X X X X X 250/121 90/32 X 170/77 X X Corrodent will permeate.

b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 150/66 300/149 400/204 110/43 400/204 450/232 110/43 80/27 80/27 X X 250/121 80/27 80/27 X X X 80/27 X 80/27 X X X 140/60 160/71 X Corrodent will permeate. LLC .394 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Material subject to stress cracking.

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 395 Muriatic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 140/60 60/15 80/27 210/99 200/93 160/71 150/66 180/82 130/54 190/88 180/82 160/71 80/27 140/60 180/82 80/27 300/149 Corrodent will permeate.

5% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 150/66 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 200/93 140/60 140/60 150/66 140/66 150/66 140/60 90/32 X 140/60 100/38 150/66 180/82 X X 160/71 210/99 90/32 120/49 150/66 160/71 180/82 200/93 X 80/27 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.396 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Nitric Acid.

20% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 130/54 X 250/121 160/71 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 X 400/204 450/232 180/82 140/60 140/60 80/27 90/32 100/38 140/60 150/66 X 140/60 140/60 160/71 80/27 X X 100/38 80/27 X 80/27 100/38 150/66 X X 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 397 Nitric Acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

398 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Nitric Acid. LLC . 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 250/121 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 X X 80/27 X X X X 140/60 140/60 110/43 80/27 X X 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Anhydrous Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. 90% PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 X 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 150/66 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 399 Nitric Acid. LLC .

LLC .400 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Nitric Acid. 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 250/121 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 X X 80/27 X X X X 140/60 140/60 110/43 80/27 X X 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 401 Oleum Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 60/15 150/66 400/204 X 120/49 400/204 450/232 X X X 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 190/88 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

402 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Perchloric Acid. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 200/93 150/66 230/110 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 X X 150/66 130/54 X 140/60 60/15 180/82 140/60 X X 90/32 X X X 90/32 150/66 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 403 Perchloric Acid. 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 200/93 150/66 150/66 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 X X X X X 120/49 60/15 60/15 180/82 X X X 90/32 X X X 80/27 X 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

404 Phenol. 5% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 90/32 150/66 230/110 400/204 X 140/60 X X 400/204 450/232 210/99 100/38 100/38 X X 290/143 200/93 80/27 X X 90/32 90/32 X X X 90/32 X X X X 100/38 210/99 90/32 X 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 405 Phenol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 85% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X 90/32 150/66 210/99 400/201 X 140/60 X 400/202 450/232 200/93 100/38 100/38 X 300/149 180/82 X 60/15 X 140/60 90/32 X X X 90/32 X X X X X 210/99 X X 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. 5% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans.

50–80% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 130/54 80/27 250/121 250/121 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 200/93 200/93 450/232 250/121 100/38 100/38 250/121 140/60 220/104 210/99 130/54 80/27 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 110/43 210/99 260/127 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.406 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Phosphoric Acid. LLC .

LLC . 10% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 90/32 80/27 120/49 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 80/27 100/30 X X 140/60 120/49 X X X 150/66 110/43 100/38 X X 80/27 200/93 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 407 Picric Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters.

10% PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 30% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 210/99 140/60 140/66 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 140/60 200/93 210/99 110/43 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 200/93 230/110 160/71 80/27 220/104 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides. LLC .408 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Potassium Bromide.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 409 Salicylic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 250/121 250/121 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 220/104 140/60 130/54 130/54 100/38 140/60 X X 220/104 150/66 130/54 100/38 250/121 150/66 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 450/232 250/121 170/77 140/60 90/32 170/77 180/82 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.410 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Silver Bromide.

20% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 10% Isophthalic. LLC . 50% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 300/149 300/149 400/204 240/116 200/93 210/99 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 300/149 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 160/71 190/88 100/38 90/32 250/121 300/149 180/82 260/127 X 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 411 Sodium Carbonate Polymer ABS.

412 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 10% PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 100/38 300/149 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 180/82 220/104 250/121 210/99 200/93 250/121 210/99 180/82 260/127 300/149 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 413 Sodium Hydroxide. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 230/110 400/204 250/121 X 220/104 90/32 80/27 400/204 450/232 210/99 170/77 150/66 130/54 140/66 210/99 220/104 90/32 200/93 140/60 140/60 190/88 180/82 80/27 130/54 110/43 100/38 X 130/54 190/88 170/77 X X 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking. LLC .

LLC . 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 230/110 400/204 250/121 X 180/82 80/27 400/204 450/232 220/104 170/77 150/66 X 140/60 210/99 220/104 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 X X X X 200/93 220/104 X X 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.414 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Hydroxide.

LLC . Conc. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 150/66 400/204 200/93 450/232 150/66 X 140/60 X 80/27 140/60 140/60 190/88 180/82 X X X X 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 415 Sodium Hydroxide.

416 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Hypochlorite. 5% PP PVDC. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics. 10% PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO. 15% CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 5% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 80/27 200/93 120/49 130/54 300/149 140/60 140/60 200/93 180/82 X X X X 160/71 X 80/27 80/27 180/82 X X X 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 10% Isophthalic PET Epoxy. 20% PPS.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 417 Sodium Hypochlorite. LLC . Conc. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 80/27 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 80/27 250/121 110/43 120/49 300/149 140/60 140/60 200/93 200/93 X X 140/60 X X 80/27 100/38 X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

all Furans. LLC . sat. Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. to 10% Vinyl esters. all PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate.418 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Sulfide. sat. 10% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 X 400/204 450/232 260/138 140/60 140/60 240/116 140/60 250/121 190/88 140/60 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 230/110 210/99 X X 240/116 250/121 220/104 260/127 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% PPS. PET Epoxy. to 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO.

LLC . all Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 90/32 230/110 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 80/27 180/82 170/77 200/93 210/99 260/127 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 419 Stannic Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. all PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters.

LLC . all PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 210/99 300/149 300/149 400/204 450/232 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 210/99 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 250/121 180/82 170/77 220/104 200/93 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS.420 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Stannous Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides.

10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 300/149 400/204 80/27 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 160/71 140/60 250/121 200/93 120/49 300/149 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X X 220/104 260/127 210/99 160/71 160/71 140/60 200/93 250/121 300/149 X 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 421 Sulfuric Acid.

LLC .422 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfuric Acid. 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 130/54 90/32 230/110 250/121 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 X 400/204 450/232 220/104 140/60 140/60 140/60 90/32 250/121 200/93 X 300/149 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X X 220/104 200/93 210/99 150/66 140/60 110/43 210/99 260/127 280/138 X 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 230/110 250/121 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 220/104 80/27 80/27 X 90/32 250/121 180/82 X X 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 X X 160/71 190/88 90/32 X X 110/43 180/82 260/127 200/93 X 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 423 Sulfuric Acid.

LLC . 90% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 210/99 150/66 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 210/99 X X X 80/27 220/104 180/82 X X 140/60 X 120/49 140/60 X X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.424 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfuric Acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 425 Sulfuric Acid. LLC . 98% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 210/99 150/66 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 140/60 X X X 180/82 120/49 X X X X 120/149 X X X X X X X X X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

426 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfuric Acid. 100% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 210/99 80/27 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Fuming Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 200/93 300/149 120/49 400/204 X 120/40 X X X 400/204 450/232 X X X 60/15 X X X X X X X X X X X X Corrodent will permeate.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 427 Sulfuric Acid. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 10% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 210/99 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 200/93 180/82 80/27 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 220/104 X 110/43 80/27 210/99 X 240/116 120/49 160/71 160/71 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.428 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfurous Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. LLC . 10% PET Epoxy. 25% Isophthalic. to 20% Vinyl esters. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 429 Thionyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X 150/66 210/99 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 X X X X 100/38 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 200/93 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

430 Toluene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 150/66 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 210/99 X X 250/121 X 300/149 60/15 80/27 X X X X 80/27 X X X 110/43 90/32 110/43 250/121 150/66 120/49 260/127 200/93 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

50% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. 50% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde. 50% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 431 Trichloroacetic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE. 20% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 50% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC. 50% HMWPE PET PPO. 50% Halogenated. 30% Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 150/66 210/99 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 130/54 140/60 80/27 250/121 140/60 210/99 150/66 80/27 90/32 X 140/60 X 180/82 200/93 90/32 170/77 250/121 X 210/99 260/127 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 10% PPS.

LLC .432 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Water. Acid Mine Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 210/99 400/204 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 220/104 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 100/38 210/99 110/43 300/149 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 433 Water. Demineralized Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 210/99 400/204 80/27 150/66 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 160/71 210/99 210/99 150/66 250/121 250/121 210/99 250/121 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .434 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Water. Distilled Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 210/99 400/204 80/27 200/93 90/32 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 170/77 210/99 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 80/27 180/82 200/93 210/99 210/99 180/82 250/121 210/99 210/99 200/93 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Potable Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 450/232 280/138 180/82 170/77 140/60 140/60 210/99 210/99 170/77 210/99 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 435 Water. LLC .

LLC . 10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 250/121 400/204 140/60 90/32 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X 80/27 180/82 210/99 160/76 250/121 210/99 180/82 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Salt Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy.436 Water.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 437 Water. LLC . Sea Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 300/149 250/121 400/204 140/60 150/66 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 300/149 220/104 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 180/82 200/93 120/49 250/121 300/149 180/82 250/121 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

438 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Water. Sewage Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 270/132 400/204 110/43 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 220/104 170/77 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 439 White Liquor Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 200/93 90/32 220/104 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 180/82 X X 200/93 180/82 140/60 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

70% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 90/32 400/204 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 250/121 200/93 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 250/121 200/93 200/93 180/82 250/121 250/121 180/82 260/127 300/149 400/204 Corrodent will be absorbed.440 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Zinc Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

New York: Marcel Dekker. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 1–4. 5th ed. Vols.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 441 Reference 1. P..A. 2004.

LLC .q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

certain specific properties may be required.5 Elastomers 5. The following examples illustrate some of the important properties that are required of elastomers and the typical services that require these properties: 443 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. More commonly. in general. LLC . to color them. Elastomers are primarily composed of large molecules that tend to form spiral threads. to impart specific properties to meet specific application needs. Depending on the application of the elastomer. states: An elastomer is a polymeric material which at room temperature can be stretched to at least twice its original length and upon immediate release of the stress will return quickly to its original length. that are attached to each other at infrequent intervals.1 Introduction The technical definition of an elastomer. these coils tend to stretch or compress but exert an increasing resistance as additional stresses are applied. an elastomer is generally considered to be any material that is elastic or resilient and. elastomers tend to be soft and sticky when hot and hard and brittle when cold. These materials are sometimes referred to as rubbers. In the raw state. to make them age better. As a small stress is applied. is achieved by compounding. or harder. The maximum utility of elastomers. This property is illustrated by the reaction of an elastic band. similar to a coiled spring. Vulcanizing agents are also added because the vulcanizing process extends the temperature range within which they are flexible and elastic. tougher. as given by ASTM. resembles natural rubber in feeling and appearance. either natural or synthetic. and in general. Ingredients are added to make elastomers stronger.

elastic bands. windshield wipers Resistance to sunlight: wearing apparel. windshield wipers Resistance to chemicals: tank linings. Natural rubber is polymerized hydrocarbon whose commercial synthesis proved to be very difficult. O-rings Minimum heat buildup: auto tires. but not identical q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. suction hose. paint hose. tubing Electrical resistivity: electrician’s tape. mountings High resilience: sponge rubber. belts conveying hot materials. oil suction hose. V belts. pressuresensitive tapes Low specific gravity: airplane parts. auto tires. sandblast hose. V belts. gaskets. jar rings. matting Impermeability to gases: balloons. soles and heels (shoes). forestry hose. transmission belts. steam packing. valve diaphragms. thread. automotive parts. O-rings Resistance to flexing: auto tires. creamery hose. transmission belts. Synthetic rubbers now produced are similar to. O-rings Resistance to cold: airplane parts. hose covers. LLC .444 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Resistance to abrasive wear: automobile tires. stack linings Resistance to ozone: ignition distributor gaskets. life rafts. O-rings High rigidity: packing. cables. hose covers. bathing caps. mountings. gasoline hose. footwear. balloons Lack of odor or taste: milk tubing. electrician’s gloves. conveyor belt covers. special diaphragms. special belts. welding hose These materials are sometimes referred to as rubbers. special footwear Stickiness: cements. hose for chemicals. tank linings. O-rings. soles and heels (shoes). packing house hose. gaskets. jar rings. O-rings Resistance to oils: gasoline hose. ignition cables. electrician’s tape. gaskets. hose covers Resistance to tearing: tire treads. life rafts. nipples. nonstatic hose. O-rings Acceptance of color pigments: ponchos. hot-water bags. mountings. refrigeration hose. belt covers. adhesive tapes. transmission belts. battery boxes Long life: fire hose. steam hose. and footwear Resistance to high temperatures: auto tires. switchboard mats. wire insulation Electrical conductivity: hospital flooring. valve cups. brewery and winery hose.

LLC . other compounds were used as the parent material in place of butadiene. CH2aCH–CHaCH2.1 illustrates some of these effects. Natural rubber is a polymer of methyl butadiene (isoprene): CH3 CH2 C CH CH2 When butadiene or its derivatives become polarized.1. It is commercially produced by cracking petroleum and also from ethyl alcohol.1 Compounding Trade-Offs An Improvement in Tensile strength. Natural rubber has the hydrocarbon butadiene as its simplest unit. Improvement in one property can come at the expense of another property. Butadiene. has two unsaturated linkages and is easily polarized. As development work continued in the production of synthetic rubbers. the units link together to form long chains that contain over 1000 units. TABLE 5. this does involve trade-offs. it was found that simple butadiene does not yield a good grade of rubber because the chains are too smooth and do not sufficiently interlock strongly. hardness Dynamic properties Balanced properties Optimized properties Compression set resistance Oil resistance Abrasion resistance Dampening Can Be at the Expense of Extensibility Dynamic properties Thermal stability Compression set resistance Processability Higher cost Flex fatigue strength Resilience Low-temperature flexibility Resilience Resilience Compression set resistance q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Elastomers 445 to. Better results are obtained by introducing side groups into the chain either by modifying butadiene or by making a copolymer of butadiene and some other compound. In early attempts to develop a synthetic rubber. Therefore. Two of them were isobutylene and ethylene. Table 5. it is important that these effects be taken into consideration. natural rubber.1 Importance of Compounding The rubber chemist is able to optimize selected properties or fine-tune the formulation to meet a desired balance of properties. However. 5.

In principle. The factors that influence the resistance to motion include various intermolecular attractions.1. extending well above and below room temperature.1. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. A partially crystalline thermoplast will display a relatively small modulus change at the glass transition temperature followed by a steady decreasing modulus as the temperature increases. causing it to spring back to its original shape when deforming stress is removed. pliable gum or a leathery. When the molecular resistance to motion is the least. the presence of side chains. ethylene.2 Similarities of Elastomers and Thermoplastic Polymers All thermoplastic polymers and elastomers. Elastomers in the uncured state have glass-transition temperature well below room temperature. The distinction refers to a modulus of the material—a ratio between an applied force and the amount of resulting deformation. A noncrystalline (amorphus) polymer will display a large decrease in modulus at the glass transition temperature. with the exception of silicones. The cross-links join the elastomer’s molecular chains together at a cross-link density such that many molecular units exist between cross-link sites. most amorphous thermoplastic materials could be converted into elastomers in some appropriate temperature range by the controlled addition of a limited number of cross-links. crystallinity. propylene. and physical entanglements of the molecular strands. Engineering thermoplastics have glass-transition temperatures that fall in a wide temperature range.446 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. Below this temperature. Molecular mobility is the fundamental property that accounts for the differences among elastomers and the differences between elastomers and engineering thermoplasts. flexible solid. 5. Above this temperature.3 Differences between Elastomers and Thermoplasts At room temperature. a cross-linked elastomer will display rubber-like properties. and acrylic acid and its esters. a thermoplast or elastomeric polymer is a supercooled liquid that behaves in many ways like a rigid solid. The behavior of a thermoplast above its glass transition temperature will depend on its level of crystallinity. Between the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature. whereas an engineering thermoplastic is a rigid solid. An elastomer is in a thermoplastic state prior to vulcanization. The major physical differences between a cured elastomer and an engineering thermoplastic is the presence of cross-links. LLC . acrylonitrile. This only slightly increases the resistance of deformation. Typical examples include styrene. Many of the same monomers are found in both thermoplastic and elastomeric polymers. the modulus is relatively insensitive to temperature. but it increases the resilience of the elastomer. deformation is the greatest. They are made up from the linking of one or more monomers into long molecular chains. are carbon-based. The glass transition temperature of the polymer is determined by the cumulative effect of these factors. an uncured elastomer can be a soft.

factors that influence the permeation rate are diffusion and temperature rather than concentration and temperature. Permeation can pose a serious problem in elastomer-lined equipment. All materials tend to be somewhat permeable to chemical molecules. it is not necessary for an elastomer to have a high absorption rate for permeation to occur. This can result in 1. Permeation is another factor that can cause failure of a lining. For general corrosion resistance. and permeation rates are taken into consideration. such as the fluorocarbons. Loss of contents through lining and substrate as the result of eventual failure of the substrate The degree of permeation is affected by lining thickness. are usually satisfactory. thicknesses of 0. the chemical attack is greater as the temperature and/or concentration of the corrodent increases.4 Causes of Failure Chemical deterioration occurs as the result of a chemical reaction between the elastomer and the medium or by absorption of the medium into the elastomer. and penetration to the substrate in an elastomer-lined vessel. Thick linings may be required when mechanical factors such as thinning because of cold flow. cracking. Some elastomers. Normally. depending on the elastomeric material and the specific corrodent. LLC . mechanical abuse. When an elastomer exhibits a high absorption. This attack results in a swelling of the elastomer and a reduction in its tensile strength. especially organic liquids.010–0. Swelling can cause softening of the elastomer and. Bond failure and blistering. caused by an accumulation of fluids at the bond when the substrate is less permeable than the lining or from the formation of corrosion or reaction products if the substrate is attacked by the corrodent 2. Though permeation is a factor closely related to absorption. However. are easily permeated but have very little absorption. Increasing lining thickness will normally decrease permeation by the square of the thickness. in a lined vessel. When the corrodent permeates the elastomer. for which data are usually available.1. elastomers absorb varying quantities of the material they are in contact with. Unlike metals. permeation usually results. An approximation of the expected permeation and/or absorption of an elastomer can be based on the absorption of water.Elastomers 447 5. However. This can result in swelling. The temperature and concentration of the corrodent will determine the degree of deterioration. it comes into contact with the metal substrate that is then subject to chemical attack. but the permeability rate of some elastomers tends to be an order of magnitude greater than that of metals. this is not necessarily the answer to q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. introduce high stresses and failure of the bond. Failure of the substrate because of corrosive attack 3.020 in.

Temperature changes and large differences in coefficients of thermal expansion are the most common causes of bond failure. mechanical. Table 5.2 shows the ozone resistance of selected elastomers. and consequently. it is more susceptible to mechanical damage from flowing or agitated media.3 gives the relative low-temperature flexibility of the more common elastomers. discoloration of colored stocks. and sunlight. Elastomers in outdoor use can be subject to degradation as a result of the action of ozone. serious loss of tensile strength. Therefore. and chemical resistance properties must all be taken q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. the labor cost of installing the liner increases as the thickness increases.5 Selecting an Elastomer When the need arises to specify an elastomer for a specific application. With many elastomers.448 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers the problem because increasing the liner thickness can introduce other problems. when used under ambient conditions such as storage tanks. Linings can be installed either bonded or unbonded to the substrate. The action of sunlight. when the elastomer is brittle and will easily fracture. and serious loss of tensile strength. When the elastomer is in a deteriorated condition. Surface cracking. elongation. As the liner thickness increases. and other rubber-like properties. ozone. Most mechanical damage occurs as a result of chemical deterioration of the elastomer. and other rubber-like properties are the result of the attack. The low-temperature properties must also be taken into account for outdoor use. the material is weakened. Temperature and temperature gradient in the liner also affect the rate of permeation. Table 5. 5. when the material is to be installed where it will be subject to weathering. In unbonded linings. Table 5.1. These stresses are influenced by thickness and modulus of elasticity of the elastomer. crystallization takes place at low temperatures. oxygen. the resistance to weathering must also be taken into account when selecting an elastomer as well as other corrosion resistance properties. elongation. Lowering these will reduce the permeation rate. In addition. LLC . Lined vessels. Some elastomeric materials are subject to degradation when placed in outdoor applications as a result of weathering. physical. These three weathering agents can greatly affect the properties and appearance of a large number of elastomeric materials. provide the best service.4 gives the brittle points of the common elastomers. discoloration of colored stocks.5 provides the operating temperatures of the common elastomers. the thermal stresses on the boundary increase that can cause bond failure. it is important that the space between the liner and support member be vented to the atmosphere to permit the escape of minute quantities of permeant vapors and also to prevent the expansion of entrapped air that could cause collapse of the liner. and oxygen can cause surface cracking. this is usually not the case. Although elastomers can be damaged by mechanical means alone. Table 5.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. fair. good. excellent.Elastomers TABLE 5. G.3 Relative Low-Temperature Flexibility of the Common Elastomers Elastomer Natural rubber NR Butyl rubber IIR Ethylene–propylene rubber EPDM Ethylene–acrylic rubber EA Fluoroelastomer FKM Fluorosilicone FSI Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (Hypalon) CSM Polychloroprene (Neoprene) CR Nitrile rubber (Buna-N) NBR Polybutadiene BR Polyisoprene IR Polysulfide T rubber Butadiene–styrene rubber (Buna-S) SBR Silicone rubber SI Polyurethane rubber AU Polyether–urethane rubber EU a Relative Flexibilitya G–E F E P–F F–G E F–G F–G F–G G–E G F–G G E G G E. LLC . F. P.2 Ozone Resistance of Selected Elastomers Excellent Resistance EPDM Epichlorhydrin ETFE ECTFE Fluorosilicones Ethylene acrylate Ethylene vinyl acetate Chlorinated polyethylene Good Resistance Polychloroprene Fair Resistance Nitrile Poor Resistance Buna S Isoprene Natural rubber Chlorosulfonated polyethylene Polyacrylate Polysulfide Polyamides Polyesters Perfluoroelastomers Urethanes Vinylidene fluoride Butyl 449 Polybutadiene SBR SBS TABLE 5. poor.

450 TABLE 5.4

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Brittle Points of Common Elastomers
Elastomer NR; IR CR SBR NBR CSM BR EA EPDM; EPT SEBS Polysulfide SF Polysulfide FA AU Polyamide No. 11 PE TPE SI FSI HEP FKM ETFE ECTFE FPM 8F K68 K40 K76 K32 to K40 K40 to K80 K60 K75 K90 K58 to K148 K60 K30 K85 to K100 K94 K94 K67 to K70 K75 K75 K80 K25 to K75 K150 K105 K9 to K58 8C K56 K40 K60 K1 to K40 K40 to K62 K56 K60 K68 K50 to K100 K51 K35 K65 to K73 K70 K70 K55 to K60 K60 K60 K62 K32 to K59 K101 K70 K23 to K50

into account. The major physical and mechanical properties that may have to be considered, depending on the application are: Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Compression set resistance Tear resistance Tensile strength Adhesion to metals Adhesion to fabrics Rebound, cold and hot Resistance to heat aging and flame It should be remembered that these properties may be altered by compounding, but improvement of one property may result in an adverse effect on another. Because of this, it is best to provide a competent manufacturer with complete specifications and let that manufacturer provide an appropriate elastomer.
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.5 Operating Temperature Ranges of Common Elastomers
Temperature Range 8F Elastomer Natural rubber, NR Isoprene rubber, IR Neoprene rubber, CR Buna-S, SBR Nitrile Rubber Buna, NBR Butyl rubber, IIR Chlorobutyl rubber, CIIR Hypalon, CSM Polybutadiene rubber, BR Ethylene–acrylic rubber, EA Acrylate–butadiene rubber, ABR Ethylene–propylene, EPDM Styrene–butadiene–styrene, SBS Styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene, SEBS Polysulfide, ST Polysulfide, FA Polyurethane, AU Polyamides Polyesters, PE Thermoplastic elastomers, TPE Silicone, SI Fluorosilicone, FSI Vinylidene fluoride, HEP Fluoroelastomers, FKM Ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene elastomer, ETFE Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene elastomer, ECTFE Perfluoroelastomers, FPM Min K59 K59 K13 K66 K40 K30 K30 K20 K150 K40 K40 K65 K102 K50 K30 K65 K40 K40 K40 K60 K100 K40 K10 K370 K105 K58 Max 175 175 203 175 250 300 300 250 200 340 340 300 150 220 212 250 250 300 302 277 450 375 450 400 300 340 600 Min K50 K50 K25 K56 K40 K34 K34 K30 K101 K40 K40 K54 K75 K45 K35 K54 K40 K40 K40 K51 K73 K40 K18 K223 K76 K50 8C

451

Max 80 80 95 80 105 149 149 105 93 170 170 149 65 105 100 121 121 149 150 136 232 190 232 204 149 171 316

The primary requirement of the elastomer is that it must be compatible with the corrodent to be handled. Therefore, all temperatures and concentrations of the corrodent to which it will be exposed, must be provided. Specifications should include any specific properties required for the application, such as resilience, hysteresis, static or dynamic shear and compression modulus, flex fatigue and cracking, creep resistance to oils and chemicals, permeability, and brittle point, all in the temperature ranges to be encountered in service. 5.1.6 Corrosion Resistance The corrodent’s concentration and temperature is a determining factor in the capacity of the elastomer to resist attack by the corrodent. Another important factor is the elastomer’s composition. It is a common practice in the
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

452

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

manufacture of elastomers to incorporate additives into the formulation to improve certain of the physical and/or mechanical properties. These additives may have an adverse effect on the corrosion resistance of the base elastomer, particularly at elevated temperatures. Conversely, some manufacturers compound their elastomer to improve their corrosion resistance at the expense of physical and/or mechanical properties. Because of this, it is important to know whether or not any additives have been used as the corrosion resistance charts are applicable only for the pure elastomer. Keep in mind that there are several manufacturers of each generic compound. Because each may compound slightly differently, the corrosion resistance may be affected. When a generic compound is listed as being compatible with a specific corrodent, it indicates that at least one of the trade name materials is resistant to the corrodent, but not necessarily all. The manufacturers must be checked. 5.1.7 Applications Elastomeric or rubber materials find a wide range of applications. One of the major areas of application is that of vessels’ linings. Both natural and synthetic materials are used for this purpose. These linings have provided many years of service in the protection of steel vessels from corrosion. They are sheet-applied and bonded to a steel substrate. These materials are also used extensively as membranes in acid-bricklined vessels to protect the steel shell from corrosive attack. The acid-brick lining, in turn, protects the elastomer from abrasion and excessive temperature. Another major use is as an impermeable lining for settling ponds and basins. These materials are employed to prevent pond contaminants from seeping into the soil and causing pollution of groundwater and contamination of the soil. Natural rubber and most of the synthetic elastomers are unsaturated compounds that oxidize and rapidly deteriorate when exposed to air in thin films. These materials can be saturated by reacting with chlorine under the proper conditions, producing compounds that are clear, odorless, nontoxic, and noninflammable. They may be dissolved and blended with varnishes to impart high resistance to moisture and to the action of alkalies. This makes these products particularly useful in paints for concrete where the combination of moisture and alkali causes the disintegration of ordinary paints and varnishes. These materials also resist mildew and are used to impart flame resistance and waterproofing properties to canvas. Application of these paints to steel will provide a high degree of protection against corrosion. Large quantities of elastomeric materials are used to produce a myriad of products such as hoses, cable insulation, O-rings, seals and gaskets, belting, vibration mounts, flexible couplings, expansion joints, automotive and airplane parts, electrical parts and accessories. With such a wide variety of applications requiring very diverse properties, it is essential that an
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers

453

understanding of the properties of each elastomer be acquired so that proper choices can be made. 5.1.8 Elastomer Designations Many of the elastomers have common names or trade names as well as the chemical name. For example, polychloroprene also goes under the name of neoprene (DuPont’s tradename) or Bayprene (Mobay Corp’s tradename). In addition, they also have an ASTM designation that for polychloroprene is CR.

5.2 Natural Rubber
Natural rubber of the best quality is prepared by coagulating the latex of the ` Hevea brasıliensis tree that is primarily cultivated in the Far East. However, there are other sources such as the wild rubbers of the same tree growing in Central America, guyayule rubber coming from shrubs grown mostly in Mexico, and balata. Balata is a resinous material and cannot be tapped like the Hevea tree sap. The balata tree must be cut down and boiled to extract balata that cures to a hard, tough product used as golf ball covers. Another source of rubber is the planation leaf gutta-percha. This material is produced from the leaves of trees grown in bush formation. The leaves are picked and the rubber is boiled out as with the balata. Gutta-percha has been used successfully for submarine-cable insulation for more than 40 years. Chemically, natural rubber is a polymer of methyl butadiene (isoprene):
CH3 CH2 C CH CH2

When polymerized, the units link together, forming long chains that each contain over 1000 units. Simple butadiene does not yield a good grade of rubber, apparently because the chains are too smooth and do not form a strong enough interlock. Synthetic rubbers are produced by introducing side groups into the chain either by modifying butadiene or by making a copolymer of butadiene and some other compound. Purified raw rubber becomes sticky in hot weather and brittle in cold weather. Its valuable properties become apparent after vulcanization. Depending upon the degree of curing, natural rubber is classified as soft, semihard, or hard rubber. Only soft rubber meets the ASTM definition of an elastomer, and therefore, the information that follows pertain only to soft rubber. The properties of semihard and hard rubber differ somewhat, particularly in the area of corrosion resistance. Most rubber is made to combine with sulfur or sulfur-bearing organic compounds or with other cross-linking chemical agents in a process known
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

454

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

as vulcanization that was invented by Charles Goodyear in 1839 and forms the basis of all later developments in the rubber industry. When properly carried out, vulcanization improves mechanical properties, eliminates tackiness, renders the rubber less susceptible to temperature changes, and makes it insoluble in all known solvents. Other materials are added for various purposes as follows: Carbon blacks, precipitated pigments, and organic vulcanization accelerators are added to increase tensile strength and resistance to abrasion. Whiting, barite, talc, silica, silicates, clays, and fibrous materials are added to cheapen and stiffen. Bituminous substances, coal tar and its products, vegetable and mineral oils, paraffin, petrolatum, petroleum, oils, and asphalt are added to soften (for purposes of processing or for final properties). Condensation amines and waxes are added as protective agents against natural aging, sunlight, heat, and flexing. Pigments are added to provide coloration. Vulcanization has the greatest effect on the mechanical properties of natural rubber. Unvulcanized rubber can be stretched to approximately ten times its length and, at this point, will bear a load of 10 tons/in.2. It can be compressed to one-third of its thickness thousands of times without injury. When most types of vulcanized rubbers are stretched, their resistance increases in greater proportion than their extension. Even when stretched just short of the point of rupture, they recover almost all of their original dimensions on being released and then gradually recover a portion of the residual distortion. The outstanding property of natural rubber in comparison to the synthetic rubbers is its resilience. It has excellent rebound properties, either hot or cold. 5.2.1 Resistance to Sun, Weather, and Ozone Cold water preserves natural rubber, but if exposed to the air, particularly in sunlight, rubber tends to become hard and brittle. It has only fair resistance to ozone. Unlike the synthetic elastomers, natural rubber softens and reverts with aging to sunlight. In general, it has relatively poor weathering and aging properties. 5.2.2 Chemical Resistance Natural rubber offers excellent resistance to most inorganic salt solutions, alkalies, and nonoxidizing acids. Hydrochloric acid will react with soft rubber to form rubber hydrochloride, and therefore, it is not recommended that natural rubber be used for items that will come into contact with that
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers

455

acid. Strong oxidizing media such as nitric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, permanganates, dichromates, chlorine dioxide, and sodium hypochlorite will severely attack rubber. Mineral and vegetable oils, gasoline, benzene, toluene, and chlorinated hydrocarbons also affect rubber. Cold water tends to preserve natural rubber. Natural rubber offers good resistance to radiation and alcohols. Unvulcanized rubber is soluble in gasoline, naphtha, carbon bisulfide, benzene, petroleum ether, turpentine, and other liquids. Refer to Table 5.6 for the compatibility of natural rubber with selected corrodents.
TABLE 5.6 Compatibility of Natural Rubber with Selected Corrodents
Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid, 10% Acetic acid, 50% Acetic acid, 80% Acetic acid, glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride, aqueous Aluminum chloride, dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride, 10% Ammonium chloride, 50% Ammonium chloride, sat. Ammonium fluoride, 10% Ammonium fluoride, 25% Ammonium hydroxide, 25% 8F X X 150 X X X X 140 X 8C X X 66 X X X X 60 X

140 140 160 X X 140

60 60 71 X X 60

140 140 140 140 X X 140

60 60 60 60 X X 60
(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

456 TABLE 5.6 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide, sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate, 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia, 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid, 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas, dry Bromine gas, moist Bromine, liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide, 10% Calcium hydroxide, sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide 8F 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 X X X 140 140 140 140 140 X X X 140 X X 140 140 8C 60 60 60 60 60 X 60 X X X 60 60 60 60 60 X X X 60 X X 60 60

X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 X

X 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 X
(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.6 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon dioxide, dry Carbon dioxide, wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid, 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas, dry Chlorine gas, wet Chlorine, liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid, 10% Chromic acid, 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid, 15% Citric acid, conc. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride, 5% Cupric chloride, 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride, 50% in water Ferric nitrate, 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas, dry Fluorine gas, moist Hydrobromic acid, dil. Hydrobromic acid, 20% Hydrobromic acid, 50% Hydrochloric acid, 20% 8F 8C

457

X X X 140 X X X X X X X X X X X 140 X X X 140 140 X X X X

X X X 60 X X X X X X X X X X X 60 X X X 60 60 X X X X

X 140 140 140 X 140 X X 140 140 140 X

X 60 60 60 X 60 X X 60 60 60 X
(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

458 TABLE 5.6 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrochloric acid, 38% Hydrocyanic acid, 10% Hydrofluoric acid, 30% Hydrofluoric acid, 70% Hydrofluoric acid, 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution, 10% Ketones, general Lactic acid, 25% Lactic acid, conc. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid, 5% Nitric acid, 20% Nitric acid, 70% Nitric acid, anhydrous Nitrous acid, conc. Oleum Perchloric acid, 10% Perchloric acid, 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid, 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide, 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide, 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide, 10% Sodium hydroxide, 50% Sodium hydroxide, conc. Sodium hypochlorite, 20% Sodium hypochlorite, conc. Sodium sulfide, to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid, 10% Sulfuric acid, 50% Sulfuric acid, 70% Sulfuric acid, 90% Sulfuric acid, 98% 8F 140 X X X 8C 60 X X X

X X 140 X X X X 140 X X X X X

X X 60 X X X X 60 X X X X X

X 140 140

X 60 60

140 140 140 X X X X 140 140 140 140 X X X X

60 60 60 X X X X 60 60 60 60 X X X X
(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.6 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid, 100% Sulfuric acid, fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X 8C X X X

459

140

60

The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Source: From P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

5.2.3 Applications Natural rubber finds its major use in the manufacture of pneumatic tires and tubes, power transmission belts, conveyer belts, gaskets, mountings, hose, chemical tank linings, printing press platens, sound and/or shock absorbers, and seals against air, moisture, sound, and dirt. Rubber has been used for many years as a lining material for steel tanks, particularly for protection against corrosion by inorganic salt solutions, especially brine, alkalies, and nonoxidizing acids. These linings have the advantage of being readily repaired in place. Natural rubber is also used for lining pipelines used to convey these types of materials. Some of these applications have been replaced by synthetic rubbers that have been developed over the years.

5.3 Isoprene Rubber (IR)
Chemically, natural rubber is natural cis-polyisoprene. The synthetic form of natural rubber, synthetic cis-polyisoprene, is called isoprene rubber. The physical and mechanical properties of IR are similar to the physical and mechanical properties of natural rubber, the one major difference being that isoprene does not have an odor. This feature permits the use of IR in certain food-handling applications. IR can be compounded, processed, and used in the same manner as natural rubber. Other than the lack of odor, IR has no advantages over natural rubber.
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

460

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

5.4 Neoprene (CR)
Neoprene is one of the oldest and most versatile of the synthetic rubbers. Chemically, it is polychloroprene. Its basic unit is a chlorinated butadiene whose formula is
Cl CH2 C CH CH2

The raw material is acetylene which makes this product more expensive than some of the other elastomeric materials. Neoprene was introduced commercially by DuPont in 1932 as an oilresistant substitute for natural rubber. Its dynamic properties are very similar to those of natural rubber, but its range of chemical resistance overcomes many of the shortcomings of natural rubber. As with other elastomeric materials, neoprene is available in a variety of formulations. Depending on the compounding procedure, material can be produced to impart specific properties to meet specific application needs. Neoprene is also available in a variety of forms. In addition to a neoprene latex that is similar to natural rubber latex, neoprene is produced in a “fluid” form as either a compounded latex dispersion or a solvent solution. Once these materials have solidified or cured, they have the same physical and chemical properties as the solid or cellular forms. 5.4.1 Resistance to Sun, Weather, and Ozone Neoprene displays excellent resistance to sun, weather, and ozone. Because of its low rate of oxidation, products made of neoprene have high resistance to both outdoor and indoor aging. Over prolonged periods of time in an outdoor environment, the physical properties of neoprene display insignificant change. If neoprene is properly compounded, ozone in atmospheric concentrations has little effect on the product. When severe ozone exposure is expected, as for example around electrical equipment, compositions of neoprene can be provided to resist thousands of parts per million of ozone for hours without surface cracking. Natural rubber will crack within minutes when subjected to ozone concentrations of only 50 ppm. 5.4.2 Chemical Resistance Neoprene’s resistance to attack from solvents, waxes, fats, oils, greases, and many other petroleum-based products is one of its outstanding properties. Excellent service is also experienced when it is in contact with aliphatic compounds (methyl and ethyl alcohols, ethylene glycols, etc.), aliphatic hydrocarbons, and most Freon refrigerants. A minimum amount of swelling
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

and consequently. organic esters. When exposed to dilute mineral acids. Chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons. inorganic salt solutions. Refer to Table 5. change in appearance or change in properties. 10% Acetic acid. LLC .7 Compatibility of Neoprene with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. oils. Properly compounded neoprene can be buried underground successfully. and certain ketones have an adverse effect on neoprene. or alkalies. Neoprene formulations can be produced that provide products with outstanding resistance to water absorption.Elastomers 461 and relatively little loss of strength occur when neoprene is in contact with these fluids. chemicals. These products can be used in continuous or periodic immersion in either freshwater or saltwater without any loss of properties. Included in this category are nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid.7 for the compatibilities of neoprene with selected corrodents. since moisture. and soil chemicals usually found in the earth have little effect on its properties. TABLE 5. and other industrial byproducts. 80% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride 8F 200 200 160 160 160 X X X X X 140 160 120 X 200 150 200 8C 93 93 71 71 71 X X X X X 60 71 49 X 93 66 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. neoprene products show little. 50% Acetic acid. only limited serviceability can be expected with them. Highly oxidizing acid and salt solutions also cause surface deterioration and loss of strength. aromatic hydroxy compounds. aqueous Aluminum chloride. bacteria. gasolines. wastes. if any. It is unaffected by soils saturated with seawater. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.

10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. LLC . 10% Ammonium chloride. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.7 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.462 TABLE 5. sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. dry Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine 8F 180 200 200 140 X 200 150 150 150 200 200 200 200 200 200 150 150 160 X 200 X X 140 X 150 150 230 200 200 X X 100 150 X X 200 150 X X X 140 60 200 8C 82 93 93 60 X 93 66 66 66 93 93 93 93 93 93 66 66 71 X 93 X X 60 X 66 66 110 93 93 X X 38 66 X X 93 66 X X X 66 16 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Bromine. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.

liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. LLC . Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. conc. 15% Citric acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 5% Cupric chloride. wet Chlorine. sat. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate 8F X X 200 200 150 230 230 X 150 200 150 X 200 200 X X X 150 X X X X X X X X X 140 100 150 150 160 200 160 200 X 200 160 X X 8C X X 93 93 66 110 110 X 66 93 66 X 93 93 X X X 66 X X X X X X X X X 60 38 66 66 71 93 71 93 X 93 71 X X (continued) 463 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid.7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. dry Chlorine gas. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid.

dry Fluorine gas. Hydrobromic acid. 20% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. LLC . 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Salicylic acid 8F X X 100 160 160 200 90 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X 80 X 140 90 200 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X 150 200 160 8C X X 38 71 71 93 32 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X 27 X 60 32 93 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X 66 93 71 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. general Lactic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 10% Ketones. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. conc.464 TABLE 5.7 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. dil. 5% Nitric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. Oleum Perchloric acid.

Source: From P. Vols. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Molding can be accomplished by compression. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 200 200 230 230 230 X X 200 200 X 150 100 X X X X X 100 X X X 140 160 8C 93 93 110 110 110 X X 93 93 X 66 38 X X X X X 38 X X X 60 71 465 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 5th ed. extruding. 90% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. New York: Marcel Dekker.A. to 50% Stanic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. injection. 5. Highly compressed cellular materials 3. LLC . 50% Sodium hydroxide. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.. 50% Sulfiric acid. blow. conc. or calendering. Sodium sulfide. 2004. 70% Sulfuric acid.4. Conventional solid rubber parts 2. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Sodium hypochlorite.Elastomers TABLE 5. 1–4. Schweitzer.3 Applications Neoprene products are available in three basic forms: 1. Free-flowing liquids Each form has certain specific properties that can be advantageous to final products. conc.7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Silver bromide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Solid products can be produced by molding. 100% Sulfiric acid. transfer. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.

cushioning. Neoprene products manufactured by these processes include tubing. or wrapped-mandrel methods. sealants. insulation. LLC . sealing strips. radiator hose. automotive deck lid seals. caulks. as a binder for cellulose and asbestos. mortar. foams. and packaging. and as an elasticizing additive for concrete. Foam neoprene is similar to open-cell neoprene in that it is a compressible material with interconnecting cells. Because of the good heat and oil resistance of neoprene. and fiber binders. shoe soles and heels. It is available in two forms—as a neoprene latex or as a solvent solution. shoe soles. Other applications include use as a binder for curled animal hair in resilient furniture cushioning. This absorbent open-cell structure provides a wicking action to deliver oil to the journal bearings. rods. O-rings. and diaphragms. Neoprene latex is an elastomer–water dispersion. sealed fractionalhorsepower motors. and friction and coated fabrics. wire jacketing. pads. Extrusion processes provide means to economically and uniformly mass produce products quickly. nonconnecting cells that impart the added advantage of nonabsorbency. coatings and paints. and a foam neoprene. Cellular forms of neoprene are used primarily for gasketing. acoustical filtering. It is available as an open-cell sponge. filaments. and many types of hose. seating. Open-cell neoprene is a compressible. It is also used extensively in latex-based adhesives. These products produced from neoprene latex possess the same properties q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. absorbent material whose cells are uniform and interconnected. Its main area of application is for cushioning. a closed-cell neoprene. This property makes closed-cell neoprene especially suitable for sealing applications where fluid contact is expected such as in wetsuits for divers. It is used primarily in the manufacture of dipped products such as tool grips. for example. meteorological balloons. and for other appplications where a compressible nonabsorbent weather-resistant material is required. and knife-coated fabrics. Typical products produced by these methods are instrument seals. in mattresses. belting.466 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers vacuum. This material provides compressibility not found in solid rubber but still retains the advantageous properties of neoprene. Fluid forms of neoprene are important in the manufacture of many products because of their versatility. “Fluid” neoprene is the primary component in such products as adhesives. This material is particularly useful for gasketing and dustproofing applications where exposure to fluids is not expected. boating accessories. it has also found application as a railroad car lubricator. household and industrial gloves. transportation seating. and carpet underlay. Calendered products include sheet stock. A large proportion of sheet stock is later die-cut into finished products such as gaskets. and other miscellaneous components. appliance parts. Closed-cell neoprene is a resilient complex of individual. and a variety of rubber-coated metal parts. and asphalt. and sound and vibration damping. protective coatings. auto sparkplug boots.

Containers have been designed to hold oils. and flowable dry solds. fuels. GR-S) During World War II. chemicals. Because of the great need for rubber. in its many forms. possessing many of the advantageous properties of natural rubber while also overcoming many of its shortcomings.5. or roller. Weather. industrial equipment. However. As with natural rubber and the other synthetic elastomers. government developed what was originally known as Government Rubber Styrene-Type (GR-S) because it was the most practical to put into rapid production on a wartime scale. weather. Continued development since World War II has improved its properties considerably over what was initially produced by either Germany or the United States.1 Resistance to Sun. Collapsible nylon containers coated with neoprene are used for transporting and/or storing liquids. molasses. plywood. and flame. LLC . and chemical processing equipment. including resistance to oil. Neoprene roofing applied in liquid form is used to protect concrete. The rubber is produced by copolymerizing butadiene and styrene. and Ozone Butadiene–styrene rubber has poor weathering and aging properties. The solvent solution can be readily applied and will cure into a roofing membrane that is tough. has proved to be a reliable. and most hydrocarbons. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.S. They can be used to join a wide variety of rigid and flexible materials. oils.5 Styrene–Butadiene Rubber (SBR. Sunlight will cause it to deteriorate. a shortage of natural rubber was created when Japan occupied the Far Eastern nations where natural rubber was obtained. compounding with other ingredients will improve certain properties. the U. ozone. Buna-S. Neoprene.Elastomers 467 as those associated with solid neoprene. 5. and metal decks. Solvent-based neoprene adhesives develop quick initial bonds and remain strong and flexible most indefinitely. and various bulk-shipped products. These coatings protect the vessels from corrosion by acids. These solutions can be formulated in a range of viscosities suitable for application by brush. 5. pastes. alkalies. it does have better water resistance than natural rubber. It was later designated GR-S. elastic. spray. indispensable substitute for natural rubber. Neoprene solvent solutions are prepared by dissolving neoprene in standard rubber solvents. and weather resistant. Major areas of application include coatings for storage tanks.

glacial Acetone Ammonium chloride. Calcium hydroxide.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of Buna-S is similar to that of natural rubber. gasoline.5. 10% Chromic acid. 20% Calcium hydroxide. 28% Ammonium chloride. and alcohols. 30% Chromic acid. or oxidizing agents. 10% Ammonium chloride. Formaldehyde.8 Compatibility of SBR with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. sat. 37% 8F X X X X 200 200 200 200 200 X X X X X 200 200 200 200 200 200 X X X X X X X 200 X X 200 200 200 200 8C X X X X 93 93 93 93 93 X X X X X 93 93 93 93 93 93 X X X X X X X 93 X X 93 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 5. Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Chromic acid. 10–40% Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. sat.468 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. 50% Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. It is not resistant to oils. hydrocarbons. It is resistant to water and exhibits fair to good resistance to dilute acids. 50% Copper sulfate Corn oil Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. 40% Chromic acid. alkalies. 10% Acetic acid.8 for the compatibility of SBR with selected corrodents. LLC . Ammonium sulfate. sat. TABLE 5. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. dil. 30% Calcium hydroxide.

5th ed. 1–4. LLC .5. 70% Hydrofluoric acid.A. all conc. although Buna-S materials are also used to manufacture conveyor belts. and dirt.Elastomers TABLE 5. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water.8 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Formaldehyde.. distilled Water. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. sea 8F 200 200 X X X X X X X X X X X 200 200 X X X X X 200 X X 200 X X X X 210 200 200 200 8C 93 93 X X X X X X X X X X X 93 93 X X X X X 93 X X 93 X X X X 99 93 93 93 469 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. and seals against air. hoses. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid.3 Applications The major use of Buna-S is in the manufacture of automobile tires. Incompatibility is shown by an X. all conc.. Hydrofluoric acid. to 50% Propane Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Source: From P. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. demineralized Water. dil. dil. all conc. 2004. salt Water. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Potassium hydroxide. Schweitzer. Sulfuric acid. gaskets. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid Phenol Phosphoric acid. 5. Vols. moisture. 100% Hydrogen peroxide. New York: Marcel Dekker. dil. sound. Lactic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrochloric acid. all conc. 50% Hydrofluoric acid.

since these materials will attack the nitrile rubbers. water. or esters should be avoided.1 Resistance to Sun. Very slight swelling occurs in the presence of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Carbonated nitrile rubber (XNBR) incorporates up to 10% of a third comonomer with organic acid functionality. gasoline and oil hose.3 Applications Because of its exceptional resistance to fuels and hydraulic fluids. As with other elastomers. The deterioration of physical properties as a result of this swelling is small. chlorinated hydrocarbons. NBR has excellent resistance to water. nitro hydrocarbons. cables. The use of highly polar solvents such as acetone and methyl ethyl ketone. fuel. XNBR rubbers are used primarily in nonalkaline service. and good low-temperature and swell characteristics. printing rolls. and Ozone Nitrile rubbers offer poor resistance to sunlight and ozone. and their weathering qualities are not good. ozone. fatty acids. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Buna-N) Nitrile rubbers are an outgrowth of German Buna-N or Perbunan. Refer to Table 5. making NBR suitable for gasoline.6. Other applications include carburetor diaphragms. BunaN’s major area of application is in the manufacture of aircraft hose.6. XNBR is a carboxylic-acrylomtrilebutadiene-nitrile rubber with somewhat improved abrasion resistance over that of the standard NBR nitrile rubbers.6. They are copolymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile (CH2aCH–CaN) and are one of the four most wildely used elastomers.6 Nitrile Rubber (NBR. Weather. and hydraulic fluids. When compared to NBR. XNBR can be difficult to process. oil. and glycols.and oil-resistant applications. gaskets. 5. and it requires special formulation to prevent sticking to mixer surfaces and premature vulcanization. and solvents compared to that of neoprene is their primary advantage. Their greater resistance to oils. appropriate compounding will improve certain properties.470 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. ether. The main advantages of nitrile rubbers are their low cost. 5.9 for the compatibility of NBR with selected corrodents. and self-sealing fuel tanks. LLC . good oil and abrasion resistance. alcohols. and machinery mountings. XNBR has improved abrasion resistance and strength.2 Chemical Resistance Nitrile rubbers exhibit good resistance to solvents. 5.

9 Compatibility of Nitrile Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 70% Nitric acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate Amyl alcohol Aniline Barium chloride Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Calcium hypochlorite Carbonic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 10–50% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 50% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. anhydrous Phenol Phosphoric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. 50–80% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride 8F X 180 X X X X X X X X X 180 180 X 150 150 180 190 200 190 X 150 150 150 X 125 150 150 150 X 100 100 150 150 X X X X X X 150 125 200 8C X 82 X X X X X X X X X 82 82 X 66 66 82 88 93 88 X 66 66 66 X 52 66 66 66 X 38 38 66 66 X X X X X X 66 52 93 (continued) 471 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 100% Hypochlorous acid Nitric acid.

5.1 Resistance to Sun. Schweitzer. 1–4. 98% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Incompatibility is shown by an X. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sulfuric acid. It has the same general properties as butyl rubber but with slightly higher allowable operating temperatures.. and ozone. 10% Sulfuric acid.7. 70% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Vols. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 2004. fuming Zinc chloride 8F 150 X X 150 150 150 X X X X X 150 8C 66 X X 66 66 66 X X X X X 66 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Commercial butyl rubber may contain 5% butadiene as a copolymer.7 Butyl Rubber (IIR) and Chlorobutyl Rubber (CIIR) Butyl rubber contains isobutylene CH3 C CH2 CH3 as its parent material with small proportions of butadiene or isoprene added. 90% Sulfuric acid. 5. Corrosion Resistance Tables.472 TABLE 5. weather. It is a general-purpose synthetic rubber whose outstanding physical properties are low permeability to air (approximately one-fifth that of natural rubber) and high energy absorption. Chlorobutyl rubber is chlorinated isobutylene–isoprene. 10% Sodium hypochlorite. Its weathering qualities are outstanding as its resistance to water absorption. 5th ed. Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. conc.A. and Ozone Butyl rubber has excellent resistance to sun.9 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. Weather. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Source: From P. 100% Sulfuric acid.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat.10 for the compatibility of butyl rubber with selected corrodents and to Table 5. CIIR cannot be used with hydrochloric acid. 80% Acetic acid. ethylene glycol. and water. Unlike butyl rubber. LLC . CIIR has the same general resistance as natural rubber but can be used at higher temperatures. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride. It has poor resistance to petroleum oils. 50% Acetic acid.10 Compatibility of Butyl Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. Resistance to concentrated acids. gasoline. TABLE 5. acetane. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. phosphate ester oils. Refer to Table 5.7. except nitric and sulfuric. Ammonium fluoride. alkalies. is good. It has exceptional resistance to dilute mineral acids. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 8F 80 150 110 110 X X 100 X X 190 X 200 200 200 200 180 100 100 200 X 190 200 200 200 150 150 190 190 8C 27 66 43 43 X X 38 X X 88 X 93 93 93 93 82 38 38 93 X 88 93 93 93 66 66 88 88 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. and most solvents (except oxygenated solvents).Elastomers 473 5. ethylene.11 for the compatibility of chlorobutyl rubber with selected corrodents. 10% Acetic acid.2 Chemical Resistance Butyl rubber is very nonpolar. Unlike natural rubber. it is very resistant to swelling by vegetable and animal oils.

50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.10 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine.474 TABLE 5. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. LLC . wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. sat. 10% 8F 200 190 150 150 X 150 150 150 150 190 190 90 X 90 150 190 X 190 150 X 140 X 120 150 190 190 190 190 X 190 100 190 190 190 X 90 150 150 150 100 X X X X X X 8C 93 88 66 66 X 66 66 66 66 88 88 32 X 32 66 88 X 88 66 X 60 X 49 66 88 88 88 88 X 88 38 88 88 88 X 32 66 66 66 38 X X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon dioxide.

10% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 15% Citric acid. conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate.Elastomers TABLE 5. 20% Hydrochloric acid. dil. LLC 475 . 5% Cupric chloride. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% Citric acid. conc. 20% Nitric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 100% Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid. Copper chloride Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 25% Lactic acid.10 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 50–80% Salicylic acid Sodium chloride 8F X 190 190 150 190 X 150 150 X X 200 175 160 190 175 190 X 125 125 125 125 125 140 150 150 150 X 125 125 200 X 90 100 80 X 200 150 X X 125 X 150 150 150 80 200 8C X 88 88 66 88 X 66 66 X X 93 79 71 88 79 88 X 52 52 52 52 52 60 66 66 66 X 52 52 93 X 32 38 27 X 93 66 X X 52 X 66 66 66 27 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Nitric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Hydrobromic acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. conc. dry Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid.

conc. 5th ed. conc. 2004. TABLE 5. aqueous Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Vols. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Sulfuric acid.11 Compatibility of Chlorobutyl Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 10% Sulfuric acid.A.. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 70% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 150 150 150 X X 150 150 150 200 150 X X X X X 200 X X X 200 8C 66 66 66 X X 66 66 66 93 66 X X X X X 93 X X X 93 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 1–4. Sodium sulfide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 100% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid.476 TABLE 5.10 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid. Sodium hypochlorite. LLC . Schweitzer. 10% 8F 150 150 150 X X 100 200 200 190 200 200 200 8C 60 60 60 X X 38 93 93 88 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Alum Aluminum chloride. Source: From P. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. 98% Sulfuric acid.

20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid.11 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 100% Lactic acid. conc. dil. 50% Ammonium chloride. conc. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium chloride Benzoic acid Boric acid Calcium chloride Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon monoxide Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid Chromic acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Magnesium chloride Nitric acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride.Elastomers TABLE 5. sat. Hydrobromic acid. LLC 477 . Phenol 8F 200 200 200 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 160 160 160 100 150 100 X X 90 150 160 160 150 150 200 175 100 160 175 125 125 125 X X X X 125 125 200 200 150 X X 125 150 8C 93 93 93 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 71 71 71 38 66 38 X X 32 66 71 71 66 66 93 79 38 71 79 52 52 52 X X X X 52 52 93 93 66 X X 52 66 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% Citric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 15% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cupric chloride.

5th ed. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. balloons. and molding. 2004. 10% Sulfuric acid. but it does possess some advantages over neoprene in certain types of service. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 90% Sulfuric acid. 5. 10% Sodium sulfide. 1–4. The excellent resistance it exhibits in the presence of water and steam makes it suitable for hoses and diaphragms. New York: Marcel Dekker. curing bags for tire vulcanization. Vols. when properly compounded. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 98% Sulfuric acid. Hypalon. fuming Sulfurous acid Zinc chloride 8F 150 200 150 150 200 X X X X X 200 200 8C 66 93 66 66 93 X X X X X 93 93 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. life boats. 70% Sulfuric acid.8 Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber (Hypalon) Chlorosulfonated polyethylene synthetic rubber (CSM) is manufactured by DuPont under the trade name Hypalon. Schweitzer. and better chemical resistance.A.11 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Phosphoric acid.. shock and vibration absorbers. In many respects it is similar to neoprene. LLC . butyl rubber finds many uses in the manufacture of inflatable items such as life jackets.478 TABLE 5.7. It has better heat and ozone resistance. better color stability. and good resistance to permanent deformation under heavy loading. Hypalon has a broad range of service temperatures with excellent thermal properties.3 Applications Because of its impermeability. 5. 100% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. 50–80% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. good flex life. also exhibits good resistance to wear and abrasion. to 50% Sulfuric acid. General-purpose compounds can operate continuously at q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Applications are also found as flexible electrical insulation. Incompatibility is shown by an X. high impact resistance. and inner tubes. better electrical properties.

and other deteriorating factors associated with burial in the earth. Refer to Table 5. and Ozone Hypalon is one of the most weather-resistance elastomers available. and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Hypalon.8.1 Resistance to Sun. Hypalon is also resistant to salt solutions. however. On the low-temperature side. alcohols.8. and hydrofluoric acids. adverse effects on its physical properties. Long-term contact with water has little or no effect on Hypalon. aromatic. For the same reason. 5. Oxidation takes place at a very slow rate. Many elastomers are degraded by ozone concentrations of less than 1 part per million parts of air. Concentrated hydrochloric acid (37%) at elevated temperatures above 1588F (708C) will attack Hypalon but can be handled without adverse effect at all concentrations below this temperature. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.2 Chemical Resistance When properly compounded. it is used to line railroad tanks cars and other tanks containing acids and other oxidizing chemicals. even at elevated temperatures. Weather. It is also inherently resistant to ozone attack without the need for the addition of special antioxidants or antiozonants to the formulation.Elastomers 479 temperatures of 248–2758F (120–1358C). is unaffected by concentrations as high as 1 part per 100 parts of air.3 Applications Hypalon finds useful applications in many industries and many fields. conventional compounds can be used continuously down to 0 to K208F (K18 to K288C). it has found widespread use as an acid transfer hose. Nitric acid at room temperature and up to 60% concentration can also be handled without adverse effects. and ketones.8. chromic. Because of its outstanding resistance to oxidizing acids. but to produce such a compound. it is necessary to sacrifice performance of some of the other properties. It is also resistant to such oxidizing chemicals as sodium hypochlorite. moisture. Its physical and mechanical properties make it suitable for use in hose undergoing continuous flexing and/or those carrying hot water or steam. and both weak and concentrated alkalies and is generally unaffected by soil chemicals. It is also resistant to radiation. 5. aldehydes. Hypalon has poor resistance to aliphatic. and sulfuric. Special compounds can be formulated that can be used intermittently up to 3028F (1508C). if any. Special compounds can be produced that will retain their flexibility down to K408F (K408C). Sunlight and ultraviolet light have little.12 for the compatibility of Hypalon with selected corrodents. ferric chloride. Hypalon is highly resistant to attack by hydrocarbon oils and fuels. LLC . 5. sodium peroxide.

10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Acetic acid.480 TABLE 5.12 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Hypalon with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. sat. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride 8F 60 X 200 200 200 X 200 X X 140 140 200 200 200 200 180 90 140 190 190 190 200 200 200 200 80 140 200 200 60 200 X 140 140 200 200 200 200 200 X X X 200 140 X 8C 16 X 93 93 93 X 93 X X 60 60 93 93 93 93 82 32 60 88 88 88 93 93 93 93 27 60 93 93 16 93 X 60 60 93 93 93 93 93 X X X 93 60 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . sat.

15% Citric acid. dry Chlorine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol 8F 200 200 60 60 60 X 60 200 X 200 90 90 200 200 200 200 100 200 200 X 200 200 200 X 200 X X X 90 X X X 150 150 200 200 X 200 200 200 X 200 200 X X 8C 93 93 16 16 16 X 16 93 X 93 32 32 93 93 93 93 38 93 93 X 93 93 93 X 93 X X X 32 X X X 66 66 93 93 X 93 93 93 X 93 93 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon dioxide. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC 481 . moist Bromine. conc. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.Elastomers TABLE 5. dry Bromine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 5% Cupric chloride. dry Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. sat. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.

100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.482 TABLE 5. conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Magnesium chloride Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl lsobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. general Lactic acid. conc. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. to 50% 8F X 200 200 200 200 200 140 90 100 100 160 140 90 90 90 90 X X 140 80 200 180 X X X 140 100 100 X X X 100 90 X 200 80 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 8C X 93 93 93 93 93 60 32 38 38 71 60 32 32 32 32 X X 60 27 93 82 X X X 60 38 38 X X X 38 32 X 93 27 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. Sodium sulfide. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Hydrobromic acid.12 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 20% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 5% Nitric acid. dry Hydrobromic acid. dil. 70% Nitric acid. Hydrobromic acid.

pond liners. light weight. 2004. 70% Sulfuric acid. and good aging characteristics are of importance. New York: Marcel Dekker. and many other electrical accessories. the properties of color stability. Vols. useful temperature range. The construction industry has made use of Hypalon for sheet roofing. reservoir covers. spark plug boots. ignition wire jacketing. As an added protection from storms at sea. and other commercial vehicles. nuclear power station cable.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. excellent weatherability. Its resistance to heat. and grease makes it useful for application under the hood for such components as emission control hose. 1–4. and fuels. ozone. control cable. LLC . insulating hoods and blankets. 98% Sulfuric acid.A. Source: From P. Corrosion Resistance Tables. oil. and decorative and maintenance coatings. Schweitzer.Elastomers TABLE 5. floor tiles. power and lighting cable on offshore oil platforms are sheathed with Hypalon. Because of its heat and radiation resistance. When combined with cork. 5th ed. abrasion resistance. it is also used as a jacketing material on heating cable embedded in roadways to melt ice and on x-ray machine cable leads. 100% Sulfurous acid Toluene Zinc chloride 8F 90 200 200 200 160 X X X 160 X 200 8C 32 93 93 93 71 X X X 71 X 93 483 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Sulfuric acid. escalator rails. tubing. It is also used in applicance cords. The ability to remain soil-free and easily cleanable makes it suitable for tire whitewalls. Hypalon protects the cork from oxidation at elevated temperatures and also provides excellent resistance to oil. trucks. Hypalon provides a compressible yet setresistant gasket suitable for automobile crankcase and rocker pans. 50% Sulfuric acid.. In these applications. flexibility. advantage is taken of Hypalon’s color stability and good weathering properties by using the elastomer for exterior parts on cars. and welding cable. curtain-wall gaskets. In the automotive industry. 90% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. and air-conditioning and power-steering hoses. grease. The electrical industry makes use of Hypalon to cover automotive ignition and primary wire. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.

convertible tops. but it displays fair to good resistance in the presence of mineral acids and oxygenated compounds. and Ozone Although polybutadiene has good weather resistance. It also exhibits poor resistance to ozone. LLC . oil. aqueous 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Resistance to Sun.13 for the compatibility of polybutadiene rubber with selected corrodents.9. it will deteriorate when exposed to sunlight for prolongated periods of time. the units link together to form long chains that each contains over 1000 units.9 Polybutadiene Rubber (BR) Butadiene (CH2aCH–CHaCH2) has two unsaturated linkages and can be readily polymerized. TABLE 5.9.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of polybutadiene is similar to that of natural rubber. Refer to Table 5. Simple butadiene does not yield a good grade of rubber.484 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Application is also found in the coating of fabrics that are used for inflatable structures. boating garb. apparently because the chains are too smooth. 5. It shows poor resistance to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. When butadiene or its derivatives becomes polymerized. and hatch and boat covers. Consumer items such as awnings. flexible fuel tanks. tarpaulins. and other products also make use of fabrics coated with this elastomer. and gasoline. 5. 5.13 Compatibility of Polybutadiene (BR) with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Alum Alum ammonium Alum ammonium sulphate Alum chrome Alum potassium Alum chloride. These products offer the advantages of being lightweight and colorful. Better results are obtained by introducing side groups into the chain either by modifying butadiene or by making a copolymer of butadiene and some other compound. Weather.

30% Chromic acid. sat. 5% Nitric acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 40% Chromic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. Hydrochloric acid. 50% Copper chloride Copper sulfate Fatty acids Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate Hydrochloric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid fumes Hydrogen peroxide. 30% Nitric acid. 10% Nitric acid. 50% Nitric acid. 20% Nitric acid. wet Chrome alum Chromic acid. 10–40% Calcium chloride. 35% Hydrochloric acid. Carbon dioxide. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Ozone Phenol Sodium bicarbonate. 70% Nitric acid. 28% Ammonium chloride. 10% Chromic acid. LLC 485 . conc. 90% Hydrogen sulfide. wet Chlorine gas.13 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. Calcium hypochlorite. sat. to 20% Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 X 90 X X X X 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 80 80 X X X X 80 X 80 90 80 90 90 80 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 X 32 X X X X 32 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 27 27 27 X X X X 27 X 27 32 27 32 32 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Nitric acid. dil. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium sulfate.Elastomers TABLE 5. 40% Nitric acid. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride.

60% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium dioxide.A. the properties of the EA rubbers can be altered by q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.486 TABLE 5. to 50% Sodium sulfite. LLC . 5. 30% Sulfuric acid. 2004. alkaline Sodium phosphate. 5th ed. to 20% Sodium nitrate Sodium phosphate. shoe heels and seals. As with other synthetic elastomers. conc. 70% Sodium hydroxide.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 1–4. New York: Marcel Dekker. Vols. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Source: From P. neutral Sodium silicate Sodium sulfide. 15% Sodium hydroxide.. 5. particularly in the manufacture of automobile tire treads. and/or low-temperature properties. seals.9. 10% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Schweitzer. 50% Sodium hydroxide. and belting. It is generally used as a blend with other elastomers to impart better resiliency.10 Ethylene–Acrylic (EA) Rubber Ethylene–acrylic rubber is produced from ethylene and acrylic acid. acid Sodium phosphate. 70% Toluene 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 X 90 80 80 80 80 90 X 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 X 32 27 27 27 27 32 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. gaskets. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. abrasion resistance. dry Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite.3 Applications Very rarely is polybutadiene used by itself. 30% Sodium hydroxide.

the polymer has excellent resistance to heat. and wear as well as good low-temperature sealing ability. highly aromatic hydrocarbons. The swelling characteristics of EA will be retained better than those of the silicone rubbers after oil immersion. weather. oxidation. Ethylene–acrylic rubber also has outstanding resistance to hot water. and Ozone EA elastomers have extremely good resistance to sun. and animal and vegetable oils. Ethylene– acrylic rubber in engine parts provides good resistance to heat.1 Resistance to Sun. and Ozone Acrylate–butadiene and acrylic ester–acrylic halide rubbers exhibit good resistance to sun.11 Acrylate–Butadiene Rubber (ABR) and Acrylic Ester–Acrylic Halide (ACM) Rubbers Acrylate–butadiene and acrylic ester–acrylic halide rubbers are similar to ethylene–acrylic rubbers. Ethylene–acrylic rubber is not recommended for immersion in esters.11. Good resistance is also displayed to dilute acids. or concentrated acids. Weather.10. fluids. hoses. EA is a cost-effective. weather. and building plenum installations. 5.2 Chemical Resistance Ethylene–acrylic elastomers exhibit very good resistance to hot oils and hydrocarbon.Elastomers 487 compounding. gasoline. and ozone. LLC . Because of its fully saturated backbone.1 Resistance to Sun.10. It is one of the few elastomers with higher heat resistance than EPDM.10. Its resistance to water absorption is very good. low-smoke floor tiling. and ozone. boots. and cable jackets for offshore oil platforms. Long-term exposures have no effect on these rubbers.or glycol-based proprietary lubricants and to transmission and power steering fluids. seals. Weather. 5. aliphatic hydrocarbons. 5. damping components.3 Applications Ethylene–acrylic rubber is used in such products as gaskets. Neither should it be used in applications calling for long-term exposure to highpressure steam. and ozone. 5. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Basically. hot-oil-resistant rubber with good low-temperature properties. ships. ketones. 5.

it will last longer or require less maintenance and may even cost less. 5. and weather. oxygen. while also finding application at temperatures as low as K708F (K568C). good mechanical properties. it is not resistant to petroleum-based oils or flame.2 Chemical Resistance Acrylate–butadiene and ACM rubbers have excellent resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons (gasoline. alcohol. In some applications. synthetic lubricants. Experience has shown that EPDM has exceptional resistance to steam. and good chemical resistance. It also has very high resistance to sunlight. Hoses manufactured from EPDM have had lives several times longer than that of hoses manufactured from other elastomers. 5. They are unsatisfactory for use in contact with alkali.11. kerosene) and offer good resistance to water. The dynamic properties of EPDM remain constant over a wide temperature range. compounding plays an important part in tailoring the properties of EPDM to meet the needs of a q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene. being able to operate at temperatures of 300–3508F (148–1768C). whereas in other applications.3 Applications These rubbers are used where resistance to atmospheric conditions and heat are required.11. it will perform better than other materials. Ethylene–propylene rubber possesses many properties superior to those of natural rubber and conventional general-purpose elastomers. This material may be processed and vulcanized by the same techniques and with the same equipment as those used for processing other generalpurpose elastomers. and phosphate hydraulic fluids.488 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. acids. vulcanizates of EPDM elastomers are extremely resistant to attack by ozone. halogenated hydrocarbons. EPDM has exceptional heat resistance. and weather. As a result of this configuration. These monomers are combined in such a manner as to produce an elastomer with a completely saturated backbone and pendant unsaturation for sulfur vulcanization. LLC . excellent electrical properties. being hydrocarbon based. toluene). aging. and silicate hydraulic fluids.12 Ethylene–Propylene Rubbers (EPDM and EPT) Ethylene–propylene rubber is a synthetic hydrocarbon-based rubber made either from ethylene–propylene diene monomer or ethylene–propylene terpolymer. making this elastomer suitable for a variety of applications. As with other elastomers. However.

Ethylene–propylene terpolymer rubbers. It is also possible by special compounding to produce material that can be used in services up to 3508F (1768C). In the absence of air. Each of the properties of the elastomer can be enhanced or reduced by the addition or deletion of chemicals and fillers. this elastomer is used as the gap-filling panel between the grills and bumper.12. 5.3 Applications Extensive use is made of ethylene–propylene rubber in the automotive industry. detergents. or black.14 for the compatibility of EPDM with selected corrodents and to Table 5. 5. in general. being hydrocarbon-based. It exhibits exceptional resistance to hot water and high-pressure steam. Excellent weather resistance is obtained whether the material is formulated in color.Elastomers 489 specific application. Standard compounds can be used in intermittent service at 3508F (1768C). It is not necessary to add any special compounding ingredients to produce this resistance. are resistant to most of the same corrodents as EPDM but do not have as broad a resistance to mineral acids and some organics. Ethylene–propylene terpolymer (EPT) is a synthetic hydrocarbon-based rubber produced from an ethylene–proplene terpolymer. Ethylene–propylene rubber has relatively high resistance to heat.12. such as in a steam hose lining or cable insulation covered with an outer jacket.12. It is very similar in physical and mechanical properties to EPDM. ethyl acetate. and ozone attack. and for all practical purposes. chlorinated hydrocarbons. Standard formulations can be used continuously at temperatures of 250–3008F (121–1488C) in air. The elastomer. alcohols. Because of its paintability. phosphate esters. 5. the properties discussed must be considered in general terms. weather. or turpentine. white. methyl ethyl ketone. LLC .15 compatibility of EPT with selected corrodents.2 Chemical Resistance Ethylene–propylene rubber resists attack from oxygenated solvents such as acetone. The elastomer remains free of surface crazing and retains a high percentage of its properties after years of exposure. its resistance to oil can be improved to provide adequate service life in many applications where such resistance is required. higher temperatures can be tolerated. and glycols. Weather. that provides a durable and elastic q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 5. weak acids and alkalies. by proper compounding.1 Resistance to Sun. Because of this. Ozone resistance is inherent in the polymer. it can be considered immune to ozone attack. is not resistant to hydrocarbon solvents and oils. and Ozone Ethylene–propylene rubber is particularly resistant to sun. However.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC .14 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of EDPM Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid.490 TABLE 5. 50% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium fluoride. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 200 200 140 140 140 140 X 200 X 140 200 200 X 200 190 200 200 190 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 140 200 X 200 200 200 200 140 8C 93 93 60 60 60 60 X 93 X 60 93 93 X 93 88 93 93 88 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 38 38 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 X 60 93 X 93 93 93 93 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat.

dry Chlorine gas. LLC . moist Bromine. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. wet Chlorine. dry Bromine gas.Elastomers TABLE 5. 50% Citric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. conc. Copper acetate Copper carbonate 8F 150 X X X X X 200 190 X X X X 140 200 140 X 200 140 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 200 200 200 X 200 X 200 160 X X X X X X X 200 200 100 200 8C 66 X X X X X 93 88 X X X X 60 93 60 X 93 60 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 X 93 93 93 X 93 X 93 71 X X X X X X X 93 93 38 93 (continued) 491 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 15% Citric acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chlorite Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Carbon dioxide.

Hydrobromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 20% Nitric acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid.492 TABLE 5. 10% Ketones. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. general Lactic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. 30% 8F 200 200 200 X 200 200 X X X 200 200 200 200 200 200 60 90 140 140 100 90 200 60 X X 200 140 X 140 200 X X 80 60 60 60 X X X 140 140 200 200 8C 93 93 93 X 93 93 X X X 93 93 93 93 93 93 16 32 60 60 38 32 93 16 X X 93 60 X 60 93 X X 27 16 16 16 X X X 60 60 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Cupric chloride. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 10% Phosphoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 5% Nitric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 70% Nitric acid. dil. 25% Lactic acid.14 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. LLC . 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid.

A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Vols. conc. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Ammonium chloride. fuming Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 200 200 140 200 180 180 200 200 200 200 200 150 150 140 X X X X X 80 200 200 8C 93 93 60 93 82 82 93 93 93 93 93 66 66 66 X X X X X 27 93 93 493 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Acetic acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. 70% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. LLC .14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 28% 8F 200 X X X X X 140 180 180 8C 93 X X X X X 60 82 82 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Schweitzer. 10% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. 2004. Sodium sulfide. 50% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Sodium hypochlorite. 100% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 90% Sulfuric acid.15 Compatibility of EPT with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. 1–4.. TABLE 5. 80% Acetic acid.A. 5th ed. conc. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.

30% Calcium hydroxide. Copper sulfate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Diacetone alcohol Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. sat. sat. Cane sugar liquors Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Cellosolve Chlorine water. 10% Chromic acid.494 TABLE 5.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. sat. Calcium hydroxide. 15% Citric acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. 10% Citric acid. LLC . general 8F 180 180 140 140 140 180 180 X X 140 X X X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 210 180 X X 180 160 X 80 X X X X X X 180 180 180 180 180 X 80 100 210 100 8C 82 82 60 60 60 82 82 X X 60 X X X X 82 82 82 82 82 82 99 82 X X 82 71 X 27 X X X X X X 82 82 82 82 82 X 27 38 99 38 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Chromic acid. 40% Chromic acid. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Bromine water. Bromine water. Calcium chloride sat. Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 5% Citric acid. conc. dil. 20% Calcium hydroxide. sat. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Citric acid. Ammonium sulfate. Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride dil.

10% Propane Silicone oil Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. Lactic acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. sea 8F X 180 X 180 180 180 140 180 210 X X X X 210 140 X X X X X 210 X X X X X 140 80 180 210 210 X 200 180 180 200 X 200 X X X 210 210 210 210 8C X 82 X 82 82 82 60 82 99 X X X X 99 60 X X X X X 99 X X X X X 60 27 82 99 99 X 93 82 82 93 X 93 X X X 99 99 99 99 (continued) 495 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Muriatic acid Nitric acid Oxalic acid Phenol Phosphoric acid. all conc. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. dil. 35% Hydrochloric acid. to 70% Sodium hypochlorite. all conc. 93% Toluene Trichloroethylene Water.Elastomers TABLE 5. 50% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid. distilled Water. Sulfuric acid. Hydrofluoric acid. Formaldehyde. dil. demineralized Water. 20% Hydrochloric acid. dil. 100% Hydrogen peroxide. 38% Hydrochloric acid. to 50% Potassium sulfate.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. 37% Formaldehyde. Potassium hydroxide. all conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . salt Water. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. to 70% Sulfuric acid.

Its excellent electrical properties make it suitable for high-voltage cable insulation. plugs.and high-voltage underground power distribution cable insulated with EPDM offers many advantages. Its heat and chemical resistance combined with its physical properties make it ideal for such appliances as door seals and cushions. and various other items make use of EPDM because of its resistance to heat. gaskets. exhaust emission control tubing. and ozone.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Whiskey Zinc chloride 8F 180 180 8C 82 82 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. chemicals. It is used for medium-voltage (up to 35 kV) and secondary network power cable.496 TABLE 5. This elastomer is also used in dishwashers. Schweitzer. diaphragms. floor mats. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. drain and water-circulating hoses. inlet nozzles. Corrosion Resistance Tables. element. seals. 5th ed. and a variety of grommets. One of the primary applications is as an insulating material. and insulation for automotive ignition cable. ignition wire insulation. Appliance manufacturers. overflow tubing. have also found wide use for EPDM. and a variety of small appliances. refrigerators. 2004. miscellaneous body seals. Medium. Ethylene–propylene rubber finds application in the electrical industry and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. boots. New York: Marcel Dekker. Vols. vibration isolators. It provides excellent resistance to tearing and failure caused by high voltage contaminants and stress. Other automotive applications include body mounts. Each application takes advantage of one or more specific properties of the elastomer. 1–4. Accessory items such as molded terminal covers. LLC . transformer connectors. and insulating and semiconductor tape are also produced from EPDM. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Under hood components such as radiator hose. It withstands heavy corona discharge without sustaining damage. Source: From P. bleach tubing. ovens. jacketing and insulation for types S and SJ flexible cords. spring mounting pads. window washer tubing. especially washer manufacturers.. splices. and pedal pads. coverings for line and multiplex distribution wire. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. line-tap and switching devices. Incompatibility is shown by an X.A.

They are most suitable as performance modifiers in blends with thermoplastics or as a base rubber for adhesive. physical durability. 5. Standard formulations of EPDM are also used for such consumer items as garden hose. acids.13. marine accessories. These rubbers are used as performance q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. hydraulic hose for phosphate-type fluids. Applications include a wide variety of general-purpose rubber items and use in the footwear industry.3 Applications The specific formulation will determine the applicability of various products.14 Styrene–Ethylene–Butylene–Styrene (SEBS) Rubber Styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene (SEBS) rubbers are either pure or oilmodified block copolymer rubbers. vibration mounts. industrial tires. short exposures can be tolerated. and bases. and a variety of molded products. gaskets. These rubbers are used primarily in blends with other thermoplastic materials and as performance modifiers. tugboat and dock bumpers. and Ozone SBS rubbers are not resistant to ozone. They have excellent resistance to water. 5. 5. SBS compounds are formulations containing block copolymer rubber and other suitable ingredients. sealant.Elastomers 497 Manufacturers of other industrial products take advantage of the heat and chemical resistance. however. 5. Neither are they resistant to prolonged exposure to sun or weather.13. particularly when they are in a stressed condition. These compounds have a wide range of properties and provide the benefits of rubberiness and easy processing on standard thermoplastic processing equipment.13 Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene (SBS) Rubber Styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) rubbers are either pure or oil-modified block copolymers. bicycle tires. LLC . sporting goods. high-temperature conveyor belting.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of SBS rubbers is similar to that of natural rubber. or coating formulations. Weather. and tires for garden equipment. tanks and pump linings.13. O-rings. water and chemical hose. ozone resistance. 5. Typical applications include high-pressure steam hose. Prolonged exposure to hydrocarbon solvents and oils will cause deterioration. and dynamic properties of EPDM.1 Resistance to Sun.

and exposure to ultraviolet light. For prolonged outdoor exposure. poor rebound.3 Applications SEBS rubbers find applications for a wide variety of general-purpose rubber items as well as in automotive.14. a pungent odor. and Ozone FA polysulfide rubber compounds display excellent resistance to ozone. Compared to nitrile rubber. They have excellent resistance to water. these elastomers do not have great elasticity. and Ozone SEBS rubbers and compounds exhibit excellent resistance to ozone. Weather. welding and booster cables.1 Resistance to Sun. and automotive primary wire insulation. LLC . sealant.498 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers modifiers in blends with thermoplastics or as the base rubber for adhesive. but they do have good resistance to heat and are resistant to most solvents. Formulations of SEBS compounds provide a wide range of properties with the benefits of rubbermess and easy processing on standard thermoplastic processing equipment. Many applications are found in the electrical industry for such items as flexible cords.5 part of nickel dibutyldithiocarbamate (NBC) per 100 parts of FA polysulfide rubber will improve the ozone resistance. 5. acids. and other products. and bases. They are also known as Thiokol rubbers.14.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of SEBS rubbers is similar to that of natural rubber. the addition of an ultraviolet absorber or carbon black pigment or both is recommended. o coating formulations. Modified organic polysulfides are made by substituting other unsaturated compounds for ethylene that results in compounds that have little objectionable odor. Weather. 5.15. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5. Their resistance is superior to that of ST polysulfide ribbers. Soaking in hydrocarbon solvents and oils will deteriorate the rubber. weathering. In general. and poor abrasion resistance. the use of 0. flame-resistant appliance wiring materials. sporting goods. high creep under strain. they have poor tensile strength.14. If high concentrations of ozone are to be present.1 Resistance to Sun. The sulfur forms part of the polymerized molecule.15 Polysulfide Rubbers (ST and FA) Polysulfide rubbers are manufactured by combining ethylene (CH2aCH2) with an alkaline polysulfide. but short exposures can be tolerated. 5. 5.

2 Chemical Resistance Polysulfide rubbers posses outstanding resistance to solvents. and aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon solvents. and fair acid resistance. very good water resistance. sat. concentrated inorganic acids such as sulfuric.15.16 for the compatibility of polysulfide ST rubber with selected corrodents. or hydrochloric acid should be avoided. this addition can degrade the material’s compression set.Elastomers 499 ST polysulfide rubber compounded with carbon black is resistant to ultraviolet light and sunlight. TABLE 5. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. neoprene W is compounded with FA polysulfide rubber to produce improved physical properties. however.16 Compatibility of Polysulfide ST Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 28% Ammonium chloride. FA polysulfide rubbers are somewhat more resistant to solvents than ST rubbers. good alkali resistance. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline 8F X 80 80 80 80 80 X 150 150 150 90 X X X X 80 X 8C X 27 27 27 27 27 X 66 66 66 32 X X X X 27 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. They exhibit excellent resistance to oils. LLC . Refer to Table 5. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium sulfate. For high resistance to esters and ketones. 80% Acetic acid. Contact of either rubber with strong. Its resistance to ozone is good but can be improved by the addition of NBC. Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. nitric. 50% Ammonium chloride. ST polysulfide rubber also possesses satisfactory weather resistance. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. 5. ST polysulfide rubbers exhibit better resistance to chlorinated organics than FA polysulfide rubbers. Compounding of FA polymers with NBR will provide high resistance to aromatic solvents and improve the physical properties of the blend. gasoline.

16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzene Benzoic acid Bromine water. sat. 37% Formaldehyde. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. sat. Bromine water. 10% Chromic acid. Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. Copper sulfate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Diacetone alcohol Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. Cane sugar liquors Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Cellosolve Chlorine water. 30% Calcium hydroxide. sat. dil. dil. 50% Citric acid. LLC . 5% Citric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Glycerine 8F X 150 80 80 150 80 80 150 150 X X X X X X X 150 80 80 X X X X X X X X X X X X 90 90 X 80 80 90 80 80 80 150 80 80 80 80 8C X 66 27 27 66 27 27 66 66 X X X X X X X 66 27 27 X X X X X X X X X X X X 32 32 X 27 27 32 27 27 27 66 27 27 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 15% Citric acid. Calcium hydroxide. Formaldehyde.500 TABLE 5. sat. 10% Citric acid. dil. general Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. 40% Chromic acid. conc. Calcium chloride. 20% Calcium hydroxide. 30% Chromic acid.

Oxalic acid. all conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. 5th ed. all conc. Potassium hydroxide. 38% Hydrochloric acid. Sulfuric acid. demineralized Water. dil. all conc. Hydrochloric acid. all conc. all conc. Schweitzer.. all conc. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 35% Hydrochloric acid. Source: From P. 100% Hydrogen peroxide.A. sea Whiskey Zinc chloride 8F X X X X X X X X X X X X X 150 80 X X X X X X 80 90 150 X X 80 X X X X X 80 80 80 80 X X 8C X X X X X X X X X X X X X 66 27 X X X X X X 27 32 66 X X 27 X X X X X 27 27 27 27 X X 501 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. distilled Water. 2004. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Phosphoric acid. Vols. Lactic acid. LLC . New York: Marcel Dekker.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrochloric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. salt Water. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Phenol.Elastomers TABLE 5. Incompatibility is shown by an X. to 50% Potassium sulfate. 10% Propane Silicone oil Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. Sodium hypochlorite. all conc. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 1–4. Hydrofluoric acid. dil. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water.

life rafts.15. 5. and flexible mountings. LLC . including ketones. lacquers. aromatic hydrocarbons. both polyester and polyether types. balloons. The urethane linkages in the hard blocks are capable of a high degree of inter.1 shows typical TPU structures. gasoline. The major reason for this is its high degree of resistance to many types of solvents. ketones. esters.3 Applications FA polysulfide rubber is one of the elastomeric materials commonly used for the fabrication of rubber rollers for printing and coating equipment. The impermeability of the polysuldife rubbers to air and gas has promoted the use of these materials for inflatable products such as life jackets. seals. esters. Applications are also found in the fabrication of hose and hose liners for the handling of aromatic solvents. Their general structure is A–B–A–B.502 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. The soft block is represented by B and can be derived from either a polyester or a polyether. Large amounts of material are also used to produce caulking compounds.16 Urethane Rubbers (AU) The first commercial thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) were the thermoplastic urethanes (TPU). that are used as vehicles for various printing inks and coatings. Such bonding increases the O C O NH CH2 NH C O O CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 O R n R CH2 CH2 or CH2 CH CH3 or CH2 CH2 m CH2 CH2 O C O CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 C O n = 30 to 120 m = 8 to 50 FIGURE 5. where A represents a hard crystalline block derived by chain extension of a diisocyanate with a glycol. paints. and other inflatable items. and plasticizers. oils.and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Typical urethane rubber chemical structure. paint can gaskets. fuels. Figure 5. cements. and thinners.

a number of raw polyurethane polymers are liquid. Melting of the hard phase causes morphological changes and is reversible. dynamic forces. Weather.Elastomers 503 crystallinity of the hard phase and can influence the mechanical properties— hardness. Urethane rubbers exhibit excellent recovery from deformation. TPUs are noted for their outstanding abrasion resistance and low coefficient of friction on other surfaces. It can be formulated to provide a variety of products with a wide range of physical properties. Cured urethane does not require fillers or reinforcing agents. thermal stability.16. or hysteresis). At room temperature.1 Resistance to Sun. or any combination of these factors will lead to a loss in physical and mechanical properties. Such factors as elevated temperature. TPUs slowly deteriorate but noticeably between 265 and 3408F (130 and 1708C) by both chemical degradation and morphological changes. yet still has the extensibility and elasticity of rubber. and Ozone Urethane rubbers exhibit excellent resistance to ozone attack and have good resistance to weathering. and they do not enjoy the density advantage over thermoset rubber compounds. Urethane (AU) rubber is a unique material that combines many of the advantages of rigid plastics. tear strength—of the TPU. extended exposure to ultraviolet light q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. They have specific gravities comparable to that of carbon black-filled rubber. and hydrolytic stability. Those based on polyether soft blocks have excellent resistance (low heat buildup. the nature of the soft segments determines the elastic behavior and low-temperature performance. LLC . However. contact with chemical agents. metals. and ceramics. simplifying the production of many large and intricately shaped molded products. TPUs based on polyester soft blocks have excellent resistance to nonpolar fluids and high tear strength and abrasion resistance. whereas. Urethane rubbers are produced from a number of polyurethane polymers. oxidative degradation is slow and irreversible. When cured. As with other block copolymers. both processes become progressively more rapid. As the temperature increases. but their high strength and load-bearing capacity may permit the use of sections thin enough to dissipate the heat as fast as it is generated. Parts made of urethane rubbers may build up heat when subjected to high-frequency deformation. TPUs with polyether soft blocks have greater resistance to thermal and oxidative attack than TPU based on polyester blocks. 5. these elastomeric parts are hard enough to be machined on standard metalworking equipment. There are other factors that can have an adverse effect on aging. modulus. The properties exhibited are dependent upon the specific polymer and the compounding. Compositions with a Shore A hardness of 95 (harder than a typewriter platen) are elastic enough to withstand stretching to more than four times their own lengths.

28% Ammonium chloride.18 the compatibility of polyether urethane rubber with selected corrodents. They are not resistant to steam or caustic. Tests conducted at the Hanford Laboratories of General Electric Co.504 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers will reduce their physical properties and will cause the rubber to darken. Refer to Table 5. offered the greatest resistance to the effects of gamma-ray irradiation of the many elastomers and plastics tested. and to aliphatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons. This can be prevented by the use of pigments or ultraviolet screening agents. 50% 8F X X X X X X 90 90 90 8C X X X X X X 32 32 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. indicated that adiprene urethane rubber.16. 80% Acetic acid. Satisfactory service was given even when the material was exposed to the relatively large gamma-ray dosage of 1!109 roentgens. When irradiated with gamma rays. 10% Ammonium chloride. greases and fuels. esters. and ketones will attack urethane. TABLE 5. 10% Acetic acid. as manufactured by DuPont.2 Chemical Resistance Urethane rubbers are resistant to most mineral and vegetable oils. but they are resistant to the swelling and deteriorating effects of being immersed in water. Urethane rubbers have limited service in weak acid solutions and cannot be used in concentrated acids. 5. Alcohols will soften and swell urethane rubbers. polar solvents. ethers. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. This makes these materials particularly suited for service in contact with lubricating oils and automotive fuels.17 for the compatibility of urethane rubber with selected corrodents and to Table 5. LLC .17 Compatibility of Urethane Rubbers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. these rubbers were more resistant to stress cracking than other elastomers and retained a large proportion of their original flexibility and toughness. 50% Acetic acid.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. 30% Chromic acid. Copper sulfate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Dextrose Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. 5% Citric acid. dil. Calcium chloride. sat. Calcium hydroxide. sat. dil. 40% Chromic acid. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Bromine water. 10% Citric acid. sat. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 20% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Citric acid. 10%. Calcium hydroxide. sat. Ammonium hydroxide. general Ethyl acetate 8F 90 90 90 80 X X X X X X 100 X X X X X 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 27 X X X X X X 38 X X X X X 32 32 32 505 X 90 90 X X X X X X X X X X X 32 32 X X X X X X X X X X 90 90 X X X X X 32 32 X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 15% Citric acid. sat. Bromine water. Cane sugar liquors Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Cellosolve Chlorine water.17 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. sat. Ammonium sulfate. 10% Chromic acid. conc.Elastomers TABLE 5. LLC . Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride.

all conc. Fomaldehyde. salt Water. 10% Silver nitrate Soaps Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Sulfuric acid. 30% Potassium hydroxide.506 TABLE 5. 50% Isoprapyl alcohol Jet fuel. 38% Hydrochloric acid. Toluene Trichloroethylene Trisodium phosphate Turpentine Water. dil. to 50% Potassium sulfate. dil.17 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Fomaldehyde. sea 8F X 90 X X X 90 X X X X X X X X X 90 90 90 90 90 X X 90 X X 80 X 90 90 90 90 90 X X 80 90 X X X X 90 X X X 8C X 32 X X X 32 X X X X X X X X X 32 32 32 32 32 X X 32 X X 27 X 32 32 32 32 32 X X 27 32 X X X X 32 X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 35% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 30% Potassium chloride. 50% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid. JP 5 Kerosene Lard oil Linseed oil Magnesium hydroxide Mercury Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Mineral oil Muriatic acid Nitric acid Oils and fats Phenol Potassium bromide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. to 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 37% Formaldehyde. all conc. JP 4 Jet fuel.

TABLE 5. 28% Ammonium chloride. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Ammonium sulfate. Incompatibility is shown by an X.17 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Whiskey Xylene 8F X X 8C X X 507 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 8F X X X X X X X 130 130 130 130 110 110 100 120 X X X X X 90 80 X X 130 130 8C X X X X X X X 54 54 54 54 43 43 38 49 X X X X X 32 27 X X 54 54 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. Source: From P. 50% Ammonium chloride.Elastomers TABLE 5. dil. 2004. sat. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. Calcium chloride. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. Vols. sat. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 1–4. 5th ed. 10% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid.A.. LLC . Ammonium hydroxide. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50% Acetic acid.18 Compatibility of Polyether Urethane Rubbers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer.

40% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Citric acid. LLC . F-11 Freon.18 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Caustic potash Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. Hydrochloric acid. 40% Chromic acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid. F-12 Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. 75% Fluorosilicic acid Formic acid Freon. 50% Citric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. 30% Chromic acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. sat.508 TABLE 5. 5% Citric acid. Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 15% Cottonseed oil Cresylic acid Cyclohexane Dioxane Diphenyl Ethyl acetate Ethyl benzene Ethyl chloride Ethylene oxide Ferric chloride. dil. 100% 8F 130 130 130 130 130 X X 80 130 130 X X X X X X X 90 90 90 130 X 80 X X X X X X 100 100 X X 130 130 X X X X X X X X X X X 8C 54 54 54 54 54 X X 27 54 54 X X X X X X X 32 32 32 38 X 27 X X X X X X 38 38 X X 38 38 X X X X X X X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.

salt Water. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. acid Sodium phosphate. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Muriatic acid Nitrobenzene Olive oil Phenol Potassium acetate Potassium chloride.3 Applications The versatility of urethane has led to a wide variety of applications.Elastomers TABLE 5. 5. impellers. demineralized Water. Products made from urethane rubber are available in three basic forms: solid. all conc.18 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Isobutyl alcohol Isopropyl acetate Lactic acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. A. Source: From P. 1–4. sea Xylene 8F X X X X X X X X 120 X X 130 130 130 X X X 130 140 X X 130 130 130 X X 130 130 130 130 X 8C X X X X X X X X 49 X X 54 54 54 X X X 54 60 X X 54 54 54 X X 54 54 54 54 X 509 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. and films and coatings. Included under the solid category are those products that are cast or molded. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.16. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. alk. cellular. Vols. Incompatibility is shown by an X. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Propane Propyl acetate Propyl alcohol Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 5th ed. comprising such items as large rolls.. Schweitzer. LLC . distilled Water. neut. Sodium phosphate. 2004. abrasion-resistant q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium peroxide Sodium phosphate. 30% Potassium hydroxide Potassium sulfate.

they can also be formulated into thermoplastic molding compounds with many attractive properties. solid tires. The structures of these commercial PEBAs are shown in Figure 5. In many cases. contact wheels for belt grinders. gear couplings. and Nylon 12. and exterior coatings for protection against atmospheric corrosion. and their cost is greater. tooling pads. glass. the PEBAs have higher temperature resistance than the urethane elastomers. There are many varieties of polyamides in production. and small intricate parts. Other products made from urethane rubbers include bearings.) manufactured by DuPont. and paper. holding tanks. industrial. LLC . mallets and hammers. but the four major types are Nylon 6. electrical encapsulations. etc. Filtration units. 5. Of these. Nylon 11. and treatment sumps constructed of reinforced concrete are widely used in the treatment of municipal. shoe soles. Consequently. Examples of products to which a urethane film or coating is often applied are tarpaulins. These linings provide protection from abrasion and erosion and act as a waterproofing system to combat leakage of the equipment resulting from concrete movement and shrinkage. and many other miscellaneous items. tank linings. impact resistance. clarifiers. and the soft segment may have a polyester or a polyether structure. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and thermal generating station wastewater. These films also provide abrasion resistance. resiliency. pipe linings. wood. Their relatively high price tends to restrict their use. bowling pins. Nylons 11 and 12 find application as elastomeric materials. Cellular products are items such as shock mountings. Nylon 6/6. the most popular of which are Nylons (Nylon 6. and gaskets. Although the polyamides find their greatest use as textile fibers. urethane linings are used to protect the concrete from severe chemical attack and prevent seepage into the concrete of chemicals that can attack the reinforcing steel. impact mountings. The highest performance class of TPE are block copolymeric elastomeric polyamides (PEBAs). and thermal generating systems. industrial. conveyer belts. fabrics. gears. It is possible to apply uniform coatings or films of urethane rubber to a variety of substrate materials including metal.17 Polyamides Polyamides are produced under a variety of trade names. O-rings.2. The use of urethane rubbers in manufactured products has been established as a result of their many unique properties of high tensile and tear strengths.510 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers parts for textile machines. particularly in anaerobic. Amide linkages connect the hard and soft segments of these TPEs. The amide linkages connecting the hard and soft blocks are more resilient to chemical attack than either an ester or urethane bond. and load-bearing capacity.

polyester chains provide better fluid resistance and resistance to oxidation at elevated temperatures. sulfonic. 5.17. tartaric. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. They also display good resistance to almost all inorganic salts and almost all hydrocarbons and petroleum-based fuels. and ozone. or polyetherester chains. stearic. whereas. They have good resistance to most inorganic alkalies. polyether. lactic. weather.19 for the compatibility of Nylon 11 with selected corrodents. oleic.Elastomers 511 C (CH2)6 C NH (CH2)10 C NH(CH2)8 CO O Hard x (CH2)y O z (CH2)5 C NH B NHC A C NH B NH x CH2 O C CH2 C NH Soft Where A = C19 to C21 dicarboxylic acid B= CH2 O 2 CH2 Hard CH2 O CH2 4 3 FIGURE 5.2 Structures of three elastomeric polyamides The hard and soft blocks’ structure also contributes to their performance characteristics. They display limited resistance to hydrochloric. Many metals are coated with polyamide to provide protection from harsh weather. oxalic.2 Chemical Resistance Polyamides exhibit excellent resistance to a broad range of chemicals and harsh environments. Refer to Table 5. Polyether chains provide better low-temperature properties and resistance to hydrolysis. LLC O O Soft O O O O O O O NH A C CH2 C O . and uric) and most aldehydes and ketones at normal temperatures. 5.1 Resistance to Sun. and phosphoric acids at ambient temperatures. The soft segment may consist of polyester.17. They are also resistant to organic acids (citric. particularly ammonium hydroxide and ammonia even at elevated temperatures and sodium potassium hydroxide at ambient temperatures. and Ozone Polyamides are resistant to sun. Weather.

30% Calcium hydroxide. gas Bromine. 10% Chromic acid. dil. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. 20% Calcium hydroxide.19 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Nylon 11 with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. 30% Chromic acid. Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium sulfate. 28% Ammonium chloride. sat. 40% Chromic acid. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. sat.512 TABLE 5. 50% Citric acid. 80% Acetic acid. LLC . 10% Bromine. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. Calcium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. 5% Citric acid. 50% Acetic acid. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. liquid Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. sat. 50% Chlorine gas Chlorine water. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 10% 8F 140 X X X X 8C 60 X X X X 200 200 200 200 200 200 80 100 X 200 200 X X 140 200 200 200 140 140 140 140 X 80 140 80 140 X X X X X X X 200 200 93 93 93 93 93 93 27 38 X 93 93 X X 60 93 93 93 60 60 60 60 X 27 60 27 60 X X X X X X X 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium chloride. Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Caustic potash.

all conc. Hydrochloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 10% Propane Silicone oil Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride 8F 200 200 X 200 X 200 80 8C 93 93 X 93 X 93 27 513 200 200 200 100 X X 200 80 X X X X X X X X X X X X 200 160 100 X 120 X 140 X 80 X 200 80 80 80 220 200 93 93 93 38 X X 93 27 X X X X X X X X X X X X 93 71 38 X 49 X 60 X 27 X 93 27 27 27 104 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Elastomers TABLE 5. 40% Hydrofluoric acid.19 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Citric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid. dil. general Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Ethylene oxide Ferric chloride Formic acid Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. 15% Citric acid. conc. Copper nitrate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Cyclohexanone Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. to 10% above 10% Potassium hydroxide. 50% Potassium sulfate. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Naphtha Nitric acid Oxalic acid Phenol Phosphoric acid. dil. 100% Hydrogen sulfide Iodine Lactic acid.

High-pressure hose and fuel lines are also produced from this material.19 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. diaphragms. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. acid mine Water. all conc. all conc. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. resilient. Vols. Superflexible grades are also available that are used for shoe soles. gaskets. Source: From P. these parts can withstand repeated stretching and flexing over long periods of time. and electrical wire are also produced. 5. A wide range of flexibility permits material to be produced that is soft enough for high-quality bicycle seats and other materials whose strength and rigidity are comparable to those of many metals. Sulfunc acid. Coiled air-brake hose produced from this material has been used on trucks that have traveled over two million miles without a single reported failure. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Because of the high elastic memory of polyamides. automotive cables. New York: Marcel Dekker. distilled Water. all conc. 5th ed. and seals. Schweitzer. sea Whiskey Zinc chloride 8F 200 X X 140 160 80 80 140 140 80 X 8C 93 X X 60 71 27 27 60 60 27 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.18 Polyester (PE) Elastomer This elastomer combines the characteristics of thermoplastics and elastomers.. A. Corrosion Resistance Tables.514 TABLE 5. coiled tubing is produced for this purpose for use on trucks. 1–4. and resistant to impact and flexural q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sodium hypochlorite. It is structurally strong.3 Applications Polyamides find many diverse applications resulting from their many advantageous properties. salt Water. LLC . Since polyamides can meet specification SAE J844 for air-brake hose.17. 5. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 2004. Corrosion-resistant and wear-resistant coverings for aircraft control cables.

base. Hardnesses range from 40 to 72 on the Shore D scale. Polyester elastomers can successfully replace other thermoset rubbers at lower costs in many applications by taking advantage of their higher strength and by using thinner cross sections. Polyester elastomers have excellent resistance to nonpolar materials such as oils and hydraulic fluids. Many fluids and chemicals will extract plasticizers from elastomers.20 for the compatibility of polyester elastomers with selected corrodents. 5. 5. and 72 Shore D. Their chemical resistance to oils and hydraulic fluids coupled with their high q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . and drums. moist atmospheres.3 Applications Applications for PE elastomers are varied. causing a significant increase in stiffness (modulus) and volume shrinkage. When formulated with appropriate additives. Their hydrolytic stability can be further improved by compounding.Elastomers 515 fatigue. 55. Combined are such features as resilience. retention of flexibility at low temperatures. Since these rubbers contain no plasticizers. Its physical and mechanical properties vary depending upon the hardness of the elastomer.1 Resistance to Sun. The standard hardnesses to which PE elastomers are formulated are 40. Refer to Table 5. Resistance to general weathering is good. outstanding flex-fatigue resistance. elastomers are resistant to most polar fluids such as acids. good abrasion resistance. However. and good retention of properties at elevated temperatures. Weather. the fluid resistance of polyester rubbers increases with increasing hardness. swimming pools. ponds.18. PE has better high-temperature properties than polyurethanes and can be used satisfactorily at higher temperatures in the same fluids. These rubbers should not be used in applications requiring continuous exposure to polar fluids at elevated temperatures. amines. and Ozone Polyester rubbers possess excellent resistance to ozone. Overall.18. they are not susceptible to the solvent extraction or heat volatilization of such additives. Because of their low permeability to air. even at elevated temperatures.2 Chemical Resistance In general. At room temperature. Resistance is very poor at temperatures of 1588F (708C) or above. PE elastomers are resistant to the same classes of chemicals and fluids as polyurethanes are. high resistance to deformation under moderate strain conditions. Large quantities of PE materials are used for liners for tanks. 63. Polyester elastomers also have good resistance to hot. their resistance to sunlight aging is very good.18. and glycols. 5. they are also used for inflatables.

Ammonium chloride. LLC . Calcium chloride. 10–40% Amyl acetate Aniline Beer Benzene Borax Boric acid Bromine. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. Calcium hypochlorite. 5% Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Castor oil Chlorine gas. liquid Butane Butyl acetate Calcium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid.516 TABLE 5. vapor Ammonium chloride. 28% Ammonium chloride. sat. conc.20 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Polyester Elastomers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Citric acid. 20% Calcium hydroxide. dil. to 50% Cyclohexane Dibutyl phthalate 8F 80 80 80 100 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 X 80 80 80 80 X 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 X 80 X X X X X 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 8C 27 27 27 38 32 32 32 32 32 27 27 X 27 27 27 27 X 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 X 27 X X X X X 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. 10% Citric acid. Calcium hydroxide. 5% Citric acid. sat. 15% Citric acid. glacial Acetic acid. Copper sulfate Cottonseed oil Cupric chloride.

dil. 30% Potassium hydroxide Pyridine Soap solutions Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Stearic acid Sulfuric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 10–85% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. Formaldehyde. Stannous chloride. distilled Water. Hydrochloric acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid.20 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Dioctyl phthalate Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. 38% Hydrochloric acid. sea 8F 80 80 80 X 80 80 80 80 80 80 X X X X X X X X X X 80 80 80 80 X 80 X X X 80 X 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 X 80 160 160 160 160 8C 27 27 27 X 27 27 27 27 27 27 X X X X X X X X X X 27 27 27 27 X 27 X X X 27 X 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 X 27 71 71 71 71 (continued) 517 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dil. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. salt Water. 100% Hydrogen Hydrogen sulfide. Toluene Water. demineralized Water. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. all conc. dry Lactic acid Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Mineral oil Muriatic acid Nitric acid Nitrobenzene Ozone Phenol Potassium dichromate.Elastomers TABLE 5. dil. 37% Formic acid. all conc.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Incompatibility is shown by an X. speciality belting. Blends of NBR and PVC are also significant but less common in Europe and North America than in Japan.518 TABLE 5. styrene block copolymers. gears. Cross-linking is not required. Elastic recovery occurs when the hard segments act to pull back the more soft and rubbery segments. hose and tubing produced from them do not stiffen with age. piping clamps and cushions. vulcanization).A. Vols. flexible shafts. Other PE products include seals. wire and cable jacketing. The family of thermoplastic olefins (TEO) are simple blends of a rubbery polymer (such as EPDM or NBR) with a thermoplastic such as PP or PVC. Since the PE elastomers do not contain any plasticizers. thermoplastic copolyesters. and the rubber phase will have little or no cross-linking (that is. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. low-pressure tires. LLC . The polymer present in the larger amount will usually be the continuous phase. Schweitzer. Source: From P. pump parts. elastomeric alloys. The six generic classes of TPEs are. Each polymer will have its own phase. sports equipment. and thermoplastic polyamides. 5th ed. industrial solid tires. electrical connectors. EPDM rubber and PP are the constituents of the most common TEOs. The discontinuous phase should have a smaller particle size for the best performance of the TEO. and the thermoplastic is favored because of its lower viscosity. flexible couplings. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. gaskets. TEOs are similar to thermoset rubbers because they can be compounded with a variety of the same additives and fillers to meet specific applications. in order of increasing cost and performance.20 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Xylene Zinc chloride 8F 80 80 8C 27 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 5. thermoplastic urethanes. 2004.19 Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) Olefinic Type (TEO) Thermoplastic elastomers contain sequences of hard and soft repeating units in the polymer chain. Corrosion Resistance Tables. New York: Marcel Dekker. polyolefin blends.. noise-damping devices. heat resistance make PE elastomers very suitable for automotive hose applications. and fasteners. 1–4.

especially at elevated temperatures.19.3 Applications These elastomeric compounds are found in a variety of applications.20 Silicone (SI) and Fluorosilicone (FSI) Rubbers Silicone rubbers. alkenes. flexible and supported tubing. 5. 5. Blends with NBR and PVC are more resistant to aggressive fluids with the exception of the halocarbons. The silicones are derivatives of silica. Their water resistance is excellent. seals. but they swell excessively with toss of properties when exposed to halocarbons and hydrocarbons such as oils and fuels. including reinforced hose. or alkyl substituted benzenes. 5. showing essentially no property changes after prolonged exposure to water at elevated temperatures. functional parts and under-the-hood components. antioxidants.2 Chemical Resistance As a result of the low level of cross-linking.Elastomers 519 These additives include carbon black. SiO2 or OaSiaO. The absence of unsaturation in the polymer backbone of both EPDM and PP makes these TEO blends very resistant to oxidation. The EPDM/PP TEOs have very poor resistance to hydrocarbon fluids such as the alkanes.19. all that tend to concentrate in the soft rubber phase of the TEO. are a series of compounds whose polymer structure consists of silicon and oxygen atoms rather than the carbon structures of most other elastomers. 5. and fillers. The nonpolar nature of EPDM/PP TEOs make them highly resistant to water.19. a TEO is highly vulnerable to fluids with a similar solubility parameter (or polarity). When the atoms are combined so that the double linkages are broken and methyl groups enter the linkages. LLC . also known as polysiloxanes. aqueous solutions. and other polar fluids such as alcohols and glycols. plasticizers. silicone rubber is produced: CH3 Si CH3 O CH3 Si CH3 O n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Weather. mechanical goods. automotive trim. gaskets and profile extrusions.1 Resistance to Sun. and wire and cable jacketing. and Ozone TPEs possess good resistance to sun and ozone and have excellent weatherability.

weathering. 10% Ammonium chloride. but aromatic solvents such as benzene. and Ozone Silicone and fluorosilicone rubbers display excellent resistance to sun.21 Compatibility of Silicone Rubbers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. Refer to Table 5. 50% Acetic acid.520 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. sat. Although they have excellent resistance to water and weathering. and ozone.20. 5. oil and gasoline. 80% Acetic acid. they are not resistant to high-pressure and high-temperature steam. LLC . Their properties are virtually unaffected by longterm exposure. 20% Acetic acid. animal and vegetable oils. 50% water Acetophenone Acrylic acid.1 Resistance to Sun. glacial Acetic acid. animal and vegetable oils.20. They have excellent resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons and good resistance to aromatic hydrocarbons. dilute acids and alkalies. 75% Acrylonitrile Aluminum acetate Aluminum phosphate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. and chlorinated solvents will cause excessive swelling. The fluorosilicone rubbers have better chemical resistance than the silicone rubbers. 29% Ammonium chloride. Weather. toluene. and lubricating oils.2 Chemical Resistance Silicone rubbers can be used in contact with dilute acids and alkalies. gasoline.21 for the compatibility of silicone rubbers with selected corrodents. They are also resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. vapors Acetone Acetone. 10% Acetic acid. and alcohols and fair resistance to concentrated alkalies. 8F 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 110 110 X 80 X X 400 410 X 80 80 80 8C 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 43 43 X 27 X X 204 210 X 27 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. TABLE 5. alcohols.

to 30% Calcium hydroxide. Hydrochloric acid. Ammonium nitrate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia.Elastomers TABLE 5. 3:1 Barium sulfide Benzene Benzyl chloride Boric acid Butyl alcohol Calcium acetate Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride. all conc. general Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethyl chloride Ethylene chloride Ethylene diamine Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Fluosilicic acid Formaldehyde. 35% Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen peroxide. all conc.21 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide. Fuel oil Gasoline Glucose (corn syrup) Glycerine Green liquor Hexane Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid. LLC 521 . dil. Carbon bisulfide Carbon monoxide Carbonic acid Chlorobenzene Chlorosulfonic acid Dioxane Ethane Ethers. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 8F 210 400 80 X X 80 X 400 X X 390 80 X 400 300 210 400 X 400 400 X X X X X 170 400 X X 400 400 400 X 200 X X 400 410 400 X X 90 90 X X 200 8C 99 204 27 X X 27 X 204 X X 189 27 X 204 149 99 204 X 204 204 X X X X X 77 204 X X 204 204 204 X 93 X X 204 210 204 X X 32 32 X X 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. Calcium hydroxide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. all conc. sat.

50:50 Nitrobenzene Nitrogen Nitromethane Oils. to 50% Potassium hydroxide. 30% Potassium dichromate Potassium hydroxide. all conc. to 50% Ozone Palmitic acid Paraffin Peanut oil Perchloric acid Phenol Phosphoric acid Picric acid Potassium chloride. 10% Nitric acid. to 80% Potassium sulfate. 10% Potassium sulfate. vegetable Oleic acid Oleum Oxalic acid. pure Propane 8F 80 X 400 X 400 400 80 410 X X X X 300 X X 400 400 80 80 X X X X 400 X 400 X X 80 400 X X 400 X X X X 400 410 410 210 80 400 400 400 X 8C 27 X 204 X 204 204 27 210 X X X X 149 X X 204 204 27 27 X X X X 204 X 204 X X 27 204 X X 204 X X X X 204 210 210 99 27 204 204 204 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 90% Potassium nitrate. 20% Nitric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid–sulfuric acid. 5% Nitric acid. Lead acetate Lime sulfur Linseed oil Magnesium chloride Magnesium sulfate Mercury Methyl alcohol Methyl cellosolve Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Mineral oil Naptha Nickel acetate Nickel chloride Nickel sulfate Nitric acid. 30% Potassium cyanide.522 TABLE 5.21 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Lactic acid.

A. Their excellent weathering qualities and wide temperature range have also resulted in their employment as caulking compounds. aerospace devices. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.. heaters. sea Xylene Zinc chloride 8F X 400 X X 410 X 410 400 300 400 90 X 400 400 80 X X X X 400 X X X X 400 210 210 210 210 210 X 400 8C X 204 X X 210 X 210 204 149 204 32 X 204 204 27 X X X X 204 X X X X 204 99 99 99 99 99 X 204 523 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.21 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Propyl acetate Propyl alcohol Propyl nitrate Pyridine Silver nitrate Sodium acetate Sodium bisulfite Sodium borate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. Vols. furnaces. all conc. silicone rubbers find many uses in the electrical industries. Incompatibility is shown by an X. New York: Marcel Dekker. and automotive parts. 10% Sodium hydroxide. demineralized Water. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 1–4. salt Water. 2004. Schweitzer. primarily in appliances. 5th ed. LLC . distilled Water. 5.3 Applications Because of their unique thermal stability and/or their insulating values. Sodium peroxide Sodium sulfate Sodium thiosulfate Stannic chloride Styrene Sulfite liquors Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid Tartaric acid Tetrahydroturan Toluene Tributyl phosphate Turpentine Vinegar Water. Source: From P. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.Elastomers TABLE 5. Corrosion Resistance Tables. acid mine Water.20.

an electric path is created. Shielding for containment to prevent the escape of EMI internally generated by the device 2. The polymer has the characteristic stability of fluoropolymers when exposed to aggressive thermal. PVDF is one of the easiest fluoropolymers to process and can be easily recycled without affecting its physical and chemical properties.21 Vinylidene Fluoride (HFP. As q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. PVDF) Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a homopolymer of 1. Grounding and contacting to provide a dependable lowimpedance connection to conduct electric energy to ground.524 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers When silicone or fluorosilicone rubbers are infused with a high-density conductive filler. and ultraviolet conditions. LLC . These groups impart a unique polarity that influences its solubility and electrical properties. In general. Shielding for exclusion to prevent the intrusion of EMI/RF/EMP created by outside sources into the protected device 3. These conductive elastomers are used as part of an EMI/RFI/EMP shielding process in forms such as O-rings and gaskets to provide 1. Exclusion or containment plus pressure or vacuum sealing to provide both EMI/EMP attenuation and pressure containment and/or weatherproofing 4. often used where mechanical mating is imperfect or impractical The following equipment is either capable of generating EMI or susceptible to EMI: Aircraft and aerospace electronics Analog instrumentation Automotive electronics Business machines Communication systems Digital instrumentation and process control systems Home appliances Radio-frequency instrumentation and radar Medical electronics Military and marine electronics Security systems (military and commercial) 5. chemical.1-difluoroethene with alternating CH2 and CF2 groups along the polymer chain.

2 Chemical Resistance In general. The original tensile strength is essentially unchanged after exposure to 1000 Mrads of gamma irradiation from a cobalt-60 source at 1228F (508C) and in high vacuum (10K6 torr). Its mechanical properties are retained. Refer to Table 5.21. high abrasion resistance. Use is also permitted under “3-A Sanitary Standards for Multiple-Use Plastic Materials Used as Product Contact Surfaces for Dairy Equipment Serial No.Elastomers 525 with other elastomeric materials. and fungi are useful.2520.21. mechanical strength and toughness.3 Applications PVDF finds many applications where its properties of corrosion resistance. high dielectric strength. and resistance to fungi. high thermal stability. to most chemicals and solvents. 5. and aromatic solvents.” This material has the ASTM designation of MFP. In the electrical and electronics fields. strong acids. weather. Cross-linking of the polymer chain and control of the molecular weight are also done to improve particular properties. high dielectric strength. heat-shrinkable tubing. ultraviolet light. resistance to weathering. radiation. PVDF also exhibits excellent resistance to nuclear radiation.S. 2000. Part 177. LLC . Because of cross-linking. weak bases and salts. resistance to ultraviolet and nuclear radiation. aliphatic solvents. The broader molecular weight of PVDF gives it greater resistance to stress cracking than many other materials.1 Resistance to Sun. anode lead wire. resistance. Weather.21. and ozone. compounding can be used to improve certain specific properties. PVDF is used for multiwire jacketing. high abrasion resistance. computer q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Department of Agriculture (USDA). halogens. Chapter 1. high purity. strong oxidants. but it is subject to stress cracking in the presence of sodium hydroxide.22 for the compatibility of PVDF with selected corrodents. PVDF possesses mechanical strength and toughness. Code of Federal Regulations. PVDF is also permitted for use in processing or storage areas on contact with meat or poultry food products prepared under federal inspection according to the U. and resistance to weathering. 5. It can be used in applications intended for repeated contact with food per Title 21. This resistance makes PVDF useful in plutonium reclamation operations. 5. PVDF is completely resistant to chlorinated solvents. whereas the percent elongation to break decreases to a lower level and then remains constant. wide allowable operating temperature range. Strong bases will attack the material. the impact strength and elongation are slightly reduced. plenum cables. and Ozone PVDF is highly resistant to the effects of sun.

3:1 Barium carbonate 8F 150 90 300 300 190 190 X 120 150 130 280 200 200 180 250 300 270 300 260 300 290 300 270 250 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 190 280 280 200 150 130 280 8C 66 32 149 149 88 88 X 49 66 54 138 93 93 82 121 149 132 149 127 149 143 149 132 121 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 88 138 138 93 66 54 138 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 80% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. sat. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.22 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PVDF with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.526 TABLE 5. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10 – 40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride.

sat. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. wet. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.22 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Bromine gas.Elastomers TABLE 5. 10% Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine. liquid Chlorobenzene 8F 280 280 280 280 120 150 100 250 280 280 280 280 210 210 140 280 140 280 X 230 280 280 280 280 280 270 280 280 280 250 280 220 80 280 280 80 280 280 280 280 210 200 210 210 210 220 8C 138 138 138 138 49 66 38 121 138 138 138 138 99 99 60 138 60 138 X 110 138 138 138 138 138 132 138 138 138 121 138 104 27 138 138 27 138 138 138 138 99 93 99 99 99 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. LLC 527 . dry Chlorine gas. 10% Chlorine.

38% Hydrocyanic acid.22 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. dry Fluorine gas. general Lactic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride.528 TABLE 5. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Citric acid. 10% Ketones. 10% Chromic acid. LLC . Hydrobromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride 8F 250 110 220 250 110 250 250 250 250 280 280 280 210 270 270 250 210 80 120 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 80 80 260 280 280 280 280 280 260 200 200 280 250 110 130 110 280 250 280 8C 121 43 104 121 43 121 121 121 121 138 138 138 99 132 132 121 99 27 49 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 27 27 127 138 138 138 138 138 127 93 93 138 121 43 54 43 138 121 138 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dil. 25% Lactic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.

New York: Marcel Dekker. LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. conc. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 110 280 200 180 120 150 210 X 210 120 200 220 80 280 220 250 280 280 230 220 150 280 280 280 280 280 250 220 220 210 140 X X 220 X X 130 80 260 8C X X 43 138 93 82 49 66 99 X 99 49 93 104 27 138 104 121 138 138 110 104 66 138 138 138 138 138 121 104 104 99 60 X X 104 X X 54 27 127 529 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Sodium hypochlorite. Sodium sulfide. 1–4. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. conc. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 5th ed. 10% Sulfuric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5.A. 20% Nitric acid. Vols. 70% Sulfuric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Sulfuric acid. conc. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Schweitzer. 50% Sodium hydroxide.22 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 98% Sulfuric acid.. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Source: From P. 2004.

Fluoroelastomers have been approved by the U. and dipping. transfer molding. PVDF finds applications as gasketing material. Although this remains a major area of application. Its corrosion resistance is also a factor in these applications. The result is a high-performance synthetic rubber with exceptional resistance to oils and chemicals at elevated temperatures. of a true elastomer and exhibit mechanical properties of the same order of magnitude as those of conventional synthetic rubbers. and cable and cable ties. 33. No. 5. injection molding. extrusion. 5. Subpart F—Food Additives Resulting from Contact with Containers or Equipment and Food Additives Otherwise Affecting Food—Rubber Articles Intended for Repeated Use. FKM are capable of being compounded with various additives to enhance specific properties for particular applications. injection/compression molding. hexafluoropropene. spreading. including compression molding. this material was used to produce O-rings for use in severe conditions. 1968. FKM are manufactured under various trade names by different manufacturers. More details are available in the Federal Register. transfer hose are lined with PVDF. These compounds possess the rapid recovery from deformation. LLC . and membranes for microporous filters and ultrafiltration. and tetrafluoroethylene. it is also used as the insulation material for underground anode bed installations. FKM are suitable for all rubber processing applications.S.22 Fluoroelastomers (FKM) Fluoroelastomers are fluorine-containing hydrocarbon polymers with a saturated structure obtained by polymerizing fluorinated monomers such as vinylidene fluoride.530 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers wiring. Food and Drug Administration for use in repeated contact with food products. Initially. Part 121—Food Additives. Trade Name Viton Technoflon Fluorel Manufacturer Dupont Ausimont 3M These elastomers have the ASTM designation FKM. valve diaphragms. As a result of its resistance to fungi and its exceptional corrosion resistance. Tuesday January 9. Because of its acceptance in the handling of foods and pharmaceuticals. or resilience. In fluid-handling systems. these compounds have found wide use in other applications because of their chemical resistance at high temperatures and other desirable properties. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Vol. calendering. As with other rubbers. Three typical materials are listed below.

aerospace. ketones.22. Recent changes in the automotive industry that have required reduction in environmental pollution. Refer to Table 5. lubricants. and improved reliability have resulted in higher operating temperatures. or hot anhydrous hydrofluoric or chlorosulfonic acids. These elastomers are not suitable for use with low molecular weight esters and ethers. most mineral acids. many aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride. By proper formulation. Their solubility in low molecular weight ketones is an advantage in producing solution coatings of FKM. 5.23 for the compatibility of FKM with selected corrodents. A typical compound tested against specification MIL-E-5272C showed no fungus growth after 30 days. steam. samples showed little or no change in properties or appearance. naphtha. reduced costs. xylene) that act as solvents for other rubbers. require resistance only to 0.22. and hot water. gasoline. chlorinated solvents.5 ppm ozone. toluene. cured items can be produced that will meet the rigid specifications of the industrial. for example. Similar results were experienced with samples exposed to various tropical conditions in Panama for a period of 10 years.3 Applications The main applications for fluoroelastomers are in those products requiring resistance to high operating temperatures together with high chemical resistance to aggressive fluids and to those characterized by severe operating conditions that no other elastomer can withstand.1 Resistance to Sun. 5. energy saving. After 13 years of exposure in Florida in direct sunlight. Weather. FKM exhibit excellent weathering resistance to sunlight and especially to ozone. benzene. This specification covers four common fungus groups.22. LLC . in the automotive industry. This property is particularly important considering that standard tests. 5. and Ozone Because of their chemically saturated structure. fuels. certain amines. Special formulation can be produced to obtain resistance to hot mineral acids. Products made of this elastomer are unaffected by ozone concentrations as high as 100 ppm. and pesticides. No cracking occurred in a bent loop test after one year of exposure to 100 ppm of ozone in air at 1008F (388C) or in a sample held at 3568F (1808C) for several hundred hours.Elastomers 531 The biological resistance of FKM is excellent. and military communities. which in turn q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.2 Chemical Resistance Fluoroelastomers provide excellent resistance to oils.

sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. sat. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. 10%. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium chloride. 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F X 210 190 180 180 X X X 400 X X 190 190 100 190 180 400 400 190 400 X 390 X 140 190 400 300 300 140 140 190 190 X 140 180 180 X X 200 190 230 190 190 250 8C X 99 88 82 82 X X X 204 X X 88 88 38 88 82 204 204 88 204 X 199 X 60 88 204 149 149 60 60 88 88 X 60 82 82 X X 93 88 110 88 88 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.23 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Fluoroelastomers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium fluoride. LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid.532 TABLE 5. 50% Ammonium chloride.

Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. moist. 25% Bromine gas. wet Chlorine. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. LLC . sat. 25% Bromine. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform 8F 400 400 400 400 X 400 190 400 400 400 190 400 180 180 350 400 X 400 X 120 400 400 190 190 300 300 400 400 400 200 400 80 X 400 400 350 400 X X X 190 190 190 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 X 204 88 204 204 204 88 204 82 82 177 204 X 204 X 49 204 204 88 88 149 149 204 204 204 93 204 27 X 204 204 177 204 X X X 88 88 88 204 204 (continued) 533 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. dry.23 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.

dil. general Lactic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrobromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Ketones. 10% Chromic acid.534 TABLE 5. 5% Cupric chloride. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution.23 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone 8F X 350 350 300 400 X 190 400 400 400 X 180 180 400 400 80 190 400 400 400 400 180 210 X X 400 400 400 350 350 400 210 350 X 400 190 X 300 400 390 390 180 190 X X 8C X 177 177 149 204 X 88 204 204 204 X 82 82 204 204 27 88 204 204 204 204 82 99 X X 204 204 204 177 177 204 99 177 X 204 88 X 149 204 199 199 82 88 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Citric acid. conc. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. LLC . 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 15% Citric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 20% Hydrobromic acid. dry Fluorine gas.

100% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 70% Nitric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 5th ed. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 350 400 400 190 190 90 190 400 400 210 300 400 190 300 190 400 X X X 400 400 190 400 400 350 350 350 350 350 180 200 400 X 400 190 190 400 8C 177 204 204 88 88 32 88 204 204 99 149 204 88 149 88 204 X X X 204 204 88 204 204 177 177 177 177 177 88 93 204 X 204 88 88 204 535 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 5% Nitric acid. 1–4. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 2004. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. LLC . 10% Perchloric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.A. Sodium sulfide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Schweitzer. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. conc. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.23 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Muriatic acid Nitric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. conc. Source: From P. 50% Sulfuric acid. conc. Vols.Elastomers TABLE 5. New York: Marcel Dekker. Oleum Perchloric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid.

a coating on rolls for the textile industry to permit scouring of fabrics.and lowtemperature properties of the fluoroelastomers have permitted them to give reliable performance in a number of aircraft and missile components. sour gasoline lubricants. and numerous types of O-ring seals. and overall reliability to reduce maintenance. turbocharge lubricating circuit bellows.536 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers require a higher performance elastomer. and high acidity. The main innovations resulting from these requirements are Turbocharging More compact. diaphragms for fuel pumps. engine head gaskets. The high. thermal stability. fluoroelastomers are being applied as shaft seats. valve seats. firewall seals. fuel hose. The exploitation of oilfields in difficult areas. O-ring (water-cooled cylinders and injection pumps). protective coatings. Another important application of these elastomers is in the production of coatings and linings. Fluoroelastomers provide a solution to these problems and are used for O-rings. In the field of aerospace applications. more efficient. has increased the problems of high temperatures and pressures. These extreme operating conditions require elastomers that have high chemical resistance. alternative fuels. U-rings. diaphragms for metering pumps. water pump gaskets. The ability of fluoroelastomers to seal under extreme vacuum conditions in the range of 10K9 mm Hg is an additional feature that makes these materials useful for components used in space. hose. linings for valves. carburetor needle-valve tips. coated fabrics. mastic adhesive sealants. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. such as deserts or offshore sites. carburetor accelerating pump diaphragms. expansion joints. and maintenance coatings. the reliability of materials under extreme exposure conditions is of prime importance. At the present time. and faster engines Catalytic exhausts Cx reduction Soundproofing In addition. and seals for exhaust gas pollution control equipment. filter casing gaskets. specifically manifold gaskets. and tank linings for the chemical industry. gaskets. high viscosities. safety clothing and gloves. valve stem seals. V-rings. The same problems exist in the chemical industry. heat-shrinkable tubing and fittings for wire and cable. and antifreeze fluids has caused automotive fluids to be more corrosive to elastomers. LLC . Their chemical stability solves the problems of chemical corrosion by making it possible to use them for such purposes as a protective lining for power station stacks operated with high-sulfur fuels. the use of lead-free fuels.

such as nitric acid at high concentration.23.2 Chemical Resistance Ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene is inert to strong mineral acids. esters. ketones. This feature. ETFE is a modified partially fluorinated copolymer of ethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). ethers.23.23 Ethylene–Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) Elastomer This elastomer is sold under the trade name Tefzel by DuPont. aldehydes. halogens. and classic polymer solvents have little effect on ETFE. inorganic bases. will affect ETFE in varying degrees. makes the material particularly suitable for outdoor applications subject to atmospheric corrosion. ozone. 10% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride 8F 200 250 250 250 230 230 300 150 150 150 280 210 190 8C 93 121 121 121 110 110 149 66 66 66 138 99 88 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.24 Compatibility of ETFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. TABLE 5. as will organic bases such as amines and sulfonic acids. chloro-carbons. coupled with its wide range of corrosion resistance. Since it contains more than 75% TFE by weight. Even carboxylic acids. it has better resistance to abrasion and cut-through than TFE while retaining most of the corrosion resistance properties. 80% Acetic acid. 5. 50% Acetic acid. and weather.1 Resistance to Sun.Elastomers 537 5. Refer to Table 5. LLC . Weather. alcohols. 5. Very strong oxidizing acids near their boiling points. and Ozone Ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene has outstanding resistance to sunlight. anhydrides. and metal salt solutions.24 for the compatibility of ETFE with selected corrodents. aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

Ammonium fluoride. sat. LLC . 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10%. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Butadiene Butyl acetate 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 300 300 300 230 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 230 210 210 300 300 300 300 300 210 210 210 270 300 300 300 300 150 230 250 230 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 149 149 149 110 149 149 149 149 121 149 149 110 99 99 149 149 149 149 149 99 99 99 132 149 149 149 149 66 110 121 110 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.24 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Alum Aluminum chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Ammonium fluoride.538 TABLE 5. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Bromine water.

50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. dry Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorine.Elastomers TABLE 5. sat. 10% Chromic acid. 15% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. LLC . 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. water Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 50% in water 8F 300 120 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 260 300 210 150 300 300 150 300 270 300 300 230 230 210 250 100 210 230 80 150 150 210 120 300 300 300 270 300 300 250 150 150 300 300 8C 149 49 121 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 127 149 99 66 149 149 66 149 132 149 149 110 110 99 121 38 99 110 27 66 66 99 49 149 149 149 132 149 149 121 66 66 149 149 (continued) 539 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. dry Fluorine gas. Sodium sulfide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 100% Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid. 70% Nitric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 5% Lactic acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. moist Hydrobromic acid.540 TABLE 5. conc. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Nitric acid. dil. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.24 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ferric nitrate. to 50% Stannic chloride 8F 300 300 300 100 100 300 300 300 300 300 300 270 250 230 300 250 250 300 270 120 300 230 300 300 150 150 80 X 210 150 230 150 210 270 130 300 250 300 300 230 230 300 300 300 300 8C 149 149 149 38 38 149 149 149 149 149 149 132 121 110 149 121 121 149 132 49 149 110 149 149 66 66 27 X 99 66 110 66 99 132 54 149 121 149 149 110 110 149 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Perchloric acid. LLC . 30% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid.

70% Sulfuric acid. This chemical structure gives the polymer a unique combination of properties. and for bearing pads for pipe and equipment support where expansion and contraction or movement may occur. split curled. 5. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. packings. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 90% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Sulfuric acid. Of all the fluoropolymers. 5th ed. 5. The material is also used for sleeve. 98% Sulfuric acid. ECTFE is a tough material with excellent impact strength over its entire operating temperature range.3 Applications The principal applications for ETFE are found in such products as gaskets.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. and seals (O-rings. 2004..23. Schweitzer. LLC . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Source: From P. 100% Sulfuric acid.A. 50% Sulfuric acid. lip and X-rings) in areas where corrosion is a problem. good electrical properties. Vols.Elastomers TABLE 5. and thrust bearings.24 Ethylene–Chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) Elastomer Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) elastomer is a 1:1 alternating copolymer of ethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene. and broad-use temperature range [from cryogenic to 3408F (1718C)] and meets the requirements of the UL-94V-0 vertical flame test in thicknesses as low as 7 mils. 1–4. Incompatibility is shown by an X. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 120 210 210 250 210 300 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 49 99 99 121 99 149 541 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. ECTFE ranks among the best for abrasion resistance. Corrosion Resistance Tables. It possesses excellent chemical resistance.

80% Acetic acid. and Ozone Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene is extremely resistant to sun. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 5. It is resistant to most of the common corrosive chemicals encountered in industry. When the part is removed from contact with the solvent and allowed to dry. dimethylamine.1 Resistance to Sun. ECTFE will be attacked by metallic sodium and potassium. Its physical properties undergo very little change after long exposures. TABLE 5.). this does not impair the usefulness of the polymer. Included in this list of chemicals are strong mineral and oxidizing acids. weather. Under normal circumstances. its mechanical properties return to their original values. Some halogenated solvents can cause ECTFE to become slightly plasticized when it comes into contact with them. LLC . dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide 8F 250 250 150 200 100 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 8C 121 121 66 93 38 66 66 66 66 149 149 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. aqueous Aluminum chloride.24. Weather. As with other fluoropolymers. No known solvent dissolves or stress cracks ECTFE at temperatures up to 2508F (1208C). etc. 50% Acetic acid. The useful properties of ECTFE are maintained on exposure to cobalt-60 radiation of 200 Mrads.25 for the compatibility of ECTFE with selected corrodents. liquid oxygen.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of ECTFE is outstanding. and ozone attack. indicating that no chemical attack has taken place.542 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. metal etchants. Refer to Table 5.24.25 Compatibility of ECTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. and practically all organic solvents except hot amines (aniline. alkalies.

10% Ammonium fluoride. dry Bromine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl atcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate 8F 300 150 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 160 300 300 90 100 250 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 250 300 300 300 300 X 150 250 150 300 250 300 300 300 8C 149 66 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 66 149 149 149 71 149 149 32 38 121 149 149 149 149 149 66 66 66 121 149 149 149 149 X 66 121 66 149 121 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. sat. LLC 543 . 10% Ammonium chloride.25 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.Elastomers TABLE 5. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

5% Cupric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. conc. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. wet Chlorine. dry Fluorine gas.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 15% Citric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10% Chromic acid. LLC . Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. moist 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 220 80 300 300 80 150 300 300 300 250 250 150 250 250 150 250 80 250 250 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 X 80 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 104 27 149 149 27 69 149 149 149 121 121 66 121 121 66 121 27 121 121 149 149 66 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 X 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% Citric acid.544 TABLE 5. dry Chlorine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.

conc. dil. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid. conc. Sodium hypochlorite. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 25% Lactic acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Hydrobromic acid. 10% Perchloric acid. conc.25 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrobromic acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC 545 . 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 90% 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 240 240 300 250 150 150 300 250 300 150 150 300 300 250 150 150 250 X 150 150 150 250 80 300 250 300 300 300 250 150 300 300 300 300 300 250 250 250 150 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 121 116 116 149 121 66 66 149 121 149 66 66 149 149 121 66 66 121 X 66 66 66 121 27 149 121 149 149 149 121 66 149 149 149 149 149 121 121 121 66 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 10% Lactic acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Sodium sulfide.

tubing. wire tie wraps. pumps. gaskets. Materials of ECTFE are also used for lining vessels. coil forms. oil well wire and cable insulation.25 Perfluoroelastomers (FPM) Perfluoroelastomers provide the elastomeric properties of fluoroelastomers and the chemical resistance of PTFE.546 TABLE 5. and hose. LLC . flexible tubing. aircraft. 100% Sulfuric acid. connectors. 98% Sulfuric acid.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. seals. convoluted tubing. Vols.A. resistor sleeves. closures. Source: From P. 1–4. These synthetic rubbers provide the sealing force of a true elastomer and the chemical inertness and thermal stability of polytetra– fluoroethylene. In difficult environments. and aerospace industries. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 5. mass transit and automotive wire. cryogenic.24. tapes.3 Applications This elastomer finds many applications in the electrical industry as wire and cable insulation and jacketing. there are no other elastomers that can outperform the FPMs. and flexible printed circuitry and flat cable. Corrosion Resistance Tables. These compounds are true rubbers. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. and other equipment. logging wire jacketing and jacketing for cathodic protection. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 150 80 300 250 150 150 150 250 300 8C 66 27 149 121 66 66 66 121 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Applications are also found in other industries as diaphragms.. plenum cable insulation. 5. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. they are more resistant to swelling and embrittlement and retain their elastomeric properties over the long term. 2004. Compared with other elastomeric compounds. Incompatibility is shown by an X. particularly in the chemical. 5th ed.

The ASTM designations for these elastomers is FPM. One such perfluoroelastomer is sold by DuPont under the trade name Kalrez.Elastomers 547 As with other elastomers. Applications include O-rings. perfluoroelastomers are compounded to modify certain of their properties. ethylene oxide. and propylene oxide. This compound should not be used in pure water/steam applications at elevated temperatures. As with other perfluoroelastomers. The maximum allowable continuous operating temperature is 5008F/2608C with short-term exposures at 5508F/2888C in nonoxidizing environments. Compound 1050 This compound is carbon black filled. Compound 1050LF This compound has good water/steam resistance. and other parts used in the process and aircraft industries. and outstanding hot air aging properties. It is not recommended for use with organic or inorganic acids at high temperatures. but it is recommended that the manufacturer be consulted before ordering. This compound is not recommended for use in hot water/steam applications or in contact with certain hot aliphatic amines. seals. Kalrez is available in different compounds to meet specific needs. excellent amine resistance. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. there are six specialty compounds available. contact the manufacturer for a recommendation on the use of a specialty compound. This compound finds applications as O-rings. It exhibits low swell in organic and inorganic acids and aldehydes and has good response to temperature cycling effects. perfluormated oil. and other parts in the chemical process industry. good mechanical properties. If the standard compounds do not meet the specified needs. LLC . It exhibits good mechanical properties. excellent all around chemical resistance. and compression set properties. diaphragms. Applications induce O-rings. These have been modified to meet specific needs. Specialty Compounds In addition to the three standard compounds. seals. It has a maximum continuous operating temperature of 6008F/3168C with short-term exposures at higher temperatures. seals. Such materials as carbon black. and other parts used in the chemical process industry. and various fillers are used for this purpose. Compound 4079 This is a carbon black filled compound having low compression set with excellent chemical resistance. and is slightly harder than compound 4079. The maximum recommended continuous operating temperature is 5508F/2888C. It is the suggested compound for use with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide.

548

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

5.25.1 Resistance to Sun, Weather, and Ozone Perfluoroelastomers provide excellent resistance to sun, weather, and ozone. Long-term exposure under these conditions has no effect on them. 5.25.2 Chemical Resistance Perfluoroelastomers have outstanding chemical resistance. They are virtually immune to chemical attack, at ambient and elevated temperatures. Typical corrodents that perfluoroeiastomers are resistant to include the following: Chlorine, wet and dry Fuels (ASTM Reference Fuel C, JP-5 jet fuel, aviation gas, and kerosene) Heat transfer fluids Hot mercury Hydraulic fluids Inorganic and organic acids (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric, and trichloroacetic) and bases (hot caustic soda) Inorganic salt solutions Metal halides (titanium tetrachloride, diethylaluminum chloride) Oil well sour gas (methane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and steam) Polar solvents (ketones, esters, and ethers) Steam Strong organic solvents (benzene, dimethyl formamide, perchloroethylene, and tetrahydrofuran) Strong oxidizing agents (dinitrogen tetroxide, and fuming nitric acid) These perfluoroelastomers should not be exposed to molten or gaseous alkali metals such as sodium because a highly exothermic reaction may occur. Service life can be greatly reduced in fluids containing high concentrations of some diamines, nitric acid, and basic phenol when the temperature exceeds 2128F (1008C). Uranium hexafluoride and fully halogenated Freons (F-11 and F-12) cause considerable swelling. The corrosion resistance given above is for the base polymer. Since the polymer is quite often compounded with fillers and curatives, these additives may interact with the environment, even though the polymer is resistant. Therefore, a knowledge of the additives present is essential in determining the material’s suitability for a particular application. A corrosion testing program is the best method whereby this evaluation can be undertaken. Kalrez compounds have virtually universal chemical resistance. They withstand attack by more than 1600 chemicals, solvents, and plasmas. Table 5.26 lists the compatibilities of Kalrez compounds with selected
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Compatibility of Kalrez Compounds with Selected Corrodents
Abietic Acid Acetic acid, glacial (4079) Acetic acid, 30% (4079) Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenetidine Acetophenone Acetyl bromide Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile (1050LF) Alkyl acetone Alkyl alcohol Alkyl benzene Alkyl chloride Alkyl sulfide Aluminum acetate Aluminum bromide Aluminum chlorate Aluminum chloride Aluminum ethylate Aluminum fluoride Aluminum fluorosilicate Aluminum formate Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxalate Aluminum phosphate Aluminum sulfate Alum Ammonia, anhydrous (1050LF) Ammonium acetate Ammonium arsenate Ammonium benzoate Ammonium bicarbonate Ammonium bisulfite Ammonium bromide Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride Ammonium citrate Ammonium dichromate Ammonium fluoride (1050LF) Ammonium fluorosilicate Ammonium formate Ammonium hydride, conc. (1050LF) Ammonium iodide Ammonium lactate
(continued)
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

549

550 TABLE 5.26 Continued
Ammonium nitrate Ammonium nitrite Ammonium oxalate Ammonium salicylate Ammonium sulfate Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Ammonium thiosulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Amyl mercaptan Amyl naphthalene Amyl nitrate Amyl nitrite Amyl phenol Aniline hydrdochloride Aniline sulfate Aniline sulfite Animal fats Animal oils Anthraquinone Antimony sulfate Antimony tribromide Antimony trichloride Antimony trioxide Aqua regia Arsenic oxide Arsenic trichloride Arsenic trioxide Arsenic trisulfide Ascorbic acid Barium carbonate Barium chlorate Barium chloride, aqueous Barium cyanide Barium hydroxide Barium iodide Barium nitrate Barium oxide Barium peroxide Barium salts Beet sugar liquors Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Benzocatechol Benzoyl chloride Benzyl chloride

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Bismuth carbonate Bismuth nitrate Bismuth oxychloride Boric acid Brine Bromic acid Bromine, anhydrous Butadiene Butane Butyl acetate Butyl chloride Butyl ether Butyl lactate Butyl mercaptan Butyl chloride Cadmium chloride Cadmium nitrate Cadmium sulfate Cadmium sulfide Calcium acetate Calcium arsenate Calcium bicarbonate Calcium bisulfide Calcium hydrosulfide Calcium carbide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium chromate Calcium fluoride Calcium hydroxide Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium peroxide Calcium phosphate Calcium stearate Calcium sulfate Calcium sulfide Calcium sulfite Cane sugar liquors Capric acid Carbamate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon fluorides Carbon monoxide Caustic lime
(continued)

551

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

552 TABLE 5.26 Continued
Caustic potash Chloric acid Chlorine, dry Chloroacetic acid Chloroacetone Chloroform Chlorosilanes Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid Chromic chloride Chromic fluorides Chromic hydroxide Chromic nitrates Chromic oxides Chromic phosphate Chromic sulfate Coconut oil Cod liver oil Coke oven gas Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper nitrate Copper oxide Copper sulfate Corn oil Coconut oil Cresylic acid Crude oil Cutting oils Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Denatured alcohol Detergent solution Dextrain Dextrose Diacetone Diallyl ether Diallyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroaniline o-Dichlorobenzene Dichloroethane Dichloroethylene Dichloromethane Dichlorophenol Diesel oil

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Diethanolamine (1050LF) Diethylamine (1050LF) Diethyl sulfate Diethylbenzene Diethylene glycol Difluoroethane Difluoromonochloroethane Diisobutyl ketone Diisobutylcarbinol Diisobutylene Diisopropyl ether Diisopropyl ketone Epichlorohydrin Ethane Ethanol Ethanolamine (1050LF) Ethers Ethyl acetate Ethyl acetoacetate Ethyl acrylate Ethyl alcohol Ethylamine (1050LF) Ethyl benzene Ethyl benzoate Ethyl bromide Ethyl butylate (4079) Ethyl cellulose Ethyl chloride Ethyl ether Ethyl formate (4079) Ethyl nitrite Ethyl oxalate Ethylene Ethylene chloride Ethylene dibromide Ethylene dichloride Ethylene glycol Ethylene oxide (2035) Fatty acids Ferric acetate Ferric hydroxide Ferric sulfate Ferrous carbonate Ferrous chloride Fuel oils Fuming sulfuric acid Gallic acid Gasoline Gelatin
(continued)

553

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

554 TABLE 5.26 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Glauber’s salt Gluconic acid Glucose Glue Glycerine (glycerol) Helium Heptane Hexane Hydrolodic acid (4079) Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid, 40% Hydrochloric acid, 37%, cold Hydrochloric acid, conc. Hydrochloric acid, 37%, hot Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous Hydrofluoric acid, conc., cold conc., hot (4079) Hydrogen peroxide, 90% Iodic acid Iodine Iodoform Isopropyl chloride Isopropyl ether Isopropylamine (1050LF) Kerosene Lacquer solvents Lacquers Lactic acid, cold Lactic acid, hot Lauric acid Lead, molten Lead acetate Lead arsenate Lead bromide Lead carbonate Lead chloride Lead chromate Lead dioxide Lead nitrate Lead oxide Lime bleach Lime sulfur Linoleic acid Linseed oil Lithium carbonate Lithium chloride Lithium hydroxide Lithium nitrate Lithium nitrite
(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Lithium salicylate Lithopone Lye Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium sulfate Magnesium sulfite Maleic acid Manganese acetate Maleic anhydride Manganese carbonate Manganese dioxide Manganese chloride Manganese phosphate Manganese sulfate, aqueous Mercuric cyanide Mercuric iodide Mercuric nitrate Mercuric sulfate Mercuric sulfite Mercurous nitrate Mercury Mercury chloride Methane Methyl acetate Methyl acrylate Methyl alcohol (methanol) Methyl benzoate Methyl butyl ketone Methyl chloride Methyl ether Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Methyl salicylate Methylene bromide Methylene chloride Methylene iodide Mineral oil Mixed acids Morpholine Motor oils Mustard gas Myristic acid Naphtha Naphthalene Natural gas Neon Nickel acetate aqueous Nickel chloride aqueous
(continued)

555

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

556 TABLE 5.26 Continued
Nickel cyanide Nickel nitrate Nickel salts Nicotine Nicotine sulfate Niter cake Nitric acid, 0–50% (4079) Nitric acid, 50–100% (4079) Nitroaniline Nitrobenzene Nitrocellulose Nitrochlorobenzene Nitrogen Nitrogen oxides Nitrogen peroxide Nitroglycerine Nitroglycerol Nitromethane Nitrophenol Nitrotoluene Nitrous acid Nonane n-Octane Octyl acetate Octyl alcohol Octyl chloride Olefins Oleic acid Oleum Olive oil Oxalic acid Oxygen, cold (4079) Paint thinner Palmitic acid Paraffins Peanut oil Pectin (liquor) Penicillin Peracetic acid Perchloric acid (4079) Perchloroethylene Petroleum Petroleum ether Petroleum crude (1050LF) Phenyl acetate Phosgene Phosphoric acid, 20% Phosphoric acid, 45% Phosphorous, molten

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Phosphorous oxychloride Phosphorous trichloride Phthalic acid Phthalic anhydride Pickling solution Picric acid Pine oil Pine tar Pinene Piperazine (1050LF) Piperidine Plating solution, chrome Potassium acid sulfate Potassum alum Potassum aluminum sulfate Potassium bicarbonate Potassium bichromate Potassium bifluoride Potassium bisulfate Potassium bisulfite Potassium bitartrate Potassium bromide Potassium carbonate Potassium chlorate Potassium chloride Potassium chromates Potassium citrate Potassium cyanate Silicone tetrachloride, dry Silicone tetrachloride, wet Silver bromide Silver chloride Silver cyanide Silver nitrate Silver sulfate Soap solutions Soda ash Sodium acetate Sodium benzoate Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bichromate Sodium bifluoride Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfide Sodium bisulfite Sodium borate Sodium bromate Sodium bromide Sodium carbonate
(continued)

557

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

558 TABLE 5.26 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Sodium chlorate Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium chloroacetate Sodium chromate Sodium citrate Sodium cyanate Sodium cyanide Sodium terricyanide Sodium terrocyanide Sodium fluoride Sodium fluorosilicate Sodium hydride Sodium hydrosulfide Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite Sodium lactate Sodium nitrate Sodium oleate Sodium oxalate Sodium perborate Sodium percarbonate Sodium perchlorate Sodium peroxide Sodium persulfate Sodium phenolate Sodium phosphate Sodium salicylate Sodium salts Sodium silicate Sodium stannate Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfide Sodium sulfite Sour crude oil (1050LF) Sour natural gas (1050LF) Soybean oil Stannic ammonium chloride Stannic chloride, aqueous Stannic tetrachloride Stannous bromide Stannous chloride, aqueous Stannous fluoride Stannous sulfate Steam above 3008F/1498C (1050LF) Steam below 3008F/1498C (2035) Stearic acid Stoddard solvent Strontium acetate
(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

LLC . Sulfurous acid Sulfuryl chloride Sulfonated oil Tallow Tannic acid Tar. dil. wet Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid. conc.Elastomers TABLE 5. dry Sulfur dioxide. bituminous Tartaric acid Tetraethyl lead Tetrahydrofuran Thionyl chloride Thiourea Toluene Transformer oil Transmission fluid type A Triacetin Trichloroacetic acid (4079) Trichlorobenzene Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Triethanolamine (1050LF) Triethyl phosphate Triethylamine (1050LF) Trimethylamine (1050LF) Trimethylbenzene Trinitrotoluene Trisodium phosphate Tung oil Turbine oil Turpentine Uranium sulfate Uric acid Valeric acid Vanilla extract (2035) (continued) 559 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. aqueous Styrene (3018) Succinic acid Sucrose solution Sulfamic acid Sulfite liquors Sulfur chloride Sulfur dioxide. Sulfuric acid. liquefied Sulfur dioxide.26 Continued Strontium carbonate Strontium chloride Strontium hydroxide Strontium nitrate.

FPM is widely used for O-ring seals on equipment. In the petrochemical industry. O-rings of FPM are employed in mechanical seals. When no compound is specified. packings. pump housings. corrodents.25. Freon-21 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. gaskets.560 TABLE 5. hot (1050LF) White oil White pine oil Wood oil Xenon Xylene Zinc acetate Zinc chloride Zinc chromate Zinc nitrate Zinc oxide Zinc sulfate Zinc sulfide Zirconium nitrate Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Kairez is resistant to the above chemicals up to a maximum temperature of 2128F/1008C. The listing is based on standard compounds 4079 and 1050LF for the majority of the fluids. hydrazine. rotameters. and miscellaneous sealing elements including U-cups and V-rings. Kalrez will be resistent to the corrodents listed up to a maximum temperature of 2128F/1008C. Custom-molded parts are also used as valve seats. diaphragms. a higher operating temperature may be allowable. N 2O 4 and other oxidizers. 5. The listing is based on standard compounds 4079 and 1050LF for the majority of the fluids. valves. In contact with some chemicals. LLC . and other instruments. any Kalrez compound may be used.3 Applications Perfluoraelastomer parts are a practical solution wherever the sealing performance of rubber is desirable but not feasible because of severe chemical or thermal conditions.26 Continued Vegetable oils Vinyl benzene Vinyl benzoate Vinyl chloride Vinyl fluoride Vinylidene chloride Water. In some chemicals. When no compound is specified. cold Water. any Kalrex compound may be used. a higher operating temperature may be allowable. Other industries where FPM contributes importantly are aerospace (versus jet fuels. compressor casings.

3 Applications Epichlorhydrin rubber applications include seals and tubes in airconditioning and fuel systems. the copolymer with ethylene oxide (ECO). LLC . 5. rail cars. The chemical transportation industry is also a heavy user of FPM components in safety relief and unloading valves to prevent leakage from tank trucks and trailers. and analytical and process instruments (versus high vacuum. and geothermal drilling (versus sour gas. Other industries that also extensively use FPM include Pharmaceuticals.and/or heat-resistance properties can be utilized and other elastomeric materials will not do the job or where high maintenance costs results if other elastomeric materials are used. and terpolymers (GECO). 5. 5. oil. extreme temperatures and pressures). nuclear power (versus radiation. aminecontaining hydraulic fluids. oil and gas recovery. gas. to swelling in oils. they are susceptible to devulcanization in the presence of oxidized fuels such as sour gasoline. 5. The semiconductor industry makes use of FPM O-rings to seal the aggressive chemical reagents and specialty gases required for producing silicon chips. and analytical and process control instrumentation. and ozone. Weather. and barges carrying hazardous and corrosive chemicals. high temperature).26. bases.26. and resistant to acids. perfluoroelastomers are used primarily as seals where their corrosion. Because of their cost. liquid and gas chromotography exposures. and Ozone These rubbers have excellent resistance to sun. ships.). high-purity reagents. high-temperature conditions).26 Epichlorohydrin Rubber The epichlorhydrin polymer group includes the homopolymer (CO). agricultural chemicals. acidic fluids. However. and aromatic hydrocarbons. water. Also the combination of thermal stability and low outgassing characteristics are desirable in furnaces for growing crystals and in highvacuum applications.1 Resistance to Sun.26. weathering.2 Chemical Resistance Epichlorhydrin rubbers are resistant to hydrocarbon fuels. etc. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Elastomers 561 fluorocarbon.

increase the hydrocarbon resistance.27 Ethylene–Vinylacetate Copolymer (EVM) EVM can only be cured by peroxide. 5. 5. LLC . and various wire and cable applications. The elastic properties of EVM are due to the absence of crystallinity in the copolymer.27. and ozone. weathering.562 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. flexible dust shields. and ozone. Weather.3 Applications CM finds application as vinyl siding. 5. therefore. Weather.3 Applications EVM finds application as wire insulation in the automotive industry.2 Chemical Resistance The resistance of EVM to hydrocarbon fluids is dependent upon the vinyl acetate content.1 Resistance to Sun. and Ozone CM has excellent resistance to sun.1 Resistance to Sun. protective boots.28. hoses. Higher levels of vinyl acetate increase the polarity of the polymer and.28. 5.28.28 Chlorinated Polyethylene (CM) Unmodified polyethylene cannot be converted into an elastomer because of its molecular crystallinity. window profiles. weathering.27. 5. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Chlorination of the polyethylene polymer disrupts the crystallinity and allows the polymer to become elastic upon vulcanization. 5. and Ozone EVM has excellent resistance to sun. 5.27. CM can be vulcanized by peroxides or certain nitrogencontaining organic compounds that cross-link the chlorine atoms.2 Chemical Resistance Chlorinated polyethylene has reasonably good resistance to fuels and oils and excellent resistance to atmospheric pollutants. Ethylene vinyl acetate is also used in the production of thermoplastic elastomers as the soft phase.

1). A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. it is important that the composition be verified as to its suitability for the application. The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. The information is taken from Reference [1]. 563 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Incompatibility is shown by X. LLC . The tables are based on the pure elastomer (Table 6. therefore. It must be remembered that many of these elastomers may be compounded.6 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers On the following pages. the compatibility of selected elastomers in contact with selected corrodents is found.

LLC . 80% Acetic acid.564 TABLE 6. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyle chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride.1 Natural Butyl Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride 180 82 200 93 210 99 180 82 180 82 210 99 150 66 200 93 190 88 190 88 150 66 250 121 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 99 140 60 200 93 200 93 X X 190 X 190 X X 88 X 88 200 X 93 X 140 140 200 60 60 93 140 200 300 X 200 200 60 93 149 X 93 93 100 140 80 X 140 180 38 60 27 X 60 82 160 71 X X X X 300 X 149 X X X X X X 190 X X 180 190 100 190 180 X 88 X X 82 88 38 88 82 210 210 99 99 210 210 210 110 210 99 99 99 43 99 X X X 90 80 80 X 150 X X X 32 27 27 X 66 X X X 160 160 120 X 200 X X X X 71 71 49 X 93 X X X X X 180 180 X 200 200 X X X X 82 82 X 93 93 150 66 220 104 X X X X X X 210 99 X X 90 32 200 93 150 110 110 90 66 43 43 32 8F 80 8C 27 Hypalon 8F 60 X 200 200 200 X 8C 16 X 93 93 93 X 8F 200 200 140 140 140 140 EPDM 8C 93 93 60 60 60 60 8F 210 200 X X X X EPT 8C 99 93 X X X X Viton A 8F X 210 190 180 180 X 8C X 99 88 82 82 X 8F X X 200 200 90 80 Kalrez 8C X X 93 93 32 27 Rubber 8F X X 150 X X X 8C X X 66 X X X Neoprene 8F 200 200 160 160 160 X 8C 93 93 71 71 71 X Buna-N 8F X 180 200 200 210 100 8C X 82 93 93 99 38 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Acetic acid.

sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 100 190 38 88 250 250 121 121 210 210 99 99 140 180 60 82 190 190 X 88 88 X 88 X 60 88 88 88 88 60 60 88 210 210 99 99 150 66 180 200 82 93 180 200 82 93 190 88 200 140 93 60 210 140 300 99 60 148 149 99 99 149 99 149 38 210 140 140 180 180 180 180 210 140 140 99 60 60 82 82 82 82 99 60 60 190 X 140 190 190 190 190 140 140 190 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 160 X X 150 150 150 150 160 80 X 71 X X 66 66 66 66 71 27 X 200 140 X 200 200 190 200 100 200 200 93 60 X 93 93 88 93 38 93 93 210 190 180 200 200 200 200 200 120 200 99 88 82 93 93 93 93 93 49 93 X 190 190 190 190 150 150 190 X 88 88 88 88 66 66 88 250 121 140 200 200 200 200 60 93 93 93 93 300 210 210 300 210 300 100 190 88 250 121 100 38 140 60 190 88 210 99 90 32 210 99 200 93 (continued) 565 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

566 TABLE 6.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate 200 93 300 149 180 82 190 88 210 99 180 82 160 71 180 82 190 190 88 88 250 250 121 121 250 250 121 121 180 180 82 82 190 190 88 88 210 99 150 150 66 66 200 200 93 93 200 200 93 93 200 93 X 300 X 149 X 180 X 82 190 250 88 121 210 210 99 99 X 180 X 82 X 160 X 71 X 180 X 82 150 150 66 66 X 180 X 82 60 200 X 140 140 16 93 X 60 60 210 210 X 140 300 99 99 X 60 149 X 180 X X X X 82 X X X X 200 190 230 190 X 93 88 110 88 210 210 210 250 210 99 99 99 121 99 X 150 X X X 66 X X X 200 X X 140 X 93 X X 60 X 180 X X X 82 X X 210 99 160 71 200 93 300 149 210 99 X X 210 99 160 71 180 82 190 88 200 93 300 149 180 82 180 82 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 180 82 140 60 300 149 180 82 180 82 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 190 88 80 27 300 149 210 99 140 60 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 8F 180 8C 82 Hypalon 8F 200 8C 93 8F 250 EPDM 8C 121 8F 180 EPT 8C 82 Viton A 8F X 8C X 8F 300 Kalrez 8C 149 Rubber 8F 170 8C 77 Neoprene 8F 200 8C 93 Buna-N 8F 180 8C 82 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

moist Bromine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Caicium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. LLC . 10% 190 90 X 90 150 190 X 190 190 88 32 X 32 66 88 X 88 88 200 X X X 200 140 X 200 290 60 60 60 X 93 X X X 93 60 X 93 143 16 16 16 X 16 121 X 140 150 X X X X X 300 190 X X X X 140 200 140 60 66 X X X X X 149 88 X X X X 60 93 60 140 X X X 140 X X 210 140 X 60 X X X 60 X X 99 60 X 190 X 190 170 190 350 110 190 190 88 X 88 77 88 177 43 88 88 210 210 210 210 310 210 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 154 99 99 99 99 99 150 X X X 150 X X 150 150 66 X X X 66 X X 66 66 200 X X 100 200 X X 200 200 X X 93 X X 38 93 X X 93 93 X X X 60 16 93 X 200 X X X X 140 X 180 180 X X X 200 X X 80 X 180 93 X X X X 60 X 82 82 X X X 93 X X 27 X 82 93 82 93 82 82 X X X 180 X X X X X X 82 X X X X 60 60 82 82 350 190 X 250 X 120 190 190 190 190 190 190 177 88 X 121 X 49 88 88 88 88 88 88 140 210 210 240 210 X 210 210 200 210 210 210 60 99 99 116 99 X 99 99 93 99 99 99 120 180 150 150 200 49 82 66 66 93 X X X 150 X 66 X 140 60 200 X X 140 X X 60 X 60 250 X 120 150 190 190 190 49 66 88 88 88 250 90 90 200 200 121 32 32 93 93 X 210 140 210 210 X 99 60 99 99 X 140 140 180 180 180 60 200 200 220 82 16 93 93 104 200 180 200 180 180 (continued) 567 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Bromine gas.

wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid 160 71 X X 160 71 X X X X 210 99 X X X X X X X 150 150 X 66 66 X X X 300 X 149 X X X X X X 350 X X 177 X X 210 210 210 99 99 99 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 90 32 200 93 250 121 180 82 190 88 210 99 X X 200 93 180 82 190 X 88 X 230 X 110 X 250 X 121 X 180 X 82 X X 190 X 88 210 210 99 99 150 X 66 X X X X X 200 X 93 X 190 88 200 93 250 121 180 82 X X 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 190 88 X 200 X 93 X 250 X 121 X 180 X 82 190 X 88 X 100 38 190 88 100 200 250 38 93 121 300 210 300 149 99 149 180 82 200 93 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 X 150 X 66 X 200 X 93 X 200 X 93 180 82 180 82 190 88 210 99 150 66 200 160 160 93 71 71 200 180 180 93 82 82 190 88 250 121 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 99 200 93 220 104 80 27 8F 190 8C 88 Hypalon 8F 250 8C 121 8F 220 EPDM 8C 104 8F 180 EPT 8C 82 Viton A 8F 190 8C 88 8F 210 Kalrez 8C 99 Rubber 8F 200 8C 93 Neoprene 8F 220 8C 104 Buna-N 8F 180 8C 82 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. LLC .1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Calcium hydroxide.568 TABLE 6. sat.

15% Citric acid.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Chlorine gas. wet Chlorine. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. LLC . 10% Chromic acid. 50% Chromic chloride Citric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol X X X 90 X 32 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 190 190 190 190 190 X 350 350 88 88 88 88 88 X 177 177 210 99 X X X X X X X X X X 60 38 X X X X X X 190 190 X X X X X X 88 88 X X X X 100 X X X X X 38 X X X X 150 160 X X X 66 71 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 140 100 X X X X X X 190 190 88 88 250 250 X 121 121 X 210 210 100 210 99 99 38 99 99 99 99 X 99 99 X X 180 180 100 210 180 210 180 100 210 210 X X 82 82 38 99 82 99 82 38 99 99 X X 190 X 190 190 190 190 X 180 180 190 190 88 X 88 88 88 88 X 82 82 88 88 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 110 150 43 66 200 200 160 93 93 71 180 180 180 X 82 82 82 X 93 82 93 X 99 82 82 X 190 190 X 88 88 X 200 250 250 X 200 200 93 121 121 X 93 93 X X 210 210 210 X 210 210 X X 150 160 150 X 66 71 66 X 200 160 200 X 210 160 93 71 93 X 99 71 X X 200 180 200 X 210 180 180 X X X X X 210 210 99 99 X X X X (continued) 569 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. conc.

LLC . Hydrobromic acid. dil. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% Hydrochloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 38% X X 140 60 90 32 X X 350 177 210 99 160 71 90 32 X X X X 160 71 100 38 X X 350 177 210 99 150 66 90 32 130 54 110 43 100 38 140 60 140 60 190 88 210 99 150 66 X X X X 160 71 100 38 140 60 140 60 190 88 210 99 110 43 X X X X 150 66 90 32 90 32 140 60 190 88 210 99 100 38 X X X X 190 190 X 88 88 X 140 60 60 16 250 121 200 210 93 99 180 180 X 100 82 82 X 38 180 210 X X 82 99 X X X X X X 210 99 150 150 X X 66 66 X X 90 200 X X 32 93 X X 200 200 X X 93 93 X X 190 88 250 121 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 X 190 190 160 X 88 88 71 X 200 250 250 X 93 121 121 X 200 220 210 X 93 104 99 X 180 180 180 X 82 82 82 190 350 190 180 88 177 88 82 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 X 150 150 150 X 66 66 66 X 160 160 160 X 71 71 71 X 200 200 180 X 93 93 82 210 99 X X 8F 8C Hypalon 8F 8C 8F EPDM 8C 8F X EPT 8C X Viton A 8F 80 8C 27 8F 210 Kalrez 8C 99 Rubber 8F X 8C X Neoprene 8F X 8C X Buna-N 8F X 8C X Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Fluorine gas. 50% in water Ferric nitrate.570 TABLE 6.

Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Hydrocyanic acid. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% 140 350 150 X X 60 177 66 X X 90 90 90 90 X 32 32 32 32 X 200 60 X X 300 140 93 16 X X 149 60 X 60 121 X X 140 X X 140 140 X 60 X X 60 60 190 210 350 60 190 190 X 88 99 177 16 88 88 X 88 66 82 88 82 88 X X 177 88 88 88 210 210 210 210 190 99 99 99 99 88 90 100 X X 150 32 38 X X 66 X 200 200 X X 80 X 93 93 X X 27 X 60 32 99 200 X X X X 80 X X X 180 180 93 X X X X 27 X X X 82 82 38 X X X X X X X X 120 120 200 X 49 49 93 X 180 90 100 80 X 160 160 90 32 38 27 X 71 71 32 X X X 140 100 100 X 140 80 250 X 60 27 121 X 140 250 X 210 210 210 150 210 210 99 99 99 66 99 99 X X 80 150 80 X X 27 66 27 X 140 90 210 210 210 180 80 210 99 99 82 26 99 X X X X X X X 190 150 180 190 180 190 X X 350 190 190 190 82 X X X 60 38 38 X 60 60 X 16 16 X X 80 60 X 27 16 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 93 X X X X X X X 100 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 210 210 210 210 210 160 99 99 99 99 99 71 X X (continued) 571 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. general Lactic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 30% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 10% Ketones. 5% Nitric acid.

Oleum Perchloric acid.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. conc. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 10% Perchloric acid. 10% 180 180 82 82 240 250 116 121 140 210 60 99 180 210 82 99 190 X 88 X 210 210 99 99 130 150 54 66 200 200 93 93 180 160 82 71 180 82 250 121 300 149 180 82 190 88 210 99 180 82 200 93 200 93 80 27 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 210 99 99 80 250 27 121 300 210 148 99 140 180 60 82 190 190 88 88 210 210 99 99 X 160 X 71 200 160 93 71 130 180 54 82 150 150 66 66 X 200 X 93 140 60 80 180 27 82 210 190 99 88 210 210 99 99 X 110 X 43 X X X X X X 90 32 140 60 190 88 X X X X X 150 X 66 X 100 X 38 X 140 X 60 X 190 X 88 190 190 88 88 210 210 99 99 X 150 X 66 X X X X X X 120 49 100 38 210 99 X X X X X X 8F X 8C X Hypalon 8F X 8C X 8F X EPDM 8C X 8F X EPT 8C X Viton A 8F 190 8C 88 8F X Kalrez 8C X Rubber 8F X 8C X Neoprene 8F X 8C X Buna-N 8F X 8C X Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .572 TABLE 6. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide.

50% Sodium hydroxide. 98% Sulfuric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. conc. Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sulfuric acid.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Sodium hydroxide. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. LLC . fuming 190 88 250 121 180 82 200 93 X X 210 99 150 66 200 93 150 66 180 82 250 121 180 82 80 27 X X 210 99 150 66 200 93 150 66 130 54 250 121 300 149 X X 190 88 90 32 X X X X 90 150 150 150 150 150 100 X X X 32 66 66 66 66 66 38 X X X 250 90 200 250 250 160 X 110 X X 121 32 93 121 121 71 X 43 X X 300 300 300 280 150 150 140 X X X X 149 149 149 138 66 66 60 X X X X X 210 210 210 210 210 210 80 X X X X 99 99 99 99 99 99 27 X X X 190 190 180 190 350 350 350 350 350 190 88 88 82 88 177 177 177 177 177 88 210 99 210 210 210 240 210 150 150 99 99 99 116 99 66 66 90 150 150 150 150 100 X X X X 32 66 66 66 66 38 X X X X X 200 210 160 200 200 200 X X X X X 93 99 71 93 93 93 X X X X X 180 180 180 150 200 X X X X X X 82 82 82 66 93 X X X X X (continued) 573 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium sulfide.

1–4.. 5th ed.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 190 88 250 121 300 300 149 149 180 180 82 82 190 210 88 99 210 210 99 99 X 150 X 66 140 160 60 71 140 190 60 88 8F 150 X X X 8C 66 X X X X X X 80 X 27 X X X X Hypalon 8F 160 8C 171 8F X EPDM 8C X 8F 180 EPT 8C 82 Viton A 8F 190 X 190 190 8C 88 X 88 88 8F 210 210 80 210 Kalrez 8C 99 99 27 99 Rubber 8F X X X X 8C X X X X Neoprene 8F X X X X 8C X X X X Buna-N 8F X X 150 X 8C X X 66 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. New York: Marcel Dekker. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Vols.574 TABLE 6. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 2004. Source: From P. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.A. LLC . Incompatibility is shown by X.

5th ed. 2004. New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Vols. 1–4.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers 575 Reference 1.A. Corrosion Resistance Tables.. P. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful