q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Preface

Corrosion is both costly and dangerous. Billions of dollars are spent annually for the replacement of corroded structures, machinery, and components, including metal roofing, condenser tubes, pipelines, and many other items. In addition to replacement costs are those associated with maintenance to prevent corrosion, inspections, and the upkeep of cathodically protected structures and pipelines. Indirect costs of corrosion result from shutdown, loss of efficiency, and product contamination or loss. Although the actual replacement cost of an item may not be high, the loss of production resulting from the need to shut down an operation to permit the replacement may amount to hundreds of dollars per hour. When a tank or pipeline develops a leak, product is lost. If the leak goes undetected for a period of time, the value of the lost product could be considerable. In addition, contamination can result from the leaking material, requiring cleanup, and this can be quite expensive. When corrosion takes place, corrosion products build up, resulting in reduced flow in pipelines and reduced efficiency of heat transfer in heat exchangers. Both conditions increase operating costs. Corrosion products may also be detrimental to the quality of the product being handled, making it necessary to discard valuable materials. Premature failure of bridges or structures because of corrosion can also result in human injury or even loss of life. Failures of operating equipment resulting from corrosion can have the same disastrous results. When all of these factors are considered, it becomes obvious why the potential problem of corrosion should be considered during the early design stages of any project, and why it is necessary to constantly monitor the integrity of structures, bridges, machinery, and equipment to prevent premature failures. To cope with the potential problems of corrosion, it is necessary to understand 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mechanisms of corrosion Corrosion resistant properties of various materials Proper fabrication and installation techniques Methods to prevent or control corrosion Corrosion testing techniques Corrosion monitoring techniques

Corrosion is not only limited to metallic materials but also to all materials of construction. Consequently, this handbook covers not only metallic materials but also all materials of construction.
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Chapter 1 through Chapter 4 covers polymeric (plastic) materials, both thermoplastic and thermoset. An explanation is presented as to the type of corrosive effects of each polymer, its ability to withstand sun, weather, and ozone, along with compatibility tables. Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 cover elastomeric materials in the same manner that polymers are covered in Chapter 1 through Chapter 4. It is the intention of this book that regardless of what is being built, whether it be a bridge, tower, pipeline, storage tank, or processing vessel, information for the designer/engineer/maintenance personnel/or whoever is responsible for the selection of material of construction will be found in this book to enable them to avoid unnecessary loss of material through corrosion. Philip A. Schweitzer

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Author

Philip A. Schweitzer is a consultant in corrosion prevention, materials of construction, and chemical engineering based in York, Pennsylvania. A former contract manager and material specialist for Chem-Pro Corporation, Fairfield, New Jersey, he is the editor of the Corrosion Engineering Handbook and the Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook, Second Edition; and the author of Corrosion Resistance Tables, Fifth Edition; Encyclopedia of Corrosion Technology, Second Edition; Metallic Materials; Corrosion Resistant Linings and Coatings; Atmospheric Degradation and Corrosion Control; What Every Engineer Should Know About Corrosion; Corrosion Resistance of Elastomers; Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems; Mechanical and Corrosion Resistant Properties of Plastics and Elastomers (all titles Marcel Dekker, Inc.), and Paint and Coatings, Applications and Corrosion Resistance (Taylor & Francis). Schweitzer received the BChE degree (1950) from Polytechnic University (formerly Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn), Brooklyn, New York.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Polymers.............................................................. 1 1.1 Additives ....................................................................................................... 5 1.2 Permeation .................................................................................................... 6 1.3 Absorption .................................................................................................. 12 1.4 Painting of Polymers ................................................................................. 15 1.5 Corrosion of Polymers .............................................................................. 16 Chapter 2 Thermoplastic Polymers ............................................................. 19 2.1 Joining of Thermoplastics......................................................................... 30 2.1.1 Use of Adhesive .......................................................................... 32 2.2 Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene (ABS) ................................................. 37 2.3 Acrylics ........................................................................................................ 37 2.4 Chlotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) .................................................................. 41 2.5 Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE).............................................. 46 2.6 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE)...................................................... 51 2.7 Fluorinated Ethylene–Propylene (FEP) .................................................. 51 2.8 Polyamides (PA)......................................................................................... 60 2.9 Polyamide–Imide (PAI)............................................................................. 65 2.10 Polybutylene (PB) ...................................................................................... 66 2.11 Polycarbonate (PC) .................................................................................... 68 2.12 Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)................................................................... 70 2.13 Polyether–Imide (PEI) ............................................................................... 73 2.14 Polyether Sulfone (PES) ............................................................................ 75 2.15 Perfluoralkoxy (PFA)................................................................................. 77 2.16 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ............................................................... 81 2.17 Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)............................................................. 82 2.18 Polyethylene (PE)....................................................................................... 91 2.19 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)......................................................... 100 2.20 Polyimide (PI)........................................................................................... 102 2.21 Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO) .................................................................. 103 2.22 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS).................................................................. 104 2.23 Polypropylene (PP).................................................................................. 108 2.24 Styrene–Acrylonitrile (SAN) .................................................................. 113 2.25 Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC).......................................................... 114 2.26 Polysulfone (PSF) ..................................................................................... 118 2.27 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)....................................................................... 121 2.28 Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) ............................................. 129 2.29 Chlorinated Polyether (CPE) ................................................................. 134
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2.30 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)......................................................................... 2.31 Polyurethane (PUR)............................................................................... 2.32 Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) ...................................................... 2.33 Acetals...................................................................................................... References .......................................................................................................... Chapter 3 Thermoset Polymers.................................................................. 3.1 Corrosion of Thermosets ........................................................................ 3.2 Joining of Thermosets ............................................................................. 3.3 Ultraviolet Light Stability ....................................................................... 3.4 Reinforcing Materials .............................................................................. 3.4.1 Glass Fibers ................................................................................ 3.4.1.1 E Glass ......................................................................... 3.4.1.2 C Glass......................................................................... 3.4.1.3 S Glass.......................................................................... 3.4.1.4 Glass Filaments .......................................................... 3.4.1.5 Chopped Strands ....................................................... 3.4.1.6 Glass Mats ................................................................... 3.4.1.7 Glass Fabrics ............................................................... 3.4.2 Polyester ..................................................................................... 3.4.3 Carbon Fiber .............................................................................. 3.4.4 Aramid Fibers............................................................................ 3.4.5 Polyethylene Fibers .................................................................. 3.4.6 Paper ........................................................................................... 3.4.7 Cotton and Linen ...................................................................... 3.5 Polyesters .................................................................................................. 3.5.1 General Purpose Polyesters .................................................... 3.5.2 Isophthalic Polyesters............................................................... 3.5.2.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.5.3 Bisphenol A Fumarate Polyesters .......................................... 3.5.3.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.5.4 Halogenated Polyesters ........................................................... 3.5.4.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.5.5 Terephthalate Polyesters (PET)............................................... 3.5.5.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.6 Epoxy Polyesters ...................................................................................... 3.6.1 Resin Types ................................................................................ 3.6.2 Curing ......................................................................................... 3.6.2.1 Aromatic Amines ....................................................... 3.6.2.2 Aliphatic Amines ....................................................... 3.6.2.3 Catalytic Curing Agents ........................................... 3.6.2.4 Acid Anhydrides ....................................................... 3.6.3 Corrosion Resistance ................................................................ 3.6.4 Typical Applications................................................................. 3.7 Vinyl Esters ...............................................................................................
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134 138 141 143 146 147 147 151 151 151 152 152 152 154 154 155 155 155 155 156 156 157 157 158 158 160 161 165 166 173 173 178 178 180 180 181 182 183 183 183 183 184 184 188

............................................................................... 3...........19..........8 Chapter 4 194 194 199 199 199 204 204 207 210 210 211 211 211 211 213 213 213 214 214 215 218 219 219 219 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers................... References ........................................................................................ 5............1 Typical Applications...... and Ozone ........................................................................... 5............... 3......... 5.............................11 Silicones .....................................................................................6 Corrosion Resistance .........15..............3 Isoprene Rubber (IR) ...2 Similarities of Elastomers and Thermoplastic Polymers ......................12..........................14.........................................................1 Typical Applications. 3...................9........................................................................... 441 Chapter 5 Elastomers........................1...................... 3...........1 Typical Applications.1 Typical Applications..........7...............8....................................................... 3. 3............................ 5............................................... 3.. LLC 443 443 445 446 446 447 448 451 452 453 453 454 454 459 459 460 .....................................15 Alkyds.........................................................8 Elastomer Designations ....11..................................................................................19 Polyimides.........................18 Polybutadienes .................................................................................................................... 5................ 3.... 5.........3 Applications...2 Natural Rubber.......................... 3...13 Polyurethanes .........13................................................ 5...........................................................3 Differences between Elastomers and Thermoplasts ............................ 3...........4 Causes of Failure.................................................. 5.............1.............................................1.......16 Ureas (Aminos) .......1 Typical Applications...........7 Applications.........................14 Melamines ........................ Weather..............................................1......................4 Neoprene (CR).................................................................................2...............9 Phenolics.............................. 3.....................................................................1........................................................................ 3........................................................ 3................................................................................................................... 3............. 3...................................................................... 3.. 3.................................................... 5....1................................ 3.......10 Phenol-Formaldehyde....................... 3.............................2.....5 Selecting an Elastomer ...........................................1 Typical Applications................1 Typical Applications.. 221 Reference .1 Typical Applications................... 5.........................1...............................1 Typical Applications.......1.........................................................................1 Typical Applications.................................................2 Chemical Resistance ..........1 Resistance to Sun........................... 3...17 Allyls ...1 Importance of Compounding ...........................................12 Siloxirane.....................................10........... 3.................................................. 5.............................. 5...20 Cyanate Esters .................................... 5.................................................................................................................................... Furans ....... 5................ 3.........................2................1 Introduction .......................................... 5.........................................................................3.................................................................. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

.... Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene (SBS) Rubber .....2 Chemical Resistance .......1 Resistance to Sun.............. and Ozone ........................................................................... 5.................................9...... Styrene–Ethylene–Butylene–Styrene (SEBS) Rubber ..........................3 Applications................12.....................8................ and Ozone .................. Weather....................................................3 Applications..............................6 5..6........................................................ LLC .................5....12 5........ 5.. 5........1 Resistance to Sun........... 5........... 5.........................1 Resistance to Sun....2 Chemical Resistance .........10 5..........................3 Applications... Weather..... 5..2 Chemical Resistance ....................2 Chemical Resistance ............15 5. and Ozone ................11................2 Chemical Resistance ..........1 Resistance to Sun.........13................................................................. and Ozone ........ 5................................13 5..... 460 460 465 467 467 468 469 470 470 470 470 472 472 473 478 478 479 479 479 484 484 484 486 486 487 487 487 487 487 488 488 488 489 489 489 497 497 497 497 497 498 498 498 498 498 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.......................11........................ Weather................. 5. Weather.....7........................................................2 Chemical Resistance . 5.......2 Chemical Resistance ............. 5...................................... Weather......1 Resistance to Sun.......12............... Buna-S..........................12........ Weather........8 5.................... Acrylate–Butadiene Rubber (ABR) and Acrylic Ester–Acrylic Halide (ACM) Rubbers ..9 5........................................................................... 5............7 5............. and Ozone . Ethylene–Acrylic (EA) Rubber ............................................. Butyl Rubber (IIR) and Chlorobutyl Rubber (CIIR).........13.........2 Chemical Resistance ............ 5.......4..........................7........ Weather....5....... Polybutadiene Rubber (BR).......3 Applications....6......... Weather. 5.....8............ 5..... 5... 5...4. 5.......... Weather............................. 5.3 Applications................. 5................... 5................................. 5........................................... Ethylene–Propylene Rubbers (EPDM and EPT).......................1 Resistance to Sun................................... Weather.................. and Ozone . 5... 5........................... 5................................ 5......7....9................ and Ozone .......... Weather.....................8...14...............3 Applications.......................... and Ozone ................2 Chemical Resistance . and Ozone ........................................... 5........ 5........................ and Ozone ..........3 Applications ................................................3 Applications.......................................................................................... and Ozone .......... Styrene–Butadiene Rubber (SBR.....1 Resistance to Sun...................5.11 5...................................3 Applications.......1 Resistance to Sun...................2 Chemical Resistance ...................... 5.....................................................5..................................1 Resistance to Sun.....................3 Applications.9....6........................... Buna-N) ...11.... Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber (Hypalon).....3 Applications.15..........................13....... GR-S)........5 5................................... Nitrile Rubber (NBR.......................14............. and Ozone ..................1 Resistance to Sun............ Weather.... 5............ 5...................1 Resistance to Sun................................ 5................ 5.... 5............1 Resistance to Sun..4...................................................................10...14.................... Polysulfide Rubbers (ST and FA) ........10.......2 Chemical Resistance ..14 5....................10..........................

..16................... Weather...........25.......... Weather..23..... 5........3 Applications..............................26...................................1 Resistance to Sun.............................................26 5....................................1 Resistance to Sun..........20..............2 Chemical Resistance .. 5.........24........22............................... 5.1 Resistance to Sun.............................................. Fluoroelastomers (FKM) ...................................3 Applications...................1 Resistance to Sun.......... Perfluoroelastomers (FPM). 5........... Polyester (PE) Elastomer ........................ LLC ....2 Chemical Resistance ................25 5..................................19............... and Ozone ......................................... 5..........................................21...................2 Chemical Resistance ....17..... 5...........23 5................................ Weather. 5.................. Weather................................ 5...........1 Resistance to Sun....2 Chemical Resistance ..........................21.......17.............. and Ozone ....................... 5....25...............................18............. and Ozone ....................... 5.... 5............. and Ozone .3 Applications........17...........24..................... and Ozone .. PVDF).. Weather.....................24 5...18.....................3 Applications........................... 5.. and Ozone ............................2 Chemical Resistance ...... 5.16.......21................. 5........... Weather.....21 5..........25..............................2 Chemical Resistance ...............................18 5..... and Ozone ... 5...................................................................... 5.....................3 Applications.. 5.............................................................................................................................3 Applications... 5....... and Ozone .........3 Applications...2 Chemical Resistance ....1 Resistance to Sun...........................19 5................................................. Ethylene–Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) Elastomer............................. 5.......................20.. Urethane Rubbers (AU) ..................... 5.... 5...3 Applications.................................................... 5.... Ethylene–Chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) Elastomer.....................................................15....16..........................23...........................3 Applications.........2 Chemical Resistance ....... Polyamides...... 5..................................................................................................2 Chemical Resistance ......................................................................2 Chemical Resistance ............. Weather...............26.......26.........................22........... 5. 5.1 Resistance to Sun..... and Ozone ..........1 Resistance to Sun.......15..................... 5......................... 5...................................... 5. 5...................................................................... 5... 5.....................................17 5................................................... 5............ Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) Olefinic Type (TEO) ...19......................................... and Ozone ...3 Applications.......22.................................................23.................20 5...1 Resistance to Sun........... Weather..........................19........ Weather.............. 5......2 Chemical Resistance .........3 Applications........ and Ozone .................................. 499 502 502 503 504 509 510 511 511 514 514 515 515 515 518 519 519 519 519 520 520 523 524 525 525 525 530 531 531 531 537 537 537 541 541 542 542 546 546 548 548 560 561 561 561 561 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.................................... 5..................20......................................................5................................................................... Vinylidene Fluoride (HFP....1 Resistance to Sun............ Weather..3 Applications.............. Weather..............1 Resistance to Sun...... Silicone (SI) and Fluorosilicone (FSI) Rubbers...................2 Chemical Resistance .....................................................18. Epichlorohydrin Rubber .22 5.......16 5.........24...

...............2 Chemical Resistance ............. and Ozone .....................28... 5........... 562 562 562 562 562 562 562 562 Chapter 6 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers .........................................................................28...................5.......... 563 Reference ...............................................3 Applications.....28.............................................27........................................................... and Ozone ..... 575 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.. 5.. LLC .............................................................................................................1 Resistance to Sun....... 5.......27..1 Resistance to Sun........................... Weather.28 Chlorinated Polyethylene (CM)............ 5.......................... 5.................. 5............ 5....27 Ethylene–Vinylacetate Copolymer (EVM) ...............3 Applications....2 Chemical Resistance ........................ Weather....27............................................

Thermosets are polymers that assume a permanent shape or set when heated. sturdy/economic/resistant. Rather than a long-chain molecule. and a multitude of other products. although. and corrosion products. thermosets consist of a three dimensional network of 1 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. from domestic water piping systems to industrial piping systems that handle highly corrosive chemicals. thermosetting polymers called thermosets. The term plastic is defined as “capable of being easily molded. The term plastics was originally adopted to describe the early polymeric materials because they could be easily molded. from toys to boat hulls.” such as putty or wet clay. the term polymer will be used throughout the book. The thermosets begin as liquids or powders that are reacted with a second material or that through catalyzed polymerization result in a new product whose properties differ from those of either starting material. many current polymers are quite brittle. and elastomers called rubbers. Applications range from small food containers to large chemical storage tanks. The glass temperatures for many polymers are above room temperature. from plastic wrap to incubators. There are three general categories of polymers: thermoplastic polymers called thermoplasts. Unfortunately. This term was originally applied to glass and was the temperature where glass became plastic and formed. these polymers are brittle at room temperature. Plastics are polymers. Examples of a thermoset that will set at room temperatures are epoxies that result from combining an epoxy polymer with a curing agent or catalyst at room temperature. When properly designed and applied. they can be reheated and reformed into new shapes and can be recycled. some will set at room temperature. plastic provides light weight. However. In view of this. LLC .1 Introduction to Polymers Plastics are an important group of raw materials for a wide array of manufacturing operations. therefore. Thermoplasts are long-chain linear molecules that can be easily formed by heat and pressures at temperatures above a critical temperature referred to as the glass temperature. and once they are formed they cannot be molded.

Each new unit creates an active site for the next attachment. Thermosets are amorphous polymers. and cotton are examples of natural polymers. usually water. a chain reaction appends new monomer units to the growing molecule one at a time. but they return to their original values when the force is released. Polymers are the building blocks of plastics.” They are large molecules composed of many repeat units that have been chemically bonded into long chains. and a catalyst. In condensation polymerization. they must be cooled below room temperature to become brittle. The polymerization of ethylene gas (C2H4) is a typical example. they cannot be reformed or recycled. the reaction between monomer units or chain endgroups release a small molecule. Because they decompose on heating.2 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers atoms. The molecules are extensively linked so that when a force is applied. Because their glass temperature is below room temperature. called a mer. silk. Wool. In addition polymerization. The process begins with a monomer of ethylene gas in which the carbon atoms are joined by covalent bonds as below: H C H H C H Each bond has two electrons. the double bonds. Through the use of heat. they unlink or uncoil and can be extended in length by approximately 100% with a minimum force and return to their original shape when the force is released. pressure. are broken to form single bonds as below: H C H H C H This resultant structure. believed to be unsaturated. The term is derived from the Greek meaning “many parts. Elastomers are polymeric materials whose dimensions can be drastically changed by applying a relatively modest force. which satisfies the need for the s and p levels to be filled. is now free to react with other mers. This is an equilibrium reaction that will halt unless the by-product is removed. LLC . Polymers produced by this process will degrade when exposed to water and high temperatures. The monomeric building blocks are chemically bonded by a process known as polymerization that can take place by one of several methods. forming the long-chain molecule shown below: H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

are not considered engineering polymers. Glass fibers are the most common additions. Only high-strength fibers with high modulus are used. This produced a molded plastic material that became very hard when dried.H. has come into play. The function of the resin is to bond the fibers together to provide shape and form and to transfer stresses in the structure from the resin to the fiber. polyvinyl chloride (PVC).” Others have limited the term to thermoplastics only. Carothers demonstrated that chain polymers could be formed by condensation reactions that resulted in the invention of nylon through polymerization of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid. once initiated. and polycarbonates. Further development of linear condensation polymers resulted from the recognition that natural fibers such as rubber. phenol and formaldehyde. In 1934. it cannot grow any more except by side reactions. and the fiber reinforcement is the discontinuous phase.1. and understanding their structure paved the way for the development of the synthetic condensation polymers such as polyesters. polyimides. By the late 1930s. Commercial nylon was placed on the market in 1938 by the DuPont Company. aramid. Synthetic polymers appeared in the early twentieth century when Leo Bakeland invented Bakelite by combining the two monomers. It has been used interchangeably with the terms high-performance polymers and engineering plastics. polystyrene. The chronological order of the development of polymers is shown in Table 1. the resin matrix is the continuous phase. polypropylene. Because of the increased stiffness resulting from the fiber q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. PVC. grows at an extremely rapid rate until terminated. An important paper published by Staudinger in 1920 proposed chain formulas for polystyrene and poloxmethylene. These are natural condensation polymers. the major products of the polymer industry. Once terminated. engineering polymers. According to the ASM Handbook. engineering plastics are defined as “Synthetic polymers of a resin-based material that have loadbearing characteristics and high-performance properties which permit them to be used in the same manner as metals and ceramics. and boron fibers are also used. Many engineering polymers are reinforced and/or alloy polymers (a blend of polymers). Reinforced polymers are those to which fibers have been added that increase the physical properties—especially impact resistance and heat deflection temperatures. The year 1868 marked the beginning of the polymer industry with the production of celluloid that was produced by mixing cellulose nitrate with camphor. Polyethylene. In a reinforced polymer. but carbon. polyamides. and cellulose were giant molecules of high molecular weight. sugars.Introduction to Polymers 3 Most addition polymerization reactions follow a method of chain growth where each chain. In 1953. W. A relatively recent term. he was awarded the Nobel prize for this work in establishing polymer science. LLC . graphite. and polystyrene. and polymethyl methacrylate (Plexiglass) were in commercial production.

Virtually all thermosetting polymers can be reinforced with fibers. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. They are used extensively in manufacturing very large components such as swimming pools. methyl pentene polymers Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) Polyphenylene sulfide Polyarylate (Ardel) PET–PC blends (Xenoy) Polyether block amides (Pebax) Polyetherether ketone (PEEK) Polyetheramide (Ultem) Liquid crystal polymers (Xydar) Liquid crystal polymers (Vectra) PVC–SMA blend reinforcement. PVC. boat hulls. Polyester resins are particularly useful on reinforced polymers. vinyl plastics Glass-bonded mica Alkyl polyester Polyvinyl acetate Acrylic plastics Polystyrene plastics. or epoxies are extensively used in the electronics industry. Reinforced molding materials such as phenolics. cellulose propionate. polyurethanes Epoxy resins Copolymers of butadiene and styrene (ABS) Polyester fibers. PVC plastisols Unsaturated polyester Fluorocarbon resins (Teflon). shower enclosures. polyvinylidene chloride Polypropylene plastic Urethane POM (acetals) PC (polycarbonate) Polyvinylidene fluoride Phenoxy plastics. polyvinyl aldehyde. ABS plastics Polyester-reinforced urethane Polyamide plastics (nylon) Polyolefin plastics.4 TABLE 1. polyallomers Polyimides. LLC . large tankage.1 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Chronological Development of Polymers Year 1868 1869 1907 1912 1919 1926 1928 1931 1933 1937 1938 1940 1942 1943 1947 1948 1950 1954 1955 1956 1957 1961 1962 1964 1965 1970 1971 1978 1979 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1988 Material Celluloid Cellulose nitrate. polyphenylene oxide (PPO) Polysulfones. alkyls. these polymers that are noted for their flexibility are not normally reinforced. silicones. ethyl cellulose PF resin (Bakelite) Cellulose acetate. and building components.

the following are the most important: 1. Common additives used to improve the performance of thermoplastic polymers are listed here: Antioxidants Colorants Coupling agents Fillers or extenders Protect against atmospheric oxidation Dyes and pigments Used to improve adhesive bonds Minerals. Glass fibers are the most commonly used reinforcing material. polymers can be easily formed into shapes that are difficult to achieve with metals. 20. A like replacement of a polymer section for a metallic section will result in a weight savings. Tensile strengths are increased by a factor of 3 and heat deflection temperature increases from 150 to 5008F (66 to 2608C). Polymers chosen for structural application are usually selected as a replacement for metal. In addition. The wear resistance and abrasion resistance of the thermoplastics polymers are improved by the use of aramid reinforcing. In many cases a polymer’s corrosion resistance is reduced as a result of additives being used. and organic compounds used to improve specific properties or to reduce costs q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Polycarbonate compounds using 10. the engineer can design an attractive shape that favors plastic forming and achieve a savings in cost and weight and a cosmeticimprovement. 30. An additional cost savings is realized since the polymer part does not require painting for corrosion protection as would the comparable metal part. Polyamide polymers use glass fiber to control brittleness. 2.1 Additives Various properties of polymers may be improved by the use of additives. polypropylene. metallic powders. Other polymers benefiting from the addition of glass fibers include polyphenylene sulfide. Selection of the specific polymer will be based on the mechanical requirements. By using a polymer. 3. Corrosion resistance is a property most often affected by the use of additives.Introduction to Polymers 5 Many thermoplastic polymers are reinforced with fibers. Although fibers can be used with any thermoplastics polymer. 1. and the chemical enduse environment. In some instances. the use of additives to improve a specific property may have an adverse effect on certain other properties. the temperature. Reinforcement is used to improve physical properties—specifically heat deflection temperature. and polyether sulfone. and 40% glass–fiber loading have their physical properties greatly improved.

heat. Gases.2 and Figure 1. modulus.1 shows the increase in impact strength of nylon.6 Flame retardants Foaming agents Impact modifiers Lubricants Optical brighteners Plasticizers Reinforcing fibers Processing aids Stabilizers Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Change the chemistry/physics of combustion Generate cells or gas pockets Materials usually containing an elastomeric compound to reduce brittleness Substances that reduce friction. or liquids will permeate polymers. This action is strictly a physical phenomenon. Figure 1. 1. and certain polymer blends by the use of additives. However. Permeation is molecular migration through microvoids either in the polymer (if the polymer is more or less porous) or between polymer molecules. Table 1. PVC benefits from all additives and is practically useless in its pure form. Many thermoplastic polymers have useful properties without the need for additives. For example. vapors. polypropylene. other thermoplasts require additives to be useful. PVC. LLC . polycarbonate. polypropylene.2. In neither case is there an attack on the polymer. Glass fibers also increase the strength and moduli of thermoplastic polymers. permeation can be detrimental when a polymer is q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. acetals (POM).3 shows the increase in the HDT when glass fibers have been added to polymers. polycarbonate. polypropylene. Figure 1.2 Permeation All materials are somewhat permeable to chemical molecules. Examples of the effects of additives on specific polymers will be illustrated. but plastic materials tend to be an order of magnitude greater in their permeability than metals. polycarbonate.3 illustrate the effect on the tensile stress and flexural moduli of nylon. and polystyrene when 30 wt% glass fiber additions have been made. The addition of 20 wt% of glass fibers also increases the heat distortion temperature. and wear between surfaces Organic substances that absorb UV radiation below ˚ ˚ 3000 A and emit radiation below 5500 A Increase workability Increase strength. and polystyrene by the addition of 30 wt% of glass fibers. However. and impact strength Improve hot processing characteristics Control for adjustment of deteriorative physicochemical reactions during processing and subsequent life A list of specific fillers and the properties they improve is given in Table 1. Impact resistance is improved in polybutylene terephathalates.

Introduction to Polymers TABLE 1.2 Fillers and Their Property Contribution to Polymers Chemical Resistance Heat Resistance Electrical Insulation Impact Strength Tensile Strength Dimensional Stability Electrical ConduHardness ctivity Thermal Conductivity X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Moisture Resistance X X Hardenability Filler Alumina powder Alumina tetrahydrate Bronze Calcium carbonate Calcium silicate Carbon black Carbon fiber Cellulose Alpha cellulose Coal. amorphous TFE Talc Wood flour Stiffness X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 7 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. chopped fibers Fibrous glass Graphite Jute Kaolin Mica Molybdenium disulfide Nylon. LLC . powdered Cotton. chopped fibers Orlon Rayon Silica.

it is 30 25 20 psi× 103 15 10 5 U U U R U R R R Nylon Polycarbonate Polypropylene Polystyrene FIGURE 1. reinforced. In lined equipment. Loss of contents through substrate and liner as a result of the eventual failure of the substrate. 2. LLC . Bond failure and blistering.1 Izod impact change with glass reinforcement of thermoplastic polymers.8 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5 R 4 ft-lb/in. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.2 Increase in tensile strength with glass reinforcement of thermoplastic polymers. R. U. reinforced. 3. permeation can result in: 1. 3 R 2 1 U U U U R R Nylon Polycarbonate Polypropylene Polystyrene FIGURE 1. resulting from the accumulation of fluids at the bond when the substrate is less permeable than the liner or from corrosion/reaction products if the substrate is attacked by the permeant. R. In unbonded linings. used to line piping or equipment. unreinforced. Failure of the substrate from corrosive attack. unreinforced. U.

All polymers do not have the same rate of permeation.Introduction to Polymers 9 15 R psi × 106 10 R R R U 5 U U U Nylon Polycarbonate Polypropylene Polystyrene FIGURE 1. reinforced. Solubility is a function of the affinity of the permeant for the polymer. In fact.3 Increase of HDT with 20 wt% Glass Fiber Addition to the Polymer Polymer Acetal copolymer Polypropylene Linear polyethylene Thermoplastic polyester Nylon 6a Nylon 6/6a ABS Styrene–acrylonitrile Polystyrene Polycarbonate Polysulfone a HDT at 264 psi 20% Glass (8F/8C) 325/163 250/121 260/127 400/207 425/219 490/254 215/102 215/102 220/104 290/143 365/185 Increase over Base Polymer (8F/8C) 95/52 110/61 140/77 230/139 305/168 330/183 25/14 20/12 20/12 20/12 20/12 30 wt% glass fibers.3 Increase in flexural modulus with reinforcement of thermoplastic polymers. U. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. unreinforced. Permeation is a function of two variables: one relating to diffusion between molecular chains and the other to the solubility of the permeant in the polymer. not only to allow minute quantities of permeant vapors to escape. important that the space between the liner and support member be vented to the atmosphere. LLC . The fluoro-polymers are TABLE 1. but also to prevent expansion of entrapped air from collapsing the liner. R. some polymers are not affected by permeation. The driving force of diffusion is the partial pressure of gases and the concentration gradient of liquids.

06 0.2/24 h/mll Gases Carbon dioxide Helium Hydrogen chloride.29 5.95 0.13 0.39 0. LLC .77 0. 50% Sulfuric acid.03 2.7 gives the relative gas permeation into fluoropolymers.57 1.01 3.5 Vapor Permeation into FEP Permeation (g/100 in.56 0.07 5!10K5 1.72 0.61 4!10K5 8!10K6 0.18 0.69 0.66 0.22 !0.2/24 h/mil) at 738F/238C Gases Nitrogen Oxygen Vapors Acetic acid Acetone Acetophenone Benzene n-Butyl ether Carbon tetrachloride Decane Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Hexane Hydrochloric acid 20% Methanol Sodium hydroxide Sulfuric acid 98% Toluene 0.47 0.5 shows the vapor permeation of FEP. anhydrous Nitrogen Acetophenone Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Ethyl alcohol Hydrochloric acid.11 !0.42 0. 20% Piperdine Sodium hydroxide. TABLE 1.10 TABLE 1.11 0.4 Vapor Permeation into PTFEa Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Permeation g/100 in.2. Table 1.8!10K5 0. 98% a 738F/238C 868F/308C 0.64 0.01 0.37 2.31 0.4 while Table 1.08 0. particularly affected.93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.9 938F/358C 1228F/508C 0.36 0.6 provides permeation data of various gases into PFA and Table 1.01 0.15 0.06 0.13 !0. Vapor permeation of PTFE is shown in Table 1.11 0.80 Based on PTFE having a specific gravity of O2.

and as the temperature rises. a comparison of the sheets’ density TABLE 1. Some control can be exercised over permeation that is affected by: 1. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. although. the fewer voids through which permeation can take place.000 15. The density of the polymer as well as the thickness will have an effect on the permeation rate.7 Relative Gas Permeation into Fluoropolymersa Gas Air Oxygen Nitrogen Helium Carbon dioxide a PVDF 27 20 30 600 100 PTFE 2000 1500 500 35.6 Permeation of Gases into PFA Gas Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Oxygen Permeation at 778F/258C (cc/mil thickness/100 in. the permeability increase may be nonlinear. The thickness of the polymer Increasing the temperature will increase the permeation rate because the solubility of the permeant in the polymer will increase. However. and the same effect is experienced with the concentration of gradients of liquids. The greater the density of the polymer.Introduction to Polymers TABLE 1.000 4700 PFA 1150 — — 17. The permeant concentration 3. The thickness will generally decrease permeation by the square of the thickness. LLC .000 7000 Permeation through a 100 mm film at 738F/238C. Temperature and pressure 2.2/24 h/atm) 2260 291 881 11 There is no relationship between permeation and passage of materials through cracks and voids. permitting more permeant to diffuse among the chains more easily. A comparison of the density of sheets produced from different polymers does not provide an indication of the relative permeation rates. in both cases.000 FEP 600 2900 1200 18. The permeation rates of many gases increase linearly with the partialpressure gradient. If the permeant is highly soluble in the polymer. polymer chain movement is stimulated. UnitsZcm3/m2 deg bar. migrating chemicals travel through the polymer from one side to the other.

3. The rate of permeation is also affected by the temperature and the temperature gradient in the lining.. such as storage tanks. Chemicals that readily condense will permeate at higher rates. the greater the permeation rate. are usually satisfactory. Second. and penetration to the substrate of a lined component. The greater the degree of cross-linking within the polymer. the permeation rate will increase. the thermal stresses on the boundary increase that can result in bond failure. Chemical similarity between the polymer and permeant when the polymer and permeant both have similar functional groups.010–0. that are used under ambient conditions provide the best service. 4. Increasing a lining thickness will normally decrease permeation by the square of the thickness. First. as the thickness of the lining increases. 1. When mechanical factors such as thinning to cold flow. 6. The thickness of the liner is a factor affecting permeation. depending on the combination of lining material and the specific corrodent. LLC . the lower the permeation rate. The denser the sheet. van der Waals hydrogen bonding) of the polymer. there are some disadvantages. Although this would appear to be the approach to follow to control permeation.3 Absorption Polymers have the potential to absorb varying amounts of corrodents they come into contact with. This can result in swelling. Ease of condensation of the permeant. thicker linings may be required. Lowering these will reduce the rate of permeation. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. For general corrosion resistance.020 in. and permeation rates are a consideration. the lower the permeation rate. as thickness increases. The plastic’s thickness and modulus of elasticity are two of the factors that influence these stresses. 2. installation becomes more difficult with a resulting increase in labor costs. The higher the intermolecular chain forces (e. Lined vessels. the lower the permeation rate. the lower the permeation rate. Other factors affecting permeation consist of these chemical and physiochemical properties: 1. Temperature changes and large differences in coefficients of thermal expansion are the most common causes of bond failure. The higher the level of crystallinity in the polymer. particularly organic liquids.g. The smaller the molecule of the permeant. 5. mechanical abuse. thicknesses of 0.12 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers produced from the same polymer will provide an indication of the relative permeation rates. cracking.

029 !0.9 gives the absorption rates of various liquids by FEP. decompose. This data is usually available.04 Nil !0.01 !0. introduce high stresses.Introduction to Polymers 13 Swelling can cause softening of the polymer. Table 1. An approximation of the expected permeation and/or absorption of a polymer can be based on the absorption of water. the corrodent may find its way to the substrate. Table 1. The failures because of absorption can best be understood by considering the “steam cycle” test described in ASTM standards for lined pipe. A section of lined pipe is subjected to thermal and pressure fluctuations. or solidify within the structure of the polymer.10 provides the absorption rates of representative liquids by PFA. Prolonged retention of the chemicals may lead to their decomposition within the polymer. Thermal insulation of the substrate will reduce the temperature gradient across the vessel. and cause failure of the bond on lined components. permeation will probably take place. causing absorption of a small quantity of steam that condenses to water within the inner wall.01 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Several steps can be taken to reduce absorption. thereby TABLE 1. and Table 1. the polymer may absorb process fluids. Eventually. Although it is unusual. it is possible for absorbed monomers to polymerize.05 !0.05 0. The repeated pressure and thermal cycling enlarge the micropores. If the polymer has a high absorption rate.8 provides the water absorption rates for the more common polymers. This is repeated for 100 cycles.8 Water Absorption Rates of Polymers Polymer PVC CPVC PP (Homo) PP (Co) EHMW PE ECTFE PVDF PVCP (Saran) PFA ETFE PTFE FEP Water Absorption 24h at 738F/238C (%) 0. causing an original micropore.02 0. and repeated temperature or pressure cycling can cause blisters. the entrapped water can expand to vapor.01 !0. In an actual process.03 0. ultimately producing visible water-filled blisters within the liner. Related effects occur when process chemicals are absorbed that may later react. The steam creates a temperature and pressure gradient through the liner.03 0.01 !0. Upon pressure release or on the reintroduction of steam. LLC .

(8F/8C) 365/185 394/201 354/179 400/204 172/78 172/78 372/190 117/47 210/99 410/210 250/121 154/68 230/110 392/200b K5/–22 248/120 302/150 248/120 212/100 248/120 212/100 212/100 Range of Weight Gains (%) 0.7–0.9 2.3 1.4–0. Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid 50% Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid 37% Phosphoric acid.7–0.5 0.7–0.2 0.5–0.0–2. Chlorine.00–0.6–0.00–0.9 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Absorption of Selected Liquids by FEPa Chemical Aniline Acetophenone Benzaldehyde Benzyl alcohol n-Butylamine Carbon tetrachloride Dimethyl sulfide Nitrobenzene Perchlorethylene Sulfuryl chloride Toluene Tributyl phosphate a b Temp.5 0.7 0. TABLE 1.0–2.3–0.8 0.7–0.4 0.10 Absorption of Representative Liquids in PFA Liquida Aniline Acetophenone Benzaldehyde Benzyl alcohol n-Butylamine Carbon tetrachloride Dimethylsulfoxide Freon 113 Isooctane Nitrobenzene Perchlorethylene Sulfuryl chloride Toluene Tributyl phosphate Bromine.7–2.4 0.0 0.01 0.8 0.0 Exposure for 168 hours at their boiling points.4 0.1–0.1–0. The acidic reagents were exposed for 168 h.01 0.8–2. Not boiling.9 2.8 0.4 0.8 0.8 1. conc.3–0.2 0.6 0.7–0. (8F/8C) 365/185 394/201 354/179 400/204 172/78 172/78 372/190 410/210 250/121 154/68 230/110 392/200b Range of Weight Gains (%) 0.3 1.4 0.3–0.14 TABLE 1.6–0.4–0. b Not boiling.4 0.7–2.03 Liquids were exposed for 168 h at the boiling point of the solvents. LLC .0–0.01 0.2 1.3–2.3–0.3–2.0–0.03 0. anh.4 2.5 0.4 2.8 1. anh.3–0.7–0. Zinc chloride a Temp.8–2.3–0.00–0.7 0. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

They are also painted when necessary to provide UV protection.11 Wavelength Regions of the UV Region UV-A UV-B Wavelength (nm) 400–315 315–200 Characteristics Causes polymer damage Includes the shortest wavelengths found at the earth’s surface Causes severe polymer damage Absorbed by window glass Filtered out by the earth’s atmosphere Found only in outer space 15 UV-C 280–100 preventing condensation and subsequent expansion of the absorbed fluids. The use of operating procedures or devices that limit the ratio of process pressure reductions or temperature increases will provide added protection. If excessive amounts of mold-release compounds remain on the part. Residual stress. Mold-release residues. but a solvent that aggressively attacks the surface and results in cracking or crazing must be avoided. Because different polymers are subject to attack by different solvents. Heat distortion point and heat resistance. 3.Introduction to Polymers TABLE 1. 2. Molded parts may have localized areas of stress. and if so. A coating applied in these areas may swell the polymer and cause crazing. LLC .4 Painting of Polymers Polymers are painted because this is frequently a less expensive process than precolored resins or molded-in coloring. keeping blisters to a minimum. adhesion problems are likely. Some softening of the surface is desirable to improve adhesion. and proper consideration must be given to the following: 1. the maximum baking temperature the polymer can tolerate. 1. Annealing of the part prior to coating will minimize or eliminate the problem. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. To prevent such a problem. the polymer should be thoroughly rinsed or otherwise cleaned. this will dictate the choice of the paint system. 4. This determines whether a bake-type paint can be used. Solvent resistance. However. This also reduces the rate and magnitude of temperature changes. they are difficult to paint.

Disintegration or degradation of a physical nature because of absorption. 1. delamination. charring. crazing. LLC . solvent action. Consequently. Thermal degradation involving depolymerization and possibly repolymerization 6. Solvation is the penetration of the polymer by a corrodent that causes swelling. the cure. and coefficient of expansion. These materials have a tendency to migrate to the surface and may even soften the coating and destroy adhesion. discoloration. Dehydration (rather uncommon) 7. and in the case of thermoset resins. Polymers are attacked either by chemical reaction or solvation. Any combination of the above Results of such attacks will appear in the form of softening. permeation. softening. The specific polymer should be checked to determine whether the coating will cause short. Other factors.or long-term softening or adhesion problems. or swelling. embrittlement. or other factors 2.16 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. Improper or insufficient cure will adversely affect the corrosion q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polymeric materials do not experience specific corrosion rates. Plasticizers and other additives. The corrosion of polymer matrix composites is also affected by two other factors: the nature of the laminate. The physical properties of the paint film must accommodate to those of the polymer. 6. They are usually completely resistant to a specific corrodent (within specific temperature ranges) or they deteriorate rapidly. Most polymers are formulated with plasticizers and chemical additives. Oxidation. and ultimate failure. where chemical bonds are attacked 3. This is not the case with polymeric materials. Radiation 5. the life of a metallic material in a particular corrosive environment can be accurately predicted. dimensional stability. The long-term adhesion of the coating is affected by the properties of the polymer such as stiffness or rigidity. Hydrolysis. where ester linkages are attacked 4. Corrosion of plastics can be classified in the following ways as to attack mechanism: 1. dissolving.5 Corrosion of Polymers Corrosion of metallic materials takes place via an electro-chemical reaction at a specific corrosion rate.

. the amount and spectrum of natural UV exposure is extremely variable. As a result. but longer wavelengths cannot break it. If a particular polymer is only sensitive to UV light below 290 nm (the solar cutoff point). the short wavelength cutoff of a light source is of critical importance. After exposure to direct sunlight for a period of years. the higher molecular weigh grades of a resin generally exhibit better weatherability than the lower molecular weight grades with comparable additives. it will never experience photochemical deterioration outdoors. the basic elements of nature are placed into classes with similar properties. surface cracking. and other factors. The most harmful weather component. some colors tend to weather better than others. In the periodic table.11. alkaline earth q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. can cause embrittlement fading. there is a critical threshold wavelength of light with enough energy to cause a reaction. During winter months. UV-B. pollution. Because UV is easily filtered by air masses. These classes are alkali metals. exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. LLC . In addition. during the winter months.e. For each type of chemical bond. cloud cover. lower overall mechanical performance. it is filtered through a greater air mass. the shortwavelength solar cutoff shifts from approximately 295 nm in summer to approximately 310 nm in winter. The electromagnetic energy from the sunlight is normally divided into ultraviolet light. Visible light is defined as radiation between 400 and 760 nm. visible light. Because the sun is lower in the sky during the winter months. Therefore. Ultraviolet light consists of radiation below 400 nm. and infrared energy. much of the damaging shortwavelength UV light is filtered out. Light of any wavelength shorter than the threshold can break a bond. Photochemical degradation is caused by photons or light breaking chemical bonds. Infrared energy consists of wavelengths longer than visible red wavelengths and starts above 760 nm. most polymers exhibit reduced impact resistance. i. For example. the intensity of UV at 320 nm changes about 8 to 1 from summer to winter. and UV-C. and a change in appearance. The UV portion of the spectrum is further subdivided into UV-A. whereas proper cure time and procedures will generally improve corrosion resistance. The ability to withstand weathering varies with the polymer type and within grades of a particular resin. Many of the physical property and chemical resistance differences of polymers stem directly from the type and arrangement of atoms in the polymer chains. However.Introduction to Polymers 17 resistance. if at all. In addition. Many resin grades are available with UV-absorbing additives to improve weather-ability. materials sensitive to UV below 320 nm would degrade only slightly. This creates two important differences between summer and winter sunlight: changes in the intensity of the light and in the spectrum. elements and compounds that exhibit similar behavior. The effects of the various wavelengths are shown in Table 1. and chalking. Polymeric materials in outdoor applications are exposed to weather extremes that can be extremely deleterious to the material.

and noble (inert) gases. The polymeric characteristics within each group are similar. Of particular importance and interest for thermoplasts is the category known as halogens that are found in the nonmetal category. and the carbon–chlorine bonds such as PVC and ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene are different in the important property of chemical resistance from a fully fluorinated polymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene. but not well with itself. Of all the halogens. The carbon–fluorine bond. but there are important differences between the groups as will be seen later. and ECTFE that are called fluoropolymers. other metals. Since these are the most electro-negative elements in the periodic table. The latter has a much wider range of corrosion resistance. a key bond of PVC. is among the strongest known organic compounds. permitting it to strongly bond with carbon and hydrogen atoms. The elements included in this category are fluorine.18 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers metals. Polymers containing the carbon–hydrogen bonds such as polypropylene and polyethylene. and PPA called perfluoropolymers. that such plastics as PPE and PP are composed. chlorine. is considerably weaker. The fluorine acts as a protective shield for other bonds of lesser strength within the main chain of the polymer. The arrangement of elements in the molecule. LLC . they are the most likely to attract an electron from another element and become part of a stable structure. transition metals. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and the partially fluorinated polymers such as ETFE. The carbon–chlorine bond. FEP. The carbon–hydrogen bond. the symmetry of the structure. is weaker yet. and iodine. fluorine is the most electronegative. PVDF. The fluoroplastic materials are divided into two groups: fully fluorinated fluorocarbon polymers such as PTFE. and the polymer chains’ degree of branching are as important as the specific elements contained in the molecule. the predominant bond in PVDF and PTFE that gives it such important properties. rare earth series. This class of polymers is known as polyolefins. nonmetals. bromine.

has been the development of the so-called engineering or high-stability.2 Thermoplastic Polymers Thermoplastic materials can be repeatedly re-formed by the application of heat. However. In general. LLC . Alloy polymers are blends of different polymers. thermosets and thermoplastics are now considered on the basis of their performance. so they can be used without the need for incorporating fillers. Because of three major developments. it is referred to as a homopolymer in contrast to a copolymer. Therefore. They are long-chain linear molecules that are easily formed by the application of heat and pressure at temperatures above a critical temperature referred to as the glass temperature. Polymers are formed as the result of a polymerization reaction of a monomer that is a single molecule or substance consisting of single molecules. these materials can be recycled. By virtue of their basic structure. they are chains where one mer has been substituted with another mer. so each case must be considered on its individual merits. Copolymers are long-chain molecules formed by the addition reaction of two or more monomers. although. thermoplastic materials tend to be tougher and less brittle than thermoset polymers. to offset the gains in thermoplastics. Second. Because of this ability to be re-formed by heat. Thermoplastic polymers can be either homopolymers or copolymers. all thermoplasts do not fall into this category. lower-cost processing of 19 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. When the chain of a polymer is made up of a single repeating section. Third. However. thermoplastics have been less dimensionally and thermally stable than thermosetting polymers. stability of thermoplastics has been greatly improved by the use of fiber reinforcement. the lower processing costs for thermoplastics have given the latter a cost advantage. thermal aging that results from repeated exposure to the high temperatures required for melting causes eventual degradation of the polymer and limits the number of reheat cycles. First. thermosets have offered a performance advantage. In essence. Some tend to craze or crack easily. similar to metallic materials. higher-performance polymers that can be reinforced with fiber filler to increase their stability even further.

Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.1 provides the compatibility of glass fibers with selected corrodents. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. Table 2. Ammonium fluoride. The two most common materials used as reinforcement are glass fiber and carbon.2 provides the compatibility of carbon fiber TABLE 2.20 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers thermoset polymers. When a reinforcing material is used in a thermoplast.1 Compatability of Borosilicate Glass with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. sat. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 10–40% Amyl acetate 8F 450 270 400 400 400 400 250 250 210 120 250 250 250 180 X 250 100 190 250 X 250 250 250 250 X X 250 250 200 200 90 200 200 8C 232 132 204 204 204 204 121 121 99 49 121 121 121 82 X 121 38 88 121 X 121 121 121 121 X X 121 121 93 93 32 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 80% Acetic acid. the thermoplast is known as a composite. 50% Acetic acid. LLC . 10% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. has been developed specifically the screw-injectionmolding technology. Compatibility of the reinforcing material with the corrodent must be checked as well as the compatibility of the thermoplast. and Table 2. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

wet Chlorine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC .1 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. sat. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. moist Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid 8F 250 250 200 250 200 250 250 250 250 250 200 200 200 200 200 200 250 300 250 90 90 250 200 200 250 250 200 200 250 X 200 100 250 160 160 250 450 200 200 160 250 250 450 400 140 200 200 200 8C 121 121 93 121 93 121 121 121 121 121 93 93 93 93 93 93 121 149 121 32 32 121 93 93 121 121 93 93 121 X 93 38 121 71 71 121 232 93 93 71 121 121 232 204 60 93 93 93 (continued) 21 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide.

20% Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. LLC . 10% Perchloric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 15% Citric acid. 70% Nitric acid. general Lactic acid.22 TABLE 2. 10% Chromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. dry Fluorine gas. 5% Nitric acid.1 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Phenol 8F 200 200 200 200 250 200 200 160 160 200 310 250 210 290 280 180 200 300 X 200 200 200 200 200 200 X X X 190 200 200 200 200 250 160 200 200 200 400 400 400 250 400 200 200 200 8C 93 93 93 93 121 93 93 71 71 93 154 121 99 143 138 82 93 149 X 93 93 93 93 93 93 X X X 88 93 93 93 93 121 72 93 93 93 204 204 204 121 204 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. 50% Citric acid. Copper chloride Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. dil. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Ketones. conc. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride.

Sodium sulfide. and polystyrene are not considered engineering polymers because of their low strength. polypropylene.1 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Phosphoric acid. The major products of the polymer industry that include polyethylene.. Vols. 90% Sulfuric acid. Table 2. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 100% Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 300 200 250 250 250 X X X 150 150 X 210 210 400 400 400 400 400 400 210 210 250 210 210 210 8C 149 93 121 121 121 X X X 66 66 X 99 99 204 204 204 204 204 204 99 99 121 99 99 99 23 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. polyvinyl chloride. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The engineering plastics are synthetic polymers of resin-based materials that have load-bearing characteristics and high-performance properties that permit them to be used in the same manner as metals.A. conc.4 lists the abbreviations used for the more common thermoplasts. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. with selected corrodents. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50% Sodium hydroxide. New York: Marcel Dekker. Source: From P. 20% Sodium hypochloride. 1–4. 98% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.3 provides the compatibility of impervious graphite with selected corrodents. Many of the engineering plastics are copolymers or alloy polymers. 5th ed. 30% Silver bromide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2004. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. LLC . Table 2. Schweitzer. 10% Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochloride. 70% Sulfuric acid. conc.

24 TABLE 2.2 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Carbon Fiber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. sat. 80% Acetic acid. 10% 8F 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 100 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 390 340 340 340 340 330 340 200 220 340 340 340 340 340 340 200 210 340 250 250 250 250 250 340 200 340 8C 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 38 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 199 171 171 171 171 166 171 93 104 171 171 171 171 171 171 93 99 171 121 121 121 121 121 171 93 171 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Ammonium chloride. LLC . 10% Ammonium fluoride. 10% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium chloride.

2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzoic acid Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC . conc. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chronic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Chlorine acid. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. sat. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol 8F 350 250 210 X X X 340 340 210 100 90 340 340 340 340 140 340 200 250 170 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 250 340 200 340 340 180 80 340 340 340 X X 340 340 340 340 340 340 400 8C 177 121 99 X X X 171 171 99 38 32 171 171 171 171 60 171 93 121 77 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 121 171 93 171 171 82 27 171 171 171 X X 171 171 171 171 171 171 238 (continued) 25 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Bromine gas. 15% Citric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 50% Citric acid.

50% Hydrochloric acid. dry Hydrobromic acid. conc. conc. 30% Salicyclic acid Sodium bromide Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 50% Cyclohexane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. conc. Perchloric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. dil. 5% Cupric chloride.26 TABLE 2. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% in water Ferrous nitrate. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. general Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 8F 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 X 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 X X 100 340 340 340 170 100 400 340 340 340 340 180 140 X X X 340 340 340 200 100 340 340 340 340 340 240 270 260 8C 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 X 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 X X 38 171 171 171 77 38 227 171 171 171 171 82 60 X X X 171 171 171 93 38 171 171 171 171 171 116 132 127 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.2 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Cupric chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 5% Nitric acid. LLC . Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 70% Nitric acid.

TABLE 2. Vols. Sodium sulfide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 100% Sulfurous acid Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 120 340 340 340 340 180 X X 340 340 340 100 340 8C X X 49 171 171 171 171 82 X X 171 171 171 38 171 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 5th ed.A.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 50% Sulfuric acid. conc. 10% Sulfuric acid.. 98% Sulfuric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. 1–4. Source: From P. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistance Tables. LLC . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Aluminum chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Resin phenolic phenolic furan furan furan furan furan furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan 8F 460 460 400 400 400 400 400 400 460 400 460 X 120 460 460 8C 238 238 204 204 204 204 204 204 238 204 238 X 49 238 238 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Acetic acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker.2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hypochlorite. 80% Acetic acid.3 Compatibility of Impervious Graphite with Selected Corrodent Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 2004. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 50% Acetic acid.

28 TABLE 2. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. sat. dry Bromine gas. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.3 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Resin furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic furan furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic furan furan phenolic furan phenolic 8F 250 460 460 390 460 400 400 400 460 250 210 400 460 400 210 400 X 250 250 250 250 460 400 460 460 460 X X 460 460 400 210 460 460 460 460 250 250 170 460 460 400 460 460 400 460 400 8C 121 238 238 199 238 204 204 204 238 121 99 204 238 204 99 204 X 121 121 121 121 238 204 238 238 238 X X 238 238 204 99 238 238 238 238 121 121 77 238 238 204 238 238 204 238 204 (continued) furan furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic furan furan furan furan furan furan furan phenolic phenolic furan phenolic furan q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC . sat. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium chlotide Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. 10% Ammonium hydroxide.

30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfanic acid Chromic acid. dry Chlorine. 100% Iodine Solution. general Lactic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 60% Ferric chloride. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Nitric acid. conc. Hydrobromic acid. Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Magnesium chloride Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl Ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. conc. dil. 15% Citric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride.3 Continued 29 Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% Citric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. LLC . dry Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Resin phenolic furan furan furan furan phenolic phenolic furan 8F 400 460 400 400 400 130 400 400 X X X 400 400 400 460 400 400 400 400 460 330 210 260 210 400 300 X 120 250 120 400 400 460 460 X X 120 400 400 400 170 460 460 460 460 400 220 220 8C 204 238 204 204 204 54 204 204 X X X 204 204 204 238 204 204 204 204 238 166 99 127 99 204 149 X 49 121 49 204 204 238 238 X X 49 204 204 204 77 238 238 238 238 204 104 104 (continued) furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan furan phenolic furan furan furan phenolic phenolic furan phenolic Phenolic furan furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ketones.

A.6 gives the allowable temperature range for thermoplastic polymers. Incompatibility is shown by an X. thermal fusion. 70% Nitric acid anhydrous Nitrous acid conc. 1–4. 90% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.1 Joining of Thermoplastics Thermoplastic materials are joined by either solvent cementing.30 TABLE 2. 100% Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Potassium bromide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Vols. they are also able to resist corrosive fumes that may be present in the atmosphere. Table 2. Solvent cementing is the easiest and most q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc.. LLC . 5th ed. Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. Source: From P. New York: Marcel Dekker.5 provides the resistance of the more common thermoplasts to various atmospheric pollutants. 2. or by means of adhesives. 70% Sulfuric acid. In addition to being able to resist attack by specific corrodents in plant operations.3 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. 2004. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite conc. and Table 2. Corrosion Resistance Tables. fuming Sulfuric acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride Resin 8F X X X X 400 400 460 340 400 400 400 400 X X X 400 400 400 400 400 X X X 400 320 400 340 400 8C X X X X 204 204 238 171 204 204 204 204 X X X 204 204 204 204 204 X X X 204 160 204 171 204 furan phenolic furan furan furan furan furan furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic furan furan phenolic The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. One of the applications for plastic materials is to resist atmospheric corrosion. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.

4 Abbreviations Used for Thermoplasts ABS CPE CPVC CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP HDPE LDPE LLDPE PA PAI PAN PAS PB PBT PC PE PEEK PEI PEK PEKK PES PET PFA PI PP PPE PPO PPS PPSS PSF PTFE PUR PVC PVDC PVDF PVF SAN UHMWPE Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene Chlorinated polyether Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride Chlorotrifluoroethylene Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene Ethylenetetrafluoroethylene Flouroethylene-propylene copolymer High-density polyethylene Low-density polyethylene Linear low-density polyethylene Polyamide (Nylon) Polyamide-imide Polyacrylonitrile Polyarylsulfone Polybutylene Polybutylene terephthalate Polycarbonate Polyethylene Polyetheretherketone Polyether-imide Polyetherketone Polyetherketoneketone Polyethersulfone Polyethylene terephthalate Perfluoralkoxy Polyimide Polypropylene Polyphenylene ether Polyphenylene oxide Polyphenylene sulfide Polyphenylene sulfide sulfone Polysulfone Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) also TFE Polyurethane Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinylidene chloride Polyvinylidene fluoride Polyvinyl fluoride Styrene-acrylonitrile Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene 31 economical method for joining thermoplasts. The major disadvantages of solvent cementing are the possibility of the part’s stress cracking and the possible hazards of using low vapor point solvents. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Adhesive bonding is generally recommended when two dissimilar polymers are joined because of solvent and polymer compatibility problems. and they have the same corrosion resistance as the base polymer as do joints made by a thermal-fusion process.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Solvent-cemented joints are less sensitive to thermal cycling than joints bonded with adhesives. LLC .

32 TABLE 2.30 !0.50 0. h Type 1 only.1 !0.30 0.25 Weathering R R R R R R R Lg R Lg R Ozone X R R R R R Xd R R R R d SO2 R R R R R R Rf R R Xd R R R R R Rh R R R e NOx H2S Re Re R R R R Xd R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R RS R R R R R R RS !0. f Wet only.03 !0.15 0.7 lists the typical solvents used to bond the major polymers. g L. Large differences in the thermal expansion coefficient between the polymer and adhesive can result in stress at the polymer’s joint interface.b R R R R R RS R RS R R R Moisturec Absorption 0.2 0. e Dry only. and the glass transition temperature of the polymer relative to the adhesive. c Water absorption at 738F/238C (%).6–1.01 0. Limited resistance.029 !0. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Major elements of concern are the corrosion resistance of the adhesive.01 0. its thermal expansion coefficient. LLC .05 !0. RS.1 Use of Adhesive The physical and chemical properties of both the solidified adhesive and the polymer affect the quality of the bonded joint.01 R R Lg R R R R R R R R R Lg R R R R R R R R R Xd R R R.04 !0. 2.01 0. Solvent cements that have approximately the same solubility parameters as the polymer to be bonded should be selected.03 0.1.02 0. A universal solvent should never be used. Resistant only if stabilized with a UV protector.5 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Atmospheric Resistance of Thermoplastic Polymers Resistance to Polymer ABS CPVC ECTFE ETFE FEP HDPE PA PC PCTFE PEEK PEI PES PF PFA PI PP PPS PSF PTFE PVC PVDC PVDF UHMWPE a b UV Degradationa. Resistant. Table 2. d Not resistant.

tetrahydrofuran. ethylene dichloride. solutions of Calcium chloride in alcohol Trichloroethylene. acetone. methyl isobutyl ketone.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.6 Allowable Temperature Range for Thermoplastic Polymers Allowable Temperature (8F/8C) Polymer ABS CPVC ECTFE ETFE FEP HDPE PA PAI PB PC PCTFE PEEK PEI PES PFA PI PP PPS PSF PTFE PVC PVDC PVDF UHWMPE Minimum K40/K40 0/K18 K105/K76 K370/K223 K50/K45 K60/K51 K60/K51 K300/K190 K200/K129 K105/K76 K85/K65 K310/K190 K310/K190 K310/K190 32/0 K150/K101 K20/K29 0/K18 0/K18 K50/K45 40/4 Maximum 140/60 180/82 340/171 300/149 400/205 180/82 300/149 500/260 200/93 250–275/120–135 380/190 480/250 500/260 340/170 500/260 500–600/260–315 215/102 450/230 300/149 500/260 140/60 175/80 320/160 200/93 33 Temperature limits may have to be modified depending upon the corrodent if in direct contact. ethylene dichloride Methylene chloride.7 Typical Solvents for Solvent Cementing Polymer PVC ABS Acetate Acrylic PA (Nylon) PPO PC Polystyrene PSF Solvent Cyclohexane. chloroform. tetrahydrofuran. trichloroethylene. ethylene dichloride Aqueous phenol. methylene chloride Methylene chloride. ethylene ketone. ethylene dichloride. solutions of resorcinol in alcohol. methylene chloride Methylene chloride. chloroform. toluene. TABLE 2. xylene Methylene chloride q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. ethyl acetate Methylene chloride. LLC . dichlorobenzene Methyl ethyl ketone. methyl ethyl ketone.

meaning that the weakest link in the joint may be the adhesive. will provide poor resistance to bases. A structural adhesive must have a glass transition temperature higher than the operating temperature to prevent a cohesively weak bond and possible creep problems. Table 2. There is not a best adhesive for universal environments.34 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers These stresses are compounded by thermal cycling and low-temperature service requirements. Which adhesive is selected will depend upon the specific operating conditions such as chemical environment and temperature. For example.8 Methods of Joining Thermoplasts Polymer ABS Acetals Acrylics CPE Ethylene copolymers Fluoroplastics PA PPO Polyesters PAI PAS PC PA/ABS PE PI PPS PP Polystyrene PSF PVC/Acrylic alloy PVC/ABS alloy PVC CPVC Adhesives X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Mechanical Fastening X X X X Solvent Welding X X X Thermal Welding X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. It is difficult to select an adhesive that will not degrade in two widely differing chemical environments. Table 2.8 lists the methods by which individual polymers may be joined. LLC . in all probability.9 provides the relative compatibilities of synthetic adhesives in selected environments. Engineering polymers such as polyamide or polyphenylene sulfide have very high glass transition temperatures whereas most adhesives have very low glass transition temperatures. In general. TABLE 2. an adhesive providing maximum resistance to acids. Selection of the proper adhesives is important. the adhesives that are most resistant to high temperatures usually exhibit the best resistance to chemicals and solvents. All polymers cannot be joined by all of the methods cited.

thermosetting adhesive. cold. c Type: TS. oil. 3. K. good. esters. TP. D. C. chlorinated solvents. N. LLC . water. L.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. excellent. poor. ketones. aromatics. not recommended. M. fair. heat. b Resistance: 1. H.b Adhesive Cyanoacrylate PolyesterCisocyanate PolyesterCmonomer Urea formaldehyde Melamine formaldehyde Resorcinol formaldehyde EpoxyCpolyamine EpoxyCpolyamide Polyimide Acrylic Cellulose acetate Cellulose nitrate Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl alcohol Polyamide Acrylic Phenoxy a Type TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TP TP TP TP TP TP TP c A X 3 X 3 2 2 3 X 1 X 2 3 X 3 X 4 4 B 2 3 3 2 2 X 2 1 3 3 3 C X 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 X X 3 3 D X 3 X X X 2 2 X 4 3 X 3 X X X 3 4 E X 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 3 3 X X 3 F X 2 X 2 2 2 2 X 2 2 2 X 3 X 2 2 G 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 H 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 X J X 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 X X 3 X X K X 2 X 2 2 2 X X 2 2 X X X 1 2 4 L X 2 X 2 2 2 X X 2 2 X X X 1 2 4 M 4 X X 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 X X X 1 2 X N 4 2 X 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 X X X 1 X 4 Environment: A. G. F. X. 2. alcohols. alkali. acid. J. fuels. 35 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. hot water. 4. grease. thermoplastic adhesive.9 Chemical Resistance of Adhesives Environmenta. B. E.

and the thermal conductivity of the adhesive. there are epoxy formulations that can withstand short terms at 5008F (2608C) and long-term service at 300–3508F (149–1778C). Nitrile–phenolic adhesives have high shear strength up to 250–3508F (121–1778C). The following are important considerations when designing an adhesive joint for outdoor service: 1. strength. when exposed to weather.e. Epoxy–phenolic adhesives exhibit good adhesive properties at both elevated and low temperatures. Adhesives exposed outdoors are affected primarily by heat and humidity. the rate of decline usually levels off. turn to fluid during exposure to warm humid air. Epoxy–polyamide adhesives can be made serviceable at very low temperatures by the addition of appropriate fillers to control thermal expansion. 2. notably ester-based polyurethanes. 3. Other factors affecting the life of an adhesive bond are humidity. Heat-cured adhesive systems are generally more resistant than room-temperature cured systems. adhesive. Polyurethane and epoxy–nylon systems exhibit outstanding cryogenic properties. The successful application of an adhesive at low temperatures is dependent upon the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between adhesive and polymer. depending upon the climate zone. will revert. Thermal cycling. the elastic modulus. LLC . i. Polyamide-adhesives have thermal endurance at temperatures greater than 5008F (2608C) that is unmatched by any commercially available adhesive. Structural adhesives not susceptible to the reversion phenomenon are also likely to lose adhesive strength when exposed to moisture. They have very good thermal stability but low strength. However. The most severe locations are those with high humidity and warm temperatures. water immersion.36 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Epoxy adhesives are generally limited to continuous applications below 3008F (1498C). and in the worst case. ultraviolet radiation. Water can also permeate the adhesive and displace the adhesive at the bond interface. lose hardness. After two or three years. and cold are relatively minor factors. polymer. A combination epoxy–phenolic resin has been developed that will provide an adhesive capability at 7008F (3718C) for short-term operation and continuous operation at 3508F (1778C). and the strength retention on aging at these temperatures is very good. Silicone adhesives are primarily used in nonstructural applications.. Structural adhesives. Moisture can affect adhesive strength in two ways. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. rapidly lose strength during the first six months to a year. and outdoor weathering. and stress level. Stressed panels deteriorate more rapidly than unstressed panels. Some polymeric materials. Their short-term exposure at 10008F (5388C) is slightly better than the epoxy–phenolic alloy.

2.3 Acrylics Acrylics are based on polymethylmethacrylate and have a chemical structure as follows: H C H CH3 C COOCH3 n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. greater dimensional stability and other properties can be obtained at the expense of other characteristics. although all joints will eventually show some strength loss. butadiene. ABS polymers are used to produce business machine and camera housings. piping.10 provides the compatibility of ABS with selected corrodents. butadiene. better toughness. Table 2. Pure ABS polymers will be attacked by oxidizing agents and strong acids. and styrene and have the following general chemical structure: H C H H C Cn H C H C H C H Butadiene H C H C CH X Y H Z Acrylonitrile Styrene The properties of ABS polymers can be altered by the relative amounts of acrylonitrile. and styrene present. bearings. chemical tanks. ducts. and they will stress crack in the presence of certain organic compounds.2 Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene (ABS) ABS polymers are derived from acrylonitrile. When an ABS alloy or a reinforced ABS is used. all of the alloying ingredients and/or reinforcing materials must be checked for chemical compatibility. 2. but not to aromatic or chlorinated hydrocarbons.Thermoplastic Polymers 37 4. A more detailed listing may be found in Reference [1]. With the better adhesives. It is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. fume hoods. The manufacturer should also be checked. LLC . and electrical conduit. blowers. pump impellers. ABS will be degraded by UV light unless protective additives are incorporated into the formulation. unstressed bonds are relatively resistant to severe outdoor weathering. gears. Higher strength.

aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Acetic acid. The total light transmission is as high as 92%. acetone. Ammonium fluoride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate 8F X 100 130 X X X X X 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 90 80 140 140 140 140 140 X 8C X 38 54 X X X X X 60 X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 32 27 60 60 60 60 60 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. TABLE 2. Table 2. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. gasoline. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. Acrylics exhibit outstanding weatherability. They are attacked by strong solvents. sat. duPont and Plexiglass by Rohm and Haas. acrylic resins are inherently resistant to discoloration and loss of light transmission. Because of their chemical structure. 10% Acetic acid. Parts molded from acrylic powders in their pure state may be clear and nearly optically perfect.I. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.11 lists the compatibility of acrylics with selected corrodents. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. and other similar fluids. LLC . 80% Acetic acid. sat.38 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers They are sold under the tradenames of Lucite by E. 10% Ammonium fluoride.10 Compatibility of ABS with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. and haze measurements average only 1%.

sat.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. wet Chlorine. dry Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.10 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. 10% 8F 80 X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 X X 80 140 X X 140 140 X X X X X 140 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 90 140 X 140 X 140 X X 140 140 X X X X 90 8C 27 X X 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 X X 27 60 X X 60 60 X X X X X 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X 32 60 X 60 X 60 X X 60 60 X X X X 32 (continued) 39 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. LLC . 25% Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate.

anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 15% Citric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 50% Citric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. dry Hydrobromic acid. conc.40 TABLE 2. 20% 8F X 140 140 140 140 140 X 80 80 X X 140 140 140 140 90 140 90 140 X X X 140 X 140 140 140 X X X 140 140 130 X X X X X X 130 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 8C X 60 60 60 60 60 X 27 27 X X 60 60 60 60 32 60 32 60 X X X 60 X 60 60 60 X X X 60 60 54 X X X X X X 54 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 25% Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.10 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 70% Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. general Lactic acid. LLC . 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrochloric acid.

It is subject to swelling in some q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. FEP. fluorescent street lights. Sodium sulfide. 70% Sulfuric acid. and PFA. 5th ed. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. textile fibers. LLC . Source: From P. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 2004.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 100% Sulfuric acid. 1–4. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene White liquor Zine chloride 8F 140 140 140 100 140 130 X X X X X 140 X X 140 140 8C 60 60 60 38 60 54 X X X X X 60 X X 60 60 41 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. outdoor signs. Corrosion Resistance Tables. it has less resistance than PTFE. 2. 50% Sulfuric acid. Vols. Schweitzer.10 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hypochlorite. Acrylics are used for lenses. 98% Sulfuric acid.A. It is a fluorocarbon with the following chemical structure: Cl F C F C F n Although CTFE has a wide range of corrosion resistance. New York: Marcel Dekker.4 Chlotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) Chlorotrifluorethylene is sold under the tradename of Kel–F. and boat windshields.. lighting fixtures. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. coatings. 10% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. conc. aircraft and building glazing.

aqueous Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. LLC .42 TABLE 2.11 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Acrylics with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium sulfate Calcium bisulfide Carbon dioxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Borax Boric acid Bromine. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. sat. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Alum Aluminum chloride. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid X X X X X X X R R R R R R R R R R R R X R X X R R R R X X X R R X X R X R R R R R R R R R R X R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat.

Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Citric acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Nitric acid. 15% Citric acid. general Lactic acid. to 50% Stanninc chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Dichloroethane Ethylene chloride Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 10% X X X X X X X R R R R X X R R X R R R R R R X R X X X R X X R X X X X R R R R X R R R R R R R R R (continued) 43 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Nitric acid anhydrous Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. conc.11 Continued Chemical Chloroacetic acid. 5% Nitric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 100% Ketones. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Sodium sulfide. 10–50% Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid. LLC . Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide.

90% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. 95–100% Acetic acid glacial Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetyl chloride. chlorinated solvents at elevated temperatures and is attacked by the same chemicals that attack PTFE. 98% Sulfuric acid.11 Continued Chemical Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Vols.. Refer to Table 2. dry Allyl alcohol Aluminum chloride. 2004. 100% Sulfuric acid fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene Zinc chloride Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R R X X X X R X R The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise specified. 50% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. 25% Ammonia anhydrous Ammonia. conc. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.12 Compatibility of CTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. LLC . Compatibility at 908F/328C is indicated by R. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 70% Sulfuric acid.44 TABLE 2.12 for the compatibility of CTFE with selected corrodents. wet Ammonium chloride. Source: From P. TABLE 2. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. Amyl acetate Aniline Aqua regia Barium sulfate 8F 200 122 122 122 100 200 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 100 122 200 300 8C 93 50 50 50 38 93 38 93 93 93 93 93 93 38 50 93 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 1–4.A. Corrosion Resistance Tables.

100% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Perchloric acid Phosphorus trichloride Potassium manganate Seawater 8F 200 200 200 200 100 300 100 212 200 200 X 100 300 300 300 212 200 X 125 300 100 200 200 X 100 200 X 70 200 200 212 200 200 300 300 200 300 212 200 200 200 200 200 212 200 200 200 250 23 93 93 100 93 93 149 149 93 149 100 93 93 93 93 93 100 93 93 93 121 (continued) 38 92 52 149 38 93 93 38 149 149 149 100 93 8C 93 93 93 93 38 149 38 100 93 93 45 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzontrile Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Bromine gas. 50% Magnesium chloride Magnesium sulfate Mineral oil Motor oil Naphtha Naphthalene Nitromethane Oxalic acid. dry Chloroacetic acid Cupric chloride. dry Bromine gas. 37% Hydrochloric acid. moist Butadiene Butane n-Butylamine Butyl ether Calcium chloride Calcium sulfate Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Cellusolve Chlorine. moist Fuel oils Gasoline Glycerine Heptane Hexane Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cyclohexanone Dimethyl aniline Dimethyl phthalate Ethanolamine Ethylene dichloride Ethylene glycol Fluorine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. LLC . dry Fluorine gas.

fuming Turpentine Vinegar Water. Included in this q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2.A. 10% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium sulfate Sodium thiosulfate Stannous chloride Sulfur Sulfur dioxide. It is resistant to most of the common corrosive chemicals encountered in industry. It possesses excellent chemical resistance from cryogenic to 3408F (1178C) with continuous service to 3008F (1498C) and excellent abrasion resistance. LLC . ECTFE’s resistance to permeation by oxygen.S. unless otherwise noted. wet Sulfur dioxide. 0–100% Sulfuric acid. The chemical resistance of ECTFE is outstanding.12 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bisulfate Sodium carbonate Sodium chromate. Water absorption is less than 0. fresh Zinc sulfate 8F 300 140 300 250 250 300 300 212 260 300 300 212 200 200 200 250 212 8C 149 60 149 121 121 149 149 100 127 149 149 100 93 93 93 121 100 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution. chlorine gas. carbon dioxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. or hydrochloric acid is 10–100 times better than that of PTFE or FEP.46 TABLE 2.01%. It is sold under the tradename of Halar by Ausimont U. dry Sulfuric acid.5 Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) ECTFE is a 1:1 alternating copolymer of ethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene having a chemical structure as follows: H H H H C C C C H H F Cl This chemical structure provides the polymer with a unique combination of properties.

50% Ammonium chloride. and practically all organic solvents except hot amines (aniline. 50% Acetic acid. When the part is removed from contact with the solvent and allowed to dry. ECTFE will be attacked by metallic sodium and potassium. and high-temperature wire and cable insulation. dimethylamine. indicating that no chemical attack has taken place. its mechanical properties return to their original values. liquid oxygen.Thermoplastic Polymers 47 list of chemicals are strong mineral and oxidizing acids. Under normal circumstances. As with other fluoropolymers. chemical process equipment. alkalies. 10% Ammonium chloride. 8F 250 250 150 200 100 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 8C 121 121 66 93 38 66 66 66 66 149 149 149 149 149 149 66 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. etc. TABLE 2. 10% Acetic acid. Some halogenated solvents can cause ECTFE to become slightly plasticized when it comes into contact with them.) No known solvent dissolves or stress cracks ECTFE at temperatures up to 2508F (1208C).13 Compatibility of ECTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. sat. Reference [1] provides a more extensive listing. LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. ECTFE also exhibits excellent resistance to weathering and UV radiation. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. The useful properties of ECTFE are maintained on exposure to cobalt-60 radiation of 20 Mrads. Table 2. ECTFE has found application as pipe and vessel liners and in piping systems. aqueous Aluminum chloride. that does not impair the usefulness of the polymer.13 shows the compatibility of ECTFE with selected corrodents. metal etchants.

dry Bromine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium fluoride. sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride. LLC . Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.48 TABLE 2. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry 8F 300 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 160 300 300 90 100 250 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 250 300 300 300 300 X 150 250 150 300 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 220 80 300 8C 149 149 149 149 149 66 149 149 149 71 149 149 32 38 121 149 149 149 149 149 66 66 66 121 149 149 149 149 X 66 121 66 149 121 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 104 27 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide.

Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 8F 300 80 150 300 300 300 250 250 150 250 250 150 250 80 250 250 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 X 80 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 240 240 300 250 150 150 8C 149 27 66 149 149 149 121 121 66 121 121 66 121 27 121 121 149 149 66 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 X 27 149 149 149 149 149 149 121 116 116 149 121 66 66 (continued) 49 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Fluorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellsolve Chloroacetic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. LLC . 50% in water Ferric nitrate. wet Chlorine. 50% Citric acid.13 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon dioxide. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Citric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. dry Chlorine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10% Chromic acid. conc. 5% Cupric chloride. 25% Lactic acid. conc.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Lactic acid.

10% Sulfuric acid. conc. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. conc. LLC . Oleum Perchloric acid. Source: From P.A. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. New York: Marcel Dekker. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 98% Sulfuric acid.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50% Sulfuric acid. conc. 1–4.50 TABLE 2. 5% Nitric acid. 2004. 20% Nitric acid. Sodium sulfide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. Vols. 10% Perchloric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 5th ed. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 300 250 300 150 150 300 300 250 150 150 250 X 150 150 150 250 80 300 250 300 300 300 250 150 300 300 300 300 300 250 250 250 150 150 80 300 250 150 150 150 250 300 8C 149 121 149 66 68 149 149 121 66 66 121 X 66 66 66 121 27 149 121 149 149 149 121 66 149 149 149 149 149 121 121 121 66 66 27 149 121 66 66 66 121 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. A blank space indicate that data is unavailable..

halogens. chlorocarbons. and dimensional stability are enhanced. organic bases such as amines.14 for the compatibility of ETFE with selected corrodents. It can be reinforced with carbon or glass fibers. wire insulation. heat distortion temperature. and sulfuric acid at high concentrations and near their boiling points will affect ETFE to various degrees. and pump components. Reference [1] provides a more extensive listing. aldehydes. Carboxylic acids. 2. ketones. being the first fluoroplastic that can be reinforced. strength. inorganic bases. Tefzel is also weather resistant and ultraviolet ray resistant. chemical ware. and metal salt solutions. stiffness. creep resistance. alcohols. ETFE finds applications in process equipment. esters. but it mainly consists of linear chains having the following formula: F F F F F F F F F C F F F C C C C C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Tefzel is a rugged thermoplastic with an outstanding balance of properties. not merely filled. LLC . tubing.7 Fluorinated Ethylene–Propylene (FEP) Fluorinated ethylene-propylene is a fully fluorinated thermoplastic with some branching.6 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) ETFE is an alternating copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene by duPont under the tradename of Tefzel and has the following structural formula: H H H H C C C C H H F F ETFE is a high-temperature fluoropolymer with a maximum service temperature of 3008F (1498C). Very strong oxidizing acids such as nitric. ETFE is inert to strong mineral acids. Because the resin will bond to the fibers. aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. and classic polymer solvents have little effect on ETFE.Thermoplastic Polymers 51 2. Refer to Table 2. piping.

10% Ammonium chloride. sat. aqueous Aluminum chloride.52 TABLE 2. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 200 250 250 250 230 230 300 150 150 150 280 210 190 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 300 300 300 230 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 230 210 210 300 300 300 300 300 8C 93 121 121 121 110 110 149 66 66 66 138 99 88 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 149 149 149 110 149 149 149 149 121 149 149 110 99 99 149 149 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.14 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of ETFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. LLC . Ammonium fluoride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid.

dry Chlorine gas. sat. 15% Copper chloride 8F 210 210 210 270 300 300 300 300 150 230 250 230 300 120 150 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 260 300 210 150 300 300 150 300 270 300 300 230 230 210 250 100 210 230 80 150 150 210 120 300 8C 99 99 99 132 149 149 149 149 66 110 121 110 149 49 66 121 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 127 149 99 66 149 149 66 149 132 149 149 110 110 99 121 38 99 110 27 66 66 99 49 149 (continued) 53 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. water Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dry Bromine water.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. wet Chlorine. LLC . 10% Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid. 10% Chromic acid.

38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 30% Salicylic acid 8F 300 300 270 300 300 250 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 100 100 300 300 300 300 300 300 270 250 230 300 250 250 300 270 120 300 230 300 300 150 150 80 X 210 150 230 150 210 270 130 300 250 8C 149 149 132 149 149 121 66 66 149 149 149 149 149 38 38 149 149 149 149 149 149 132 121 110 149 121 121 149 132 49 149 110 149 149 66 66 27 X 99 66 110 66 99 132 54 149 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. LLC . conc. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Nitric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Hydrobromic acid.54 TABLE 2. moist Hydrobromic acid. 70% Nitrous acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. dil.14 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 50% Hydrochloric acid.

90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which date is available. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Schweitzer. conc. 1–4. Some chemicals will attack FEP when present in high concentrations at or near the service temperature limit. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 300 300 230 230 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 120 210 210 250 210 300 8C 149 149 110 110 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 49 99 99 121 99 149 55 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. the polymer is filled with glass fibers. LLC . Source: From P. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. After prolonged exposure at 4008F (2048C).15 for the compatibility of FEP with selected corrodents. It is resistant to practically all chemicals except for extremely potent oxidizers such as chlorine trifluoride and related compounds. 2004. FEP has a maximum operating temperature of 3758F (1908C). Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Sulfuric acid. FEP is not degraded by UV light.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.A. New York: Marcel Dekker. and it has excellent weathering resistance. To improve some physical and mechanical properties. Corrosion Resistance Tables.. 98% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide. 70% Sulfuric acid. laboratory ware. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. FEP basically exhibits the same corrosion resistance as PTFE with few exceptions but at lower operating temperatures. Vols.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. FEP finds extensive use as a lining material for process vessels and piping. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 100% Sulfurous acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. and other process equipment. 50% Sulfuric acid. Refer to Table 2. 5th ed. it exhibits changes in physical strength.

Ammonium fluoride. sat. dry Aluminum fluorideb Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gasb Ammonium bifluoridea Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. aqueous Aluminum chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetonea Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid.56 TABLE 2. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. sat. 80% Acetic acid. 10%b Ammonium fluoride. LLC . 25%b Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Anilinea Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 300 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 250 400 400 8C 93 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 93 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 149 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 121 204 204 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.15 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of FEP with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.

10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloridea. dry Chlorine gas.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehydea Benzenea. dryb Bromine gas. sat. liquida Chlorobenzeneb Chloroformb Chlorosulfonic acida 8F 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 200 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 X 400 400 400 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 93 93 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 X 204 204 204 204 204 (continued) 57 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfideb Carbon dioxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.b Butadienea Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylaminea Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. LLC . 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. wetb Chlorine. 10% Calcium hydroxide.b.c Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. liquida.b Benzenesulfonic acid. moistb Bromine.

Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.c Hydrobromic acid. conc.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50%a Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 50%b. moist Hydrobromic acid. 70%b Hydrofluoric acid.58 TABLE 2. 30%b Hydrofluoric acid. 5%b 8F 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 260 260 400 400 200 X 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 300 400 400 400 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 127 127 204 204 93 X 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 149 204 204 204 204 204 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 15% Citric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 10% Chromic acid.c Hydrocyanic acid. 20%b. 50% in watera Ferric nitrate. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chlorideb Methyl ethyl ketoneb Methyl isobutyl ketoneb Muriatic acidb Nitric acid.c Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 10%b Ketones. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichlorideb) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 5% Cupric chloride. conc. 100%b Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. general Lactic acid.c Hydrochloric acid. dry Fluorine gas. dil. 25% Lactic acid. 38%b. 20%b.

70% Phenolb Phosphoric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which date is available. 20%b Nitric acid.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. 2004. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Material can cause stress cracking. Corrosion Resistance Tables. conc. LLC .A. a b c Material will be absorbed.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. anhydrousb Nitrous acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. Vols. 10% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. 1–4. conc.. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. fumingb Sulfurous acid Thionyl chlorideb Tolueneb Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloridec 8F 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 59 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. conc. Sodium sulfide. 70%b Nitric acid. Material will permeate. Source: From P. 10% Perchloric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Oleum Perchloric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10%a Sodium hydroxide. 70% Sulfuric acid.

Polyamide resins retain useful mechanical properties over a temperature range of K60 to C4008F (K51 to C2048C. 6/6. Some of the commonly commercially available nylons are 6.) Both short-term and long-term q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Nylon 12 has the same advantages as grades 6/10 and 11. and 12. nylon 6/6 is the reaction product of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid. and 6/10 are the most flexible.8 Polyamides (PA) Polyamides are also known as nylons. grades 6/10 and 11 have the lowest moisture absorption. 11. and grades 6. LLC .60 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 2. best electrical. For example. Polyamide polymers are available in several grades and are identified by the number of carbon atoms in the diamine and dibasic acid used to produce the particular grade. but it is available at a lower cost because it is more easily and economically processed. both of which are compounds containing six carbon atoms. Their structural formulas are as follows: O N H Nylon 6 O N H (CH2)6 N H Nylon 6/6 O N H (CH2)6 N H Nylon 6/10 O N H Nylon 11 O N H Nylon 12 (CH2)11 C (CH2)10 C C (CH2)8 O C C (CH2)4 O C (CH2)5 C n n n n n Grades 6 and 6/6 are the strongest structurally. 6/6. properties and best dimensional stability. 6/10.

25% Ammonium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers 61 temperature effects must be considered. In long term exposure at high temperatures. 10% Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. particularly ammonium hydroxide and ammonia. The polyamides exhibit excellent resistance to a broad range of chemicals and harsh environments.16 for the compatibility of PA with selected corrodents. They also display good resistance to almost all inorganic salts and to almost all hydrocarbons and petroleum-based fuels. Refer to Table 2. there is the possibility of gradual oxidative embrittlement. Such applications should make use of a heat-stabilized grade of resin. Such properties as stiffness and toughness are affected by short-term exposure to elevated temperatures. 10% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Allyl alcohol Alum Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Aluminum gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. even at elevated temperatures and to sodium and potassium hydroxides at ambient temperatures.16 Compatibility of Polyamides with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. LLC . and ozone. 25% 8F X 250 200 X X X 200 80 X 80 80 X X X 80 250 80 140 200 240 200 200 80 80 250 8C X 121 93 X X X 93 27 X 27 27 X X X 27 121 27 60 93 160 93 93 27 27 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Ammonium fluoride. 10% Acetic acid. Polyamides are also resistant to UV degradation. A more detailed listing will be found in Reference [1]. 80% Acetic acid. TABLE 2. weathering. They have good resistance to most inorganic alkalies. There is also the possibility of stress relief and its effect on dimensions.

Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.62 TABLE 2. LLC . dry Bromine gas. sat. sat. dry Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid 8F 250 190 X 80 80 150 200 X X X X 80 250 80 80 80 150 250 X 80 200 250 200 X X X X 80 250 200 200 X 140 200 250 150 150 X X 80 80 230 80 80 80 80 250 100 8C 121 88 X 27 27 66 93 X X X X 27 121 27 27 27 66 121 X 27 93 121 93 X X X X 27 121 93 93 X 60 93 121 66 66 X X 27 27 110 27 27 27 27 121 38 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

37% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone 8F 250 X X X X X 250 130 X X X 200 X 200 80 X 80 140 100 X X 250 280 80 80 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 200 200 240 X X 80 240 110 8C 121 X X X X X 121 54 X X X 93 X 93 27 X 27 60 38 X X 121 121 27 27 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 93 93 116 X X 27 116 42 (continued) 63 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 25% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 5% Cupric chloride. wet Chlorine. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride 50% in water Ferric nitrate.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. moist Hydrobromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Malic acid Manganese chloride. 15% Chloroacetic acid Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Lactic acid. conc. dry Fluorine gas. 50% Citric acid.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. Magnesium chloride. Hydrobromic acid. conc.

64 TABLE 2. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. conc. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. and hose fittings. In the automotive industry. Sodium sulfide. New York: Marcel Dekker. anhydrous Nitrous acid. housings. LLC . fasteners. and shrouds. 98% Sulfuric acid. lawn and garden equipment. 1–4. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate. pipe fittings. Corrosion Resistance Tables. to 30% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Source: From P. cans. 5% Nitric acid. PA/ABS blends are used for appliances.A. 90% Sulfuric acid. bearings. 5th ed. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2004. power tools. Vols. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 20% Nitric acid. and sporting goods. 70% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X X X X X X X X 210 80 240 230 250 250 X X 230 80 X X X X X X X X 90 200 X 80 X 8C X X X X X X X X X X 99 27 116 110 121 121 X X 110 27 X X X X X X X X 32 93 X 27 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. conc. 70% Nitric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 50% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. wire insulation.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Muriatic acid Nitric acid. PAs are used to produce gears. 100% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicate that data is unavailable. the blend is used to produce interior functional components.. 10% Sulfuric acid.

10% Benzaldehyde Benzene 8F 200 200 200 200 200 80 120 220 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 80 8C 93 93 93 93 93 27 49 104 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. PAI is not resistant to sodium hydroxide. TABLE 2. LLC . 10% Amyl acetate Aniline Barium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. dry Aluminum sulfate. sat.17 for the compatibility of PAI with selected corrodents. The temperature range is K3108F to C5008F (K1908C to C2608C). Ammonium nitrate.9 Polyamide–Imide (PAI) Polyamide–imides are heterocyclic polymers having an atom of nitrogen in one of the rings of the molecular chain. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride. A typical chemical structure is shown below: H R N C C C N n This series of thermoplasts can be used at high and low temperatures. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium sulfate. it finds applications in the extreme environments of space. PAI finds applications in underhood applications and as bearings and pistons in compressors. Reference 1 provides a more detailed listing. Refer to Table 2. PAI has resistance to UV light degradation.17 Compatibility of PAI with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. PAI is resistant to acetic acid and phosphoric acid up to 35% and sulfuric acid up to 30%. and as such.Thermoplastic Polymers 65 2. 10% Acetic acid.

New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Vols. 10% Sodium hydroxide.66 TABLE 2. 2004. Sodium hypochlorite. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Benzyl chloride Bromine gas. 10% Sulfuric acid.10 Polybutylene (PB) Polybutylene is a semicrystalline polyolefin thermoplasitic based on poly-1butene and includes homopolymers and a series of copolymers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Methyl ethyl ketone Oleum Sodium carbonate. 5th ed. 20% Hydrochloric acid.A.17 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzenesulfonic acid. 2. LLC . 10% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Ethylene glycol Hydrochloric acid. 10% Sodium hypochlorite conc. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Schweitzer. to 50% Sulfuric acid. 38% Lactic acid. 1–4. 25% Lactic acid conc. 10% Sodium chloride.. Magnesium chloride. fuming Toluene 8F X 120 120 200 200 200 200 X 200 200 120 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 120 200 200 X X X 200 X X 200 120 200 93 49 93 93 93 93 49 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 49 93 93 49 49 93 93 93 93 8C The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Sodium sulfide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. moist Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Cellosolve Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide conc. Source: From P.

PB is also used for molded appliance parts. It possesses a combination of stress cracking resistance. Applications include piping.18 Compatibility of PB with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Allyl alcohol Aluminum chloride Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Butyl alcohol Calcium carbonate Calcium hydroxide Calcium sulfate Carbonic acid Chloracetic acid Chlorobenzene Citric acid Cyclohexane Detergents Lactic acid Malic acid Methyl alcohol Phenol R R X X X R X R R R R R X R R R R R R R R R R R X R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.18 for the compatibility of polybutylene with selected corrodents. Chlorinated water will cause pitting attack. and fly ash bottom ash lines containing abrasive slurries. and abrasion resistance. bases. This thermoplast has the following structural formula: H H H C C C H H H C H H Polybutylene has an upper temperature limit of 2008F (938C).Thermoplastic Polymers 67 (butene/ethylene). It is resistant to acids. chemical resistance. TABLE 2. LLC . chemical process equipment. and detergents. PB is subject to degradation by UV light. Polybutylene is partially soluble in aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons above 1408F (608C) and is not completely resistant to aliphatic solvents at room temperature. soaps. Refer to Table 2.

Because of its extremely high impact resistance and good clarity. 2. PC is not affected by UV light and has excellent weatherability. electrical wiring blocks. X. and lighting diffusers. globes and housings. It is resistant to most oils and greases. it is widely used for windows in chemical equipment and glazing in chemical plants.11 Polycarbonate (PC) This thermoplast is produced by General Electric under the tradename of Lexan. Polycarbonate will be attacked by strong alkalies and strong acids and is soluble in ketones. PC is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons and weak acids and has limited resistance to weak alkalies. R. 10% Sodium hydroxide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The operating temperature range for polycarbonates is from K2008F to C250K2758F (K1298C to C120K1358C). Polycarbonates are among the most stable polymers in a wet environment. PB is resistant at 708F/238C. 50% Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Water (chlorine free) Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R X R R R R R R R R R Materials in the pure state or saturated solution unless otherwise specified. Polycarbonates are classified as engineering thermoplasts because of their high performance in engineering designs. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. and aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. PB is not resistant. The generalized formula is: CH3 O C CH3 O O C Immersion in water and exposure to high humidity at temperatures up to 2128F (1008C) have little effect on dimensions. LLC . It also finds wide use in outdoor energy management devices. esters. network interfaces.19 lists the compatibility of PC with selected corrodents.68 TABLE 2.18 Continued Picric acid Propyl alcohol Salicylic acid Soaps Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide. telephone equipment. Table 2.

10% Potassium hydroxide. 98% Sulfuric acid. 2% Hydrogen peroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2% Paraffin oil Phosphoric acid. 2% R R X X X X R X X X X R X X R X X X X R X R R X R R R R R R R X X X R R R X X R R R R R R R X X X R (continued) 69 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sodium chloride. LLC . 38% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Potassium dichromate Potassium permanganate.19 Compatibility of PC with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. 10% Acetone Ammonia. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate. 0–5% Ink Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Milk Nitric acid. 10% Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Glycerine Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. 5% Acetic acid. 10% Benzene Butyl acetate Cadmium chloride Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. 5% Sulfuric acid. 30% Hydrogen peroxide. 50% Sodium hydroxide.

It also has excellent rain erosion resistance. hot Wax. Because PEEK is not hydrolyzed by water at elevated temperatures in a continuous cycle environment. cold Water. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. In more extreme weathering conditions. material is not resistant. the effect is minimal. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. the material may be steam sterilized using conventional sterilization equipment.20 for the compatibility of PEEK with selected corrodents. However. PEEK has an operating temperature range of K85 to C4808F (K65 to C2508C). It also exhibits excellent resistance to hard (gamma) radiation. painting or pigmenting of the polymer will protect it from excessive property degradation. PEEK is not chemically attacked by water. absorbing over 1000 Mrads of radiation without suffering significant damage. PEEK is subject to degradation by UV light during outdoor weathering.70 TABLE 2.12 Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) PEEK is a linear polyaromatic thermoplast having the following chemical structure: O C O O n It is a proprietary product of ICI and is an engineering polymer suitable for applications that require mechanical strength with the need to resist difficult thermal and chemical environments. Refer to Table 2. 2. testing has shown that over a twelvemonth period for both natural and pigmented moldings. X. material is resistant at 738F/208C. Like most polyaromatics. PEEK is insoluble in all common solvents and has excellent resistance to a wide range of organic and inorganic solvents.19 Continued Toluene Vaseline Water. molten Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers X R R X R X R. It has excellent long-term resistance to water at both ambient and elevated temperatures.

dry Chlorine. moist Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. moist Hydrobromic acid. 80% Acetic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Acetic acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Bromine gas. 20% Hydrobromic acid. sat. Hydrobromic acid. Carbon dioxide. dry Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chlorine gas. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. 50% Citric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. dry Fluorine gas. 70% 8F 80 80 140 140 140 210 80 80 80 210 80 200 X 80 80 170 80 X X 80 80 80 100 80 80 80 80 X 200 80 80 80 200 170 80 160 200 X X X X X 100 100 X X 8C 27 27 60 60 60 99 27 27 27 99 27 93 X 27 27 77 27 X X 27 27 27 38 27 27 27 27 X 93 27 27 27 93 77 27 71 93 X X X X X 38 38 X X (continued) 71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. sat.20 Compatibility of PEEK with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. Cyclohexane Ethylene glycol Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. glacial Acetone Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium hydroxide. conc. dil. Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC .

conc. 50% Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Potassium bromide. 5th ed.20 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hydrogen sulfide. 5% Oxalic acid.. 1–4.72 TABLE 2. Magnesium hydroxide Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Naphtha Nitric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. fuming Toluene Zinc chloride 8F X 200 80 80 100 100 80 370 200 200 200 80 X X X 140 200 140 210 220 180 200 80 80 80 200 X X X X X 80 100 8C X 93 27 27 38 38 27 188 93 93 93 27 X X X 60 93 60 99 104 82 93 27 27 27 93 X X X X X 27 38 The Chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. conc. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Lactic acid. Phenol Phosphoric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide. Vols. 20% Nitrous acid. general Lactic acid.A. 5% Nitric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Schweitzer. wet Ketones. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 10% Oxalic acid. LLC . 2004. 98% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 90% Sulfuric acid. conc. 10% Oxalic acid. Sodium hypochlorite. sat. 10% Sodium hydroxide.

High strength and load carrying capacity 2.Thermoplastic Polymers 73 PEEK is used in many bearing applications because of the following advantages: 1. and frequencies. LLC . stable electrical properties. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. strength. over a wide range of temperatures. PEI is one of the strongest thermoplasts even without reinforcement. The unfilled polymer complies with FDA regulations and can be used in food and medical applications. Good dimensional stability 4. One such application is under the hood of automobiles for connecters and MAP sensors. It is resistant to acetic and hydrochloric acids. continuous service temperature of 5008F (2608C) 6. The molecular structure has rigidity. Outstanding mechanical properties PEEK has also found application in a number of aircraft exterior applications such as radomes and fairings as a result of its excellent erosion resistance. A high.13 Polyether–Imide (PEI) PEI is a high-temperature engineering polymer with the structural formula shown below: O C N C O O CH3 C CH3 O O C N C O Polyether–imides are noncrystalline polymers made up of alternating aromatic ether and imide units.21 lists the compatibility of PEI with selected corrodents. Table 2. and superior finishing characteristics are required. Excellent wear abrasion and fatigue resistance 7. PEI has a better chemical resistance than most noncrystalline polymers. and impact resistance in fabricated parts over a wide range of temperatures. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. high tensile and flexural strength. 2. Low friction 3. and alcohol. Long life 5. chemical resistance. PEI is useful in applications where high heat and flame resistance low NBS smoke evolution. weak nitric and sulfuric acids.

LLC . 10% Acetone Ammonia. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Sodium chloride. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Isopropanol Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl chloride Motor oil Nitric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Potassium permanganate. glacial Acetic acid. conc.21 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PEI with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. 10% Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. conc. 25% Ammonium Hydroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2% Perchloroethylene Phosphoric acid. Sulfuric acid. 10% Citric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 2% Hydrochloric acid. material resistant at 738F/208C.74 TABLE 2. 10% Sodium hypochlorite. Benzoic acid Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Citric acid. material not resistant. sat. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. X. 30% Iodine solution. 50–80% Potassium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid. Cyclohexane Diesel oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene glycol Formic acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. hot R R R R X R R R R X R R R R R R X R R R R R R R R R R R R X X R R R R R R R R R R R R R X R X R R R. cold Water. fuming Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.

22 for the compatibility of PES with selected corrodents. they are approximately 0.3%. but glassfiber reinforced grades are resistant to more dilute acids. these dimensional changes are of the order of magnitude of 0. some chlorinated hydrocarbons. The water may be removed by heating at 300–3558F (149–1808C). Hydrocarbons and mineral oils. Since it is susceptible to degradation by UV light. It is also resistant to most inorganic chemicals. and transmission fluids have no effect on PES. it must be stabilized by incorporating carbon black or by painting. LLC . greases. At equilibrium water content for 65% relative humidity. if used outdoors. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. fuse boxes) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polyether sulfone will be attacked by strong oxidizing acids. in boiling water. It is a linear polymer with the following structure: O S O O n PES also goes under the name Ultem. Polyether sulfone does not have good outdoor weathering properties. Refer to Table 2. whereas.15%. and aromatics. Polyether sulfone has found application in Medical appliances Chemical plants Fluid handling Aircraft and aerospace appliances Instrumentation housings Office equipment Photocopier parts Electrical components Automotive (carbureter parts.14 Polyether Sulfone (PES) Polyether sulfone is a high-temperature engineering thermoplastic with the combined characteristics of high thermal stability and mechanical strength.Thermoplastic Polymers 75 2. PES has excellent resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons. PES is soluble is highly polar solvents and is subject to stress cracking in ketones and esters. Small dimensional changes may occur as a result of the polymer’s absorbing water from the atmosphere. This predrying will also prevent outgassing at elevated temperatures.

LLC . 10% Benzoic acid Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. conc. 80% Acetic acid.22 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PES with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 50–80% Potassium bromide. Schweitzer. 5th ed. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 1–4.A. 70% Sulfuric acid. 2004. Phenol Phosphoric acid.76 TABLE 2. Vols. conc. Sulfuric acid. 5% Oxalic acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Citric acid.. 10% Acetic acid. 20% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Oxalic acid. Ethylene glycol Ferrous chloride Hydrochloric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Source: From P. fuming Toluene 8F 80 140 200 200 X 80 X 80 100 80 80 X X X X 80 100 100 140 140 80 X 80 80 X 80 80 80 X 200 140 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 X X X X X X 80 8C 27 60 93 93 X 27 X 27 38 27 27 X X X X 27 38 38 60 60 27 X 27 27 X 27 27 27 X 93 60 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 X X X X X X 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. wet Methyl ethyl ketone Naphtha Nitric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. glacial Acetone Ammonia. 90% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Acetic acid. 29% Oxalic acid. sat. 38% Hydrogen sulfide. 50% Sulfuric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 5% Nitric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. gas Aniline Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.

5 0.5–0.8 0.7–0.0–2.3–2.5 0.0 0.8–2. Exposure of the acidic reagent was for 168 h.9 2.4–0.00–0.23 Absorption of Liquids by PFA Liquida Aniline Acetophenone Benzaldehyde Benzyl alcohol n-Butylamine Carbon tetrachloride Dimethyl sulfoxide Freon 113 Isooctane Nitrobenzene Perchloroethylene Sulfuryl chloride Toluene Tributyl phosphateb Bromine.4 0. Perfluoralkoxy also performs well at cryogenic temperatures. PFA is subject to permeation by certain gases and will absorb selected chemicals. 37% Phosphoric acid.3–0. anhydrous Chlorine.3–0.6 0.23 for the absorption of certain liquids by PFA.8 0.01 0.15 Perfluoralkoxy (PFA) Perfluoralkoxy is a fully fluorinated polymer having the following formula: F C F F C F F C O Rf F C F F C F Rf = CnF2n + 1 PFA lacks the physical strength of PTFE at elevated temperatures but has somewhat better physical and mechanical properties than FEP above 3008F (1498C) and can be used up to 5008F (2608C).4 0.4 2. conc.4 0. anhydrous Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. TABLE 2. Like PTFE.7–0.Thermoplastic Polymers 77 2.2 1.2 0.7–0.8 0.01 0. 50% Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid.8 1. b Not boiling.03 0.03 Samples were exposed for 168 hours at the boiling point of the solvent.7–2.7–0.00–0.00–0. Refer to Table 2.00–0. Zinc chloride a Temperature (8F/8C) 365/185 394/201 354/179 400/204 172/78 172/78 372/190 117/47 210/99 410/210 250/121 154/68 230/110 392/200 K5/K22 248/120 302/150 248/120 212/100 248/120 212/100 212/100 Range of Weight Gains (%) 0.7 0.00–0. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.01 0.6–0.3–0.3 1.1–0. LLC .

25%a Ammonium hydroxide.24 for the compatibility of PFA with selected corrodents. inorganic oxidizers. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gasa Ammonium bifluoridea Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Refer to Table 2. fluorocarbons. sat. ethers. aromatics. 10% Acetic acid. chlorocarbons. 10%a Ammonium fluoride. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. and fluorine. It is also subject to attack by such metals as sodium or potassium.78 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers PFA is inert to strong mineral acids. iodine pentafluoride. ketones. Ammonium fluoride. LLC . aldehydes. 50% Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. This includes chlorine trifluoride. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. PFA has excellent weatherability and is not subject to UV degradation. alcohols. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and mixtures of these.24 Compatibility of PFA with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. particularly in their molten states. sat. esters. bromine trifluoride. Reference [1] provides a more detained listing. Perfluoralkoxy will be attacked by certain halogenated complexes containing fluorine. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. TABLE 2. organic bases.

wet Carbon disulfidea Carbon monoxide Carbon tertrachloridea. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC . 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid.c Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid. sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfidea Carbon dioxide. liquida. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcoholb Benzyl chloridea Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.b.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. liquidb Chlorobenzenea Chloroforma Chlorosulfonic acidb Chromic acid. drya Bromine. weta Chlorine. 50%b 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X 450 X 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X 232 X 232 232 232 232 232 79 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Chlorine gas.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl chloride Anilineb Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehydeb Benzenea Benzene sulfonic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.b Butadienea Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamineb Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.

c Hydrochloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50%a.c Hydrobromic acid. conc. 10%a Ketones. 70% 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X X 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X X 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Oleum Perchloric acid. general Lactic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Perchloric acid.80 TABLE 2. 20%a. 38%a. oila. dry Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloridea Methyl ethyl ketonea Methyl isobutyl ketonea Muriatic acida Nitric acid.c Hydrocyanic acid. 5%a Nitric acid. conc. 20%a Nitric acid. 100%a Hydrochlorus acid Iodine solution. 70%a Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene di chloride)a Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Florine gas. 5% Cupric chloride. Copper carbonate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50% in waterb Ferric nitrate. 15% Citric acid. 30%a Hydrofluoric acid. LLC .c Hydrobromic acid. anhydrousa Nitrous acid.24 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 20%a. 70%a Nitric acid.c Hydrochloric acid.

Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.A. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 100% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Sodium sulfide. New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. PFA finds many applications in the chemical process industry for corrosion resistance. Source: From P. fuminga Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloridea Toluenea Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chlorideb a 81 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sodium hydroxide.16 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) PTFE is marketed under the tradename of Teflon by DuPont and the tradename Halon by Ausimont USA. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Applications includes lining for pipes and vessels. 98% Sulfuric acid. 2004. Material will cause stress cracking. Sodium hypochlorite. 50–80%b Picric acid Potassium bromide. 90% Sulfuric acid. It is a fully fluorinated thermoplastic q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. 1–4. 2. 50% Sulfuric acid. Vols.. a b c Material will permeate.4]. 5th ed. 10% Sodium hydroxide. conc. Material will be absorbed. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. LLC . Reference [2] details the use of PFA in lined process pipe and information on lining of vessels can be found in References [3.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Phenol Phosphoric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.

The other alkali metals (potassium. ammonia. These potent oxidizers should be only handled with great care and a recognition of the potential hazards. including linings for tanks and piping. When handling aggressive chemicals. The handling of 80% sodium hydroxide. Applications in the automotive industry take advantage of the low surface friction and chemical stability using it in seals and rings for transmission and power steering systems and in seals for shafts. 2. Among materials that will attack PTFE are the most violent oxidizing and reducing agents known. chlorine trifluoride) are absorbed into PTFE resin to such a degree that the mixture becomes sensitive to a source of ignition such as impact.) act in a similar manner.g. lithium. it may be necessary to reduce the upper temperature limit. PTFE has excellent weathering properties and is not degraded by UV light. compressors and shock absorbers.25 for the compatibility of PTFE with selected corrodents. PTFE is unique in its corrosion resistance properties. This temperature range is based on the physical and mechanical properties of PTFE. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. Applications for PTFE extend from exotic space-age usages to molded parts and wire and cable insulation to consumer use as a coating for cookware. and certain amines at high temperatures have the same effect as elemental sodium. Slow oxidation attack can be produced by 70% nitric acid under pressure at 4808F (2508C). Elemental sodium removes fluorine from the molecule. high molecular weight polymer containing 50% fluorine. One of PTFE’s largest uses is for corrosion protection. etc. Fluorine and related compounds (e. It is virtually inert in the presence of most materials. aluminum chloride.17 Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polyvinylidene fluoride is a crystalline.. Refer to Table 2. There are very few chemicals that will attack PTFE at normal use temperatures. Reference [2] will provide details of the usage of PTFE in piping applications. LLC .82 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers having the following formula: F F C C F F PTFE has an operating temperature range of from K208F to C4308C (K298C to C2128C). It is similar in chemical structure to PTFE except q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gasa Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid.25 Compatibility of PTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) 83 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

sat. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfidea Carbon dioxide. dry Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachlorideb Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid.84 TABLE 2. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. drya Bromine. liquid Chlorobenzenea Chloroforma Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. weta Chlorine. liquida Butadienea Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzenea Benzene sulfonic acid. 15% Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid. Copper carbonate 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X 450 X 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X 232 X 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Chlorine gas. LLC . conc.

50% in water Ferric nitrate.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. general Lactic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 100%a Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 20%a Nitric acid. 38%b Hydrocyanic acid. conc.b Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride.25 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper chloride Copper cyanide. 20%b Hydrochloric acid. dry Fluorine gas. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloridea Methyl ethyl ketonea Methyl isobutyl ketoneb Muriatic acida Nitric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. LLC . 70% 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X X 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X X 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) 85 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50%b Hydrochloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride)a Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 20%b Hydrobromic acid. 10% Oleum Perchloric acid. anhydrousa Nitrous acid. 30%a Hydrofluoric acid. 5%a Nitric acid. 10%a Ketones. 70%a Nitric acid. 10% Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 25% Lactic acid.a. 70%a Hydrofluoric acid. dil.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. New York: Marcel Dekker. a b c Material will permeate. 70% Sulfuric acid.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Phenola Phosphoric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. that it is not fully fluorinated. Sodium sulfide. Source: From P. 98% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Material will cause stress cracking. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 90% Sulfuric acid.A. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. LLC . Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Incompatibility is shown by an X. fuminga Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluenea Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloridec 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Schweitzer. 100% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 5th ed. 10% Sulfuric acid. Material will be absorbed. 1–4. Vols. The chemical structure is as follows: F F C C H H Much of the strength and chemical resistance of PVDF is maintained through an operating temperature range of K40 to C3208F (K40 to C1608C).86 TABLE 2. conc. 2004. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.

When used with strong alkalies. it stress cracks. polar solvents.26 Compatibility of PVDF with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate 8F 150 90 300 300 190 190 100 X 120 150 130 280 200 200 180 250 300 270 300 260 300 290 300 270 250 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 8C 66 32 149 149 88 88 38 X 49 66 54 138 93 93 82 121 149 132 149 127 149 143 149 132 121 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 80% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. fuming acids. bromine.Thermoplastic Polymers 87 Approval has been granted by the Food and Drug Administration for repeated use in contact with food in food handling and processing equipment.26 for the compatibility of PVDF with selected corrodents. amines. PVDF is chemically resistant to most acids. It should not be used with strong alkalies. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. It is also resistant to wet or dry chlorine. TABLE 2. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. bases. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. LLC . Refer to Table 2. 50% Ammonium chloride. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. aqueous Aluminum chloride. sat. 10% Acetic acid. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. and other halogens. and esters. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. and organic solvents. 10% Ammonium chloride. ketones.

10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. LLC . liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide.26 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.88 TABLE 2. dry Carbon dioxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. sat. wet Carbon disulfide 8F 280 280 280 280 280 190 280 280 200 150 130 280 280 280 280 280 120 150 100 250 280 280 280 280 210 210 140 280 140 280 X 230 280 280 280 280 280 270 280 280 280 250 280 220 80 280 280 80 8C 138 138 138 138 138 88 138 138 93 66 54 138 138 138 138 138 49 66 38 121 138 138 138 138 99 99 60 138 60 138 X 110 138 138 138 138 138 132 138 138 138 121 138 104 27 138 138 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Bromine gas. moist Bromine.

LLC . 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dil. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chlorides. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% in water Ferrous nitrate. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid.26 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 70% 8F 280 280 280 280 210 200 210 210 210 220 250 110 220 250 110 250 250 250 250 280 280 280 210 270 270 250 210 80 120 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 80 80 260 280 280 280 280 280 260 200 8C 138 138 138 138 99 93 99 99 99 104 121 43 104 121 43 121 121 121 121 138 138 138 99 132 132 121 99 27 49 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 27 27 127 138 138 138 138 138 127 93 (continued) 89 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Fluorine gas. 10% Chlorine. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. wet. 15% Citric acid conc.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 5% Cupric chloride.

98% Sulfuric acid. general Lactic acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. conc. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid 8F 200 280 250 110 130 110 280 250 280 X X 110 280 200 180 120 150 210 X 210 120 200 220 80 280 220 250 280 280 230 220 150 280 280 280 280 280 250 220 220 210 140 X X 220 X X 130 8C 93 138 121 43 54 43 138 121 138 X X 43 138 93 82 49 6 99 X 99 49 93 104 27 138 104 121 138 138 110 104 66 138 138 138 138 138 121 104 104 99 60 X X 104 X X 54 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. conc. LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Nitric acid.26 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrofluoric acid. Sodium sulfide. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. anhydrous Nitric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.90 TABLE 2. 90% Sulfuric acid. conc. 10% Ketones. 25% Lactic acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 70% Sulfuric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 70% Nitric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. conc.

and 0. 1–4. PVDF also withstands UV light in the “visible” range and gamma radiations up to 100 Mrad. pumps.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Polyvinylidene fluoride is manufactured under the tradename of Kynar by Elf Atochem. molecular weight. and molecular distribution. They are a member of the olefin family.925.26 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 80 260 8C 27 127 91 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. A blank space indicates that the date is unavailable.18 Polyethylene (PE) Polyethylenes are probably among the best-known thermoplasts. column packing.91–0. The basic chemical structure is: H H C C H H PE is produced by polymerizing ethylene gas obtained from petroleum hydrocarbons. as solid piping. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrosion Resistance Tables. and high. Changes in the polymerizing conditions are responsible for the various types of PE.. valving. The three main classifications of density are low. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Polyvinylidene fluoride finds many applications in the corrosion resistance field. Source: From P.A.940. These specific gravity ranges are 0. Vols. LLC . and III. crystallinity.925–0. New York: Marcel Dekker. These grades are sometimes referred to as Type I. Solef by Solvay. medium. 2. and super Pro 230 and ISO by Asahi/America. 5th ed. and other processing equipment. Schweitzer.965. Reference [2] provides details of the usage of PVDF piping. II.940–0. Physical and mechanical properties differ in density and molecular weight. 2004. being used as a lining material for vessels and piping. Hylar by Ausimont USA. 0. Polyethylene is produced in various grades that differ in molecular structure. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.

It is resistant to most mineral acids. The two varieties of PE generally used for corrosive applications are EHMW and UHMW. particularly as a function of temperature. Every polyethylene resin consists of a mixture of large and small molecules. including sulfuric up to 70% concentrations.1 depicts this in graph form. aromatics. and small molecules in the resin. the ultrahigh molecular weight material has a molecular weight of at least 3. Figure 2.000 to 250. Industry practice breaks the molecular weight of polyethylene into four distinct classifications that are: Medium molecular weight less than 100. medium.000 and higher Usually. the higher the density.000 to 1. molecules of high and low molecular weight.1 million.1 Schematic illustration of molecular weight distribution. If the resin contains a wide variety of weights. alkalies.500.000 Ultra high molecular weight 1.27 for Percent of earh molecular weight Narrow MW distribution Broad MW distribution Molecular weight FIGURE 2. Generally. and hardness increases as density increases. The molecular weight distribution gives a general picture of the ratio of the large. The thermal stability of polyethylenes ranges from 1908F (888C) for the lowdensity material up to 2508F/1218C for the high-density material.000 High molecular weight 110. If the resin contains molecules close to the average weight. Refer to Table 2. and many organic acids. the distribution is called narrow. Polyethylene exhibits a wide range of corrosion resistance. inorganic salts including chlorides. It is not resistant to bromine. ranging from potable water to corrosive wastes. or chlorinated hydrocarbons.000 Extra high molecular weight 250. the distribution is called broad. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. the better the dimensional stability and physical properties.92 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers All polyethylenes are relatively soft.500. LLC .

50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium fluoride. 50% Acetic acid. sat. LLC . 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride 8F 90 140 140 80 X 120 8C 32 60 60 27 X 49 93 150 140 140 80 140 140 140 140 140 66 60 60 27 60 60 60 60 60 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 140 140 140 140 X 130 140 130 140 140 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 60 60 60 60 X 54 60 54 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminium sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 40% Acetamide Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.27 Compatibility of EHMWPE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.

dry Bromine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Chlorine. wet. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid 8F 140 140 140 X X 140 140 170 140 140 X X X X 90 140 X 130 140 80 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 8C 60 60 60 X X 60 60 77 60 60 X X X X 32 60 X 54 60 27 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X 60 60 X 60 X 60 X X 80 120 X X 80 X X X 27 49 X X 27 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. sat. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. moist Bromine.27 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% in water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.94 TABLE 2. LLC . 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Chlorine gas.

10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. dil. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Ketones. LLC . 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. conc. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution.27 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. general Lactic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. conc. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid 8F 140 90 140 140 8C 60 32 60 60 95 140 140 140 80 80 130 170 80 73 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 X X 80 X 140 140 140 100 80 X X 80 140 60 60 60 27 27 54 77 27 23 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 X X 27 X 60 60 60 38 27 X X 27 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Lactic acid. dry Fluorine gas. 15% Citric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.

10% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Incompatibility is shown by an X. New York: Marcel Dekker.. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. LLC . 5th ed. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Oleum Perchloric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 70% Nitric acid.27 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Schweitzer. 20% Nitric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid.A. conc. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 140 140 X X 8C 60 60 X X 140 X 100 100 100 140 60 X 38 38 38 60 140 140 170 170 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 X X X X 140 X X 140 140 60 60 77 77 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 X X X X 60 X X 60 60 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite.96 TABLE 2. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. conc. Sodium Sulfide. 70% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 2004. anhydrous Nitrous acid. conc. 1–4. 100% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. Vols. Source: From P. 10% Sodium hydroxide.

sat. sat. 10% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate to 40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride 8F X 140 140 140 80 X 80 X 150 140 140 110 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 150 80 140 140 140 140 140 X 130 140 44 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.28 Compatibility of HMWPE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. If exposed outdoors. 10% Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride.28 for HMW PE.Thermoplastic Polymers 97 the compatibility of EHMW PE with selected corrodents and Table 2. carbon black must be added to the formulation for protection against UV degradation. 50% Ammonium chloride. TABLE 2. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium fluoride. Polyethylene is subject to degradation by UV radiation. LLC 8C 60 60 60 27 27 66 60 60 43 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 66 27 60 60 60 60 60 .

LLC . dry Bromine gas. 50% 8F 130 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 X 140 140 X X X X 90 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 X X X X X X X X 140 90 60 32 (continued) 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 32 60 60 60 60 8C 44 60 60 60 60 60 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Bromine.28 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.98 TABLE 2. sat. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine gas. wet Chlorine. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Chromic acid.

10% Perchloric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Hydrochlorous acid Iodine solution. 10% Ketones. 50% Hydrochloric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 70% Nitric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 20% Nitric acid. Hydrobromic acid. general Lactic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexonol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate 8F 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 80 80 80 80 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 150 80 80 150 140 140 80 X X 80 140 140 X X 120 140 X 100 100 100 140 140 140 38 38 38 60 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.28 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Citric acid. Perchloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 15% Citric acid. dil. 25% Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 5% Nitric acid. LLC 99 8C 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 27 27 27 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 66 27 27 66 60 60 27 27 60 60 49 60 .

Schweitzer. 2004.A. fabricated parts. Incompatibility is shown by an X.19 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Polyethylene terephthalate is a semicrystalline engineering thermoplastic having the following structure: H O C H H C H O O C O C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. and underground fire main water. EHMW and UHMW polyethylenes find applications where corrosion resistance is required. 70% Sulfuric acid. corrosive wastes. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 98% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. drainage piping. LLC . 100% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. With permission. 1–4. Source: From P. The usage for piping is of major importance. 5th ed. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. Applications for polyethylene vary depending upon the grade of resin. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.100 TABLE 2. Corrosion Resistance Tables.. 2. Sodium sulfide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. New York: Marcel Dekker. and piping. potable water systems. PE pipe is used to transport natural gas. Among such applications are structural tanks and covers.28 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Reference [2] details usage of polyethylene piping. Vols. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 140 150 150 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 X X X X 140 X X 80 140 27 60 60 8C 60 66 66 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.

ketones. aliphatic hydrocarbons. It is not resistant to alkaline and chlorinated hydrocarbons. 10% Benzene Butyl acetate Cadmium chloride Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. minor parts. and esters with limited resistance to hot water and washing soda. PET has good resistance to UV degradation and weatherability. and latch mechanisms. TABLE 2.29 Compatibility of PET with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. aromatic hydrocarbons. It can be painted to match metal body panels and has been used as fenders. 10% Acetone Ammonia. 0–5% Ink Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Motor oil Nitric acid. and pump and valve components. 2% Hydrogen peroxide. 5% Acetic acid. 30% Hydrogen peroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers 101 PET is resistant to dilute mineral acids. racks. PET is also used in water purification. Refer to Table 2.29 for the compatibility of PET with selected corrodents. food handling equipment. LLC . 38% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerine Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. 2% Paraffin oil R R R X R R R R R X X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. PET is used in the automotive industry for housings.

The low concentration of hydrogen provides oxidative resistance by preventing thermal degradation fracture of the chain. molten Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R X R R R R R R R X R R X R R R R R R R R.20 Polyimide (PI) Polyimides are heterocyclic polymers having an atom of hydrogen in one of the rings in the molecular chain. resulting from their combination of high-temperature stability up to 500–6008F (260–3158C) continuous service and to 9908F (4828C) for intermediate use. 50% Potassium dichromate. 98% Sulfuric acid. X. The polyimides have excellent chemical and radiation inertness and are not subject to UV degradation. valves. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate. 10% Potassium permanganate. 2% Toluene Vaseline Water. compressors. Polyimides find applications that require high heat resistance and underthe-hood applications in the automotive industry. cold Water. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Polyimides exhibit outstanding properties. Other applications include bearings. material resistant at 738F/208C.29 Continued Phosphoric acid. 10% Sodium chloride. 2. hot Wax. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. High oxidative resistance is another important property. 10% Potassium hydroxide.102 TABLE 2. 50% Sodium nitrate Sodium thiosulfate Sulfuric acid. and piston rings. material not resistant. LLC . The atom of hydrogen is in the inside ring as shown below: O C N C O n The fused rings provide chain stiffness essential to high-temperature strength retention.

10% Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. Plastics. 10% Copper sulfate Cyclohexane Cyclohexanone Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. or chlorinated hydrocarbons.21 Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO) Noryls. Reference [1] provides a more extensive listing. Polyphenylene oxide has excellent resistance to aqueous environments. 5% Acetic acid. The basic phenylene oxide structure is as follows: CH3 O CH3 n Several grades of the resin are produced to provide a choice of performance characteristics to meet a wide range of engineering application requirements. PPO maintains excellent mechanical properties over a temperature range of from below K408F (K408C) to above 3008F (1498C). It is not resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons.Thermoplastic Polymers 103 2. dilute mineral acids. Refer to Table 2. 30% R R X R X X X X R R X X R X R R R X R R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. PPO finds application in business equipment. aromatic hydrocarbons. and electrical devices. and dilute alkalies.30 for the compatibility of PPO with selected corrodents. are amorphous modified polyphenylene oxide resins. TABLE 2. electronics. 10% Acetone Ammonia.E. LLC . appliances. patented by G. ketones. esters.30 Compatibility of PPO with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid.

10% Sodium chloride. 2% Hydrogen peroxide. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 2. It has the following chemical structure: S n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.30 Continued Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerin Hexane/heptane Hydrochloric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide.104 TABLE 2. 2% Trichloroethylene Urea. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Potassium dichromate Potassium permanganate. 2% Paraffin oil Phosphoric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. material not resistant. hot Wax. 5% Styrene Sulfuric acid. X. LLC . 30% Hydrogen peroxide. 10% Potassium hydroxide. material resistant at 738F/208C. molten Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R R R R R R R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R R R R R R R R X R R X R R R R X R. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium carbonate.22 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) Polyphenylene sulfide is an engineering polymer capable of use at elevated temperatures. cold Water. aqueous Water. 0–5% Hydrogen sulfide Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Milk Motor oil Nitric acid.

10% Acetic acid.31 for the compatibility of PPS with selected corrodents. PPS molded components are used in electrical fuel handling and emission control systems. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acrylic acid. PPS has good resistance to UV light degradation that can be increased by formulating it with carbon black. Chlorinated solvents. 80% Acetic acid. some halegenated gases. 50% Acetic acid. It is sold under the tradename of Ryton. Refer to Table 2. dry Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Long-term exposure in air at 4508F (2308C) has no effect on the mechanical properties of PPS. The chemical process industry makes use of PPS in valve and pump components as well as other industrial applications. Relatively few materials react with PPS at high temperatures. 25% Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.31 Compatibility of PPS with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. It can also be used under highly oxidizing conditions.Thermoplastic Polymers 105 PPS has a symmetrical. TABLE 2. It is resistant to aqueous inorganic salts and bases and many inorganic solvents. rigid backbone chain consisting of recurring parasubstituted benzene rings and sulfur atoms. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. In the automotive industry. It stress cracks in the presence of chlorinated solvents. PPS has exceptional chemical resistance. Weak and strong alkalies have no effect. 50% 8F 230 250 250 250 250 190 280 260 100 130 300 300 210 300 270 250 250 460 250 460 300 300 8C 110 121 121 121 121 88 138 127 38 54 149 149 99 149 132 121 121 238 121 238 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and alkyl amines will attack PPS. LLC .

dry Chlorine gas. sat. liquid Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Ammonium hydroxide.31 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% 8F 300 250 250 250 300 300 300 210 200 300 200 200 200 220 200 250 300 250 230 200 300 210 210 X X X 100 250 200 200 240 200 300 300 300 300 200 200 200 120 220 190 X X 200 150 X 200 8C 149 121 121 121 149 149 149 99 93 149 93 93 93 104 93 121 149 121 110 93 149 99 99 X X X 38 121 93 93 116 93 149 149 149 149 93 93 93 49 104 88 X X 93 66 X 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.106 TABLE 2. wet Chlorine. moist Bromine. 65% Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate. LLC . Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. sat. sat.

dry Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50–80% Potassium bromide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 5% Sodium hypochlorite. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Oleum Phenol. conc. 10% 8F 200 250 250 300 220 210 250 200 300 190 250 210 300 210 210 210 210 210 X 200 200 200 230 210 250 200 250 250 300 200 250 210 150 100 80 300 220 200 300 300 210 210 200 250 230 210 250 8C 93 121 121 149 104 99 121 93 149 88 121 99 149 99 99 99 99 99 X 93 93 93 110 99 121 93 121 121 149 93 121 99 66 38 27 149 104 93 149 149 99 99 93 121 110 99 121 (continued) 107 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. to 50% Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. LLC . 88% Phosphoric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 30% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. dil. Sodium sulfide. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Citric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Hydrobromic acid.31 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 5% Nitric acid. Hydrobromic acid. conc. Magnesium chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. conc. 5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 15% Citric acid.

Incompatibility is shown by an X.. 70% Sulfuric acid. Within the chemical structure of PP. 10% Thionyl chloride Toluene Zinc chloride. 2004. New York: Marcel Dekker.A. fuming Sulfurous acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.31 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Schweitzer. The copolymer has a structure as follows: H C H H C H H C H C H H H C H n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. This form is highly ordered having the structure shown below: H C H H C H H H C Atactic PP is a viscous liquid type PP having a propylene matrix. The polyolefins are composed of only hydrogen and carbon.108 TABLE 2. It is closely related to polyethylene. LLC . a distinction is made between isotactic PP and atactic PP. Source: From P. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.23 Polypropylene (PP) Polypropylene is one of the most common and versatile thermoplastics. 90% Sulfuric acid. The isotactic form accounts for 97% of the polypropylene produced. 70% 8F 250 250 220 80 200 X 300 250 8C 121 121 104 27 93 X 149 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 5th ed. 2. 50% Sulfuric acid. Vols. Polypropylene can be produced either as a homopolymer or as a copolymer with polyethylene. both of which are members of a group known as polyolefins. 1–4.

aqueous Aluminum chloride.Thermoplastic Polymers 109 The homopolymers. thermal. PP should not be used with oxidizing acids. For this reason. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. It can be used with sulfur-bearing compounds. being long chain high molecular weight molecules with a minimum of random orientations. Thermal oxidative degradation. acids. LLC . the homopolymer is extremely brittle below 408F (48C). homopolymer material is preferred for difficult chemical. 80% Acetic acid. have optimum chemical. caustics. 50% Acetic acid. If exposed to sunlight. detergents.32 Compatibility of PP with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. whereas. low-boiling hydrocarbons. particularly where copper is involved will pose a problem.32 for the compatibility of PP with select corrodents. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride 8F 120 110 220 200 200 190 100 220 X X 90 100 140 140 220 100 200 220 200 200 200 220 150 200 8C 49 43 104 93 93 88 38 104 X X 32 38 60 60 104 38 93 104 93 93 93 104 66 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. PP is not affected by most inorganic chemicals except the halogens and severe oxidizing conditions. thermal. alcohols. and physical properties. TABLE 2. Refer to Table 2. an ultraviolet absorber or screening agent should be in the formulation to protect it from degradation. and physical conditions. and some organic materials. aromatics. 10% Acetic acid. Copolymer PP is less brittle than the homopolymers and is able to withstand impact forces down to K208F (K298C). and other organic chemicals. solvents.

sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium fluoride. LLC . dry Bromine gas. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. moist Bromine. 8F 220 180 180 200 210 200 200 200 200 220 200 200 220 220 X 200 X 180 180 X 200 220 200 200 200 80 140 180 190 140 80 210 220 X X X X X 200 90 180 180 210 210 210 220 220 200 220 8C 104 82 82 93 99 93 93 93 93 104 93 93 104 104 X 93 X 82 82 X 93 104 93 93 93 27 60 82 88 60 27 99 104 X X X X X 93 32 82 82 99 99 99 104 104 93 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium chloride. sat.110 TABLE 2. 10% Ammonium fluoride.32 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide.

50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. conc. 5% Cupric chloride. dry Carbon dioxide. dil.32 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. LLC 111 . 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine gas. 15% Citric acid. 20% 8F 210 210 220 220 140 X 220 140 X 220 X 220 200 80 180 X X X X X X 140 150 140 220 220 80 200 200 200 200 X 140 140 X 150 180 100 80 210 210 210 210 210 210 X X 230 200 8C 99 99 104 104 60 X 104 60 X 104 X 104 93 27 82 X X X X X X 60 66 60 104 104 27 93 93 93 93 X 60 60 X 66 82 38 27 99 99 99 99 99 99 X X 110 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexonol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10% Chromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferrite nitrate.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. wet Chlorine.

50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. general Lactic acid. conc. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 5% Nitric acid. LLC . 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 98% 8F 190 220 200 150 180 200 200 140 X 110 150 150 210 130 120 X X 80 200 140 140 X X X X 140 X 180 210 140 210 130 170 220 200 220 220 140 120 110 190 150 200 200 200 180 180 120 8C 88 104 93 66 82 93 93 60 X 43 66 66 99 54 49 X X 27 93 60 60 X X X X 60 X 82 99 60 99 54 77 104 93 104 104 60 49 43 88 66 93 93 93 82 82 49 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 20% Nitric acid. Sodium Sulfide. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. conc. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.32 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrobromic acid.112 TABLE 2. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 25% Lactic acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Perchloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 10% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Ketones.

24 Styrene–Acrylonitrile (SAN) SAN is a copolymer of styrene and acrylonitrile having the following chemical structure: H C H H C CH H C C H C CN q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. upholstery fabrics. Schweitzer. 2. Ignition resistant grades are available as a result of the addition of halogenated organic compounds. Polypropylene is widely used in engineering fabrics such as bale wraps. New York: Marcel Dekker. Consumer goods such as straws. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 1–4. Incompatibility is shown by an X. it is used in washer agitators and dishwasher components. and strapping. 5th ed. and diaper cover stock. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 180 100 X 150 220 200 8C X X 82 38 X 66 104 93 113 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. polypropylene can be used in duct systems in the chemical industry. and 90% of all battery casings are made of PP. 100% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. it is useful in the construction of integral hinges.A. In appliance areas. 2004. ropes. Polypropylene also has many textile applications such as carpet face and backing yarn. LLC . With this additive. Piping and small tanks of polypropylene are widely used. bags. PP also finds application in the automotive industry for interior trim and under-the-hood components. Source: From P. It is useful in outdoor clothing and sports clothes that are worn next to the body because its wicking qualities absorb body moisture and still leaves the wearer dry.. toys and recreational items also make use of polypropylene.32 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Because PP exhibits good flex life. filter cloths. Vols.

114 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers SAN is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. appliances. The packaging industry makes use of SAN for cosmetic containers and displays. food processing. labware. having both chlorine atoms at the same end of the monomer instead of at the opposite ends as shown below: Cl H C C Cl H Saron has improved strength. 2. It also finds application as a lined piping system. Saran is also used to manufacture auto seat covers. The operating temperature range is from 0 to 1758F (K18 to 808C). and prepared coatings. and other applications where stream purity protection is critical. not to aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. It will be attacked by oxidizing agents and strong acids. Saran is also resistant to weathering and UV degradation. chlorides and certain other chemicals. and it will stress crack in the presence of certain organic compounds. Saran is resistant to oxidants. dinnerware. Refer to Reference [2]. Industrial applications include fan blades and filter housings. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. film. Saran has found wide application in the plating industry and for handling deionized water. SAN will be degraded by UV light unless protective additives are incorporated into the formulation. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. and urine bottles. mineral acids. Medical applications include tubing connectors and valves. and toys. and solvents. and chemical resistance over that of PVC. LLC .25 Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC) Polyvinylidene chloride is manufactured under the tradename Saran by Dow Chemical. In applications such as plating solutions.33 for the compatibility of PVDC with selected corrodents. Refer to Table 2. polyvinylidene chloride is superior to polypropylene and finds many applications in the handling of municipal water supplies and waste waters. hardness. pharmaceuticals. housewares. interior refrigerator components. It is a variant of PVC. bristles. SAN finds application as food and beverage containers.

sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Alum Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl chloride 8F 150 150 130 130 140 90 90 130 90 150 80 180 150 150 170 180 140 180 X 140 180 160 90 90 X X 120 90 150 120 80 120 150 80 X 150 120 180 180 180 180 150 X X 120 120 80 8C 66 66 54 54 60 32 32 54 32 66 27 82 66 66 77 82 60 82 X 60 82 71 32 32 X X 49 32 66 49 27 49 66 27 X 66 49 82 82 82 82 66 X X 49 49 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. LLC 115 .Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride.33 Compatibility of PVDC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. sat.

33 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Boris acid Bromine. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexonol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid 8F 170 X X 120 150 80 80 180 160 180 160 180 120 150 180 180 90 90 180 80 80 180 140 180 80 120 120 80 80 X 80 X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 130 180 150 160 170 120 90 180 120 8C 77 X X 49 66 27 27 82 71 82 71 82 49 66 82 82 32 32 82 27 27 82 60 82 27 49 49 27 27 X 27 X X 82 82 82 82 82 82 54 82 66 71 77 49 32 82 49 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.116 TABLE 2. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. sat. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 15% Citric acid. wet Chlorine. 10% Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. conc. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% Citric acid. LLC .

Hydrobromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Perchloric acid. LLC . dry Fluorine gas. Sodium sulfide. general Lactic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.33 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 70% Nitric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride 8F 80 180 140 140 130 130 80 X X 120 120 130 180 180 120 160 X 120 90 80 180 80 80 X 80 180 90 150 X X X 130 120 X 130 120 110 130 180 180 90 150 X 130 120 140 180 180 8C 27 82 60 60 54 54 27 X X 49 49 54 82 82 49 71 X 49 32 27 82 27 27 X 27 82 32 66 X X X 54 49 X 54 49 43 54 82 82 32 66 X 54 49 60 82 82 (continued) 117 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 0% Sodium hydroxide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. moist Hydrobromic acid. dil. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. conc. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 20% Nitric acid.

PSF is not resistant to polar organic solvents such as ketones. and radiation. alkali. 5th ed. and hydrocarbon oils even at elevated temperatures and under moderate stress levels. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. detergent solutions. ethylene oxide. and aromatic hydrocarbons. 70% Sulfuric acid.118 TABLE 2. 1–4. Incompatibility is shown by an X. PSF is resistant to repeated sterilization by several techniques including steam autoclave. 90% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. chlorinated hydrocarbons. It will stand exposure to soap. dry heat. 98% Sulfuric acid.. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 120 X X X X X X 80 X 80 80 170 8C 49 X X X X X X 27 X 27 27 77 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Vols. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Polysulfone is unaffected by hydrolysis and has a very high resistance to mineral acids. 10% Sulfuric acid.A. LLC . 100% Sulfuric acid. PSF has an operating temperature range of from K150 to 3008F (K101 to 1498C). 2004. It has the following chemical structure: CH3 O O CH3 O O S O The linkages connecting the benzene rings are hydrolytically stable. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P.26 Polysulfone (PSF) Polysulfone is an engineering polymer that can be used at elevated temperatures.33 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. certain chemicals. and salt solutions. 2.

TABLE 2.34 for the compatibility of PSF with selected corrodents. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. 10% Acetic acid. Polysulfone finds application as hot-water piping. to 40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride.34 Compatibility of PSF with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. and circuit breakers. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. and electronic application. 50% Acetic acid. lenses. aqueous Aluminum chloride. moist Butyl acetate 8F X 200 200 200 200 X X 200 200 200 150 200 X 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 200 X X 200 200 200 200 X X X X 200 200 200 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 2. Its rigidity and high temperature performance make it ideal for medical. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Aluminum chloride.Thermoplastic Polymers 119 Polysulfone has good weatherability. switches. and it is not degraded by UV radiation. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium hydroxide. iron handles. 10% Ammonium chloride. LLC 8C 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 66 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 . sat. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. microwave. 10% Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 30% Ketones. Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Nitric acid. dil. 38% Hydrofluoric acid.34 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon disulphide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine. 10% Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 20% Nitric acid.120 TABLE 2. 40% Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50% Citric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 15% Citric acid. 70% Nitric acid. LLC . conc. Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. general Lactic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% 8F 200 X 200 200 200 200 200 X X X 200 X X X X X X 140 X 100 80 200 200 X 200 200 200 200 180 200 200 200 200 300 200 140 140 80 X 200 200 X X X X X X 80 27 (continued) 93 93 93 93 93 93 82 93 93 93 93 149 93 60 60 27 38 27 93 93 60 93 93 93 93 93 93 8C 93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Lactic acid. anhydrous Phosphoric acid.

1–4. 2004. PVC is polymerized vinyl chloride that is produced from ethylene and anhydrous hydrochloric acid. Sodium sulfite. to 50% Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. New York: Marcel Dekker. Vols. It is q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2. 70% Sulfuric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Type 2 has optimum impact resistance and reduced chemical resistance. Type 1 PVC (unplasticized) resists attack by most acids and strong alkalies. gasoline. kerosene. 100% Sulfuric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. aliphatic alcohols. Source: From P. 5th ed. normal impact (type 1) and high impact (type 2). 10% Sodium hydroxide. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.. Schweitzer. 50% Sodium hypochlorate.27 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Polyvinyl chloride is the most widely used of any of the thermoplasts. and hydrocarbons.A. 50% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. The structure is: H H H H C C C C H H H H Two types of PVC are produced.34 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Potassium bromide. 90% Sulfuric acid. unplasticized PVC having normal impact with optimum chemical resistance. Type 1 is a rigid. fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene 8F 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 200 200 300 300 X X X X X 200 X 93 8C 93 93 93 93 93 149 149 93 93 149 149 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. LLC . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. conc.

The chemical resistance of type 2 PVC to oxidizing and highly alkaline material is reduced. PVC may be attacked by aromatics. 50% Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid. sat. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. PVC is resistant to all normal atmospheric pollutants including weather and UV degradation.122 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers particularly useful in the handling of hydrochloric acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate 8F X X 100 90 X X X X X X X 140 90 X 140 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 90 140 140 140 140 90 90 140 140 140 140 8C X X 38 32 X X X X X X X 60 32 X 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 32 60 60 60 60 32 32 60 60 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and lacquer solvents. 10% Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid.35 Compatibility of Type 2 PVC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. chlorinated organic compounds.36 for type 1 PVC. Refer to Table 2. TABLE 2. LLC . Ammonium fluoride. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.35 for the compatibility of type 2 PVC with selected corrodents and Table 2. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.

Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. LLC . sat. moist Bromine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve 8F 140 140 140 X X X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 X 140 140 X X X 60 X X X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 X 8C 60 60 60 X X X X 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 X 60 60 X X X 16 X X X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X 60 60 X 60 X 60 X (continued) 123 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.35 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Calcium bisulfide Carbon dioxide.

LLC . liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 70% Nitric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. dil. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. general Lactic acid. 10% Chromic acid. conc. conc. wet Chlorine. 20% Nitric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 50% Citric acid. 25% Lactic acid.124 TABLE 2. dry Chlorine gas. 20% Hydrochloric acid. anhydrous 8F 105 140 X X X X 60 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 120 X 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 120 68 140 X 140 80 140 140 X X X 140 100 140 70 X 8C 40 60 X X X X 16 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 49 X 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 49 20 60 X 60 27 60 60 X X X 60 38 60 140 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 15% Citric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.35 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 70% Hypochlorous acid Ketones.

and wire insulation. Its ability to be pigmented and its excellent weathering ability to retain color makes it ideal for this application. 98% Sulfuric acid. vent. drain. 10% Perchloric acid. conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Sodium sulfide. It is also used as a liner. New York: Marcel Dekker.. 2004. LLC .A. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. and corrosive chemical piping. 90% Sulfuric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. Vols. The primary application for PVC include water. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 5th ed. 50% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. The automotive industry makes use of PVC for exterior applications as body-side moldings. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistance Tables. conc. Source: From P. 70% Sulfuric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. conc.35 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Reference [2] provides details of PVC piping. gas. electrical conduit. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 100% Sulfuric acid fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 60 X 60 60 X 140 X 140 X 105 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X X X 140 X X X 140 140 8C 16 X 16 16 X 60 X 60 X 40 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X X X 60 X X X 60 60 125 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 1–4.

36 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Type 1 PVC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 1% Ammonium fluoride.126 TABLE 2. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F X X 140 140 140 130 X X X X X 140 90 X 140 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 90 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 120 X 140 X X 140 X 140 60 (continued) 60 60 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 32 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 49 60 32 60 60 60 54 8C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. LLC . 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.

liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Bromine gas. dry Carbon dioxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.36 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. moist Bromine. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. LLC . liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. sat. wet Chlorine. 10% 8F 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 X X 140 140 X X X 140 X X X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 120 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 X X 140 140 X X X X X 140 60 (continued) 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 49 60 60 60 60 60 8C 60 60 60 60 127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

25% Lactic acid. 5% Nitric acid. 10–50% Fluorine gas. dry Fluorine gas. conc. conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% water Ferric nitrate.36 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid dil. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Citric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride Cupric chloride. LLC . anhydrous Nitrous acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. general Lactic acid.128 TABLE 2. 70% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 10% Ketones. 8F X 120 140 140 80 140 140 140 140 120 140 150 80 X 80 100 X 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 130 X 140 100 X 140 80 140 140 90 X X X 160 140 140 140 X 80 27 (continued) 71 60 60 60 60 27 60 60 32 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 54 60 60 60 60 27 38 49 60 60 27 60 60 60 60 49 60 66 27 8C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Hydrobromic acid.

10% Perchloric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 1–4. 2. the chlorination is approximately 56. 90% Sulfuric acid.A. 10% Sulfuric acid. conc. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X 140 X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X X 140 X X 90 140 140 32 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 8C 129 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sulfuric acid.8%. LLC . Source: From P. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. Further chlorination of q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 100% Sulfuric acid.28 Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) When acetylene and hydrochloric acid are reacted to produce polyvinyl chloride. Vols. 70% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 2004. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide.36 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Oleum Perchloric acid. Sodium sulfide. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 5th ed. Sodium hydroxide. conc.

glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol.37 Compatibility of CPVC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. bases. It is ideally suited for handling hot water and/or steam condensate. esters. PVC is inert to most mineral acids. chlorinated or aromatic hydrocarbons. 50% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride.130 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers PVC to approximately 67% produces CPVC whose chemical structure is: H H Cl H C C C C H Cl H Cl While PVC is limited to a maximum operating temperature of 1408F (608C). LLC . In general. TABLE 2. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride 8F X 90 X X X X X X X X 200 200 X 200 100 200 180 200 200 200 200 8C X 32 X X X X X X X X 93 90 X 93 38 93 82 93 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 80% Acetic acid. There are many similarities in the chemical resistance of CPVC and PVC. CVPC is not recommended for use with most polar organic materials including various solvents. Refer to Table 2. There are special formulations of CPVC that permit operating temperatures of 2008F (938C). care must be exercised because there are differences. 10% Acetic acid. and paraffinic hydrocarbons. However. the corrosion resistance of CPVC is somewhat inferior to that of PVC. 96% Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. salts. Overall. CPVC has a maximum operating temperature of 1908F (828C).37 for the compatibility of CPVC with selected corrodents. and ketones.

dry Bromine gas. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Ammonium chloride.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. LLC . 10% Ammonium chloride. sat. sat. moist Bromine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate 8F 200 200 140 200 180 180 200 200 200 X X 200 200 200 200 200 160 X 130 X X 200 80 200 180 180 180 180 X X 180 200 X X 200 210 X X X 150 X 140 X 140 180 210 210 180 8C 93 93 60 93 82 82 93 93 93 X X 93 93 93 93 93 71 X 54 X X 93 27 93 82 82 82 82 X X 82 93 X X 93 99 X X X 66 X 60 X 60 82 99 99 82 (continued) 131 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.37 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

10% Chromic acid. 15% Citric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. 5% Cupric chloride. wet Chlorine. 20% Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry 8F 180 170 210 200 180 180 180 180 X 210 160 X 210 X 180 180 100 X 140 X X X X X 210 210 180 180 180 80 180 210 180 210 X 180 180 X X 100 X 210 210 180 180 210 180 X 8C 82 77 99 93 82 82 82 82 X 99 71 X 99 X 82 82 38 X 60 X X X X X 99 99 82 82 82 27 82 99 82 99 X 82 82 X X 38 X 99 99 82 82 99 82 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid. conc. dry Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.37 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. sat. 50% in water Ferric nitrate.132 TABLE 2. 10% Calcium hydroxide. LLC .

20% Hydrobromic acid. 5% Nitric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Perchloric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. conc. Oleum Perchloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. LLC . 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones.37 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Fluorine gas. conc. anhydrous Nitrous acid. dil. conc. general Lactic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 70% Nitric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. Sodium sulfide. 70% 8F 80 130 180 190 180 170 80 X 90 X 180 X 180 100 230 180 180 X X X 170 180 160 180 X 80 X 180 180 140 180 X 180 X 170 210 210 190 180 190 190 180 180 180 180 180 180 200 8C 27 54 82 88 82 77 27 X 32 X 82 X 82 38 110 82 82 X X X 77 82 71 82 X 27 X 82 82 60 82 X 82 X 77 99 99 88 82 88 88 82 82 82 82 82 82 93 (continued) 133 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrobromic acid. conc.

90% Sulfuric acid.29 Chlorinated Polyether (CPE) Chlorinated polyether is sold under the tradename of Penton. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. It has the advantage of being able to resist acids at elevated temperatures. tank linings. Reference [2] provides detailed information on CPVC piping.134 TABLE 2. CPE finds application as bearing retainers. Incompatibility is shown by an X. internal column packing. The primary applications of PVC include hot water and/or steam condensate piping. CPE is resistant to most acids and bases. and common solvents.. 1–4. In general. Vols. New York: Marcel Dekker. 20% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X X 180 X X 140 180 180 8C X X X X 82 X X 60 82 82 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Schweitzer. 2. Refer to Table 2. With permission. 2. corrosive chemical piping at elevated temperatures. Corrosion Resistance Tables. and electrical properties. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. oxidizing agents. 2004. 100% Sulfuric acid. tanks. and miscellaneous fabricated items. valves. general chemical characteristics. LLC .38 for the compatibility of CPE with selected corrodents. Source: From P. 98% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.A.37 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. fume ducts. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. It is not resistant to nitric acid above 10% concentration. and in process equipment. It has a maximum operating temperature of 2258F (1078C).30 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) PAN is a member of the olefin family. it is somewhat similar to the other olefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene in terms of appearance.

10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride 8F 130 250 250 250 250 150 90 X 250 250 90 250 250 250 250 220 250 220 220 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 180 250 250 250 180 220 220 150 220 121 121 32 121 121 121 121 104 121 104 104 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 82 121 121 121 82 104 104 66 104 8C 54 121 121 121 121 66 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas.38 Compatibility of CPE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.Thermoplastic Polymers 135 PAN has the following structural formula: H H C C H C N PAN has corrosion resistance properties similar to those of polypropylene and polyethylene. 10% Acetic acid. TABLE 2. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. LLC . 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

15% Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid.136 TABLE 2. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.38 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzenesulfonic acid. wet Chlorine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine Bromine. 50% Citric acid. LLC . dry Carbon dioxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfate Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 25% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol 8F 80 250 250 250 250 220 80 220 250 80 140 250 140 X 250 130 220 230 250 250 150 250 250 180 250 250 250 X 250 250 X 250 200 250 220 220 100 80 X 150 80 X 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 60 66 27 121 93 121 104 104 38 27 121 121 121 54 104 110 121 121 66 121 121 82 121 121 121 8C 27 121 121 121 121 104 27 104 121 27 60 121 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

conc. 10% Sodium hydroxide. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 20% Nitric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 70% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Phenol Phosgene gas. 25% Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid 8F 220 220 X 220 250 250 250 250 250 300 104 121 121 121 121 121 149 8C 104 60 137 150 X 250 250 250 230 90 80 180 80 80 X 140 X 66 121 121 121 110 32 27 82 27 27 60 250 150 250 250 250 180 180 180 200 230 250 250 230 230 230 130 X X 200 121 66 121 121 121 82 82 82 93 110 121 121 110 110 110 54 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 5% Nitric acid. general Lactic acid.38 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. 70% Nitric acid. conc. Sodium hypochlorite. 98% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Sodium sulfide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 100% Sulfuric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. dry Phosphoric acid.

Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. but it will be readily attacked and even dissolved by polar organic fluids such as dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide. They are also used q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Hydrolytic degradation causes permanent reduction in physical and electrical properties. Water affects PUR in two ways. vending machine tubing. the original properties are restored.39 provides the compatibility of PUR with selected corrodents. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Table 2. Schweitzer.138 TABLE 2. Corrosion Resistance Tables. it is resistant to nonpolar organic fluids such as oils. lower compression set. 2. fuels.2 for the structural formula. higher operating temperature. Those produced from polyether are more resistant to hydrolysis and have higher resilience. and good fuel and oil resistance. typewriter cases. and trim. good hysteresis characteristics. automotive parts. 5th ed. and greases.. Refer to Figure 2. Moisture plasticization results in a slight reduction in hardness and tensile strength. optimum abrasion resistance. bags. LLC .38 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Thionyl chloride Toluene White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X 200 200 250 93 93 121 8C The chemical listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. temporary plasticization and permanent degradation. When the absorbed water is removed. Source: From P. but they have limited life in high humidity and high temperature applications. garden hose. 2004. Polyurethanes exhibit excellent resistance to oxygen aging.A. Polyacrylonitrile is used to produce molded appliance parts. Polyurethanes are used where the properties of good abrasion resistance and low coefficient of friction are required. luggage shells. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Because polyurethane is a polar material. and good all-around chemical resistance. chemical apparatus. higher tear strength and cut resistance. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 1–4.31 Polyurethane (PUR) Polyurethanes are produced from either polyethers or polyesters. Vols. New York: Marcel Dekker. The polyester-based urethanes are generally stiffer and will have higher compression and tensile moduli. good energy-absorbing characteristics.

sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. TABLE 2. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. LLC . 80% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.2 Chemical structure of PUR. 10% Acetic acid.39 Compatibility of PUR with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamine Acetic acid. Ammonium persulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium chloride Barium hydroxide X X X X X X X X X R R R R R R X X X X X R R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 50% Acetic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers 139 H O C NH O C H O H H H H NH C O C C C C H H H H n H H H H R= C C C C H H H H or H H R= C C H C H H or H H H H O H H H H H H H H O R= C C O C C C C C C O R m n = 30 to 120 m = 8 to 50 FIGURE 2. Ammonium hydroxide.

39 Continued Chemical Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine. 20% Nitric acid. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. wet Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 70% Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R X X X X X X R R X X X R R R R X R R R R X R X X X X X X X X R R R R X R R R R R X R X X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Ferric nitrate. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cyclohexane Cresol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 38% Magnesium chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid.140 TABLE 2. 20% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 10–50% Hydrochloric acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Carbon dioxide. 5% Nitric acid. sat. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Carbon bisulfide Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.

gears. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. for high-impact car panels and other parts. and ski boots. These thermoplastic polyesters are highly crystalline with a melting point of approximately 4308F (2218C).40 for the compatibility of PBT with selected corrodents. ski-goggle frames. 30% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. in general. Polyurethanes are also used for toys. Refer to Table 2. LLC . golf balls. and catheters. and esters with limited resistance to hot water and washing soda. shoe components. to dilute mineral acids. Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenol Potassium bromide. 98% Sulfuric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. aliphatic hydrocarbons. 50% Sulfuric acid.32 Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) PBT is also known as a thermoplastic polyester. 2. incompatibility is shown by an X. conc. Compatibility at 908F/328C is shown by an R. ketones. 10% Sulfuric acid. 100% Toluene X X X X X R R R X X X X X X X X 141 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. The medical field makes use of PUR for diagnostic devices. pulleys. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. It is not resistant to chlorinated hydrocarbons and alkalies.39 Continued Chemical Nitric acid. PBT has good weatherability and is resistant to UV degradation. tubing. aromatic hydrocarbons. 10% Perchloric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. It has a structural formula as follows: H C H H C H H C H H H C O O C O C PBT exhibits good chemical resistance. bushings. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid.

5% Acetic acid. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium bisulfate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. 2% Paraffin oil Phosphoric acid. 50% Potassium dichromate.142 TABLE 2. 2% Hydrogen peroxide. 10% Acetone Ammonia. 10% Potassium hydroxide. 10% Benzene Butyl acetate Calcium chloride Calcium disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. 50% R R R X R R R R R X X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R R X R R R R R R R X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerine Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. 0–5% Ink Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Motor oil Nitric acid. LLC . 10% Potassium permanganate. 30% Hydrogen peroxide.40 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PBT with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetic acid.

in general. They also exhibit poor resistance to oxidizing agents but.40 Continued Chemical Sodium nitrate Sodium thiosulfate Sulfuric acid. electronics. LLC . material resistant at 738F/208C. and writing instruments. Reinforced resins find application in the automotive. DuPont produces the homopolymers whereas Celanese produces the copolymers. The acetals will be degraded by UV light and gamma rays. radio. Homopolymer materials are usually implied when no identification of acetal type is made.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 2. cold Water. Neither the homopolymer nor the copolymer is resistant to strong mineral acids. material not resistant. The general repeating chemical structure is: H C O H n There are two basic types of acetals. molten Xylene R R X R R R R R R R 143 R. The unreinforced resins are used in housings that require excellent impact in moving parts such as gears. are resistant to the common solvents. Flame retardant formulations find application as television. 98% Sulfuric acid. and general industrial areas. electrical. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and pump components. X. but the copolymers are resistant to strong bases.33 Acetals Acetals are a group of high-performance engineering polymers that resemble the polyamide somewhat in appearance but not in properties. Refer to Table 2. pulleys. hot Wax. bearings. business machines.41 for the compatibility of acetals with selected corrodents. electronic. 2% Toluene Vaseline Water.

2% Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Calcium disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloric acid Chlorine. dry Chlorine. 10% Acetone Acid mine water Ammonia. conc. Aniline Aqua regia Benzene Benzyl chloride n-Butylamine Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium chlorate.144 TABLE 2. dry Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid Copper nitrate Cupric chloride Cyclohexanne Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanne Detergents Dichloroethane Diethyl ether Dimethyl formamide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dioxane Ethanolamine Ethers Ethyl acetate. 10% Ethyl chloride. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 20% Calcium hypochlorite. 5% Acetic acid.41 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Acetals with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. wet 8F 70 70 X 70 100 X X 70 X 70 70 X X X 70 70 X X X X 70 X 70 70 X X 70 X 70 X X X X X 70 70 70 70 70 70 140 70 140 70 70 200 70 23 23 23 23 23 23 60 23 60 23 23 93 23 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene. LLC 8C 23 23 23 38 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 . 5% Calcium hydroxide. wet Ammonium hydroxide.

10% Magnesium sulfate Mercury Methyl acetate Methyl alcohol Methylene chloride Milk Tetrahydrofuran Thionyl chloride Turpentine Mineral oil Motor oil Monoethanolamine Nitric acid. moist Kerosene Lactic acid Linseed oil Magnesium chloride. 3% Heptane Hexane Hydrochloric acid. 1–20% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Phosphoric acid Pyridine Silver nitrate Sodium bicarbonate. 10% Magnesium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. LLC . 1% Nitric acid Oxalic acid Paraffin Perchloroethylene Perchloric acid. 10% Formic acid. 10% Sodium chloride. 4% Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen sulfide.41 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ethyl ether Ethylene chloride Ethylenediamine Fatty acid Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferric sulfate Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate. 10% 8F 70 70 70 95 X X X X X X 70 70 X X X X 140 X 70 70 70 70 70 70 X 70 70 70 70 X 140 70 150 X X X X 70 70 X X 70 70 70 180 70 70 180 23 23 23 82 23 23 82 (continued) 23 23 60 23 71 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 60 23 23 8C 23 23 23 35 145 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Sodium carbonate. 10% Magnesium sulfate. 20% Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate.

A. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. New York: Marcel Dekker. 3. 1996. Corrosion Resistance Tables. New York: Marcel Dekker. structural components in the suspension system. 10% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium nitrate.A. 2. P. 10% Sodium hydroxide. P. 1–4. Schweitzer. Corrosion Engineering Handbook.41 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium chloride Sodium cyanide. Corrosion Resistant Linings and Coatings. and bushings. Acetals are used in the automotive industry for fuel-system components and moving parts such as gears.A. 2004. 4. 10% Trichloroethylene Wax 8F 70 70 70 X 70 70 X X X X 200 93 23 23 8C 23 23 23 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. P. Applications also include appliance housings and plumbing fixtures. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 5th ed. Schweitzer. 1994. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems.146 TABLE 2. 50% Sodium thiosulfate Sulfuric acid. LLC .. References 1.A. 2001. Vols. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. New York: Marcel Dekker. P. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid.

For molded products. The latter is the more prominent of the two methods. Their disadvantages lie in the fact that most are more difficult to process and more expensive.2 gives the operating temperature range of the thermoset polymers. The type of corrosion can be divided into two main categories: physical and chemical. making them the most widely used. Although fewer in number than the thermoplastic polymers. and good electrical properties.” Because in some cases a by-product is not produced. thermosets comprise approximately 14% of the total polymer market. creep resistance. In addition. glass fibers. Table 3. usually formed by compression or transfer molding.1 Corrosion of Thermosets Unreinforced. The reaction is now referred to as a “stepwise” polymerization. chemical resistance. they offer the advantages of better dimensional stability. and generally more temperature resistant. they are more brittle.1 lists the principal thermoset polymers. Once set. unfilled thermoset polymers can corrode by several mechanisms. It is a stepwise or condensation method that has been defined as “the reaction of two monomers to produce a third plus a by-product. Most contain wood or glass-flour fillers and. this definition is no longer exactly correct. 3. harder. Phenolics represent about 43% of the thermoset market. They are formed by a large amount of cross-linking of linear prepolymers (a small amount of cross-linking will produce elastomers) or by direct formation of networks by the reaction of two monomers. LLC . Compared to the thermoplasts. and glass fiber fillers are often used for optimum strength or dimensional stability. usually water or alcohol. it is called a “condensation reaction. on occasion. 147 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.” Table 3.3 Thermoset Polymers Thermoset polymers assume a permanent shape or set once cured. they cannot be reshaped. When the reaction results in a by-product. They are relatively inexpensive and are readily molded with good stiffness. stronger. mineral or cellulose fibers are often used as low-cost general purpose fillers.

148 TABLE 3. In many cases. The diffusion of a liquid into the polymer is a typical example. physical corrosion is reversible: after the liquid is removed. that results in plasticization or swelling of the thermoset network. TABLE 3.2 Operating Temperature Range of Themoset Polymers Allowable Temperature (8F/8C) Polymer Epoxy Polyesters: Bisphenol A fumarate Halogenated Hydrogenated bisphenol-A– bisphenol-A Isophthalic Terephthalic Vinyl ester Furan Phenolic Silicone Minimum K423/K252 Maximum 300/150 250–300/120–150 250–300/120–150 250–300/120–150 150/70 250–300/120–150 200–280/98–140 300–400/150–200 230/110 500/260 K423/K252 Temperatures might have to be modified depending on the corrodent. For a cross-linked thermoset. the original properties are restored.1 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Principal Thermoset Polymers Alkyds Amino resins Diallyl phthalates (allyls) Epoxies Furans Melamines Phenol formaldehyde Phenolics Polybutadienes Polyurethanes Silicones Unsaturated polyesters Ureas Vinyl esters Physical corrosion is the interaction of a thermoset polymer with its environment so that its properties are altered but no chemical reactions take place. swelling caused by solvent absorption will be at a maximum when the solvent and polymer solubility parameters are exactly matched. When a polymer absorbs a liquid or gas. physical corrosion has taken place. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

or swollen. Other results may be chain scission and decreases in molecular weight or simple solvent action. This is the result of the unique molecular structure of the resins. However. As result of chemical corrosion. softened. Tests show that polyesters and vinyl esters can handle up to 70% sulfuric acid for long periods of time. In general. repolymerization can occur with a resultant change in structure. including built-in properties of ester groups.Thermoset Polymers 149 Chemical corrosion takes place when the bonds in the thermoset are broken by means of a chemical reaction with the polymers’ environment. it will continue to operate successfully for a substantial period of time. All thermosets will be attacked in essentially the same manner. certain chemically resistant types suffer negligible attack or exhibit significantly lower rates of attack under a wide range of severely corrosive conditions. The degree and nature of the bond between the resin and the reinforcement also plays an important role. the polymer itself may be affected in one or more ways. Some environments may weaken primary and/or secondary polymer linkages with resulting depolymerization. attack on the reinforced polymer will occur in a relatively short time. The various modes of attack affect the strength of the laminate in different ways. depending upon the environment and other service conditions and the mechanisms or combination of mechanisms that are at work. Cure of the resin plays an important part in the chemical resistance of the thermoset. the polymer may be embrittled. LLC . The attack of aqueous solutions on reinforced polymers occurs through hydrolysis. With an improper environment. whereas others may hydrolyze ester groupings or linkages. Thermoset polymers are not capable of handling concentrated sulfuric acid (93%) and concentrated nitric acid. in all probability. discolored. The solvent penetrates the resin matrix of the polymer through spaces between the polymer chains causing the laminate surface to q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Improper curing will result in a loss of corrosion resistance properties. For example. charred. Construction of the laminate and the type of reinforcing used also affect the corrosion resistance of the laminate. blistered. The attack of solvents is of a different nature. In certain environments. the laminate is destroyed. with the water degrading bonds in the backbone of the resin molecules. There may be more than one form of chemical corrosion taking place at the same time. chemical attack on thermoset polymers is a “go/no go” situation. delaminated. Chemical corrosion is usually not reversible. The ester linkage is the most susceptible. Attack or absorption at the interface between the reinforcing material and the resin will result in weakening. Experience has indicated that if an installation has been soundly engineered and has operated successfully for 12 months. Other environments may cause swelling or microcracking. Pyrolysis or charring of the resin quickly occurs so that within a few hours. crazed.

This may occur in the liquid or vapor zone. pronounced weight gain. which is strongly related to its solvent resistance. Organic compounds with carbon–carbon unsaturated double bonds. and swelling has stabilized at the 12 month level. are powerful swelling solvents and show greater swelling action than their saturated counterparts. Bisphenol resin laminate in contact with toluene experiences a 19% weight gain in one month. Anything over 2% is cause for concern. Weight. 3. The latter is not true of all resin systems. 2. 2. Swelling. Generally. plus little or no swelling. b. a swelling of 19%. typical of a material undergoing total failure. and crack. then the resin may do fairly well in limited service. As the solvent attack continues: a. In general. the laminate swells considerably. are handled well by polyesters. are attacked by mildly polar solvents. saturated. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Smaller solvent molecules can penetrate a polymer matrix more effectively. 3. such as polyesters and the vinyl esters. such as carbon disulfide. weight gain has stabilized. Slightly polar resins.150 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers swell. 2. the better the solvent resistance. The polymer’s ability to resist attack is improved by 1. the more brittle resins possess poor solvent resistance whereas the more resilient resins can withstand a greater degree of solvent absorption. The heat distortion temperature of the resin. Softening. long-chain organic molecules. The ability of the resin to pack into a tight structure. the following occur: 1. such as the straight chain hydrocarbons. If hardness is retained at a high level. In the first stages of solvent attack. There are many degrees of attack: 1. The cross-link density of the resin. soften. producing mechanical stresses that cause fractures in the laminate. 3. This is why polyester gasoline tanks are so successful. The higher the heat distortion temperature. LLC . If there is less than a 2% weight gain and considerable retention in hardness over a 12 month period. Swelling: the absorption of the molecule continues. decrease in hardness by a substantial amount. The degree of similarity between solvent and resin is important. Softening: hardness drops to zero. and hardness drops from 43 to 0. the laminate will do very well.

Another approach is to apply a 3-mil-thick coat of black epoxy paint that will also effectively screen out the ultraviolet rays. The vinyl esters show improved solvent resistance. LLC . an initial fiber fracture occurs that is specifically a tensile type of failure. They excel in this area. If the resin matrix surrounding the failed fiber fractures. and chlorinated or brominated polyesters exhibit poor resistance to such solvents as acetone. being resistant to normal atmospheric pollutants. In view of this. the surfaces must be abraded and solvent cleaned. and methyl ethyl ketone. The process continues until total failure occurs. The glass filament will fray. After the initial fraying. 3. This is particularly true of composites exposed to the combination of acid and stress. the acid is allowed to attack the next available fiber. With the exception of UV light stability. and urethanes. isophthalic. bisphenol. Stress corrosion is another factor to be considered.2 Joining of Thermosets Thermoset polymers cannot be solvent cemented or fusion welded. thermosetting acrylics. toluene. Which fiber is selected depends upon the cost. However. Refer to Table 3. This can be prevented by adding an ultraviolet inhibitor to the resin. it is necessary that UV protection be provided. trichloroethane. 3. the furan resins offer the best all-around solvent resistance. the phenomenon will stop far short of having any particular effect on the strength of the material. carbon disulfide. Under stress. Polymers installed outdoors will suffer severe degradation in a year or two from ultraviolet exposure. 3. Heat-cured epoxies exhibit better solvent resistance. Furan resins are capable of handling solvents in combination with acids and bases.3 for the atmospheric resistance of fiberglass reinforced thermoset polymers. thermoset polymers resist weathering. The failure rate of glassreinforced composites can be significant. the properties q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.4 Reinforcing Materials Many different reinforcing fibers are used in laminates and reinforced polymers. trichloroethylene. they can be adhesive bonded using epoxies. Weakening of the glass fibers upon exposure to acid is believed to be caused by ion exchange between the acid and glass. However.3 Ultraviolet Light Stability Thermoset resins will be degraded by ultraviolet light. which subsequently fractures. Prior to bonding.Thermoset Polymers 151 Orthophthalic.

20 0.3 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Atmospheric Resistance of Fiberglass-Reinforced Thermoset Polymers Polymer Epoxy Polyesters Bisphenol A– fumarate Halogenated Hydrogenated bisphenol-A– bisphenol-A Isophthalic Terephthalic Vinyl ester Furan Phenolic Silicone a b c UVa Degradation R RS RS RS Moistureb Absorption 0.20 0.152 TABLE 3. particularly the dielectric constant. 3.20 0. RS.06 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R. This glass resists moisture and results in products with excellent electrical properties. It possesses excellent water resistance. Fiberglass is the most often uses reinforcement material.4 lists the common reinforcements and the properties they impart to the reinforced polymer. not resistant. SO3 will cause severe attack. S glass is used for its high strength and stiffness while R glass is a lower cost fiber than S glass. or flake glass linings. and for acid resistant cloths. and woven roving come from this source. Practically all glass mat. and low elongation.1 E Glass As discussed previously. The most common is E glass. LLC .20 Weathering R R R R Ozone R R R R SO2 R R R Rc NO2 R R R R H2S R R R RS RS R R R 0. continuous filaments. Table 3. C glass has poor q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.4.03 0. Water absorption rate 24 h at 738F/238C (%). and the nature or the resin system. and is used in electronic applications. and it is reasonable in cost. 3.4. required. There are six formulations that are produced.1 Glass Fibers Glass fibers are formed continuously from a melt in a special fiber-forming furnace. resistant. resistant only if stabilized with UV protector. strength. C glass is designed to be used where optimum chemical resistance is required.20 0.2 C Glass This is a calcium aluminosilicate glass widely used for surfacing mats.1.4.1. 3.65 0. E glass is an electrical grade borosilicate glass. glass flakes.02–0. D glass has very good electrical properties. X.20 2.

LLC .Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.4 Properties Imparted to Polymer by Reinforcing Materials Reinforcing Fiber Glass strands Glass fabric Glass mat Asbestos Paper Cotton/linen Nylon Short inorganic fibers Organic fibers Ribbons Polyethylene Metals Aramid Boron Carbon/ graphite Ceramic Mechanical Strength X X Electrical Properties X X X X X Impact Resistance X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Corrosion Resistance X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Machining and Punching Heat Resistance X X X X Moisture Resistance X X X Abrasion Resistance Low Cost X X X X Stiffness X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 153 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

9 15. It is comparable in strength to aramid fiber.0–59. 3.9 70.9 75. 800.9 80. 3.9 55.9 23.0–44.154 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers water resistance and carries a premium cost.5 67.0–64.0–54. and 30 mils.0–39. 10-mill C glass was nearly universally used. it is not used in the corrosion industry.0–14.0–94.5 77. The use of 20-mil C veil and brittle resins such as the bisphenols should be avoided as they are subject to impact and handling damage.4 Glass Filaments Glass filaments are available in a variety of diameters as shown in Table 3.0–19.1.0–27. 400.5 32.0 40. 2000.9 85. 20. Until the development of synthetic veils.0–29.9 30.9 45.9 100.0–49.5 97.5 62.0–69.5 72.5 82. C veil has been used as a surfacing mat for many years when the standard specification for corrosion resistant equipment was 10-mil C veil.0–109.5 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Filaments in the range of diameters G–T are normally used to reinforce polymers.0–79.0 27.0–74.0–99.5 Glass Fiber Diameters Filament B C D DE E F G G H J K L M N P Q R S T U V W Diameter Range (!105 in.5 57.5 22.5 92. It has excellent resistance to acids and water.9 50.5 87.0–104. 3000.0 37.5 47.0–24.9 35. 15.) 10. The filaments are bonded into a TABLE 3.3 S Glass Because of its exceptional strength. These filaments are formed into strands with 204.5.5 42.0–84. but it is several times as expensive as E glass.1.5 36.9 Nominal Diameter (!105 in.5 102.4.9 95.5 107. It is available in thicknesses of 10. Because of its cost.9 65.9 20.9 60.0–39.5 25.9 90. and 4000 filaments to a strand.0–89.5 52.4.9 35.) 12. LLC .9 25.3 17. 1000. S glass is widely used in the aerospace industry.9 105.0–34.

Continuous mats vary in weight from 0. 3.25 to 2 in.4.75 to 4. 3. The machine direction of the loom is called the warp whereas the cross section is the welt (also called “woof” or “fill”).2 and are available in widths up to 6 ft.4. E glass is used in most and filament laminates of D. These strands are then used to manufacture the various types of glass reinforcements. but the material is less homogenous. 3. The physical properties of woven roving are intermediate between mats and fabrics. G. Continuous strand mats exhibit better physical properties than cut strand mats. (usually E glass) are mechanically cut into lengths from 0.4. glass mats. LLC .2 Polyester Polyester is primarily used for surfacing mat for the resin-rich inner surface of filament wound or custom contact-molded structures. Mat weights vary from 0.7 Glass Fabrics Reinforced polymers make use of many different glass fabrics. appearance.4. Woven roving is a mat fabric made by weaving multiple strands collected into a roving and into a coarse fabric.5 oz. and are used to reinforce molding compounds. Continuous strand mats are produced by continuously depositing the uncut strands in a swirling pattern onto a moving belt where a binder is applied.1.75 to 3 oz. Strands of glass filaments are plied into yarns and woven into fabrics on looms. It may also be used in conjunction with C glass surfacing mats. thickness.1. are added to the finished products to improve adhesion of the resin matrix to the glass fibers./ft.5 Chopped Strands Strands of glass.1. The longer lengths are used with thermoset resins whereas the short fibers are used with thermoplastic polymers. chrome complexes. The number of yarns can be varied in both warp and welt to control the weight./ft. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and K are common. Coupling agents.2 in widths up to 10 ft. and strength of fabric.6 Glass Mats Glass strands are cut and dipped into a moving conveyer belt where a polymer binder is applied to hold the mat together. Glass fabrics.Thermoset Polymers 155 strand using a sizing agent applied to the filament. H. such as silanes. and polymers. and chopped strands are the most common reinforcements used to reinforce polymers. These constructions are used in low-pressure laminations and poltrusions. Various thicknesses are available in widths up to 10 ft. The sizing agent also gives them environmental and abrasive protection. 3.

4 and 1 oz. The fiber is used in the same manner as glass fibers to reinforce polymers. Kevlar is available in surfacing mats and cloth form. 0. Other aramid fiber sport applications include downhill skis. and aqueous solutions of most weak acids at boiling.2. The carbon fiber mat. It is also available in a 0.5 oz. 3./yd. This light weight is also advantageous in the fabrication of laminated canoes and kayaks. Aramid fiber finds varied applications in aircraft and aerospace components because of its low density. provides in-depth grounding systems and static control in hazardous areas where static sparks may result in fires or explosions. It is sold under the tradename Kevlar.2) cloths. it essentially revolutionized pressure vessel technology. The Nexus surfacing veil exhibits excellent resistance to alcohols. hydrocarbons. Aramid paper is used in circuit boards to improve crack resistance and to q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and 2 oz.2) to thick 30-mil (6 oz.4.4. and 50% aluminized glass—50% carbon fiber./yd. Aramid reinforcement is also available as paper and sold under tradenames of Nomex by DuPont and TP Technora from Teijin America. Surfacing mats can be had in weights of 0. water. Other blends are also available such as 25% carbon filler—75% glass fiber. Aramid fibers are woven into fabrics for reinforcing polymers. Aramid composites.156 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers The tendency of C glass to bridge and form voids is reduced or eliminated by overwinding a C glass surfacing mat with a polyester mat under tension.2 mat as a blend with 33% glass fiber. typically 0. Carbon fibers are also available in continuous roving and as chopped fibers in sizes 1/8–2 in. The fabrics range in size from 2-mil (1 oz. 3./yd. crazing.4 Aramid Fibers Aramid is a generic name for aromatic polyamide (nylon). manufactured by DuPont. it is not resistant to strong acids such as 93% sulfuric.3 Carbon Fiber Carbon fiber is available in mat form. 1. and golf shafts./yd. tennis racquets. Nexus (registered trademark of Burlington Industries) surfacing veils are also used on exterior surfaces of poltruded products. bleaching agents. either alone or supplemented with a ground carbon or graphite filler.2. and cracking in temperature-cycling operations.5. though still widely used for pressure vessels. Being a polyester derivative.2. The Nexus surfacing veil possesses a relatively high degree of elongation that makes it very compatible with the higher elongation resins and reduces the risk of checking. have been largely replaced by very high strength graphite fibers. Because of its great tensile strength and consistency coupled with low density./yd. LLC .

Two Spectra fibers are produced. drill. The polyethylene is an ultrahigh molecular weight polymer. Paper reinforcement is inexpensive and easy to machine. When combined with melamine. and difficult drilling and machining characteristics. compared to conventional polyethylene that has a molecular weight of about 200.6 Paper Kraft paper is widely used as a reinforcement.6 compares the corrosion resistance of Spectra and Aramid fibers. poor resin adhesion. glacial Hydrochloric acid 1 M Sodium hydroxide 5 M Ammonium hydroxide. Inc. 3. It imparts good electrical properties. The paper is limited by such drawbacks as a high coefficient of thermal expansion. it is made into a common printed wiring board. but it is sensitive to moisture and cannot withstand high temperatures. high-modulus polyethylene fiber under the tradename Spectra. it finds many applications in aerospace laminates such as wing tips and heliocopter seats. Spectra laminates must not be exposed to temperatures above 2508F (1218C). 3. the 900 and 1000 grades.000. and punch. When saturated with phenolics. and wall panels.4. countertops.6 Corrosion Resistance of Spectra and Aramid Fibers % Retention of Fiber Tensile Strength Spectra Chemical Seawater Hydraulic fluid Kerosene Gasoline Toluene Acetic acid. Because the density of Spectra is the lowest of all of the fibers. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.4. it becomes a decorative high-pressure laminate used in furniture. TABLE 3. Table 3. 29% Perchlorethylene Detergent solution. 10% Clorox 6 Months 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 91 2 Years 100 100 100 100 96 100 100 100 100 100 100 73 6 Months 100 100 100 93 72 82 40 42 70 75 91 0 Aramid 2 Years 98 87 97 X X X X X X X X 0 X.5 Polyethylene Fibers Allied Signal. produces a high-strength. up to 5 million.Thermoset Polymers 157 impart a smooth surface. The 1000 grade has higher strength and modulus. samples not tested due to physical deterioration. LLC .

The types and ratio of components used to manufacture the oligomers. Large-scale commercialization of unsaturated polyesters resulted from the 1942 discovery by the U. 3. They have good impact strength and abrasion resistance. These laminates are used for gears and pulleys. The first successful commercial use of glass-reinforced polyesters was the production of radomes for military aircraft during World War II. are used in several grades of laminates. The cross-linking reaction is a free-radical copolymerization between the resin oligomer and the unsaturated monomer. Widespread use of polyesters had been hampered because of their inherent brittleness. such as an organic peroxide. and the molecular weight of the oligomer will determine the properties of the cured polyester. LLC O + nH2O n . Maleic anhydride or fumaric acid provides the source of unsaturation for almost all of the polyester resins currently produced with maleic anhydride being the most common.5 Polyesters Polyesters were first prepared in 1929 by William H. The first fiberglassreinforced boat hulls were made in 1946. is added to the liquid resin. To initiate cross-linking. a free radical source. when impregnated with phenolic resin. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Condensation reaction. the manufacturing procedure. The manufacturing techniques he developed are still in use today. It was not until the late 1930s that Ellis discovered that polyesters’ cross-linking increased around 30 times in the presence of unsaturated monomers. O HOn R OH + nHO C R O C OH R O O C R C O FIGURE 3.7 Cotton and Linen Fabrics of cotton or linen. Carothers. Of all the reinforced thermoset polymers used for corrosion resistance.4. unsaturated polyesters are the most widely used. and fiberglass is still a major application for unsaturated polyesters. The oligomer or prepolymer is then dissolved in an unsaturated monomer such as styrene.158 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. Unsaturated polyesters are produced via a condensation reaction between a dibasic organic acid or anhydride and a difunctional alcohol as shown in Figure 3. Laminates with these fabrics have better water resistance than paper-based laminates.1. Rubber Company that adding glass fibers to polyesters greatly improved their physical properties. and they machine well.S. At least one of these components contributes sites of unsaturation to the oligomer chain.

2 Components of unsaturated polyesters.Thermoset Polymers 159 Propylene glycol is the most common diol used because it yields polymers with the best overall properties. Glycols OH HO CH2 CH CH3 OH CH2 CH2 O CH2 OH CH2 Propylene glycols CH3 CH3 CH3 C HO CH2 C CH3 C H OH HO Diethylene glycol CH3 C CH3 Bisphenol-A CH3 OH 2.2 lists the more common components used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyesters.2. LLC O C OH O C OH Isophthalic acid OH C O O O Maleic anhydride Cl H Cl OH Cl C Cl O Cl O C O O Chlorendic anhydride .3 pentanediol HO CH2 C CH3 CH2 OH Neopentyl glycol Acids O C O C O Phthalic anhydride OH O C Terephthalic acid O OH C C H C C O Fumaric acid FIGURE 3. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Figure 3.4 Trimethyl-1.

Tests have indicated that general purpose resins will provide satisfactory service with the following materials up to 1258F (528C): Acids Fatty acids Lactic acid.5. They are adequate for use with nonoxidizing mineral acids and corrodents that are relatively mild. These general purpose resins are not normally recommended for use in corrosive service. LLC . 10% Citric acid Oleic acid Benzoic acid Boric acid Magnesium sulfate Nickel chloride Nickel nitrate Nickel sulfate Potassium chloride Potassium sulfate Sodium chloride. 1% Salts Copper sulfate Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferric sulfate Ferrous chloride Magnesium chloride Solvents Glycerine Acetic acid.) Calcium sulfate Amyl alcohol q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 3.1 General Purpose Polyesters These resins have the following formula: O O C C C O C O CH3 C C O O C O C General purpose polyesters are based on phthalic anhydride as the saturated monomer and are the lowest-cost class of resin. The specific polyester resin will determine operating temperatures and corrosion resistance. 10% Calcium chloride (sat. 10% Kerosene Naphtha Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride Ammonium sulfate.160 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers The primary unsaturated polyesters are: General purpose (orthophthalic) Isophthalic Bisphenol A fumarate Hydrogenated bisphenol A Halogenated polyester Terephthalate (PET) The strength of a laminate is primarily determined by the type and amount of reinforcing used.

including seawater. Isophthalic polyesters have a relatively wide range of corrosion resistance. not only in chemical resistance but also in physical properties. kerosine. and gasoline. solutions of alkaline. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. 3. amyl acetate. fishing poles. car and truck bodies. The isophthalic polyester resins are not resistant to acetone. and any application where exposure is confined to ambient conditions. salts of potassium and sodium.7 for the compatibility of isophthalic polyester with selected corrodents. LLC . sodium hydroxide. carbon tetrachloride.5. television satellite dishes.2 Isophthalic Polyesters Isophthalic polyesters have the following formula: CH3 O CH2 CH2 O O C O C O CH2 CH3 CH2 O O C CH CH C O n These polyester resins use isophthalic acid in place of phthalic anhydride as the saturated monomer. 25% phosphoric. In general. They can be formulated to be fire retardant or to protect against the effects of ultraviolet light.Thermoset Polymers 161 General purpose resins are not satisfactory in contact with the following: Oxidizing acids. boats. Refer to Table 3. radomes. tote boxes. or higher concentrations of oxidizing acids. Solvents such as carbon disulfide. and fatty acids. Alkaline solutions such as calcium hydroxide. citric. building materials. This increases the cost to produce. the properties of isophthalic polyesters are superior to the lower-cost general purpose polyesters. carbon disulfide. Bleach solutions such as 5% sodium hypochlorite. benzene. tartaric. This resin predominates in boat building. these resins find application in building panels. It exhibits excellent resistance to all types of water. but it improves physical properties and corrosion resistance. hot distilled water. ethylene glycol. boric. oleic. Most organic salts are also compatible with isophthalic polyesters. For the most part. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. benzoic. and naphtha are also compatible. The standard corrosion grade isophthalic polyesters are made with 1:1 molar ratio of isophthalic acid to maleic anhydride or fumaric acid with propylene glycol. gasoline. sodium carbonate. Solvents such as amyl alcohols. 10–25% sulfuric. formaldehyde. They are satisfactory for use up to 1258F (528C) in acids such as 10% acetic.

10% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium fluoride.162 TABLE 3. aqueous Aluminum chloride. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . 10% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. sat. 80% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride.7 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Isophthalic Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene 8F X 180 110 X X X X X X X 220 X X 250 180 170 140 160 160 180 90 X 160 160 180 90 90 X X 160 160 160 180 X X X 160 X X 160 X 190 140 X 160 90 X X 8C X 82 43 X X X X X X X 104 X X 121 82 77 60 71 71 82 32 X 71 71 32 32 32 X X 71 71 71 82 X X X 71 X X 71 X 88 60 X 71 32 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride.

50% water Chloroacetic acid to 25% Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 25% Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid. 10% Chromic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC 163 . dry Bromine gas. 10% Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. conc. sat. moist Bromine. 10% Calcium hydroxide.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. Calcium hypochlorite. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 15% Citric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzenesulfonic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. wet Chlorine. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide 8F 180 180 X X 140 180 X X X X 80 X 129 160 150 160 160 180 160 160 120 140 160 160 160 X 160 160 X 160 X 160 X X 150 160 160 X X X X X X 140 160 200 160 180 160 8C 82 82 X X 60 82 X X X X 27 X 49 71 66 71 71 82 71 71 49 60 71 71 71 X 71 71 X 71 X 71 X X 66 71 71 X X X X X X 60 71 93 71 82 71 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Chlorine gas.

moist Hydrobromic acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate. 50% Cyclohexane Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 20% Nitric acid. Hydrobromic acid. conc. LLC . Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 20% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 25% Lactic acid. 10% 8F 200 X 170 170 80 X X 120 180 160 180 180 160 X X 120 140 140 160 160 90 X X X 90 X 160 160 180 90 X X 160 120 X X X 120 X X X X 180 X 160 100 90 200 X 8C 93 X 77 77 27 X X 49 82 71 82 82 71 X X 49 60 60 71 71 32 X X X 32 X 71 71 82 32 X X 71 49 X X X 49 X X X X 82 X 71 38 32 93 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.7 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50% Hydrochloric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 70% Nitric acid. general Lactic acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 5% Nitric acid.164 TABLE 3. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. dil. conc.

7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. light weight. nonconductivity. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. and spa applications.2. these resins withstand acids and corrosive salts encountered in foods and food handling. conc. and dimensional stability. 90% Sulfuric acid. tub. 98% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Isopolyester pipes and containment vaults also provide protection against failure from corrosion by acid media. Reference [2] provides information on FRP piping systems.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 70% Sulfuric acid. Recent excavations of 25-year-old FRP underground gasoline storage tanks offer evidence to the resin’s resistance to internal chemical attack or external attack by water in the surrounding soil. platforms. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. The range of successful commercial applications include support structures. 100% Sulfuric acid. and decking can be fabricated. 50% Sodium hydroxide. conc. In food-contact applications. 50% Sulfuric acid. and guard rails. These materials offer several advantages.1 Typical Applications Isophthalic polyesters provide corrosion resistance in a wide variety of end uses.5. Sodium hypochlorite. Currently. there are more than 100 standard structural shapes available from which platforms. Other applications include their use in cooling towers and use as rail cars to transport automobiles. 10% Sulfuric acid. 3. structures. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. grating. LLC . supports. Isopolyesters used in above-ground tanks and tank linings for chemical storage provide similar protection. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 50% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X X X 180 180 160 150 X X X X X X X 110 170 X 180 8C X X X X X 82 82 71 66 X X X X X X X 43 77 X 82 165 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. including corrosion resistance. The water resistance properties of the isophthlates also provide advantages in appearance and performance in cast countertops as well as pool. high strength. ladders.

The aromatic structure provided by the bisphenol-A provides several benefits. The bisphenol polyesters are superior in their corrosion resistant properties to the isophthalic polyesters. 5% Citric All aluminum salts Most ammonium salts Calcium salts Ammonium hydroxide. 5% to 1608F (718C) Calcium hydroxide. They exhibit good performance with moderate alkaline solutions of bleaching agents. 20% to 2008F (938C) Isophthalics are resistant to most all solvents plus Sour crude oil Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Chlorine.3. 15% to 2008F (938C) Potassium hydroxide. The bisphenol polyesters will break down in highly concentrated acids or alkalies. It costs approximately twice as much as a general purpose resin and approximately one-third more than an isophthalic resin. 25% to 1608F (718C) Acetic Benzoic Boric Butyric Chloroacetic. 25% to 1608F (718C) Calcium hypochlorite. 30% Tannic Tartaric Trichloroacetic. wet Linseed oil Sulfur trioxide Rayon waste gases 1508F (668C) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Standard bisphenol-A fumarate resins are derived from the propylene glycol or oxide diether of bisphenol-A and fumaric acid. and the heat distortion point of the resin is mainly raised from the more rigid nature of the aromatic structure. 10% Lactic Maleic Oleic Oxalic Phosphoric. 15% Chromic. Thermal stability is improved. wet Sulfur dioxide.5. dry Sulfur dioxide. The structural formula is shown in Figure 3. LLC . 50% Rayon spin bath Iron salts Zinc salts Sodium chlorite to 2008F (938C) Sodium hydrosulfate to 2008F (938C) Solvents Alcohols at ambient temperatures Glycerine Gases to 2008F (938C) Chlorine.3 Bisphenol A Fumarate Polyesters This is a premium corrosion-resistant grade resin. These resins can be used in the handling of the following materials: Acids to 2008F (938C) Fatty acids Hydrochloric. The number of interior chain ester groups is reduced so the resistance to hydrolysis and saponification is increased. dry Stearic Sulfonic. 80% Salt Solution to 2008F (938C) Most plating solutions Copper salts Alkalies Chlorine dioxide.166 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. Bisphenol A fumarate polyesters have the best hydrolysis resistance of any commercial unsaturated polyester.

3 Chemical structure of bisphenol A fumarate resins. Table 3. and trichloroethane will attack the resin. LLC . and 30% chromic acid will also attack the resin. 80% Acetic acid.8 Compatibility of Bisphenol A–Fumarate Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid.9 lists the compatibility of hydrogenated bisphenol-A fumarate polyesters with selected corrodents. Solvents such as benzene. 10% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.8 for the compatibility of bisphenolA fumarate polyester resin with selected corrodents. ether. sodium hydroxide. Sulfuric acid above 70%. TABLE 3. Refer to Table 3. carbon disulfide. 10% Ammonium chloride. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing.Thermoset Polymers 167 CH3 O CH CH2 CH3 O C CH3 O CH2 CH O CH3 O C CH CH C O n FIGURE 3. 50% 8F X 220 160 160 X 110 X X 100 X 220 X X 220 200 90 160 200 200 200 90 200 220 8C X 104 171 171 X 43 X X 38 X 104 X X 104 93 32 71 93 93 93 32 93 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. methyl ethyl ketone. xylene. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 10% Acetic acid. toluene. 50% Acetic acid. trichloroethylene. aqueous Aluminum fluoride.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. Ammonium fluoride. Calcium hypochlorite. 10% Ammonium fluoride.168 TABLE 3. LLC . 10% Calcium hydroxide. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide 8F 220 180 120 100 140 220 180 80 220 110 80 80 200 X X 220 X 200 220 150 220 140 X X 200 180 X X 220 220 90 100 X 80 80 X 220 180 210 200 220 180 160 80 220 220 160 X 8C 104 82 49 38 60 104 82 27 104 43 27 27 93 X X 104 X 93 104 66 104 60 X X 93 82 X X 104 104 32 38 X 27 27 X 104 82 99 93 104 82 71 27 104 104 71 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Bromine. 20% Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.8 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. dry Bromine gas. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.

liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 30% Hypochlorous acid. 25% Lactic acid. LLC . 20% Iodine solution. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. wet Chlorine. conc. conc. Hydrobromic acid. Magnesium chloride 8F 350 210 X 350 110 90 140 140 80 200 200 X X X X X X 150 220 220 180 220 220 220 X X 100 X 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 160 190 X 200 90 90 200 210 220 220 8C 177 99 X 177 43 32 60 60 27 93 93 X X X X X X 66 104 104 82 104 104 104 X X 38 X 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 71 88 X 93 32 32 93 99 104 104 (continued) 169 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Lactic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10% Chromic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid to 25% Chlorine gas. dil. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. dry Chlorine gas.8 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon dioxide. 15% Citric acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.

Vols. 50% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. anhydrous Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Source: From P. conc. New York: Marcel Dekker. 70% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 100% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 20% Nitric acid. 50% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 160 X X 130 160 100 X X X X 220 110 200 150 160 220 130 220 200 X 210 200 220 220 220 160 X X X X 110 X X 180 180 250 8C 71 X X 54 71 38 X X X X 104 43 93 66 71 104 54 104 93 X 99 93 104 104 104 71 X X X X 43 X X 82 82 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.. Schweitzer. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Nitric acid.A. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 90% Sulfuric acid.170 TABLE 3. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 20% Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 10% Sodium hydroxide.8 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Malic acid Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 2004. 10% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Nitric acid. LLC . 1–4.

9 Compatibility of Hydrogenated Bisphenol A–Bisphenol A Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 50% Citric acid. 10% Acetic acid. conc. 10% Carbon bisulfide Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chloroacetic acid. liquid Butyl acetate n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite. 15% Citric acid. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride. LLC 171 . 50% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Boric acid Bromine. 50% water Chlorine gas.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. sat. 8F 200 160 X X X X 200 X 200 200 200 200 100 X 200 90 X 80 X 180 200 X X 210 X X 210 X X X X 120 210 210 180 X X X 90 210 210 X X 200 210 8C 93 71 X X X X 93 X 93 93 93 93 38 X 93 32 X 27 X 82 93 X X 99 X X 99 X X X X 49 99 99 82 X X X 32 99 99 X X 93 99 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Chloroform Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas.

10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 90% Sulfuric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.9 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10% Perchloric acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Hydrobromic acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50–80% Sodium carbonate. 20% Hydrobromic acid.172 TABLE 3. Sodium hypochlorite. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 50% Sulfuric acid 70 % Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid 25 % Toluene 8F 210 210 210 210 X 210 X 210 200 200 210 210 90 90 180 190 X X X X 210 210 210 210 X X 190 90 X X X X 210 100 210 100 X X 160 210 210 90 X X X X 210 90 8C 99 99 99 99 X 99 X 99 93 93 99 99 32 32 82 88 X X X X 99 99 99 99 X X 88 32 X X X X 99 38 99 38 X X 71 99 99 32 X X X X 99 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. LLC . 5% Oleum Perchloric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid. conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Lactic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.

These resins have a very high heat distortion point. making this the safest possible polyester for stacks. alcohols. These resins have the highest heat resistance of any chemically resistant polyester. These are also known as chlorendic polyesters. Vols. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. organic esters. They also resist neutral and acid salts. nonoxidizing acids. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available.. show very high retention of physical strength at elevated temperature upsets as in flue gas desulfurization scrubbers. 2004. 3. ducts.4 Halogenated Polyesters Halogenated resins consist of chlorinated or brominated polymers. glycols. Source: From P. organic acids.3. 3. and acid halides. Table 3. A noncombustible rating of 20 can be achieved. chlorine water. Schweitzer. and other alkaline organics. They are also inherently fire retardant. ketones. Table 3. and the laminates. Corrosion Resistance Tables.11 provides the compatibility of halogenated polyesters with selected corrodents. wet chlorine. LLC . hoods. fans. amides.9 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 90 200 8C 32 93 173 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. concentrated sulfuric acid.10 is a general application guide. 40% chromic acid. mercaptans. The chlorinated polyester resins cured at room temperature and reinforced with fiberglass possess unique physical. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 1–4. some of which may reach a temperature of 4008F (2048C). This fire retardancy is achieved by the addition of antimony trioxide.5. mechanical. and fats and oils. aldehydes. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. aliphatic. or wherever a fire hazard might exist. These polymers are not resistant to highly alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide. phenols. 70% nitric acid at room temperature. alkaline solutions with pH greater than 10. and 15% hypochlorites. New York: Marcel Dekker. 5th ed. and corrosion resistance properties.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. These laminates are routinely used as chimney liners at temperatures of 240–2808F (116–1388C). primary and aromatic amines.1 Typical Applications Bisphenol A resins find applications similar to the isophthalic resins but in areas requiring greater resistance to corrosion. Excellent resistance is exhibited in contact with oxidizing acids and solutions such as 35% nitric acid at elevated temperatures.A.5.

glacial acetic acid to 1208F/498C Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 1808F/828C Not recommended for continuous exposure Can cause severe attack Can cause severe attack Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 2008F/958C Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 1808F/828C Not recommended Resistant to 2508F/1218C Resistant to 2508F/1218C Resistant to 2128F/1008C. acid Salts. other alkaline organics Esters. aliphatic. organic Fats and oils Glycols Ketones Mercaptans Phenol Salts. 10% Acetic acid. demineralized. distilled. primary aromatic Amides. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum.11 Compatibility of Halogenated Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 10% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate 8F X 140 90 110 100 X X X X 220 X X 200 120 90 170 160 250 8C X 60 32 43 38 X X X X 104 X X 93 49 32 77 71 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Acetic acid.174 TABLE 3. Lowest absorption of any polyester TABLE 3. deionized. steam and condensate Comments Not recommended Resistant to 2508F/1218C Resistant to 2508F/1218C. organic Alcohols Aldehydes Alkaline solutions pH O10 Amines. mineral nonoxidizing Acids.10 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers General Application Guide for Chlorinated Polyester Laminates Environment Acid halides Acids. neutral Water. 10% Aluminum chloride. aqueous Aluminum fluoride. LLC .

Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.11 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Calcium Hypochlorite. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 20% 8F 150 140 200 200 200 140 140 90 90 200 140 150 200 120 100 190 200 X 120 200 X 250 250 X 180 X X 90 120 250 X X 190 180 100 100 X 80 100 X 200 X 150 210 250 250 X 80 8C 66 60 93 93 93 60 60 32 32 93 60 66 93 49 38 85 93 X 49 93 X 121 121 X 82 X X 32 49 121 X X 88 82 38 38 X 27 38 X 93 X 66 99 121 121 X 27 (continued) 175 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. LLC . sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 20% Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Ammonium fluoride. dry Bromine gas. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride. sat. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid. moist Bromine. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 50% Aqua regia 3:1 Barium Carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.

wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.11 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. LLC . 15% Citric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. dil. 10% 8F 220 150 250 140 X 250 250 X 170 120 160 80 100 90 200 220 X X X X 180 140 210 250 250 210 250 250 250 X 140 100 100 X 250 250 250 250 250 160 200 160 200 230 180 150 120 100 8C 104 66 121 60 X 121 121 X 77 49 71 27 38 32 93 104 X X X X 82 60 99 121 121 99 121 121 121 X 60 38 38 X 121 121 121 121 121 71 93 71 93 110 82 66 49 38 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. wet Chlorine.176 TABLE 3. Hydrobromic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Hydrobromic acid. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 25% Chlorine gas. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrochlorous acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid.

2004. 10% Sodium hydroxide.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. Oleum Perchloric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Nitrous acid. 5% Phosphoric acid. 10% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 70% Phenol. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Sulfuric acid. 1–4. conc. Source: From P.. 10% Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid.11 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Lactic acid.A. conc. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous Chloride Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 50% Sulfuric acid. 50% White liquor Zinc chloridex 8F 200 200 250 90 80 X 80 190 210 80 80 90 X 90 90 90 250 100 230 130 190 250 110 X X X X X 80 250 260 200 190 X X X X 80 X 110 200 X 200 8C 93 93 121 32 27 X 27 88 99 27 27 32 X 32 32 32 121 38 110 54 88 121 43 X X X X X 27 121 127 93 88 X X X X 27 X 43 93 X 93 177 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 70% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. LLC . fuming Sulfurous acid. 10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 10% Perchloric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 100% Sulfuric acid. conc. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 25% Lactic acid. 5% Nitric acid. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate. Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Schweitzer. Magnesium Chloride Malic acid. Vols. 5th ed. conc. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available.

and chemical piping among other applications. 50% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Aluminum chloride aqueous Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride. and other areas where potential fire hazards may be present. The trend was seen only at unsaturated acid levels of greater than 50 mol%. TABLE 3. but as the unsaturation increases. the para isomer of phthalic acid. sat. solvent resistance increases. This follows the general trend for thermosets that as crosslink density increases. chemical storage tanks.1 Typical Applications Halogenated polyesters are widely used in the pulp and paper industry in bleach atmospheres where they outperform stainless steel and high-nickel alloys. LLC . Refer to Table 3. Testing has indicated that the benzene resistance of comparably formulated resins is lower for PET versus isophthalic polyesters. 10% Acetic acid.12 Compatibility of Polyester Terephthalate (PET) with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 8F 300 300 X X X 80 170 300 170 8C 149 149 X X X 26 77 149 77 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.5 Terephthalate Polyesters (PET) Terephthalate polyesters are based on terephthalic acid. This was achieved with a reversal performance in 10% sodium hydroxide where the PETwith lower unsaturation was better than the isophthalic level.178 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. The PET’s loss of properties in gasoline is greater than the isophthalics at the same level of unsaturation. 3. They are also used for hightemperature applications such as chimney liners. the gasoline resistance reverses with the PET performing better. The PET’s corrosion resistance is fairly similar to the isophthalics.12 for the compatibility of terephthalate polyester with selected corrodents. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing.5. The properties of cured terephthalic-based polyesters are similar to those of isophthalic polyesters.5. This trend is also followed where retention offlexural modulus is elevated for various terephthalic resins versus the standard grade isophthalic resin. Applications are also found for ductwork. with the terephthalics having higher heat distortion temperatures and being somewhat softer at equal saturation levels.4. fans.

dry Chlorine gas. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. 50% Citric acid.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Boric acid Bromine liquid Butyl acetate Butyric acid Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Carbon tetrachloride Chloroacetic acid. 15% Citric acid. 50% Chlorine gas. 100% Lactic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Hydrochloric acid. wet Chloroform Chromic acid. LLC . conc. conc. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. Copper chloride Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dichloroethane Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl ethyl ketone 8F 140 180 80 250 X 250 80 250 250 X X 250 80 250 200 80 250 250 250 250 250 X 80 80 250 250 250 150 170 170 X 80 X 250 170 250 250 250 250 90 80 X X X 250 250 250 250 8C 70 82 26 121 X 121 26 121 121 X X 121 27 121 93 27 121 121 121 121 121 X 27 27 121 121 121 66 77 77 X 27 X 121 77 121 121 121 121 32 27 X X X 121 121 121 121 (continued) 179 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid.

They find usage in many applications.A. 98% Sulfuric acid. 3. New York: Marcel Dekker. 2004. 1–4. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and they are still widely used. 50–80% Sodium carbonate. 50% Sodium hydroxide. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. 20% Sulfuric acid. Their versatility is due to the wide latitude in properties that can be achieved by formulation. 10% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid.5. 100% Sulfuric acid. conc. fuming Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F X 90 150 X X X 250 250 250 150 X X 80 160 140 X X X X X 250 250 250 8C X 32 66 X X X 121 121 121 66 X X 27 71 60 X X X X X 121 121 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 3. 90% Sulfuric acid.6 Epoxy Polyesters Epoxy-based thermosets are the most widely used and versatile thermosets.5. 5th ed. Vols. and molding compounds. 10% Sodium hydroxide.1 Typical Applications The terephthalates are used in applications similar to those of the isophthalates but where corrosive conditions and temperatures are more moderate. Source: From P. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. including adhesives.. coatings. Sodium hypochlorite. encapsulants.12 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. tooling compounds. LLC .180 TABLE 3. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 50% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. 5% Perchloric acid. They dominated the reinforcing piping field until the introduction of the vinyl esters. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. composites. 10% Perchloric acid.

products of different molecular weight can be produced. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .4. n is 2 or greater. electrical laminates.6. for solid resins.2-epoxide is ethylene oxide: O CH2 CH2 A common term used in naming epoxy resins is the term “glycidyl. usually formed by the reaction of o-cresol or phenol and formaldehyde with epichlorohydrin. Figure 3. For liquid resins. and curing agents are available that permit the epoxy formulator to tailor the epoxy system to meet the needs of each application. modifiers. Two or more epoxide groups per molecule are required to form a cross-linked network. and parts where superior thermal properties and high resistance to solvents and chemicals are required. These materials are used as transfer molding powders. By controlling operating conditions and varying the ratio of epichlorohydrin to bisphenol A. The chemical structure is shown in Figure 3.Thermoset Polymers 181 A large variety of epoxy resins. Solids with very high meeting points have n values as high as 20. The simplest 1. the n in the structured formula is generally less than 1.1 Resin Types The epoxide or oxirane functionality is a three membered carbon-oxygencarbon ring. They are produced by reacting a novolac resin. 3. It is available in both liquid and solid forms.4 illustrates the structures of the most common epoxy resins in use today. The novolacs are another class of epoxy resins. The most widely used thermoset epoxy is the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA).” The terminology for the glycidyl group: O CH2 CHCH2 comes from the trivially named glycidyl O CH2 CHCH2OH and glycidic acid: O CH2 CHCOOH Figure 3.5 shows the general structure.

To achieve a balance of application properties and initial handling q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.2 Curing Epoxy resins must be cured with cross-linking agents (hardeners) or catalysts to develop desired properties.4epoxycyclohexane carboxylate O CH CH2 O Vinyl cyclohexane diepoxide O CH3 (CH2)2 CH2 O CH2 CH CH2 Butyl glycidyl ether CH3 O O CH3 CH CH2 O C O CH2 CH CH2 CH3 Diglycidyl ether of neopentyl glycol FIGURE 3.182 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers O CH2 CH2 O CH3 C OH O CH2 CH CH2 O n CH3 O CH3 O O CH2 CH CH2 CH3 Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol-A O CH2 CH CH2 O CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol-F O O CH2 CH CH2 CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 Glycidyl ether of phenolic novolac n O O CH CH2 CH2 CH N CH2 N CH CH2 CH2 CH O O Tetraglycidyl ether of Methylenedianiline O O CH2 O C O 3. Cross-linking takes place at the epoxy and hydroxyl groups that are the reaction sites. aldehyde condensation products. anhydrides. Useful agents are amines.4 epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3.6. and Lewis acid catalysts. 3.4 Common commercial epoxy resins. LLC .

2.Thermoset Polymers 183 O O CH2 CH CH2 O CH2 CH O CH2 O CH2 CH O CH2 CH2 CH2 n FIGURE 3. 3. Epoxies cured with aromatic amines usually have a longer working life than epoxies cured with aliphatic amines. 3. and benzyl dimethylamine (BDMA). Typical acid q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Aromatic Amines Aromatic amines usually require an elevated temperature cure. 3. The electrical and physical properties of these aliphatic-cured resins had the greatest tendency toward degradation of electrical and physical properties at elevated temperatures. High exothermic temperatures develop during the curing reaction that limit the mass of material that can be cured.3 Catalytic Curing Agents Catalytic curing agents require a temperature of 2008F (938C) or higher to react.6.2 Aliphatic Amines These are widely used because the curing of the epoxies takes place at room temperature. and acid anhydrides.2.2. and offer optimum high-temperature properties to the cured resin. the allowable operating temperature for epoxies cured with aromatic amines are higher than those epoxies cured with aliphatic amines. The primary types of curing agents are aromatic amines. The exothermic reaction may be critically affected by the mass of the resin mixture. catalytic curing agents.2.6.5 General structure of novolac epoxy resins. Typical materials used include piperidine.6. Typical aliphatic amines used include diethylene triamine (DETA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA). have minimum toxicity problems compared with amines. careful selection of the proper curing agent is required. boron trifluoride ethylamine complex. LLC . 3.6.4 Acid Anhydrides These curing agents are becoming more widely used because they are easy to work with. These epoxy formulations exhibit a longer working life than the aliphatic amine cured epoxies. aliphatic amines. characteristics. However. These curing agents are relatively difficult to use because they are solids and must be melted into the epoxy.

10% Sulfamic acid. and impregnating) in molded parts and laminated construction are the predominant uses. 3. and alkendic anyhydride. Refer to Reference [2] for more details. They are also widely used in the electronics field because of the wide variety of formulations possible.3 Corrosion Resistance The epoxy resin family exhibits good resistance to alkalies. encapsulating. casting. non-oxidizing acids. Typically.4 Typical Applications Epoxy resins find many applications in the chemical process industry as piping. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% to 1808F (828C) Bases Calcium hydroxide Rayon spin bath Oxalic acid Sodium hydroxide. 3. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. and many solvents. hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA).6. 50% to 1808F (828C) Sodium sulfide. dodecenyl succenic anhydride (DDSA). 70% Methylene chloride Wet chlorine gas Hydrogen peroxide Wet sulfur dioxide Refer to Table 3.184 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers anhydrides used include nadic methyl anhydride (NMA). 10% Aluminum Calcium Iron Alcohols Methyl Ethyl Magnesium hydroxide Distilled water Seawater White liquor Bromine water Chromic acid Bleaches Trisodium phosphate Salts Magnesium Sodium Metallic salts Most ammonium salts Potassium Solvents Isopropyl to 1508F (668C) Naphtha Benzene to 1508F (668C) Toluene Ethylacetate to 1508F Xylene (668C) Miscellaneous Sour crude oil Diesel fuel Jet fuel Black liquor Gasoline Epoxies are not satisfactory for use with Fluorine Sulfuric acid above. 10% (1508F (668C)) Benzoic acid Butyric acid Fatty acids Hydrochloric acid.13 for the compatibility of epoxies with selected corrodents. Formulations range from flexible to rigid in the cured state and from thin liquids to thick pastes and molding powders in the uncured state.6. epoxies are compatible with the following materials at 2008F (938C) unless otherwise noted: Acids Acetic acid. LLC . Embedding applications (potting.

aqueous. 10% Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. LLC 185 . 10–40% Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide. 1% Aluminum chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas. dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.13 Compatibility of Epoxy with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. sat. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Benzoic acid 8F 150 90 190 110 110 X 110 X X 90 250 X 140 300 300 90 180 180 250 300 210 90 140 180 150 140 150 250 250 140 300 100 80 140 80 150 180 X 240 250 200 250 300 X 160 160 200 8C 66 32 88 43 43 X 43 X X 32 121 X 60 149 149 32 82 82 121 149 99 32 60 82 60 60 66 121 121 60 149 38 27 60 27 66 82 X 116 121 93 121 149 X 71 71 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ammonium nitrate. sat. 80% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 10% Acetic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

92% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 70% Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Calcium acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid. dry Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Calcium hypochlorite. dry Chlorine gas. 50% Citric acid.186 TABLE 3. 15% Citric acid. 17% Cresol Cupric chloride. 5% Cupric chloride. 32% Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate. moist Bromine.5% Calcium hydroxide. 50% 8F X 60 250 200 X X X 100 170 140 X 210 200 300 200 190 180 150 250 250 X 100 200 100 80 170 200 140 150 X 150 X 150 110 X 110 X 190 190 200 150 250 150 210 100 80 80 8C X 16 121 93 X X X 38 77 60 X 99 93 149 93 88 82 66 121 121 X 38 93 38 27 77 93 60 66 X 66 X 66 43 X 43 X 88 88 93 66 121 66 99 38 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 4% Bromine gas. LLC . 10% Chromic acid. dry Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride. sat. 37.

10% Sodium hydroxide. 5% Nitric acid. dry Hydrobromic acid. dil. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 20% Nitric acid. conc. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 25% Lactic acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 8F 90 80 X X 300 300 250 250 250 90 180 180 110 200 140 160 X X X 200 X 220 200 190 X 90 140 140 160 100 X X X X 90 80 X 110 80 200 140 300 210 190 200 X X 8C 32 27 X X 149 149 121 121 121 32 82 82 43 93 60 71 X X X 93 X 104 93 88 X 32 60 60 71 38 X X X X 32 27 X 43 27 93 60 149 99 88 93 X X (continued) 187 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . general Lactic acid.13 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. conc. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 38% Hydro cyanic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. Hydrobromic acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid.

70% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. LLC . Over the next several years. Vols. 5th ed. 100% Sulfuric acid. This improved toughness permits the resins to be used in castings as well as in reinforced products. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. changes in the molecular structure of the vinyl esters produced resins that found extensive use in corrosion-resistant equipment. 10% Sulfuric acid.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium sulfide to 10% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.A. Present-day vinyl esters possess several advantages over unsaturated polyesters.7 Vinyl Esters The vinyl ester class of resins was developed during the late 1950s and early 1960s. 98% Sulfuric acid.188 TABLE 3. New York: Marcel Dekker. fuming Sulfurous acid. 20% Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 250 200 160 140 110 110 X X X X 240 X 150 X 90 250 8C 121 93 71 60 43 43 X X X X 116 X 66 X 32 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. These resins have improved bonding to inorganic fillers and reinforcements as a result of the internal hydroxyl group. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. They provide improved toughness in the cured polymer while maintaining good thermal stability and physical properties at elevated temperatures. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available.6. replacing acrylic materials that were being used at that time. Schweitzer. 1–4.. Vinyl ester resins are also available in halogenated modifications for ductwork and stack construction where fire retardance and ignition q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 3. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Source: From P. 2004. The structural formulas for typical vinyl ester resins are shown in Figure 3. Composites produced from vinyl esters have improved bonding to the reinforcements and improved damage resistance. Vinyl esters were first used as dental fillings.

2. and mechanical shock than the chlorendic and bisphenol polyester resins.Thermoset Polymers 189 CH3 O H2C C C OH CH3 C CH3 DGEBA vinyl ester OH O CH3 C O CH2 CH CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 O C C CH2 n O CH3 OH CH CH2 O C C CH2 CH2 O CH2 O CH3 OH CH CH2 O C C CH2 CH2 O CH2 O CH3 OH CH CH2 O C C CH2 CH2 O n Phenolic novalac vinyl ester FIGURE 3. In general.6 Structural formula for typical vinyl ester resins. it is more resistant to hydrolysis and oxidation or halogenation than the polyesters. As a result. Because of the basic structure of the vinyl ester molecule. resistance are major concerns. pressure fluctuations. LLC . vinyl esters can be used to handle most hot. highly chlorinated. Vinyl esters excel in alkaline and bleach environments and are used extensively in the very corrosive conditions found in the pulp and paper industry. They also provide excellent resistance to strong mineral acids and bleaching solutions. The family of vinyl esters includes a wide variety of formulations. They cure rapidly and give high early strength and superior creep resistance as a result of their molecular structure. They provide excellent fiber wet-out and good adhesion to the glass fiber. there can be differences in the compatibility of formulations among q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 3. Vinyl ester laminates have slightly higher strengths than polyesters. Exceptions to this are the vinyl ester resins having a novolac backbone. The vinyl ester resins have an upper temperature limit of approximately 2258F (1078C). The vinyl esters have better impact resistance and greater tolerance to cyclic temperatures. they are similar to the amine-cured epoxies but less than the heat-cured epoxies. In many cases. These resins can be used at 325–3508F (163–1778C). Vinyl esters have a number of basic advantages including: 1. 4. but they are not as high as the heat-cured epoxies. This results in a tough laminate that is resistant to cracking and crazing. 5. and acid mixtures at elevated temperatures.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium chloride. one must keep in mind that all formulations may not act as shown. When one checks compatibility in a table. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. sat. LLC . 10% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonia bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. An indication that vinyl ester is compatible generally means that at least one formulation is compatible. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Ammonium fluoride.14 that shows the compatibility of TABLE 3. This is the case in Table 3. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite 8F X 200 180 150 150 100 X X 100 X 180 90 90 240 210 260 140 100 200 200 250 100 150 150 200 200 200 140 140 100 130 250 180 200 220 120 220 8C X 93 82 66 66 38 X X 38 X 82 32 32 116 99 127 60 38 93 93 121 38 66 66 93 93 93 60 60 38 54 121 82 93 104 49 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.14 Compatibility of Vinyl Ester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.190 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers manufacturers. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 50% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride.

10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. moist Bromine. LLC . dry Bromine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. sat.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 50% water 8F 110 210 120 X 160 X 260 200 150 200 180 X X 200 180 100 90 210 200 100 100 X 80 120 X 130 180 180 260 180 180 180 180 210 160 250 220 X 200 220 X 350 180 120 140 150 8C 38 99 49 X 71 X 127 93 66 93 82 X X 93 82 38 32 99 93 38 38 X 27 49 X 54 82 82 127 82 82 82 82 99 71 116 104 X 93 104 X 177 82 49 60 66 (continued) 191 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

15% Citric acid. wet Chlorine. 25% Lactic acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. dil. Magnesium chloride 8F 200 250 250 X 110 X X 150 X 210 210 210 210 220 210 240 X 260 220 150 150 200 100 110 210 210 210 200 200 200 X X 180 180 200 220 180 160 X X X 150 150 X 210 200 260 8C 93 121 121 X 43 X X 66 X 99 99 99 99 104 99 116 X 127 104 66 66 93 38 43 99 99 99 93 93 93 X X 82 82 93 104 82 71 X X X 66 66 X 99 93 127 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. Hydrobromic acid.192 TABLE 3. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. conc. LLC . conc. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. general Lactic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. dry Chlorine gas. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Ketones. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.14 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Fluorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10% Chromic acid.

New York: Marcel Dekker. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 140 210 X X 180 180 150 X X 150 X 150 X X 210 200 160 150 180 180 170 220 180 100 220 210 200 200 210 180 X X X X 120 X 120 210 180 180 8C 60 99 X X 82 82 66 X X 66 X 66 X X 99 93 71 66 82 82 77 104 82 38 104 99 93 93 99 82 X X X X 49 X 49 99 82 82 193 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 1–4. 10% Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid.A. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. Vols. conc. 5% Nitric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 50% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Perchloric acid. 10% Oleum Perchloric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 2004. LLC . Source: From P. Sodium hypochlorite. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 100% Sulfuric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 20% Nitric acid. Schweitzer. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 5th ed. conc.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Malic acid. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid..

ducts. Curing for a fresh laminate should start with an initial temperature of 508F (668C) for 4 h. With an acid catalyst. 3. The resin manufacturer must be consulted to verify the resistance. Furan resin catalysts should have exotherms above 658F (188C) but not over 858F (308C). Because there are different formulations of furans. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. and combinations of solvents with acids and bases. Reference [2] provides detailed information concerning vinyl esters as piping materials. caustics. The structural formula for the resin is: O CH2 O CH2 CH2 O O CH2 Furan thermosets are noted for their excellent resistance to solvents.194 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers vinyl ester laminates with selected corrodents. storage tanks. polymerization occurs by the condensation route. which generates heat and a by-product of water. They also exhibit excellent resistance to strong concentrated mineral acids. Too fast a cure can result in a blistered or cracked laminate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. the supplier should be consulted as to the compatibility of a particular resin with the corrodents to be encountered. LLC . The exotherm must be controlled to prevent the water vapor from blistering and cracking the laminate. hood scrubbers. piping. which all handling corrosive materials. A final Barcol hardness of 40–45 is necessary to develop optimum laminate properties. process vessels. They are considered to have the best overall chemical resistance of all the thermosets. and exhaust stacks. which is slowly raised to 1808F (828C) for 8 h of curing.7. 3.1 Typical Applications Vinyl ester laminates are used in industrial equipment and scrubbers such as absorption towers.8 Furans Furan polymers are derivatives of furfuryl alcohol and furfural. All furan laminates must be postured to drive out the reaction condensate to achieve optimum properties.

50% Acetic acid. 5% Phosphoric acid Bases Sodium sulfide Water Distilled Others Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Trichloroethylene Xylene Sulfuric acid. peroxides. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. 60% to 1508F (668C) Sodium hydroxide. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid. and concentrated sulfuric acid. 5% Aluminum chloride. 50% Furan resins are not satisfactory for use with oxidizing media such as chromic or nitric acids. phenol. 25% Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum. hypochlorites. LLC .15 for the compatibility of furan resins with selected corrodents.15 Compatibility of Furan Resins with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonium carbonate 8F X 212 160 80 80 80 80 200 80 80 280 300 300 140 300 300 280 260 160 240 8C X 100 71 27 27 27 27 93 27 27 138 149 149 60 149 149 138 127 71 116 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. chlorine. Refer to Table 3.Thermoset Polymers 195 Typical materials with which furan resins are compatible are: Acetone Benzene Carbon disulfide Chlorobenzene Perchloroethylene Acetic acid Hydrochloric acid Diethylamine Sodium carbonate Demineralized Pulp mill liquor Solvents Styrene Toluene Ethanol Ethyl acetate Acids Nitric acid. TABLE 3.

dry Bromine gas. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. sat.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide.196 TABLE 3. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. LLC . 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 3% max Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Cellosolve 8F 250 200 250 260 260 260 260 240 260 278 X 80 250 X 240 260 260 260 80 160 160 260 80 140 140 300 X X 300 260 212 X 260 260 160 260 X 260 260 250 160 90 80 260 212 240 8C 121 93 121 127 127 127 127 116 127 137 X 27 121 X 116 127 127 127 27 71 71 127 27 60 60 149 X X 149 127 100 X 127 127 71 127 X 127 127 121 71 32 27 127 100 116 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. liquid. sat.

20% Hydrobromic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. Magnesium chloride 8F 100 240 260 260 X 260 X 260 X X 250 250 250 260 260 240 300 260 300 300 140 X 250 160 260 160 160 160 X X 212 212 212 212 80 160 230 140 140 X X 100 212 160 260 8C 38 116 127 127 X 127 X 127 X X 121 121 121 127 127 116 149 127 149 149 60 X 121 71 127 71 71 71 X X 100 100 100 100 27 71 110 60 60 X X 38 100 71 127 (continued) 197 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Chlorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Ketones. dil. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Fluorine gas. conc. 25% Lactic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. conc. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. LLC . 10% Hydrofluoric acid.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroacetic acid. Hydrobromic acid. general Lactic acid. 15% Citric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. wet Chlorine. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.

70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 30% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 260 200 120 80 160 80 X X X X X 190 X 260 X 212 260 260 212 260 X X X X X 260 260 250 160 80 80 X X X X 160 X 212 80 140 160 8C 127 93 49 27 71 27 X X X X X 88 X 127 X 100 127 127 100 127 X X X X X 127 127 121 71 27 27 X X X X 71 X 100 27 60 71 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. conc. 10% Perchloric acid.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Malic acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 50% Sulfuric acid. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sodium hypochlorite. Vols. 15% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sulfuric acid. 2004. conc. Source: From P. New York: Marcel Dekker. conc. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 50% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Schweitzer. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 100% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide.. Sodium sulfide to 10% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 5% Nitric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X.198 TABLE 3. 98% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 1–4. 90% Sulfuric acid.A. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 70% Nitric acid.

fillers. 3. after the “heat and pressure” patent was applied for in 1907 by Leo H. phenolics are used to bond friction materials for automotive brake linings.8.1 Typical Applications In addition to molding compounds. lubricants. Organic polar solvents capable of hydrogen bonding. Sulfuric and phosphoric acids may be suitable under some conditions. There is some loss of properties when phenolics are in contact with organic acids such as acetic. and oxalic. They find application as piping. especially aromatics and chlorinated solvents. 3. and hydrochloric cause severe degradation. tanks. An extremely large number of phenolic materials are available as a result of the many resin and filler combinations. Although phenolics have an aromatic character. the ratios used. They serve as binders for core material in furniture. depending on the nature of the reactants. selected corrodents. and special equipment such as scrubbing columns. Strong mineral acids also attack the phenolics. can attack phenolics. Bakeland. the water-resistant adhesive for exterior grade plywood. chromic. and q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.9. Phenolics are not suitable for use in strong alkaline environments. formic. Refer to Reference [2] for more information regarding furan piping systems. The structural formula is: OH CH2 O CH2 OH n Phenolic compounds are available in a large number of variations. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing.Thermoset Polymers 199 3. Refer to Table 3.9 Phenolics These are the oldest commercial classes of polymers in use today. LLC . and acids such as nitric. binders for wood particle boards. Although first discovered in 1876. that the development and application of phenolic molding compounds became economical. the phenolic hydroxyls provide sites for hydrogen bonding and attack by caustics. it was not until. Phenolic resin precursors are formed by a condensation reaction and water is formed as a by-product. alcohols and ketones. and the catalysts. plasticizers.1 Typical Applications Furan resins cost approximately 30–50% more than polyester resins and do not have as good of an impact resistance as the polyesters. clutch parts. Phenolic resins exhibit resistance to most organic solvents. and transmission bands. and pigments employed.16 for the compatibility of phenolics with.

sat. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonia bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.200 TABLE 3.16 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Phenolics with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride 8F 8C 212 100 70 70 X 21 21 X 90 32 300 90 90 80 80 80 149 32 32 27 27 27 X X 160 X X 71 300 149 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium chloride. LLC .

10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 10% Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Chlorine gas. LLC . dry Carbon dioxide. 10% 8F 8C 201 70 160 70 21 71 21 70 21 X X 160 71 300 149 X X 300 300 149 149 200 200 93 93 X X 260 160 X X X 127 71 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Chlorine. 25% Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Bromine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. moist Bromine.

10% Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 15% Citric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 5% Nitric acid. conc. 60% Hydrofluoric acid. 40% Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. LLC . moist Hydrobromic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 20% 8F X 160 160 8C X 71 71 300 149 70 300 300 21 149 149 200 200 200 300 300 X X X 93 93 93 149 149 X X X 160 71 160 X 160 300 X X 71 X 71 149 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dil. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.202 TABLE 3. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Ketones. 10–50% Ferrous chloride. Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. dry Fluorine gas.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. conc. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. general Lactic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid.

10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. industrial. conc. The excellent water resistance of phenolics makes them particularly suitable for marine applications. 98% Sulfuric acid. LLC . They also find applications as gears. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. Oleum Perchloric acid. and automotive applications. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. or cushioning for home. 70% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 70% Nitric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Schweitzer. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 1–4. 2004. 10% Sulfuric acid. 30% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 8C X X 203 X 212 X 100 300 X X X X X 149 X X X X X 250 250 200 70 X X 80 200 121 121 93 21 X X 27 93 300 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sulfuric acid.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. conc. Vols. 10% Perchloric acid. 5th ed. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 15% Sodium hypochlorite. Source: From P. Decorative or electrical laminates are produced by impregnating paper with phenolic resins.A. Sodium hypochlorite. the bonding agent for converting organic and inorganic fibers into acoustical and thermal insulation pads. New York: Marcel Dekker. 100% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.. baths. anhydrous Nitrous acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. conc.

terminal blocks. 3.10.10 Phenol-Formaldehyde As the name implies. When graphite is used as a filler. their water absorption is high. It is sold under the tradename of Haveg SP. Phenol-formaldehyde laminates are generally used with mineral acids. and piping.7. Refer to Table 3. or high voltage usually result in complete arcing breakdown. and even though high filler loading can improve the low-power arc resistance. LLC H OH OH C C C C C H H H C C C C H C H H C C C C C . dirt. a division of Ametek. reaching 14% in some paper-based grades of laminates. However. and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The laminates are only available in dark colors. and pulleys. The structural formula is shown in Figure 3. produces a phenolic piping system using silica filaments and filler. Second. Their use is limited because of two disadvantages. usually brown or black. these resins are derived from phenol and formaldehyde. Haveg. in general. and pulleys because of their wear and abrasion resistance. salts. 3.7 Structural formula for phenol-formaldehyde resins. they have somewhat poor resistance to electric arcs. the laminate is suitable for use with hydrofluoric acid and certain fluoride salts. Because of their suitability in a variety of environments. Phenol-formaldehyde is crosslinked phenolic resin and. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. they are used in printed circuits and terminal blocks. wheels.204 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers wheels. moisture. Refer to Reference [2] for more details. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. Reference [2] provides details on phenol-formaldehyde H C H H H C H FIGURE 3. it does not have the impact resistance of the polyesters or epoxies. has approximately the same basic physical and mechanical properties as other phenolic resins. Although they maintain their properties in the presence of water. because of the nature of the resin.1 Typical Applications Applications include gears. printed circuits.17 for the compatibility of phenol-formaldehyde with selected corrodents. Inc.

glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid. dil. liquid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. sat. 5% Cupric chloride. Calcium hypochlorite Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorine gas. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Benzyl chloride Boric acid Bromine. Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 40% Hydrobromic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 90% Acrylonitrile Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 8F X 212 160 120 120 X X 80 X 300 300 300 X X 160 X X 160 160 160 300 300 260 300 X X X 160 212 160 160 160 80 X X 300 300 300 80 300 300 300 212 8C X 100 71 49 49 X X 27 X 149 149 149 X X 71 X X 71 71 71 149 149 127 149 X X X 71 100 71 71 71 27 X X 149 149 149 27 149 149 149 100 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.17 Compatibility of Phenol-Formaldehyde with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. dry Chlorine gas. dry Aluminum sulfate Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC 205 . 50% Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 3% max Butyric acid Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. 50% Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. sat. 10% Acetic acid.

20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 90% Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid. rocket nozzles. Vols. 5% Nitric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which date are available. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Lactic acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 2004.17 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid.. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Schweitzer. 70% Sulfuric acid.206 TABLE 3. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sulfuric acid. anhydrous Phenol Phosphoric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. Phenol-formaldehyde resins have high heat resistance and good char strengths. nose cones.A. they find application as ablative shields for re-entry vehicles. conc. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. LLC . They also produce less smoke and toxic by-products of combustion and are often used as interior aircraft panels. Source: From P. Because of this. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. piping systems. conc. Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. and rocket motor chambers. New York: Marcel Dekker. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 30% Zinc chloride 8F 212 300 300 160 X X X X 160 160 300 X X 300 X X X X X 212 X X X X X X 300 300 250 100 160 80 212 80 300 8C 100 149 149 71 X X X X 71 71 149 X X 149 X X X X X 100 X X X X X X 149 149 121 38 71 27 100 27 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 15% Sodium hypochlorite. 5th ed. 1–4.

but aromatic solvents such as benzene. depending upon the properties required and the application. lubricity. and reactivity with organic chemicals and polymers. These are 1.11 Silicones Silicon is in the same chemical group as carbon. or vinyl (CH2aCH–) units. Although they exhibit excellent resistance to water and weathering. These groups impact properties such as solvent resistance. Excellent electrical properties over a wide range of temperature and frequencies 6. These materials are also useful in the cryogenic temperature range. the silicon atoms will have one or more organic side groups attached to them. animal and vegetable oils. but it is a more stable element. and chlorinated solvents will cause excessive swelling. gasoline. toluene. and lubrication oils. The basic structure is: CH3 Si CH3 O CH3 Si CH3 O n Typically. Low surface tension 7. Silicone polymers may be filled or unfilled. Inertness and compatibility both physiologically and in electronic applications Silicone resins and composites produced with silicon resins exhibit outstanding long-term thermal stability at temperatures approaching 5728F (3008C) and excellent moisture resistance and electrical properties. LLC . alcohol. They are also resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. Extreme water repellency 4. High degree of slip or lubricity 8. generally phenol (CH6H5–). methyl (CH3). Silicone polymers possess several properties that distinguish them from their organic counterparts. they are not resistant to high-pressure. They have a backbone structure of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms rather than a backbone of carbon–carbon atoms. Silicone laminates can be used in contact with dilute acids and alkalies. Chemical inertness 2. The silicones are a family of synthetic polymers that are partly organic and inorganic. high-temperature steam.Thermoset Polymers 207 3. Weather resistance 3. Uniform properties over a wide temperature range 5. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Excellent release properties 9.

the silicon atoms may have one or more organic side groups attached. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium chloride. 20% 8F 90 90 90 90 100 80 X 220 410 X 80 80 80 X 210 80 X X X 80 X X X 390 80 400 300 200 400 X X 400 400 X X 400 400 X 90 8C 32 32 32 32 43 27 X 104 210 X 27 27 27 X 99 27 X X X 27 X X X 189 27 204 149 99 204 X X 204 204 X X 204 204 X 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The addition of these side groups has an effect on the corrosion resistance. sat. Carbon bisulfide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbonic acid Chlorobenszen Chlorosulfonic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Hydrobromic acid.18 Compatibility of Methyl Appended Silicone Laminate with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. TABLE 3. 50% Ammonium chloride. Table 3. sat. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 80% Acetic acid.208 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers As previously discussed. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. glacial Acetone Acrylic acid. LLC . 30% Calcium hydroxide. 75% Acrylonitrile Alum Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride. it is necessary to check with the supplier as to the properties of the silicone laminate being supplied. Therefore.18 lists the compatibility of a silicone laminate with methyl-appended side groups. 25% Ammonium nitrate Amly acetate Amly alcohol Amly chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Benzene Benzyl chloride Boric acid Butyl alcohol Calcium bisulfide Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.

1–4. 10% Sodium hydroxide. fuming Sulfurous acid Tartaric acid Tetrahydrofuran Toluene Tributyl phosphate Turpentine Vinegar Water. acid mine Water. 50–80% Propyl alcohol Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. anhydrous Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature. LLC .Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 2004. 100% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 30% Lactic acid. conc. 10% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. Schweitzer.18 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrochloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. distilled Water. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Sodium hypochlorite. Lactic acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Sodium hydroxide.A. 50% Sulfuric acid. salt Water. 50% Sodium hydroxide. demineralized Water. 98% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. 70% Nitric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. conc. Vols.. sea Xylene Zinc chloride 8F X X 80 80 400 410 X X 80 X X X X X X 400 300 400 90 90 90 X 400 80 X X X X X X X X 400 X X X X 400 210 210 210 210 210 X 400 8C X X 27 27 204 210 X X 23 X X X X X X 204 149 204 32 32 32 X 204 27 X X X X X X X X 204 X X X X 204 99 99 99 99 99 X 204 209 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 20% Nitric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Sodium sulfate Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. all conc.

aged Sulfate liquor (paper) Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid. salt White liquor (paper) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 3. 17% Sodium hypochlorite. 0–37% Hydrofluoric acid. The absence of the hydroxyl (found in epoxies) and ester groups (found in vinyl esters) eliminates the built-in failure modes of other polymers and provides superior performance. 1% Hydrochloric acid.11. deionized Water. 1–98% Sulfuric acid. Siloxirane laminates have a wide range of chemical resistance. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. The end products are extremely resistant to material abrasion and have an operating temperature range of K80 to C5008F (K62 to C2608C). glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Aluminum chloride Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide Aqua regia Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Black liquor Bromine hypochlorite Carbon tetrachloride Chloric acid Chlorine water Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chromic acid.1 Typical Applications Silicone laminates find application as radomes. ablation shields. fuming oleum Tallow Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroethylene Tricresyl phosphate Water. The operating temperature will be tempered by the material being handled. 10% Chromic acid.12 Siloxirane Siloxirane is the registered trademark for Tankenitics homopolymerized polymer with a cross-linked organic–inorganic (SiO) backbone with oxirane endcaps. heaters. Following is a list of some of the chemicals with which siloxirane is compatible: Acetamide Acetic acid. and terminal boards. slot wedges. 85% Sodium chloride Sodium dichromate Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite. LLC . 50% Dibutyl phthalate Dichlorobenzene Dimethylformamide Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ferric chloride Formaldehyde Furan Furfural alcohol Gasohol Gasoline Green liquor Hydraulic oil Hydrazine Hydrochloric acid.210 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. structures in electronics. highly cross-linked molecular structure. coil forms. rocket components. 52% Iodine Jet fuel Kerosene Ketones Latex Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Methylene chloride Molten sulfur Monochloroacetic acid Nickel plating solutions Nitrous oxide Phosphoric acid Phosphoric acid. Siloxirane is a homopolymerized polymer with an ether crosslinkage (carbon–oxygen–carbon) having a very dense.

They are also resistant to greases. However.14 Melamines Melamine is a polymer formed by a condensation reaction between formaldehyde and amino compounds containing NH2 groups. They are used in refrigerators. 3. Flexible foam has also been used in furniture. 3. Because of the hazards involved in handling free isocyanate. picnic boxes. Foam materials blown with halocarbons have the lowest thermal conductivity of any commercially available insulation.1 Typical Applications Siloxirane laminates are used in piping. depending on the formulation. Aromatic hydrocarbons. and chlorinated hydrocarbons. esters. polar solvents. they are also referred to as melamine formaldehydes. aliphatic. aqueous. and the product of pressure (psig) and the diameter in inches may not exceed 7200.13 Polyurethanes Polyurethanes are reaction products of isocyanates. and curing agents. butane-diol-cured polyurethanes have been approved by the FDA for use in applications that will come into contact with dry. Melamine resin can be combined with a variety of reinforcing fibers.13. Polyurethane thermosets can be rigid or flexible. LLC . the best properties are obtained when glass cloth is used as the q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Some 1–4. storage tanks. Vessels produced from Siloxirane have been approved to receive ASME Section X Class 11 certification and stamping as code vessels. packaging. This makes these materials particularly useful for service in contact with lubricating oils and automotive fuels.1 Typical Applications Applications include large automotive parts and building components. and ketones will attack urethane.Thermoset Polymers 211 3.12. and fatty foods. ductwork. Polyurethanes can be formulated to produce a range of materials from elastomers as soft as Shore A of 5 to tough solids with a Shore D of 90. and tank liners. Class 11 vessels may be a maximum of 144 inches in diameter. and shock and vibration mounts. Their structural formula is shown in Figure 3. polyols.8. Polyurethane resin is resistant to most mineral and vegetable oils. and building construction. prepolymers of the isocyanate and the polyol are generally used in casting. 3. fuels. Consequently.

However. are tasteless and odorless. LLC . Finished melamine products exhibit excellent resistance to moisture. Included are such materials as Beet juice Bluing Dyes Ink Iodine solution Mercurochrome solution Phenol (lysol) Tea Vinegar q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Melamine laminates are compatible with the following chemicals: Acetone Alcohol Ammonium hydroxide. and solvents.212 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers CH2 N H H CH2 N C N N C N H C N N H (CH2)2 N N C H C N N C N H (CH2)2 H N C N N C H C N CH2 N N H CH2 CH2 FIGURE 3. The basic material properties are not affected by the addition of color. but some color changes may take place. 10% Amyl acetate Carbon tetrachloride Citric acid Coffee Detergent Fly spray Gasoline Moth spray Mustard Naphtha Olive oil Soaps Shoe polish Sodium bisulfite Trisodium phosphate Urine Water Wax and crayons There are certain chemicals and household preparations that tend to stain the melamine laminate. Prolonged exposure at high temperature will affect the color and cause a loss of some strength characteristics. resist scratching and marring. Low temperatures have relatively little effect on the properties of the melamine. are selfextinguishing. the stain can be removed by buffing with a mild abrasive. oils. Melamine formulations filled with cellulose are capable of producing an unlimited range of light-stable colors with a high degree of translucency. Melamines exposed outdoors suffer little degradation in electrical or physical properties.8 Structural formula for melamine-formaldehyde resins. greases. reinforcement material. The clarity of melamine resins permits products to be fabricated in virtually any color. and offer excellent electrical properties.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The decorative pattern may be a solid color. Alkyd-modified acrylic latex paints are excellent architectural finishes. They are still used for finishing by the machine tool and other industries. and their color and gloss retention are inferior.15 Alkyds Alkyds are saturated resins produced from the reaction of organic alcohols with organic acids. or alumina. Because of their formulating flexibility.14. and electrical properties.1 Typical Applications Alkyds are used for finishing metal and wood products but not to the degree previously used. they exhibit good resistance to weather. but their durability to exterior exposure is only fair. melamine-surfaced decorative laminates find wide application in the home. Although alkyds are used outdoors. they are used in fillers.1 Typical Applications The heat resistance and water-white color of melamine polymers make them ideally suited for use in the home as high-quality molded dinnerware. or any design. calcium carbonate. 3. chemical resistance. The ability to use any of the many suitable polyfunctional alcohols and acids permits selection of a large variation of repeating units. Formulating can provide resins that demonstrate a wide variety of characteristics involving flexibility heat resistance. 3. LLC . However. a wood grain. Their resistance to dilute acid is fair.15. Alkyd compounds often contain glass fiber filler but may contain clay. and caulks for wood finishing. Alkyd compounds are chemically similar to polyester compounds but make use of higher viscosity or dry monomers. sealers.Thermoset Polymers 213 The following chemicals and household preparations may damage melamine laminates: Berry juices Gentian violet Hydrogen peroxide Hypochlorite bleaches Lye solutions Mineral acids Potassium permanganate Silver nitrate Silver protein (argyrol) Sodium bisulfate 3. The greatest limitations of alkyds are in the extremes of temperature above 3508F (1178C) and in high humidity. they are not as durable to long-term exposure as the acrylics. Their durability to interior exposure is good. The alkyds exhibit poor resistance to solvents and alkalies.

and solvents.9 Chemical structure of urea-formaldehyde. Aminos are unsuitable for outdoor exposure. Finished products containing an amino resin surface exhibit excellent resistance to moisture. they are often referred to as urea formaldehydes.17 Allyls The allyls. Therefore. LLC . and resist scratching and marring. heat. The most commonly used filler for the amines is alpha cellulose. 3. cracks develop. the melamine resins exhibit better chemical. oils. Amino resins are used in modifying other resins to increase hardness and accelerate cure. greases. or diallyl phthalates.16 Ureas (Aminos) Ureas (commonly referred to as aminos) are polymers formed by condensation reactions and do not produce by-products. However. but the most commonly used are Diallyl phthlate (DAP) and diallyl isophthalate q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and moisture resistance than the amines. 3. Amino polymers are self-extinguishing and have excellent electrical insulating properties. They are reaction products of formaldehyde with amino compounds containing NH2 groups. Certain strength characteristics also experience a loss when amino moldings are subjected to prolonged elevated temperatures.214 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers CH2 N C CH2 O CH2 N C CH2 N C CH2 O CH2 N C CH2 O CH2 N C N C CH2 O N CH2 O N C N CH2 O CH2 N CH2 O CH2 N N C CH2 O CH2 N N C CH2 O CH2 N N C CH2 O N N C CH2 O N FIGURE 3. Basic material properties are unaffected by the addition of color.9. When urea moldings are subjected to severe cycling between dry and wet conditions. The general chemical structure of urea formaldehyde is shown in Figure 3. The addition of alpha cellulose produces an unlimited range of light-stable colors and high degrees of translucency. are produced in several variations. are tasteless and odorless.

6 0.18 Polybutadienes Polybutadienes have essentially hydrocarbon structure as follows: CH CH CH2 CH2 The basic materials are monopolymers or copolymers that react through terminal hydroxyl groups. 30% Water DAP 1.7 0.8 0. or a combination of these materials.9 DAIP K0. Refer to Table 3. DAP and DAIP glass laminates have high-temperature electrical properties superior to those of most other structural laminates.7 0. It is also used to impregnate wood to reduce water absorption and increase impact. low resin bleed out. compressive.19 for the chemical resistance of DAP and DAIP.5 0.4 0. and ease of cleanup.8 215 (DAIP).Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. Cure cycles are shorter and little or no post cure is required to provide usable strength up to 4828F (2508C).7 0. vinyl groups. Allyl carbonate (diethylene glycol) is marketed as CR-39 by PPG Industries. or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) where abrasion resistance and high heat distortion or impact resistance are required. excellent sealing properties. DAP and DAIP are seldom used as cast homopolymers except for small electrical parts because of their low tensile strength and impact resistance. 3. 1% Sodium hydroxide. When physical abuse is likely.3 0.03 0. DAP finds application for the impregnation of ferrous and nonferrous castings because of its low viscosity. It is used largely in optical castings in competition with glass. the polymer is provided with a glass or mineral filling. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and shear strengths. The primary difference between the two is that DAIP will withstand somewhat higher temperatures than DAP. terminal carboxyl groups. 3% Sulfuric acid.19 Chemical Resistance of DAP and DAIP % Gain in Weight after 30 Days Immersion at 778F/258C Corrodent Acetone Sodium hydroxide.4 0. 10% Sulfuric acid. LLC .

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Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Polybutadiene polymers that have a 1,2 microstructure varying from 60 to 90% offer potential as moldings, laminating resins, coatings, and cast liquid and formed sheet products. Outstanding electrical and thermal stability results from the structure that is essentially pure hydrocarbon. Peroxide catalysts used to cure polybutadienes produce carbon–carbon double bonds in the vinyl group. The final product is 100% hydrocarbon except where the starting polymer is the –OH or –COOH radical. Poly BD marketed by Atochem North America, Inc. is a family of hydroxyl-terminated butadiene homopolymers and copolymers with styrene or acrylonitrile. These materials are usually reacted with isocyanates to produce polyurethanes that have excellent resistance to boiling water. The B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company produces monopolymers and copolymers with acrylonitrile. These are known as the Hylar series. Acrylonitrile increases the viscosity and imparts oil resistance, adhesion, and compatibility with epoxy resins. Carboxy-terminated butadieneacrylonitrile copolymer (CTBN) improves impact strength, low-temperature shear strength, and crack resistance in epoxy formulations. Amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers (ATBN) are also used to modify epoxy resins. These are formulated on the amine-hardener side of the mix. Applications for these formulations include electrical potting compounds (with transformer oil) sealants and moisture block compounds for telephone cables. The hydrocarbon structure is responsible for the excellent resistance shown by polybutadiene to chemicals and solvents and for the electrical properties that are good over a range of frequencies, temperatures, and humidity, and resistance to high temperature. Refer to Table 3.20 for the compatibility of polybutadiene with selected corrodents.

TABLE 3.20 Compatibility of Polybutadiene with Selected Corrodents
Maximum Temperature Chemical Alum Alum ammonium Alum ammonium sulfate Alum chrome Alum potassium Aluminum chloride, aqueous Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride, 10% Ammonium chloride, 28% 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 (continued)

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Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.20 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride, 50% Ammonium chloride, sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium sulfate, 10–40% Calcium chloride, sat. Calcium hypochlorite, sat. Carbon dioxide, wet Chlorine gas, wet Chrome alum Chromic acid, 10% Chromic acid, 30% Chromic acid, 40% Chromic acid, 50% Copper chloride Copper sulfate Fatty acids Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate Hydrochloric acid, dil. Hydrochloric acid, 20% Hydrochloric acid, 35% Hydrochloric acid, 38% Hydrochloric acid, 50% Hydrochloric acid fumes Hydrogen peroxide, 90% Hydrogen sulfide, dry Nitric acid, 5% Nitric acid, 10% Nitric acid, 20% Nitric acid, 30% Nitric acid, 40% Nitric acid, 50% Nitric acid, 70% Nitric acid, anhydrous Nitric acid, conc. Ozone Phenol Sodium bicarbonate, 20% Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate Sodium hydroxide, 10% Sodium hydroxide, 15% Sodium hydroxide, 30% Sodium hydroxide, 50% Sodium hydroxide, 70% Sodium hydroxide, conc. 8F 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 X 90 X X X X 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 80 80 X X X X 80 X 80 90 80 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 X 32 X X X X 32 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 27 27 27 X X X X 27 X 27 32 27 32 32 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 (continued)

217

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218 TABLE 3.20 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hypochlorite to 20% Sodium nitrate Sodium phosphate, acid Sodium phosphate, alkaline Sodium phosphate, neutral Sodium silicate Sodium sulfide to 50% Sodium sulfite, 10% Sodium dioxide, dry Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid, 10% Sulfuric acid, 30% Sulfuric acid, 50% Sulfuric acid, 60% Sulfuric acid, 70% Toluene 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 X 90 80 80 80 80 90 X 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 X 32 27 27 27 27 32 X

The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. Source: From P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

3.19 Polyimides
Polyimides can be prepared as either thermoplastic or thermoset resins. There are two types of polyimides, condensation, and addition resins. Condensation polyimides are available as either thermosets or thermoplastics. The additional polyimides are available only as thermosets. The polyimides are heterocyclic polymers having an atom of nitrogen in the inside ring as shown below:
O C N C O

n

The fused rings provide stiffness that provides high-temperature strength retention. The low concentration of hydrogen provides oxidative resistance by preventing thermal fracture of the chain.
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Thermoset Polymers

219

Polyimides have continuous high-temperature stability up to 500–6008F (260–3158C) and can withstand 9008F (4828C) for short-term use. Polyimides are sensitive to alkaline chemicals and will be dissolved by hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide. They are also moisture sensitive, gaining 1% in weight after 1000 hours at 50% relative humidity and 728F (238C). The polyimides exhibit excellent resistance to ionizing radiation and very low outgassing in high vacuum. 3.19.1 Typical Applications Polyimides find use in various forms, including laminates, moldings, films, coatings, and adhesives (specifically in the areas of high temperature). Coatings are used in electrical applications as insulating varnishes and magnet wire enamels at high temperatures. They also find application as a coating on cookware as an alternative to fluorocarbon coatings.

3.20 Cyanate Esters
Cyanate esters are a family of aryl dicyanate monomers that contain the reactive cyanate (–O–CaN) functional group. When heated, this cyanate functionality undergoes an exothermic cyclotrimerization reaction to form triazine ring connecting units, resulting in the formation of a thermoset polycyanate polymer. The cyanate ester monomers are available from low-viscosity liquids to meltable solids. Ciba-Geigy produces a series of cyanate esters under the trademark AroCy L-10. Cyanate esters are used in manufacturing structural composites by filament winding, resin transfer molding, and pultrusion.

References
1. 2. P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker. P.A. Schweitzer. 1994. Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems. New York: Marcel Dekker.

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4
Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers
The corrosion tables on the following pages are arranged alphabetically according to the corrodent. The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is indicated by an x. A blank space indicates that data is not available. A greater range of corrodents can be found in Reference [1]. The following polymers are identified in the table by abbreviations:
Halar–ECTFE Noryl–PPO Kynar–PVDF Penton–CPE Polyetheretherketone–PEEK Polypropylene–PP Polysulfone–PSF Kel-F–CTFE Ultem–PEI Ryton–PPS Polyamide imide–PAI Polyether sulfone–PEF Polybutadiene–PB Polyurethane–PUR Tefzel–ETFE Telflon–PTFE Saran–PVDC

Because many of the polymers may be compounded, the manufacturer should be checked to see that the material being furnished is satisfactory for the service. For example, there are three different formulations of polyamides.

221
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Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Acetaldahyde
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE, 40% HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 130/54 200/93 200/93 X 80/27

450/232 450/232 150/66 90/32 X

230/110 120/49 150/66 X X X X 140/60 X 80/27 X X X X 150/66 X X X

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223

Acetamide
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C

200/93 250/121 400/204 250/121

450/232 450/232 90/32 140/60

240/116 110/43 80/27 X X

X

X 90/32

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Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Acetic Acid, 10%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 X 250/121 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 240/116 220/104 150/66 200/93 140/60 100/38 180/82 250/121 X X 220/104 140/60 200/93 180/82 300/149 190/88 200/93 260/127 210/99 90/32

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225

Acetic Acid, 50%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 130/54 X 250/121 250/121 400/204 X 200/93 140/60 80/27 140/60 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 90/32 X

90/32 160/71 90/32 160/71 110/43 300/149 110/43 200/93 160/71 90/32

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Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Acetic Acid, 80%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 150/66 230/110 400/204 X 200/93 140/60 80/27 200/93 450/232 450/232 190/88 80/27 80/27 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 X X 250/121 X 90/32 160/71 90/32 X 300/149 110/43 150/66 200/93 120/49 90/32

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40% HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 200/93 230/110 400/204 X 200/93 140/60 80/27 200/93 400/204 460/238 190/88 100/38 80/27 300/149 150/66 250/121 190/88 140/60 200/93 130/54 X X 250/121 X X X 110/43 X 300/149 150/66 270/132 120/49 120/49 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 227 Acetic Acid. LLC . Glacial Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE.

LLC .228 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Acetic Anhydride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 100/38 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 450/232 450/232 100/38 X X X X 280/138 100/38 90/32 X X X 150/66 X X 130/54 100/38 X X X X 100/38 90/32 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 229 Acetone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 80/27 210/99 80/27 X 450/232 450/232 X 120/49 80/27 X X 260/127 220/104 90/32 X X X X 90/32 X 120/49 X X X X X 110/43 X 200/93 X 100/43 Corrodent will be absorbed.

230 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Acetyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI DRY PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 100/38 150/66 150/66 400/204 X 120/49 460/238 460/238 120/49 X 80/27 X X 130/54 X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X X 200/93 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

75% PB 8F/8C 200/93 80/27 460/238 150/66 100/38 X X X X 100/38 X X X 100/38 100/38 90/32 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 231 Acrylic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. 25% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde. 90% Methyl appended silicone. LLC .

LLC .232 Acrylonitrile Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 80/27 460/238 460/238 130/54 140/60 150/66 130/54 90/32 90/32 X X X 150/66 X X X X 80/27 90/32 X 260/127 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

25% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 280/138 400/204 460/227 460/227 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 150/66 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 220/104 220/104 250/121 180/82 280/138 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 233 Adipic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans.

90% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 200/93 210/99 400/204 90/32 430/221 430/221 200/93 140/60 140/60 140/60 80/27 90/32 90/32 200/93 250/121 X X X X 90/32 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .234 Allyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 235 Allyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 300/149 190/88 400/204 450/232 450/232 200/93 80/27 110/43 X 140/60 X X X 90/32 X X X 140/60 90/32 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . 5% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 450/232 450/232 210/99 140/60 140/60 150/66 120/49 300/149 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 200/93 250/121 150/66 300/149 240/116 140/60 220/104 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.236 Alum Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 237 Aluminum Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. 10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 200/93 460/238 250/121 210/99 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 250/121 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Aqueous Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE. 10% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. 1% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 200/93 300/149 300/149 400/204 90/32 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 300/149 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 120/49 200/93 180/82 170/77 300/149 260/127 300/149 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF.238 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aluminum Chloride. LLC . 25% ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides.

10% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 80/27 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 90/32 X 140/60 180/82 100/38 280/138 Corrodent will penetrate. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. LLC . 10% Halogenated.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 239 Aluminum Fluoride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVCS Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .240 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aluminum Hydroxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 450/232 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 300/149 250/121 200/93 170/77 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 160/71 170/77 160/71 300/149 200/93 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 241 Aluminum Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 250/121 210/99 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 160/77 160/77 250/121 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .242 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aluminum Oxychloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 300/149 400/204 450/232 450/232 280/138 460/238 200/93 140/60 150/66 140/60 200/93 220/104 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 243 Aluminum Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 140/60 220/104 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 300/149 200/93 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 250/121 200/93 180/82 300/149 300/149 250/121 260/127 290/143 410/210 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

244 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonia Gas Polymer ABS DRY Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC DRY CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy dry Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 400/204 200/93 210/99 80/27 450/232 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 150/66 80/27 250/121 150/66 X X 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 200/93 160/71 90/32 150/66 210/99 150/66 90/32 100/38 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Corrodent will permeate. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 245 Ammonium Bifluoride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 450/232 450/232 260/127 140/60 200/93 140/60 90/32 90/32 200/93 230/110 90/32 150/66 Corrodent will be absorbed.

246 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 430/221 430/221 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 100/38 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 90/32 140/60 X 300/149 160/71 150/66 240/116 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 290/143 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 410/210 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 300/149 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 80/27 200/93 200/93 160/71 170/77 200/93 200/93 220/104 90/32 X 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 247 Ammonium Chloride.

50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides.248 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Chloride. 37% PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 430/221 460/238 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 300/149 180/82 200/93 140/60 180/82 90/32 220/104 200/93 160/71 170/77 270/132 200/93 220/104 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 249 Ammonium Chloride. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 410/210 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 300/149 200/93 160/71 200/93 140/60 140/60 190/88 250/121 90/32 220/104 200/93 200/93 180/82 170/77 260/127 200/93 260/127 80/27 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sat. LLC .

10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurateb Halogenatedb Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalicb PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 430/221 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 90/32 140/60 90/32 200/93 250/121 180/82 140/60 90/32 200/93 280/177 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .250 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Fluoride. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Synthetic veil or surfacing mat should be used.

Synthetic veil or surfacing mat should be used. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 251 Ammonium Fluoride. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurateb Halogenatedb Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalicb PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 420/216 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 200/93 90/32 140/60 90/32 200/93 250/121 120/49 140/60 90/32 150/66 220/104 260/127 80/27 Corrodent will permeate.

LLC .252 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Hydroxide. 25% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 X 200/93 140/60 140/60 X 250/121 90/32 X 100/38 90/32 X 300/149 140/60 150/66 260/127 90/32 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl estersa Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 80/27 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 80/27 80/27 370/188 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 X 200/93 140/60 140/60 X 250/121 80/27 X 90/32 X 300/149 160/71 130/54 200/93 X Synthetic veil or surfacing mat should be used.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 253 Ammonium Hydroxide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sat.

10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. LLC .254 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 25% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 230/110 400/204 200/93 200/93 350/177 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 240/116 220/104 220/93 200/93 160/77 140/66 250/121 250/121 260/127 200/93 210/99 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 255 Ammonium Persulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE. 5% PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 150/66 300/149 400/204 X 450/232 460/238 280/138 140/60 150/66 180/82 140/60 220/104 90/32 140/60 140/60 200/93 180/82 X 180/82 140/60 200/93 160/71 180/82 250/121 180/82 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

256 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Phosphate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. 65% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 300/149 450/232 280/138 80/27 140/60 300/149 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 90/32 250/121 80/27 150/66 160/71 140/60 200/93 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET. sat. Epoxy Vinyl esters. sat. sat. 10% PET. Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 200/93 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 300/149 200/93 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 200/93 180/82 170/77 300/149 220/104 260/127 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. Furans. 10–40% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. LLC . PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 257 Ammonium Sulfate. sat. sat.

LLC .258 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Sulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 220/104 80/27 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 110/43 120/49 100/38 X 120/49 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 259 Amyl Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 100/38 160/71 250/121 400/204 150/66 200/93 200/93 450/232 190/88 140/60 80/27 80/27 X 300/149 X 120/49 X X X X 180/82 X 80/27 190/88 X X 80/27 80/27 110/43 260/127 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

260 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Amyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 100/49 210/99 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 X 130/54 220/104 X 200/93 200/93 200/93 160/71 250/121 200/93 210/99 260/127 190/88 160/71 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 261 Amyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 450/232 280/138 X X X 200/93 X 80/27 X X X X 220/104 X X 90/32 X 80/27 120/49 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

262 Aniline Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 90/32 230/110 400/204 X 200/93 200/93 X 200/93 450/232 200/93 130/54 130/54 X X 300/149 180/82 X X X X X 150/66 X 80/27 X 120/49 X X X 150/66 X 260/127 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 263 Antimony Trichloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. LLC . 50% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 100/38 220/104 400/204 X 300/149 460/238 150/66 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 180/82 160/71 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 220/104 200/93 80/27 160/71 250/121 220/104 220/104 250/121 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .264 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aqua Regia 3:1 Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 200/93 250/121 210/99 400/204 X X 240/116 450/232 170/77 130/54 130/54 80/27 X X 120/49 X X X 80/27 80/27 X X X X X X 80/27 X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

80% CPVC. 80% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 80% PVC Type 2. 80% PVDC PSF PVC Type 1.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 265 Arsenic Acid Polymer ABS. 80% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP. 198 Be Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/183 140/60 140/60 60/15 210/99 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 180/82 180/82 180/82 180/82 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .266 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Barium Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 260/183 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 200/93 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 250/121 180/82 160/71 250/121 240/116 260/127 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO. LLC . 30% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 200/93 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 90/32 220/104 250/121 200/93 140/60 250/121 250/121 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 267 Barium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 25% PPS PP PVDC PSF.

268 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Barium Hydroxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. LLC . 10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 350/177 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 X 140/60 200/93 200/93 180/82 200/43 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 150/66 X X X 200/93 150/66 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic to 10% PET Epoxy.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 269 Barium Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 400/204 80/27 450/232 270/132 140/60 170/77 210/99 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 170/77 200/93 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

270 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Barium Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 330/166 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 X 140/60 200/93 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 220/104 180/82 160/71 X 250/121 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 271 Barium Sulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 360/182 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 140/60 220/104 200/93 150/66 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 90/32 140/60 X 90/32 300/149 180/82 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Material is subject to stress cracking.272 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Benzaldehyde Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 200/93 150/66 210/99 400/204 150/66 200/93 80/27 300/149 450/232 120/40 X X X X 250/121 80/27 X X X X X 80/27 X X X X X X X X 260/127 60/15 Corrodent will be absorbed. LLC .

b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 150/66 210/99 400/204 250/121 80/27 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 150/66 X X X X 300/149 140/60 80/27 X X X X 150/66 X 90/32 X 90/32 X X X 180/82 X 260/127 160/77 X Corrodent will be absorbed. Corrodent will permeate. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 273 Benzene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

274 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Benzene Sulfonic Acid. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. 30% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 150/66 210/99 400/204 X X X 90/32 380/139 450/232 100/38 140/60 90/32 250/121 200/93 250/121 180/82 120/49 X 140/60 140/60 180/82 220/104 X 200/93 120/49 180/82 250/121 220/104 200/93 266/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

10% PAI PEEK PEI. 10% PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 250/121 200/93 400/204 200/93 170/77 90/32 80/27 400/204 450/121 250/121 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 230/110 190/88 150/66 X 140/60 140/60 90/32 250/121 X 200/93 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 200/93 180/82 260/127 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 275 Benzoic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides.

LLC .276 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Benzyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 200/93 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 X 300/149 450/232 280/138 170/77 X 80/27 X 200/93 140/60 X X X 220/104 X 90/32 X X X 80/27 X 100/38 260/177 60/15 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 277 Benzyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 110/48 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 120/49 300/149 450/232 280/138 250/121 X 300/149 80/27 80/27 X X X 80/27 X X X X X 250/121 80/27 90/32 260/127 170/77 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

278 Black Liquor Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. LLC . pH7 Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 400/204 450/232 260/127 140/60 150/66 140/60 140/60 200/93 230/110 X 220/104 X 210/99 180/82 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 279 Borax Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 210/99 210/99 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 220/104 170/77 140/60 250/121 210/99 140/60 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

280 Boric Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF. LLC . 10% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 80/27 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 200/93 140/60 210/99 220/104 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 220/104 180/82 210/99 180/82 200/93 220/104 200/93 260/127 300/149 390/189 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 281 Bromine Gas. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 100/38 X 150/66 200/93 X 210/99 210/99 X X X X X X X 90/32 100/38 X X 100/38 Corrodent will penetrate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

282 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Bromine Gas. LLC . Moist Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 210/99 200/93 X 120/49 X 200/93 250/121 210/99 X X X 200/93 X X X X 100/38 100/38 X X 100/38 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Liquid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.b PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde 3% Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 150/66 400/204 X 300/149 450/232 140/60 X X 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X 60/15 300/149 Corrodent will be absorbed. LLC .b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. Corrodent will penetrate.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 283 Bromine. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 250/121 400/204 210/99 300/149 450/232 210/99 X X X X 140/60 X X X 180/82 X 100/38 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .284 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Bromine Water. Sat.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 285 Butadiene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 200/93 250/121 250/121 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 X X X 100/38 X 150/66 X 140/60 X 150/66 250/121 X 80/27 150/66 110/43 X Corrodent will be absorbed. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will permeate. LLC .

286 Butyl Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 150/66 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 400/204 450/232 140/60 90/32 90/32 250/121 X 250/121 X 120/49 X X X X 140/60 X 80/27 80/27 X X 250/121 170/77 80/27 260/127 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 287 Butyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 100/38 200/93 200/93 150/66 200/93 X X 140/60 220/104 X 80/27 100/38 80/27 100/38 140/60 120/49 210/99 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

288 n-Butylamine Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 120/49 400/204 200/93 200/93 400/204 450/232 X X X X 200/93 90/32 X X X X X X X X X X X Corrodent will be absorbed. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 289 Butyl Ether Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 200/93 200/93 400/204 210/99 200/93 400/204 450/232 200/93 X 210/99 X 200/93 140/60 X 150/66 80/27 X 80/27 210/99 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

290 Butyric Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC !1% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 20% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 250/121 250/121 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 210/99 130/54 X 250/121 250/121 180/82 80/27 130/54 X X 140/60 230/110 X 220/104 200/93 X 120/49 250/121 210/99 130/54 260/127 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. LLC . 50% Halogenated.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 291 Calcium Bisulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 400/204 450/232 260/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 120/49 160/71 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .292 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Bisulfite Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 400/204 140/60 400/204 450/232 260/138 80/27 140/60 X 80/27 200/93 210/99 80/27 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 180/82 150/66 150/66 X 270/132 260/127 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 293 Calcium Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 250/121 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 210/99 210/99 160/71 250/121 300/149 180/82 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . 5% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 380/193 450/232 280/132 140/60 140/60 220/104 160/71 140/60 140/60 200/93 150/66 90/32 200/93 250/121 210/99 160/71 200/93 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.294 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Chlorate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals.

5% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 230/110 200/93 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 150/66 80/27 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 190/88 180/82 260/127 200/93 300/149 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 37.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 295 Calcium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. LLC .

30% PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 150/66 90/32 400/204 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 250/121 300/149 220/104 160/71 100/38 140/60 140/60 200/93 90/32 80/27 180/82 170/77 160/71 250/121 210/99 180/82 260/127 X 200/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone.296 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Hydroxide.

25% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 150/66 90/32 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 180/82 100/38 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 160/71 X 160/71 250/121 180/82 180/82 260/127 X 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 297 Calcium Hydroxide. LLC . Sat. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters.

LLC . 10% Isophthalic PET Epoxy. 20% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 400/204 450/232 200/93 140/60 100/38 210/99 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 X X 210/99 170/97 180/82 120/49 150/66 160/71 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.298 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Hypochlorite. 20% Vinyl esters. 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A.

10% Isophthalic. 20% PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 70% Vinyl esters Furans. 20% Halogenated. 20% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. LLC . Sat. to 20% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 X 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 200/93 X X 80/27 80/27 180/82 120/49 250/121 150/66 180/82 240/116 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PET Epoxy. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 299 Calcium Hypochlorite.

LLC .300 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 260/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 210/99 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 220/104 160/71 170/77 250/121 210/99 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 301 Calcium Oxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 270/132 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 80/27 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 150/66 150/66 80/27 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

302 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Sulfate Polymer ABS. 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 160/71 170/77 250/121 250/121 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 303 Caprylic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 220/104 210/99 400/204 250/121 390/199 450/232 220/104 250/121 140/60 90/32 120/49 180/82 220/104 160/71 140/60 160/71 250/121 X 220/104 250/121 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

304 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Carbon Dioxide. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 200/93 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 350/177 250/121 160/71 200/93 200/93 90/32 300/149 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 305 Carbon Dioxide. Wet Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 220/104 170/77 140/60 140/60 160/71 250/121 80/27 210/99 250/121 150/71 250/121 220/104 80/27 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.306 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Carbon Disulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. LLC .b PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 80/27 80/27 150/66 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 80/27 X X 80/27 60/15 200/93 X 90/32 X X X X X 80/27 X X X X 80/27 100/38 X 260/127 180/82 X Corrodent will permeate. Corrodent will be absorbed.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 307 Carbon Monoxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 140/60 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 350/177 170/77 160/71 210/99 200/93 350/177 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

308 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Carbon Tetrachloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa. Corrodent will be absorbed. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.c Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa.c PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b c 8F/8C X X 300/149 270/132 400/204 250/121 80/27 80/27 80/27 380/193 450/232 280/138 X X 250/121 X 120/49 X 140/60 X X X X 200/93 X 80/27 110/43 120/49 X X 250/121 170/77 260/127 200/93 Material is subject to stress cracking.b. Corrodent will permeate. LLC .b.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 309 Carbonic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 100/38 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 140/60 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 80/27 90/32 160/71 160/71 210/99 200/93 120/49 200/93 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

10–50% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 210/99 400/204 120/49 80/27 390/199 450/232 180/82 140/60 140/60 X 90/32 170/77 80/27 130/54 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 80/27 170/77 120/49 X X 200/93 150/66 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10–50% Halogenated. 10% PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET. LLC . 50% CPE PUR. 50% Epoxy Vinyl esters. 10–50% FEP Polyamides. to 50% PAI PEEK PEI. 50% PPO.310 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Caustic Potash (Potassium Hydroxide) Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE. to 50% Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 35% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC. 50% PPS PP PVDC. 10–50% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET. 50% PSF.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

311

Cellosolve
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 200/93 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93

380/193 450/232 280/138 X 80/27 X X 200/93 200/93 80/27 X X X X 220/104 80/27 140/60 80/27 X X 140/60 140/60 240/116

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

312

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorine Gas, Dry
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE, 10% PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 150/66 210/99 X X 80/27

X 240/116 80/27 80/27 80/27 X X X 80/27 X 140/60 140/60 X 100/38 X X 350/177 200/93 210/99 160/71 80/27 150/66 240/116 260/127 160/171

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

313

Chlorine Gas, Wet
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF, 10% EHMWPE, 10% HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C 140/60

250/121 250/121 400/204 X

400/204 450/232 250/121 120/49 X 80/27 80/27 X X 80/27 X X X X 80/27 X 80/27 200/93 220/104 210/99 160/71 80/27 X 250/121 260/127 150/66 X

Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

314

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorine Liquid
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X

250/121 400/204 X X

X 210/99 X X X 200/93 X X X X X X X

X X X

X X X

Corrodent will be absorbed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

315

Chloracetic Acid
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE, 50% FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA, 50% PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated, 25% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic, to 25% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters, 25% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 120/49 250/121 230/110 400/204 X

400/204 450/232 200/93 X X 80/27 200/93 180/82 120/49 X 140/60 X X 220/104 X X 80/27 90/32 150/66 80/27 X 200/93 240/116 X

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

316

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorobenzene
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI DRY PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals, dry Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 150/66 210/99 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 X 390/199 450/232 220/104 X X X X 200/93 X 80/27 X X X X 150/66 X 80/27 X X X X X 190/88 110/43 260/127 250/121 X

Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

317

Chloroform
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 250/121 230/110 400/204 200/93 120/49 80/27

390/199 450/232 250/121 80/27 X 230/110 X 150/66 X X X X X X 80/27 X X X X X X 230/110 110/43 X 240/116 160/171

Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

318

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorosulfonic Acid
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 80/27 80/27 400/204 X 80/27 X 390/199 450/232 110/43 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 260/127 130/54 X

Corrodent will be absorbed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

319

Chromic Acid, 10%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF, 12% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 X 250/121 150/66 400/204 X 200/93 90/32 X 380/193 450/232 220/104 140/60 140/60 250/121 X 200/93 140/60 180/82 140/60 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 X 80/27 X 180/82 X 250/121 110/43 150/66 260/127 X

X

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

320

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chromic Acid, 50%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 250/121 150/66 400/204 X 200/93 X 380/193 450/232 250/121 90/32 90/32 250/121 X 200/93 150/66 180/82 X X X 210/99 200/93 X 80/27 X 140/60 X X 250/121 X X X X

X

Corrodent will be absorbed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

321

Citric Acid, 15%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 120/49 400/204 200/93 170/77

390/199 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 250/121 120/49 250/121 220/104 180/82 100/38 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 160/71 250/121 190/88 210/99 250/121 160/71

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

LLC .322 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Citric Acid. Polymer ABS. 32% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 400/204 200/93 170/77 250/121 80/27 370/188 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 170/77 90/32 250/121 220/104 180/82 80/27 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 200/93 170/77 190/88 200/93 250/121 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 40% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. Conc. 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 323 Copper Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 290/143 450/232 250/121 300/149 80/27 80/27 200/93 180/82 210/99 210/99 180/71 200/93 210/99 260/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

324 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Copper Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 150/66 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 250/121 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 160/83 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 325 Copper Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 220/104 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 170/77 250/121 220/104 260/127 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .326 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Copper Cyanide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE. 10% PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 210/99 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 220/104 250/121 210/99 160/71 150/66 210/99 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 327 Copper Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. LLC . 17% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 300/149 300/149 400/204 140/60 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 250/121 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 200/93 170/77 210/99 240/116 260/127 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

328 Cresol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 300/149 270/132 400/204 X 390/199 450/232 210/99 140/60 X X X 200/93 X 150/66 X 130/54 X X 140/60 X X X X X X X 100/38 X 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . 5% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 270/232 140/60 250/121 150/66 300/149 140/60 160/71 200/93 150/66 X 170/77 250/121 80/27 270/132 300/149 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 329 Cupric Chloride.

Sat. Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 270/132 80/27 140/60 250/121 170/77 300/149 140/60 170/77 200/93 150/66 180/82 200/93 X 140/60 250/121 80/27 220/104 300/149 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 5% PP PVDC PSF. 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE. LLC .330 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cupric Chloride. 5% EHMWPE. 10% HMWPE PET PPO PPS. PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. 5% FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF.

10% PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 331 Cupric Cyanide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF. LLC . 10% EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP. 10% PVDC. 10% PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 240/116 90/32 220/104 240/116 210/99 160/71 250/121 150/66 210/99 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 250/121 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 200/93 160/71 140/60 140/60 182/82 250/121 150/66 120/49 X 250/121 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.332 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cupric Fluoride Polymer ABS. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 333 Cupric Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 380/193 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 200/93 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 240/116 X 220/104 140/60 210/99 160/71 170/77 240/116 210/99 280/183 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .334 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cupric Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 X 300/149 300/149 390/199 140/60 390/199 450/232 280/132 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 250/121 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 230/110 200/93 170/77 250/121 200/93 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 335 Cyclohexanol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 250/121 400/204 250/121 200/93 390/199 450/232 210/99 170/77 80/27 190/88 250/121 150/66 90/32 200/93 X X X 220/104 80/27 120/49 150/66 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .336 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cyclohexanone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 400/204 450/232 110/43 140/60 X 250/121 X 200/93 X X X X X X 80/27 80/27 X 100/38 X X 250/121 X 120/49 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 337 Detergents Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 110/43 390/199 450/232 140/60 140/60 140/60 90/32 290/143 220/104 80/27 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 90/32 90/32 90/32 140/60 250/121 100/38 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Heavy Duty Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 100/38 390/199 450/232 140/60 140/60 120/49 300/149 150/66 140/60 140/60 160/71 80/27 80/27 120/49 250/121 120/49 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.338 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Detergent Solution. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 339 Dextrin Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 300/149 400/204 390/199 450/232 230/110 140/60 140/60 160/71 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

340 Dextrose Polymer ABS. 30% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO. 20% PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 140/60 300/149 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 X 220/104 220/104 160/71 80/27 200/93 240/116 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 341 Dibutyl Ether Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 200/93 200/93 400/204 200/93 200/93 400/204 350/177 200/93 X 210/99 X 200/93 140/60 X 150/66 80/27 X 80/27 200/93 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

342 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Dibutyl Phthalate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 150/66 400/204 80/27 200/93 380/193 450/232 X 140/60 X 80/27 120/49 300/149 110/43 120/49 180/82 X X X X 180/82 100/38 230/121 160/71 80/27 250/121 200/93 230/110 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . 20% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 150/66 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 80/27 100/38 100/38 120/49 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 X 100/38 X 100/38 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 343 Dichloroacetic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC.

LLC .344 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Dichlorobenzene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 150/66 400/204 250/121 380/193 450/232 120/49 X X 250/121 200/93 150/66 X X X X X 110/43 X X X 250/121 190/88 110/43 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 345 Dichloroethane (Ethylene Dichloride) Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 340/171 450/232 180/138 X X X X X 80/27 X X X X 120/49 90/32 X X X X X X 110/43 250/121 200/93 Corrodent will permeate.

LLC .346 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ethyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 80/27 90/32 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/38 180/82 150/66 100/38 140/60 140/60 210/99 220/104 X 90/32 150/66 90/32 80/27 250/121 150/66 100/38 260/127 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 347 Ethyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/127 200/93 390/199 450/232 260/138 X X 250/121 X 200/93 X X X X X X 220/104 X 80/27 80/27 X 250/121 X X 260/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

348 Ethyl Ether Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 150/66 210/99 400/204 200/93 80/27 370/188 450/232 150/66 X X 250/121 X 150/66 90/32 X X X X X 220/104 X 80/27 X X X X 250/121 X X 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 349 Ethylene Glycol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 205/121 200/93 160/71 80/27 90/32 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 200/93 140/60 300/149 230/110 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 220/104 90/32 180/82 220/104 250/121 250/121 200/93 300/149 210/99 260/177 100/38 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .350 Fatty Acids Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 200/93 60/15 250/121 140/60 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 150/66 100/38 200/93 250/121 220/104 180/82 200/93 200/93 250/121 260/127 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 351 Ferric Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE. 50% FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 210/99 140/60 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 300/149 210/99 260/127 300/149 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10–50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 210/99 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 220/104 250/121 200/93 180/82 170/77 250/121 200/93 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.352 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ferric Nitrate. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 353 Ferrous Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics. LLC . 40% Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 90/32 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 210/99 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 250/121 200/93 260/127 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

354 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ferrous Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 210/99 80/27 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 220/104 160/71 210/99 160/71 200/93 220/104 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 355 Fluorine Gas. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 X X 100/38 200/93 440/227 X X 310/154 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X X X X 80/27 X 90/32 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

356 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Fluorine Gas. Moist Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 80/27 100/38 X X X X 200/93 250/121 X 80/27 80/27 X X X X X X X 80/27 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 140/60 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 300/149 120/49 140/60 140/60 240/116 200/93 200/93 140/60 200/93 140/60 140/60 220/104 80/27 80/27 150/66 220/104 140/60 240/116 110/43 150/66 160/71 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Dil.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 357 Formaldehyde.

LLC .358 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Formaldehyde. 35% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 150/66 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 450/232 140/60 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 200/93 120/49 200/93 140/60 100/38 140/60 220/104 80/27 80/27 150/66 200/93 140/60 250/121 110/43 140/60 160/71 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

37% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 150/66 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 450/232 120/49 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 200/93 210/99 140/60 200/93 140/60 100/38 140/60 220/104 80/27 80/27 150/66 210/99 140/60 250/121 150/66 200/93 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 359 Formaldehyde.

50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 80/27 400/204 250/166 450/232 280/138 250/121 200/93 200/93 130/54 140/60 120/49 150/66 220/104 80/27 120/49 190/88 250/121 110/43 140/60 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.360 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Formaldehyde. LLC .

to 25% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 250/121 270/132 400/204 X 90/32 90/32 80/27 390/199 450/121 250/121 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 150/66 200/93 110/38 90/32 180/82 220/104 X 150/66 150/66 90/32 X 250/121 X 100/38 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 361 Formic Acid. 10–85% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK. 10% PEI. 10% PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC.

362 Furfural Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 210/99 400/204 90/32 80/27 390/199 450/232 110/43 80/27 130/54 80/27 X 300/149 X 80/27 X X X X 140/60 X X X X 80/27 X X 260/127 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 363 Gallic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 210/99 400/204 80/27 200/93 450/232 160/71 140/60 140/60 250/121 250/121 180/82 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X 250/121 200/93 250/121 120/49 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

364 Gas. Natural Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 140/60 80/27 200/93 450/232 X X 140/60 160/71 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 90/32 200/93 200/93 280/138 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Refined Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 200/93 400/204 250/127 120/49 380/193 450/232 X 250/121 90/32 300/149 X 90/32 200/93 120/49 X X 80/27 80/27 80/27 200/93 90/32 90/32 250/121 150/66 180/82 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 365 Gasoline.

366 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Gasoline. LLC . Sour Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 80/27 370/160 450/232 280/138 250/121 300/149 X 140/60 140/60 X 250/121 80/27 X 90/32 80/27 250/121 300/149 200/93 190/88 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Unleaded Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 X 250/121 X 300/149 X 150/66 200/93 140/60 X 250/121 80/27 80/27 90/32 200/93 90/32 100/38 250/121 250/121 100/38 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 367 Gasoline.

75% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 300/149 210/99 180/82 80/27 140/60 140/60 210/99 220/104 90/32 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 280/138 300/149 260/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.368 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Glycerine (Glycerol) Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 369 Green Liquor Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 400/204 380/193 450/232 280/138 250/121 140/60 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 220/104 X X 190/88 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

370 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrobromic Acid. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa. Dil.b PTFEa.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 200/93 230/110 120/49 300/149 140/60 140/60 130/54 250/121 220/104 200/93 140/60 250/121 180/82 180/82 250/121 200/93 Material is subject to stress cracking. Corrodent will permeate.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

b PTFEa. Corrodent will permeate. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 120/49 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 200/93 200/93 120/49 180/82 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 220/104 160/71 90/32 140/60 250/121 180/82 180/82 250/121 200/93 Material is subject to stress cracking.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 371 Hydrobromic Acid.

b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. Corrodent will permeate. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b PTFEa.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 200/93 190/88 130/54 140/60 140/60 190/88 250/121 160/71 200/93 90/32 150/66 250/121 110/43 200/93 260/127 200/93 X X Material subject to stress cracking.372 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrobromic Acid. 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b PTFEa. Corrodent will permeate.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 373 Hydrochloric Acid.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 90/32 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 90/32 90/32 140/60 250/121 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 160/71 210/99 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X X 210/99 230/110 180/82 160/71 250/121 200/93 220/104 260/127 300/149 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. LLC .

38% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 90/32 140/60 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 90/32 190/88 210/99 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 140/60 170/77 250/121 X X 180/82 170/77 160/71 90/32 140/60 180/82 250/121 300/149 X 90/32 Material subject to stress cracking.374 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrochloric Acid. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 375 Hydrocyanic Acid. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 380/183 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 250/121 150/60 120/49 140/60 140/60 80/27 250/121 200/93 150/66 X 90/32 80/27 160/71 160/71 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurateb Halogenatedb Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 200/93 250/121 270/132 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 X 90/32 200/93 180/82 160/71 100/38 130/54 130/54 X 250/121 X 90/32 120/49 X X X X X X X X Corrodent will permeate. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Synthetic veil surfacing mat should be used.376 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrofluoric Acid.

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 377 Hydrofluoric Acid. 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X 240/116 250/121 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 210/99 X X X 200/93 X 80/27 90/32 X X X X X X X X X Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .378 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Chloride Gas. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 150/66 220/104 180/82 90/32 80/27 250/121 100/38 250/121 230/110 140/60 250/121 Corrodent will permeate.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 379 Hydrogen Chloride Gas. Moist Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 450/232 270/132 140/60 80/27 210/99 210/99 120/49 350/177 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Dil. 5% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. 5% PET Epoxy. LLC . 10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 270/132 250/121 400/204 80/27 200/93 80/27 200/93 450/232 250/121 120/49 120/49 120/49 90/32 100/38 120/49 90/32 140/60 X 150/66 80/27 150/66 200/93 80/27 180/27 120/49 150/66 140/60 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.380 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Peroxide. Polymer ABS. 3% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 381 Hydrogen Peroxide. LLC . 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 270/132 250/121 400/204 80/27 200/93 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 120/49 90/32 100/38 120/49 180/82 140/60 X 180/82 150/66 X 90/32 100/38 90/32 X 120/49 140/60 170/77 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 200/83 90/32 80/27 200/93 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 80/27 X 150/66 130/54 80/27 140/60 100/38 90/32 150/66 X X 100/38 X 80/27 X 110/43 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .382 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Peroxide.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 383 Hydrogen Peroxide. 90% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 200/23 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 120/49 80/27 140/60 80/27 X 110/43 120/49 100/38 140/60 X 80/27 140/60 X X X 80/27 X 150/66 80/27 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.384 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Sulfide. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 80/27 250/121 170/77 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/60 220/104 80/27 200/93 250/121 140/60 80/27 250/121 250/121 250/121 300/149 90/32 Corrodent will permeate.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 385 Hydrogen Sulfide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Wet Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/232 X 200/93 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 X 180/82 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 X 210/99 210/99 140/60 80/27 300/149 180/82 250/121 300/149 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .

10% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 120/49 140/60 140/60 180/82 150/66 90/32 100/38 210/99 90/32 200/93 150/66 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A.386 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hypochlorous Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 20% Halogenated. 50% Furans. 50% Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 387 Ketones. General Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 400/204 150/66 80/27 400/204 450/232 110/43 80/27 80/27 X X 110/43 90/32 X X X X X X X X X 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .388 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Lactic Acid. 25% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 150/66 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 60/15 400/204 450/232 130/54 140/60 150/66 250/121 190/88 250/121 150/66 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 210/99 200/93 210/99 160/71 250/121 220/104 210/99 250/121 160/71 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 150/66 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 90/32 400/204 450/232 110/43 140/60 250/121 190/88 250/121 150/66 80/27 200/93 80/27 80/27 X 150/66 80/27 220/104 200/93 210/99 160/71 250/121 200/93 200/93 260/127 160/71 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 389 Lactic Acid. LLC . Conc. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals.

10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals. LLC . 10% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 380/193 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 300/149 210/99 180/82 140/60 140/60 230/110 270/132 80/27 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 190/88 260/127 260/127 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.390 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Magnesium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI.

10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 270/132 400/204 X 390/199 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 80/27 130/54 80/27 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 160/71 90/32 90/32 80/27 140/60 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 391 Malic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. LLC .

Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .392 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Methyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 300/149 300/149 400/204 210/99 X 390/199 450/232 X X X 80/27 X X 80/27 X X X X 230/110 X 80/27 80/27 X X 120/49 300/149 Material is subject to stress cracking.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 393 Methyl Ethyl Ketone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 230/110 400/204 240/116 200/93 370/188 X X 400/204 450/232 X X X 250/121 X 200/93 150/66 X X X X X 90/32 X X X X X X 250/121 90/32 X 170/77 X X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .394 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 150/66 300/149 400/204 110/43 400/204 450/232 110/43 80/27 80/27 X X 250/121 80/27 80/27 X X X 80/27 X 80/27 X X X 140/60 160/71 X Corrodent will permeate. Material subject to stress cracking.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 395 Muriatic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 140/60 60/15 80/27 210/99 200/93 160/71 150/66 180/82 130/54 190/88 180/82 160/71 80/27 140/60 180/82 80/27 300/149 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 150/66 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 200/93 140/60 140/60 150/66 140/66 150/66 140/60 90/32 X 140/60 100/38 150/66 180/82 X X 160/71 210/99 90/32 120/49 150/66 160/71 180/82 200/93 X 80/27 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .396 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Nitric Acid.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 130/54 X 250/121 160/71 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 X 400/204 450/232 180/82 140/60 140/60 80/27 90/32 100/38 140/60 150/66 X 140/60 140/60 160/71 80/27 X X 100/38 80/27 X 80/27 100/38 150/66 X X 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 397 Nitric Acid.

398 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Nitric Acid. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 250/121 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 X X 80/27 X X X X 140/60 140/60 110/43 80/27 X X 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X Corrodent will permeate.

LLC . Anhydrous Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. 90% PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 X 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 150/66 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 399 Nitric Acid.

LLC . 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 250/121 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 X X 80/27 X X X X 140/60 140/60 110/43 80/27 X X 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.400 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Nitric Acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 401 Oleum Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 60/15 150/66 400/204 X 120/49 400/204 450/232 X X X 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 190/88 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

402 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Perchloric Acid. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 200/93 150/66 230/110 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 X X 150/66 130/54 X 140/60 60/15 180/82 140/60 X X 90/32 X X X 90/32 150/66 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 403 Perchloric Acid. LLC . 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 200/93 150/66 150/66 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 X X X X X 120/49 60/15 60/15 180/82 X X X 90/32 X X X 80/27 X 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.404 Phenol. 5% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 90/32 150/66 230/110 400/204 X 140/60 X X 400/204 450/232 210/99 100/38 100/38 X X 290/143 200/93 80/27 X X 90/32 90/32 X X X 90/32 X X X X 100/38 210/99 90/32 X 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 405 Phenol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 5% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. LLC . 85% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X 90/32 150/66 210/99 400/201 X 140/60 X 400/202 450/232 200/93 100/38 100/38 X 300/149 180/82 X 60/15 X 140/60 90/32 X X X 90/32 X X X X X 210/99 X X 80/27 Corrodent will permeate.

50–80% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 130/54 80/27 250/121 250/121 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 200/93 200/93 450/232 250/121 100/38 100/38 250/121 140/60 220/104 210/99 130/54 80/27 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 110/43 210/99 260/127 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.406 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Phosphoric Acid. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 407 Picric Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters. 10% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 90/32 80/27 120/49 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 80/27 100/30 X X 140/60 120/49 X X X 150/66 110/43 100/38 X X 80/27 200/93 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

30% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 210/99 140/60 140/66 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 140/60 200/93 210/99 110/43 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 200/93 230/110 160/71 80/27 220/104 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides. 10% PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated.408 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Potassium Bromide. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 409 Salicylic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 250/121 250/121 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 220/104 140/60 130/54 130/54 100/38 140/60 X X 220/104 150/66 130/54 100/38 250/121 150/66 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 450/232 250/121 170/77 140/60 90/32 170/77 180/82 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .410 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Silver Bromide.

10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 411 Sodium Carbonate Polymer ABS. 20% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 50% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 300/149 300/149 400/204 240/116 200/93 210/99 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 300/149 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 160/71 190/88 100/38 90/32 250/121 300/149 180/82 260/127 X 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 10% Isophthalic.

10% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone. 10% PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 100/38 300/149 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 180/82 220/104 250/121 210/99 200/93 250/121 210/99 180/82 260/127 300/149 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.412 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. LLC . 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 230/110 400/204 250/121 X 220/104 90/32 80/27 400/204 450/232 210/99 170/77 150/66 130/54 140/66 210/99 220/104 90/32 200/93 140/60 140/60 190/88 180/82 80/27 130/54 110/43 100/38 X 130/54 190/88 170/77 X X 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 413 Sodium Hydroxide. LLC .

50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 230/110 400/204 250/121 X 180/82 80/27 400/204 450/232 220/104 170/77 150/66 X 140/60 210/99 220/104 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 X X X X 200/93 220/104 X X 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.414 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Hydroxide. LLC .

Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 150/66 400/204 200/93 450/232 150/66 X 140/60 X 80/27 140/60 140/60 190/88 180/82 X X X X 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Conc.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 415 Sodium Hydroxide.

5% PP PVDC. 20% PPS. 15% CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI.416 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Hypochlorite. 10% Isophthalic PET Epoxy. LLC . 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics. 5% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 80/27 200/93 120/49 130/54 300/149 140/60 140/60 200/93 180/82 X X X X 160/71 X 80/27 80/27 180/82 X X X 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A.

Conc.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 417 Sodium Hypochlorite. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 80/27 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 80/27 250/121 110/43 120/49 300/149 140/60 140/60 200/93 200/93 X X 140/60 X X 80/27 100/38 X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

sat. all Furans. 10% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 X 400/204 450/232 260/138 140/60 140/60 240/116 140/60 250/121 190/88 140/60 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 230/110 210/99 X X 240/116 250/121 220/104 260/127 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.418 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Sulfide. Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. PET Epoxy. to 10% Vinyl esters. LLC . sat. 25% PPS. all PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. to 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO.

all PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 419 Stannic Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. all Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 90/32 230/110 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 80/27 180/82 170/77 200/93 210/99 260/127 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

dry PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. LLC . all PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 210/99 300/149 300/149 400/204 450/232 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 210/99 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 250/121 180/82 170/77 220/104 200/93 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.420 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Stannous Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides.

10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 300/149 400/204 80/27 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 160/71 140/60 250/121 200/93 120/49 300/149 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X X 220/104 260/127 210/99 160/71 160/71 140/60 200/93 250/121 300/149 X 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 421 Sulfuric Acid. LLC .

LLC . 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 130/54 90/32 230/110 250/121 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 X 400/204 450/232 220/104 140/60 140/60 140/60 90/32 250/121 200/93 X 300/149 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X X 220/104 200/93 210/99 150/66 140/60 110/43 210/99 260/127 280/138 X 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.422 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfuric Acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 423 Sulfuric Acid. 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 230/110 250/121 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 220/104 80/27 80/27 X 90/32 250/121 180/82 X X 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 X X 160/71 190/88 90/32 X X 110/43 180/82 260/127 200/93 X 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

90% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 210/99 150/66 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 210/99 X X X 80/27 220/104 180/82 X X 140/60 X 120/49 140/60 X X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.424 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfuric Acid. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 425 Sulfuric Acid. 98% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 210/99 150/66 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 140/60 X X X 180/82 120/49 X X X X 120/149 X X X X X X X X X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . 100% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 210/99 80/27 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.426 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfuric Acid.

Fuming Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 200/93 300/149 120/49 400/204 X 120/40 X X X 400/204 450/232 X X X 60/15 X X X X X X X X X X X X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 427 Sulfuric Acid.

25% Isophthalic. 10% PET Epoxy. 10% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 210/99 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 200/93 180/82 80/27 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 220/104 X 110/43 80/27 210/99 X 240/116 120/49 160/71 160/71 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A.428 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfurous Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. to 20% Vinyl esters. 10% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated.

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 429 Thionyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X 150/66 210/99 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 X X X X 100/38 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 200/93 Corrodent will permeate.

430 Toluene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 150/66 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 210/99 X X 250/121 X 300/149 60/15 80/27 X X X X 80/27 X X X 110/43 90/32 110/43 250/121 150/66 120/49 260/127 200/93 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

50% HMWPE PET PPO. 20% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 50% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters. 30% Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 150/66 210/99 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 130/54 140/60 80/27 250/121 140/60 210/99 150/66 80/27 90/32 X 140/60 X 180/82 200/93 90/32 170/77 250/121 X 210/99 260/127 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PPS. 50% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. 50% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde. 50% Halogenated. 50% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 431 Trichloroacetic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE. LLC .

Acid Mine Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 210/99 400/204 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 220/104 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 100/38 210/99 110/43 300/149 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.432 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Water. LLC .

Demineralized Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 210/99 400/204 80/27 150/66 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 160/71 210/99 210/99 150/66 250/121 250/121 210/99 250/121 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 433 Water. LLC .

Distilled Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 210/99 400/204 80/27 200/93 90/32 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 170/77 210/99 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 80/27 180/82 200/93 210/99 210/99 180/82 250/121 210/99 210/99 200/93 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.434 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Water. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 435 Water. LLC . Potable Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 450/232 280/138 180/82 170/77 140/60 140/60 210/99 210/99 170/77 210/99 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 250/121 400/204 140/60 90/32 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X 80/27 180/82 210/99 160/76 250/121 210/99 180/82 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Salt Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy.436 Water.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 437 Water. Sea Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 300/149 250/121 400/204 140/60 150/66 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 300/149 220/104 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 180/82 200/93 120/49 250/121 300/149 180/82 250/121 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

438 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Water. LLC . Sewage Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 270/132 400/204 110/43 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 220/104 170/77 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 439 White Liquor Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 200/93 90/32 220/104 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 180/82 X X 200/93 180/82 140/60 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 90/32 400/204 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 250/121 200/93 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 250/121 200/93 200/93 180/82 250/121 250/121 180/82 260/127 300/149 400/204 Corrodent will be absorbed.440 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Zinc Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS.

New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer. 1–4. Vols. Corrosion Resistance Tables. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . P.A.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 441 Reference 1. 2004.. 5th ed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

1 Introduction The technical definition of an elastomer. to make them age better. or harder. states: An elastomer is a polymeric material which at room temperature can be stretched to at least twice its original length and upon immediate release of the stress will return quickly to its original length. tougher. as given by ASTM. is achieved by compounding. similar to a coiled spring. an elastomer is generally considered to be any material that is elastic or resilient and. to color them.5 Elastomers 5. certain specific properties may be required. these coils tend to stretch or compress but exert an increasing resistance as additional stresses are applied. In the raw state. Depending on the application of the elastomer. Elastomers are primarily composed of large molecules that tend to form spiral threads. and in general. resembles natural rubber in feeling and appearance. As a small stress is applied. either natural or synthetic. More commonly. LLC . that are attached to each other at infrequent intervals. The following examples illustrate some of the important properties that are required of elastomers and the typical services that require these properties: 443 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ingredients are added to make elastomers stronger. in general. to impart specific properties to meet specific application needs. This property is illustrated by the reaction of an elastic band. elastomers tend to be soft and sticky when hot and hard and brittle when cold. These materials are sometimes referred to as rubbers. The maximum utility of elastomers. Vulcanizing agents are also added because the vulcanizing process extends the temperature range within which they are flexible and elastic.

suction hose. nipples. soles and heels (shoes). special footwear Stickiness: cements. thread.444 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Resistance to abrasive wear: automobile tires. tank linings. packing house hose. O-rings Acceptance of color pigments: ponchos. cables. battery boxes Long life: fire hose. refrigeration hose. hose for chemicals. soles and heels (shoes). switchboard mats. auto tires. windshield wipers Resistance to chemicals: tank linings. stack linings Resistance to ozone: ignition distributor gaskets. wire insulation Electrical conductivity: hospital flooring. transmission belts. hose covers Resistance to tearing: tire treads. gaskets. special belts. life rafts. O-rings Minimum heat buildup: auto tires. gasoline hose. welding hose These materials are sometimes referred to as rubbers. V belts. valve cups. hose covers. steam hose. and footwear Resistance to high temperatures: auto tires. jar rings. forestry hose. V belts. gaskets. O-rings. transmission belts. bathing caps. belt covers. tubing Electrical resistivity: electrician’s tape. creamery hose. automotive parts. footwear. paint hose. adhesive tapes. matting Impermeability to gases: balloons. transmission belts. LLC . Synthetic rubbers now produced are similar to. O-rings Resistance to oils: gasoline hose. belts conveying hot materials. balloons Lack of odor or taste: milk tubing. steam packing. jar rings. nonstatic hose. but not identical q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. mountings. O-rings Resistance to flexing: auto tires. gaskets. pressuresensitive tapes Low specific gravity: airplane parts. O-rings High rigidity: packing. electrician’s tape. special diaphragms. valve diaphragms. O-rings Resistance to cold: airplane parts. brewery and winery hose. hose covers. sandblast hose. ignition cables. mountings High resilience: sponge rubber. elastic bands. oil suction hose. conveyor belt covers. hot-water bags. life rafts. Natural rubber is polymerized hydrocarbon whose commercial synthesis proved to be very difficult. mountings. electrician’s gloves. windshield wipers Resistance to sunlight: wearing apparel.

5. In early attempts to develop a synthetic rubber. it is important that these effects be taken into consideration. natural rubber.1 illustrates some of these effects. LLC .1 Importance of Compounding The rubber chemist is able to optimize selected properties or fine-tune the formulation to meet a desired balance of properties. It is commercially produced by cracking petroleum and also from ethyl alcohol. Improvement in one property can come at the expense of another property. As development work continued in the production of synthetic rubbers. it was found that simple butadiene does not yield a good grade of rubber because the chains are too smooth and do not sufficiently interlock strongly. has two unsaturated linkages and is easily polarized. Natural rubber is a polymer of methyl butadiene (isoprene): CH3 CH2 C CH CH2 When butadiene or its derivatives become polarized. Natural rubber has the hydrocarbon butadiene as its simplest unit.Elastomers 445 to. the units link together to form long chains that contain over 1000 units. CH2aCH–CHaCH2. Table 5. Butadiene.1 Compounding Trade-Offs An Improvement in Tensile strength. However.1. this does involve trade-offs. Therefore. Two of them were isobutylene and ethylene. hardness Dynamic properties Balanced properties Optimized properties Compression set resistance Oil resistance Abrasion resistance Dampening Can Be at the Expense of Extensibility Dynamic properties Thermal stability Compression set resistance Processability Higher cost Flex fatigue strength Resilience Low-temperature flexibility Resilience Resilience Compression set resistance q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. other compounds were used as the parent material in place of butadiene. TABLE 5. Better results are obtained by introducing side groups into the chain either by modifying butadiene or by making a copolymer of butadiene and some other compound.

extending well above and below room temperature. The factors that influence the resistance to motion include various intermolecular attractions. Elastomers in the uncured state have glass-transition temperature well below room temperature. and physical entanglements of the molecular strands. the presence of side chains. Below this temperature. 5. Typical examples include styrene. The major physical differences between a cured elastomer and an engineering thermoplastic is the presence of cross-links. Molecular mobility is the fundamental property that accounts for the differences among elastomers and the differences between elastomers and engineering thermoplasts. but it increases the resilience of the elastomer. deformation is the greatest. propylene.3 Differences between Elastomers and Thermoplasts At room temperature. Engineering thermoplastics have glass-transition temperatures that fall in a wide temperature range. an uncured elastomer can be a soft. acrylonitrile.1. pliable gum or a leathery. The distinction refers to a modulus of the material—a ratio between an applied force and the amount of resulting deformation.2 Similarities of Elastomers and Thermoplastic Polymers All thermoplastic polymers and elastomers.446 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. most amorphous thermoplastic materials could be converted into elastomers in some appropriate temperature range by the controlled addition of a limited number of cross-links. Above this temperature. This only slightly increases the resistance of deformation. whereas an engineering thermoplastic is a rigid solid. When the molecular resistance to motion is the least. Between the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature. crystallinity. are carbon-based.1. a thermoplast or elastomeric polymer is a supercooled liquid that behaves in many ways like a rigid solid. The glass transition temperature of the polymer is determined by the cumulative effect of these factors. the modulus is relatively insensitive to temperature. causing it to spring back to its original shape when deforming stress is removed. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. They are made up from the linking of one or more monomers into long molecular chains. In principle. A partially crystalline thermoplast will display a relatively small modulus change at the glass transition temperature followed by a steady decreasing modulus as the temperature increases. LLC . flexible solid. A noncrystalline (amorphus) polymer will display a large decrease in modulus at the glass transition temperature. with the exception of silicones. a cross-linked elastomer will display rubber-like properties. Many of the same monomers are found in both thermoplastic and elastomeric polymers. An elastomer is in a thermoplastic state prior to vulcanization. The cross-links join the elastomer’s molecular chains together at a cross-link density such that many molecular units exist between cross-link sites. and acrylic acid and its esters. ethylene. The behavior of a thermoplast above its glass transition temperature will depend on its level of crystallinity.

Thick linings may be required when mechanical factors such as thinning because of cold flow. are easily permeated but have very little absorption. elastomers absorb varying quantities of the material they are in contact with. Increasing lining thickness will normally decrease permeation by the square of the thickness. This can result in 1. All materials tend to be somewhat permeable to chemical molecules. Bond failure and blistering. for which data are usually available. mechanical abuse. When the corrodent permeates the elastomer.4 Causes of Failure Chemical deterioration occurs as the result of a chemical reaction between the elastomer and the medium or by absorption of the medium into the elastomer. When an elastomer exhibits a high absorption. This attack results in a swelling of the elastomer and a reduction in its tensile strength. Swelling can cause softening of the elastomer and. especially organic liquids. For general corrosion resistance. Permeation can pose a serious problem in elastomer-lined equipment. and penetration to the substrate in an elastomer-lined vessel. depending on the elastomeric material and the specific corrodent.020 in. caused by an accumulation of fluids at the bond when the substrate is less permeable than the lining or from the formation of corrosion or reaction products if the substrate is attacked by the corrodent 2. The temperature and concentration of the corrodent will determine the degree of deterioration.1. it comes into contact with the metal substrate that is then subject to chemical attack. factors that influence the permeation rate are diffusion and temperature rather than concentration and temperature. However. thicknesses of 0. such as the fluorocarbons. in a lined vessel. Failure of the substrate because of corrosive attack 3.Elastomers 447 5. it is not necessary for an elastomer to have a high absorption rate for permeation to occur. Some elastomers. LLC . cracking. This can result in swelling. but the permeability rate of some elastomers tends to be an order of magnitude greater than that of metals.010–0. Unlike metals. are usually satisfactory. However. Loss of contents through lining and substrate as the result of eventual failure of the substrate The degree of permeation is affected by lining thickness. and permeation rates are taken into consideration. Normally. Though permeation is a factor closely related to absorption. Permeation is another factor that can cause failure of a lining. this is not necessarily the answer to q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. An approximation of the expected permeation and/or absorption of an elastomer can be based on the absorption of water. permeation usually results. introduce high stresses and failure of the bond. the chemical attack is greater as the temperature and/or concentration of the corrodent increases.

crystallization takes place at low temperatures. serious loss of tensile strength. Table 5. Linings can be installed either bonded or unbonded to the substrate. The low-temperature properties must also be taken into account for outdoor use. and sunlight. When the elastomer is in a deteriorated condition. and consequently. discoloration of colored stocks. Therefore. Table 5. when the material is to be installed where it will be subject to weathering. In addition. Elastomers in outdoor use can be subject to degradation as a result of the action of ozone. Lowering these will reduce the permeation rate. In unbonded linings. it is important that the space between the liner and support member be vented to the atmosphere to permit the escape of minute quantities of permeant vapors and also to prevent the expansion of entrapped air that could cause collapse of the liner. Table 5. mechanical. the material is weakened.3 gives the relative low-temperature flexibility of the more common elastomers. oxygen. the resistance to weathering must also be taken into account when selecting an elastomer as well as other corrosion resistance properties. Temperature and temperature gradient in the liner also affect the rate of permeation. physical. These stresses are influenced by thickness and modulus of elasticity of the elastomer. elongation. when the elastomer is brittle and will easily fracture.1. it is more susceptible to mechanical damage from flowing or agitated media. Lined vessels. discoloration of colored stocks. The action of sunlight.448 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers the problem because increasing the liner thickness can introduce other problems. and chemical resistance properties must all be taken q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. the labor cost of installing the liner increases as the thickness increases.5 Selecting an Elastomer When the need arises to specify an elastomer for a specific application. Temperature changes and large differences in coefficients of thermal expansion are the most common causes of bond failure. provide the best service. the thermal stresses on the boundary increase that can cause bond failure.5 provides the operating temperatures of the common elastomers. when used under ambient conditions such as storage tanks. With many elastomers. elongation. Surface cracking. and serious loss of tensile strength. These three weathering agents can greatly affect the properties and appearance of a large number of elastomeric materials. LLC . this is usually not the case. ozone.2 shows the ozone resistance of selected elastomers. Most mechanical damage occurs as a result of chemical deterioration of the elastomer. As the liner thickness increases. Table 5. and oxygen can cause surface cracking. 5. Some elastomeric materials are subject to degradation when placed in outdoor applications as a result of weathering. Although elastomers can be damaged by mechanical means alone.4 gives the brittle points of the common elastomers. and other rubber-like properties are the result of the attack. and other rubber-like properties.

LLC . F.2 Ozone Resistance of Selected Elastomers Excellent Resistance EPDM Epichlorhydrin ETFE ECTFE Fluorosilicones Ethylene acrylate Ethylene vinyl acetate Chlorinated polyethylene Good Resistance Polychloroprene Fair Resistance Nitrile Poor Resistance Buna S Isoprene Natural rubber Chlorosulfonated polyethylene Polyacrylate Polysulfide Polyamides Polyesters Perfluoroelastomers Urethanes Vinylidene fluoride Butyl 449 Polybutadiene SBR SBS TABLE 5. G. fair. poor.Elastomers TABLE 5. good. P. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.3 Relative Low-Temperature Flexibility of the Common Elastomers Elastomer Natural rubber NR Butyl rubber IIR Ethylene–propylene rubber EPDM Ethylene–acrylic rubber EA Fluoroelastomer FKM Fluorosilicone FSI Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (Hypalon) CSM Polychloroprene (Neoprene) CR Nitrile rubber (Buna-N) NBR Polybutadiene BR Polyisoprene IR Polysulfide T rubber Butadiene–styrene rubber (Buna-S) SBR Silicone rubber SI Polyurethane rubber AU Polyether–urethane rubber EU a Relative Flexibilitya G–E F E P–F F–G E F–G F–G F–G G–E G F–G G E G G E. excellent.

450 TABLE 5.4

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Brittle Points of Common Elastomers
Elastomer NR; IR CR SBR NBR CSM BR EA EPDM; EPT SEBS Polysulfide SF Polysulfide FA AU Polyamide No. 11 PE TPE SI FSI HEP FKM ETFE ECTFE FPM 8F K68 K40 K76 K32 to K40 K40 to K80 K60 K75 K90 K58 to K148 K60 K30 K85 to K100 K94 K94 K67 to K70 K75 K75 K80 K25 to K75 K150 K105 K9 to K58 8C K56 K40 K60 K1 to K40 K40 to K62 K56 K60 K68 K50 to K100 K51 K35 K65 to K73 K70 K70 K55 to K60 K60 K60 K62 K32 to K59 K101 K70 K23 to K50

into account. The major physical and mechanical properties that may have to be considered, depending on the application are: Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Compression set resistance Tear resistance Tensile strength Adhesion to metals Adhesion to fabrics Rebound, cold and hot Resistance to heat aging and flame It should be remembered that these properties may be altered by compounding, but improvement of one property may result in an adverse effect on another. Because of this, it is best to provide a competent manufacturer with complete specifications and let that manufacturer provide an appropriate elastomer.
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Elastomers TABLE 5.5 Operating Temperature Ranges of Common Elastomers
Temperature Range 8F Elastomer Natural rubber, NR Isoprene rubber, IR Neoprene rubber, CR Buna-S, SBR Nitrile Rubber Buna, NBR Butyl rubber, IIR Chlorobutyl rubber, CIIR Hypalon, CSM Polybutadiene rubber, BR Ethylene–acrylic rubber, EA Acrylate–butadiene rubber, ABR Ethylene–propylene, EPDM Styrene–butadiene–styrene, SBS Styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene, SEBS Polysulfide, ST Polysulfide, FA Polyurethane, AU Polyamides Polyesters, PE Thermoplastic elastomers, TPE Silicone, SI Fluorosilicone, FSI Vinylidene fluoride, HEP Fluoroelastomers, FKM Ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene elastomer, ETFE Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene elastomer, ECTFE Perfluoroelastomers, FPM Min K59 K59 K13 K66 K40 K30 K30 K20 K150 K40 K40 K65 K102 K50 K30 K65 K40 K40 K40 K60 K100 K40 K10 K370 K105 K58 Max 175 175 203 175 250 300 300 250 200 340 340 300 150 220 212 250 250 300 302 277 450 375 450 400 300 340 600 Min K50 K50 K25 K56 K40 K34 K34 K30 K101 K40 K40 K54 K75 K45 K35 K54 K40 K40 K40 K51 K73 K40 K18 K223 K76 K50 8C

451

Max 80 80 95 80 105 149 149 105 93 170 170 149 65 105 100 121 121 149 150 136 232 190 232 204 149 171 316

The primary requirement of the elastomer is that it must be compatible with the corrodent to be handled. Therefore, all temperatures and concentrations of the corrodent to which it will be exposed, must be provided. Specifications should include any specific properties required for the application, such as resilience, hysteresis, static or dynamic shear and compression modulus, flex fatigue and cracking, creep resistance to oils and chemicals, permeability, and brittle point, all in the temperature ranges to be encountered in service. 5.1.6 Corrosion Resistance The corrodent’s concentration and temperature is a determining factor in the capacity of the elastomer to resist attack by the corrodent. Another important factor is the elastomer’s composition. It is a common practice in the
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452

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

manufacture of elastomers to incorporate additives into the formulation to improve certain of the physical and/or mechanical properties. These additives may have an adverse effect on the corrosion resistance of the base elastomer, particularly at elevated temperatures. Conversely, some manufacturers compound their elastomer to improve their corrosion resistance at the expense of physical and/or mechanical properties. Because of this, it is important to know whether or not any additives have been used as the corrosion resistance charts are applicable only for the pure elastomer. Keep in mind that there are several manufacturers of each generic compound. Because each may compound slightly differently, the corrosion resistance may be affected. When a generic compound is listed as being compatible with a specific corrodent, it indicates that at least one of the trade name materials is resistant to the corrodent, but not necessarily all. The manufacturers must be checked. 5.1.7 Applications Elastomeric or rubber materials find a wide range of applications. One of the major areas of application is that of vessels’ linings. Both natural and synthetic materials are used for this purpose. These linings have provided many years of service in the protection of steel vessels from corrosion. They are sheet-applied and bonded to a steel substrate. These materials are also used extensively as membranes in acid-bricklined vessels to protect the steel shell from corrosive attack. The acid-brick lining, in turn, protects the elastomer from abrasion and excessive temperature. Another major use is as an impermeable lining for settling ponds and basins. These materials are employed to prevent pond contaminants from seeping into the soil and causing pollution of groundwater and contamination of the soil. Natural rubber and most of the synthetic elastomers are unsaturated compounds that oxidize and rapidly deteriorate when exposed to air in thin films. These materials can be saturated by reacting with chlorine under the proper conditions, producing compounds that are clear, odorless, nontoxic, and noninflammable. They may be dissolved and blended with varnishes to impart high resistance to moisture and to the action of alkalies. This makes these products particularly useful in paints for concrete where the combination of moisture and alkali causes the disintegration of ordinary paints and varnishes. These materials also resist mildew and are used to impart flame resistance and waterproofing properties to canvas. Application of these paints to steel will provide a high degree of protection against corrosion. Large quantities of elastomeric materials are used to produce a myriad of products such as hoses, cable insulation, O-rings, seals and gaskets, belting, vibration mounts, flexible couplings, expansion joints, automotive and airplane parts, electrical parts and accessories. With such a wide variety of applications requiring very diverse properties, it is essential that an
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understanding of the properties of each elastomer be acquired so that proper choices can be made. 5.1.8 Elastomer Designations Many of the elastomers have common names or trade names as well as the chemical name. For example, polychloroprene also goes under the name of neoprene (DuPont’s tradename) or Bayprene (Mobay Corp’s tradename). In addition, they also have an ASTM designation that for polychloroprene is CR.

5.2 Natural Rubber
Natural rubber of the best quality is prepared by coagulating the latex of the ` Hevea brasıliensis tree that is primarily cultivated in the Far East. However, there are other sources such as the wild rubbers of the same tree growing in Central America, guyayule rubber coming from shrubs grown mostly in Mexico, and balata. Balata is a resinous material and cannot be tapped like the Hevea tree sap. The balata tree must be cut down and boiled to extract balata that cures to a hard, tough product used as golf ball covers. Another source of rubber is the planation leaf gutta-percha. This material is produced from the leaves of trees grown in bush formation. The leaves are picked and the rubber is boiled out as with the balata. Gutta-percha has been used successfully for submarine-cable insulation for more than 40 years. Chemically, natural rubber is a polymer of methyl butadiene (isoprene):
CH3 CH2 C CH CH2

When polymerized, the units link together, forming long chains that each contain over 1000 units. Simple butadiene does not yield a good grade of rubber, apparently because the chains are too smooth and do not form a strong enough interlock. Synthetic rubbers are produced by introducing side groups into the chain either by modifying butadiene or by making a copolymer of butadiene and some other compound. Purified raw rubber becomes sticky in hot weather and brittle in cold weather. Its valuable properties become apparent after vulcanization. Depending upon the degree of curing, natural rubber is classified as soft, semihard, or hard rubber. Only soft rubber meets the ASTM definition of an elastomer, and therefore, the information that follows pertain only to soft rubber. The properties of semihard and hard rubber differ somewhat, particularly in the area of corrosion resistance. Most rubber is made to combine with sulfur or sulfur-bearing organic compounds or with other cross-linking chemical agents in a process known
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as vulcanization that was invented by Charles Goodyear in 1839 and forms the basis of all later developments in the rubber industry. When properly carried out, vulcanization improves mechanical properties, eliminates tackiness, renders the rubber less susceptible to temperature changes, and makes it insoluble in all known solvents. Other materials are added for various purposes as follows: Carbon blacks, precipitated pigments, and organic vulcanization accelerators are added to increase tensile strength and resistance to abrasion. Whiting, barite, talc, silica, silicates, clays, and fibrous materials are added to cheapen and stiffen. Bituminous substances, coal tar and its products, vegetable and mineral oils, paraffin, petrolatum, petroleum, oils, and asphalt are added to soften (for purposes of processing or for final properties). Condensation amines and waxes are added as protective agents against natural aging, sunlight, heat, and flexing. Pigments are added to provide coloration. Vulcanization has the greatest effect on the mechanical properties of natural rubber. Unvulcanized rubber can be stretched to approximately ten times its length and, at this point, will bear a load of 10 tons/in.2. It can be compressed to one-third of its thickness thousands of times without injury. When most types of vulcanized rubbers are stretched, their resistance increases in greater proportion than their extension. Even when stretched just short of the point of rupture, they recover almost all of their original dimensions on being released and then gradually recover a portion of the residual distortion. The outstanding property of natural rubber in comparison to the synthetic rubbers is its resilience. It has excellent rebound properties, either hot or cold. 5.2.1 Resistance to Sun, Weather, and Ozone Cold water preserves natural rubber, but if exposed to the air, particularly in sunlight, rubber tends to become hard and brittle. It has only fair resistance to ozone. Unlike the synthetic elastomers, natural rubber softens and reverts with aging to sunlight. In general, it has relatively poor weathering and aging properties. 5.2.2 Chemical Resistance Natural rubber offers excellent resistance to most inorganic salt solutions, alkalies, and nonoxidizing acids. Hydrochloric acid will react with soft rubber to form rubber hydrochloride, and therefore, it is not recommended that natural rubber be used for items that will come into contact with that
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acid. Strong oxidizing media such as nitric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, permanganates, dichromates, chlorine dioxide, and sodium hypochlorite will severely attack rubber. Mineral and vegetable oils, gasoline, benzene, toluene, and chlorinated hydrocarbons also affect rubber. Cold water tends to preserve natural rubber. Natural rubber offers good resistance to radiation and alcohols. Unvulcanized rubber is soluble in gasoline, naphtha, carbon bisulfide, benzene, petroleum ether, turpentine, and other liquids. Refer to Table 5.6 for the compatibility of natural rubber with selected corrodents.
TABLE 5.6 Compatibility of Natural Rubber with Selected Corrodents
Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid, 10% Acetic acid, 50% Acetic acid, 80% Acetic acid, glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride, aqueous Aluminum chloride, dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride, 10% Ammonium chloride, 50% Ammonium chloride, sat. Ammonium fluoride, 10% Ammonium fluoride, 25% Ammonium hydroxide, 25% 8F X X 150 X X X X 140 X 8C X X 66 X X X X 60 X

140 140 160 X X 140

60 60 71 X X 60

140 140 140 140 X X 140

60 60 60 60 X X 60
(continued)

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456 TABLE 5.6 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide, sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate, 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia, 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid, 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas, dry Bromine gas, moist Bromine, liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide, 10% Calcium hydroxide, sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide 8F 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 X X X 140 140 140 140 140 X X X 140 X X 140 140 8C 60 60 60 60 60 X 60 X X X 60 60 60 60 60 X X X 60 X X 60 60

X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 X

X 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 X
(continued)

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Elastomers TABLE 5.6 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon dioxide, dry Carbon dioxide, wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid, 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas, dry Chlorine gas, wet Chlorine, liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid, 10% Chromic acid, 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid, 15% Citric acid, conc. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride, 5% Cupric chloride, 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride, 50% in water Ferric nitrate, 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas, dry Fluorine gas, moist Hydrobromic acid, dil. Hydrobromic acid, 20% Hydrobromic acid, 50% Hydrochloric acid, 20% 8F 8C

457

X X X 140 X X X X X X X X X X X 140 X X X 140 140 X X X X

X X X 60 X X X X X X X X X X X 60 X X X 60 60 X X X X

X 140 140 140 X 140 X X 140 140 140 X

X 60 60 60 X 60 X X 60 60 60 X
(continued)

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458 TABLE 5.6 Continued

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Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrochloric acid, 38% Hydrocyanic acid, 10% Hydrofluoric acid, 30% Hydrofluoric acid, 70% Hydrofluoric acid, 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution, 10% Ketones, general Lactic acid, 25% Lactic acid, conc. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid, 5% Nitric acid, 20% Nitric acid, 70% Nitric acid, anhydrous Nitrous acid, conc. Oleum Perchloric acid, 10% Perchloric acid, 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid, 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide, 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide, 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide, 10% Sodium hydroxide, 50% Sodium hydroxide, conc. Sodium hypochlorite, 20% Sodium hypochlorite, conc. Sodium sulfide, to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid, 10% Sulfuric acid, 50% Sulfuric acid, 70% Sulfuric acid, 90% Sulfuric acid, 98% 8F 140 X X X 8C 60 X X X

X X 140 X X X X 140 X X X X X

X X 60 X X X X 60 X X X X X

X 140 140

X 60 60

140 140 140 X X X X 140 140 140 140 X X X X

60 60 60 X X X X 60 60 60 60 X X X X
(continued)

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Elastomers TABLE 5.6 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid, 100% Sulfuric acid, fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X 8C X X X

459

140

60

The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Source: From P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

5.2.3 Applications Natural rubber finds its major use in the manufacture of pneumatic tires and tubes, power transmission belts, conveyer belts, gaskets, mountings, hose, chemical tank linings, printing press platens, sound and/or shock absorbers, and seals against air, moisture, sound, and dirt. Rubber has been used for many years as a lining material for steel tanks, particularly for protection against corrosion by inorganic salt solutions, especially brine, alkalies, and nonoxidizing acids. These linings have the advantage of being readily repaired in place. Natural rubber is also used for lining pipelines used to convey these types of materials. Some of these applications have been replaced by synthetic rubbers that have been developed over the years.

5.3 Isoprene Rubber (IR)
Chemically, natural rubber is natural cis-polyisoprene. The synthetic form of natural rubber, synthetic cis-polyisoprene, is called isoprene rubber. The physical and mechanical properties of IR are similar to the physical and mechanical properties of natural rubber, the one major difference being that isoprene does not have an odor. This feature permits the use of IR in certain food-handling applications. IR can be compounded, processed, and used in the same manner as natural rubber. Other than the lack of odor, IR has no advantages over natural rubber.
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5.4 Neoprene (CR)
Neoprene is one of the oldest and most versatile of the synthetic rubbers. Chemically, it is polychloroprene. Its basic unit is a chlorinated butadiene whose formula is
Cl CH2 C CH CH2

The raw material is acetylene which makes this product more expensive than some of the other elastomeric materials. Neoprene was introduced commercially by DuPont in 1932 as an oilresistant substitute for natural rubber. Its dynamic properties are very similar to those of natural rubber, but its range of chemical resistance overcomes many of the shortcomings of natural rubber. As with other elastomeric materials, neoprene is available in a variety of formulations. Depending on the compounding procedure, material can be produced to impart specific properties to meet specific application needs. Neoprene is also available in a variety of forms. In addition to a neoprene latex that is similar to natural rubber latex, neoprene is produced in a “fluid” form as either a compounded latex dispersion or a solvent solution. Once these materials have solidified or cured, they have the same physical and chemical properties as the solid or cellular forms. 5.4.1 Resistance to Sun, Weather, and Ozone Neoprene displays excellent resistance to sun, weather, and ozone. Because of its low rate of oxidation, products made of neoprene have high resistance to both outdoor and indoor aging. Over prolonged periods of time in an outdoor environment, the physical properties of neoprene display insignificant change. If neoprene is properly compounded, ozone in atmospheric concentrations has little effect on the product. When severe ozone exposure is expected, as for example around electrical equipment, compositions of neoprene can be provided to resist thousands of parts per million of ozone for hours without surface cracking. Natural rubber will crack within minutes when subjected to ozone concentrations of only 50 ppm. 5.4.2 Chemical Resistance Neoprene’s resistance to attack from solvents, waxes, fats, oils, greases, and many other petroleum-based products is one of its outstanding properties. Excellent service is also experienced when it is in contact with aliphatic compounds (methyl and ethyl alcohols, ethylene glycols, etc.), aliphatic hydrocarbons, and most Freon refrigerants. A minimum amount of swelling
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since moisture. gasolines. 10% Acetic acid. aromatic hydroxy compounds. change in appearance or change in properties. When exposed to dilute mineral acids. It is unaffected by soils saturated with seawater. Properly compounded neoprene can be buried underground successfully. dry Aluminum fluoride 8F 200 200 160 160 160 X X X X X 140 160 120 X 200 150 200 8C 93 93 71 71 71 X X X X X 60 71 49 X 93 66 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Elastomers 461 and relatively little loss of strength occur when neoprene is in contact with these fluids. 50% Acetic acid. Chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons. These products can be used in continuous or periodic immersion in either freshwater or saltwater without any loss of properties.7 for the compatibilities of neoprene with selected corrodents. Neoprene formulations can be produced that provide products with outstanding resistance to water absorption. if any. and other industrial byproducts. 80% Acetic acid. and soil chemicals usually found in the earth have little effect on its properties. Highly oxidizing acid and salt solutions also cause surface deterioration and loss of strength. TABLE 5. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. and certain ketones have an adverse effect on neoprene. organic esters. or alkalies. Included in this category are nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid. Refer to Table 5. wastes. chemicals. aqueous Aluminum chloride.7 Compatibility of Neoprene with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. inorganic salt solutions. bacteria. neoprene products show little. oils. only limited serviceability can be expected with them. LLC . and consequently.

sat. sat. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine 8F 180 200 200 140 X 200 150 150 150 200 200 200 200 200 200 150 150 160 X 200 X X 140 X 150 150 230 200 200 X X 100 150 X X 200 150 X X X 140 60 200 8C 82 93 93 60 X 93 66 66 66 93 93 93 93 93 93 66 66 71 X 93 X X 60 X 66 66 110 93 93 X X 38 66 X X 93 66 X X X 66 16 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium chloride. LLC . moist Bromine.462 TABLE 5. dry Bromine gas. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride.7 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.

5% Cupric chloride. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate 8F X X 200 200 150 230 230 X 150 200 150 X 200 200 X X X 150 X X X X X X X X X 140 100 150 150 160 200 160 200 X 200 160 X X 8C X X 93 93 66 110 110 X 66 93 66 X 93 93 X X X 66 X X X X X X X X X 60 38 66 66 71 93 71 93 X 93 71 X X (continued) 463 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry Chlorine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. conc. 15% Citric acid. wet Chlorine. LLC . 10% Chromic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid.7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.

dil. Hydrobromic acid. 30% Salicylic acid 8F X X 100 160 160 200 90 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X 80 X 140 90 200 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X 150 200 160 8C X X 38 71 71 93 32 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X 27 X 60 32 93 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X 66 93 71 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. dry Fluorine gas.464 TABLE 5. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. LLC . 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. general Lactic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.7 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 5% Nitric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 20% Nitric acid. conc. 10% Ketones.

A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. to 50% Stanic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.3 Applications Neoprene products are available in three basic forms: 1. extruding. Highly compressed cellular materials 3. Corrosion Resistance Tables.Elastomers TABLE 5. Vols. Conventional solid rubber parts 2. Molding can be accomplished by compression. New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer. injection. 1–4. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.4. 5th ed. 90% Sulfuric acid. transfer. 5. 70% Sulfuric acid. Free-flowing liquids Each form has certain specific properties that can be advantageous to final products.A. LLC . or calendering. Source: From P. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 50% Sulfiric acid. blow. 2004. 100% Sulfiric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Solid products can be produced by molding. 98% Sulfuric acid..7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Silver bromide. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 200 200 230 230 230 X X 200 200 X 150 100 X X X X X 100 X X X 140 160 8C 93 93 110 110 110 X X 93 93 X 66 38 X X X X X 38 X X X 60 71 465 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Sulfuric acid.

This absorbent open-cell structure provides a wicking action to deliver oil to the journal bearings. Its main area of application is for cushioning. meteorological balloons. auto sparkplug boots. Open-cell neoprene is a compressible. caulks. shoe soles. and fiber binders. boating accessories. sealants. This material is particularly useful for gasketing and dustproofing applications where exposure to fluids is not expected. Fluid forms of neoprene are important in the manufacture of many products because of their versatility. rods. mortar. insulation. and other miscellaneous components. and diaphragms. It is also used extensively in latex-based adhesives. sealed fractionalhorsepower motors. absorbent material whose cells are uniform and interconnected. and for other appplications where a compressible nonabsorbent weather-resistant material is required. radiator hose. transportation seating. shoe soles and heels. filaments. appliance parts. LLC . This material provides compressibility not found in solid rubber but still retains the advantageous properties of neoprene. foams. A large proportion of sheet stock is later die-cut into finished products such as gaskets. wire jacketing. Typical products produced by these methods are instrument seals. protective coatings. for example. Calendered products include sheet stock. coatings and paints. cushioning. as a binder for cellulose and asbestos. sealing strips. It is available as an open-cell sponge. “Fluid” neoprene is the primary component in such products as adhesives. It is used primarily in the manufacture of dipped products such as tool grips. or wrapped-mandrel methods. Other applications include use as a binder for curled animal hair in resilient furniture cushioning. pads. This property makes closed-cell neoprene especially suitable for sealing applications where fluid contact is expected such as in wetsuits for divers. Neoprene products manufactured by these processes include tubing. O-rings. These products produced from neoprene latex possess the same properties q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and as an elasticizing additive for concrete. a closed-cell neoprene. and friction and coated fabrics. and knife-coated fabrics. Extrusion processes provide means to economically and uniformly mass produce products quickly. and carpet underlay.466 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers vacuum. nonconnecting cells that impart the added advantage of nonabsorbency. and sound and vibration damping. Closed-cell neoprene is a resilient complex of individual. belting. household and industrial gloves. seating. Cellular forms of neoprene are used primarily for gasketing. Foam neoprene is similar to open-cell neoprene in that it is a compressible material with interconnecting cells. and many types of hose. and a variety of rubber-coated metal parts. automotive deck lid seals. and asphalt. and packaging. It is available in two forms—as a neoprene latex or as a solvent solution. acoustical filtering. Because of the good heat and oil resistance of neoprene. in mattresses. Neoprene latex is an elastomer–water dispersion. and a foam neoprene. it has also found application as a railroad car lubricator.

including resistance to oil. spray. oils. The solvent solution can be readily applied and will cure into a roofing membrane that is tough. As with natural rubber and the other synthetic elastomers. molasses. and most hydrocarbons. and Ozone Butadiene–styrene rubber has poor weathering and aging properties. chemicals. and flowable dry solds. The rubber is produced by copolymerizing butadiene and styrene. Neoprene roofing applied in liquid form is used to protect concrete. Sunlight will cause it to deteriorate. and metal decks. 5. Because of the great need for rubber. Neoprene solvent solutions are prepared by dissolving neoprene in standard rubber solvents. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. They can be used to join a wide variety of rigid and flexible materials. government developed what was originally known as Government Rubber Styrene-Type (GR-S) because it was the most practical to put into rapid production on a wartime scale. a shortage of natural rubber was created when Japan occupied the Far Eastern nations where natural rubber was obtained. It was later designated GR-S. GR-S) During World War II.5 Styrene–Butadiene Rubber (SBR. has proved to be a reliable.5. industrial equipment. the U. and various bulk-shipped products. However. Containers have been designed to hold oils. indispensable substitute for natural rubber. weather. it does have better water resistance than natural rubber. These coatings protect the vessels from corrosion by acids. LLC . and weather resistant. fuels.S. pastes. in its many forms. Neoprene. or roller. ozone. Weather. Collapsible nylon containers coated with neoprene are used for transporting and/or storing liquids. plywood. Solvent-based neoprene adhesives develop quick initial bonds and remain strong and flexible most indefinitely. and flame. Buna-S. possessing many of the advantageous properties of natural rubber while also overcoming many of its shortcomings.1 Resistance to Sun. elastic. Major areas of application include coatings for storage tanks. and chemical processing equipment.Elastomers 467 as those associated with solid neoprene. 5. Continued development since World War II has improved its properties considerably over what was initially produced by either Germany or the United States. These solutions can be formulated in a range of viscosities suitable for application by brush. alkalies. compounding with other ingredients will improve certain properties.

hydrocarbons. Ammonium sulfate. 80% Acetic acid. Calcium hydroxide. 20% Calcium hydroxide.8 Compatibility of SBR with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. sat. LLC . sat. gasoline. 40% Chromic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of Buna-S is similar to that of natural rubber.5. 30% Chromic acid. 50% Acetic acid. alkalies.468 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. 50% Copper sulfate Corn oil Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. TABLE 5. 37% 8F X X X X 200 200 200 200 200 X X X X X 200 200 200 200 200 200 X X X X X X X 200 X X 200 200 200 200 8C X X X X 93 93 93 93 93 X X X X X 93 93 93 93 93 93 X X X X X X X 93 X X 93 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 5. Formaldehyde. 28% Ammonium chloride. sat. and alcohols. Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Chromic acid. It is not resistant to oils. 10% Chromic acid. glacial Acetone Ammonium chloride.8 for the compatibility of SBR with selected corrodents. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 10–40% Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. dil. 10% Ammonium chloride. or oxidizing agents. It is resistant to water and exhibits fair to good resistance to dilute acids.

to 50% Propane Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. gaskets. 2004. all conc. although Buna-S materials are also used to manufacture conveyor belts. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. all conc. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. 1–4. 10% Potassium hydroxide. Lactic acid.5. and dirt. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid Phenol Phosphoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid. Vols.8 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Formaldehyde. dil. sea 8F 200 200 X X X X X X X X X X X 200 200 X X X X X 200 X X 200 X X X X 210 200 200 200 8C 93 93 X X X X X X X X X X X 93 93 X X X X X 93 X X 93 X X X X 99 93 93 93 469 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.3 Applications The major use of Buna-S is in the manufacture of automobile tires. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Elastomers TABLE 5. hoses. all conc. dil. and seals against air. Source: From P. 35% Hydrochloric acid. sound. 20% Hydrochloric acid.. 38% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . dil. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. demineralized Water. Sulfuric acid. 5. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water.A. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 5th ed. moisture. Corrosion Resistance Tables. New York: Marcel Dekker. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. salt Water. all conc. Schweitzer.. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. distilled Water. 50% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrochloric acid. 100% Hydrogen peroxide.

LLC . and it requires special formulation to prevent sticking to mixer surfaces and premature vulcanization. Their greater resistance to oils.2 Chemical Resistance Nitrile rubbers exhibit good resistance to solvents.and oil-resistant applications. ozone. The main advantages of nitrile rubbers are their low cost. and their weathering qualities are not good. oil. gaskets. water. and hydraulic fluids.1 Resistance to Sun.9 for the compatibility of NBR with selected corrodents. good oil and abrasion resistance. and Ozone Nitrile rubbers offer poor resistance to sunlight and ozone. The use of highly polar solvents such as acetone and methyl ethyl ketone. Other applications include carburetor diaphragms.6 Nitrile Rubber (NBR. alcohols. Very slight swelling occurs in the presence of aliphatic hydrocarbons.6. chlorinated hydrocarbons. XNBR is a carboxylic-acrylomtrilebutadiene-nitrile rubber with somewhat improved abrasion resistance over that of the standard NBR nitrile rubbers. since these materials will attack the nitrile rubbers. NBR has excellent resistance to water. When compared to NBR.6. appropriate compounding will improve certain properties. ether. The deterioration of physical properties as a result of this swelling is small. BunaN’s major area of application is in the manufacture of aircraft hose. XNBR rubbers are used primarily in nonalkaline service. XNBR has improved abrasion resistance and strength. They are copolymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile (CH2aCH–CaN) and are one of the four most wildely used elastomers.3 Applications Because of its exceptional resistance to fuels and hydraulic fluids. 5. nitro hydrocarbons. As with other elastomers. and glycols. or esters should be avoided. and self-sealing fuel tanks. gasoline and oil hose. Carbonated nitrile rubber (XNBR) incorporates up to 10% of a third comonomer with organic acid functionality. 5. cables. fatty acids. Weather. Buna-N) Nitrile rubbers are an outgrowth of German Buna-N or Perbunan. and machinery mountings. printing rolls. XNBR can be difficult to process. fuel. Refer to Table 5.6. making NBR suitable for gasoline. and good low-temperature and swell characteristics.470 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. 5. and solvents compared to that of neoprene is their primary advantage. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

20% Nitric acid. 50% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate Amyl alcohol Aniline Barium chloride Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Calcium hypochlorite Carbonic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 50–80% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride 8F X 180 X X X X X X X X X 180 180 X 150 150 180 190 200 190 X 150 150 150 X 125 150 150 150 X 100 100 150 150 X X X X X X 150 125 200 8C X 82 X X X X X X X X X 82 82 X 66 66 82 88 93 88 X 66 66 66 X 52 66 66 66 X 38 38 66 66 X X X X X X 66 52 93 (continued) 471 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. anhydrous Phenol Phosphoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Nitric acid.9 Compatibility of Nitrile Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. LLC . 10–50% Hydrofluoric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5.

2004. Chlorobutyl rubber is chlorinated isobutylene–isoprene.9 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. Weather. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 1–4.. 10% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Sodium hypochlorite. fuming Zinc chloride 8F 150 X X 150 150 150 X X X X X 150 8C 66 X X 66 66 66 X X X X X 66 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. 5. It has the same general properties as butyl rubber but with slightly higher allowable operating temperatures. 5. and Ozone Butyl rubber has excellent resistance to sun.A. It is a general-purpose synthetic rubber whose outstanding physical properties are low permeability to air (approximately one-fifth that of natural rubber) and high energy absorption. New York: Marcel Dekker. 98% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. Commercial butyl rubber may contain 5% butadiene as a copolymer.1 Resistance to Sun. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. weather.7 Butyl Rubber (IIR) and Chlorobutyl Rubber (CIIR) Butyl rubber contains isobutylene CH3 C CH2 CH3 as its parent material with small proportions of butadiene or isoprene added. LLC .472 TABLE 5. Source: From P. and ozone. Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Its weathering qualities are outstanding as its resistance to water absorption. Vols.7. conc. 100% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Sulfuric acid.

it is very resistant to swelling by vegetable and animal oils. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Unlike butyl rubber.2 Chemical Resistance Butyl rubber is very nonpolar. gasoline.10 Compatibility of Butyl Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. Unlike natural rubber. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. alkalies. ethylene.7. and water. Ammonium fluoride. LLC . 25% Ammonium hydroxide. acetane. 10% Acetic acid. TABLE 5. ethylene glycol. phosphate ester oils. It has poor resistance to petroleum oils. and most solvents (except oxygenated solvents). 8F 80 150 110 110 X X 100 X X 190 X 200 200 200 200 180 100 100 200 X 190 200 200 200 150 150 190 190 8C 27 66 43 43 X X 38 X X 88 X 93 93 93 93 82 38 38 93 X 88 93 93 93 66 66 88 88 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. CIIR cannot be used with hydrochloric acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. It has exceptional resistance to dilute mineral acids.Elastomers 473 5. Resistance to concentrated acids. is good. aqueous Aluminum chloride. CIIR has the same general resistance as natural rubber but can be used at higher temperatures. 10% Ammonium fluoride.11 for the compatibility of chlorobutyl rubber with selected corrodents. 80% Acetic acid. except nitric and sulfuric. Refer to Table 5. 50% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride.10 for the compatibility of butyl rubber with selected corrodents and to Table 5.

sat. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. LLC . 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine. 10% 8F 200 190 150 150 X 150 150 150 150 190 190 90 X 90 150 190 X 190 150 X 140 X 120 150 190 190 190 190 X 190 100 190 190 190 X 90 150 150 150 100 X X X X X X 8C 93 88 66 66 X 66 66 66 66 88 88 32 X 32 66 88 X 88 66 X 60 X 49 66 88 88 88 88 X 88 38 88 88 88 X 32 66 66 66 38 X X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide.474 TABLE 5. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.10 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.

30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Citric acid. conc. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. 20% Nitric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. Copper chloride Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50% Citric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid. 10% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% Salicylic acid Sodium chloride 8F X 190 190 150 190 X 150 150 X X 200 175 160 190 175 190 X 125 125 125 125 125 140 150 150 150 X 125 125 200 X 90 100 80 X 200 150 X X 125 X 150 150 150 80 200 8C X 88 88 66 88 X 66 66 X X 93 79 71 88 79 88 X 52 52 52 52 52 60 66 66 66 X 52 52 93 X 32 38 27 X 93 66 X X 52 X 66 66 66 27 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. dil. conc. dry Hydrobromic acid. 5% Nitric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.10 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. LLC 475 . Hydrobromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.

Source: From P. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Sodium hydroxide. LLC . to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. 50% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 50% Acetic acid. Sodium sulfide.476 TABLE 5.. aqueous Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Schweitzer. Sodium hypochlorite. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 2004. 1–4. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Alum Aluminum chloride. 98% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. TABLE 5. Vols.10 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. 10% 8F 150 150 150 X X 100 200 200 190 200 200 200 8C 60 60 60 X X 38 93 93 88 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Incompatibility is shown by an X.A.11 Compatibility of Chlorobutyl Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 150 150 150 X X 150 150 150 200 150 X X X X X 200 X X X 200 8C 66 66 66 X X 66 66 66 93 66 X X X X X 93 X X X 93 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. conc. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.

10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium chloride Benzoic acid Boric acid Calcium chloride Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon monoxide Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid Chromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 20% Nitric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 50% Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. Hydrobromic acid. conc. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 70% Nitric acid. LLC 477 . 50% Ammonium chloride. Phenol 8F 200 200 200 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 160 160 160 100 150 100 X X 90 150 160 160 150 150 200 175 100 160 175 125 125 125 X X X X 125 125 200 200 150 X X 125 150 8C 93 93 93 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 71 71 71 38 66 38 X X 32 66 71 71 66 66 93 79 38 71 79 52 52 52 X X X X 52 52 93 93 66 X X 52 66 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. dil. 25% Lactic acid. 15% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cupric chloride. conc. Magnesium chloride Nitric acid. sat.11 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Citric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 100% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate.

also exhibits good resistance to wear and abrasion.. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. In many respects it is similar to neoprene. 2004. General-purpose compounds can operate continuously at q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. high impact resistance. Hypalon has a broad range of service temperatures with excellent thermal properties. when properly compounded. and good resistance to permanent deformation under heavy loading. 10% Sodium sulfide. 1–4. Corrosion Resistance Tables. The excellent resistance it exhibits in the presence of water and steam makes it suitable for hoses and diaphragms. 98% Sulfuric acid.478 TABLE 5. but it does possess some advantages over neoprene in certain types of service. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 100% Sulfuric acid. butyl rubber finds many uses in the manufacture of inflatable items such as life jackets. and inner tubes. 5. and better chemical resistance. shock and vibration absorbers. Schweitzer. It has better heat and ozone resistance.7. Source: From P. balloons.11 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Phosphoric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. better color stability. 5. and molding. to 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid.3 Applications Because of its impermeability. fuming Sulfurous acid Zinc chloride 8F 150 200 150 150 200 X X X X X 200 200 8C 66 93 66 66 93 X X X X X 93 93 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. LLC . life boats.A. 50–80% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Vols. better electrical properties. Hypalon. Applications are also found as flexible electrical insulation. good flex life. 5th ed. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 70% Sulfuric acid. curing bags for tire vulcanization.8 Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber (Hypalon) Chlorosulfonated polyethylene synthetic rubber (CSM) is manufactured by DuPont under the trade name Hypalon. New York: Marcel Dekker.

and hydrofluoric acids. For the same reason. LLC . Hypalon. It is also resistant to radiation. Concentrated hydrochloric acid (37%) at elevated temperatures above 1588F (708C) will attack Hypalon but can be handled without adverse effect at all concentrations below this temperature. 5. conventional compounds can be used continuously down to 0 to K208F (K18 to K288C). ferric chloride. chromic. it is necessary to sacrifice performance of some of the other properties. if any. 5.8. Special compounds can be produced that will retain their flexibility down to K408F (K408C). q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. but to produce such a compound. Hypalon is also resistant to salt solutions.8. It is also resistant to such oxidizing chemicals as sodium hypochlorite. Hypalon has poor resistance to aliphatic. and ketones. Its physical and mechanical properties make it suitable for use in hose undergoing continuous flexing and/or those carrying hot water or steam. Oxidation takes place at a very slow rate. It is also inherently resistant to ozone attack without the need for the addition of special antioxidants or antiozonants to the formulation. Refer to Table 5. Weather.12 for the compatibility of Hypalon with selected corrodents. it is used to line railroad tanks cars and other tanks containing acids and other oxidizing chemicals. alcohols. moisture. and Ozone Hypalon is one of the most weather-resistance elastomers available. sodium peroxide. it has found widespread use as an acid transfer hose.2 Chemical Resistance When properly compounded.8. Special compounds can be formulated that can be used intermittently up to 3028F (1508C). aromatic. Because of its outstanding resistance to oxidizing acids.Elastomers 479 temperatures of 248–2758F (120–1358C). Many elastomers are degraded by ozone concentrations of less than 1 part per million parts of air. adverse effects on its physical properties. even at elevated temperatures. and other deteriorating factors associated with burial in the earth.3 Applications Hypalon finds useful applications in many industries and many fields. aldehydes. 5. and sulfuric. and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Long-term contact with water has little or no effect on Hypalon. Hypalon is highly resistant to attack by hydrocarbon oils and fuels. Nitric acid at room temperature and up to 60% concentration can also be handled without adverse effects. and both weak and concentrated alkalies and is generally unaffected by soil chemicals. Sunlight and ultraviolet light have little. however.1 Resistance to Sun. On the low-temperature side. is unaffected by concentrations as high as 1 part per 100 parts of air.

Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride 8F 60 X 200 200 200 X 200 X X 140 140 200 200 200 200 180 90 140 190 190 190 200 200 200 200 80 140 200 200 60 200 X 140 140 200 200 200 200 200 X X X 200 140 X 8C 16 X 93 93 93 X 93 X X 60 60 93 93 93 93 82 32 60 88 88 88 93 93 93 93 27 60 93 93 16 93 X 60 60 93 93 93 93 93 X X X 93 60 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. LLC . 10% Ammonium hydroxide. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.12 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Hypalon with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.480 TABLE 5. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.

Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon dioxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. sat. dry Bromine gas. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol 8F 200 200 60 60 60 X 60 200 X 200 90 90 200 200 200 200 100 200 200 X 200 200 200 X 200 X X X 90 X X X 150 150 200 200 X 200 200 200 X 200 200 X X 8C 93 93 16 16 16 X 16 93 X 93 32 32 93 93 93 93 38 93 93 X 93 93 93 X 93 X X X 32 X X X 66 66 93 93 X 93 93 93 X 93 93 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Chlorine gas. 15% Citric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Calcium hydroxide.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. moist Bromine. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. LLC 481 . conc.

10% Perchloric acid. conc. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 20% Nitric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. conc. 5% Nitric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. to 50% 8F X 200 200 200 200 200 140 90 100 100 160 140 90 90 90 90 X X 140 80 200 180 X X X 140 100 100 X X X 100 90 X 200 80 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 8C X 93 93 93 93 93 60 32 38 38 71 60 32 32 32 32 X X 60 27 93 82 X X X 60 38 38 X X X 38 32 X 93 27 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. LLC . 50% Hydrochloric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. dry Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.12 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. dil. general Lactic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 25% Lactic acid. Sodium sulfide. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Magnesium chloride Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl lsobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.482 TABLE 5. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.

70% Sulfuric acid. insulating hoods and blankets. light weight. The electrical industry makes use of Hypalon to cover automotive ignition and primary wire. Corrosion Resistance Tables. flexibility. control cable. The construction industry has made use of Hypalon for sheet roofing. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 1–4. 50% Sulfuric acid. and welding cable. 98% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Its resistance to heat. It is also used in applicance cords. Incompatibility is shown by an X. nuclear power station cable. floor tiles. 10% Sulfuric acid. power and lighting cable on offshore oil platforms are sheathed with Hypalon. The ability to remain soil-free and easily cleanable makes it suitable for tire whitewalls. Because of its heat and radiation resistance. grease. abrasion resistance. Vols. 2004. In these applications. Hypalon protects the cork from oxidation at elevated temperatures and also provides excellent resistance to oil. As an added protection from storms at sea. 90% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. Source: From P. useful temperature range. reservoir covers. pond liners. and air-conditioning and power-steering hoses. Schweitzer. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. and decorative and maintenance coatings. ozone.Elastomers TABLE 5. Hypalon provides a compressible yet setresistant gasket suitable for automobile crankcase and rocker pans. and good aging characteristics are of importance. tubing. the properties of color stability. excellent weatherability. it is also used as a jacketing material on heating cable embedded in roadways to melt ice and on x-ray machine cable leads. ignition wire jacketing. and fuels. and many other electrical accessories. curtain-wall gaskets. oil. New York: Marcel Dekker. When combined with cork. trucks. LLC . and other commercial vehicles.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.. 100% Sulfurous acid Toluene Zinc chloride 8F 90 200 200 200 160 X X X 160 X 200 8C 32 93 93 93 71 X X X 71 X 93 483 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. spark plug boots. advantage is taken of Hypalon’s color stability and good weathering properties by using the elastomer for exterior parts on cars. In the automotive industry. and grease makes it useful for application under the hood for such components as emission control hose. escalator rails.A.

2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of polybutadiene is similar to that of natural rubber. 5.9 Polybutadiene Rubber (BR) Butadiene (CH2aCH–CHaCH2) has two unsaturated linkages and can be readily polymerized. Weather. tarpaulins. flexible fuel tanks. oil. 5. When butadiene or its derivatives becomes polymerized.9.9. and other products also make use of fabrics coated with this elastomer. It also exhibits poor resistance to ozone. It shows poor resistance to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. it will deteriorate when exposed to sunlight for prolongated periods of time.1 Resistance to Sun. LLC . Consumer items such as awnings. and hatch and boat covers. Better results are obtained by introducing side groups into the chain either by modifying butadiene or by making a copolymer of butadiene and some other compound. These products offer the advantages of being lightweight and colorful.484 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Application is also found in the coating of fabrics that are used for inflatable structures. and Ozone Although polybutadiene has good weather resistance. but it displays fair to good resistance in the presence of mineral acids and oxygenated compounds. aqueous 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Simple butadiene does not yield a good grade of rubber. convertible tops. the units link together to form long chains that each contains over 1000 units. 5. TABLE 5. apparently because the chains are too smooth. and gasoline.13 for the compatibility of polybutadiene rubber with selected corrodents. Refer to Table 5. boating garb.13 Compatibility of Polybutadiene (BR) with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Alum Alum ammonium Alum ammonium sulphate Alum chrome Alum potassium Alum chloride.

50% Ammonium chloride. 90% Hydrogen sulfide. LLC 485 . 20% Nitric acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. 50% Nitric acid. Calcium hypochlorite.Elastomers TABLE 5. 50% Hydrochloric acid fumes Hydrogen peroxide. Carbon dioxide. wet Chrome alum Chromic acid. 5% Nitric acid. Hydrochloric acid. 10% Nitric acid. dil. Ozone Phenol Sodium bicarbonate. to 20% Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 X 90 X X X X 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 80 80 X X X X 80 X 80 90 80 90 90 80 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 X 32 X X X X 32 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 27 27 27 X X X X 27 X 27 32 27 32 32 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Chlorine gas. 70% Nitric acid. sat. 40% Nitric acid.13 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium sulfate. 30% Nitric acid. sat. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 28% Ammonium chloride. sat. 10–40% Calcium chloride. 30% Chromic acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. dry Nitric acid. 10% Chromic acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 40% Chromic acid. 50% Copper chloride Copper sulfate Fatty acids Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate Hydrochloric acid.

A. 30% Sulfuric acid. to 50% Sodium sulfite. LLC . 15% Sodium hydroxide. As with other synthetic elastomers. Sodium hypochlorite.3 Applications Very rarely is polybutadiene used by itself. conc. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Source: From P. 2004. 30% Sodium hydroxide.486 TABLE 5. the properties of the EA rubbers can be altered by q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5th ed. 50% Sulfuric acid. particularly in the manufacture of automobile tire treads. 10% Sodium hydroxide. shoe heels and seals. New York: Marcel Dekker.9. Incompatibility is shown by an X. acid Sodium phosphate.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. 5. to 20% Sodium nitrate Sodium phosphate. 60% Sulfuric acid. and/or low-temperature properties. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. gaskets. alkaline Sodium phosphate. abrasion resistance. 1–4. 70% Sodium hydroxide. seals. 70% Toluene 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 X 90 80 80 80 80 90 X 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 X 32 27 27 27 27 32 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. and belting. Schweitzer. neutral Sodium silicate Sodium sulfide. Vols.10 Ethylene–Acrylic (EA) Rubber Ethylene–acrylic rubber is produced from ethylene and acrylic acid. 10% Sodium dioxide. dry Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid.. It is generally used as a blend with other elastomers to impart better resiliency. 5.

5. and Ozone Acrylate–butadiene and acrylic ester–acrylic halide rubbers exhibit good resistance to sun. and Ozone EA elastomers have extremely good resistance to sun. seals. weather. 5. the polymer has excellent resistance to heat. Neither should it be used in applications calling for long-term exposure to highpressure steam. Ethylene–acrylic rubber also has outstanding resistance to hot water.10.2 Chemical Resistance Ethylene–acrylic elastomers exhibit very good resistance to hot oils and hydrocarbon. hoses. Long-term exposures have no effect on these rubbers. The swelling characteristics of EA will be retained better than those of the silicone rubbers after oil immersion. weather. fluids. Good resistance is also displayed to dilute acids.1 Resistance to Sun. and wear as well as good low-temperature sealing ability. 5. ketones. and ozone. Weather. aliphatic hydrocarbons. Ethylene– acrylic rubber in engine parts provides good resistance to heat. oxidation. damping components. ships. Ethylene–acrylic rubber is not recommended for immersion in esters.10. and ozone. and building plenum installations. low-smoke floor tiling. Weather. and animal and vegetable oils.Elastomers 487 compounding. boots. LLC .1 Resistance to Sun. Basically. and ozone.or glycol-based proprietary lubricants and to transmission and power steering fluids. highly aromatic hydrocarbons.10. or concentrated acids.11. hot-oil-resistant rubber with good low-temperature properties. It is one of the few elastomers with higher heat resistance than EPDM. Its resistance to water absorption is very good. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.11 Acrylate–Butadiene Rubber (ABR) and Acrylic Ester–Acrylic Halide (ACM) Rubbers Acrylate–butadiene and acrylic ester–acrylic halide rubbers are similar to ethylene–acrylic rubbers. 5. Because of its fully saturated backbone.3 Applications Ethylene–acrylic rubber is used in such products as gaskets. and cable jackets for offshore oil platforms. gasoline. EA is a cost-effective. 5.

acids. Hoses manufactured from EPDM have had lives several times longer than that of hoses manufactured from other elastomers. and silicate hydraulic fluids. These monomers are combined in such a manner as to produce an elastomer with a completely saturated backbone and pendant unsaturation for sulfur vulcanization. good mechanical properties.3 Applications These rubbers are used where resistance to atmospheric conditions and heat are required. aging. As a result of this configuration. 5. and good chemical resistance. oxygen. This material may be processed and vulcanized by the same techniques and with the same equipment as those used for processing other generalpurpose elastomers. and weather. Ethylene–propylene rubber possesses many properties superior to those of natural rubber and conventional general-purpose elastomers. being hydrocarbon based. Experience has shown that EPDM has exceptional resistance to steam. it will last longer or require less maintenance and may even cost less. However. and weather.2 Chemical Resistance Acrylate–butadiene and ACM rubbers have excellent resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons (gasoline. toluene). As with other elastomers. being able to operate at temperatures of 300–3508F (148–1768C). In some applications. kerosene) and offer good resistance to water. while also finding application at temperatures as low as K708F (K568C). it will perform better than other materials.12 Ethylene–Propylene Rubbers (EPDM and EPT) Ethylene–propylene rubber is a synthetic hydrocarbon-based rubber made either from ethylene–propylene diene monomer or ethylene–propylene terpolymer. It also has very high resistance to sunlight.11. and phosphate hydraulic fluids. LLC . 5. compounding plays an important part in tailoring the properties of EPDM to meet the needs of a q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.11.488 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. EPDM has exceptional heat resistance. alcohol. halogenated hydrocarbons. They are unsatisfactory for use in contact with alkali. excellent electrical properties. whereas in other applications. aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene. it is not resistant to petroleum-based oils or flame. making this elastomer suitable for a variety of applications. synthetic lubricants. The dynamic properties of EPDM remain constant over a wide temperature range. vulcanizates of EPDM elastomers are extremely resistant to attack by ozone.

5. or black. white. It is very similar in physical and mechanical properties to EPDM. the properties discussed must be considered in general terms. It exhibits exceptional resistance to hot water and high-pressure steam. and Ozone Ethylene–propylene rubber is particularly resistant to sun. Because of its paintability. being hydrocarbon-based. detergents. In the absence of air.3 Applications Extensive use is made of ethylene–propylene rubber in the automotive industry. It is not necessary to add any special compounding ingredients to produce this resistance. by proper compounding. LLC .12.12. Standard formulations can be used continuously at temperatures of 250–3008F (121–1488C) in air. weak acids and alkalies. Standard compounds can be used in intermittent service at 3508F (1768C). is not resistant to hydrocarbon solvents and oils.14 for the compatibility of EPDM with selected corrodents and to Table 5.2 Chemical Resistance Ethylene–propylene rubber resists attack from oxygenated solvents such as acetone. However.15 compatibility of EPT with selected corrodents. Because of this. Ethylene–propylene terpolymer (EPT) is a synthetic hydrocarbon-based rubber produced from an ethylene–proplene terpolymer. higher temperatures can be tolerated. and for all practical purposes. phosphate esters. its resistance to oil can be improved to provide adequate service life in many applications where such resistance is required. ethyl acetate. are resistant to most of the same corrodents as EPDM but do not have as broad a resistance to mineral acids and some organics. Refer to Table 5.12.Elastomers 489 specific application. weather. Ethylene–propylene rubber has relatively high resistance to heat. it can be considered immune to ozone attack. such as in a steam hose lining or cable insulation covered with an outer jacket. and glycols. The elastomer. chlorinated hydrocarbons. in general. The elastomer remains free of surface crazing and retains a high percentage of its properties after years of exposure. Excellent weather resistance is obtained whether the material is formulated in color.1 Resistance to Sun. Weather. or turpentine. that provides a durable and elastic q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. methyl ethyl ketone. and ozone attack. Ozone resistance is inherent in the polymer. alcohols. Each of the properties of the elastomer can be enhanced or reduced by the addition or deletion of chemicals and fillers. this elastomer is used as the gap-filling panel between the grills and bumper. Ethylene–propylene terpolymer rubbers. It is also possible by special compounding to produce material that can be used in services up to 3508F (1768C). 5. 5.

Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride.14 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of EDPM Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.490 TABLE 5. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 200 200 140 140 140 140 X 200 X 140 200 200 X 200 190 200 200 190 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 140 200 X 200 200 200 200 140 8C 93 93 60 60 60 60 X 93 X 60 93 93 X 93 88 93 93 88 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 38 38 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 X 60 93 X 93 93 93 93 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Ammonium chloride. sat. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. LLC . 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride.

dry Bromine gas. wet Chlorine.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. moist Bromine. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC . liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chlorite Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine gas. sat. 50% Citric acid. conc. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. Copper acetate Copper carbonate 8F 150 X X X X X 200 190 X X X X 140 200 140 X 200 140 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 200 200 200 X 200 X 200 160 X X X X X X X 200 200 100 200 8C 66 X X X X X 93 88 X X X X 60 93 60 X 93 60 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 X 93 93 93 X 93 X 93 71 X X X X X X X 93 93 38 93 (continued) 491 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 15% Citric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. dry Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.

70% Nitric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 30% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. 30% 8F 200 200 200 X 200 200 X X X 200 200 200 200 200 200 60 90 140 140 100 90 200 60 X X 200 140 X 140 200 X X 80 60 60 60 X X X 140 140 200 200 8C 93 93 93 X 93 93 X X X 93 93 93 93 93 93 16 32 60 60 38 32 93 16 X X 93 60 X 60 93 X X 27 16 16 16 X X X 60 60 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.14 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 5% Nitric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. general Lactic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 20% Nitric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Ketones. 10% Phosphoric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.492 TABLE 5. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. conc. 50% in water Ferric nitrate.

10% Acetic acid.. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. fuming Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 200 200 140 200 180 180 200 200 200 200 200 150 150 140 X X X X X 80 200 200 8C 93 93 60 93 82 82 93 93 93 93 93 66 66 66 X X X X X 27 93 93 493 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 80% Acetic acid. 1–4. 10% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide. conc.Elastomers TABLE 5. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 100% Sulfuric acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. 90% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. conc. Source: From P. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. LLC . 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Vols. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2004. 70% Sulfuric acid. 50% Acetic acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Sodium hypochlorite.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sulfuric acid.15 Compatibility of EPT with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. 5th ed.A. Schweitzer. 28% 8F 200 X X X X X 140 180 180 8C 93 X X X X X 60 82 82 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Incompatibility is shown by an X. TABLE 5.

5% Citric acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. conc. 50% Ammonium chloride. LLC . Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Bromine water. sat.494 TABLE 5. sat. dil. sat. Cane sugar liquors Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Cellosolve Chlorine water. general 8F 180 180 140 140 140 180 180 X X 140 X X X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 210 180 X X 180 160 X 80 X X X X X X 180 180 180 180 180 X 80 100 210 100 8C 82 82 60 60 60 82 82 X X 60 X X X X 82 82 82 82 82 82 99 82 X X 82 71 X 27 X X X X X X 82 82 82 82 82 X 27 38 99 38 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride dil. 10% Chromic acid. Calcium chloride sat. 10% Citric acid. 20% Calcium hydroxide. 30% Chromic acid. Calcium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. Bromine water. sat. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. 40% Chromic acid. 15% Citric acid. 50% Citric acid. 30% Calcium hydroxide. sat. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Copper sulfate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Diacetone alcohol Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. Ammonium sulfate.

to 70% Sulfuric acid. dil. all conc. 100% Hydrogen peroxide. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 93% Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. dil. demineralized Water. 38% Hydrochloric acid. Lactic acid. distilled Water. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Muriatic acid Nitric acid Oxalic acid Phenol Phosphoric acid. 37% Formaldehyde. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. Formaldehyde. 50% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. Sulfuric acid. all conc. Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Propane Silicone oil Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. sea 8F X 180 X 180 180 180 140 180 210 X X X X 210 140 X X X X X 210 X X X X X 140 80 180 210 210 X 200 180 180 200 X 200 X X X 210 210 210 210 8C X 82 X 82 82 82 60 82 99 X X X X 99 60 X X X X X 99 X X X X X 60 27 82 99 99 X 93 82 82 93 X 93 X X X 99 99 99 99 (continued) 495 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Hydrochloric acid. to 50% Potassium sulfate. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. to 70% Sodium hypochlorite. dil. Potassium hydroxide. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. salt Water. Hydrochloric acid. LLC .

. boots. vibration isolators. and ozone.496 TABLE 5. Other automotive applications include body mounts. ovens. Each application takes advantage of one or more specific properties of the elastomer. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. ignition wire insulation. It provides excellent resistance to tearing and failure caused by high voltage contaminants and stress. Appliance manufacturers. seals. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Incompatibility is shown by an X. and various other items make use of EPDM because of its resistance to heat. It is used for medium-voltage (up to 35 kV) and secondary network power cable. transformer connectors. Vols.and high-voltage underground power distribution cable insulated with EPDM offers many advantages. New York: Marcel Dekker. plugs. drain and water-circulating hoses. have also found wide use for EPDM. exhaust emission control tubing. Schweitzer. chemicals. floor mats. 1–4. 2004. miscellaneous body seals. It withstands heavy corona discharge without sustaining damage. One of the primary applications is as an insulating material. and pedal pads. splices.A.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Whiskey Zinc chloride 8F 180 180 8C 82 82 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and a variety of small appliances. bleach tubing. LLC . inlet nozzles. This elastomer is also used in dishwashers. and a variety of grommets. and insulation for automotive ignition cable. Ethylene–propylene rubber finds application in the electrical industry and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. refrigerators. Medium. and insulating and semiconductor tape are also produced from EPDM. gaskets. overflow tubing. window washer tubing. especially washer manufacturers. Source: From P. Under hood components such as radiator hose. jacketing and insulation for types S and SJ flexible cords. diaphragms. Accessory items such as molded terminal covers. 5th ed. line-tap and switching devices. spring mounting pads. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Its heat and chemical resistance combined with its physical properties make it ideal for such appliances as door seals and cushions. coverings for line and multiplex distribution wire. Its excellent electrical properties make it suitable for high-voltage cable insulation. element.

and Ozone SBS rubbers are not resistant to ozone.13 Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene (SBS) Rubber Styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) rubbers are either pure or oil-modified block copolymers. They have excellent resistance to water. physical durability.13.1 Resistance to Sun. Standard formulations of EPDM are also used for such consumer items as garden hose. water and chemical hose. ozone resistance.Elastomers 497 Manufacturers of other industrial products take advantage of the heat and chemical resistance. These compounds have a wide range of properties and provide the benefits of rubberiness and easy processing on standard thermoplastic processing equipment. 5. Weather. particularly when they are in a stressed condition. gaskets. These rubbers are used primarily in blends with other thermoplastic materials and as performance modifiers. Prolonged exposure to hydrocarbon solvents and oils will cause deterioration.14 Styrene–Ethylene–Butylene–Styrene (SEBS) Rubber Styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene (SEBS) rubbers are either pure or oilmodified block copolymer rubbers. bicycle tires.13. and bases. however. Typical applications include high-pressure steam hose. hydraulic hose for phosphate-type fluids. high-temperature conveyor belting. SBS compounds are formulations containing block copolymer rubber and other suitable ingredients. They are most suitable as performance modifiers in blends with thermoplastics or as a base rubber for adhesive. or coating formulations. 5. 5. LLC . and tires for garden equipment. sealant. industrial tires. short exposures can be tolerated. marine accessories. 5. sporting goods.3 Applications The specific formulation will determine the applicability of various products. tugboat and dock bumpers. and a variety of molded products.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of SBS rubbers is similar to that of natural rubber. Neither are they resistant to prolonged exposure to sun or weather. 5.13. O-rings. vibration mounts. acids. and dynamic properties of EPDM. Applications include a wide variety of general-purpose rubber items and use in the footwear industry. tanks and pump linings. These rubbers are used as performance q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Formulations of SEBS compounds provide a wide range of properties with the benefits of rubbermess and easy processing on standard thermoplastic processing equipment. sealant. sporting goods. Soaking in hydrocarbon solvents and oils will deteriorate the rubber. these elastomers do not have great elasticity.1 Resistance to Sun. flame-resistant appliance wiring materials. LLC . poor rebound. 5. For prolonged outdoor exposure. 5.5 part of nickel dibutyldithiocarbamate (NBC) per 100 parts of FA polysulfide rubber will improve the ozone resistance. Weather. The sulfur forms part of the polymerized molecule. Many applications are found in the electrical industry for such items as flexible cords. and other products. acids.15. and poor abrasion resistance. a pungent odor. Compared to nitrile rubber.15 Polysulfide Rubbers (ST and FA) Polysulfide rubbers are manufactured by combining ethylene (CH2aCH2) with an alkaline polysulfide. and Ozone FA polysulfide rubber compounds display excellent resistance to ozone. 5. they have poor tensile strength.1 Resistance to Sun.14.14. If high concentrations of ozone are to be present. 5. but they do have good resistance to heat and are resistant to most solvents. 5. o coating formulations. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Weather. They are also known as Thiokol rubbers. In general. They have excellent resistance to water. and bases.14.498 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers modifiers in blends with thermoplastics or as the base rubber for adhesive. and exposure to ultraviolet light. Modified organic polysulfides are made by substituting other unsaturated compounds for ethylene that results in compounds that have little objectionable odor. the addition of an ultraviolet absorber or carbon black pigment or both is recommended. weathering. the use of 0. Their resistance is superior to that of ST polysulfide ribbers. welding and booster cables.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of SEBS rubbers is similar to that of natural rubber.3 Applications SEBS rubbers find applications for a wide variety of general-purpose rubber items as well as in automotive. and automotive primary wire insulation. but short exposures can be tolerated. and Ozone SEBS rubbers and compounds exhibit excellent resistance to ozone. high creep under strain.

gasoline.16 Compatibility of Polysulfide ST Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. however. Ammonium hydroxide. 28% Ammonium chloride. concentrated inorganic acids such as sulfuric. this addition can degrade the material’s compression set.15. 10% Acetic acid.16 for the compatibility of polysulfide ST rubber with selected corrodents. ST polysulfide rubbers exhibit better resistance to chlorinated organics than FA polysulfide rubbers. Ammonium sulfate. very good water resistance. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. and fair acid resistance. TABLE 5. For high resistance to esters and ketones. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline 8F X 80 80 80 80 80 X 150 150 150 90 X X X X 80 X 8C X 27 27 27 27 27 X 66 66 66 32 X X X X 27 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. ST polysulfide rubber also possesses satisfactory weather resistance. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. 5. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. and aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon solvents. Refer to Table 5. nitric. They exhibit excellent resistance to oils. FA polysulfide rubbers are somewhat more resistant to solvents than ST rubbers. Its resistance to ozone is good but can be improved by the addition of NBC. Contact of either rubber with strong. sat. 80% Acetic acid. Compounding of FA polymers with NBR will provide high resistance to aromatic solvents and improve the physical properties of the blend. LLC . or hydrochloric acid should be avoided.Elastomers 499 ST polysulfide rubber compounded with carbon black is resistant to ultraviolet light and sunlight. sat.2 Chemical Resistance Polysulfide rubbers posses outstanding resistance to solvents. neoprene W is compounded with FA polysulfide rubber to produce improved physical properties. good alkali resistance. 10% Ammonium chloride.

50% Citric acid. dil. LLC . Calcium hydroxide. 20% Calcium hydroxide. conc. 15% Citric acid. 40% Chromic acid. sat. 30% Chromic acid. 10% Citric acid.500 TABLE 5. Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. 37% Formaldehyde. sat. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Cane sugar liquors Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Cellosolve Chlorine water. Bromine water. sat. Calcium chloride. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Glycerine 8F X 150 80 80 150 80 80 150 150 X X X X X X X 150 80 80 X X X X X X X X X X X X 90 90 X 80 80 90 80 80 80 150 80 80 80 80 8C X 66 27 27 66 27 27 66 66 X X X X X X X 66 27 27 X X X X X X X X X X X X 32 32 X 27 27 32 27 27 27 66 27 27 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Citric acid.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzene Benzoic acid Bromine water. Formaldehyde. general Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. dil. Copper sulfate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Diacetone alcohol Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. 10% Chromic acid. sat. dil.

Source: From P. Hydrochloric acid. all conc. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 20% Hydrochloric acid.A. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Propane Silicone oil Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Oxalic acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. Hydrofluoric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. dil. Phosphoric acid. Vols. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 100% Hydrogen peroxide. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Sodium hypochlorite.. all conc. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Phenol. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrochloric acid. distilled Water. sea Whiskey Zinc chloride 8F X X X X X X X X X X X X X 150 80 X X X X X X 80 90 150 X X 80 X X X X X 80 80 80 80 X X 8C X X X X X X X X X X X X X 66 27 X X X X X X 27 32 66 X X 27 X X X X X 27 27 27 27 X X 501 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. demineralized Water. 5th ed. salt Water. LLC . all conc. dil. Potassium hydroxide. 38% Hydrochloric acid. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. Sulfuric acid. all conc. all conc. Lactic acid. to 50% Potassium sulfate. 1–4. all conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc.

both polyester and polyether types.and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. life rafts. The major reason for this is its high degree of resistance to many types of solvents. The soft block is represented by B and can be derived from either a polyester or a polyether. paint can gaskets. The urethane linkages in the hard blocks are capable of a high degree of inter.1 shows typical TPU structures.16 Urethane Rubbers (AU) The first commercial thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) were the thermoplastic urethanes (TPU). cements. gasoline. and flexible mountings. Such bonding increases the O C O NH CH2 NH C O O CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 O R n R CH2 CH2 or CH2 CH CH3 or CH2 CH2 m CH2 CH2 O C O CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 C O n = 30 to 120 m = 8 to 50 FIGURE 5. fuels. and other inflatable items.15. and plasticizers. Figure 5.3 Applications FA polysulfide rubber is one of the elastomeric materials commonly used for the fabrication of rubber rollers for printing and coating equipment. where A represents a hard crystalline block derived by chain extension of a diisocyanate with a glycol. Large amounts of material are also used to produce caulking compounds. seals. The impermeability of the polysuldife rubbers to air and gas has promoted the use of these materials for inflatable products such as life jackets. Applications are also found in the fabrication of hose and hose liners for the handling of aromatic solvents.1 Typical urethane rubber chemical structure. and thinners. Their general structure is A–B–A–B. that are used as vehicles for various printing inks and coatings. balloons. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. esters.502 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. esters. lacquers. including ketones. aromatic hydrocarbons. paints. ketones. LLC . oils. 5.

the nature of the soft segments determines the elastic behavior and low-temperature performance. LLC . a number of raw polyurethane polymers are liquid. When cured.16. Compositions with a Shore A hardness of 95 (harder than a typewriter platen) are elastic enough to withstand stretching to more than four times their own lengths. Those based on polyether soft blocks have excellent resistance (low heat buildup.1 Resistance to Sun. At room temperature. these elastomeric parts are hard enough to be machined on standard metalworking equipment. or any combination of these factors will lead to a loss in physical and mechanical properties. Melting of the hard phase causes morphological changes and is reversible. Urethane rubbers exhibit excellent recovery from deformation. TPUs slowly deteriorate but noticeably between 265 and 3408F (130 and 1708C) by both chemical degradation and morphological changes. metals. tear strength—of the TPU. 5. modulus. both processes become progressively more rapid. There are other factors that can have an adverse effect on aging. and hydrolytic stability. or hysteresis). TPUs with polyether soft blocks have greater resistance to thermal and oxidative attack than TPU based on polyester blocks. They have specific gravities comparable to that of carbon black-filled rubber. TPUs based on polyester soft blocks have excellent resistance to nonpolar fluids and high tear strength and abrasion resistance. extended exposure to ultraviolet light q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Elastomers 503 crystallinity of the hard phase and can influence the mechanical properties— hardness. dynamic forces. and ceramics. Parts made of urethane rubbers may build up heat when subjected to high-frequency deformation. and they do not enjoy the density advantage over thermoset rubber compounds. Cured urethane does not require fillers or reinforcing agents. It can be formulated to provide a variety of products with a wide range of physical properties. yet still has the extensibility and elasticity of rubber. whereas. contact with chemical agents. and Ozone Urethane rubbers exhibit excellent resistance to ozone attack and have good resistance to weathering. Urethane rubbers are produced from a number of polyurethane polymers. However. Such factors as elevated temperature. Weather. As with other block copolymers. oxidative degradation is slow and irreversible. The properties exhibited are dependent upon the specific polymer and the compounding. Urethane (AU) rubber is a unique material that combines many of the advantages of rigid plastics. TPUs are noted for their outstanding abrasion resistance and low coefficient of friction on other surfaces. thermal stability. simplifying the production of many large and intricately shaped molded products. but their high strength and load-bearing capacity may permit the use of sections thin enough to dissipate the heat as fast as it is generated. As the temperature increases.

Aromatic hydrocarbons. Satisfactory service was given even when the material was exposed to the relatively large gamma-ray dosage of 1!109 roentgens. 80% Acetic acid.16. these rubbers were more resistant to stress cracking than other elastomers and retained a large proportion of their original flexibility and toughness. esters. and ketones will attack urethane. This can be prevented by the use of pigments or ultraviolet screening agents. Urethane rubbers have limited service in weak acid solutions and cannot be used in concentrated acids.2 Chemical Resistance Urethane rubbers are resistant to most mineral and vegetable oils. This makes these materials particularly suited for service in contact with lubricating oils and automotive fuels. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. as manufactured by DuPont. TABLE 5. polar solvents. Tests conducted at the Hanford Laboratories of General Electric Co.18 the compatibility of polyether urethane rubber with selected corrodents. 5. indicated that adiprene urethane rubber.17 for the compatibility of urethane rubber with selected corrodents and to Table 5. ethers. greases and fuels. 50% 8F X X X X X X 90 90 90 8C X X X X X X 32 32 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. When irradiated with gamma rays. 50% Acetic acid. LLC . Alcohols will soften and swell urethane rubbers. 10% Acetic acid.17 Compatibility of Urethane Rubbers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. but they are resistant to the swelling and deteriorating effects of being immersed in water. offered the greatest resistance to the effects of gamma-ray irradiation of the many elastomers and plastics tested. and to aliphatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons.504 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers will reduce their physical properties and will cause the rubber to darken. 28% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. Refer to Table 5. They are not resistant to steam or caustic.

30% Calcium hydroxide. Copper sulfate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Dextrose Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. Calcium chloride. dil. general Ethyl acetate 8F 90 90 90 80 X X X X X X 100 X X X X X 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 27 X X X X X X 38 X X X X X 32 32 32 505 X 90 90 X X X X X X X X X X X 32 32 X X X X X X X X X X 90 90 X X X X X 32 32 X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Citric acid. Calcium hydroxide.17 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. 50% Citric acid. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. sat. Ammonium sulfate. dil. sat. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Bromine water. 10%. 15% Citric acid. sat. 20% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium hydroxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide. 5% Citric acid. 40% Chromic acid. LLC . Cane sugar liquors Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Cellosolve Chlorine water. Ammonium hydroxide. Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. Bromine water. sat. sat. 30% Chromic acid. sat. 10% Chromic acid. conc.

all conc. Hydrochloric acid. JP 4 Jet fuel. 20% Hydrochloric acid. sea 8F X 90 X X X 90 X X X X X X X X X 90 90 90 90 90 X X 90 X X 80 X 90 90 90 90 90 X X 80 90 X X X X 90 X X X 8C X 32 X X X 32 X X X X X X X X X 32 32 32 32 32 X X 32 X X 27 X 32 32 32 32 32 X X 27 32 X X X X 32 X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. JP 5 Kerosene Lard oil Linseed oil Magnesium hydroxide Mercury Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Mineral oil Muriatic acid Nitric acid Oils and fats Phenol Potassium bromide. LLC . dil. 30% Potassium chloride. 50% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. all conc. 30% Potassium hydroxide. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid.17 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Fomaldehyde. salt Water. 37% Formaldehyde. Fomaldehyde. Toluene Trichloroethylene Trisodium phosphate Turpentine Water. dil. 10% Silver nitrate Soaps Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Sulfuric acid. to 50% Potassium sulfate.506 TABLE 5. to 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Isoprapyl alcohol Jet fuel.

LLC . 1–4.A. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 28% Ammonium chloride. New York: Marcel Dekker. Incompatibility is shown by an X. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 10% Ammonium chloride. dil.. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Source: From P. sat. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 8F X X X X X X X 130 130 130 130 110 110 100 120 X X X X X 90 80 X X 130 130 8C X X X X X X X 54 54 54 54 43 43 38 49 X X X X X 32 27 X X 54 54 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.17 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Whiskey Xylene 8F X X 8C X X 507 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Ammonium chloride. Ammonium sulfate. Vols. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. Ammonium hydroxide.18 Compatibility of Polyether Urethane Rubbers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. sat. 5th ed. 80% Acetic acid. TABLE 5. Calcium chloride. sat. 2004. Schweitzer.

50% Citric acid. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Cottonseed oil Cresylic acid Cyclohexane Dioxane Diphenyl Ethyl acetate Ethyl benzene Ethyl chloride Ethylene oxide Ferric chloride. dil. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. F-12 Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 40% Chromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Chromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. F-11 Freon. 5% Citric acid. 100% 8F 130 130 130 130 130 X X 80 130 130 X X X X X X X 90 90 90 130 X 80 X X X X X X 100 100 X X 130 130 X X X X X X X X X X X 8C 54 54 54 54 54 X X 27 54 54 X X X X X X X 32 32 32 38 X 27 X X X X X X 38 38 X X 38 38 X X X X X X X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 75% Fluorosilicic acid Formic acid Freon. 20% Calcium hydroxide. 30% Calcium hydroxide. Hydrochloric acid. 10% Citric acid. Calcium hypochlorite Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Caustic potash Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid.18 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium hydroxide.508 TABLE 5. sat. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Hydrofluoric acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid.

abrasion-resistant q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2004. Vols. 1–4. impellers. Source: From P. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. demineralized Water. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Muriatic acid Nitrobenzene Olive oil Phenol Potassium acetate Potassium chloride. alk.Elastomers TABLE 5. neut. and films and coatings. Sodium phosphate.16. New York: Marcel Dekker. cellular. acid Sodium phosphate. comprising such items as large rolls. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. LLC . sea Xylene 8F X X X X X X X X 120 X X 130 130 130 X X X 130 140 X X 130 130 130 X X 130 130 130 130 X 8C X X X X X X X X 49 X X 54 54 54 X X X 54 60 X X 54 54 54 X X 54 54 54 54 X 509 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. A. Included under the solid category are those products that are cast or molded. 5. 30% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium peroxide Sodium phosphate. Products made from urethane rubber are available in three basic forms: solid. 30% Potassium hydroxide Potassium sulfate. salt Water. all conc. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistance Tables. distilled Water.3 Applications The versatility of urethane has led to a wide variety of applications.18 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Isobutyl alcohol Isopropyl acetate Lactic acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X.. 10% Propane Propyl acetate Propyl alcohol Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 5th ed. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.

and the soft segment may have a polyester or a polyether structure.2. and load-bearing capacity. Their relatively high price tends to restrict their use. LLC . solid tires. There are many varieties of polyamides in production. contact wheels for belt grinders. they can also be formulated into thermoplastic molding compounds with many attractive properties. shoe soles. urethane linings are used to protect the concrete from severe chemical attack and prevent seepage into the concrete of chemicals that can attack the reinforcing steel. In many cases. impact mountings. These films also provide abrasion resistance. gear couplings. glass. etc. Nylons 11 and 12 find application as elastomeric materials. These linings provide protection from abrasion and erosion and act as a waterproofing system to combat leakage of the equipment resulting from concrete movement and shrinkage. and Nylon 12. 5. and many other miscellaneous items. industrial.) manufactured by DuPont. and treatment sumps constructed of reinforced concrete are widely used in the treatment of municipal. Although the polyamides find their greatest use as textile fibers. the most popular of which are Nylons (Nylon 6. impact resistance. and thermal generating station wastewater. tank linings. gears. It is possible to apply uniform coatings or films of urethane rubber to a variety of substrate materials including metal. and gaskets. electrical encapsulations. and thermal generating systems. clarifiers. holding tanks. tooling pads. wood. and paper. O-rings. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. industrial. Of these. The use of urethane rubbers in manufactured products has been established as a result of their many unique properties of high tensile and tear strengths. Examples of products to which a urethane film or coating is often applied are tarpaulins. but the four major types are Nylon 6. Other products made from urethane rubbers include bearings. resiliency. The highest performance class of TPE are block copolymeric elastomeric polyamides (PEBAs). fabrics. pipe linings. Filtration units. Cellular products are items such as shock mountings. Nylon 6/6.510 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers parts for textile machines. The structures of these commercial PEBAs are shown in Figure 5. The amide linkages connecting the hard and soft blocks are more resilient to chemical attack than either an ester or urethane bond.17 Polyamides Polyamides are produced under a variety of trade names. and small intricate parts. mallets and hammers. and their cost is greater. Nylon 11. particularly in anaerobic. bowling pins. Amide linkages connect the hard and soft segments of these TPEs. the PEBAs have higher temperature resistance than the urethane elastomers. and exterior coatings for protection against atmospheric corrosion. Consequently. conveyer belts.

tartaric. particularly ammonium hydroxide and ammonia even at elevated temperatures and sodium potassium hydroxide at ambient temperatures. 5. or polyetherester chains.2 Structures of three elastomeric polyamides The hard and soft blocks’ structure also contributes to their performance characteristics. Polyether chains provide better low-temperature properties and resistance to hydrolysis. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. They also display good resistance to almost all inorganic salts and almost all hydrocarbons and petroleum-based fuels.1 Resistance to Sun. stearic. They are also resistant to organic acids (citric. and Ozone Polyamides are resistant to sun. polyether. and uric) and most aldehydes and ketones at normal temperatures. The soft segment may consist of polyester.19 for the compatibility of Nylon 11 with selected corrodents. They display limited resistance to hydrochloric.Elastomers 511 C (CH2)6 C NH (CH2)10 C NH(CH2)8 CO O Hard x (CH2)y O z (CH2)5 C NH B NHC A C NH B NH x CH2 O C CH2 C NH Soft Where A = C19 to C21 dicarboxylic acid B= CH2 O 2 CH2 Hard CH2 O CH2 4 3 FIGURE 5. LLC O O Soft O O O O O O O NH A C CH2 C O . Refer to Table 5.17. Many metals are coated with polyamide to provide protection from harsh weather. polyester chains provide better fluid resistance and resistance to oxidation at elevated temperatures.2 Chemical Resistance Polyamides exhibit excellent resistance to a broad range of chemicals and harsh environments. 5. oxalic. and ozone. They have good resistance to most inorganic alkalies. lactic. whereas. sulfonic.17. and phosphoric acids at ambient temperatures. Weather. weather. oleic.

10% Chromic acid. Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Caustic potash. 10% Ammonium chloride. sat. 10% Bromine. Calcium hydroxide. gas Bromine. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dil. LLC . 80% Acetic acid. 10% 8F 140 X X X X 8C 60 X X X X 200 200 200 200 200 200 80 100 X 200 200 X X 140 200 200 200 140 140 140 140 X 80 140 80 140 X X X X X X X 200 200 93 93 93 93 93 93 27 38 X 93 93 X X 60 93 93 93 60 60 60 60 X 27 60 27 60 X X X X X X X 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride.512 TABLE 5. 28% Ammonium chloride. 40% Chromic acid. 30% Chromic acid. 20% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium chloride. liquid Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. sat. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Citric acid. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid. 50% Acetic acid. sat. Ammonium sulfate. 50% Chlorine gas Chlorine water. Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium hydroxide.19 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Nylon 11 with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. sat. 5% Citric acid. sat.

100% Hydrogen sulfide Iodine Lactic acid. all conc. 50% Potassium sulfate. conc. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Naphtha Nitric acid Oxalic acid Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrochloric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. dil. general Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Ethylene oxide Ferric chloride Formic acid Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. Hydrofluoric acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid. dil. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. to 10% above 10% Potassium hydroxide. LLC . 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Propane Silicone oil Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride 8F 200 200 X 200 X 200 80 8C 93 93 X 93 X 93 27 513 200 200 200 100 X X 200 80 X X X X X X X X X X X X 200 160 100 X 120 X 140 X 80 X 200 80 80 80 220 200 93 93 93 38 X X 93 27 X X X X X X X X X X X X 93 71 38 X 49 X 60 X 27 X 93 27 27 27 104 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Copper nitrate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Cyclohexanone Dibutyl phthalate Ethers.19 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Citric acid. 15% Citric acid.

and electrical wire are also produced. High-pressure hose and fuel lines are also produced from this material. all conc. and resistant to impact and flexural q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrosion-resistant and wear-resistant coverings for aircraft control cables. resilient. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. 5. 1–4. these parts can withstand repeated stretching and flexing over long periods of time. all conc. diaphragms.18 Polyester (PE) Elastomer This elastomer combines the characteristics of thermoplastics and elastomers. acid mine Water. distilled Water. Schweitzer. coiled tubing is produced for this purpose for use on trucks.3 Applications Polyamides find many diverse applications resulting from their many advantageous properties.17. salt Water. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Sodium hypochlorite. A wide range of flexibility permits material to be produced that is soft enough for high-quality bicycle seats and other materials whose strength and rigidity are comparable to those of many metals. Sulfunc acid.514 TABLE 5. Since polyamides can meet specification SAE J844 for air-brake hose. and seals. 2004. A. It is structurally strong. Coiled air-brake hose produced from this material has been used on trucks that have traveled over two million miles without a single reported failure. LLC . Corrosion Resistance Tables.. 5. all conc. sea Whiskey Zinc chloride 8F 200 X X 140 160 80 80 140 140 80 X 8C 93 X X 60 71 27 27 60 60 27 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 5th ed. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. New York: Marcel Dekker.19 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. Because of the high elastic memory of polyamides. automotive cables. Vols. gaskets. Source: From P. Superflexible grades are also available that are used for shoe soles.

Hardnesses range from 40 to 72 on the Shore D scale. and 72 Shore D. When formulated with appropriate additives. Resistance to general weathering is good.Elastomers 515 fatigue. moist atmospheres. they are not susceptible to the solvent extraction or heat volatilization of such additives. 5. 5. Polyester elastomers have excellent resistance to nonpolar materials such as oils and hydraulic fluids. ponds. Large quantities of PE materials are used for liners for tanks. Since these rubbers contain no plasticizers. and Ozone Polyester rubbers possess excellent resistance to ozone. However. Refer to Table 5.1 Resistance to Sun. even at elevated temperatures. and good retention of properties at elevated temperatures.3 Applications Applications for PE elastomers are varied. PE elastomers are resistant to the same classes of chemicals and fluids as polyurethanes are.18.20 for the compatibility of polyester elastomers with selected corrodents. and glycols. Resistance is very poor at temperatures of 1588F (708C) or above. and drums. the fluid resistance of polyester rubbers increases with increasing hardness. These rubbers should not be used in applications requiring continuous exposure to polar fluids at elevated temperatures. 5. Polyester elastomers also have good resistance to hot.18. their resistance to sunlight aging is very good. Combined are such features as resilience. outstanding flex-fatigue resistance. they are also used for inflatables. The standard hardnesses to which PE elastomers are formulated are 40. LLC . 55. Because of their low permeability to air. 63. retention of flexibility at low temperatures. good abrasion resistance. swimming pools. Many fluids and chemicals will extract plasticizers from elastomers. Its physical and mechanical properties vary depending upon the hardness of the elastomer. At room temperature.2 Chemical Resistance In general. high resistance to deformation under moderate strain conditions. Polyester elastomers can successfully replace other thermoset rubbers at lower costs in many applications by taking advantage of their higher strength and by using thinner cross sections. Their hydrolytic stability can be further improved by compounding. Overall. PE has better high-temperature properties than polyurethanes and can be used satisfactorily at higher temperatures in the same fluids. elastomers are resistant to most polar fluids such as acids. Weather. Their chemical resistance to oils and hydraulic fluids coupled with their high q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.18. amines. base. causing a significant increase in stiffness (modulus) and volume shrinkage.

Calcium hydroxide. glacial Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride. sat. Calcium hypochlorite.516 TABLE 5. 10% Calcium hydroxide. conc. liquid Butane Butyl acetate Calcium chloride. 10% Citric acid. Calcium chloride. 15% Citric acid. 10–40% Amyl acetate Aniline Beer Benzene Borax Boric acid Bromine. LLC . sat. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 5% Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Castor oil Chlorine gas. 20% Calcium hydroxide. to 50% Cyclohexane Dibutyl phthalate 8F 80 80 80 100 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 X 80 80 80 80 X 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 X 80 X X X X X 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 8C 27 27 27 38 32 32 32 32 32 27 27 X 27 27 27 27 X 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 X 27 X X X X X 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Ammonium chloride. 5% Citric acid. sat. 50% Acetic acid. dil. 28% Ammonium chloride.20 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Polyester Elastomers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Citric acid. dry Chlorine gas. 80% Acetic acid. Copper sulfate Cottonseed oil Cupric chloride. vapor Ammonium chloride.

dil. Formaldehyde. dry Lactic acid Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Mineral oil Muriatic acid Nitric acid Nitrobenzene Ozone Phenol Potassium dichromate. 35% Hydrochloric acid.20 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Dioctyl phthalate Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrochloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC .Elastomers TABLE 5. 15% Stearic acid Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. all conc. 30% Potassium hydroxide Pyridine Soap solutions Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 38% Hydrochloric acid. dil. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. sea 8F 80 80 80 X 80 80 80 80 80 80 X X X X X X X X X X 80 80 80 80 X 80 X X X 80 X 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 X 80 160 160 160 160 8C 27 27 27 X 27 27 27 27 27 27 X X X X X X X X X X 27 27 27 27 X 27 X X X 27 X 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 X 27 71 71 71 71 (continued) 517 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. Stannous chloride. dil. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. 37% Formic acid. 10–85% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. salt Water. distilled Water. 100% Hydrogen Hydrogen sulfide. Toluene Water. demineralized Water.

518 TABLE 5. gears. 2004. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. The discontinuous phase should have a smaller particle size for the best performance of the TEO. and thermoplastic polyamides. Corrosion Resistance Tables. thermoplastic copolyesters. speciality belting. 1–4. Other PE products include seals. Since the PE elastomers do not contain any plasticizers. flexible shafts. flexible couplings. thermoplastic urethanes. Blends of NBR and PVC are also significant but less common in Europe and North America than in Japan. low-pressure tires.19 Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) Olefinic Type (TEO) Thermoplastic elastomers contain sequences of hard and soft repeating units in the polymer chain. heat resistance make PE elastomers very suitable for automotive hose applications. sports equipment. polyolefin blends. Elastic recovery occurs when the hard segments act to pull back the more soft and rubbery segments. 5. Incompatibility is shown by an X. and the rubber phase will have little or no cross-linking (that is. vulcanization). TEOs are similar to thermoset rubbers because they can be compounded with a variety of the same additives and fillers to meet specific applications. pump parts. The polymer present in the larger amount will usually be the continuous phase. electrical connectors. Vols. EPDM rubber and PP are the constituents of the most common TEOs. wire and cable jacketing. styrene block copolymers. The family of thermoplastic olefins (TEO) are simple blends of a rubbery polymer (such as EPDM or NBR) with a thermoplastic such as PP or PVC.. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The six generic classes of TPEs are. and the thermoplastic is favored because of its lower viscosity. Each polymer will have its own phase.20 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Xylene Zinc chloride 8F 80 80 8C 27 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 5th ed. Source: From P. gaskets. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. noise-damping devices. Schweitzer.A. Cross-linking is not required. LLC . piping clamps and cushions. New York: Marcel Dekker. industrial solid tires. hose and tubing produced from them do not stiffen with age. and fasteners. in order of increasing cost and performance. elastomeric alloys.

mechanical goods. The silicones are derivatives of silica.20 Silicone (SI) and Fluorosilicone (FSI) Rubbers Silicone rubbers. plasticizers. including reinforced hose. but they swell excessively with toss of properties when exposed to halocarbons and hydrocarbons such as oils and fuels. The absence of unsaturation in the polymer backbone of both EPDM and PP makes these TEO blends very resistant to oxidation.Elastomers 519 These additives include carbon black.19. seals. When the atoms are combined so that the double linkages are broken and methyl groups enter the linkages. Their water resistance is excellent. especially at elevated temperatures. silicone rubber is produced: CH3 Si CH3 O CH3 Si CH3 O n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5. 5.3 Applications These elastomeric compounds are found in a variety of applications. a TEO is highly vulnerable to fluids with a similar solubility parameter (or polarity). showing essentially no property changes after prolonged exposure to water at elevated temperatures. 5. and Ozone TPEs possess good resistance to sun and ozone and have excellent weatherability. alkenes. and fillers. LLC . also known as polysiloxanes. antioxidants. flexible and supported tubing.1 Resistance to Sun. and wire and cable jacketing. SiO2 or OaSiaO.2 Chemical Resistance As a result of the low level of cross-linking. functional parts and under-the-hood components. Weather. all that tend to concentrate in the soft rubber phase of the TEO. Blends with NBR and PVC are more resistant to aggressive fluids with the exception of the halocarbons. gaskets and profile extrusions. The nonpolar nature of EPDM/PP TEOs make them highly resistant to water.19. aqueous solutions. 5.19. The EPDM/PP TEOs have very poor resistance to hydrocarbon fluids such as the alkanes. automotive trim. or alkyl substituted benzenes. and other polar fluids such as alcohols and glycols. are a series of compounds whose polymer structure consists of silicon and oxygen atoms rather than the carbon structures of most other elastomers.

2 Chemical Resistance Silicone rubbers can be used in contact with dilute acids and alkalies.20. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. gasoline. 50% water Acetophenone Acrylic acid. They are also resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. 10% Acetic acid. LLC . they are not resistant to high-pressure and high-temperature steam. 75% Acrylonitrile Aluminum acetate Aluminum phosphate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. oil and gasoline. 8F 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 110 110 X 80 X X 400 410 X 80 80 80 8C 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 43 43 X 27 X X 204 210 X 27 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Weather. and ozone. 80% Acetic acid. alcohols. and chlorinated solvents will cause excessive swelling. The fluorosilicone rubbers have better chemical resistance than the silicone rubbers.1 Resistance to Sun. 5. dilute acids and alkalies.520 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. Refer to Table 5. Although they have excellent resistance to water and weathering. but aromatic solvents such as benzene.21 Compatibility of Silicone Rubbers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid.21 for the compatibility of silicone rubbers with selected corrodents. weathering. vapors Acetone Acetone. glacial Acetic acid. toluene. 20% Acetic acid. They have excellent resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons and good resistance to aromatic hydrocarbons. and lubricating oils. animal and vegetable oils.20. 29% Ammonium chloride. sat. Their properties are virtually unaffected by longterm exposure. animal and vegetable oils. and alcohols and fair resistance to concentrated alkalies. TABLE 5. and Ozone Silicone and fluorosilicone rubbers display excellent resistance to sun.

35% Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen peroxide. LLC 521 . Calcium hydroxide. all conc. all conc. Hydrochloric acid. sat. Carbon bisulfide Carbon monoxide Carbonic acid Chlorobenzene Chlorosulfonic acid Dioxane Ethane Ethers.Elastomers TABLE 5. 3:1 Barium sulfide Benzene Benzyl chloride Boric acid Butyl alcohol Calcium acetate Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride. Fuel oil Gasoline Glucose (corn syrup) Glycerine Green liquor Hexane Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia. sat.21 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide. to 30% Calcium hydroxide. all conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. general Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethyl chloride Ethylene chloride Ethylene diamine Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Fluosilicic acid Formaldehyde. 8F 210 400 80 X X 80 X 400 X X 390 80 X 400 300 210 400 X 400 400 X X X X X 170 400 X X 400 400 400 X 200 X X 400 410 400 X X 90 90 X X 200 8C 99 204 27 X X 27 X 204 X X 189 27 X 204 149 99 204 X 204 204 X X X X X 77 204 X X 204 204 204 X 93 X X 204 210 204 X X 32 32 X X 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dil.

5% Nitric acid. to 50% Potassium hydroxide. all conc. vegetable Oleic acid Oleum Oxalic acid. Lead acetate Lime sulfur Linseed oil Magnesium chloride Magnesium sulfate Mercury Methyl alcohol Methyl cellosolve Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Mineral oil Naptha Nickel acetate Nickel chloride Nickel sulfate Nitric acid. 50:50 Nitrobenzene Nitrogen Nitromethane Oils. LLC . anhydrous Nitrous acid–sulfuric acid. 10% Nitric acid.21 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Lactic acid. 90% Potassium nitrate. to 50% Ozone Palmitic acid Paraffin Peanut oil Perchloric acid Phenol Phosphoric acid Picric acid Potassium chloride. pure Propane 8F 80 X 400 X 400 400 80 410 X X X X 300 X X 400 400 80 80 X X X X 400 X 400 X X 80 400 X X 400 X X X X 400 410 410 210 80 400 400 400 X 8C 27 X 204 X 204 204 27 210 X X X X 149 X X 204 204 27 27 X X X X 204 X 204 X X 27 204 X X 204 X X X X 204 210 210 99 27 204 204 204 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. to 80% Potassium sulfate.522 TABLE 5. 30% Potassium cyanide. 30% Potassium dichromate Potassium hydroxide. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Potassium sulfate.

Sodium peroxide Sodium sulfate Sodium thiosulfate Stannic chloride Styrene Sulfite liquors Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid Tartaric acid Tetrahydroturan Toluene Tributyl phosphate Turpentine Vinegar Water. A.21 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Propyl acetate Propyl alcohol Propyl nitrate Pyridine Silver nitrate Sodium acetate Sodium bisulfite Sodium borate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride.3 Applications Because of their unique thermal stability and/or their insulating values. New York: Marcel Dekker. sea Xylene Zinc chloride 8F X 400 X X 410 X 410 400 300 400 90 X 400 400 80 X X X X 400 X X X X 400 210 210 210 210 210 X 400 8C X 204 X X 210 X 210 204 149 204 32 X 204 204 27 X X X X 204 X X X X 204 99 99 99 99 99 X 204 523 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. furnaces. and automotive parts. 2004. Their excellent weathering qualities and wide temperature range have also resulted in their employment as caulking compounds.. Schweitzer. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. distilled Water. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 1–4. Source: From P. aerospace devices. heaters. demineralized Water. Vols. primarily in appliances. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 5th ed. acid mine Water. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 5.Elastomers TABLE 5. Incompatibility is shown by an X. salt Water.20. all conc. 10% Sodium hydroxide. LLC . silicone rubbers find many uses in the electrical industries.

Shielding for exclusion to prevent the intrusion of EMI/RF/EMP created by outside sources into the protected device 3. PVDF) Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a homopolymer of 1. These conductive elastomers are used as part of an EMI/RFI/EMP shielding process in forms such as O-rings and gaskets to provide 1. chemical.21 Vinylidene Fluoride (HFP.1-difluoroethene with alternating CH2 and CF2 groups along the polymer chain.524 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers When silicone or fluorosilicone rubbers are infused with a high-density conductive filler. In general. The polymer has the characteristic stability of fluoropolymers when exposed to aggressive thermal. and ultraviolet conditions. often used where mechanical mating is imperfect or impractical The following equipment is either capable of generating EMI or susceptible to EMI: Aircraft and aerospace electronics Analog instrumentation Automotive electronics Business machines Communication systems Digital instrumentation and process control systems Home appliances Radio-frequency instrumentation and radar Medical electronics Military and marine electronics Security systems (military and commercial) 5. Grounding and contacting to provide a dependable lowimpedance connection to conduct electric energy to ground. PVDF is one of the easiest fluoropolymers to process and can be easily recycled without affecting its physical and chemical properties. LLC . These groups impart a unique polarity that influences its solubility and electrical properties. Shielding for containment to prevent the escape of EMI internally generated by the device 2. As q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Exclusion or containment plus pressure or vacuum sealing to provide both EMI/EMP attenuation and pressure containment and/or weatherproofing 4. an electric path is created.

5. aliphatic solvents. Refer to Table 5. halogens. whereas the percent elongation to break decreases to a lower level and then remains constant.2 Chemical Resistance In general. wide allowable operating temperature range. Part 177. PVDF is completely resistant to chlorinated solvents. PVDF possesses mechanical strength and toughness. Strong bases will attack the material. PVDF also exhibits excellent resistance to nuclear radiation. to most chemicals and solvents. The broader molecular weight of PVDF gives it greater resistance to stress cracking than many other materials. compounding can be used to improve certain specific properties. Code of Federal Regulations. Weather. high abrasion resistance. In the electrical and electronics fields. 2000. ultraviolet light. Because of cross-linking. the impact strength and elongation are slightly reduced. high purity.” This material has the ASTM designation of MFP. resistance to ultraviolet and nuclear radiation.3 Applications PVDF finds many applications where its properties of corrosion resistance.21. strong acids. Department of Agriculture (USDA). resistance to weathering. and Ozone PVDF is highly resistant to the effects of sun.Elastomers 525 with other elastomeric materials. high dielectric strength.22 for the compatibility of PVDF with selected corrodents. high dielectric strength.21. This resistance makes PVDF useful in plutonium reclamation operations. heat-shrinkable tubing. LLC . Use is also permitted under “3-A Sanitary Standards for Multiple-Use Plastic Materials Used as Product Contact Surfaces for Dairy Equipment Serial No.21. Chapter 1. It can be used in applications intended for repeated contact with food per Title 21. high abrasion resistance. 5. PVDF is also permitted for use in processing or storage areas on contact with meat or poultry food products prepared under federal inspection according to the U. PVDF is used for multiwire jacketing. weather. anode lead wire. 5. radiation. high thermal stability. and ozone. resistance. and resistance to weathering. mechanical strength and toughness.1 Resistance to Sun. The original tensile strength is essentially unchanged after exposure to 1000 Mrads of gamma irradiation from a cobalt-60 source at 1228F (508C) and in high vacuum (10K6 torr). and aromatic solvents. and resistance to fungi. strong oxidants. but it is subject to stress cracking in the presence of sodium hydroxide.2520. Its mechanical properties are retained. plenum cables. Cross-linking of the polymer chain and control of the molecular weight are also done to improve particular properties. and fungi are useful. weak bases and salts. computer q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.S.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid.22 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PVDF with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid.526 TABLE 5. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10 – 40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. LLC . aqueous Aluminum chloride. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. sat. 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F 150 90 300 300 190 190 X 120 150 130 280 200 200 180 250 300 270 300 260 300 290 300 270 250 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 190 280 280 200 150 130 280 8C 66 32 149 149 88 88 X 49 66 54 138 93 93 82 121 149 132 149 127 149 143 149 132 121 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 88 138 138 93 66 54 138 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat.

sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. LLC 527 . 10% Chlorine. 10% Calcium hydroxide. liquid Chlorobenzene 8F 280 280 280 280 120 150 100 250 280 280 280 280 210 210 140 280 140 280 X 230 280 280 280 280 280 270 280 280 280 250 280 220 80 280 280 80 280 280 280 280 210 200 210 210 210 220 8C 138 138 138 138 49 66 38 121 138 138 138 138 99 99 60 138 60 138 X 110 138 138 138 138 138 132 138 138 138 121 138 104 27 138 138 27 138 138 138 138 99 93 99 99 99 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. wet. dry Bromine gas. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.22 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. moist Bromine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry Chlorine gas.

10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. conc. dry Fluorine gas. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Citric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride 8F 250 110 220 250 110 250 250 250 250 280 280 280 210 270 270 250 210 80 120 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 80 80 260 280 280 280 280 280 260 200 200 280 250 110 130 110 280 250 280 8C 121 43 104 121 43 121 121 121 121 138 138 138 99 132 132 121 99 27 49 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 27 27 127 138 138 138 138 138 127 93 93 138 121 43 54 43 138 121 138 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 25% Lactic acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. conc. general Lactic acid. Hydrobromic acid. dil.528 TABLE 5. 10% Chromic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid.22 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 10% Ketones. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 5% Cupric chloride.

20% Sodium hypochlorite. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Vols. 1–4. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 110 280 200 180 120 150 210 X 210 120 200 220 80 280 220 250 280 280 230 220 150 280 280 280 280 280 250 220 220 210 140 X X 220 X X 130 80 260 8C X X 43 138 93 82 49 66 99 X 99 49 93 104 27 138 104 121 138 138 110 104 66 138 138 138 138 138 121 104 104 99 60 X X 104 X X 54 27 127 529 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. conc. Oleum Perchloric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide.A. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. conc. Incompatibility is shown by an X. conc. 5th ed. Schweitzer. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 98% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Corrosion Resistance Tables.Elastomers TABLE 5. 90% Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Sulfuric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid.22 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. LLC . to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. 20% Nitric acid. 2004. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker.. 100% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Perchloric acid.

FKM are capable of being compounded with various additives to enhance specific properties for particular applications. including compression molding.530 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers wiring. and cable and cable ties. Subpart F—Food Additives Resulting from Contact with Containers or Equipment and Food Additives Otherwise Affecting Food—Rubber Articles Intended for Repeated Use. or resilience. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Its corrosion resistance is also a factor in these applications. LLC . Part 121—Food Additives. valve diaphragms. this material was used to produce O-rings for use in severe conditions. Although this remains a major area of application. spreading. As a result of its resistance to fungi and its exceptional corrosion resistance. 5. 33. Fluoroelastomers have been approved by the U. hexafluoropropene. 5. it is also used as the insulation material for underground anode bed installations. Because of its acceptance in the handling of foods and pharmaceuticals. PVDF finds applications as gasketing material. injection molding. 1968. transfer molding. calendering. and membranes for microporous filters and ultrafiltration.S. these compounds have found wide use in other applications because of their chemical resistance at high temperatures and other desirable properties. These compounds possess the rapid recovery from deformation. FKM are suitable for all rubber processing applications. and dipping. Tuesday January 9. and tetrafluoroethylene. Three typical materials are listed below. Trade Name Viton Technoflon Fluorel Manufacturer Dupont Ausimont 3M These elastomers have the ASTM designation FKM. Vol. Food and Drug Administration for use in repeated contact with food products. injection/compression molding. extrusion. No. More details are available in the Federal Register. In fluid-handling systems. transfer hose are lined with PVDF. Initially. The result is a high-performance synthetic rubber with exceptional resistance to oils and chemicals at elevated temperatures. FKM are manufactured under various trade names by different manufacturers. As with other rubbers.22 Fluoroelastomers (FKM) Fluoroelastomers are fluorine-containing hydrocarbon polymers with a saturated structure obtained by polymerizing fluorinated monomers such as vinylidene fluoride. of a true elastomer and exhibit mechanical properties of the same order of magnitude as those of conventional synthetic rubbers.

benzene. in the automotive industry. steam. and military communities. 5. which in turn q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.22. Refer to Table 5. energy saving. Special formulation can be produced to obtain resistance to hot mineral acids. LLC . 5. gasoline. naphtha. most mineral acids. By proper formulation. This property is particularly important considering that standard tests. and pesticides.2 Chemical Resistance Fluoroelastomers provide excellent resistance to oils. require resistance only to 0.3 Applications The main applications for fluoroelastomers are in those products requiring resistance to high operating temperatures together with high chemical resistance to aggressive fluids and to those characterized by severe operating conditions that no other elastomer can withstand. This specification covers four common fungus groups. and hot water. cured items can be produced that will meet the rigid specifications of the industrial. or hot anhydrous hydrofluoric or chlorosulfonic acids. lubricants. and improved reliability have resulted in higher operating temperatures. toluene. Their solubility in low molecular weight ketones is an advantage in producing solution coatings of FKM.Elastomers 531 The biological resistance of FKM is excellent. After 13 years of exposure in Florida in direct sunlight.22.5 ppm ozone. for example.1 Resistance to Sun. chlorinated solvents.22. many aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride. fuels. certain amines. Weather. Products made of this elastomer are unaffected by ozone concentrations as high as 100 ppm. 5. No cracking occurred in a bent loop test after one year of exposure to 100 ppm of ozone in air at 1008F (388C) or in a sample held at 3568F (1808C) for several hundred hours. ketones. and Ozone Because of their chemically saturated structure. FKM exhibit excellent weathering resistance to sunlight and especially to ozone. Recent changes in the automotive industry that have required reduction in environmental pollution. A typical compound tested against specification MIL-E-5272C showed no fungus growth after 30 days. aerospace.23 for the compatibility of FKM with selected corrodents. Similar results were experienced with samples exposed to various tropical conditions in Panama for a period of 10 years. samples showed little or no change in properties or appearance. xylene) that act as solvents for other rubbers. reduced costs. These elastomers are not suitable for use with low molecular weight esters and ethers.

23 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Fluoroelastomers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. LLC . sat. 10%. 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F X 210 190 180 180 X X X 400 X X 190 190 100 190 180 400 400 190 400 X 390 X 140 190 400 300 300 140 140 190 190 X 140 180 180 X X 200 190 230 190 190 250 8C X 99 88 82 82 X X X 204 X X 88 88 38 88 82 204 204 88 204 X 199 X 60 88 204 149 149 60 60 88 88 X 60 82 82 X X 93 88 110 88 88 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. 80% Acetic acid.532 TABLE 5. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia.

dry Chlorine gas. wet Chlorine. sat.Elastomers TABLE 5. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 25% Bromine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.23 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. LLC . 25% Bromine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. moist. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform 8F 400 400 400 400 X 400 190 400 400 400 190 400 180 180 350 400 X 400 X 120 400 400 190 190 300 300 400 400 400 200 400 80 X 400 400 350 400 X X X 190 190 190 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 X 204 88 204 204 204 88 204 82 82 177 204 X 204 X 49 204 204 88 88 149 149 204 204 204 93 204 27 X 204 204 177 204 X X X 88 88 88 204 204 (continued) 533 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry.

moist Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. general Lactic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. conc. 10% Ketones. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 15% Citric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone 8F X 350 350 300 400 X 190 400 400 400 X 180 180 400 400 80 190 400 400 400 400 180 210 X X 400 400 400 350 350 400 210 350 X 400 190 X 300 400 390 390 180 190 X X 8C X 177 177 149 204 X 88 204 204 204 X 82 82 204 204 27 88 204 204 204 204 82 99 X X 204 204 204 177 177 204 99 177 X 204 88 X 149 204 199 199 82 88 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . dil. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% Citric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 10% Chromic acid. conc. 50% Hydrochloric acid.534 TABLE 5.23 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.

50% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.A. Oleum Perchloric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 1–4. conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 100% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 98% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. conc.. Sodium hypochlorite. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 70% Nitric acid. LLC . Schweitzer. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Sulfuric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. 70% Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.23 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 2004. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. 5th ed. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 350 400 400 190 190 90 190 400 400 210 300 400 190 300 190 400 X X X 400 400 190 400 400 350 350 350 350 350 180 200 400 X 400 190 190 400 8C 177 204 204 88 88 32 88 204 204 99 149 204 88 149 88 204 X X X 204 204 88 204 204 177 177 177 177 177 88 93 204 X 204 88 88 204 535 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Sodium sulfide. 5% Nitric acid. Vols. 90% Sulfuric acid. conc.

alternative fuels. such as deserts or offshore sites. and faster engines Catalytic exhausts Cx reduction Soundproofing In addition. has increased the problems of high temperatures and pressures. diaphragms for fuel pumps. U-rings. high viscosities. protective coatings. expansion joints.536 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers require a higher performance elastomer. and overall reliability to reduce maintenance. gaskets. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The high. fuel hose. firewall seals. valve seats. The same problems exist in the chemical industry. and tank linings for the chemical industry. These extreme operating conditions require elastomers that have high chemical resistance. the use of lead-free fuels. coated fabrics. diaphragms for metering pumps. turbocharge lubricating circuit bellows. the reliability of materials under extreme exposure conditions is of prime importance. and numerous types of O-ring seals. Their chemical stability solves the problems of chemical corrosion by making it possible to use them for such purposes as a protective lining for power station stacks operated with high-sulfur fuels. carburetor accelerating pump diaphragms. heat-shrinkable tubing and fittings for wire and cable. and maintenance coatings. more efficient. The exploitation of oilfields in difficult areas. sour gasoline lubricants. and seals for exhaust gas pollution control equipment. The ability of fluoroelastomers to seal under extreme vacuum conditions in the range of 10K9 mm Hg is an additional feature that makes these materials useful for components used in space. Another important application of these elastomers is in the production of coatings and linings. filter casing gaskets. fluoroelastomers are being applied as shaft seats. V-rings. a coating on rolls for the textile industry to permit scouring of fabrics. safety clothing and gloves. hose. specifically manifold gaskets. engine head gaskets. water pump gaskets. In the field of aerospace applications. valve stem seals. mastic adhesive sealants. linings for valves. The main innovations resulting from these requirements are Turbocharging More compact. carburetor needle-valve tips. At the present time. and antifreeze fluids has caused automotive fluids to be more corrosive to elastomers. and high acidity. thermal stability. Fluoroelastomers provide a solution to these problems and are used for O-rings.and lowtemperature properties of the fluoroelastomers have permitted them to give reliable performance in a number of aircraft and missile components. O-ring (water-cooled cylinders and injection pumps). LLC .

inorganic bases. coupled with its wide range of corrosion resistance. TABLE 5. halogens. Weather. it has better resistance to abrasion and cut-through than TFE while retaining most of the corrosion resistance properties. such as nitric acid at high concentration. will affect ETFE in varying degrees. Refer to Table 5. 50% Acetic acid.23 Ethylene–Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) Elastomer This elastomer is sold under the trade name Tefzel by DuPont. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride 8F 200 250 250 250 230 230 300 150 150 150 280 210 190 8C 93 121 121 121 110 110 149 66 66 66 138 99 88 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and classic polymer solvents have little effect on ETFE. 5.1 Resistance to Sun. aldehydes.24 for the compatibility of ETFE with selected corrodents. 80% Acetic acid.24 Compatibility of ETFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. as will organic bases such as amines and sulfonic acids. Since it contains more than 75% TFE by weight. 10% Acetic acid. 5. ozone. makes the material particularly suitable for outdoor applications subject to atmospheric corrosion.23. and metal salt solutions. alcohols.23.2 Chemical Resistance Ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene is inert to strong mineral acids. anhydrides. ketones. This feature. and weather. chloro-carbons. and Ozone Ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene has outstanding resistance to sunlight. esters. ETFE is a modified partially fluorinated copolymer of ethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons.Elastomers 537 5. Even carboxylic acids. LLC . Very strong oxidizing acids near their boiling points. ethers.

538 TABLE 5. 10%. 10% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. LLC . sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Butadiene Butyl acetate 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 300 300 300 230 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 230 210 210 300 300 300 300 300 210 210 210 270 300 300 300 300 150 230 250 230 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 149 149 149 110 149 149 149 149 121 149 149 110 99 99 149 149 149 149 149 99 99 99 132 149 149 149 149 66 110 121 110 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ammonium fluoride.24 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Alum Aluminum chloride. dry Bromine water. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 50% Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Ammonium fluoride. sat.

dry Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. wet Chlorine. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. 50% in water 8F 300 120 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 260 300 210 150 300 300 150 300 270 300 300 230 230 210 250 100 210 230 80 150 150 210 120 300 300 300 270 300 300 250 150 150 300 300 8C 149 49 121 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 127 149 99 66 149 149 66 149 132 149 149 110 110 99 121 38 99 110 27 66 66 99 49 149 149 149 132 149 149 121 66 66 149 149 (continued) 539 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 15% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Chromic acid. LLC . water Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.

20% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. Sodium sulfide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Oleum Perchloric acid. conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 50% Hydrochloric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 5% Lactic acid.540 TABLE 5. dil. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Perchloric acid.24 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ferric nitrate. 100% Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid. 70% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 5% Nitric acid. dry Fluorine gas. LLC . 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Nitric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. to 50% Stannic chloride 8F 300 300 300 100 100 300 300 300 300 300 300 270 250 230 300 250 250 300 270 120 300 230 300 300 150 150 80 X 210 150 230 150 210 270 130 300 250 300 300 230 230 300 300 300 300 8C 149 149 149 38 38 149 149 149 149 149 149 132 121 110 149 121 121 149 132 49 149 110 149 149 66 66 27 X 99 66 110 66 99 132 54 149 121 149 149 110 110 149 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc.

packings. 50% Sulfuric acid. ECTFE is a tough material with excellent impact strength over its entire operating temperature range. It possesses excellent chemical resistance. Schweitzer.3 Applications The principal applications for ETFE are found in such products as gaskets. Vols. 98% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Of all the fluoropolymers. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 120 210 210 250 210 300 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 49 99 99 121 99 149 541 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. ECTFE ranks among the best for abrasion resistance.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 5. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 100% Sulfuric acid. and for bearing pads for pipe and equipment support where expansion and contraction or movement may occur.24 Ethylene–Chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) Elastomer Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) elastomer is a 1:1 alternating copolymer of ethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene. This chemical structure gives the polymer a unique combination of properties. and thrust bearings. lip and X-rings) in areas where corrosion is a problem.A. Source: From P. good electrical properties. split curled. 1–4. and broad-use temperature range [from cryogenic to 3408F (1718C)] and meets the requirements of the UL-94V-0 vertical flame test in thicknesses as low as 7 mils. 90% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. LLC ..Elastomers TABLE 5. 2004.23. 5th ed. The material is also used for sleeve. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Sulfuric acid. 5. New York: Marcel Dekker. and seals (O-rings.

542 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5.1 Resistance to Sun. weather. 10% Acetic acid. and practically all organic solvents except hot amines (aniline. As with other fluoropolymers.24. dimethylamine. alkalies. Its physical properties undergo very little change after long exposures. TABLE 5. ECTFE will be attacked by metallic sodium and potassium. Included in this list of chemicals are strong mineral and oxidizing acids. No known solvent dissolves or stress cracks ECTFE at temperatures up to 2508F (1208C). 80% Acetic acid. Under normal circumstances. and ozone attack.25 for the compatibility of ECTFE with selected corrodents. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Refer to Table 5. The useful properties of ECTFE are maintained on exposure to cobalt-60 radiation of 200 Mrads.). etc. and Ozone Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene is extremely resistant to sun.25 Compatibility of ECTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. It is resistant to most of the common corrosive chemicals encountered in industry.24. this does not impair the usefulness of the polymer. 5. LLC . metal etchants. liquid oxygen.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of ECTFE is outstanding. When the part is removed from contact with the solvent and allowed to dry. 50% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide 8F 250 250 150 200 100 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 8C 121 121 66 93 38 66 66 66 66 149 149 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Weather. Some halogenated solvents can cause ECTFE to become slightly plasticized when it comes into contact with them. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. indicating that no chemical attack has taken place. its mechanical properties return to their original values.

LLC 543 . 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl atcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Ammonium fluoride.25 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride.Elastomers TABLE 5. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate 8F 300 150 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 160 300 300 90 100 250 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 250 300 300 300 300 X 150 250 150 300 250 300 300 300 8C 149 66 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 66 149 149 149 71 149 149 32 38 121 149 149 149 149 149 66 66 66 121 149 149 149 149 X 66 121 66 149 121 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. sat. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Bromine.

conc. dry Carbon dioxide.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. sat. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 15% Citric acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% in water Ferric nitrate 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. wet Chlorine.544 TABLE 5. dry Chlorine gas. LLC . 50% Citric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 10% Chromic acid. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. dry Fluorine gas. moist 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 220 80 300 300 80 150 300 300 300 250 250 150 250 250 150 250 80 250 250 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 X 80 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 104 27 149 149 27 69 149 149 149 121 121 66 121 121 66 121 27 121 121 149 149 66 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 X 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

20% Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. Oleum Perchloric acid. 20% Nitric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Perchloric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. dil. 90% 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 240 240 300 250 150 150 300 250 300 150 150 300 300 250 150 150 250 X 150 150 150 250 80 300 250 300 300 300 250 150 300 300 300 300 300 250 250 250 150 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 121 116 116 149 121 66 66 149 121 149 66 66 149 149 121 66 66 121 X 66 66 66 121 27 149 121 149 149 149 121 66 149 149 149 149 149 121 121 121 66 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Sodium sulfide. LLC 545 . 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.25 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrobromic acid. conc. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Lactic acid. conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. conc. 25% Lactic acid. Hydrobromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.

Schweitzer. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 150 80 300 250 150 150 150 250 300 8C 66 27 149 121 66 66 66 121 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. convoluted tubing. connectors.24. These synthetic rubbers provide the sealing force of a true elastomer and the chemical inertness and thermal stability of polytetra– fluoroethylene. oil well wire and cable insulation. particularly in the chemical. New York: Marcel Dekker. seals. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables.25 Perfluoroelastomers (FPM) Perfluoroelastomers provide the elastomeric properties of fluoroelastomers and the chemical resistance of PTFE. In difficult environments. and flexible printed circuitry and flat cable.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.546 TABLE 5. coil forms.A. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. closures. tubing. Source: From P. resistor sleeves. Vols. pumps. flexible tubing. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 1–4. plenum cable insulation. Materials of ECTFE are also used for lining vessels. cryogenic. there are no other elastomers that can outperform the FPMs. gaskets. logging wire jacketing and jacketing for cathodic protection. mass transit and automotive wire. These compounds are true rubbers. Applications are also found in other industries as diaphragms.3 Applications This elastomer finds many applications in the electrical industry as wire and cable insulation and jacketing. 98% Sulfuric acid.. 100% Sulfuric acid. and aerospace industries. tapes. LLC . 5. 5. and other equipment. and hose. aircraft. wire tie wraps. Compared with other elastomeric compounds. they are more resistant to swelling and embrittlement and retain their elastomeric properties over the long term. 5th ed. Incompatibility is shown by an X.

It is not recommended for use with organic or inorganic acids at high temperatures. This compound is not recommended for use in hot water/steam applications or in contact with certain hot aliphatic amines. Such materials as carbon black. Applications induce O-rings. This compound should not be used in pure water/steam applications at elevated temperatures.Elastomers 547 As with other elastomers. perfluormated oil. excellent all around chemical resistance. and propylene oxide. ethylene oxide. This compound finds applications as O-rings. but it is recommended that the manufacturer be consulted before ordering. good mechanical properties. diaphragms. and other parts used in the chemical process industry. It exhibits good mechanical properties. and outstanding hot air aging properties. If the standard compounds do not meet the specified needs. and compression set properties. LLC . there are six specialty compounds available. perfluoroelastomers are compounded to modify certain of their properties. Applications include O-rings. The ASTM designations for these elastomers is FPM. and various fillers are used for this purpose. excellent amine resistance. seals. As with other perfluoroelastomers. One such perfluoroelastomer is sold by DuPont under the trade name Kalrez. Compound 1050 This compound is carbon black filled. These have been modified to meet specific needs. contact the manufacturer for a recommendation on the use of a specialty compound. seals. and other parts in the chemical process industry. The maximum allowable continuous operating temperature is 5008F/2608C with short-term exposures at 5508F/2888C in nonoxidizing environments. It is the suggested compound for use with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. Compound 4079 This is a carbon black filled compound having low compression set with excellent chemical resistance. It exhibits low swell in organic and inorganic acids and aldehydes and has good response to temperature cycling effects. Specialty Compounds In addition to the three standard compounds. seals. and other parts used in the process and aircraft industries. It has a maximum continuous operating temperature of 6008F/3168C with short-term exposures at higher temperatures. Compound 1050LF This compound has good water/steam resistance. The maximum recommended continuous operating temperature is 5508F/2888C. and is slightly harder than compound 4079. Kalrez is available in different compounds to meet specific needs. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

548

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

5.25.1 Resistance to Sun, Weather, and Ozone Perfluoroelastomers provide excellent resistance to sun, weather, and ozone. Long-term exposure under these conditions has no effect on them. 5.25.2 Chemical Resistance Perfluoroelastomers have outstanding chemical resistance. They are virtually immune to chemical attack, at ambient and elevated temperatures. Typical corrodents that perfluoroeiastomers are resistant to include the following: Chlorine, wet and dry Fuels (ASTM Reference Fuel C, JP-5 jet fuel, aviation gas, and kerosene) Heat transfer fluids Hot mercury Hydraulic fluids Inorganic and organic acids (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric, and trichloroacetic) and bases (hot caustic soda) Inorganic salt solutions Metal halides (titanium tetrachloride, diethylaluminum chloride) Oil well sour gas (methane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and steam) Polar solvents (ketones, esters, and ethers) Steam Strong organic solvents (benzene, dimethyl formamide, perchloroethylene, and tetrahydrofuran) Strong oxidizing agents (dinitrogen tetroxide, and fuming nitric acid) These perfluoroelastomers should not be exposed to molten or gaseous alkali metals such as sodium because a highly exothermic reaction may occur. Service life can be greatly reduced in fluids containing high concentrations of some diamines, nitric acid, and basic phenol when the temperature exceeds 2128F (1008C). Uranium hexafluoride and fully halogenated Freons (F-11 and F-12) cause considerable swelling. The corrosion resistance given above is for the base polymer. Since the polymer is quite often compounded with fillers and curatives, these additives may interact with the environment, even though the polymer is resistant. Therefore, a knowledge of the additives present is essential in determining the material’s suitability for a particular application. A corrosion testing program is the best method whereby this evaluation can be undertaken. Kalrez compounds have virtually universal chemical resistance. They withstand attack by more than 1600 chemicals, solvents, and plasmas. Table 5.26 lists the compatibilities of Kalrez compounds with selected
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Compatibility of Kalrez Compounds with Selected Corrodents
Abietic Acid Acetic acid, glacial (4079) Acetic acid, 30% (4079) Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenetidine Acetophenone Acetyl bromide Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile (1050LF) Alkyl acetone Alkyl alcohol Alkyl benzene Alkyl chloride Alkyl sulfide Aluminum acetate Aluminum bromide Aluminum chlorate Aluminum chloride Aluminum ethylate Aluminum fluoride Aluminum fluorosilicate Aluminum formate Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxalate Aluminum phosphate Aluminum sulfate Alum Ammonia, anhydrous (1050LF) Ammonium acetate Ammonium arsenate Ammonium benzoate Ammonium bicarbonate Ammonium bisulfite Ammonium bromide Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride Ammonium citrate Ammonium dichromate Ammonium fluoride (1050LF) Ammonium fluorosilicate Ammonium formate Ammonium hydride, conc. (1050LF) Ammonium iodide Ammonium lactate
(continued)
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549

550 TABLE 5.26 Continued
Ammonium nitrate Ammonium nitrite Ammonium oxalate Ammonium salicylate Ammonium sulfate Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Ammonium thiosulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Amyl mercaptan Amyl naphthalene Amyl nitrate Amyl nitrite Amyl phenol Aniline hydrdochloride Aniline sulfate Aniline sulfite Animal fats Animal oils Anthraquinone Antimony sulfate Antimony tribromide Antimony trichloride Antimony trioxide Aqua regia Arsenic oxide Arsenic trichloride Arsenic trioxide Arsenic trisulfide Ascorbic acid Barium carbonate Barium chlorate Barium chloride, aqueous Barium cyanide Barium hydroxide Barium iodide Barium nitrate Barium oxide Barium peroxide Barium salts Beet sugar liquors Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Benzocatechol Benzoyl chloride Benzyl chloride

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

(continued)

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Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Bismuth carbonate Bismuth nitrate Bismuth oxychloride Boric acid Brine Bromic acid Bromine, anhydrous Butadiene Butane Butyl acetate Butyl chloride Butyl ether Butyl lactate Butyl mercaptan Butyl chloride Cadmium chloride Cadmium nitrate Cadmium sulfate Cadmium sulfide Calcium acetate Calcium arsenate Calcium bicarbonate Calcium bisulfide Calcium hydrosulfide Calcium carbide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium chromate Calcium fluoride Calcium hydroxide Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium peroxide Calcium phosphate Calcium stearate Calcium sulfate Calcium sulfide Calcium sulfite Cane sugar liquors Capric acid Carbamate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon fluorides Carbon monoxide Caustic lime
(continued)

551

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552 TABLE 5.26 Continued
Caustic potash Chloric acid Chlorine, dry Chloroacetic acid Chloroacetone Chloroform Chlorosilanes Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid Chromic chloride Chromic fluorides Chromic hydroxide Chromic nitrates Chromic oxides Chromic phosphate Chromic sulfate Coconut oil Cod liver oil Coke oven gas Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper nitrate Copper oxide Copper sulfate Corn oil Coconut oil Cresylic acid Crude oil Cutting oils Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Denatured alcohol Detergent solution Dextrain Dextrose Diacetone Diallyl ether Diallyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroaniline o-Dichlorobenzene Dichloroethane Dichloroethylene Dichloromethane Dichlorophenol Diesel oil

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Diethanolamine (1050LF) Diethylamine (1050LF) Diethyl sulfate Diethylbenzene Diethylene glycol Difluoroethane Difluoromonochloroethane Diisobutyl ketone Diisobutylcarbinol Diisobutylene Diisopropyl ether Diisopropyl ketone Epichlorohydrin Ethane Ethanol Ethanolamine (1050LF) Ethers Ethyl acetate Ethyl acetoacetate Ethyl acrylate Ethyl alcohol Ethylamine (1050LF) Ethyl benzene Ethyl benzoate Ethyl bromide Ethyl butylate (4079) Ethyl cellulose Ethyl chloride Ethyl ether Ethyl formate (4079) Ethyl nitrite Ethyl oxalate Ethylene Ethylene chloride Ethylene dibromide Ethylene dichloride Ethylene glycol Ethylene oxide (2035) Fatty acids Ferric acetate Ferric hydroxide Ferric sulfate Ferrous carbonate Ferrous chloride Fuel oils Fuming sulfuric acid Gallic acid Gasoline Gelatin
(continued)

553

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554 TABLE 5.26 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Glauber’s salt Gluconic acid Glucose Glue Glycerine (glycerol) Helium Heptane Hexane Hydrolodic acid (4079) Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid, 40% Hydrochloric acid, 37%, cold Hydrochloric acid, conc. Hydrochloric acid, 37%, hot Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous Hydrofluoric acid, conc., cold conc., hot (4079) Hydrogen peroxide, 90% Iodic acid Iodine Iodoform Isopropyl chloride Isopropyl ether Isopropylamine (1050LF) Kerosene Lacquer solvents Lacquers Lactic acid, cold Lactic acid, hot Lauric acid Lead, molten Lead acetate Lead arsenate Lead bromide Lead carbonate Lead chloride Lead chromate Lead dioxide Lead nitrate Lead oxide Lime bleach Lime sulfur Linoleic acid Linseed oil Lithium carbonate Lithium chloride Lithium hydroxide Lithium nitrate Lithium nitrite
(continued)

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Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Lithium salicylate Lithopone Lye Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium sulfate Magnesium sulfite Maleic acid Manganese acetate Maleic anhydride Manganese carbonate Manganese dioxide Manganese chloride Manganese phosphate Manganese sulfate, aqueous Mercuric cyanide Mercuric iodide Mercuric nitrate Mercuric sulfate Mercuric sulfite Mercurous nitrate Mercury Mercury chloride Methane Methyl acetate Methyl acrylate Methyl alcohol (methanol) Methyl benzoate Methyl butyl ketone Methyl chloride Methyl ether Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Methyl salicylate Methylene bromide Methylene chloride Methylene iodide Mineral oil Mixed acids Morpholine Motor oils Mustard gas Myristic acid Naphtha Naphthalene Natural gas Neon Nickel acetate aqueous Nickel chloride aqueous
(continued)

555

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556 TABLE 5.26 Continued
Nickel cyanide Nickel nitrate Nickel salts Nicotine Nicotine sulfate Niter cake Nitric acid, 0–50% (4079) Nitric acid, 50–100% (4079) Nitroaniline Nitrobenzene Nitrocellulose Nitrochlorobenzene Nitrogen Nitrogen oxides Nitrogen peroxide Nitroglycerine Nitroglycerol Nitromethane Nitrophenol Nitrotoluene Nitrous acid Nonane n-Octane Octyl acetate Octyl alcohol Octyl chloride Olefins Oleic acid Oleum Olive oil Oxalic acid Oxygen, cold (4079) Paint thinner Palmitic acid Paraffins Peanut oil Pectin (liquor) Penicillin Peracetic acid Perchloric acid (4079) Perchloroethylene Petroleum Petroleum ether Petroleum crude (1050LF) Phenyl acetate Phosgene Phosphoric acid, 20% Phosphoric acid, 45% Phosphorous, molten

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Phosphorous oxychloride Phosphorous trichloride Phthalic acid Phthalic anhydride Pickling solution Picric acid Pine oil Pine tar Pinene Piperazine (1050LF) Piperidine Plating solution, chrome Potassium acid sulfate Potassum alum Potassum aluminum sulfate Potassium bicarbonate Potassium bichromate Potassium bifluoride Potassium bisulfate Potassium bisulfite Potassium bitartrate Potassium bromide Potassium carbonate Potassium chlorate Potassium chloride Potassium chromates Potassium citrate Potassium cyanate Silicone tetrachloride, dry Silicone tetrachloride, wet Silver bromide Silver chloride Silver cyanide Silver nitrate Silver sulfate Soap solutions Soda ash Sodium acetate Sodium benzoate Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bichromate Sodium bifluoride Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfide Sodium bisulfite Sodium borate Sodium bromate Sodium bromide Sodium carbonate
(continued)

557

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558 TABLE 5.26 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Sodium chlorate Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium chloroacetate Sodium chromate Sodium citrate Sodium cyanate Sodium cyanide Sodium terricyanide Sodium terrocyanide Sodium fluoride Sodium fluorosilicate Sodium hydride Sodium hydrosulfide Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite Sodium lactate Sodium nitrate Sodium oleate Sodium oxalate Sodium perborate Sodium percarbonate Sodium perchlorate Sodium peroxide Sodium persulfate Sodium phenolate Sodium phosphate Sodium salicylate Sodium salts Sodium silicate Sodium stannate Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfide Sodium sulfite Sour crude oil (1050LF) Sour natural gas (1050LF) Soybean oil Stannic ammonium chloride Stannic chloride, aqueous Stannic tetrachloride Stannous bromide Stannous chloride, aqueous Stannous fluoride Stannous sulfate Steam above 3008F/1498C (1050LF) Steam below 3008F/1498C (2035) Stearic acid Stoddard solvent Strontium acetate
(continued)

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

dry Sulfur dioxide. Sulfurous acid Sulfuryl chloride Sulfonated oil Tallow Tannic acid Tar. wet Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid.26 Continued Strontium carbonate Strontium chloride Strontium hydroxide Strontium nitrate. liquefied Sulfur dioxide. aqueous Styrene (3018) Succinic acid Sucrose solution Sulfamic acid Sulfite liquors Sulfur chloride Sulfur dioxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. bituminous Tartaric acid Tetraethyl lead Tetrahydrofuran Thionyl chloride Thiourea Toluene Transformer oil Transmission fluid type A Triacetin Trichloroacetic acid (4079) Trichlorobenzene Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Triethanolamine (1050LF) Triethyl phosphate Triethylamine (1050LF) Trimethylamine (1050LF) Trimethylbenzene Trinitrotoluene Trisodium phosphate Tung oil Turbine oil Turpentine Uranium sulfate Uric acid Valeric acid Vanilla extract (2035) (continued) 559 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . conc. dil. Sulfuric acid.

valves. The listing is based on standard compounds 4079 and 1050LF for the majority of the fluids. In the petrochemical industry. packings. and miscellaneous sealing elements including U-cups and V-rings.560 TABLE 5. a higher operating temperature may be allowable. hot (1050LF) White oil White pine oil Wood oil Xenon Xylene Zinc acetate Zinc chloride Zinc chromate Zinc nitrate Zinc oxide Zinc sulfate Zinc sulfide Zirconium nitrate Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Kairez is resistant to the above chemicals up to a maximum temperature of 2128F/1008C. Kalrez will be resistent to the corrodents listed up to a maximum temperature of 2128F/1008C. In some chemicals. hydrazine. rotameters. pump housings. 5. gaskets.25. FPM is widely used for O-ring seals on equipment. any Kalrex compound may be used. LLC . Custom-molded parts are also used as valve seats.26 Continued Vegetable oils Vinyl benzene Vinyl benzoate Vinyl chloride Vinyl fluoride Vinylidene chloride Water. diaphragms. When no compound is specified. any Kalrez compound may be used. a higher operating temperature may be allowable. Other industries where FPM contributes importantly are aerospace (versus jet fuels. N 2O 4 and other oxidizers. O-rings of FPM are employed in mechanical seals. When no compound is specified. In contact with some chemicals.3 Applications Perfluoraelastomer parts are a practical solution wherever the sealing performance of rubber is desirable but not feasible because of severe chemical or thermal conditions. and other instruments. The listing is based on standard compounds 4079 and 1050LF for the majority of the fluids. corrodents. compressor casings. Freon-21 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. cold Water.

1 Resistance to Sun. 5. ships. to swelling in oils. and Ozone These rubbers have excellent resistance to sun. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. water. bases. high-temperature conditions). aminecontaining hydraulic fluids.Elastomers 561 fluorocarbon. acidic fluids. rail cars. and ozone. high-purity reagents. etc. extreme temperatures and pressures). Other industries that also extensively use FPM include Pharmaceuticals.26. 5.26 Epichlorohydrin Rubber The epichlorhydrin polymer group includes the homopolymer (CO). gas.and/or heat-resistance properties can be utilized and other elastomeric materials will not do the job or where high maintenance costs results if other elastomeric materials are used. the copolymer with ethylene oxide (ECO).26. and analytical and process instruments (versus high vacuum.3 Applications Epichlorhydrin rubber applications include seals and tubes in airconditioning and fuel systems. and terpolymers (GECO).). nuclear power (versus radiation. Because of their cost. LLC . weathering. 5. Weather. Also the combination of thermal stability and low outgassing characteristics are desirable in furnaces for growing crystals and in highvacuum applications. agricultural chemicals. The semiconductor industry makes use of FPM O-rings to seal the aggressive chemical reagents and specialty gases required for producing silicon chips. and barges carrying hazardous and corrosive chemicals.2 Chemical Resistance Epichlorhydrin rubbers are resistant to hydrocarbon fuels. oil and gas recovery.26. liquid and gas chromotography exposures. and resistant to acids. and geothermal drilling (versus sour gas. they are susceptible to devulcanization in the presence of oxidized fuels such as sour gasoline. high temperature). 5. oil. and analytical and process control instrumentation. and aromatic hydrocarbons. perfluoroelastomers are used primarily as seals where their corrosion. The chemical transportation industry is also a heavy user of FPM components in safety relief and unloading valves to prevent leakage from tank trucks and trailers. However.

28. therefore.2 Chemical Resistance Chlorinated polyethylene has reasonably good resistance to fuels and oils and excellent resistance to atmospheric pollutants. 5. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5. Chlorination of the polyethylene polymer disrupts the crystallinity and allows the polymer to become elastic upon vulcanization.2 Chemical Resistance The resistance of EVM to hydrocarbon fluids is dependent upon the vinyl acetate content. window profiles. Ethylene vinyl acetate is also used in the production of thermoplastic elastomers as the soft phase. and ozone. Higher levels of vinyl acetate increase the polarity of the polymer and. The elastic properties of EVM are due to the absence of crystallinity in the copolymer. CM can be vulcanized by peroxides or certain nitrogencontaining organic compounds that cross-link the chlorine atoms. and various wire and cable applications.27. hoses.28.562 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. 5. flexible dust shields. 5.3 Applications EVM finds application as wire insulation in the automotive industry. increase the hydrocarbon resistance.1 Resistance to Sun. and Ozone CM has excellent resistance to sun. LLC . and ozone. and Ozone EVM has excellent resistance to sun. 5.27. weathering. 5.28.1 Resistance to Sun. Weather. protective boots. 5.27.3 Applications CM finds application as vinyl siding. weathering.27 Ethylene–Vinylacetate Copolymer (EVM) EVM can only be cured by peroxide. Weather.28 Chlorinated Polyethylene (CM) Unmodified polyethylene cannot be converted into an elastomer because of its molecular crystallinity.

563 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. It must be remembered that many of these elastomers may be compounded. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. LLC .1). The tables are based on the pure elastomer (Table 6. the compatibility of selected elastomers in contact with selected corrodents is found. Incompatibility is shown by X. therefore. it is important that the composition be verified as to its suitability for the application. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. The information is taken from Reference [1].6 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers On the following pages.

564 TABLE 6. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyle chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Acetic acid. LLC . dry Aluminum fluoride 180 82 200 93 210 99 180 82 180 82 210 99 150 66 200 93 190 88 190 88 150 66 250 121 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 99 140 60 200 93 200 93 X X 190 X 190 X X 88 X 88 200 X 93 X 140 140 200 60 60 93 140 200 300 X 200 200 60 93 149 X 93 93 100 140 80 X 140 180 38 60 27 X 60 82 160 71 X X X X 300 X 149 X X X X X X 190 X X 180 190 100 190 180 X 88 X X 82 88 38 88 82 210 210 99 99 210 210 210 110 210 99 99 99 43 99 X X X 90 80 80 X 150 X X X 32 27 27 X 66 X X X 160 160 120 X 200 X X X X 71 71 49 X 93 X X X X X 180 180 X 200 200 X X X X 82 82 X 93 93 150 66 220 104 X X X X X X 210 99 X X 90 32 200 93 150 110 110 90 66 43 43 32 8F 80 8C 27 Hypalon 8F 60 X 200 200 200 X 8C 16 X 93 93 93 X 8F 200 200 140 140 140 140 EPDM 8C 93 93 60 60 60 60 8F 210 200 X X X X EPT 8C 99 93 X X X X Viton A 8F X 210 190 180 180 X 8C X 99 88 82 82 X 8F X X 200 200 90 80 Kalrez 8C X X 93 93 32 27 Rubber 8F X X 150 X X X 8C X X 66 X X X Neoprene 8F 200 200 160 160 160 X 8C 93 93 71 71 71 X Buna-N 8F X 180 200 200 210 100 8C X 82 93 93 99 38 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Natural Butyl Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid.

10% Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride. LLC . sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 100 190 38 88 250 250 121 121 210 210 99 99 140 180 60 82 190 190 X 88 88 X 88 X 60 88 88 88 88 60 60 88 210 210 99 99 150 66 180 200 82 93 180 200 82 93 190 88 200 140 93 60 210 140 300 99 60 148 149 99 99 149 99 149 38 210 140 140 180 180 180 180 210 140 140 99 60 60 82 82 82 82 99 60 60 190 X 140 190 190 190 190 140 140 190 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 160 X X 150 150 150 150 160 80 X 71 X X 66 66 66 66 71 27 X 200 140 X 200 200 190 200 100 200 200 93 60 X 93 93 88 93 38 93 93 210 190 180 200 200 200 200 200 120 200 99 88 82 93 93 93 93 93 49 93 X 190 190 190 190 150 150 190 X 88 88 88 88 66 66 88 250 121 140 200 200 200 200 60 93 93 93 93 300 210 210 300 210 300 100 190 88 250 121 100 38 140 60 190 88 210 99 90 32 210 99 200 93 (continued) 565 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat.

LLC .566 TABLE 6.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate 200 93 300 149 180 82 190 88 210 99 180 82 160 71 180 82 190 190 88 88 250 250 121 121 250 250 121 121 180 180 82 82 190 190 88 88 210 99 150 150 66 66 200 200 93 93 200 200 93 93 200 93 X 300 X 149 X 180 X 82 190 250 88 121 210 210 99 99 X 180 X 82 X 160 X 71 X 180 X 82 150 150 66 66 X 180 X 82 60 200 X 140 140 16 93 X 60 60 210 210 X 140 300 99 99 X 60 149 X 180 X X X X 82 X X X X 200 190 230 190 X 93 88 110 88 210 210 210 250 210 99 99 99 121 99 X 150 X X X 66 X X X 200 X X 140 X 93 X X 60 X 180 X X X 82 X X 210 99 160 71 200 93 300 149 210 99 X X 210 99 160 71 180 82 190 88 200 93 300 149 180 82 180 82 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 180 82 140 60 300 149 180 82 180 82 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 190 88 80 27 300 149 210 99 140 60 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 8F 180 8C 82 Hypalon 8F 200 8C 93 8F 250 EPDM 8C 121 8F 180 EPT 8C 82 Viton A 8F X 8C X 8F 300 Kalrez 8C 149 Rubber 8F 170 8C 77 Neoprene 8F 200 8C 93 Buna-N 8F 180 8C 82 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Caicium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC . dry Bromine gas. moist Bromine. 10% 190 90 X 90 150 190 X 190 190 88 32 X 32 66 88 X 88 88 200 X X X 200 140 X 200 290 60 60 60 X 93 X X X 93 60 X 93 143 16 16 16 X 16 121 X 140 150 X X X X X 300 190 X X X X 140 200 140 60 66 X X X X X 149 88 X X X X 60 93 60 140 X X X 140 X X 210 140 X 60 X X X 60 X X 99 60 X 190 X 190 170 190 350 110 190 190 88 X 88 77 88 177 43 88 88 210 210 210 210 310 210 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 154 99 99 99 99 99 150 X X X 150 X X 150 150 66 X X X 66 X X 66 66 200 X X 100 200 X X 200 200 X X 93 X X 38 93 X X 93 93 X X X 60 16 93 X 200 X X X X 140 X 180 180 X X X 200 X X 80 X 180 93 X X X X 60 X 82 82 X X X 93 X X 27 X 82 93 82 93 82 82 X X X 180 X X X X X X 82 X X X X 60 60 82 82 350 190 X 250 X 120 190 190 190 190 190 190 177 88 X 121 X 49 88 88 88 88 88 88 140 210 210 240 210 X 210 210 200 210 210 210 60 99 99 116 99 X 99 99 93 99 99 99 120 180 150 150 200 49 82 66 66 93 X X X 150 X 66 X 140 60 200 X X 140 X X 60 X 60 250 X 120 150 190 190 190 49 66 88 88 88 250 90 90 200 200 121 32 32 93 93 X 210 140 210 210 X 99 60 99 99 X 140 140 180 180 180 60 200 200 220 82 16 93 93 104 200 180 200 180 180 (continued) 567 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.568 TABLE 6. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid 160 71 X X 160 71 X X X X 210 99 X X X X X X X 150 150 X 66 66 X X X 300 X 149 X X X X X X 350 X X 177 X X 210 210 210 99 99 99 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 90 32 200 93 250 121 180 82 190 88 210 99 X X 200 93 180 82 190 X 88 X 230 X 110 X 250 X 121 X 180 X 82 X X 190 X 88 210 210 99 99 150 X 66 X X X X X 200 X 93 X 190 88 200 93 250 121 180 82 X X 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 190 88 X 200 X 93 X 250 X 121 X 180 X 82 190 X 88 X 100 38 190 88 100 200 250 38 93 121 300 210 300 149 99 149 180 82 200 93 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 X 150 X 66 X 200 X 93 X 200 X 93 180 82 180 82 190 88 210 99 150 66 200 160 160 93 71 71 200 180 180 93 82 82 190 88 250 121 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 99 200 93 220 104 80 27 8F 190 8C 88 Hypalon 8F 250 8C 121 8F 220 EPDM 8C 104 8F 180 EPT 8C 82 Viton A 8F 190 8C 88 8F 210 Kalrez 8C 99 Rubber 8F 200 8C 93 Neoprene 8F 220 8C 104 Buna-N 8F 180 8C 82 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. LLC . sat.

dry Chlorine gas. 5% Cupric chloride. 15% Citric acid. conc.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Chlorine gas. wet Chlorine. 50% Chromic chloride Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid. LLC . Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol X X X 90 X 32 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 190 190 190 190 190 X 350 350 88 88 88 88 88 X 177 177 210 99 X X X X X X X X X X 60 38 X X X X X X 190 190 X X X X X X 88 88 X X X X 100 X X X X X 38 X X X X 150 160 X X X 66 71 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 140 100 X X X X X X 190 190 88 88 250 250 X 121 121 X 210 210 100 210 99 99 38 99 99 99 99 X 99 99 X X 180 180 100 210 180 210 180 100 210 210 X X 82 82 38 99 82 99 82 38 99 99 X X 190 X 190 190 190 190 X 180 180 190 190 88 X 88 88 88 88 X 82 82 88 88 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 110 150 43 66 200 200 160 93 93 71 180 180 180 X 82 82 82 X 93 82 93 X 99 82 82 X 190 190 X 88 88 X 200 250 250 X 200 200 93 121 121 X 93 93 X X 210 210 210 X 210 210 X X 150 160 150 X 66 71 66 X 200 160 200 X 210 160 93 71 93 X 99 71 X X 200 180 200 X 210 180 180 X X X X X 210 210 99 99 X X X X (continued) 569 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

50% in water Ferric nitrate. dil. Hydrobromic acid. dry Fluorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrochloric acid.570 TABLE 6. LLC . 38% X X 140 60 90 32 X X 350 177 210 99 160 71 90 32 X X X X 160 71 100 38 X X 350 177 210 99 150 66 90 32 130 54 110 43 100 38 140 60 140 60 190 88 210 99 150 66 X X X X 160 71 100 38 140 60 140 60 190 88 210 99 110 43 X X X X 150 66 90 32 90 32 140 60 190 88 210 99 100 38 X X X X 190 190 X 88 88 X 140 60 60 16 250 121 200 210 93 99 180 180 X 100 82 82 X 38 180 210 X X 82 99 X X X X X X 210 99 150 150 X X 66 66 X X 90 200 X X 32 93 X X 200 200 X X 93 93 X X 190 88 250 121 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 X 190 190 160 X 88 88 71 X 200 250 250 X 93 121 121 X 200 220 210 X 93 104 99 X 180 180 180 X 82 82 82 190 350 190 180 88 177 88 82 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 X 150 150 150 X 66 66 66 X 160 160 160 X 71 71 71 X 200 200 180 X 93 93 82 210 99 X X 8F 8C Hypalon 8F 8C 8F EPDM 8C 8F X EPT 8C X Viton A 8F 80 8C 27 8F 210 Kalrez 8C 99 Rubber 8F X 8C X Neoprene 8F X 8C X Buna-N 8F X 8C X Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% Hydrochloric acid.

5% Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. general Lactic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Ketones. 20% Nitric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 70% 140 350 150 X X 60 177 66 X X 90 90 90 90 X 32 32 32 32 X 200 60 X X 300 140 93 16 X X 149 60 X 60 121 X X 140 X X 140 140 X 60 X X 60 60 190 210 350 60 190 190 X 88 99 177 16 88 88 X 88 66 82 88 82 88 X X 177 88 88 88 210 210 210 210 190 99 99 99 99 88 90 100 X X 150 32 38 X X 66 X 200 200 X X 80 X 93 93 X X 27 X 60 32 99 200 X X X X 80 X X X 180 180 93 X X X X 27 X X X 82 82 38 X X X X X X X X 120 120 200 X 49 49 93 X 180 90 100 80 X 160 160 90 32 38 27 X 71 71 32 X X X 140 100 100 X 140 80 250 X 60 27 121 X 140 250 X 210 210 210 150 210 210 99 99 99 66 99 99 X X 80 150 80 X X 27 66 27 X 140 90 210 210 210 180 80 210 99 99 82 26 99 X X X X X X X 190 150 180 190 180 190 X X 350 190 190 190 82 X X X 60 38 38 X 60 60 X 16 16 X X 80 60 X 27 16 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 93 X X X X X X X 100 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 210 210 210 210 210 160 99 99 99 99 99 71 X X (continued) 571 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid.

10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. anhydrous Nitrous acid.572 TABLE 6. conc. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Oleum Perchloric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. LLC . 10% Perchloric acid. 10% 180 180 82 82 240 250 116 121 140 210 60 99 180 210 82 99 190 X 88 X 210 210 99 99 130 150 54 66 200 200 93 93 180 160 82 71 180 82 250 121 300 149 180 82 190 88 210 99 180 82 200 93 200 93 80 27 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 210 99 99 80 250 27 121 300 210 148 99 140 180 60 82 190 190 88 88 210 210 99 99 X 160 X 71 200 160 93 71 130 180 54 82 150 150 66 66 X 200 X 93 140 60 80 180 27 82 210 190 99 88 210 210 99 99 X 110 X 43 X X X X X X 90 32 140 60 190 88 X X X X X 150 X 66 X 100 X 38 X 140 X 60 X 190 X 88 190 190 88 88 210 210 99 99 X 150 X 66 X X X X X X 120 49 100 38 210 99 X X X X X X 8F X 8C X Hypalon 8F X 8C X 8F X EPDM 8C X 8F X EPT 8C X Viton A 8F 190 8C 88 8F X Kalrez 8C X Rubber 8F X 8C X Neoprene 8F X 8C X Buna-N 8F X 8C X Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Nitric acid.

fuming 190 88 250 121 180 82 200 93 X X 210 99 150 66 200 93 150 66 180 82 250 121 180 82 80 27 X X 210 99 150 66 200 93 150 66 130 54 250 121 300 149 X X 190 88 90 32 X X X X 90 150 150 150 150 150 100 X X X 32 66 66 66 66 66 38 X X X 250 90 200 250 250 160 X 110 X X 121 32 93 121 121 71 X 43 X X 300 300 300 280 150 150 140 X X X X 149 149 149 138 66 66 60 X X X X X 210 210 210 210 210 210 80 X X X X 99 99 99 99 99 99 27 X X X 190 190 180 190 350 350 350 350 350 190 88 88 82 88 177 177 177 177 177 88 210 99 210 210 210 240 210 150 150 99 99 99 116 99 66 66 90 150 150 150 150 100 X X X X 32 66 66 66 66 38 X X X X X 200 210 160 200 200 200 X X X X X 93 99 71 93 93 93 X X X X X 180 180 180 150 200 X X X X X X 82 82 82 66 93 X X X X X (continued) 573 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 20% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium sulfide. conc. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Sodium hydroxide. 100% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite.

574 TABLE 6.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 190 88 250 121 300 300 149 149 180 180 82 82 190 210 88 99 210 210 99 99 X 150 X 66 140 160 60 71 140 190 60 88 8F 150 X X X 8C 66 X X X X X X 80 X 27 X X X X Hypalon 8F 160 8C 171 8F X EPDM 8C X 8F 180 EPT 8C 82 Viton A 8F 190 X 190 190 8C 88 X 88 88 8F 210 210 80 210 Kalrez 8C 99 99 27 99 Rubber 8F X X X X 8C X X X X Neoprene 8F X X X X 8C X X X X Buna-N 8F X X 150 X 8C X X 66 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.. New York: Marcel Dekker. 2004. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is shown by X. 1–4.A. 5th ed. LLC . Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Schweitzer. Vols. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Source: From P. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.

2004.A.. P.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers 575 Reference 1. 1–4. New York: Marcel Dekker. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 5th ed. LLC . Schweitzer. Vols. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

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