q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Preface

Corrosion is both costly and dangerous. Billions of dollars are spent annually for the replacement of corroded structures, machinery, and components, including metal roofing, condenser tubes, pipelines, and many other items. In addition to replacement costs are those associated with maintenance to prevent corrosion, inspections, and the upkeep of cathodically protected structures and pipelines. Indirect costs of corrosion result from shutdown, loss of efficiency, and product contamination or loss. Although the actual replacement cost of an item may not be high, the loss of production resulting from the need to shut down an operation to permit the replacement may amount to hundreds of dollars per hour. When a tank or pipeline develops a leak, product is lost. If the leak goes undetected for a period of time, the value of the lost product could be considerable. In addition, contamination can result from the leaking material, requiring cleanup, and this can be quite expensive. When corrosion takes place, corrosion products build up, resulting in reduced flow in pipelines and reduced efficiency of heat transfer in heat exchangers. Both conditions increase operating costs. Corrosion products may also be detrimental to the quality of the product being handled, making it necessary to discard valuable materials. Premature failure of bridges or structures because of corrosion can also result in human injury or even loss of life. Failures of operating equipment resulting from corrosion can have the same disastrous results. When all of these factors are considered, it becomes obvious why the potential problem of corrosion should be considered during the early design stages of any project, and why it is necessary to constantly monitor the integrity of structures, bridges, machinery, and equipment to prevent premature failures. To cope with the potential problems of corrosion, it is necessary to understand 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mechanisms of corrosion Corrosion resistant properties of various materials Proper fabrication and installation techniques Methods to prevent or control corrosion Corrosion testing techniques Corrosion monitoring techniques

Corrosion is not only limited to metallic materials but also to all materials of construction. Consequently, this handbook covers not only metallic materials but also all materials of construction.
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Chapter 1 through Chapter 4 covers polymeric (plastic) materials, both thermoplastic and thermoset. An explanation is presented as to the type of corrosive effects of each polymer, its ability to withstand sun, weather, and ozone, along with compatibility tables. Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 cover elastomeric materials in the same manner that polymers are covered in Chapter 1 through Chapter 4. It is the intention of this book that regardless of what is being built, whether it be a bridge, tower, pipeline, storage tank, or processing vessel, information for the designer/engineer/maintenance personnel/or whoever is responsible for the selection of material of construction will be found in this book to enable them to avoid unnecessary loss of material through corrosion. Philip A. Schweitzer

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Author

Philip A. Schweitzer is a consultant in corrosion prevention, materials of construction, and chemical engineering based in York, Pennsylvania. A former contract manager and material specialist for Chem-Pro Corporation, Fairfield, New Jersey, he is the editor of the Corrosion Engineering Handbook and the Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook, Second Edition; and the author of Corrosion Resistance Tables, Fifth Edition; Encyclopedia of Corrosion Technology, Second Edition; Metallic Materials; Corrosion Resistant Linings and Coatings; Atmospheric Degradation and Corrosion Control; What Every Engineer Should Know About Corrosion; Corrosion Resistance of Elastomers; Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems; Mechanical and Corrosion Resistant Properties of Plastics and Elastomers (all titles Marcel Dekker, Inc.), and Paint and Coatings, Applications and Corrosion Resistance (Taylor & Francis). Schweitzer received the BChE degree (1950) from Polytechnic University (formerly Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn), Brooklyn, New York.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Polymers.............................................................. 1 1.1 Additives ....................................................................................................... 5 1.2 Permeation .................................................................................................... 6 1.3 Absorption .................................................................................................. 12 1.4 Painting of Polymers ................................................................................. 15 1.5 Corrosion of Polymers .............................................................................. 16 Chapter 2 Thermoplastic Polymers ............................................................. 19 2.1 Joining of Thermoplastics......................................................................... 30 2.1.1 Use of Adhesive .......................................................................... 32 2.2 Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene (ABS) ................................................. 37 2.3 Acrylics ........................................................................................................ 37 2.4 Chlotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) .................................................................. 41 2.5 Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE).............................................. 46 2.6 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE)...................................................... 51 2.7 Fluorinated Ethylene–Propylene (FEP) .................................................. 51 2.8 Polyamides (PA)......................................................................................... 60 2.9 Polyamide–Imide (PAI)............................................................................. 65 2.10 Polybutylene (PB) ...................................................................................... 66 2.11 Polycarbonate (PC) .................................................................................... 68 2.12 Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)................................................................... 70 2.13 Polyether–Imide (PEI) ............................................................................... 73 2.14 Polyether Sulfone (PES) ............................................................................ 75 2.15 Perfluoralkoxy (PFA)................................................................................. 77 2.16 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ............................................................... 81 2.17 Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)............................................................. 82 2.18 Polyethylene (PE)....................................................................................... 91 2.19 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)......................................................... 100 2.20 Polyimide (PI)........................................................................................... 102 2.21 Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO) .................................................................. 103 2.22 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS).................................................................. 104 2.23 Polypropylene (PP).................................................................................. 108 2.24 Styrene–Acrylonitrile (SAN) .................................................................. 113 2.25 Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC).......................................................... 114 2.26 Polysulfone (PSF) ..................................................................................... 118 2.27 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)....................................................................... 121 2.28 Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) ............................................. 129 2.29 Chlorinated Polyether (CPE) ................................................................. 134
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2.30 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)......................................................................... 2.31 Polyurethane (PUR)............................................................................... 2.32 Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) ...................................................... 2.33 Acetals...................................................................................................... References .......................................................................................................... Chapter 3 Thermoset Polymers.................................................................. 3.1 Corrosion of Thermosets ........................................................................ 3.2 Joining of Thermosets ............................................................................. 3.3 Ultraviolet Light Stability ....................................................................... 3.4 Reinforcing Materials .............................................................................. 3.4.1 Glass Fibers ................................................................................ 3.4.1.1 E Glass ......................................................................... 3.4.1.2 C Glass......................................................................... 3.4.1.3 S Glass.......................................................................... 3.4.1.4 Glass Filaments .......................................................... 3.4.1.5 Chopped Strands ....................................................... 3.4.1.6 Glass Mats ................................................................... 3.4.1.7 Glass Fabrics ............................................................... 3.4.2 Polyester ..................................................................................... 3.4.3 Carbon Fiber .............................................................................. 3.4.4 Aramid Fibers............................................................................ 3.4.5 Polyethylene Fibers .................................................................. 3.4.6 Paper ........................................................................................... 3.4.7 Cotton and Linen ...................................................................... 3.5 Polyesters .................................................................................................. 3.5.1 General Purpose Polyesters .................................................... 3.5.2 Isophthalic Polyesters............................................................... 3.5.2.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.5.3 Bisphenol A Fumarate Polyesters .......................................... 3.5.3.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.5.4 Halogenated Polyesters ........................................................... 3.5.4.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.5.5 Terephthalate Polyesters (PET)............................................... 3.5.5.1 Typical Applications.................................................. 3.6 Epoxy Polyesters ...................................................................................... 3.6.1 Resin Types ................................................................................ 3.6.2 Curing ......................................................................................... 3.6.2.1 Aromatic Amines ....................................................... 3.6.2.2 Aliphatic Amines ....................................................... 3.6.2.3 Catalytic Curing Agents ........................................... 3.6.2.4 Acid Anhydrides ....................................................... 3.6.3 Corrosion Resistance ................................................................ 3.6.4 Typical Applications................................................................. 3.7 Vinyl Esters ...............................................................................................
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134 138 141 143 146 147 147 151 151 151 152 152 152 154 154 155 155 155 155 156 156 157 157 158 158 160 161 165 166 173 173 178 178 180 180 181 182 183 183 183 183 184 184 188

................ 3................................................... 3.. 5.....4 Causes of Failure..................... 3.............................................7........................................13.................................................................... LLC 443 443 445 446 446 447 448 451 452 453 453 454 454 459 459 460 ....9 Phenolics.............................15 Alkyds...................................1 Typical Applications............................................................ 3.................. 5....7 Applications.................................................................................................................................................... 5.............. 5......1....................................... References ........................3 Applications....................2....................................................................1...............................2 Chemical Resistance .................................................................... 3........19 Polyimides...........................................18 Polybutadienes ....................................................... 5........ 5......................................2 Similarities of Elastomers and Thermoplastic Polymers ........................ 3........... 5.....1....................................................................................................1 Typical Applications........................................................ 5.................................... 3...... 3.......................................... Weather............ 441 Chapter 5 Elastomers............................................................... 3.......19............................................................16 Ureas (Aminos) ........................ 5...............................................................................................................................1...................................................1 Resistance to Sun............................................................................ 3...........3 Differences between Elastomers and Thermoplasts ................................................1 Typical Applications....................11 Silicones ....................... 3.................................................................... 5............................... 3............ 5...........................................................8 Elastomer Designations ...1.... 3....... and Ozone ....................... 3..........................12 Siloxirane....1 Typical Applications.......................................................1.......................................12.....................20 Cyanate Esters ....................................11................................ Furans ...................10 Phenol-Formaldehyde.....13 Polyurethanes .....................................................................14 Melamines ...... 5.. 5.........................10.................... q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group......................17 Allyls ......................................................1 Typical Applications............................................................. 3..... 5..........4 Neoprene (CR)............. 3.8 Chapter 4 194 194 199 199 199 204 204 207 210 210 211 211 211 211 213 213 213 214 214 215 218 219 219 219 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers...........................................................1 Typical Applications.............................8..........1 Typical Applications.....5 Selecting an Elastomer ......... 3......................................................2 Natural Rubber..... 3.........................................................1 Introduction . 5..........................6 Corrosion Resistance .............15............................................. 3...1 Typical Applications.......................................9................................1........1 Typical Applications.........14........ 3........3 Isoprene Rubber (IR) ........3.........................................2..................................................................................................................................1......1 Typical Applications.............................................................1 Importance of Compounding ................2.... 221 Reference .. 3........................................ 3.........

................ Styrene–Ethylene–Butylene–Styrene (SEBS) Rubber ..........6.......5....3 Applications.....................8 5.............................5.....................1 Resistance to Sun............. and Ozone .......... 5........... Ethylene–Acrylic (EA) Rubber .....................3 Applications................ 5...3 Applications .................2 Chemical Resistance ......................... and Ozone ................... Polysulfide Rubbers (ST and FA) .13. and Ozone ... Weather.......................... 5..................................................... 5......... 5............................1 Resistance to Sun............. Butyl Rubber (IIR) and Chlorobutyl Rubber (CIIR)....... LLC ........2 Chemical Resistance ............... 5.. 5.10 5.........................................................2 Chemical Resistance .......................11 5.3 Applications... 5..3 Applications........ and Ozone ..3 Applications............................................................. 5.. Weather.......... Styrene–Butadiene Rubber (SBR.................... 460 460 465 467 467 468 469 470 470 470 470 472 472 473 478 478 479 479 479 484 484 484 486 486 487 487 487 487 487 488 488 488 489 489 489 497 497 497 497 497 498 498 498 498 498 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.13 5.......... Weather............................................2 Chemical Resistance ......................... 5....................................... and Ozone ............ 5....... 5................................................... 5............................... and Ozone ....3 Applications.......... Weather...................10............. 5.......9..... 5..... 5....... and Ozone .........................15.......2 Chemical Resistance .................... Weather.....14......3 Applications............7 5.....14 5...........1 Resistance to Sun.....6 5................ Weather.... Buna-N) .................................6..... 5................1 Resistance to Sun............................. and Ozone ..1 Resistance to Sun................... Ethylene–Propylene Rubbers (EPDM and EPT).....13.. 5.................2 Chemical Resistance ...11.............13...................5 5.7............... and Ozone .......... 5.................................................................... and Ozone ..................9 5....................4..................................................................11..2 Chemical Resistance ......... 5.................... 5...................................8............................8..1 Resistance to Sun...........6...3 Applications.............1 Resistance to Sun........................................................................ Weather................................. 5..... 5.......................... 5........ 5...................4.................................................7...10......................................7.............1 Resistance to Sun.................................... 5.....3 Applications...................................... 5...................1 Resistance to Sun...............................15 5..............5....9............... Buna-S.8.. Nitrile Rubber (NBR....................................4.......... 5.........11. Weather........ 5..12..........1 Resistance to Sun....1 Resistance to Sun........................................................................ GR-S)...........14....................2 Chemical Resistance ............................ Weather.......... Polybutadiene Rubber (BR).12...... 5................................................................................... Weather...3 Applications............. Acrylate–Butadiene Rubber (ABR) and Acrylic Ester–Acrylic Halide (ACM) Rubbers ..............2 Chemical Resistance ..............12.14... Weather...............5................... Weather.. and Ozone ....................................... 5.................... Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber (Hypalon).............2 Chemical Resistance ........................................................................... Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene (SBS) Rubber ........ 5...........2 Chemical Resistance .... 5........1 Resistance to Sun........9...............12 5............................... and Ozone ...............10..

...2 Chemical Resistance ...................................2 Chemical Resistance ........... Silicone (SI) and Fluorosilicone (FSI) Rubbers..2 Chemical Resistance ........17......... Weather.................................................. 5................... 5..25.. Perfluoroelastomers (FPM)..17......... 5.. 5.....................................18.... 5...................................................................................................................... and Ozone .........16.................. 5.........................................18....................................................3 Applications..................................1 Resistance to Sun....3 Applications...................... Weather.2 Chemical Resistance ....... PVDF).... 5............ 5.............3 Applications................1 Resistance to Sun....................... 5............... and Ozone ............ Ethylene–Chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) Elastomer....................................... and Ozone .................... and Ozone ............................. 5..................... 5............3 Applications.... Ethylene–Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) Elastomer....................5........2 Chemical Resistance ...1 Resistance to Sun...............................1 Resistance to Sun................ 5...............................19 5.......... 5............... 5.............21......................................3 Applications....... Fluoroelastomers (FKM) ...................................15.................. and Ozone ..............23.......22....... 499 502 502 503 504 509 510 511 511 514 514 515 515 515 518 519 519 519 519 520 520 523 524 525 525 525 530 531 531 531 537 537 537 541 541 542 542 546 546 548 548 560 561 561 561 561 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group..................................... Polyamides....................................... and Ozone ......................16..........1 Resistance to Sun..2 Chemical Resistance .........23........................ 5......1 Resistance to Sun...............................................24...................19...26...................................17....16 5....... 5................................................................2 Chemical Resistance ..........................20......2 Chemical Resistance .........16.17 5. 5........................ and Ozone ......23 5................................. Weather............ 5.. 5.................2 Chemical Resistance .... Vinylidene Fluoride (HFP.......20 5......... 5...... Polyester (PE) Elastomer ................................................20.3 Applications.................. 5.... 5......................... 5...................3 Applications............21 5....... Weather.............26.... 5...........24 5....................... and Ozone ....................1 Resistance to Sun........2 Chemical Resistance .......................24..24....................................................................... 5.22 5......................21............ 5.................... 5.........................20..........2 Chemical Resistance ........................21........................................ Weather............................................... Weather........26 5... Weather......... Weather.......22............25.............................26....................................................3 Applications.....................18 5.............................3 Applications...................................1 Resistance to Sun............ Urethane Rubbers (AU) ..... Epichlorohydrin Rubber . 5................ 5... Weather..... Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) Olefinic Type (TEO) ......................19...... 5....22.................1 Resistance to Sun........... and Ozone .............. and Ozone ..........23.............................1 Resistance to Sun..........................................1 Resistance to Sun............ 5...18........................................................3 Applications..................3 Applications........................ 5............... 5....... Weather...................................................................... and Ozone .... 5.....................................2 Chemical Resistance .......................3 Applications...................................19.. LLC .............................15.............................................25 5.............. Weather.25......................

3 Applications.. 563 Reference .. LLC ........................ 5..........28 Chlorinated Polyethylene (CM). Weather... 5........................................................................28.....................................5...... 5..................... 5....... 5......27........................ Weather..................... 575 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Resistance to Sun.........................................................28...........................................................................27...........27 Ethylene–Vinylacetate Copolymer (EVM) ...3 Applications........................ and Ozone .1 Resistance to Sun................................................................ and Ozone ........................ 5................. 562 562 562 562 562 562 562 562 Chapter 6 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers .......... 5............................2 Chemical Resistance ........................................27........28...................2 Chemical Resistance ............................

1 Introduction to Polymers Plastics are an important group of raw materials for a wide array of manufacturing operations. therefore. Applications range from small food containers to large chemical storage tanks. Thermosets are polymers that assume a permanent shape or set when heated. Thermoplasts are long-chain linear molecules that can be easily formed by heat and pressures at temperatures above a critical temperature referred to as the glass temperature. and corrosion products. plastic provides light weight. and once they are formed they cannot be molded. Unfortunately. sturdy/economic/resistant. The glass temperatures for many polymers are above room temperature. from plastic wrap to incubators. and a multitude of other products. thermosets consist of a three dimensional network of 1 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. However. they can be reheated and reformed into new shapes and can be recycled. thermosetting polymers called thermosets. Examples of a thermoset that will set at room temperatures are epoxies that result from combining an epoxy polymer with a curing agent or catalyst at room temperature. from toys to boat hulls. There are three general categories of polymers: thermoplastic polymers called thermoplasts. This term was originally applied to glass and was the temperature where glass became plastic and formed. The term plastic is defined as “capable of being easily molded. Rather than a long-chain molecule. although. LLC . many current polymers are quite brittle. the term polymer will be used throughout the book. some will set at room temperature. The thermosets begin as liquids or powders that are reacted with a second material or that through catalyzed polymerization result in a new product whose properties differ from those of either starting material. The term plastics was originally adopted to describe the early polymeric materials because they could be easily molded. In view of this. and elastomers called rubbers. these polymers are brittle at room temperature. from domestic water piping systems to industrial piping systems that handle highly corrosive chemicals. When properly designed and applied. Plastics are polymers.” such as putty or wet clay.

” They are large molecules composed of many repeat units that have been chemically bonded into long chains. The polymerization of ethylene gas (C2H4) is a typical example. Because they decompose on heating. Polymers are the building blocks of plastics. Thermosets are amorphous polymers. This is an equilibrium reaction that will halt unless the by-product is removed. The process begins with a monomer of ethylene gas in which the carbon atoms are joined by covalent bonds as below: H C H H C H Each bond has two electrons. Because their glass temperature is below room temperature. are broken to form single bonds as below: H C H H C H This resultant structure. is now free to react with other mers. In condensation polymerization. The term is derived from the Greek meaning “many parts. Wool. they cannot be reformed or recycled. a chain reaction appends new monomer units to the growing molecule one at a time. Each new unit creates an active site for the next attachment. they unlink or uncoil and can be extended in length by approximately 100% with a minimum force and return to their original shape when the force is released. LLC . which satisfies the need for the s and p levels to be filled. they must be cooled below room temperature to become brittle. In addition polymerization. but they return to their original values when the force is released. Elastomers are polymeric materials whose dimensions can be drastically changed by applying a relatively modest force. Polymers produced by this process will degrade when exposed to water and high temperatures. forming the long-chain molecule shown below: H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. believed to be unsaturated. The molecules are extensively linked so that when a force is applied. The monomeric building blocks are chemically bonded by a process known as polymerization that can take place by one of several methods. usually water. Through the use of heat. the reaction between monomer units or chain endgroups release a small molecule. the double bonds. pressure. silk. and cotton are examples of natural polymers. called a mer.2 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers atoms. and a catalyst.

These are natural condensation polymers. but carbon. Commercial nylon was placed on the market in 1938 by the DuPont Company. grows at an extremely rapid rate until terminated.” Others have limited the term to thermoplastics only. PVC. This produced a molded plastic material that became very hard when dried. and cellulose were giant molecules of high molecular weight. the major products of the polymer industry. Synthetic polymers appeared in the early twentieth century when Leo Bakeland invented Bakelite by combining the two monomers. In 1953. Glass fibers are the most common additions. engineering polymers. engineering plastics are defined as “Synthetic polymers of a resin-based material that have loadbearing characteristics and high-performance properties which permit them to be used in the same manner as metals and ceramics. and polystyrene. are not considered engineering polymers. graphite. Carothers demonstrated that chain polymers could be formed by condensation reactions that resulted in the invention of nylon through polymerization of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid. Many engineering polymers are reinforced and/or alloy polymers (a blend of polymers). Polyethylene. polyimides. LLC . phenol and formaldehyde. he was awarded the Nobel prize for this work in establishing polymer science. and polycarbonates.H. The function of the resin is to bond the fibers together to provide shape and form and to transfer stresses in the structure from the resin to the fiber. once initiated. Reinforced polymers are those to which fibers have been added that increase the physical properties—especially impact resistance and heat deflection temperatures. and polymethyl methacrylate (Plexiglass) were in commercial production.1. According to the ASM Handbook. Only high-strength fibers with high modulus are used. polyvinyl chloride (PVC). sugars. and understanding their structure paved the way for the development of the synthetic condensation polymers such as polyesters. has come into play. In 1934. Further development of linear condensation polymers resulted from the recognition that natural fibers such as rubber. aramid. Once terminated. polyamides. the resin matrix is the continuous phase. Because of the increased stiffness resulting from the fiber q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Introduction to Polymers 3 Most addition polymerization reactions follow a method of chain growth where each chain. An important paper published by Staudinger in 1920 proposed chain formulas for polystyrene and poloxmethylene. polypropylene. it cannot grow any more except by side reactions. By the late 1930s. The chronological order of the development of polymers is shown in Table 1. and the fiber reinforcement is the discontinuous phase. In a reinforced polymer. polystyrene. W. The year 1868 marked the beginning of the polymer industry with the production of celluloid that was produced by mixing cellulose nitrate with camphor. A relatively recent term. It has been used interchangeably with the terms high-performance polymers and engineering plastics. and boron fibers are also used.

PVC plastisols Unsaturated polyester Fluorocarbon resins (Teflon). Reinforced molding materials such as phenolics. Polyester resins are particularly useful on reinforced polymers. Virtually all thermosetting polymers can be reinforced with fibers. polyurethanes Epoxy resins Copolymers of butadiene and styrene (ABS) Polyester fibers. alkyls. ethyl cellulose PF resin (Bakelite) Cellulose acetate.4 TABLE 1. They are used extensively in manufacturing very large components such as swimming pools. these polymers that are noted for their flexibility are not normally reinforced. vinyl plastics Glass-bonded mica Alkyl polyester Polyvinyl acetate Acrylic plastics Polystyrene plastics. PVC. polyphenylene oxide (PPO) Polysulfones. methyl pentene polymers Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) Polyphenylene sulfide Polyarylate (Ardel) PET–PC blends (Xenoy) Polyether block amides (Pebax) Polyetherether ketone (PEEK) Polyetheramide (Ultem) Liquid crystal polymers (Xydar) Liquid crystal polymers (Vectra) PVC–SMA blend reinforcement. silicones. ABS plastics Polyester-reinforced urethane Polyamide plastics (nylon) Polyolefin plastics. shower enclosures. and building components. polyallomers Polyimides. or epoxies are extensively used in the electronics industry. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. polyvinylidene chloride Polypropylene plastic Urethane POM (acetals) PC (polycarbonate) Polyvinylidene fluoride Phenoxy plastics. large tankage. cellulose propionate. polyvinyl aldehyde.1 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Chronological Development of Polymers Year 1868 1869 1907 1912 1919 1926 1928 1931 1933 1937 1938 1940 1942 1943 1947 1948 1950 1954 1955 1956 1957 1961 1962 1964 1965 1970 1971 1978 1979 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1988 Material Celluloid Cellulose nitrate. LLC . boat hulls.

polypropylene. 3. 20. the use of additives to improve a specific property may have an adverse effect on certain other properties. By using a polymer. and organic compounds used to improve specific properties or to reduce costs q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Reinforcement is used to improve physical properties—specifically heat deflection temperature.1 Additives Various properties of polymers may be improved by the use of additives. and 40% glass–fiber loading have their physical properties greatly improved. metallic powders. In some instances. A like replacement of a polymer section for a metallic section will result in a weight savings. the following are the most important: 1. Corrosion resistance is a property most often affected by the use of additives. 1. and polyether sulfone. Common additives used to improve the performance of thermoplastic polymers are listed here: Antioxidants Colorants Coupling agents Fillers or extenders Protect against atmospheric oxidation Dyes and pigments Used to improve adhesive bonds Minerals. The wear resistance and abrasion resistance of the thermoplastics polymers are improved by the use of aramid reinforcing. An additional cost savings is realized since the polymer part does not require painting for corrosion protection as would the comparable metal part. 2. Other polymers benefiting from the addition of glass fibers include polyphenylene sulfide. Polyamide polymers use glass fiber to control brittleness. LLC . Glass fibers are the most commonly used reinforcing material. and the chemical enduse environment. 30.Introduction to Polymers 5 Many thermoplastic polymers are reinforced with fibers. In many cases a polymer’s corrosion resistance is reduced as a result of additives being used. Selection of the specific polymer will be based on the mechanical requirements. Although fibers can be used with any thermoplastics polymer. In addition. the engineer can design an attractive shape that favors plastic forming and achieve a savings in cost and weight and a cosmeticimprovement. Polymers chosen for structural application are usually selected as a replacement for metal. polymers can be easily formed into shapes that are difficult to achieve with metals. the temperature. Polycarbonate compounds using 10. Tensile strengths are increased by a factor of 3 and heat deflection temperature increases from 150 to 5008F (66 to 2608C).

modulus. 1. and impact strength Improve hot processing characteristics Control for adjustment of deteriorative physicochemical reactions during processing and subsequent life A list of specific fillers and the properties they improve is given in Table 1. but plastic materials tend to be an order of magnitude greater in their permeability than metals. or liquids will permeate polymers. This action is strictly a physical phenomenon.3 shows the increase in the HDT when glass fibers have been added to polymers. However. PVC benefits from all additives and is practically useless in its pure form. Figure 1. acetals (POM). heat. Figure 1. Gases. Many thermoplastic polymers have useful properties without the need for additives.6 Flame retardants Foaming agents Impact modifiers Lubricants Optical brighteners Plasticizers Reinforcing fibers Processing aids Stabilizers Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Change the chemistry/physics of combustion Generate cells or gas pockets Materials usually containing an elastomeric compound to reduce brittleness Substances that reduce friction. Permeation is molecular migration through microvoids either in the polymer (if the polymer is more or less porous) or between polymer molecules. polycarbonate. LLC . However. and polystyrene when 30 wt% glass fiber additions have been made. and certain polymer blends by the use of additives.1 shows the increase in impact strength of nylon.2 and Figure 1. polycarbonate. polycarbonate. PVC. and polystyrene by the addition of 30 wt% of glass fibers. Glass fibers also increase the strength and moduli of thermoplastic polymers.2 Permeation All materials are somewhat permeable to chemical molecules. polypropylene. In neither case is there an attack on the polymer.2. For example. Impact resistance is improved in polybutylene terephathalates. polypropylene. permeation can be detrimental when a polymer is q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Table 1. other thermoplasts require additives to be useful. vapors.3 illustrate the effect on the tensile stress and flexural moduli of nylon. The addition of 20 wt% of glass fibers also increases the heat distortion temperature. Examples of the effects of additives on specific polymers will be illustrated. and wear between surfaces Organic substances that absorb UV radiation below ˚ ˚ 3000 A and emit radiation below 5500 A Increase workability Increase strength. polypropylene.

powdered Cotton. amorphous TFE Talc Wood flour Stiffness X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 7 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. chopped fibers Fibrous glass Graphite Jute Kaolin Mica Molybdenium disulfide Nylon.Introduction to Polymers TABLE 1.2 Fillers and Their Property Contribution to Polymers Chemical Resistance Heat Resistance Electrical Insulation Impact Strength Tensile Strength Dimensional Stability Electrical ConduHardness ctivity Thermal Conductivity X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Moisture Resistance X X Hardenability Filler Alumina powder Alumina tetrahydrate Bronze Calcium carbonate Calcium silicate Carbon black Carbon fiber Cellulose Alpha cellulose Coal. chopped fibers Orlon Rayon Silica. LLC .

used to line piping or equipment.8 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5 R 4 ft-lb/in. In lined equipment. it is 30 25 20 psi× 103 15 10 5 U U U R U R R R Nylon Polycarbonate Polypropylene Polystyrene FIGURE 1. R. LLC . 2.2 Increase in tensile strength with glass reinforcement of thermoplastic polymers. 3 R 2 1 U U U U R R Nylon Polycarbonate Polypropylene Polystyrene FIGURE 1. reinforced. permeation can result in: 1. 3. unreinforced. Failure of the substrate from corrosive attack. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Loss of contents through substrate and liner as a result of the eventual failure of the substrate. U. reinforced. In unbonded linings. Bond failure and blistering. R. resulting from the accumulation of fluids at the bond when the substrate is less permeable than the liner or from corrosion/reaction products if the substrate is attacked by the permeant.1 Izod impact change with glass reinforcement of thermoplastic polymers. unreinforced. U.

R. All polymers do not have the same rate of permeation. The driving force of diffusion is the partial pressure of gases and the concentration gradient of liquids. U. Permeation is a function of two variables: one relating to diffusion between molecular chains and the other to the solubility of the permeant in the polymer. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Introduction to Polymers 9 15 R psi × 106 10 R R R U 5 U U U Nylon Polycarbonate Polypropylene Polystyrene FIGURE 1. but also to prevent expansion of entrapped air from collapsing the liner. In fact. not only to allow minute quantities of permeant vapors to escape. The fluoro-polymers are TABLE 1. reinforced.3 Increase of HDT with 20 wt% Glass Fiber Addition to the Polymer Polymer Acetal copolymer Polypropylene Linear polyethylene Thermoplastic polyester Nylon 6a Nylon 6/6a ABS Styrene–acrylonitrile Polystyrene Polycarbonate Polysulfone a HDT at 264 psi 20% Glass (8F/8C) 325/163 250/121 260/127 400/207 425/219 490/254 215/102 215/102 220/104 290/143 365/185 Increase over Base Polymer (8F/8C) 95/52 110/61 140/77 230/139 305/168 330/183 25/14 20/12 20/12 20/12 20/12 30 wt% glass fibers. important that the space between the liner and support member be vented to the atmosphere.3 Increase in flexural modulus with reinforcement of thermoplastic polymers. Solubility is a function of the affinity of the permeant for the polymer. some polymers are not affected by permeation. LLC . unreinforced.

anhydrous Nitrogen Acetophenone Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Ethyl alcohol Hydrochloric acid.15 0.9 938F/358C 1228F/508C 0.13 0.11 0.66 0.10 TABLE 1.72 0.11 !0.4 while Table 1.69 0.2/24 h/mll Gases Carbon dioxide Helium Hydrogen chloride.36 0.11 0.08 0.77 0.01 0. Vapor permeation of PTFE is shown in Table 1. 98% a 738F/238C 868F/308C 0. 50% Sulfuric acid.61 4!10K5 8!10K6 0. TABLE 1.5 Vapor Permeation into FEP Permeation (g/100 in.07 5!10K5 1.31 0.06 0. 20% Piperdine Sodium hydroxide.56 0.47 0.57 1.80 Based on PTFE having a specific gravity of O2.22 !0. Table 1.29 5.2/24 h/mil) at 738F/238C Gases Nitrogen Oxygen Vapors Acetic acid Acetone Acetophenone Benzene n-Butyl ether Carbon tetrachloride Decane Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Hexane Hydrochloric acid 20% Methanol Sodium hydroxide Sulfuric acid 98% Toluene 0.03 2.18 0.93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.8!10K5 0.01 3.06 0. LLC .39 0.5 shows the vapor permeation of FEP.95 0.2.01 0.13 !0.42 0.64 0.7 gives the relative gas permeation into fluoropolymers.37 2.4 Vapor Permeation into PTFEa Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Permeation g/100 in. particularly affected.6 provides permeation data of various gases into PFA and Table 1.

000 FEP 600 2900 1200 18. the fewer voids through which permeation can take place. A comparison of the density of sheets produced from different polymers does not provide an indication of the relative permeation rates. The greater the density of the polymer. in both cases. although. If the permeant is highly soluble in the polymer.Introduction to Polymers TABLE 1. permitting more permeant to diffuse among the chains more easily. Temperature and pressure 2. The permeant concentration 3. and the same effect is experienced with the concentration of gradients of liquids. migrating chemicals travel through the polymer from one side to the other. The permeation rates of many gases increase linearly with the partialpressure gradient. The thickness will generally decrease permeation by the square of the thickness. The density of the polymer as well as the thickness will have an effect on the permeation rate. LLC . and as the temperature rises.000 4700 PFA 1150 — — 17.2/24 h/atm) 2260 291 881 11 There is no relationship between permeation and passage of materials through cracks and voids. polymer chain movement is stimulated. the permeability increase may be nonlinear. Some control can be exercised over permeation that is affected by: 1.000 15. UnitsZcm3/m2 deg bar. The thickness of the polymer Increasing the temperature will increase the permeation rate because the solubility of the permeant in the polymer will increase. a comparison of the sheets’ density TABLE 1.7 Relative Gas Permeation into Fluoropolymersa Gas Air Oxygen Nitrogen Helium Carbon dioxide a PVDF 27 20 30 600 100 PTFE 2000 1500 500 35. However.6 Permeation of Gases into PFA Gas Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Oxygen Permeation at 778F/258C (cc/mil thickness/100 in. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.000 7000 Permeation through a 100 mm film at 738F/238C.

mechanical abuse. LLC .010–0. Temperature changes and large differences in coefficients of thermal expansion are the most common causes of bond failure. The plastic’s thickness and modulus of elasticity are two of the factors that influence these stresses. 4. 1. the lower the permeation rate. van der Waals hydrogen bonding) of the polymer. thicknesses of 0. Chemicals that readily condense will permeate at higher rates. Second. that are used under ambient conditions provide the best service. For general corrosion resistance. The smaller the molecule of the permeant. 6.g. The thickness of the liner is a factor affecting permeation. This can result in swelling. as thickness increases. and penetration to the substrate of a lined component. the lower the permeation rate. depending on the combination of lining material and the specific corrodent. Increasing a lining thickness will normally decrease permeation by the square of the thickness. there are some disadvantages. are usually satisfactory. First. When mechanical factors such as thinning to cold flow. The higher the level of crystallinity in the polymer. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The higher the intermolecular chain forces (e. 2. Ease of condensation of the permeant.12 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers produced from the same polymer will provide an indication of the relative permeation rates. and permeation rates are a consideration. 3. The rate of permeation is also affected by the temperature and the temperature gradient in the lining. the greater the permeation rate. the thermal stresses on the boundary increase that can result in bond failure. such as storage tanks. particularly organic liquids. Although this would appear to be the approach to follow to control permeation. Lined vessels. The denser the sheet. Other factors affecting permeation consist of these chemical and physiochemical properties: 1. 5.. installation becomes more difficult with a resulting increase in labor costs. the permeation rate will increase.020 in. the lower the permeation rate. as the thickness of the lining increases. Lowering these will reduce the rate of permeation. thicker linings may be required. cracking. The greater the degree of cross-linking within the polymer.3 Absorption Polymers have the potential to absorb varying amounts of corrodents they come into contact with. the lower the permeation rate. Chemical similarity between the polymer and permeant when the polymer and permeant both have similar functional groups.

Related effects occur when process chemicals are absorbed that may later react. Table 1. causing an original micropore. permeation will probably take place. Eventually.04 Nil !0. An approximation of the expected permeation and/or absorption of a polymer can be based on the absorption of water. the polymer may absorb process fluids. it is possible for absorbed monomers to polymerize.03 0.029 !0. The repeated pressure and thermal cycling enlarge the micropores. A section of lined pipe is subjected to thermal and pressure fluctuations. The failures because of absorption can best be understood by considering the “steam cycle” test described in ASTM standards for lined pipe.02 0. thereby TABLE 1.01 !0. LLC .10 provides the absorption rates of representative liquids by PFA.8 provides the water absorption rates for the more common polymers. and repeated temperature or pressure cycling can cause blisters.05 0. The steam creates a temperature and pressure gradient through the liner.8 Water Absorption Rates of Polymers Polymer PVC CPVC PP (Homo) PP (Co) EHMW PE ECTFE PVDF PVCP (Saran) PFA ETFE PTFE FEP Water Absorption 24h at 738F/238C (%) 0.05 !0.01 !0. introduce high stresses. or solidify within the structure of the polymer. Thermal insulation of the substrate will reduce the temperature gradient across the vessel. Although it is unusual. Table 1. Several steps can be taken to reduce absorption. and Table 1. ultimately producing visible water-filled blisters within the liner. If the polymer has a high absorption rate. Prolonged retention of the chemicals may lead to their decomposition within the polymer. the entrapped water can expand to vapor.01 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.01 !0. This is repeated for 100 cycles. Upon pressure release or on the reintroduction of steam. causing absorption of a small quantity of steam that condenses to water within the inner wall. and cause failure of the bond on lined components. the corrodent may find its way to the substrate. In an actual process. This data is usually available.03 0.9 gives the absorption rates of various liquids by FEP. decompose.Introduction to Polymers 13 Swelling can cause softening of the polymer.

7–0.2 1.3–0.8–2.7–0.00–0.10 Absorption of Representative Liquids in PFA Liquida Aniline Acetophenone Benzaldehyde Benzyl alcohol n-Butylamine Carbon tetrachloride Dimethylsulfoxide Freon 113 Isooctane Nitrobenzene Perchlorethylene Sulfuryl chloride Toluene Tributyl phosphate Bromine. conc.7–0. b Not boiling.4–0.4 2.4 0. LLC .5 0.9 2.7 0.01 0.6–0.7–0.9 2.7–2.3–0.0 0.0–0. (8F/8C) 365/185 394/201 354/179 400/204 172/78 172/78 372/190 410/210 250/121 154/68 230/110 392/200b Range of Weight Gains (%) 0.01 0.2 0.4 0.00–0.5–0.14 TABLE 1.8 0.0 Exposure for 168 hours at their boiling points.7–0.8 0. (8F/8C) 365/185 394/201 354/179 400/204 172/78 172/78 372/190 117/47 210/99 410/210 250/121 154/68 230/110 392/200b K5/–22 248/120 302/150 248/120 212/100 248/120 212/100 212/100 Range of Weight Gains (%) 0.8 1.8 0.01 0.8–2.1–0.6 0.5 0.6–0.3–0. The acidic reagents were exposed for 168 h. Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid 50% Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid 37% Phosphoric acid.00–0.2 0.3 1.03 Liquids were exposed for 168 h at the boiling point of the solvents.7–2. Zinc chloride a Temp.4 0.1–0. Not boiling.5 0.0–2.03 0.3 1.0–2.7 0.4 0. anh.3–2.9 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Absorption of Selected Liquids by FEPa Chemical Aniline Acetophenone Benzaldehyde Benzyl alcohol n-Butylamine Carbon tetrachloride Dimethyl sulfide Nitrobenzene Perchlorethylene Sulfuryl chloride Toluene Tributyl phosphate a b Temp.0–0.4 0.7–0.3–0.8 1. TABLE 1. Chlorine.4 0.8 0.4–0.3–0.4 2. anh.3–2.3–0. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

This also reduces the rate and magnitude of temperature changes. keeping blisters to a minimum. If excessive amounts of mold-release compounds remain on the part. However. Solvent resistance. A coating applied in these areas may swell the polymer and cause crazing. Some softening of the surface is desirable to improve adhesion. The use of operating procedures or devices that limit the ratio of process pressure reductions or temperature increases will provide added protection. They are also painted when necessary to provide UV protection. Annealing of the part prior to coating will minimize or eliminate the problem.4 Painting of Polymers Polymers are painted because this is frequently a less expensive process than precolored resins or molded-in coloring.11 Wavelength Regions of the UV Region UV-A UV-B Wavelength (nm) 400–315 315–200 Characteristics Causes polymer damage Includes the shortest wavelengths found at the earth’s surface Causes severe polymer damage Absorbed by window glass Filtered out by the earth’s atmosphere Found only in outer space 15 UV-C 280–100 preventing condensation and subsequent expansion of the absorbed fluids. 4. Molded parts may have localized areas of stress. the polymer should be thoroughly rinsed or otherwise cleaned. and if so. but a solvent that aggressively attacks the surface and results in cracking or crazing must be avoided. Because different polymers are subject to attack by different solvents. Heat distortion point and heat resistance. they are difficult to paint. adhesion problems are likely. 2. Residual stress. 1. 3. the maximum baking temperature the polymer can tolerate. To prevent such a problem. this will dictate the choice of the paint system. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Introduction to Polymers TABLE 1. Mold-release residues. This determines whether a bake-type paint can be used. and proper consideration must be given to the following: 1.

Most polymers are formulated with plasticizers and chemical additives. charring. Solvation is the penetration of the polymer by a corrodent that causes swelling. embrittlement. Disintegration or degradation of a physical nature because of absorption. where chemical bonds are attacked 3. Polymers are attacked either by chemical reaction or solvation. solvent action. Hydrolysis. 6.16 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. the cure. They are usually completely resistant to a specific corrodent (within specific temperature ranges) or they deteriorate rapidly. Radiation 5. dimensional stability. the life of a metallic material in a particular corrosive environment can be accurately predicted. or swelling. Improper or insufficient cure will adversely affect the corrosion q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and in the case of thermoset resins. The corrosion of polymer matrix composites is also affected by two other factors: the nature of the laminate. Dehydration (rather uncommon) 7. and coefficient of expansion. permeation. LLC . Oxidation. Corrosion of plastics can be classified in the following ways as to attack mechanism: 1. delamination. crazing. dissolving.or long-term softening or adhesion problems. Polymeric materials do not experience specific corrosion rates. Any combination of the above Results of such attacks will appear in the form of softening. Other factors. The physical properties of the paint film must accommodate to those of the polymer. The long-term adhesion of the coating is affected by the properties of the polymer such as stiffness or rigidity. where ester linkages are attacked 4. Thermal degradation involving depolymerization and possibly repolymerization 6. This is not the case with polymeric materials. softening. or other factors 2.5 Corrosion of Polymers Corrosion of metallic materials takes place via an electro-chemical reaction at a specific corrosion rate. These materials have a tendency to migrate to the surface and may even soften the coating and destroy adhesion. 1. Consequently. and ultimate failure. Plasticizers and other additives. discoloration. The specific polymer should be checked to determine whether the coating will cause short.

Visible light is defined as radiation between 400 and 760 nm. However. the basic elements of nature are placed into classes with similar properties. most polymers exhibit reduced impact resistance.11. i. can cause embrittlement fading. and infrared energy. the intensity of UV at 320 nm changes about 8 to 1 from summer to winter. Light of any wavelength shorter than the threshold can break a bond.. Many resin grades are available with UV-absorbing additives to improve weather-ability. elements and compounds that exhibit similar behavior. and chalking. Because UV is easily filtered by air masses.Introduction to Polymers 17 resistance. pollution. surface cracking. Polymeric materials in outdoor applications are exposed to weather extremes that can be extremely deleterious to the material. For example. but longer wavelengths cannot break it. and UV-C. some colors tend to weather better than others. whereas proper cure time and procedures will generally improve corrosion resistance. This creates two important differences between summer and winter sunlight: changes in the intensity of the light and in the spectrum. if at all. Because the sun is lower in the sky during the winter months. and other factors. After exposure to direct sunlight for a period of years. The effects of the various wavelengths are shown in Table 1. it will never experience photochemical deterioration outdoors. Photochemical degradation is caused by photons or light breaking chemical bonds. The most harmful weather component. exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. alkaline earth q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. These classes are alkali metals. during the winter months. cloud cover. The electromagnetic energy from the sunlight is normally divided into ultraviolet light. During winter months. Ultraviolet light consists of radiation below 400 nm. lower overall mechanical performance. The UV portion of the spectrum is further subdivided into UV-A. In addition. In addition. As a result.e. materials sensitive to UV below 320 nm would degrade only slightly. there is a critical threshold wavelength of light with enough energy to cause a reaction. UV-B. LLC . Therefore. and a change in appearance. the shortwavelength solar cutoff shifts from approximately 295 nm in summer to approximately 310 nm in winter. visible light. The ability to withstand weathering varies with the polymer type and within grades of a particular resin. the short wavelength cutoff of a light source is of critical importance. it is filtered through a greater air mass. the amount and spectrum of natural UV exposure is extremely variable. Many of the physical property and chemical resistance differences of polymers stem directly from the type and arrangement of atoms in the polymer chains. much of the damaging shortwavelength UV light is filtered out. the higher molecular weigh grades of a resin generally exhibit better weatherability than the lower molecular weight grades with comparable additives. If a particular polymer is only sensitive to UV light below 290 nm (the solar cutoff point). For each type of chemical bond. Infrared energy consists of wavelengths longer than visible red wavelengths and starts above 760 nm. In the periodic table.

and PPA called perfluoropolymers. chlorine. the symmetry of the structure. The elements included in this category are fluorine. The fluorine acts as a protective shield for other bonds of lesser strength within the main chain of the polymer. fluorine is the most electronegative. rare earth series. and iodine. The fluoroplastic materials are divided into two groups: fully fluorinated fluorocarbon polymers such as PTFE. is considerably weaker. that such plastics as PPE and PP are composed. The carbon–fluorine bond. The arrangement of elements in the molecule. a key bond of PVC. The latter has a much wider range of corrosion resistance.18 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers metals. The carbon–chlorine bond. Polymers containing the carbon–hydrogen bonds such as polypropylene and polyethylene. Since these are the most electro-negative elements in the periodic table. PVDF. nonmetals. Of particular importance and interest for thermoplasts is the category known as halogens that are found in the nonmetal category. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. This class of polymers is known as polyolefins. other metals. permitting it to strongly bond with carbon and hydrogen atoms. but not well with itself. The carbon–hydrogen bond. they are the most likely to attract an electron from another element and become part of a stable structure. and the carbon–chlorine bonds such as PVC and ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene are different in the important property of chemical resistance from a fully fluorinated polymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene. and ECTFE that are called fluoropolymers. bromine. LLC . and the partially fluorinated polymers such as ETFE. but there are important differences between the groups as will be seen later. The polymeric characteristics within each group are similar. is weaker yet. FEP. and the polymer chains’ degree of branching are as important as the specific elements contained in the molecule. transition metals. Of all the halogens. the predominant bond in PVDF and PTFE that gives it such important properties. is among the strongest known organic compounds. and noble (inert) gases.

similar to metallic materials. stability of thermoplastics has been greatly improved by the use of fiber reinforcement. They are long-chain linear molecules that are easily formed by the application of heat and pressure at temperatures above a critical temperature referred to as the glass temperature. lower-cost processing of 19 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. However. thermal aging that results from repeated exposure to the high temperatures required for melting causes eventual degradation of the polymer and limits the number of reheat cycles. so they can be used without the need for incorporating fillers. Alloy polymers are blends of different polymers. higher-performance polymers that can be reinforced with fiber filler to increase their stability even further. it is referred to as a homopolymer in contrast to a copolymer. LLC . Copolymers are long-chain molecules formed by the addition reaction of two or more monomers. When the chain of a polymer is made up of a single repeating section. so each case must be considered on its individual merits. thermoplastic materials tend to be tougher and less brittle than thermoset polymers. Thermoplastic polymers can be either homopolymers or copolymers. has been the development of the so-called engineering or high-stability. to offset the gains in thermoplastics. Second. Because of three major developments. Third. all thermoplasts do not fall into this category. thermoplastics have been less dimensionally and thermally stable than thermosetting polymers. although. they are chains where one mer has been substituted with another mer. Because of this ability to be re-formed by heat. thermosets have offered a performance advantage. In essence. Therefore. the lower processing costs for thermoplastics have given the latter a cost advantage. In general. Some tend to craze or crack easily. thermosets and thermoplastics are now considered on the basis of their performance. these materials can be recycled. By virtue of their basic structure. Polymers are formed as the result of a polymerization reaction of a monomer that is a single molecule or substance consisting of single molecules. However. First.2 Thermoplastic Polymers Thermoplastic materials can be repeatedly re-formed by the application of heat.

Ammonium fluoride.1 Compatability of Borosilicate Glass with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.1 provides the compatibility of glass fibers with selected corrodents. 10% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. and Table 2. Table 2. The two most common materials used as reinforcement are glass fiber and carbon. aqueous Aluminum chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. has been developed specifically the screw-injectionmolding technology. 80% Acetic acid.2 provides the compatibility of carbon fiber TABLE 2. LLC . Compatibility of the reinforcing material with the corrodent must be checked as well as the compatibility of the thermoplast. 50% Acetic acid.20 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers thermoset polymers. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. the thermoplast is known as a composite. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Amyl acetate 8F 450 270 400 400 400 400 250 250 210 120 250 250 250 180 X 250 100 190 250 X 250 250 250 250 X X 250 250 200 200 90 200 200 8C 232 132 204 204 204 204 121 121 99 49 121 121 121 82 X 121 38 88 121 X 121 121 121 121 X X 121 121 93 93 32 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. When a reinforcing material is used in a thermoplast.

dry Chlorine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. moist Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. sat. LLC . wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorine.1 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid 8F 250 250 200 250 200 250 250 250 250 250 200 200 200 200 200 200 250 300 250 90 90 250 200 200 250 250 200 200 250 X 200 100 250 160 160 250 450 200 200 160 250 250 450 400 140 200 200 200 8C 121 121 93 121 93 121 121 121 121 121 93 93 93 93 93 93 121 149 121 32 32 121 93 93 121 121 93 93 121 X 93 38 121 71 71 121 232 93 93 71 121 121 232 204 60 93 93 93 (continued) 21 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

conc. dil. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. 10% Ketones. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. Copper chloride Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 70% Phenol 8F 200 200 200 200 250 200 200 160 160 200 310 250 210 290 280 180 200 300 X 200 200 200 200 200 200 X X X 190 200 200 200 200 250 160 200 200 200 400 400 400 250 400 200 200 200 8C 93 93 93 93 121 93 93 71 71 93 154 121 99 143 138 82 93 149 X 93 93 93 93 93 93 X X X 88 93 93 93 93 121 72 93 93 93 204 204 204 121 204 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Nitric acid.22 TABLE 2. 15% Citric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 5% Cupric chloride. dry Fluorine gas. general Lactic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 70% Nitric acid. conc. moist Hydrobromic acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid.1 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Citric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. LLC . 50% Hydrochloric acid.

Sodium hypochloride. 90% Sulfuric acid. Many of the engineering plastics are copolymers or alloy polymers. conc. The engineering plastics are synthetic polymers of resin-based materials that have load-bearing characteristics and high-performance properties that permit them to be used in the same manner as metals. 20% Sodium hypochloride. The major products of the polymer industry that include polyethylene. 10% Sulfuric acid. and polystyrene are not considered engineering polymers because of their low strength. polypropylene.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. polyvinyl chloride. Source: From P.. New York: Marcel Dekker. 2004. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 1–4. Vols. Table 2. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 100% Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 300 200 250 250 250 X X X 150 150 X 210 210 400 400 400 400 400 400 210 210 250 210 210 210 8C 149 93 121 121 121 X X X 66 66 X 99 99 204 204 204 204 204 204 99 99 121 99 99 99 23 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .3 provides the compatibility of impervious graphite with selected corrodents.4 lists the abbreviations used for the more common thermoplasts.1 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Phosphoric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sulfuric acid. 30% Silver bromide. 70% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. Table 2. with selected corrodents.A. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Sodium sulfide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 5th ed.

2 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Carbon Fiber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% 8F 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 100 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 390 340 340 340 340 330 340 200 220 340 340 340 340 340 340 200 210 340 250 250 250 250 250 340 200 340 8C 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 38 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 199 171 171 171 171 166 171 93 104 171 171 171 171 171 171 93 99 171 121 121 121 121 121 171 93 171 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. 80% Acetic acid. LLC . 10% Ammonium fluoride. sat.24 TABLE 2.

dry Carbon dioxide. moist Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate. 10% Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. 15% Citric acid. LLC . Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol 8F 350 250 210 X X X 340 340 210 100 90 340 340 340 340 140 340 200 250 170 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 250 340 200 340 340 180 80 340 340 340 X X 340 340 340 340 340 340 400 8C 177 121 99 X X X 171 171 99 38 32 171 171 171 171 60 171 93 121 77 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 121 171 93 171 171 82 27 171 171 171 X X 171 171 171 171 171 171 238 (continued) 25 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzoic acid Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine gas. conc.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dry Bromine gas. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chronic acid. sat. 50% Citric acid. 10% Chlorine acid.

50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.2 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Cupric chloride. 5% Nitric acid. conc. 50% Cyclohexane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 20% Nitric acid. dil. anhydrous Nitrous acid.26 TABLE 2. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. conc. 50% in water Ferrous nitrate. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. LLC . conc. 30% Salicyclic acid Sodium bromide Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. dry Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Perchloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. general Lactic acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. Perchloric acid. 8F 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 X 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 X X 100 340 340 340 170 100 400 340 340 340 340 180 140 X X X 340 340 340 200 100 340 340 340 340 340 240 270 260 8C 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 X 171 171 171 171 171 171 171 X X 38 171 171 171 77 38 227 171 171 171 171 82 60 X X X 171 171 171 93 38 171 171 171 171 171 116 132 127 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

to 50% Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistance Tables. LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Aluminum chloride. 90% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 1–4. 100% Sulfurous acid Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 120 340 340 340 340 180 X X 340 340 340 100 340 8C X X 49 171 171 171 171 82 X X 171 171 171 38 171 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 5th ed. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Vols. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Source: From P. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. dry Aluminum fluoride Resin phenolic phenolic furan furan furan furan furan furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan 8F 460 460 400 400 400 400 400 400 460 400 460 X 120 460 460 8C 238 238 204 204 204 204 204 204 238 204 238 X 49 238 238 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.3 Compatibility of Impervious Graphite with Selected Corrodent Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.2 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hypochlorite.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. TABLE 2.. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Acetic acid. Sodium sulfide. 70% Sulfuric acid.A. 50% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 10% Acetic acid. 2004. 80% Acetic acid. conc.

10% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC . dry Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Resin furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic furan furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic furan furan phenolic furan phenolic 8F 250 460 460 390 460 400 400 400 460 250 210 400 460 400 210 400 X 250 250 250 250 460 400 460 460 460 X X 460 460 400 210 460 460 460 460 250 250 170 460 460 400 460 460 400 460 400 8C 121 238 238 199 238 204 204 204 238 121 99 204 238 204 99 204 X 121 121 121 121 238 204 238 238 238 X X 238 238 204 99 238 238 238 238 121 121 77 238 238 204 238 238 204 238 204 (continued) furan furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic furan furan furan furan furan furan furan phenolic phenolic furan phenolic furan q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium chlotide Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid.28 TABLE 2. moist Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.3 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.

50% Cyclohexane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. dry Fluorine gas. Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50% water Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfanic acid Chromic acid. 50% Citric acid. Hydrobromic acid. conc. dry Chlorine. dil. 50% in water Ferric nitrate.3 Continued 29 Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid. general Lactic acid. Magnesium chloride Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl Ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Resin phenolic furan furan furan furan phenolic phenolic furan 8F 400 460 400 400 400 130 400 400 X X X 400 400 400 460 400 400 400 400 460 330 210 260 210 400 300 X 120 250 120 400 400 460 460 X X 120 400 400 400 170 460 460 460 460 400 220 220 8C 204 238 204 204 204 54 204 204 X X X 204 204 204 238 204 204 204 204 238 166 99 127 99 204 149 X 49 121 49 204 204 238 238 X X 49 204 204 204 77 238 238 238 238 204 104 104 (continued) furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan furan phenolic furan furan furan phenolic phenolic furan phenolic Phenolic furan furan furan furan furan phenolic furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 60% Ferric chloride. 15% Citric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. LLC . 100% Iodine Solution. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 20% Hydrobromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Ketones.

Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 90% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid.A. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 10% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 2004. or by means of adhesives.5 provides the resistance of the more common thermoplasts to various atmospheric pollutants. and Table 2. 1–4.6 gives the allowable temperature range for thermoplastic polymers. One of the applications for plastic materials is to resist atmospheric corrosion. Vols. 70% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. 50% Sodium hydroxide.. Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sodium hydroxide.30 TABLE 2. 5th ed. 50–80% Potassium bromide. they are also able to resist corrosive fumes that may be present in the atmosphere. 70% Nitric acid anhydrous Nitrous acid conc.3 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. Solvent cementing is the easiest and most q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Joining of Thermoplastics Thermoplastic materials are joined by either solvent cementing. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Source: From P. 2. thermal fusion. fuming Sulfuric acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride Resin 8F X X X X 400 400 460 340 400 400 400 400 X X X 400 400 400 400 400 X X X 400 320 400 340 400 8C X X X X 204 204 238 171 204 204 204 204 X X X 204 204 204 204 204 X X X 204 160 204 171 204 furan phenolic furan furan furan furan furan furan furan phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic phenolic furan furan phenolic The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. Table 2. LLC . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 20% Sodium hypochlorite conc. 98% Sulfuric acid. In addition to being able to resist attack by specific corrodents in plant operations. 50% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. conc.

The major disadvantages of solvent cementing are the possibility of the part’s stress cracking and the possible hazards of using low vapor point solvents. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Adhesive bonding is generally recommended when two dissimilar polymers are joined because of solvent and polymer compatibility problems. Solvent-cemented joints are less sensitive to thermal cycling than joints bonded with adhesives. and they have the same corrosion resistance as the base polymer as do joints made by a thermal-fusion process.4 Abbreviations Used for Thermoplasts ABS CPE CPVC CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP HDPE LDPE LLDPE PA PAI PAN PAS PB PBT PC PE PEEK PEI PEK PEKK PES PET PFA PI PP PPE PPO PPS PPSS PSF PTFE PUR PVC PVDC PVDF PVF SAN UHMWPE Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene Chlorinated polyether Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride Chlorotrifluoroethylene Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene Ethylenetetrafluoroethylene Flouroethylene-propylene copolymer High-density polyethylene Low-density polyethylene Linear low-density polyethylene Polyamide (Nylon) Polyamide-imide Polyacrylonitrile Polyarylsulfone Polybutylene Polybutylene terephthalate Polycarbonate Polyethylene Polyetheretherketone Polyether-imide Polyetherketone Polyetherketoneketone Polyethersulfone Polyethylene terephthalate Perfluoralkoxy Polyimide Polypropylene Polyphenylene ether Polyphenylene oxide Polyphenylene sulfide Polyphenylene sulfide sulfone Polysulfone Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) also TFE Polyurethane Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinylidene chloride Polyvinylidene fluoride Polyvinyl fluoride Styrene-acrylonitrile Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene 31 economical method for joining thermoplasts.

1. Solvent cements that have approximately the same solubility parameters as the polymer to be bonded should be selected. 2. A universal solvent should never be used. f Wet only. c Water absorption at 738F/238C (%).01 0.32 TABLE 2.1 !0.30 !0. Table 2. e Dry only.04 !0.01 R R Lg R R R R R R R R R Lg R R R R R R R R R Xd R R R.01 0. Major elements of concern are the corrosion resistance of the adhesive. Resistant. d Not resistant. Resistant only if stabilized with a UV protector.15 0.30 0. Large differences in the thermal expansion coefficient between the polymer and adhesive can result in stress at the polymer’s joint interface. LLC . and the glass transition temperature of the polymer relative to the adhesive.03 !0.50 0. RS.7 lists the typical solvents used to bond the major polymers.01 0.2 0.b R R R R R RS R RS R R R Moisturec Absorption 0.6–1.05 !0.03 0.25 Weathering R R R R R R R Lg R Lg R Ozone X R R R R R Xd R R R R d SO2 R R R R R R Rf R R Xd R R R R R Rh R R R e NOx H2S Re Re R R R R Xd R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R RS R R R R R R RS !0. its thermal expansion coefficient. g L.5 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Atmospheric Resistance of Thermoplastic Polymers Resistance to Polymer ABS CPVC ECTFE ETFE FEP HDPE PA PC PCTFE PEEK PEI PES PF PFA PI PP PPS PSF PTFE PVC PVDC PVDF UHMWPE a b UV Degradationa.029 !0.1 Use of Adhesive The physical and chemical properties of both the solidified adhesive and the polymer affect the quality of the bonded joint. h Type 1 only.02 0. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Limited resistance.

ethylene dichloride Methylene chloride.7 Typical Solvents for Solvent Cementing Polymer PVC ABS Acetate Acrylic PA (Nylon) PPO PC Polystyrene PSF Solvent Cyclohexane. acetone. chloroform. methylene chloride Methylene chloride. ethylene dichloride. methylene chloride Methylene chloride. chloroform.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. methyl isobutyl ketone. toluene. tetrahydrofuran. dichlorobenzene Methyl ethyl ketone. solutions of Calcium chloride in alcohol Trichloroethylene. ethylene ketone. TABLE 2. xylene Methylene chloride q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. tetrahydrofuran. methyl ethyl ketone. ethylene dichloride Aqueous phenol. LLC .6 Allowable Temperature Range for Thermoplastic Polymers Allowable Temperature (8F/8C) Polymer ABS CPVC ECTFE ETFE FEP HDPE PA PAI PB PC PCTFE PEEK PEI PES PFA PI PP PPS PSF PTFE PVC PVDC PVDF UHWMPE Minimum K40/K40 0/K18 K105/K76 K370/K223 K50/K45 K60/K51 K60/K51 K300/K190 K200/K129 K105/K76 K85/K65 K310/K190 K310/K190 K310/K190 32/0 K150/K101 K20/K29 0/K18 0/K18 K50/K45 40/4 Maximum 140/60 180/82 340/171 300/149 400/205 180/82 300/149 500/260 200/93 250–275/120–135 380/190 480/250 500/260 340/170 500/260 500–600/260–315 215/102 450/230 300/149 500/260 140/60 175/80 320/160 200/93 33 Temperature limits may have to be modified depending upon the corrodent if in direct contact. ethylene dichloride. ethyl acetate Methylene chloride. solutions of resorcinol in alcohol. trichloroethylene.

34 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers These stresses are compounded by thermal cycling and low-temperature service requirements. will provide poor resistance to bases. Table 2. in all probability. Which adhesive is selected will depend upon the specific operating conditions such as chemical environment and temperature.8 lists the methods by which individual polymers may be joined. an adhesive providing maximum resistance to acids.8 Methods of Joining Thermoplasts Polymer ABS Acetals Acrylics CPE Ethylene copolymers Fluoroplastics PA PPO Polyesters PAI PAS PC PA/ABS PE PI PPS PP Polystyrene PSF PVC/Acrylic alloy PVC/ABS alloy PVC CPVC Adhesives X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Mechanical Fastening X X X X Solvent Welding X X X Thermal Welding X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. It is difficult to select an adhesive that will not degrade in two widely differing chemical environments. TABLE 2. In general.9 provides the relative compatibilities of synthetic adhesives in selected environments. meaning that the weakest link in the joint may be the adhesive. the adhesives that are most resistant to high temperatures usually exhibit the best resistance to chemicals and solvents. There is not a best adhesive for universal environments. Selection of the proper adhesives is important. LLC . For example. A structural adhesive must have a glass transition temperature higher than the operating temperature to prevent a cohesively weak bond and possible creep problems. All polymers cannot be joined by all of the methods cited. Table 2. Engineering polymers such as polyamide or polyphenylene sulfide have very high glass transition temperatures whereas most adhesives have very low glass transition temperatures.

K. alkali. H. thermoplastic adhesive. poor. 4. oil. grease. b Resistance: 1. G. J. heat. M. excellent. esters. 3. N. ketones. good. E. hot water. C. LLC . X. L. TP. B. F. not recommended. chlorinated solvents. aromatics. 35 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. fair. acid. water. thermosetting adhesive. alcohols. fuels. cold. c Type: TS.b Adhesive Cyanoacrylate PolyesterCisocyanate PolyesterCmonomer Urea formaldehyde Melamine formaldehyde Resorcinol formaldehyde EpoxyCpolyamine EpoxyCpolyamide Polyimide Acrylic Cellulose acetate Cellulose nitrate Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl alcohol Polyamide Acrylic Phenoxy a Type TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TP TP TP TP TP TP TP c A X 3 X 3 2 2 3 X 1 X 2 3 X 3 X 4 4 B 2 3 3 2 2 X 2 1 3 3 3 C X 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 X X 3 3 D X 3 X X X 2 2 X 4 3 X 3 X X X 3 4 E X 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 3 3 X X 3 F X 2 X 2 2 2 2 X 2 2 2 X 3 X 2 2 G 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 H 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 X J X 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 4 X X 3 X X K X 2 X 2 2 2 X X 2 2 X X X 1 2 4 L X 2 X 2 2 2 X X 2 2 X X X 1 2 4 M 4 X X 2 2 2 1 3 2 2 X X X 1 2 X N 4 2 X 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 X X X 1 X 4 Environment: A.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 2. D.9 Chemical Resistance of Adhesives Environmenta.

Structural adhesives. They have very good thermal stability but low strength. After two or three years. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. adhesive. and stress level. Thermal cycling. will revert. the elastic modulus. when exposed to weather. The successful application of an adhesive at low temperatures is dependent upon the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between adhesive and polymer. Stressed panels deteriorate more rapidly than unstressed panels. turn to fluid during exposure to warm humid air. strength. water immersion. polymer. notably ester-based polyurethanes. and the thermal conductivity of the adhesive.e. and outdoor weathering. and cold are relatively minor factors. Polyurethane and epoxy–nylon systems exhibit outstanding cryogenic properties. 2. LLC .. rapidly lose strength during the first six months to a year. Silicone adhesives are primarily used in nonstructural applications. ultraviolet radiation. Their short-term exposure at 10008F (5388C) is slightly better than the epoxy–phenolic alloy. Some polymeric materials. and in the worst case. i. Polyamide-adhesives have thermal endurance at temperatures greater than 5008F (2608C) that is unmatched by any commercially available adhesive. Epoxy–polyamide adhesives can be made serviceable at very low temperatures by the addition of appropriate fillers to control thermal expansion. Epoxy–phenolic adhesives exhibit good adhesive properties at both elevated and low temperatures. Heat-cured adhesive systems are generally more resistant than room-temperature cured systems. and the strength retention on aging at these temperatures is very good. The most severe locations are those with high humidity and warm temperatures.36 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Epoxy adhesives are generally limited to continuous applications below 3008F (1498C). Structural adhesives not susceptible to the reversion phenomenon are also likely to lose adhesive strength when exposed to moisture. Nitrile–phenolic adhesives have high shear strength up to 250–3508F (121–1778C). lose hardness. the rate of decline usually levels off. However. Water can also permeate the adhesive and displace the adhesive at the bond interface. The following are important considerations when designing an adhesive joint for outdoor service: 1. depending upon the climate zone. A combination epoxy–phenolic resin has been developed that will provide an adhesive capability at 7008F (3718C) for short-term operation and continuous operation at 3508F (1778C). 3. there are epoxy formulations that can withstand short terms at 5008F (2608C) and long-term service at 300–3508F (149–1778C). Other factors affecting the life of an adhesive bond are humidity. Adhesives exposed outdoors are affected primarily by heat and humidity. Moisture can affect adhesive strength in two ways.

although all joints will eventually show some strength loss. better toughness. 2. and they will stress crack in the presence of certain organic compounds. It is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons.10 provides the compatibility of ABS with selected corrodents. When an ABS alloy or a reinforced ABS is used. ABS will be degraded by UV light unless protective additives are incorporated into the formulation. Pure ABS polymers will be attacked by oxidizing agents and strong acids. With the better adhesives. 2. gears. butadiene. blowers. ducts. chemical tanks.Thermoplastic Polymers 37 4. The manufacturer should also be checked. piping.3 Acrylics Acrylics are based on polymethylmethacrylate and have a chemical structure as follows: H C H CH3 C COOCH3 n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. but not to aromatic or chlorinated hydrocarbons. pump impellers. Table 2. and styrene and have the following general chemical structure: H C H H C Cn H C H C H C H Butadiene H C H C CH X Y H Z Acrylonitrile Styrene The properties of ABS polymers can be altered by the relative amounts of acrylonitrile. A more detailed listing may be found in Reference [1]. all of the alloying ingredients and/or reinforcing materials must be checked for chemical compatibility.2 Acrylonitrile–Butadiene–Styrene (ABS) ABS polymers are derived from acrylonitrile. Higher strength. butadiene. fume hoods. and styrene present. greater dimensional stability and other properties can be obtained at the expense of other characteristics. bearings. unstressed bonds are relatively resistant to severe outdoor weathering. and electrical conduit. ABS polymers are used to produce business machine and camera housings. LLC .

I. and haze measurements average only 1%. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC .38 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers They are sold under the tradenames of Lucite by E. and other similar fluids. acetone. Acrylics exhibit outstanding weatherability.10 Compatibility of ABS with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. The total light transmission is as high as 92%. They are attacked by strong solvents. 50% Acetic acid. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate 8F X 100 130 X X X X X 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 90 80 140 140 140 140 140 X 8C X 38 54 X X X X X 60 X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 32 27 60 60 60 60 60 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Acetic acid. duPont and Plexiglass by Rohm and Haas. TABLE 2. gasoline. Parts molded from acrylic powders in their pure state may be clear and nearly optically perfect. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. acrylic resins are inherently resistant to discoloration and loss of light transmission. Because of their chemical structure. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.11 lists the compatibility of acrylics with selected corrodents. Table 2. 10% Ammonium fluoride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid. sat. Ammonium fluoride.

dry Chlorine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate. 10% 8F 80 X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 X X 80 140 X X 140 140 X X X X X 140 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 90 140 X 140 X 140 X X 140 140 X X X X 90 8C 27 X X 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 X X 27 60 X X 60 60 X X X X X 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X 32 60 X 60 X 60 X X 60 60 X X X X 32 (continued) 39 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. sat. dry Carbon dioxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.10 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloracetic acid Chlorine gas. wet Chlorine. 25% Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.

LLC . 25% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 20% 8F X 140 140 140 140 140 X 80 80 X X 140 140 140 140 90 140 90 140 X X X 140 X 140 140 140 X X X 140 140 130 X X X X X X 130 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 8C X 60 60 60 60 60 X 27 27 X X 60 60 60 60 32 60 32 60 X X X 60 X 60 60 60 X X X 60 60 54 X X X X X X 54 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 15% Citric acid. general Lactic acid. 50% Citric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide.40 TABLE 2. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 20% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 70% Nitric acid.10 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. dry Hydrobromic acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.

A. and boat windshields. New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer. lighting fixtures. fluorescent street lights.10 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hypochlorite. 5th ed. coatings. 98% Sulfuric acid. It is a fluorocarbon with the following chemical structure: Cl F C F C F n Although CTFE has a wide range of corrosion resistance. 100% Sulfuric acid.. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene White liquor Zine chloride 8F 140 140 140 100 140 130 X X X X X 140 X X 140 140 8C 60 60 60 38 60 54 X X X X X 60 X X 60 60 41 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. textile fibers. aircraft and building glazing. conc. 90% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 50% Sulfuric acid. Acrylics are used for lenses.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. It is subject to swelling in some q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. FEP. outdoor signs. Vols. and PFA. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 1–4. LLC . Incompatibility is shown by an X. Sodium sulfide.4 Chlotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) Chlorotrifluorethylene is sold under the tradename of Kel–F. 2. 70% Sulfuric acid. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables. it has less resistance than PTFE.

80% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. LLC . wet Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid X X X X X X X R R R R R R R R R R R R X R X X R R R R X X X R R X X R X R R R R R R R R R R X R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. sat. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfate.11 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Acrylics with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium sulfate Calcium bisulfide Carbon dioxide. Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Borax Boric acid Bromine. sat. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Alum Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.42 TABLE 2.

50% Citric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. general Lactic acid. Sodium hypochlorite. conc. conc.11 Continued Chemical Chloroacetic acid. 10–50% Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Nitric acid. conc. 25% Lactic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. to 50% Stanninc chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium sulfide. 15% Citric acid. 50% Dichloroethane Ethylene chloride Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid anhydrous Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. LLC . 10% Chromic acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% X X X X X X X R R R R X X R R X R R R R R R X R X X X R X X R X X X X R R R R X R R R R R R R R R (continued) 43 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 100% Ketones.

TABLE 2. dry Allyl alcohol Aluminum chloride. Schweitzer. 70% Sulfuric acid. Vols. 50% Sulfuric acid.12 Compatibility of CTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 25% Ammonia anhydrous Ammonia. Amyl acetate Aniline Aqua regia Barium sulfate 8F 200 122 122 122 100 200 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 100 122 200 300 8C 93 50 50 50 38 93 38 93 93 93 93 93 93 38 50 93 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrosion Resistance Tables.44 TABLE 2. Refer to Table 2. 98% Sulfuric acid.. Compatibility at 908F/328C is indicated by R. wet Ammonium chloride.A. Incompatibility is shown by an X. New York: Marcel Dekker. chlorinated solvents at elevated temperatures and is attacked by the same chemicals that attack PTFE. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. 100% Sulfuric acid fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene Zinc chloride Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R R X X X X R X R The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise specified.12 for the compatibility of CTFE with selected corrodents. Source: From P. 5th ed. 2004. 95–100% Acetic acid glacial Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetyl chloride.11 Continued Chemical Sulfuric acid. LLC . 90% Sulfuric acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. conc. 1–4.

dry Bromine gas. moist Butadiene Butane n-Butylamine Butyl ether Calcium chloride Calcium sulfate Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Cellusolve Chlorine. 100% Hydrofluoric acid.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzontrile Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Bromine gas. 37% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 5% Cyclohexanone Dimethyl aniline Dimethyl phthalate Ethanolamine Ethylene dichloride Ethylene glycol Fluorine gas. dry Fluorine gas. 50% Perchloric acid Phosphorus trichloride Potassium manganate Seawater 8F 200 200 200 200 100 300 100 212 200 200 X 100 300 300 300 212 200 X 125 300 100 200 200 X 100 200 X 70 200 200 212 200 200 300 300 200 300 212 200 200 200 200 200 212 200 200 200 250 23 93 93 100 93 93 149 149 93 149 100 93 93 93 93 93 100 93 93 93 121 (continued) 38 92 52 149 38 93 93 38 149 149 149 100 93 8C 93 93 93 93 38 149 38 100 93 93 45 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Chloroacetic acid Cupric chloride.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. moist Fuel oils Gasoline Glycerine Heptane Hexane Hydrobromic acid. 50% Magnesium chloride Magnesium sulfate Mineral oil Motor oil Naphtha Naphthalene Nitromethane Oxalic acid.

fresh Zinc sulfate 8F 300 140 300 250 250 300 300 212 260 300 300 212 200 200 200 250 212 8C 149 60 149 121 121 149 149 100 127 149 149 100 93 93 93 121 100 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution.46 TABLE 2. carbon dioxide. chlorine gas. or hydrochloric acid is 10–100 times better than that of PTFE or FEP. LLC . Included in this q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.12 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bisulfate Sodium carbonate Sodium chromate. fuming Turpentine Vinegar Water. 2. unless otherwise noted. It possesses excellent chemical resistance from cryogenic to 3408F (1178C) with continuous service to 3008F (1498C) and excellent abrasion resistance.S. 0–100% Sulfuric acid.01%. It is resistant to most of the common corrosive chemicals encountered in industry. Water absorption is less than 0. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. It is sold under the tradename of Halar by Ausimont U. The chemical resistance of ECTFE is outstanding. wet Sulfur dioxide. dry Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X.A.5 Ethylenechlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) ECTFE is a 1:1 alternating copolymer of ethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene having a chemical structure as follows: H H H H C C C C H H F Cl This chemical structure provides the polymer with a unique combination of properties. 10% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium sulfate Sodium thiosulfate Stannous chloride Sulfur Sulfur dioxide. ECTFE’s resistance to permeation by oxygen.

10% Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. and practically all organic solvents except hot amines (aniline.Thermoplastic Polymers 47 list of chemicals are strong mineral and oxidizing acids. 80% Acetic acid. indicating that no chemical attack has taken place.) No known solvent dissolves or stress cracks ECTFE at temperatures up to 2508F (1208C). TABLE 2. 8F 250 250 150 200 100 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 8C 121 121 66 93 38 66 66 66 66 149 149 149 149 149 149 66 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. dimethylamine. and high-temperature wire and cable insulation. ECTFE will be attacked by metallic sodium and potassium. LLC . Some halogenated solvents can cause ECTFE to become slightly plasticized when it comes into contact with them. ECTFE also exhibits excellent resistance to weathering and UV radiation. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. Under normal circumstances. When the part is removed from contact with the solvent and allowed to dry. that does not impair the usefulness of the polymer. ECTFE has found application as pipe and vessel liners and in piping systems. 50% Acetic acid. As with other fluoropolymers. liquid oxygen. Reference [1] provides a more extensive listing. metal etchants. etc. chemical process equipment. its mechanical properties return to their original values.13 Compatibility of ECTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. alkalies.13 shows the compatibility of ECTFE with selected corrodents. Table 2. The useful properties of ECTFE are maintained on exposure to cobalt-60 radiation of 20 Mrads.

10% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry 8F 300 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 160 300 300 90 100 250 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 250 300 300 300 300 X 150 250 150 300 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 220 80 300 8C 149 149 149 149 149 66 149 149 149 71 149 149 32 38 121 149 149 149 149 149 66 66 66 121 149 149 149 149 X 66 121 66 149 121 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 104 27 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Bromine. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC . 10% Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. sat.48 TABLE 2.

30% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. conc. 5% Cupric chloride. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. wet Chlorine. 8F 300 80 150 300 300 300 250 250 150 250 250 150 250 80 250 250 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 X 80 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 240 240 300 250 150 150 8C 149 27 66 149 149 149 121 121 66 121 121 66 121 27 121 121 149 149 66 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 X 27 149 149 149 149 149 149 121 116 116 149 121 66 66 (continued) 49 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Lactic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellsolve Chloroacetic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 50% Citric acid. dry Chlorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10% Chromic acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. Hydrobromic acid. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. LLC . 15% Citric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid.13 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon dioxide. dil. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.

LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide.. Corrosion Resistance Tables. anhydrous Nitrous acid. conc. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 70% Nitric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 98% Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 100% Sulfuric acid. conc. 90% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Schweitzer. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 300 250 300 150 150 300 300 250 150 150 250 X 150 150 150 250 80 300 250 300 300 300 250 150 300 300 300 300 300 250 250 250 150 150 80 300 250 150 150 150 250 300 8C 149 121 149 66 68 149 149 121 66 66 121 X 66 66 66 121 27 149 121 149 149 149 121 66 149 149 149 149 149 121 121 121 66 66 27 149 121 66 66 66 121 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Oleum Perchloric acid.50 TABLE 2. 5% Nitric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.A. 10% Perchloric acid. Source: From P. Sodium sulfide. Vols. 5th ed. A blank space indicate that data is unavailable. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 70% Sulfuric acid. 1–4. conc. 50% Sulfuric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 2004. 50% Sodium hydroxide.

piping. chlorocarbons.6 Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) ETFE is an alternating copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene by duPont under the tradename of Tefzel and has the following structural formula: H H H H C C C C H H F F ETFE is a high-temperature fluoropolymer with a maximum service temperature of 3008F (1498C). ketones. organic bases such as amines. It can be reinforced with carbon or glass fibers. but it mainly consists of linear chains having the following formula: F F F F F F F F F C F F F C C C C C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. esters. strength. being the first fluoroplastic that can be reinforced. stiffness.7 Fluorinated Ethylene–Propylene (FEP) Fluorinated ethylene-propylene is a fully fluorinated thermoplastic with some branching. creep resistance.Thermoplastic Polymers 51 2. and dimensional stability are enhanced. LLC . aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. and classic polymer solvents have little effect on ETFE. halogens. wire insulation. Because the resin will bond to the fibers. inorganic bases. not merely filled. ETFE is inert to strong mineral acids. and sulfuric acid at high concentrations and near their boiling points will affect ETFE to various degrees. and metal salt solutions. aldehydes. Carboxylic acids. Tefzel is also weather resistant and ultraviolet ray resistant.14 for the compatibility of ETFE with selected corrodents. ETFE finds applications in process equipment. chemical ware. Reference [1] provides a more extensive listing. Refer to Table 2. tubing. 2. and pump components. heat distortion temperature. Very strong oxidizing acids such as nitric. Tefzel is a rugged thermoplastic with an outstanding balance of properties. alcohols.

aqueous Aluminum chloride. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat.14 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of ETFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.52 TABLE 2. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 200 250 250 250 230 230 300 150 150 150 280 210 190 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 300 300 300 230 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 230 210 210 300 300 300 300 300 8C 93 121 121 121 110 110 149 66 66 66 138 99 88 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 149 149 149 110 149 149 149 149 121 149 149 110 99 99 149 149 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium fluoride. sat. LLC . 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride.

sat. 10% Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Bromine water. dry Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorine. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Chlorine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC . 50% Chlorine gas. water Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 15% Copper chloride 8F 210 210 210 270 300 300 300 300 150 230 250 230 300 120 150 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 260 300 210 150 300 300 150 300 270 300 300 230 230 210 250 100 210 230 80 150 150 210 120 300 8C 99 99 99 132 149 149 149 149 66 110 121 110 149 49 66 121 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 127 149 99 66 149 149 66 149 132 149 149 110 110 99 121 38 99 110 27 66 66 99 49 149 (continued) 53 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Chromic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid.

LLC . 25% Lactic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 10% Perchloric acid. 30% Salicylic acid 8F 300 300 270 300 300 250 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 100 100 300 300 300 300 300 300 270 250 230 300 250 250 300 270 120 300 230 300 300 150 150 80 X 210 150 230 150 210 270 130 300 250 8C 149 149 132 149 149 121 66 66 149 149 149 149 149 38 38 149 149 149 149 149 149 132 121 110 149 121 121 149 132 49 149 110 149 149 66 66 27 X 99 66 110 66 99 132 54 149 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.14 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Nitrous acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Nitric acid. Hydrobromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.54 TABLE 2. 100% Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid. dil.

Source: From P. Incompatibility is shown by an X.15 for the compatibility of FEP with selected corrodents. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. After prolonged exposure at 4008F (2048C). 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. 5th ed. and other process equipment. 1–4. Sodium sulfide. 100% Sulfurous acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 300 300 230 230 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 120 210 210 250 210 300 8C 149 149 110 110 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 49 99 99 121 99 149 55 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. FEP basically exhibits the same corrosion resistance as PTFE with few exceptions but at lower operating temperatures. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. 98% Sulfuric acid. Some chemicals will attack FEP when present in high concentrations at or near the service temperature limit. 2004. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Refer to Table 2. FEP has a maximum operating temperature of 3758F (1908C). conc.. 70% Sulfuric acid. it exhibits changes in physical strength. and it has excellent weathering resistance. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which date is available. 10% Sulfuric acid. FEP finds extensive use as a lining material for process vessels and piping. New York: Marcel Dekker. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. the polymer is filled with glass fibers. FEP is not degraded by UV light.A. laboratory ware. It is resistant to practically all chemicals except for extremely potent oxidizers such as chlorine trifluoride and related compounds. To improve some physical and mechanical properties. LLC . Vols. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.

sat. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid.15 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of FEP with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. sat. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetonea Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. LLC . 10% Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Acetic acid.56 TABLE 2. Ammonium fluoride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Anilinea Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 300 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 250 400 400 8C 93 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 93 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 149 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 121 204 204 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25%b Ammonium hydroxide. dry Aluminum fluorideb Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gasb Ammonium bifluoridea Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10%b Ammonium fluoride. 80% Acetic acid.

wetb Chlorine.b.b Butadienea Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylaminea Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.b Benzenesulfonic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine gas. dryb Bromine gas.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehydea Benzenea. LLC . liquida Chlorobenzeneb Chloroformb Chlorosulfonic acida 8F 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 200 200 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 X 400 400 400 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 93 93 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 X 204 204 204 204 204 (continued) 57 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfideb Carbon dioxide.c Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry Carbon dioxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. moistb Bromine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloridea. liquida.

20%b. 38%b. LLC . 5%b 8F 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 260 260 400 400 200 X 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 300 400 400 400 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 127 127 204 204 93 X 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 149 204 204 204 204 204 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid.c Hydrochloric acid. conc. 25% Lactic acid. 100%b Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 50% in watera Ferric nitrate. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Chromic acid. dil. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chlorideb Methyl ethyl ketoneb Methyl isobutyl ketoneb Muriatic acidb Nitric acid. dry Fluorine gas. conc. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10%b Ketones.c Hydrocyanic acid. 15% Citric acid. 20%b. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichlorideb) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride.58 TABLE 2. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50%b.c Hydrobromic acid. 70%b Hydrofluoric acid. 50%a Chromyl chloride Citric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 30%b Hydrofluoric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid.c Hydrochloric acid. general Lactic acid.

A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. conc. 90% Sulfuric acid. 20%b Nitric acid. 5th ed. Vols. Material can cause stress cracking.. conc. Oleum Perchloric acid. Material will permeate. 1–4. 10%a Sodium hydroxide. Corrosion Resistance Tables. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 70%b Nitric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. conc. 100% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 2004. anhydrousb Nitrous acid. fumingb Sulfurous acid Thionyl chlorideb Tolueneb Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloridec 8F 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 59 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 10% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which date is available. New York: Marcel Dekker. Sodium sulfide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Perchloric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. Schweitzer. 70% Phenolb Phosphoric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. a b c Material will be absorbed. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Source: From P. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.A.

6/10. properties and best dimensional stability. For example. and 6/10 are the most flexible. and 12. nylon 6/6 is the reaction product of hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid. Their structural formulas are as follows: O N H Nylon 6 O N H (CH2)6 N H Nylon 6/6 O N H (CH2)6 N H Nylon 6/10 O N H Nylon 11 O N H Nylon 12 (CH2)11 C (CH2)10 C C (CH2)8 O C C (CH2)4 O C (CH2)5 C n n n n n Grades 6 and 6/6 are the strongest structurally. grades 6/10 and 11 have the lowest moisture absorption. Nylon 12 has the same advantages as grades 6/10 and 11. Polyamide resins retain useful mechanical properties over a temperature range of K60 to C4008F (K51 to C2048C. 6/6. best electrical. Polyamide polymers are available in several grades and are identified by the number of carbon atoms in the diamine and dibasic acid used to produce the particular grade.) Both short-term and long-term q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . but it is available at a lower cost because it is more easily and economically processed. 11. both of which are compounds containing six carbon atoms. and grades 6. Some of the commonly commercially available nylons are 6. 6/6.60 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 2.8 Polyamides (PA) Polyamides are also known as nylons.

and ozone. there is the possibility of gradual oxidative embrittlement. There is also the possibility of stress relief and its effect on dimensions. 10% Ammonium chloride.16 for the compatibility of PA with selected corrodents. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Aluminum gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. even at elevated temperatures and to sodium and potassium hydroxides at ambient temperatures. 50% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid.16 Compatibility of Polyamides with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. They also display good resistance to almost all inorganic salts and to almost all hydrocarbons and petroleum-based fuels. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. weathering. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Allyl alcohol Alum Aluminum chloride. They have good resistance to most inorganic alkalies. A more detailed listing will be found in Reference [1]. Such applications should make use of a heat-stabilized grade of resin. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Polyamides are also resistant to UV degradation. 10% Ammonium fluoride. In long term exposure at high temperatures. LLC . 50% Ammonium fluoride. TABLE 2. Refer to Table 2.Thermoplastic Polymers 61 temperature effects must be considered. Such properties as stiffness and toughness are affected by short-term exposure to elevated temperatures. The polyamides exhibit excellent resistance to a broad range of chemicals and harsh environments. particularly ammonium hydroxide and ammonia. 25% 8F X 250 200 X X X 200 80 X 80 80 X X X 80 250 80 140 200 240 200 200 80 80 250 8C X 121 93 X X X 93 27 X 27 27 X X X 27 121 27 60 93 160 93 93 27 27 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. dry Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. sat.62 TABLE 2. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. moist Bromine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid 8F 250 190 X 80 80 150 200 X X X X 80 250 80 80 80 150 250 X 80 200 250 200 X X X X 80 250 200 200 X 140 200 250 150 150 X X 80 80 230 80 80 80 80 250 100 8C 121 88 X 27 27 66 93 X X X X 27 121 27 27 27 66 121 X 27 93 121 93 X X X X 27 121 93 93 X 60 93 121 66 66 X X 27 27 110 27 27 27 27 121 38 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.

LLC . 25% Lactic acid. 50% Malic acid Manganese chloride. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Chromic acid. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 37% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone 8F 250 X X X X X 250 130 X X X 200 X 200 80 X 80 140 100 X X 250 280 80 80 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 200 200 240 X X 80 240 110 8C 121 X X X X X 121 54 X X X 93 X 93 27 X 27 60 38 X X 121 121 27 27 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 93 93 116 X X 27 116 42 (continued) 63 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50% Citric acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Chloroacetic acid Citric acid. dry Fluorine gas. dil. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 100% Lactic acid. conc. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. conc. Magnesium chloride. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride 50% in water Ferric nitrate. dry Chlorine gas. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. wet Chlorine.

50% Sulfuric acid. wire insulation. and shrouds.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Muriatic acid Nitric acid. In the automotive industry. 2004. pipe fittings. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 5% Nitric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. to 30% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. and hose fittings. Schweitzer. conc. PAs are used to produce gears. Source: From P. New York: Marcel Dekker. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 90% Sulfuric acid. the blend is used to produce interior functional components. Incompatibility is shown by an X. housings.64 TABLE 2. 5th ed. 70% Sulfuric acid. PA/ABS blends are used for appliances. conc. fasteners. 20% Nitric acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. and sporting goods. lawn and garden equipment. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. A blank space indicate that data is unavailable. Sodium sulfide.A. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid.. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 1–4. power tools. LLC . fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X X X X X X X X 210 80 240 230 250 250 X X 230 80 X X X X X X X X 90 200 X 80 X 8C X X X X X X X X X X 99 27 116 110 121 121 X X 110 27 X X X X X X X X 32 93 X 27 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 10% Sulfuric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate. Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. cans. Vols. bearings.

9 Polyamide–Imide (PAI) Polyamide–imides are heterocyclic polymers having an atom of nitrogen in one of the rings of the molecular chain. A typical chemical structure is shown below: H R N C C C N n This series of thermoplasts can be used at high and low temperatures. 10% Ammonium chloride. Refer to Table 2. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.17 Compatibility of PAI with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 10% Benzaldehyde Benzene 8F 200 200 200 200 200 80 120 220 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 80 8C 93 93 93 93 93 27 49 104 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium sulfate. PAI is resistant to acetic acid and phosphoric acid up to 35% and sulfuric acid up to 30%. and as such. sat.17 for the compatibility of PAI with selected corrodents. 10% Amyl acetate Aniline Barium chloride. 50% Acetic acid. LLC . PAI is not resistant to sodium hydroxide. PAI finds applications in underhood applications and as bearings and pistons in compressors. 80% Acetic acid glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride. Ammonium nitrate. PAI has resistance to UV light degradation. The temperature range is K3108F to C5008F (K1908C to C2608C).Thermoplastic Polymers 65 2. TABLE 2. Reference 1 provides a more detailed listing. it finds applications in the extreme environments of space. dry Aluminum sulfate. 10% Acetic acid.

10% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite.. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Source: From P. 50% Sodium hydroxide conc. 2004. fuming Toluene 8F X 120 120 200 200 200 200 X 200 200 120 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 120 200 200 X X X 200 X X 200 120 200 93 49 93 93 93 93 49 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 49 93 93 49 49 93 93 93 93 8C The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 1–4. 10% Sodium chloride. 38% Lactic acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 10% Sodium hypochlorite conc.A. Vols. Schweitzer. LLC . Corrosion Resistance Tables. Sodium sulfide. 10% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Ethylene glycol Hydrochloric acid. 10% Benzyl chloride Bromine gas.10 Polybutylene (PB) Polybutylene is a semicrystalline polyolefin thermoplasitic based on poly-1butene and includes homopolymers and a series of copolymers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Sulfuric acid.66 TABLE 2. New York: Marcel Dekker. to 50% Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 5th ed.17 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Methyl ethyl ketone Oleum Sodium carbonate. Magnesium chloride. 25% Lactic acid conc. 2. Incompatibility is shown by an X. moist Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Cellosolve Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid.

PB is subject to degradation by UV light. It is resistant to acids.Thermoplastic Polymers 67 (butene/ethylene). chemical process equipment. Applications include piping. and fly ash bottom ash lines containing abrasive slurries.18 for the compatibility of polybutylene with selected corrodents. Chlorinated water will cause pitting attack. LLC . PB is also used for molded appliance parts. chemical resistance. Refer to Table 2.18 Compatibility of PB with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Allyl alcohol Aluminum chloride Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Butyl alcohol Calcium carbonate Calcium hydroxide Calcium sulfate Carbonic acid Chloracetic acid Chlorobenzene Citric acid Cyclohexane Detergents Lactic acid Malic acid Methyl alcohol Phenol R R X X X R X R R R R R X R R R R R R R R R R R X R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and abrasion resistance. TABLE 2. bases. Polybutylene is partially soluble in aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons above 1408F (608C) and is not completely resistant to aliphatic solvents at room temperature. It possesses a combination of stress cracking resistance. and detergents. soaps. This thermoplast has the following structural formula: H H H C C C H H H C H H Polybutylene has an upper temperature limit of 2008F (938C).

Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. PB is not resistant. R. 10% Sodium hydroxide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.68 TABLE 2. PC is not affected by UV light and has excellent weatherability. Table 2.18 Continued Picric acid Propyl alcohol Salicylic acid Soaps Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide. it is widely used for windows in chemical equipment and glazing in chemical plants. telephone equipment. Polycarbonates are among the most stable polymers in a wet environment. globes and housings. and lighting diffusers. Because of its extremely high impact resistance and good clarity.11 Polycarbonate (PC) This thermoplast is produced by General Electric under the tradename of Lexan. electrical wiring blocks. Polycarbonates are classified as engineering thermoplasts because of their high performance in engineering designs. and aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. It is resistant to most oils and greases. Polycarbonate will be attacked by strong alkalies and strong acids and is soluble in ketones. PB is resistant at 708F/238C. LLC . esters. The operating temperature range for polycarbonates is from K2008F to C250K2758F (K1298C to C120K1358C). 2. 50% Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Water (chlorine free) Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R X R R R R R R R R R Materials in the pure state or saturated solution unless otherwise specified. PC is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons and weak acids and has limited resistance to weak alkalies. The generalized formula is: CH3 O C CH3 O O C Immersion in water and exposure to high humidity at temperatures up to 2128F (1008C) have little effect on dimensions. network interfaces. It also finds wide use in outdoor energy management devices. X.19 lists the compatibility of PC with selected corrodents.

0–5% Ink Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Milk Nitric acid. 5% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 2% R R X X X X R X X X X R X X R X X X X R X R R X R R R R R R R X X X R R R X X R R R R R R R X X X R (continued) 69 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. LLC . 2% Hydrogen peroxide. 10% Benzene Butyl acetate Cadmium chloride Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Glycerine Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 30% Hydrogen peroxide.19 Compatibility of PC with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. 5% Acetic acid. 10% Potassium hydroxide. 50% Potassium dichromate Potassium permanganate. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate. 10% Acetone Ammonia. 10% Sodium chloride. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2% Paraffin oil Phosphoric acid.

Because PEEK is not hydrolyzed by water at elevated temperatures in a continuous cycle environment. painting or pigmenting of the polymer will protect it from excessive property degradation. material is not resistant. the material may be steam sterilized using conventional sterilization equipment. In more extreme weathering conditions. PEEK has an operating temperature range of K85 to C4808F (K65 to C2508C). Like most polyaromatics. It also exhibits excellent resistance to hard (gamma) radiation. It has excellent long-term resistance to water at both ambient and elevated temperatures.12 Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) PEEK is a linear polyaromatic thermoplast having the following chemical structure: O C O O n It is a proprietary product of ICI and is an engineering polymer suitable for applications that require mechanical strength with the need to resist difficult thermal and chemical environments. PEEK is subject to degradation by UV light during outdoor weathering. However. Refer to Table 2. absorbing over 1000 Mrads of radiation without suffering significant damage.70 TABLE 2. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. testing has shown that over a twelvemonth period for both natural and pigmented moldings. It also has excellent rain erosion resistance.19 Continued Toluene Vaseline Water. LLC . 2. molten Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers X R R X R X R. hot Wax. cold Water. material is resistant at 738F/208C. the effect is minimal.20 for the compatibility of PEEK with selected corrodents. PEEK is insoluble in all common solvents and has excellent resistance to a wide range of organic and inorganic solvents. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. X. PEEK is not chemically attacked by water.

Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Bromine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid.20 Compatibility of PEEK with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. Carbon dioxide. 70% 8F 80 80 140 140 140 210 80 80 80 210 80 200 X 80 80 170 80 X X 80 80 80 100 80 80 80 80 X 200 80 80 80 200 170 80 160 200 X X X X X 100 100 X X 8C 27 27 60 60 60 99 27 27 27 99 27 93 X 27 27 77 27 X X 27 27 27 38 27 27 27 27 X 93 27 27 27 93 77 27 71 93 X X X X X 38 38 X X (continued) 71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 50% Citric acid. Cyclohexane Ethylene glycol Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. dry Chlorine. dry Fluorine gas. 50% Acetic acid. dil. 20% Hydrobromic acid. LLC . conc. Hydrobromic acid. 10% Acetic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. sat. 20% Hydrochloric acid. dry Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chlorine gas. 50% Hydrochloric acid. glacial Acetone Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid. dry Bromine gas. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. sat. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.

100% Hydrogen sulfide. 25% Lactic acid. 5th ed. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide. Vols. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Sulfuric acid. 5% Nitric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.20 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrofluoric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X.72 TABLE 2. 50–80% Potassium bromide. wet Ketones. 100% Sulfuric acid. fuming Toluene Zinc chloride 8F X 200 80 80 100 100 80 370 200 200 200 80 X X X 140 200 140 210 220 180 200 80 80 80 200 X X X X X 80 100 8C X 93 27 27 38 38 27 188 93 93 93 27 X X X 60 93 60 99 104 82 93 27 27 27 93 X X X X X 27 38 The Chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Source: From P. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Schweitzer. general Lactic acid. 10% Oxalic acid. conc. 50% Sulfuric acid.. Phenol Phosphoric acid. Sulfuric acid. 1–4. Sodium hypochlorite. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. LLC . 2004. 98% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. sat. 20% Nitrous acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 5% Oxalic acid. 10% Oxalic acid.A. Magnesium hydroxide Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Naphtha Nitric acid. conc.

and alcohol. PEI is useful in applications where high heat and flame resistance low NBS smoke evolution. Long life 5. The molecular structure has rigidity. Outstanding mechanical properties PEEK has also found application in a number of aircraft exterior applications such as radomes and fairings as a result of its excellent erosion resistance. One such application is under the hood of automobiles for connecters and MAP sensors. The unfilled polymer complies with FDA regulations and can be used in food and medical applications. PEI is one of the strongest thermoplasts even without reinforcement. It is resistant to acetic and hydrochloric acids. Low friction 3. and impact resistance in fabricated parts over a wide range of temperatures. high tensile and flexural strength. 2. continuous service temperature of 5008F (2608C) 6. Good dimensional stability 4. A high.21 lists the compatibility of PEI with selected corrodents. LLC . weak nitric and sulfuric acids. PEI has a better chemical resistance than most noncrystalline polymers. High strength and load carrying capacity 2. Table 2. stable electrical properties. over a wide range of temperatures. and frequencies. and superior finishing characteristics are required.13 Polyether–Imide (PEI) PEI is a high-temperature engineering polymer with the structural formula shown below: O C N C O O CH3 C CH3 O O C N C O Polyether–imides are noncrystalline polymers made up of alternating aromatic ether and imide units. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing.Thermoplastic Polymers 73 PEEK is used in many bearing applications because of the following advantages: 1. strength. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. chemical resistance. Excellent wear abrasion and fatigue resistance 7.

10% Potassium permanganate. 50–80% Potassium hydroxide. 10% Acetone Ammonia. fuming Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. 10% Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. cold Water. material resistant at 738F/208C. 25% Ammonium Hydroxide. LLC . material not resistant. 80% Acetic acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.74 TABLE 2. 20% Nitric acid. Benzoic acid Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Citric acid. 2% Perchloroethylene Phosphoric acid. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Isopropanol Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl chloride Motor oil Nitric acid. sat. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. X. 10% Sodium hydroxide.21 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PEI with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. glacial Acetic acid. hot R R R R X R R R R X R R R R R R X R R R R R R R R R R R R X X R R R R R R R R R R R R R X R X R R R. 10% Sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid. Cyclohexane Diesel oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene glycol Formic acid. 2% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Citric acid. 30% Iodine solution. 50% Sulfuric acid. conc. 10% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 10% Sodium chloride.

in boiling water. these dimensional changes are of the order of magnitude of 0. it must be stabilized by incorporating carbon black or by painting.Thermoplastic Polymers 75 2.3%. and aromatics. Refer to Table 2. Polyether sulfone does not have good outdoor weathering properties.22 for the compatibility of PES with selected corrodents. but glassfiber reinforced grades are resistant to more dilute acids. Small dimensional changes may occur as a result of the polymer’s absorbing water from the atmosphere. LLC .15%. The water may be removed by heating at 300–3558F (149–1808C). At equilibrium water content for 65% relative humidity. Hydrocarbons and mineral oils. greases. whereas. Polyether sulfone has found application in Medical appliances Chemical plants Fluid handling Aircraft and aerospace appliances Instrumentation housings Office equipment Photocopier parts Electrical components Automotive (carbureter parts. they are approximately 0. It is also resistant to most inorganic chemicals. Since it is susceptible to degradation by UV light. Polyether sulfone will be attacked by strong oxidizing acids. fuse boxes) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and transmission fluids have no effect on PES. This predrying will also prevent outgassing at elevated temperatures.14 Polyether Sulfone (PES) Polyether sulfone is a high-temperature engineering thermoplastic with the combined characteristics of high thermal stability and mechanical strength. if used outdoors. PES is soluble is highly polar solvents and is subject to stress cracking in ketones and esters. It is a linear polymer with the following structure: O S O O n PES also goes under the name Ultem. some chlorinated hydrocarbons. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. PES has excellent resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons.

38% Hydrogen sulfide. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Chromic acid. fuming Toluene 8F 80 140 200 200 X 80 X 80 100 80 80 X X X X 80 100 100 140 140 80 X 80 80 X 80 80 80 X 200 140 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 X X X X X X 80 8C 27 60 93 93 X 27 X 27 38 27 27 X X X X 27 38 38 60 60 27 X 27 27 X 27 27 27 X 93 60 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 X X X X X X 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 1–4. 70% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Potassium bromide. LLC . 5th ed. glacial Acetone Ammonia. New York: Marcel Dekker. 90% Sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid. Source: From P. 2004. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.A. gas Aniline Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. Ethylene glycol Ferrous chloride Hydrochloric acid. 50% Citric acid. Vols. 20% Oxalic acid. sat. 10% Acetic acid. 20% Sodium hydroxide. 5% Oxalic acid. Phenol Phosphoric acid. wet Methyl ethyl ketone Naphtha Nitric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. conc. 80% Acetic acid. 29% Oxalic acid.22 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PES with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. conc.76 TABLE 2. Incompatibility is shown by an X.. 50% Acetic acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Benzoic acid Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid.

7–0. Like PTFE.3–0. b Not boiling. Zinc chloride a Temperature (8F/8C) 365/185 394/201 354/179 400/204 172/78 172/78 372/190 117/47 210/99 410/210 250/121 154/68 230/110 392/200 K5/K22 248/120 302/150 248/120 212/100 248/120 212/100 212/100 Range of Weight Gains (%) 0.00–0.3–2.23 for the absorption of certain liquids by PFA.7–0. conc.03 Samples were exposed for 168 hours at the boiling point of the solvent.23 Absorption of Liquids by PFA Liquida Aniline Acetophenone Benzaldehyde Benzyl alcohol n-Butylamine Carbon tetrachloride Dimethyl sulfoxide Freon 113 Isooctane Nitrobenzene Perchloroethylene Sulfuryl chloride Toluene Tributyl phosphateb Bromine. 50% Ferric chloride Hydrochloric acid.8 0.8 0.8 1.2 0.3–0. 37% Phosphoric acid. Perfluoralkoxy also performs well at cryogenic temperatures.0 0.7–0.7 0. Refer to Table 2.5 0.4 2.1–0.7–0.01 0. LLC .9 2.4 0. Exposure of the acidic reagent was for 168 h.2 1.4–0.01 0.Thermoplastic Polymers 77 2.00–0.4 0.5 0.00–0.0–2.6 0.03 0.3 1.8–2.01 0.15 Perfluoralkoxy (PFA) Perfluoralkoxy is a fully fluorinated polymer having the following formula: F C F F C F F C O Rf F C F F C F Rf = CnF2n + 1 PFA lacks the physical strength of PTFE at elevated temperatures but has somewhat better physical and mechanical properties than FEP above 3008F (1498C) and can be used up to 5008F (2608C).00–0. PFA is subject to permeation by certain gases and will absorb selected chemicals.00–0. anhydrous Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.6–0. TABLE 2. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.7–2.5–0.4 0.3–0. anhydrous Chlorine.8 0.

organic bases. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. chlorocarbons. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. Refer to Table 2. sat. aldehydes. 10%a Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gasa Ammonium bifluoridea Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. particularly in their molten states. 10% Acetic acid. inorganic oxidizers. Reference [1] provides a more detained listing.24 Compatibility of PFA with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Perfluoralkoxy will be attacked by certain halogenated complexes containing fluorine. 50% Acetic acid. some aliphatic hydrocarbons. fluorocarbons. This includes chlorine trifluoride. ketones. ethers. sat. 80% Acetic acid. esters. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride.24 for the compatibility of PFA with selected corrodents. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. and fluorine. PFA has excellent weatherability and is not subject to UV degradation. 25%a Ammonium hydroxide. bromine trifluoride. and mixtures of these. alcohols. iodine pentafluoride. LLC . aromatics. It is also subject to attack by such metals as sodium or potassium.78 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers PFA is inert to strong mineral acids. TABLE 2.

10% Chromic acid. LLC . 50%b 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X 450 X 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X 232 X 232 232 232 232 232 79 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon disulfidea Carbon monoxide Carbon tertrachloridea. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.b. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcoholb Benzyl chloridea Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.b Butadienea Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamineb Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. liquida. drya Bromine. weta Chlorine. dry Chlorine gas.c Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid. liquidb Chlorobenzenea Chloroforma Chlorosulfonic acidb Chromic acid. sat.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl chloride Anilineb Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehydeb Benzenea Benzene sulfonic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfidea Carbon dioxide.

5% Cupric chloride. conc. 5%a Nitric acid.c Hydrobromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.80 TABLE 2.c Hydrochloric acid. 10%a Ketones. 70%a Nitric acid.c Hydrobromic acid.24 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 30%a Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Florine gas. LLC . Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloridea Methyl ethyl ketonea Methyl isobutyl ketonea Muriatic acida Nitric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene di chloride)a Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. conc. 15% Citric acid. anhydrousa Nitrous acid. 20%a Nitric acid. oila. 20%a. dry Fluorine gas.c Hydrocyanic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Oleum Perchloric acid. 70% 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X X 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X X 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 38%a. 20%a. Copper carbonate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 70%a Hydrofluoric acid. general Lactic acid. 50%a.c Hydrochloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50% in waterb Ferric nitrate. 100%a Hydrochlorus acid Iodine solution.

1–4. 90% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Applications includes lining for pipes and vessels. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Reference [2] details the use of PFA in lined process pipe and information on lining of vessels can be found in References [3. LLC . Material will be absorbed. Source: From P.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.A.4]. 2. 50–80%b Picric acid Potassium bromide. 2004. conc. Sodium hypochlorite. fuminga Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloridea Toluenea Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chlorideb a 81 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 5th ed. New York: Marcel Dekker. conc. a b c Material will permeate. 50% Sodium hydroxide.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Phenol Phosphoric acid. Schweitzer. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 70% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Sulfuric acid.16 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) PTFE is marketed under the tradename of Teflon by DuPont and the tradename Halon by Ausimont USA. 50% Sulfuric acid. It is a fully fluorinated thermoplastic q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sodium sulfide. PFA finds many applications in the chemical process industry for corrosion resistance. 98% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Material will cause stress cracking.. Vols. Corrosion Resistance Tables.

25 for the compatibility of PTFE with selected corrodents. Applications in the automotive industry take advantage of the low surface friction and chemical stability using it in seals and rings for transmission and power steering systems and in seals for shafts. Reference [2] will provide details of the usage of PTFE in piping applications. including linings for tanks and piping. and certain amines at high temperatures have the same effect as elemental sodium. Among materials that will attack PTFE are the most violent oxidizing and reducing agents known. ammonia. high molecular weight polymer containing 50% fluorine. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. There are very few chemicals that will attack PTFE at normal use temperatures. etc. aluminum chloride. It is similar in chemical structure to PTFE except q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. This temperature range is based on the physical and mechanical properties of PTFE. lithium.) act in a similar manner. When handling aggressive chemicals.. One of PTFE’s largest uses is for corrosion protection. PTFE has excellent weathering properties and is not degraded by UV light. LLC . Applications for PTFE extend from exotic space-age usages to molded parts and wire and cable insulation to consumer use as a coating for cookware. Slow oxidation attack can be produced by 70% nitric acid under pressure at 4808F (2508C). 2.82 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers having the following formula: F F C C F F PTFE has an operating temperature range of from K208F to C4308C (K298C to C2128C). it may be necessary to reduce the upper temperature limit. chlorine trifluoride) are absorbed into PTFE resin to such a degree that the mixture becomes sensitive to a source of ignition such as impact. It is virtually inert in the presence of most materials. Refer to Table 2. Elemental sodium removes fluorine from the molecule.g. These potent oxidizers should be only handled with great care and a recognition of the potential hazards. The other alkali metals (potassium. PTFE is unique in its corrosion resistance properties. compressors and shock absorbers. The handling of 80% sodium hydroxide.17 Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polyvinylidene fluoride is a crystalline. Fluorine and related compounds (e.

aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gasa Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. sat.25 Compatibility of PTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) 83 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride.

drya Bromine. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachlorideb Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid. 15% Citric acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Copper carbonate 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X 450 X 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X 232 X 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. liquid Chlorobenzenea Chloroforma Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. weta Chlorine. liquida Butadienea Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfidea Carbon dioxide.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzenea Benzene sulfonic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. conc.84 TABLE 2.

30%a Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Oleum Perchloric acid. 70% 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 X X 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 X X 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 (continued) 85 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. anhydrousa Nitrous acid. 70%a Nitric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride)a Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride.a. 70%a Hydrofluoric acid. 20%b Hydrobromic acid. 5%a Nitric acid.b Hydrobromic acid. general Lactic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. conc. 10% Perchloric acid. 20%a Nitric acid.25 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper chloride Copper cyanide. 25% Lactic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. dil. 100%a Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 38%b Hydrocyanic acid. 10%a Ketones. 50%b Hydrochloric acid. dry Fluorine gas. 20%b Hydrochloric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloridea Methyl ethyl ketonea Methyl isobutyl ketoneb Muriatic acida Nitric acid. LLC .

70% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 2004.86 TABLE 2. 98% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 5th ed. a b c Material will permeate. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Schweitzer.. The chemical structure is as follows: F F C C H H Much of the strength and chemical resistance of PVDF is maintained through an operating temperature range of K40 to C3208F (K40 to C1608C). fuminga Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluenea Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloridec 8F 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 8C 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 232 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Vols. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sulfuric acid. conc. conc. Source: From P. 1–4. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Material will be absorbed. New York: Marcel Dekker. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Material will cause stress cracking.A.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Phenola Phosphoric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide. Sodium hypochlorite. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. that it is not fully fluorinated. LLC . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 100% Sulfuric acid.

bases. 50% Acetic acid.26 for the compatibility of PVDF with selected corrodents.26 Compatibility of PVDF with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. aqueous Aluminum chloride. and other halogens.Thermoplastic Polymers 87 Approval has been granted by the Food and Drug Administration for repeated use in contact with food in food handling and processing equipment. sat. It is also resistant to wet or dry chlorine. and esters. 50% Ammonium chloride. PVDF is chemically resistant to most acids. Refer to Table 2. 10% Acetic acid. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. it stress cracks. 80% Acetic acid. It should not be used with strong alkalies. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. and organic solvents. TABLE 2. polar solvents. When used with strong alkalies. Ammonium nitrate 8F 150 90 300 300 190 190 100 X 120 150 130 280 200 200 180 250 300 270 300 260 300 290 300 270 250 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 8C 66 32 149 149 88 88 38 X 49 66 54 138 93 93 82 121 149 132 149 127 149 143 149 132 121 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . bromine. amines. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. ketones. fuming acids. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.

LLC . dry Carbon dioxide. moist Bromine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Bromine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide.88 TABLE 2. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene sulfonic acid. wet Carbon disulfide 8F 280 280 280 280 280 190 280 280 200 150 130 280 280 280 280 280 120 150 100 250 280 280 280 280 210 210 140 280 140 280 X 230 280 280 280 280 280 270 280 280 280 250 280 220 80 280 280 80 8C 138 138 138 138 138 88 138 138 93 66 54 138 138 138 138 138 49 66 38 121 138 138 138 138 99 99 60 138 60 138 X 110 138 138 138 138 138 132 138 138 138 121 138 104 27 138 138 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.26 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. sat.

dil. dry Fluorine gas. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% in water Ferrous nitrate. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 70% 8F 280 280 280 280 210 200 210 210 210 220 250 110 220 250 110 250 250 250 250 280 280 280 210 270 270 250 210 80 120 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 80 80 260 280 280 280 280 280 260 200 8C 138 138 138 138 99 93 99 99 99 104 121 43 104 121 43 121 121 121 121 138 138 138 99 132 132 121 99 27 49 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 27 27 127 138 138 138 138 138 127 93 (continued) 89 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 5% Cupric chloride. wet. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride. 10% Chlorine. 15% Citric acid conc. Hydrobromic acid. 10% Chromic acid.26 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chlorides. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid.

98% Sulfuric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Sulfuric acid. 25% Lactic acid.26 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrofluoric acid. Sodium sulfide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. anhydrous Nitric acid.90 TABLE 2. general Lactic acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. conc. 10% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 50% Sulfuric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid 8F 200 280 250 110 130 110 280 250 280 X X 110 280 200 180 120 150 210 X 210 120 200 220 80 280 220 250 280 280 230 220 150 280 280 280 280 280 250 220 220 210 140 X X 220 X X 130 8C 93 138 121 43 54 43 138 121 138 X X 43 138 93 82 49 6 99 X 99 49 93 104 27 138 104 121 138 138 110 104 66 138 138 138 138 138 121 104 104 99 60 X X 104 X X 54 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ketones. 70% Nitric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. conc. LLC . 5% Nitric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 20% Nitric acid. conc. 10% Sulfuric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.

Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. as solid piping. 0. Reference [2] provides details of the usage of PVDF piping. Polyethylene is produced in various grades that differ in molecular structure. Hylar by Ausimont USA. Polyvinylidene fluoride finds many applications in the corrosion resistance field. medium. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. A blank space indicates that the date is unavailable. LLC . Solef by Solvay. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.940–0. New York: Marcel Dekker. They are a member of the olefin family. Physical and mechanical properties differ in density and molecular weight. These grades are sometimes referred to as Type I.A. pumps. 2004. column packing. and super Pro 230 and ISO by Asahi/America. Vols.26 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 80 260 8C 27 127 91 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. The three main classifications of density are low. These specific gravity ranges are 0. Incompatibility is shown by an X. valving. The basic chemical structure is: H H C C H H PE is produced by polymerizing ethylene gas obtained from petroleum hydrocarbons.925. II. 2. Polyvinylidene fluoride is manufactured under the tradename of Kynar by Elf Atochem. and other processing equipment. and III. being used as a lining material for vessels and piping. Changes in the polymerizing conditions are responsible for the various types of PE. 1–4. 5th ed. crystallinity. and molecular distribution. Schweitzer. Source: From P.965.91–0. and high. and 0. PVDF also withstands UV light in the “visible” range and gamma radiations up to 100 Mrad. molecular weight. Corrosion Resistance Tables.925–0.18 Polyethylene (PE) Polyethylenes are probably among the best-known thermoplasts..940.

molecules of high and low molecular weight. It is not resistant to bromine. The thermal stability of polyethylenes ranges from 1908F (888C) for the lowdensity material up to 2508F/1218C for the high-density material.92 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers All polyethylenes are relatively soft. Generally. medium. aromatics.000 to 1.1 depicts this in graph form. Refer to Table 2. The molecular weight distribution gives a general picture of the ratio of the large.000 and higher Usually. the better the dimensional stability and physical properties. and many organic acids. It is resistant to most mineral acids. The two varieties of PE generally used for corrosive applications are EHMW and UHMW. particularly as a function of temperature. ranging from potable water to corrosive wastes. the ultrahigh molecular weight material has a molecular weight of at least 3. Polyethylene exhibits a wide range of corrosion resistance. the distribution is called broad.500. alkalies.500.1 Schematic illustration of molecular weight distribution. inorganic salts including chlorides. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Figure 2. and hardness increases as density increases.27 for Percent of earh molecular weight Narrow MW distribution Broad MW distribution Molecular weight FIGURE 2. If the resin contains a wide variety of weights. If the resin contains molecules close to the average weight.000 to 250. Industry practice breaks the molecular weight of polyethylene into four distinct classifications that are: Medium molecular weight less than 100. Every polyethylene resin consists of a mixture of large and small molecules. LLC .000 High molecular weight 110. the distribution is called narrow.000 Extra high molecular weight 250.000 Ultra high molecular weight 1. or chlorinated hydrocarbons. and small molecules in the resin. including sulfuric up to 70% concentrations.1 million. the higher the density.

50% Acetic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.27 Compatibility of EHMWPE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde. sat. 10% Acetic acid. LLC . Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 40% Acetamide Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride 8F 90 140 140 80 X 120 8C 32 60 60 27 X 49 93 150 140 140 80 140 140 140 140 140 66 60 60 27 60 60 60 60 60 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 140 140 140 140 X 130 140 130 140 140 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 60 60 60 60 X 54 60 54 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. Ammonium fluoride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminium sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.

dry Carbon dioxide. 50% in water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid 8F 140 140 140 X X 140 140 170 140 140 X X X X 90 140 X 130 140 80 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 8C 60 60 60 X X 60 60 77 60 60 X X X X 32 60 X 54 60 27 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X 60 60 X 60 X 60 X X 80 120 X X 80 X X X 27 49 X X 27 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Chlorine gas. sat.27 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. wet.94 TABLE 2. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine. 10% Chlorine. LLC . dry Bromine gas.

50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 20% Hydrobromic acid. general Lactic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid 8F 140 90 140 140 8C 60 32 60 60 95 140 140 140 80 80 130 170 80 73 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 X X 80 X 140 140 140 100 80 X X 80 140 60 60 60 27 27 54 77 27 23 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 X X 27 X 60 60 60 38 27 X X 27 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 25% Lactic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 10% Ketones. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 15% Citric acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dil. conc.27 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. dry Fluorine gas. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride.

10% Perchloric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.96 TABLE 2. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 140 140 X X 8C 60 60 X X 140 X 100 100 100 140 60 X 38 38 38 60 140 140 170 170 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 X X X X 140 X X 140 140 60 60 77 77 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 X X X X 60 X X 60 60 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. New York: Marcel Dekker. Source: From P. Sodium hypochlorite. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 5th ed. 50% Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Sodium Sulfide. 98% Sulfuric acid. 1–4. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. 5% Nitric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 2004.27 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. conc.. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. LLC . 70% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. anhydrous Nitrous acid. conc. Vols. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 100% Sulfuric acid.A. Oleum Perchloric acid.

10% Ammonium fluoride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 80% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. Ammonium fluoride. sat. LLC 8C 60 60 60 27 27 66 60 60 43 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 66 27 60 60 60 60 60 . Polyethylene is subject to degradation by UV radiation. 10% Acetic acid. carbon black must be added to the formulation for protection against UV degradation. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing.Thermoplastic Polymers 97 the compatibility of EHMW PE with selected corrodents and Table 2. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. If exposed outdoors. 10% Ammonium chloride.28 Compatibility of HMWPE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid.28 for HMW PE. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate to 40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride 8F X 140 140 140 80 X 80 X 150 140 140 110 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 150 80 140 140 140 140 140 X 130 140 44 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. TABLE 2. aqueous Aluminum chloride. sat.

98 TABLE 2.28 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine gas. sat. moist Bromine. wet Chlorine. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% 8F 130 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 X 140 140 X X X X 90 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 X X X X X X X X 140 90 60 32 (continued) 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 32 60 60 60 60 8C 44 60 60 60 60 60 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 10% Chromic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. LLC .

dil. dry Fluorine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexonol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 20% Nitric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. LLC 99 8C 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 27 27 27 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 66 27 27 66 60 60 27 27 60 60 49 60 . 20% Hydrobromic acid. 70% Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. general Lactic acid. Hydrobromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate 8F 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 80 80 80 80 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 150 80 80 150 140 140 80 X X 80 140 140 X X 120 140 X 100 100 100 140 140 140 38 38 38 60 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 10% Ketones. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Perchloric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 5% Cupric chloride. conc. conc. 15% Citric acid. Perchloric acid. Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 70% Hydrochlorous acid Iodine solution.28 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Citric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.

10% Sulfuric acid. drainage piping. 98% Sulfuric acid. fabricated parts. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Source: From P. and underground fire main water. With permission. 2004. LLC . PE pipe is used to transport natural gas. New York: Marcel Dekker. 100% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. Applications for polyethylene vary depending upon the grade of resin. and piping. 5th ed. EHMW and UHMW polyethylenes find applications where corrosion resistance is required.28 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 70% Sulfuric acid. Vols. Among such applications are structural tanks and covers. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.A. 2. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 10% Sodium hydroxide.19 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Polyethylene terephthalate is a semicrystalline engineering thermoplastic having the following structure: H O C H H C H O O C O C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The usage for piping is of major importance. potable water systems. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 140 150 150 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 80 X X X X 140 X X 80 140 27 60 60 8C 60 66 66 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.100 TABLE 2. Sodium sulfide. Schweitzer. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. corrosive wastes.. 1–4. Reference [2] details usage of polyethylene piping.

LLC . PET has good resistance to UV degradation and weatherability. TABLE 2. 10% Benzene Butyl acetate Cadmium chloride Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. food handling equipment. It can be painted to match metal body panels and has been used as fenders. PET is also used in water purification. aliphatic hydrocarbons. PET is used in the automotive industry for housings. 10% Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerine Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid.29 for the compatibility of PET with selected corrodents. and latch mechanisms.29 Compatibility of PET with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. minor parts. and esters with limited resistance to hot water and washing soda.Thermoplastic Polymers 101 PET is resistant to dilute mineral acids. 5% Acetic acid. and pump and valve components. 10% Acetone Ammonia. Refer to Table 2. 2% Hydrogen peroxide. 30% Hydrogen peroxide. 0–5% Ink Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Motor oil Nitric acid. aromatic hydrocarbons. ketones. racks. It is not resistant to alkaline and chlorinated hydrocarbons. 2% Paraffin oil R R R X R R R R R X X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Potassium permanganate. Polyimides find applications that require high heat resistance and underthe-hood applications in the automotive industry.20 Polyimide (PI) Polyimides are heterocyclic polymers having an atom of hydrogen in one of the rings in the molecular chain. 10% Sodium chloride. material resistant at 738F/208C. 2. resulting from their combination of high-temperature stability up to 500–6008F (260–3158C) continuous service and to 9908F (4828C) for intermediate use. Other applications include bearings. The polyimides have excellent chemical and radiation inertness and are not subject to UV degradation.102 TABLE 2.29 Continued Phosphoric acid. cold Water. 2% Toluene Vaseline Water. valves. 10% Potassium hydroxide. 50% Potassium dichromate. molten Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R X R R R R R R R X R R X R R R R R R R R. 10% Sodium hydroxide. and piston rings. High oxidative resistance is another important property. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate. 50% Sodium nitrate Sodium thiosulfate Sulfuric acid. The low concentration of hydrogen provides oxidative resistance by preventing thermal degradation fracture of the chain. X. compressors. 98% Sulfuric acid. hot Wax. Polyimides exhibit outstanding properties. The atom of hydrogen is in the inside ring as shown below: O C N C O n The fused rings provide chain stiffness essential to high-temperature strength retention. material not resistant. LLC .

LLC . 5% Acetic acid. electronics. 10% Copper sulfate Cyclohexane Cyclohexanone Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. Plastics. Polyphenylene oxide has excellent resistance to aqueous environments. and electrical devices. patented by G. The basic phenylene oxide structure is as follows: CH3 O CH3 n Several grades of the resin are produced to provide a choice of performance characteristics to meet a wide range of engineering application requirements. It is not resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. or chlorinated hydrocarbons. 10% Acetone Ammonia. TABLE 2. are amorphous modified polyphenylene oxide resins.30 Compatibility of PPO with Selected Corrodents Acetic acid. dilute mineral acids. ketones. appliances.21 Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO) Noryls. esters. aromatic hydrocarbons. PPO maintains excellent mechanical properties over a temperature range of from below K408F (K408C) to above 3008F (1498C). 30% R R X R X X X X R R X X R X R R R X R R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Reference [1] provides a more extensive listing. 10% Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers 103 2. PPO finds application in business equipment. and dilute alkalies. Refer to Table 2.30 for the compatibility of PPO with selected corrodents.E.

10% Sodium hydroxide. material not resistant. 0–5% Hydrogen sulfide Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Milk Motor oil Nitric acid.30 Continued Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerin Hexane/heptane Hydrochloric acid. 10% Potassium hydroxide. molten Xylene Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R R R R R R R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R R R R R R R R X R R X R R R R X R. 2. 10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium carbonate. 30% Hydrogen peroxide. aqueous Water. It has the following chemical structure: S n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Styrene Sulfuric acid. 2% Hydrogen peroxide. X. hot Wax. 2% Trichloroethylene Urea. 98% Sulfuric acid. 2% Paraffin oil Phosphoric acid.22 Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) Polyphenylene sulfide is an engineering polymer capable of use at elevated temperatures. 10% Sodium chloride. 38% Hydrochloric acid. cold Water. material resistant at 738F/208C.104 TABLE 2. 50% Potassium dichromate Potassium permanganate. 50% Sodium hydroxide. LLC .

It is resistant to aqueous inorganic salts and bases and many inorganic solvents. 50% Acetic acid.31 Compatibility of PPS with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. In the automotive industry. PPS has good resistance to UV light degradation that can be increased by formulating it with carbon black. 10% Ammonium chloride.Thermoplastic Polymers 105 PPS has a symmetrical. Relatively few materials react with PPS at high temperatures. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. It stress cracks in the presence of chlorinated solvents. 10% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. Chlorinated solvents. It can also be used under highly oxidizing conditions. Long-term exposure in air at 4508F (2308C) has no effect on the mechanical properties of PPS.31 for the compatibility of PPS with selected corrodents. Weak and strong alkalies have no effect. rigid backbone chain consisting of recurring parasubstituted benzene rings and sulfur atoms. The chemical process industry makes use of PPS in valve and pump components as well as other industrial applications. PPS has exceptional chemical resistance. PPS molded components are used in electrical fuel handling and emission control systems. It is sold under the tradename of Ryton. 25% Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. TABLE 2. dry Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. some halegenated gases. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acrylic acid. and alkyl amines will attack PPS. LLC . 50% 8F 230 250 250 250 250 190 280 260 100 130 300 300 210 300 270 250 250 460 250 460 300 300 8C 110 121 121 121 121 88 138 127 38 54 149 149 99 149 132 121 121 238 121 238 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 2.

dry Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.31 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. 65% Ammonium sulfate. Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. sat. sat. dry Chlorine gas. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. sat.106 TABLE 2. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Bromine gas. liquid Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate. wet Chlorine. moist Bromine. Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC . 10% 8F 300 250 250 250 300 300 300 210 200 300 200 200 200 220 200 250 300 250 230 200 300 210 210 X X X 100 250 200 200 240 200 300 300 300 300 200 200 200 120 220 190 X X 200 150 X 200 8C 149 121 121 121 149 149 149 99 93 149 93 93 93 104 93 121 149 121 110 93 149 99 99 X X X 38 121 93 93 116 93 149 149 149 149 93 93 93 49 104 88 X X 93 66 X 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

88% Phosphoric acid. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. LLC . 20% Hydrochloric acid. 15% Citric acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. dry Hydrobromic acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 10% 8F 200 250 250 300 220 210 250 200 300 190 250 210 300 210 210 210 210 210 X 200 200 200 230 210 250 200 250 250 300 200 250 210 150 100 80 300 220 200 300 300 210 210 200 250 230 210 250 8C 93 121 121 149 104 99 121 93 149 88 121 99 149 99 99 99 99 99 X 93 93 93 110 99 121 93 121 121 149 93 121 99 66 38 27 149 104 93 149 149 99 99 93 121 110 99 121 (continued) 107 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 5% Sodium hypochlorite. dil. 5% Nitric acid. Sodium sulfide. 50–80% Potassium bromide. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 25% Lactic acid. conc. 50% Citric acid. 30% Lactic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 20% Oleum Phenol. Magnesium chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.31 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid.

Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 10% Thionyl chloride Toluene Zinc chloride. Vols. Corrosion Resistance Tables. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Schweitzer. It is closely related to polyethylene.23 Polypropylene (PP) Polypropylene is one of the most common and versatile thermoplastics. 1–4.108 TABLE 2. This form is highly ordered having the structure shown below: H C H H C H H H C Atactic PP is a viscous liquid type PP having a propylene matrix. 70% 8F 250 250 220 80 200 X 300 250 8C 121 121 104 27 93 X 149 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. fuming Sulfurous acid. 2004. 2. LLC . The copolymer has a structure as follows: H C H H C H H C H C H H H C H n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The polyolefins are composed of only hydrogen and carbon. The isotactic form accounts for 97% of the polypropylene produced. both of which are members of a group known as polyolefins. a distinction is made between isotactic PP and atactic PP.31 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. Polypropylene can be produced either as a homopolymer or as a copolymer with polyethylene. 90% Sulfuric acid..A. Within the chemical structure of PP. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 5th ed. 50% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Source: From P.

detergents. alcohols. an ultraviolet absorber or screening agent should be in the formulation to protect it from degradation. the homopolymer is extremely brittle below 408F (48C). Copolymer PP is less brittle than the homopolymers and is able to withstand impact forces down to K208F (K298C). 80% Acetic acid. and some organic materials. particularly where copper is involved will pose a problem. For this reason. thermal. caustics. low-boiling hydrocarbons. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. thermal. Reference [1] provides a more detailed listing. acids. and other organic chemicals. If exposed to sunlight. being long chain high molecular weight molecules with a minimum of random orientations. TABLE 2. LLC . whereas. Refer to Table 2. PP should not be used with oxidizing acids. solvents.32 Compatibility of PP with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride 8F 120 110 220 200 200 190 100 220 X X 90 100 140 140 220 100 200 220 200 200 200 220 150 200 8C 49 43 104 93 93 88 38 104 X X 32 38 60 60 104 38 93 104 93 93 93 104 66 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. PP is not affected by most inorganic chemicals except the halogens and severe oxidizing conditions. Thermal oxidative degradation. 10% Acetic acid. have optimum chemical. 50% Acetic acid. It can be used with sulfur-bearing compounds. aromatics.32 for the compatibility of PP with select corrodents. and physical properties. and physical conditions.Thermoplastic Polymers 109 The homopolymers. homopolymer material is preferred for difficult chemical. aqueous Aluminum chloride.

10% Calcium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride.32 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 8F 220 180 180 200 210 200 200 200 200 220 200 200 220 220 X 200 X 180 180 X 200 220 200 200 200 80 140 180 190 140 80 210 220 X X X X X 200 90 180 180 210 210 210 220 220 200 220 8C 104 82 82 93 99 93 93 93 93 104 93 93 104 104 X 93 X 82 82 X 93 104 93 93 93 27 60 82 88 60 27 99 104 X X X X X 93 32 82 82 99 99 99 104 104 93 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. moist Bromine. 10% Ammonium fluoride.110 TABLE 2. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC .

50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. LLC 111 . moist Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 50% in water Ferrite nitrate. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 20% 8F 210 210 220 220 140 X 220 140 X 220 X 220 200 80 180 X X X X X X 140 150 140 220 220 80 200 200 200 200 X 140 140 X 150 180 100 80 210 210 210 210 210 210 X X 230 200 8C 99 99 104 104 60 X 104 60 X 104 X 104 93 27 82 X X X X X X 60 66 60 104 104 27 93 93 93 93 X 60 60 X 66 82 38 27 99 99 99 99 99 99 X X 110 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexonol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 15% Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dry Carbon dioxide. conc. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.32 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dil. dry Fluorine gas. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. dry Chlorine gas. Hydrobromic acid. wet Chlorine.

conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. conc. 20% Nitric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 98% 8F 190 220 200 150 180 200 200 140 X 110 150 150 210 130 120 X X 80 200 140 140 X X X X 140 X 180 210 140 210 130 170 220 200 220 220 140 120 110 190 150 200 200 200 180 180 120 8C 88 104 93 66 82 93 93 60 X 43 66 66 99 54 49 X X 27 93 60 60 X X X X 60 X 82 99 60 99 54 77 104 93 104 104 60 49 43 88 66 93 93 93 82 82 49 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid.32 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrobromic acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 10% Ketones. 70% Nitric acid. general Lactic acid.112 TABLE 2. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Perchloric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 5% Nitric acid. LLC . conc. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 25% Lactic acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Sodium Sulfide.

Consumer goods such as straws. LLC . bags. 1–4. Polypropylene also has many textile applications such as carpet face and backing yarn. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 180 100 X 150 220 200 8C X X 82 38 X 66 104 93 113 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Incompatibility is shown by an X. toys and recreational items also make use of polypropylene.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 2. In appliance areas. ropes. Vols.A. Piping and small tanks of polypropylene are widely used.32 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid.. it is useful in the construction of integral hinges. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Polypropylene is widely used in engineering fabrics such as bale wraps. it is used in washer agitators and dishwasher components. 100% Sulfuric acid. upholstery fabrics. PP also finds application in the automotive industry for interior trim and under-the-hood components. New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer. and 90% of all battery casings are made of PP. polypropylene can be used in duct systems in the chemical industry. With this additive. 2004. filter cloths. and strapping. and diaper cover stock. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Ignition resistant grades are available as a result of the addition of halogenated organic compounds. It is useful in outdoor clothing and sports clothes that are worn next to the body because its wicking qualities absorb body moisture and still leaves the wearer dry. 5th ed. Source: From P.24 Styrene–Acrylonitrile (SAN) SAN is a copolymer of styrene and acrylonitrile having the following chemical structure: H C H H C CH H C C H C CN q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Because PP exhibits good flex life.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and urine bottles. In applications such as plating solutions. and prepared coatings. Saran is resistant to oxidants. Refer to Table 2. Saran is also used to manufacture auto seat covers. It will be attacked by oxidizing agents and strong acids. appliances. bristles. Medical applications include tubing connectors and valves. hardness. dinnerware. mineral acids.25 Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC) Polyvinylidene chloride is manufactured under the tradename Saran by Dow Chemical. 2. having both chlorine atoms at the same end of the monomer instead of at the opposite ends as shown below: Cl H C C Cl H Saron has improved strength. The packaging industry makes use of SAN for cosmetic containers and displays.33 for the compatibility of PVDC with selected corrodents. food processing. pharmaceuticals. labware. Saran has found wide application in the plating industry and for handling deionized water. not to aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. and it will stress crack in the presence of certain organic compounds. chlorides and certain other chemicals. Industrial applications include fan blades and filter housings. Refer to Reference [2]. interior refrigerator components.114 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers SAN is resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. SAN will be degraded by UV light unless protective additives are incorporated into the formulation. SAN finds application as food and beverage containers. and solvents. and toys. It is a variant of PVC. LLC . and other applications where stream purity protection is critical. polyvinylidene chloride is superior to polypropylene and finds many applications in the handling of municipal water supplies and waste waters. The operating temperature range is from 0 to 1758F (K18 to 808C). and chemical resistance over that of PVC. housewares. It also finds application as a lined piping system. film. Saran is also resistant to weathering and UV degradation.

sat.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.33 Compatibility of PVDC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC 115 . 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl chloride 8F 150 150 130 130 140 90 90 130 90 150 80 180 150 150 170 180 140 180 X 140 180 160 90 90 X X 120 90 150 120 80 120 150 80 X 150 120 180 180 180 180 150 X X 120 120 80 8C 66 66 54 54 60 32 32 54 32 66 27 82 66 66 77 82 60 82 X 60 82 71 32 32 X X 49 32 66 49 27 49 66 27 X 66 49 82 82 82 82 66 X X 49 49 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Alum Aluminum chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid.

liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.116 TABLE 2. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. conc.33 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Boris acid Bromine. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 5% Cupric chloride. sat. 10% Calcium hydroxide. LLC . dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Chromic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexonol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid 8F 170 X X 120 150 80 80 180 160 180 160 180 120 150 180 180 90 90 180 80 80 180 140 180 80 120 120 80 80 X 80 X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 130 180 150 160 170 120 90 180 120 8C 77 X X 49 66 27 27 82 71 82 71 82 49 66 82 82 32 32 82 27 27 82 60 82 27 49 49 27 27 X 27 X X 82 82 82 82 82 82 54 82 66 71 77 49 32 82 49 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 15% Citric acid. wet Chlorine. 50% Citric acid.

50% Hydrochloric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Nitric acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride 8F 80 180 140 140 130 130 80 X X 120 120 130 180 180 120 160 X 120 90 80 180 80 80 X 80 180 90 150 X X X 130 120 X 130 120 110 130 180 180 90 150 X 130 120 140 180 180 8C 27 82 60 60 54 54 27 X X 49 49 54 82 82 49 71 X 49 32 27 82 27 27 X 27 82 32 66 X X X 54 49 X 54 49 43 54 82 82 32 66 X 54 49 60 82 82 (continued) 117 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Hydrobromic acid. conc. Sodium sulfide. dry Fluorine gas. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 10% Sodium hypochlorite.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. general Lactic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid.33 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 0% Sodium hydroxide. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. conc. LLC . conc. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. dil. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.

90% Sulfuric acid. chlorinated hydrocarbons. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2004. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 120 X X X X X X 80 X 80 80 170 8C 49 X X X X X X 27 X 27 27 77 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 98% Sulfuric acid. alkali. ethylene oxide. 2.33 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid.118 TABLE 2. LLC . and radiation. Incompatibility is shown by an X. and salt solutions. New York: Marcel Dekker. PSF is not resistant to polar organic solvents such as ketones. Vols. 70% Sulfuric acid.26 Polysulfone (PSF) Polysulfone is an engineering polymer that can be used at elevated temperatures.A. detergent solutions. 5th ed. and aromatic hydrocarbons. PSF has an operating temperature range of from K150 to 3008F (K101 to 1498C). Source: From P. PSF is resistant to repeated sterilization by several techniques including steam autoclave. It has the following chemical structure: CH3 O O CH3 O O S O The linkages connecting the benzene rings are hydrolytically stable. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. Polysulfone is unaffected by hydrolysis and has a very high resistance to mineral acids. and hydrocarbon oils even at elevated temperatures and under moderate stress levels. 1–4. Schweitzer. certain chemicals. 100% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Corrosion Resistance Tables. It will stand exposure to soap. dry heat..

50% Ammonium chloride. and circuit breakers.Thermoplastic Polymers 119 Polysulfone has good weatherability. 10% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium hydroxide. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. and it is not degraded by UV radiation. LLC 8C 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 66 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 .34 Compatibility of PSF with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. sat. 10% Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat.34 for the compatibility of PSF with selected corrodents. Its rigidity and high temperature performance make it ideal for medical. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid. moist Butyl acetate 8F X 200 200 200 200 X X 200 200 200 150 200 X 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 200 X X 200 200 200 200 X X X X 200 200 200 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and electronic application. Refer to Table 2. iron handles. TABLE 2. 10% Acetic acid. microwave. Polysulfone finds application as hot-water piping. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Aluminum chloride. to 40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride. switches. lenses. 80% Acetic acid.

15% Citric acid. 40% Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Nitric acid. Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Nitric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 5% Nitric acid.120 TABLE 2.34 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon disulphide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine. conc. 10% Chromic acid. anhydrous Phosphoric acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Citric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Ketones. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% 8F 200 X 200 200 200 200 200 X X X 200 X X X X X X 140 X 100 80 200 200 X 200 200 200 200 180 200 200 200 200 300 200 140 140 80 X 200 200 X X X X X X 80 27 (continued) 93 93 93 93 93 93 82 93 93 93 93 149 93 60 60 27 38 27 93 93 60 93 93 93 93 93 93 8C 93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . dil. general Lactic acid.

The structure is: H H H H C C C C H H H H Two types of PVC are produced. 1–4. 50% Sodium hypochlorate. Source: From P.. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Type 1 PVC (unplasticized) resists attack by most acids and strong alkalies. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Vols. PVC is polymerized vinyl chloride that is produced from ethylene and anhydrous hydrochloric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid.A. Schweitzer. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide.27 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Polyvinyl chloride is the most widely used of any of the thermoplasts. 10% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 2004. 98% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Toluene 8F 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 200 200 300 300 X X X X X 200 X 93 8C 93 93 93 93 93 149 149 93 93 149 149 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. and hydrocarbons. 50% Sulfuric acid. Type 1 is a rigid. 5th ed. gasoline. New York: Marcel Dekker.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. It is q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2. LLC . Type 2 has optimum impact resistance and reduced chemical resistance. aliphatic alcohols. 90% Sulfuric acid. normal impact (type 1) and high impact (type 2). Corrosion Resistance Tables. kerosene. Sodium sulfite. 10% Sulfuric acid.34 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Potassium bromide. unplasticized PVC having normal impact with optimum chemical resistance.

Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. sat. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.122 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers particularly useful in the handling of hydrochloric acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate 8F X X 100 90 X X X X X X X 140 90 X 140 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 90 140 140 140 140 90 90 140 140 140 140 8C X X 38 32 X X X X X X X 60 32 X 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 32 60 60 60 60 32 32 60 60 60 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.35 Compatibility of Type 2 PVC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. PVC is resistant to all normal atmospheric pollutants including weather and UV degradation. TABLE 2.36 for type 1 PVC.35 for the compatibility of type 2 PVC with selected corrodents and Table 2. and lacquer solvents. chlorinated organic compounds. PVC may be attacked by aromatics. 10% Ammonium fluoride. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . 80% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. The chemical resistance of type 2 PVC to oxidizing and highly alkaline material is reduced. Ammonium fluoride. Refer to Table 2.

10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. LLC . dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Bromine gas. moist Bromine.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.35 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Calcium bisulfide Carbon dioxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve 8F 140 140 140 X X X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 X 140 140 X X X 60 X X X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 X 8C 60 60 60 X X X X 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 X 60 60 X X X 16 X X X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X 60 60 X 60 X 60 X (continued) 123 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

25% Lactic acid. dil. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Fluorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. general Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. anhydrous 8F 105 140 X X X X 60 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 120 X 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 120 68 140 X 140 80 140 140 X X X 140 100 140 70 X 8C 40 60 X X X X 16 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 49 X 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 60 60 60 60 49 20 60 X 60 27 60 60 X X X 60 38 60 140 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Citric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. conc. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 15% Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid. conc. LLC . 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 5% Nitric acid.35 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid.124 TABLE 2. wet Chlorine. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 70% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 20% Nitric acid.

Sodium hypochlorite.35 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. The automotive industry makes use of PVC for exterior applications as body-side moldings. Vols. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sulfuric acid. conc. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. New York: Marcel Dekker. vent. Reference [2] provides details of PVC piping. and wire insulation. 20% Sodium hypochlorite.. Source: From P. 70% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 5th ed. 2004. conc. Its ability to be pigmented and its excellent weathering ability to retain color makes it ideal for this application. Sodium sulfide. electrical conduit. Oleum Perchloric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. and corrosive chemical piping.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. drain. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 1–4. Schweitzer. LLC . 10% Perchloric acid.A. 100% Sulfuric acid fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 60 X 60 60 X 140 X 140 X 105 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X X X 140 X X X 140 140 8C 16 X 16 16 X 60 X 60 X 40 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X X X 60 X X X 60 60 125 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 98% Sulfuric acid. It is also used as a liner. The primary application for PVC include water. 50% Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. gas. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X.

aqueous Aluminum chloride. sat. 10% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F X X 140 140 140 130 X X X X X 140 90 X 140 100 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 90 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 120 X 140 X X 140 X 140 60 (continued) 60 60 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 32 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 49 60 32 60 60 60 54 8C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.36 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Type 1 PVC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. LLC .126 TABLE 2. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. 1% Ammonium fluoride. 50% Acetic acid. sat. 80% Acetic acid glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.

liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. moist Bromine. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.36 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. LLC . dry Bromine gas. sat. 10% 8F 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 X X 140 140 X X X 140 X X X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 120 X 140 140 X 140 X 140 X X 140 140 X X X X X 140 60 (continued) 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 49 60 60 60 60 60 8C 60 60 60 60 127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Chlorine.

25% Lactic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 50% water Ferric nitrate. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid.36 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride Cupric chloride. 10% Ketones. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid dil. 5% Nitric acid. 15% Citric acid. conc. conc. 8F X 120 140 140 80 140 140 140 140 120 140 150 80 X 80 100 X 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 140 140 140 140 130 X 140 100 X 140 80 140 140 90 X X X 160 140 140 140 X 80 27 (continued) 71 60 60 60 60 27 60 60 32 60 38 60 60 60 60 60 60 54 60 60 60 60 27 38 49 60 60 27 60 60 60 60 49 60 66 27 8C q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. general Lactic acid. Hydrobromic acid.128 TABLE 2. conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 38% Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 70% Nitric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. dry Fluorine gas. 10–50% Fluorine gas.

Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. Sodium hydroxide. the chlorination is approximately 56. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. conc. New York: Marcel Dekker. 90% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 2. Schweitzer. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 98% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. Source: From P. 10% Sodium hydroxide. conc. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. Vols. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X 140 X X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X X 140 X X 90 140 140 32 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 8C 129 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 5th ed. 1–4.8%. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 2004. Incompatibility is shown by an X. LLC . to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid.36 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Oleum Perchloric acid.28 Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) When acetylene and hydrochloric acid are reacted to produce polyvinyl chloride. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide.A. Further chlorination of q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 100% Sulfuric acid..

glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol. and ketones. LLC . There are special formulations of CPVC that permit operating temperatures of 2008F (938C). and paraffinic hydrocarbons. chlorinated or aromatic hydrocarbons. It is ideally suited for handling hot water and/or steam condensate. PVC is inert to most mineral acids. Overall. aqueous Aluminum chloride. CPVC has a maximum operating temperature of 1908F (828C). 10% Acetic acid.37 for the compatibility of CPVC with selected corrodents. bases. TABLE 2. salts. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. esters. In general. the corrosion resistance of CPVC is somewhat inferior to that of PVC. Refer to Table 2. 96% Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. However. 80% Acetic acid. care must be exercised because there are differences. There are many similarities in the chemical resistance of CPVC and PVC.130 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers PVC to approximately 67% produces CPVC whose chemical structure is: H H Cl H C C C C H Cl H Cl While PVC is limited to a maximum operating temperature of 1408F (608C). CVPC is not recommended for use with most polar organic materials including various solvents.37 Compatibility of CPVC with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride 8F X 90 X X X X X X X X 200 200 X 200 100 200 180 200 200 200 200 8C X 32 X X X X X X X X 93 90 X 93 38 93 82 93 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Acetic acid.

50% Ammonium chloride. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2.37 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas. LLC . sat. dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. moist Bromine. dry Bromine gas. Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate 8F 200 200 140 200 180 180 200 200 200 X X 200 200 200 200 200 160 X 130 X X 200 80 200 180 180 180 180 X X 180 200 X X 200 210 X X X 150 X 140 X 140 180 210 210 180 8C 93 93 60 93 82 82 93 93 93 X X 93 93 93 93 93 71 X 54 X X 93 27 93 82 82 82 82 X X 82 93 X X 93 99 X X X 66 X 60 X 60 82 99 99 82 (continued) 131 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.

37 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 5% Cupric chloride. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 20% Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. wet Chlorine. conc. LLC .132 TABLE 2. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 15% Citric acid. dry 8F 180 170 210 200 180 180 180 180 X 210 160 X 210 X 180 180 100 X 140 X X X X X 210 210 180 180 180 80 180 210 180 210 X 180 180 X X 100 X 210 210 180 180 210 180 X 8C 82 77 99 93 82 82 82 82 X 99 71 X 99 X 82 82 38 X 60 X X X X X 99 99 82 82 82 27 82 99 82 99 X 82 82 X X 38 X 99 99 82 82 99 82 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Carbon dioxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. sat. 10% Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas.

30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. general Lactic acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 10% Sulfuric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 70% 8F 80 130 180 190 180 170 80 X 90 X 180 X 180 100 230 180 180 X X X 170 180 160 180 X 80 X 180 180 140 180 X 180 X 170 210 210 190 180 190 190 180 180 180 180 180 180 200 8C 27 54 82 88 82 77 27 X 32 X 82 X 82 38 110 82 82 X X X 77 82 71 82 X 27 X 82 82 60 82 X 82 X 77 99 99 88 82 88 88 82 82 82 82 82 82 93 (continued) 133 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. Oleum Perchloric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Hydrobromic acid. Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. Sodium sulfide. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid.37 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Fluorine gas. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. dil.

tanks. 1–4.37 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. it is somewhat similar to the other olefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene in terms of appearance. fume ducts. It is not resistant to nitric acid above 10% concentration. Refer to Table 2. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 90% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2004. CPE is resistant to most acids and bases.A.30 Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) PAN is a member of the olefin family. Vols. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. and in process equipment. and electrical properties.38 for the compatibility of CPE with selected corrodents..29 Chlorinated Polyether (CPE) Chlorinated polyether is sold under the tradename of Penton. 2. 5th ed. tank linings. LLC . Source: From P. It has the advantage of being able to resist acids at elevated temperatures. general chemical characteristics. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. internal column packing. and common solvents. 98% Sulfuric acid. 2. corrosive chemical piping at elevated temperatures. and miscellaneous fabricated items. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. valves. With permission. In general. 100% Sulfuric acid. 20% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X X 180 X X 140 180 180 8C X X X X 82 X X 60 82 82 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.134 TABLE 2. oxidizing agents. Corrosion Resistance Tables. It has a maximum operating temperature of 2258F (1078C). Reference [2] provides detailed information on CPVC piping. CPE finds application as bearing retainers. Incompatibility is shown by an X. The primary applications of PVC include hot water and/or steam condensate piping.

38 Compatibility of CPE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. sat. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride 8F 130 250 250 250 250 150 90 X 250 250 90 250 250 250 250 220 250 220 220 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 180 250 250 250 180 220 220 150 220 121 121 32 121 121 121 121 104 121 104 104 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 82 121 121 121 82 104 104 66 104 8C 54 121 121 121 121 66 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. TABLE 2. 10% Acetic acid. 80% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.Thermoplastic Polymers 135 PAN has the following structural formula: H H C C H C N PAN has corrosion resistance properties similar to those of polypropylene and polyethylene. LLC .

10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine Bromine. dry Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfate Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 15% Citric acid. LLC . 50% Citric acid.136 TABLE 2. 10% Chromic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorine.38 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzenesulfonic acid. 25% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol 8F 80 250 250 250 250 220 80 220 250 80 140 250 140 X 250 130 220 230 250 250 150 250 250 180 250 250 250 X 250 250 X 250 200 250 220 220 100 80 X 150 80 X 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 140 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 60 66 27 121 93 121 104 104 38 27 121 121 121 54 104 110 121 121 66 121 121 82 121 121 121 8C 27 121 121 121 121 104 27 104 121 27 60 121 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

20% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. Sodium sulfide. 70% Phenol Phosgene gas. 70% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid 8F 220 220 X 220 250 250 250 250 250 300 104 121 121 121 121 121 149 8C 104 60 137 150 X 250 250 250 230 90 80 180 80 80 X 140 X 66 121 121 121 110 32 27 82 27 27 60 250 150 250 250 250 180 180 180 200 230 250 250 230 230 230 130 X X 200 121 66 121 121 121 82 82 82 93 110 121 121 110 110 110 54 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Nitric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.38 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. LLC . general Lactic acid. dry Phosphoric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. conc. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 25% Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 10% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid.

chemical apparatus. Those produced from polyether are more resistant to hydrolysis and have higher resilience. New York: Marcel Dekker. but it will be readily attacked and even dissolved by polar organic fluids such as dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide. higher tear strength and cut resistance. 2. but they have limited life in high humidity and high temperature applications..39 provides the compatibility of PUR with selected corrodents. automotive parts. LLC . vending machine tubing. and trim. typewriter cases. higher operating temperature. Hydrolytic degradation causes permanent reduction in physical and electrical properties. When the absorbed water is removed. optimum abrasion resistance.138 TABLE 2. Because polyurethane is a polar material. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Moisture plasticization results in a slight reduction in hardness and tensile strength. the original properties are restored. Vols. lower compression set. Table 2. and greases.31 Polyurethane (PUR) Polyurethanes are produced from either polyethers or polyesters. They are also used q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polyacrylonitrile is used to produce molded appliance parts. luggage shells. The polyester-based urethanes are generally stiffer and will have higher compression and tensile moduli. 5th ed. fuels.A. Polyurethanes exhibit excellent resistance to oxygen aging. bags. good energy-absorbing characteristics.38 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Thionyl chloride Toluene White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X 200 200 250 93 93 121 8C The chemical listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. garden hose. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.2 for the structural formula. 2004. Polyurethanes are used where the properties of good abrasion resistance and low coefficient of friction are required. Source: From P. Water affects PUR in two ways. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. and good all-around chemical resistance. Refer to Figure 2. it is resistant to nonpolar organic fluids such as oils. Schweitzer. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. temporary plasticization and permanent degradation. 1–4. Corrosion Resistance Tables. good hysteresis characteristics. and good fuel and oil resistance.

50% Acetic acid. TABLE 2.2 Chemical structure of PUR.Thermoplastic Polymers 139 H O C NH O C H O H H H H NH C O C C C C H H H H n H H H H R= C C C C H H H H or H H R= C C H C H H or H H H H O H H H H H H H H O R= C C O C C C C C C O R m n = 30 to 120 m = 8 to 50 FIGURE 2. 10% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid.39 Compatibility of PUR with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamine Acetic acid. sat. LLC . 10% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium hydroxide. sat. Ammonium persulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Barium chloride Barium hydroxide X X X X X X X X X R R R R R R X X X X X R R (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 70% Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers R X X X X X X R R X X X R R R R X R R R R X R X X X X X X X X R R R R X R R R R R X R X X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cyclohexane Cresol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. LLC . 10–50% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Carbon bisulfide Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. sat. 5% Nitric acid. 50% Ferric nitrate. 20% Nitric acid. dry Chlorine gas.140 TABLE 2. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Magnesium chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. 10% Chromic acid. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Carbon dioxide. wet Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.39 Continued Chemical Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine.

Refer to Table 2. and catheters. These thermoplastic polyesters are highly crystalline with a melting point of approximately 4308F (2218C).39 Continued Chemical Nitric acid. aromatic hydrocarbons. for high-impact car panels and other parts. Sulfuric acid. The medical field makes use of PUR for diagnostic devices.32 Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) PBT is also known as a thermoplastic polyester. golf balls. 2. ski-goggle frames. gears. bushings. Polyurethanes are also used for toys. conc. 70% Sulfuric acid. LLC . ketones. incompatibility is shown by an X.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. and esters with limited resistance to hot water and washing soda. 10% Sulfuric acid. It is not resistant to chlorinated hydrocarbons and alkalies. 98% Sulfuric acid. in general. PBT has good weatherability and is resistant to UV degradation. 70% Phenol Potassium bromide. shoe components. 30% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. tubing. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. aliphatic hydrocarbons. pulleys. and ski boots. 100% Toluene X X X X X R R R X X X X X X X X 141 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 90% Sulfuric acid. It has a structural formula as follows: H C H H C H H C H H H C O O C O C PBT exhibits good chemical resistance. 10% Perchloric acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. to dilute mineral acids. Compatibility at 908F/328C is shown by an R.40 for the compatibility of PBT with selected corrodents.

10% Silicone oil Soap solution Sodium bisulfate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. 10% Benzene Butyl acetate Calcium chloride Calcium disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Citric acid. 0–5% Ink Linseed oil Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Motor oil Nitric acid. 10% Potassium permanganate. LLC . 5% Acetic acid. 10% Acetone Ammonia.142 TABLE 2.40 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PBT with Selected Corrodents Chemical Acetic acid. 50% Potassium dichromate. 10% Diesel oil Dioxane Edible oil Ethanol Ether Ethyl acetate Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formic acid Fruit juice Fuel oil Gasoline Glycerine Heptane/hexane Hydrochloric acid. 2% Paraffin oil Phosphoric acid. 10% Potassium hydroxide. 2% Hydrogen peroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% R R R X R R R R R X X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R R R R R X R R R R X R R R R R R R X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Hydrogen peroxide. 38% Hydrochloric acid.

LLC . but the copolymers are resistant to strong bases. Refer to Table 2. Reinforced resins find application in the automotive. 2. and writing instruments. and general industrial areas. in general.41 for the compatibility of acetals with selected corrodents. The general repeating chemical structure is: H C O H n There are two basic types of acetals.33 Acetals Acetals are a group of high-performance engineering polymers that resemble the polyamide somewhat in appearance but not in properties. 98% Sulfuric acid. 2% Toluene Vaseline Water. Homopolymer materials are usually implied when no identification of acetal type is made. pulleys. and pump components. bearings.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. X. DuPont produces the homopolymers whereas Celanese produces the copolymers. material not resistant. electrical. cold Water. Flame retardant formulations find application as television. business machines. The unreinforced resins are used in housings that require excellent impact in moving parts such as gears. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. material resistant at 738F/208C.40 Continued Chemical Sodium nitrate Sodium thiosulfate Sulfuric acid. Neither the homopolymer nor the copolymer is resistant to strong mineral acids. are resistant to the common solvents. They also exhibit poor resistance to oxidizing agents but. radio. The acetals will be degraded by UV light and gamma rays. electronics. electronic. hot Wax. molten Xylene R R X R R R R R R R 143 R.

144 TABLE 2. 5% Acetic acid. wet Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. conc. dry Chlorine. wet 8F 70 70 X 70 100 X X 70 X 70 70 X X X 70 70 X X X X 70 X 70 70 X X 70 X 70 X X X X X 70 70 70 70 70 70 140 70 140 70 70 200 70 23 23 23 23 23 23 60 23 60 23 23 93 23 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Acetone Acid mine water Ammonia. 5% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Ethyl chloride. moist Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene. LLC 8C 23 23 23 38 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 . dry Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid Copper nitrate Cupric chloride Cyclohexanne Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanne Detergents Dichloroethane Diethyl ether Dimethyl formamide Dimethyl sulfoxide Dioxane Ethanolamine Ethers Ethyl acetate. 2% Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Calcium disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloric acid Chlorine. 20% Calcium hypochlorite. Aniline Aqua regia Benzene Benzyl chloride n-Butylamine Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium chlorate.41 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Acetals with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid.

10% Magnesium hydroxide. 10% 8F 70 70 70 95 X X X X X X 70 70 X X X X 140 X 70 70 70 70 70 70 X 70 70 70 70 X 140 70 150 X X X X 70 70 X X 70 70 70 180 70 70 180 23 23 23 82 23 23 82 (continued) 23 23 60 23 71 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 60 23 23 8C 23 23 23 35 145 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 1–20% Hydrofluoric acid. 3% Heptane Hexane Hydrochloric acid. moist Kerosene Lactic acid Linseed oil Magnesium chloride. LLC . 1% Nitric acid Oxalic acid Paraffin Perchloroethylene Perchloric acid. 10% Magnesium sulfate. 10% Phosphoric acid Pyridine Silver nitrate Sodium bicarbonate. 10% Magnesium sulfate Mercury Methyl acetate Methyl alcohol Methylene chloride Milk Tetrahydrofuran Thionyl chloride Turpentine Mineral oil Motor oil Monoethanolamine Nitric acid. 50% Sodium carbonate.41 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ethyl ether Ethylene chloride Ethylenediamine Fatty acid Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferric sulfate Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate.Thermoplastic Polymers TABLE 2. 10% Formic acid. 4% Hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen sulfide. 20% Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate. 10% Sodium chloride.

New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer. 2004. Acetals are used in the automotive industry for fuel-system components and moving parts such as gears. LLC . P. Corrosion Engineering Handbook. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 2. 5th ed. New York: Marcel Dekker. Applications also include appliance housings and plumbing fixtures. 1–4. 10% Trichloroethylene Wax 8F 70 70 70 X 70 70 X X X X 200 93 23 23 8C 23 23 23 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.41 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium chloride Sodium cyanide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 10% Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid. Corrosion Resistant Linings and Coatings. Vols. P. 4. 10% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium nitrate.A.146 TABLE 2. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Corrosion Resistance Tables.A.. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 1996. 1994. 2001. 3. and bushings. Schweitzer. 50% Sodium thiosulfate Sulfuric acid.A. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker.A. New York: Marcel Dekker. P. P. References 1. structural components in the suspension system. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems.

glass fibers. 147 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. on occasion. thermosets comprise approximately 14% of the total polymer market.” Because in some cases a by-product is not produced.3 Thermoset Polymers Thermoset polymers assume a permanent shape or set once cured. 3. chemical resistance. LLC . Compared to the thermoplasts. mineral or cellulose fibers are often used as low-cost general purpose fillers.1 lists the principal thermoset polymers.” Table 3. and glass fiber fillers are often used for optimum strength or dimensional stability. In addition. and good electrical properties. Phenolics represent about 43% of the thermoset market. They are formed by a large amount of cross-linking of linear prepolymers (a small amount of cross-linking will produce elastomers) or by direct formation of networks by the reaction of two monomers.1 Corrosion of Thermosets Unreinforced. they are more brittle. When the reaction results in a by-product. unfilled thermoset polymers can corrode by several mechanisms. making them the most widely used. Most contain wood or glass-flour fillers and. they cannot be reshaped. For molded products. usually formed by compression or transfer molding. The latter is the more prominent of the two methods. Once set. this definition is no longer exactly correct. stronger. They are relatively inexpensive and are readily molded with good stiffness. harder. The reaction is now referred to as a “stepwise” polymerization. it is called a “condensation reaction. Table 3. creep resistance. Their disadvantages lie in the fact that most are more difficult to process and more expensive. Although fewer in number than the thermoplastic polymers. they offer the advantages of better dimensional stability. It is a stepwise or condensation method that has been defined as “the reaction of two monomers to produce a third plus a by-product. The type of corrosion can be divided into two main categories: physical and chemical. usually water or alcohol. and generally more temperature resistant.2 gives the operating temperature range of the thermoset polymers.

the original properties are restored. physical corrosion has taken place. For a cross-linked thermoset. that results in plasticization or swelling of the thermoset network. The diffusion of a liquid into the polymer is a typical example.1 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Principal Thermoset Polymers Alkyds Amino resins Diallyl phthalates (allyls) Epoxies Furans Melamines Phenol formaldehyde Phenolics Polybutadienes Polyurethanes Silicones Unsaturated polyesters Ureas Vinyl esters Physical corrosion is the interaction of a thermoset polymer with its environment so that its properties are altered but no chemical reactions take place.148 TABLE 3. physical corrosion is reversible: after the liquid is removed. When a polymer absorbs a liquid or gas. TABLE 3. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. In many cases.2 Operating Temperature Range of Themoset Polymers Allowable Temperature (8F/8C) Polymer Epoxy Polyesters: Bisphenol A fumarate Halogenated Hydrogenated bisphenol-A– bisphenol-A Isophthalic Terephthalic Vinyl ester Furan Phenolic Silicone Minimum K423/K252 Maximum 300/150 250–300/120–150 250–300/120–150 250–300/120–150 150/70 250–300/120–150 200–280/98–140 300–400/150–200 230/110 500/260 K423/K252 Temperatures might have to be modified depending on the corrodent. LLC . swelling caused by solvent absorption will be at a maximum when the solvent and polymer solubility parameters are exactly matched.

The various modes of attack affect the strength of the laminate in different ways. crazed. With an improper environment. Pyrolysis or charring of the resin quickly occurs so that within a few hours. it will continue to operate successfully for a substantial period of time. certain chemically resistant types suffer negligible attack or exhibit significantly lower rates of attack under a wide range of severely corrosive conditions. As result of chemical corrosion. The ester linkage is the most susceptible. This is the result of the unique molecular structure of the resins. All thermosets will be attacked in essentially the same manner. Construction of the laminate and the type of reinforcing used also affect the corrosion resistance of the laminate. Tests show that polyesters and vinyl esters can handle up to 70% sulfuric acid for long periods of time. In general. depending upon the environment and other service conditions and the mechanisms or combination of mechanisms that are at work. For example. Experience has indicated that if an installation has been soundly engineered and has operated successfully for 12 months. The solvent penetrates the resin matrix of the polymer through spaces between the polymer chains causing the laminate surface to q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. discolored. attack on the reinforced polymer will occur in a relatively short time. charred. repolymerization can occur with a resultant change in structure. the polymer may be embrittled. Improper curing will result in a loss of corrosion resistance properties. The attack of aqueous solutions on reinforced polymers occurs through hydrolysis. Cure of the resin plays an important part in the chemical resistance of the thermoset. Other results may be chain scission and decreases in molecular weight or simple solvent action. LLC . the laminate is destroyed. Other environments may cause swelling or microcracking. Some environments may weaken primary and/or secondary polymer linkages with resulting depolymerization. in all probability. or swollen. Thermoset polymers are not capable of handling concentrated sulfuric acid (93%) and concentrated nitric acid. whereas others may hydrolyze ester groupings or linkages. including built-in properties of ester groups.Thermoset Polymers 149 Chemical corrosion takes place when the bonds in the thermoset are broken by means of a chemical reaction with the polymers’ environment. The attack of solvents is of a different nature. with the water degrading bonds in the backbone of the resin molecules. chemical attack on thermoset polymers is a “go/no go” situation. delaminated. However. Attack or absorption at the interface between the reinforcing material and the resin will result in weakening. There may be more than one form of chemical corrosion taking place at the same time. In certain environments. The degree and nature of the bond between the resin and the reinforcement also plays an important role. the polymer itself may be affected in one or more ways. softened. Chemical corrosion is usually not reversible. blistered.

2. pronounced weight gain. Bisphenol resin laminate in contact with toluene experiences a 19% weight gain in one month. This is why polyester gasoline tanks are so successful. are handled well by polyesters. producing mechanical stresses that cause fractures in the laminate. saturated. In the first stages of solvent attack. 3. such as the straight chain hydrocarbons. There are many degrees of attack: 1. 3. the laminate will do very well. This may occur in the liquid or vapor zone. Weight. 3. and swelling has stabilized at the 12 month level. Softening: hardness drops to zero. the more brittle resins possess poor solvent resistance whereas the more resilient resins can withstand a greater degree of solvent absorption. The polymer’s ability to resist attack is improved by 1. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. decrease in hardness by a substantial amount. plus little or no swelling. the better the solvent resistance. If there is less than a 2% weight gain and considerable retention in hardness over a 12 month period. such as polyesters and the vinyl esters. the following occur: 1. Slightly polar resins. the laminate swells considerably. LLC . Swelling. Generally. Anything over 2% is cause for concern. As the solvent attack continues: a. and hardness drops from 43 to 0. Organic compounds with carbon–carbon unsaturated double bonds. The degree of similarity between solvent and resin is important. The cross-link density of the resin. are powerful swelling solvents and show greater swelling action than their saturated counterparts. are attacked by mildly polar solvents. Softening. weight gain has stabilized. Smaller solvent molecules can penetrate a polymer matrix more effectively. which is strongly related to its solvent resistance. The higher the heat distortion temperature. The ability of the resin to pack into a tight structure.150 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers swell. then the resin may do fairly well in limited service. long-chain organic molecules. If hardness is retained at a high level. The heat distortion temperature of the resin. such as carbon disulfide. 2. Swelling: the absorption of the molecule continues. 2. typical of a material undergoing total failure. and crack. a swelling of 19%. In general. The latter is not true of all resin systems. b. soften.

Polymers installed outdoors will suffer severe degradation in a year or two from ultraviolet exposure. However. and chlorinated or brominated polyesters exhibit poor resistance to such solvents as acetone. and methyl ethyl ketone.3 for the atmospheric resistance of fiberglass reinforced thermoset polymers. 3. Another approach is to apply a 3-mil-thick coat of black epoxy paint that will also effectively screen out the ultraviolet rays. trichloroethane. Under stress. carbon disulfide. it is necessary that UV protection be provided. and urethanes. which subsequently fractures. They excel in this area. toluene. Furan resins are capable of handling solvents in combination with acids and bases. The failure rate of glassreinforced composites can be significant. 3.3 Ultraviolet Light Stability Thermoset resins will be degraded by ultraviolet light. Which fiber is selected depends upon the cost. Weakening of the glass fibers upon exposure to acid is believed to be caused by ion exchange between the acid and glass. Refer to Table 3. Prior to bonding. The process continues until total failure occurs. The glass filament will fray. This is particularly true of composites exposed to the combination of acid and stress.2 Joining of Thermosets Thermoset polymers cannot be solvent cemented or fusion welded. thermosetting acrylics. If the resin matrix surrounding the failed fiber fractures. 3. trichloroethylene.4 Reinforcing Materials Many different reinforcing fibers are used in laminates and reinforced polymers. the phenomenon will stop far short of having any particular effect on the strength of the material. However. The vinyl esters show improved solvent resistance. isophthalic. the properties q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. the surfaces must be abraded and solvent cleaned. In view of this. an initial fiber fracture occurs that is specifically a tensile type of failure. the furan resins offer the best all-around solvent resistance. This can be prevented by adding an ultraviolet inhibitor to the resin. After the initial fraying. being resistant to normal atmospheric pollutants. Stress corrosion is another factor to be considered. LLC . With the exception of UV light stability. Heat-cured epoxies exhibit better solvent resistance.Thermoset Polymers 151 Orthophthalic. bisphenol. thermoset polymers resist weathering. the acid is allowed to attack the next available fiber. they can be adhesive bonded using epoxies.

3. 3.152 TABLE 3.20 0.65 0.4.4.02–0.3 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Atmospheric Resistance of Fiberglass-Reinforced Thermoset Polymers Polymer Epoxy Polyesters Bisphenol A– fumarate Halogenated Hydrogenated bisphenol-A– bisphenol-A Isophthalic Terephthalic Vinyl ester Furan Phenolic Silicone a b c UVa Degradation R RS RS RS Moistureb Absorption 0. The most common is E glass.1 Glass Fibers Glass fibers are formed continuously from a melt in a special fiber-forming furnace. resistant only if stabilized with UV protector. not resistant. SO3 will cause severe attack.1 E Glass As discussed previously.2 C Glass This is a calcium aluminosilicate glass widely used for surfacing mats. particularly the dielectric constant. X. required.20 Weathering R R R R Ozone R R R R SO2 R R R Rc NO2 R R R R H2S R R R RS RS R R R 0. Practically all glass mat. continuous filaments.1.4.20 0. C glass is designed to be used where optimum chemical resistance is required. D glass has very good electrical properties. Water absorption rate 24 h at 738F/238C (%).06 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R. glass flakes. It possesses excellent water resistance.20 0.20 2. 3. and woven roving come from this source. resistant. LLC . Table 3. or flake glass linings. and low elongation. This glass resists moisture and results in products with excellent electrical properties.4 lists the common reinforcements and the properties they impart to the reinforced polymer. strength. RS. C glass has poor q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. There are six formulations that are produced. and for acid resistant cloths.20 0. E glass is an electrical grade borosilicate glass. and is used in electronic applications.03 0.1. Fiberglass is the most often uses reinforcement material. and the nature or the resin system. S glass is used for its high strength and stiffness while R glass is a lower cost fiber than S glass. and it is reasonable in cost.

Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.4 Properties Imparted to Polymer by Reinforcing Materials Reinforcing Fiber Glass strands Glass fabric Glass mat Asbestos Paper Cotton/linen Nylon Short inorganic fibers Organic fibers Ribbons Polyethylene Metals Aramid Boron Carbon/ graphite Ceramic Mechanical Strength X X Electrical Properties X X X X X Impact Resistance X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Corrosion Resistance X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Machining and Punching Heat Resistance X X X X Moisture Resistance X X X Abrasion Resistance Low Cost X X X X Stiffness X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 153 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

15.0–29. These filaments are formed into strands with 204. 10-mill C glass was nearly universally used.0–99. 20.154 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers water resistance and carries a premium cost. 800.9 30. LLC .0–39.0 37.9 50.9 75.5 47.0–79. and 4000 filaments to a strand.5 77.9 90.5 102.0–69.0–109.) 10.9 100. S glass is widely used in the aerospace industry.9 35.0–49.5 97.5 107.3 S Glass Because of its exceptional strength.5 32. Until the development of synthetic veils. C veil has been used as a surfacing mat for many years when the standard specification for corrosion resistant equipment was 10-mil C veil.9 20.9 15.5 22.5 67. 1000.0–89.) 12. but it is several times as expensive as E glass.5 42.4.1. 3. It is comparable in strength to aramid fiber.0–27.9 55.5 57.4.9 60.0–84.0–64.5 87. 3. 3000. 400.0–74. Filaments in the range of diameters G–T are normally used to reinforce polymers.5 52.5 72.0–54.9 45. 2000.0–39. The filaments are bonded into a TABLE 3.5 25.9 Nominal Diameter (!105 in.0–14.5 82.0–94.9 65.0 40.0–104.4 Glass Filaments Glass filaments are available in a variety of diameters as shown in Table 3. It has excellent resistance to acids and water. It is available in thicknesses of 10.0 27.0–34.0–19. The use of 20-mil C veil and brittle resins such as the bisphenols should be avoided as they are subject to impact and handling damage.9 105.3 17.5 Glass Fiber Diameters Filament B C D DE E F G G H J K L M N P Q R S T U V W Diameter Range (!105 in.5 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.9 35.1.9 95.9 85.9 70.9 80.9 23. Because of its cost.5.0–44.0–24. and 30 mils.5 36.9 25. it is not used in the corrosion industry.0–59.5 92.5 62.

Various thicknesses are available in widths up to 10 ft. It may also be used in conjunction with C glass surfacing mats.6 Glass Mats Glass strands are cut and dipped into a moving conveyer belt where a polymer binder is applied to hold the mat together. LLC . Continuous strand mats are produced by continuously depositing the uncut strands in a swirling pattern onto a moving belt where a binder is applied. appearance.5 Chopped Strands Strands of glass. 3. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.75 to 4.5 oz. The longer lengths are used with thermoset resins whereas the short fibers are used with thermoplastic polymers.25 to 2 in.4.1. and are used to reinforce molding compounds.1. (usually E glass) are mechanically cut into lengths from 0. and strength of fabric.2 in widths up to 10 ft. are added to the finished products to improve adhesion of the resin matrix to the glass fibers. The machine direction of the loom is called the warp whereas the cross section is the welt (also called “woof” or “fill”). and polymers.1. The number of yarns can be varied in both warp and welt to control the weight.Thermoset Polymers 155 strand using a sizing agent applied to the filament. These constructions are used in low-pressure laminations and poltrusions. such as silanes. Strands of glass filaments are plied into yarns and woven into fabrics on looms.2 Polyester Polyester is primarily used for surfacing mat for the resin-rich inner surface of filament wound or custom contact-molded structures. and K are common. glass mats. and chopped strands are the most common reinforcements used to reinforce polymers. Continuous strand mats exhibit better physical properties than cut strand mats./ft.4.2 and are available in widths up to 6 ft. E glass is used in most and filament laminates of D. thickness. 3. Glass fabrics. The physical properties of woven roving are intermediate between mats and fabrics. 3. 3. G. but the material is less homogenous.7 Glass Fabrics Reinforced polymers make use of many different glass fabrics. The sizing agent also gives them environmental and abrasive protection. These strands are then used to manufacture the various types of glass reinforcements. Coupling agents. Mat weights vary from 0.75 to 3 oz. Woven roving is a mat fabric made by weaving multiple strands collected into a roving and into a coarse fabric./ft.4. chrome complexes. Continuous mats vary in weight from 0. H.4.

Other blends are also available such as 25% carbon filler—75% glass fiber. have been largely replaced by very high strength graphite fibers. provides in-depth grounding systems and static control in hazardous areas where static sparks may result in fires or explosions.2./yd.156 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers The tendency of C glass to bridge and form voids is reduced or eliminated by overwinding a C glass surfacing mat with a polyester mat under tension. 0. Aramid fibers are woven into fabrics for reinforcing polymers. it essentially revolutionized pressure vessel technology.4. Kevlar is available in surfacing mats and cloth form. The Nexus surfacing veil possesses a relatively high degree of elongation that makes it very compatible with the higher elongation resins and reduces the risk of checking. 3. 1. Aramid composites. and cracking in temperature-cycling operations.2) to thick 30-mil (6 oz. It is also available in a 0. and aqueous solutions of most weak acids at boiling. manufactured by DuPont. crazing. water.4. typically 0.2) cloths.2. The carbon fiber mat. and golf shafts. though still widely used for pressure vessels. tennis racquets. 3. Aramid reinforcement is also available as paper and sold under tradenames of Nomex by DuPont and TP Technora from Teijin America./yd. Being a polyester derivative.4 Aramid Fibers Aramid is a generic name for aromatic polyamide (nylon). Surfacing mats can be had in weights of 0. Nexus (registered trademark of Burlington Industries) surfacing veils are also used on exterior surfaces of poltruded products.3 Carbon Fiber Carbon fiber is available in mat form. either alone or supplemented with a ground carbon or graphite filler. it is not resistant to strong acids such as 93% sulfuric. Aramid fiber finds varied applications in aircraft and aerospace components because of its low density.2 mat as a blend with 33% glass fiber. and 2 oz./yd. It is sold under the tradename Kevlar. and 50% aluminized glass—50% carbon fiber. This light weight is also advantageous in the fabrication of laminated canoes and kayaks. Carbon fibers are also available in continuous roving and as chopped fibers in sizes 1/8–2 in./yd.5. Other aramid fiber sport applications include downhill skis. bleaching agents.5 oz. The fabrics range in size from 2-mil (1 oz.2. Aramid paper is used in circuit boards to improve crack resistance and to q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The Nexus surfacing veil exhibits excellent resistance to alcohols./yd. LLC . The fiber is used in the same manner as glass fibers to reinforce polymers. Because of its great tensile strength and consistency coupled with low density. hydrocarbons.4 and 1 oz.

3. 29% Perchlorethylene Detergent solution. and punch. LLC .4. it finds many applications in aerospace laminates such as wing tips and heliocopter seats.6 compares the corrosion resistance of Spectra and Aramid fibers. glacial Hydrochloric acid 1 M Sodium hydroxide 5 M Ammonium hydroxide. but it is sensitive to moisture and cannot withstand high temperatures. Two Spectra fibers are produced. TABLE 3. the 900 and 1000 grades. countertops. The paper is limited by such drawbacks as a high coefficient of thermal expansion.5 Polyethylene Fibers Allied Signal. produces a high-strength. poor resin adhesion. The polyethylene is an ultrahigh molecular weight polymer. Paper reinforcement is inexpensive and easy to machine. compared to conventional polyethylene that has a molecular weight of about 200.4. Table 3. and difficult drilling and machining characteristics. samples not tested due to physical deterioration. It imparts good electrical properties. it is made into a common printed wiring board. When saturated with phenolics.6 Paper Kraft paper is widely used as a reinforcement. and wall panels. 10% Clorox 6 Months 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 91 2 Years 100 100 100 100 96 100 100 100 100 100 100 73 6 Months 100 100 100 93 72 82 40 42 70 75 91 0 Aramid 2 Years 98 87 97 X X X X X X X X 0 X. up to 5 million. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Thermoset Polymers 157 impart a smooth surface. 3. Spectra laminates must not be exposed to temperatures above 2508F (1218C). high-modulus polyethylene fiber under the tradename Spectra. Because the density of Spectra is the lowest of all of the fibers. Inc.000. The 1000 grade has higher strength and modulus. When combined with melamine.6 Corrosion Resistance of Spectra and Aramid Fibers % Retention of Fiber Tensile Strength Spectra Chemical Seawater Hydraulic fluid Kerosene Gasoline Toluene Acetic acid. it becomes a decorative high-pressure laminate used in furniture. drill.

a free radical source.5 Polyesters Polyesters were first prepared in 1929 by William H. Large-scale commercialization of unsaturated polyesters resulted from the 1942 discovery by the U. At least one of these components contributes sites of unsaturation to the oligomer chain. Laminates with these fabrics have better water resistance than paper-based laminates. The cross-linking reaction is a free-radical copolymerization between the resin oligomer and the unsaturated monomer. the manufacturing procedure.S. Maleic anhydride or fumaric acid provides the source of unsaturation for almost all of the polyester resins currently produced with maleic anhydride being the most common. The first fiberglassreinforced boat hulls were made in 1946. O HOn R OH + nHO C R O C OH R O O C R C O FIGURE 3. Rubber Company that adding glass fibers to polyesters greatly improved their physical properties.7 Cotton and Linen Fabrics of cotton or linen. Unsaturated polyesters are produced via a condensation reaction between a dibasic organic acid or anhydride and a difunctional alcohol as shown in Figure 3. such as an organic peroxide. LLC O + nH2O n . The oligomer or prepolymer is then dissolved in an unsaturated monomer such as styrene.158 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. To initiate cross-linking. are used in several grades of laminates.1. Widespread use of polyesters had been hampered because of their inherent brittleness. Of all the reinforced thermoset polymers used for corrosion resistance. 3. unsaturated polyesters are the most widely used. These laminates are used for gears and pulleys. The types and ratio of components used to manufacture the oligomers. It was not until the late 1930s that Ellis discovered that polyesters’ cross-linking increased around 30 times in the presence of unsaturated monomers. and the molecular weight of the oligomer will determine the properties of the cured polyester. The first successful commercial use of glass-reinforced polyesters was the production of radomes for military aircraft during World War II. The manufacturing techniques he developed are still in use today. when impregnated with phenolic resin. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Condensation reaction. is added to the liquid resin. and they machine well. They have good impact strength and abrasion resistance.4. Carothers. and fiberglass is still a major application for unsaturated polyesters.

2.2 Components of unsaturated polyesters.2 lists the more common components used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyesters.3 pentanediol HO CH2 C CH3 CH2 OH Neopentyl glycol Acids O C O C O Phthalic anhydride OH O C Terephthalic acid O OH C C H C C O Fumaric acid FIGURE 3. LLC O C OH O C OH Isophthalic acid OH C O O O Maleic anhydride Cl H Cl OH Cl C Cl O Cl O C O O Chlorendic anhydride .4 Trimethyl-1. Glycols OH HO CH2 CH CH3 OH CH2 CH2 O CH2 OH CH2 Propylene glycols CH3 CH3 CH3 C HO CH2 C CH3 C H OH HO Diethylene glycol CH3 C CH3 Bisphenol-A CH3 OH 2.Thermoset Polymers 159 Propylene glycol is the most common diol used because it yields polymers with the best overall properties. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Figure 3.

The specific polyester resin will determine operating temperatures and corrosion resistance. 10% Calcium chloride (sat.1 General Purpose Polyesters These resins have the following formula: O O C C C O C O CH3 C C O O C O C General purpose polyesters are based on phthalic anhydride as the saturated monomer and are the lowest-cost class of resin.) Calcium sulfate Amyl alcohol q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.160 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers The primary unsaturated polyesters are: General purpose (orthophthalic) Isophthalic Bisphenol A fumarate Hydrogenated bisphenol A Halogenated polyester Terephthalate (PET) The strength of a laminate is primarily determined by the type and amount of reinforcing used. 10% Kerosene Naphtha Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride Ammonium sulfate. 10% Citric acid Oleic acid Benzoic acid Boric acid Magnesium sulfate Nickel chloride Nickel nitrate Nickel sulfate Potassium chloride Potassium sulfate Sodium chloride.5. These general purpose resins are not normally recommended for use in corrosive service. 3. They are adequate for use with nonoxidizing mineral acids and corrodents that are relatively mild. 1% Salts Copper sulfate Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate Ferric sulfate Ferrous chloride Magnesium chloride Solvents Glycerine Acetic acid. LLC . Tests have indicated that general purpose resins will provide satisfactory service with the following materials up to 1258F (528C): Acids Fatty acids Lactic acid.

10–25% sulfuric. The isophthalic polyester resins are not resistant to acetone.7 for the compatibility of isophthalic polyester with selected corrodents. amyl acetate. They are satisfactory for use up to 1258F (528C) in acids such as 10% acetic. Solvents such as carbon disulfide. and any application where exposure is confined to ambient conditions. 25% phosphoric. This resin predominates in boat building. salts of potassium and sodium. but it improves physical properties and corrosion resistance. car and truck bodies. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. boats. It exhibits excellent resistance to all types of water. kerosine. fishing poles. gasoline. benzoic. They can be formulated to be fire retardant or to protect against the effects of ultraviolet light. ethylene glycol. Most organic salts are also compatible with isophthalic polyesters. including seawater. citric. solutions of alkaline. radomes. not only in chemical resistance but also in physical properties. building materials. benzene. The standard corrosion grade isophthalic polyesters are made with 1:1 molar ratio of isophthalic acid to maleic anhydride or fumaric acid with propylene glycol. formaldehyde. Alkaline solutions such as calcium hydroxide. boric. sodium carbonate. carbon disulfide. these resins find application in building panels. and naphtha are also compatible. This increases the cost to produce.5.2 Isophthalic Polyesters Isophthalic polyesters have the following formula: CH3 O CH2 CH2 O O C O C O CH2 CH3 CH2 O O C CH CH C O n These polyester resins use isophthalic acid in place of phthalic anhydride as the saturated monomer. the properties of isophthalic polyesters are superior to the lower-cost general purpose polyesters. For the most part. sodium hydroxide. or higher concentrations of oxidizing acids. In general. television satellite dishes. Refer to Table 3.Thermoset Polymers 161 General purpose resins are not satisfactory in contact with the following: Oxidizing acids. oleic. and fatty acids. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. tote boxes. Isophthalic polyesters have a relatively wide range of corrosion resistance. Bleach solutions such as 5% sodium hypochlorite. and gasoline. LLC . hot distilled water. tartaric. 3. Solvents such as amyl alcohols. carbon tetrachloride.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride.7 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Isophthalic Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene 8F X 180 110 X X X X X X X 220 X X 250 180 170 140 160 160 180 90 X 160 160 180 90 90 X X 160 160 160 180 X X X 160 X X 160 X 190 140 X 160 90 X X 8C X 82 43 X X X X X X X 104 X X 121 82 77 60 71 71 82 32 X 71 71 32 32 32 X X 71 71 71 82 X X X 71 X X 71 X 88 60 X 71 32 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Acetic acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 80% Acetic acid.162 TABLE 3. sat. LLC . dry Aluminum fluoride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat.

10% Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. Calcium hypochlorite. 15% Citric acid. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide 8F 180 180 X X 140 180 X X X X 80 X 129 160 150 160 160 180 160 160 120 140 160 160 160 X 160 160 X 160 X 160 X X 150 160 160 X X X X X X 140 160 200 160 180 160 8C 82 82 X X 60 82 X X X X 27 X 49 71 66 71 71 82 71 71 49 60 71 71 71 X 71 71 X 71 X 71 X X 66 71 71 X X X X X X 60 71 93 71 82 71 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Bromine gas. conc. 25% Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. LLC 163 .Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Chromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid to 25% Chlorine gas. sat.7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzenesulfonic acid. moist Bromine.

Hydrobromic acid. 70% Nitric acid.164 TABLE 3. conc. 25% Lactic acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. general Lactic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 5% Nitric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.7 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. LLC . 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. dry Fluorine gas. 20% Nitric acid. 20% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. dil. 10% 8F 200 X 170 170 80 X X 120 180 160 180 180 160 X X 120 140 140 160 160 90 X X X 90 X 160 160 180 90 X X 160 120 X X X 120 X X X X 180 X 160 100 90 200 X 8C 93 X 77 77 27 X X 49 82 71 82 82 71 X X 49 60 60 71 71 32 X X X 32 X 71 71 82 32 X X 71 49 X X X 49 X X X X 82 X 71 38 32 93 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 5% Cupric chloride. 10% Perchloric acid.

The range of successful commercial applications include support structures. structures. and dimensional stability. Reference [2] provides information on FRP piping systems.2. ladders. Sodium hypochlorite. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Isopolyesters used in above-ground tanks and tank linings for chemical storage provide similar protection. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. including corrosion resistance. 50% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X X X 180 180 160 150 X X X X X X X 110 170 X 180 8C X X X X X 82 82 71 66 X X X X X X X 43 77 X 82 165 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. high strength.7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. and decking can be fabricated. these resins withstand acids and corrosive salts encountered in foods and food handling. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 70% Sulfuric acid. nonconductivity. 100% Sulfuric acid. conc. and spa applications. 50% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. conc. and guard rails.1 Typical Applications Isophthalic polyesters provide corrosion resistance in a wide variety of end uses. tub. Currently. there are more than 100 standard structural shapes available from which platforms. These materials offer several advantages. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Other applications include their use in cooling towers and use as rail cars to transport automobiles. 3. LLC . fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. grating. The water resistance properties of the isophthlates also provide advantages in appearance and performance in cast countertops as well as pool. platforms. supports. In food-contact applications.5. 10% Sulfuric acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Recent excavations of 25-year-old FRP underground gasoline storage tanks offer evidence to the resin’s resistance to internal chemical attack or external attack by water in the surrounding soil. 50% Sodium hydroxide. light weight. Isopolyester pipes and containment vaults also provide protection against failure from corrosion by acid media. 98% Sulfuric acid.

50% Rayon spin bath Iron salts Zinc salts Sodium chlorite to 2008F (938C) Sodium hydrosulfate to 2008F (938C) Solvents Alcohols at ambient temperatures Glycerine Gases to 2008F (938C) Chlorine. 15% Chromic. The aromatic structure provided by the bisphenol-A provides several benefits. dry Sulfur dioxide.3. LLC . The bisphenol polyesters are superior in their corrosion resistant properties to the isophthalic polyesters. The bisphenol polyesters will break down in highly concentrated acids or alkalies. 25% to 1608F (718C) Acetic Benzoic Boric Butyric Chloroacetic. 5% to 1608F (718C) Calcium hydroxide. 80% Salt Solution to 2008F (938C) Most plating solutions Copper salts Alkalies Chlorine dioxide. 25% to 1608F (718C) Calcium hypochlorite. 30% Tannic Tartaric Trichloroacetic.3 Bisphenol A Fumarate Polyesters This is a premium corrosion-resistant grade resin. It costs approximately twice as much as a general purpose resin and approximately one-third more than an isophthalic resin. wet Linseed oil Sulfur trioxide Rayon waste gases 1508F (668C) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5% Citric All aluminum salts Most ammonium salts Calcium salts Ammonium hydroxide. The number of interior chain ester groups is reduced so the resistance to hydrolysis and saponification is increased. They exhibit good performance with moderate alkaline solutions of bleaching agents.5. dry Stearic Sulfonic.166 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. wet Sulfur dioxide. The structural formula is shown in Figure 3. 10% Lactic Maleic Oleic Oxalic Phosphoric. Standard bisphenol-A fumarate resins are derived from the propylene glycol or oxide diether of bisphenol-A and fumaric acid. 20% to 2008F (938C) Isophthalics are resistant to most all solvents plus Sour crude oil Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Chlorine. Thermal stability is improved. and the heat distortion point of the resin is mainly raised from the more rigid nature of the aromatic structure. Bisphenol A fumarate polyesters have the best hydrolysis resistance of any commercial unsaturated polyester. 15% to 2008F (938C) Potassium hydroxide. These resins can be used in the handling of the following materials: Acids to 2008F (938C) Fatty acids Hydrochloric.

carbon disulfide. ether. 10% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. and trichloroethane will attack the resin. sodium hydroxide.8 Compatibility of Bisphenol A–Fumarate Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. LLC . 80% Acetic acid.Thermoset Polymers 167 CH3 O CH CH2 CH3 O C CH3 O CH2 CH O CH3 O C CH CH C O n FIGURE 3. 50% 8F X 220 160 160 X 110 X X 100 X 220 X X 220 200 90 160 200 200 200 90 200 220 8C X 104 171 171 X 43 X X 38 X 104 X X 104 93 32 71 93 93 93 32 93 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Acetic acid. Refer to Table 3. trichloroethylene. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. toluene. Table 3. methyl ethyl ketone.8 for the compatibility of bisphenolA fumarate polyester resin with selected corrodents. xylene. aqueous Aluminum fluoride. TABLE 3. Sulfuric acid above 70%.9 lists the compatibility of hydrogenated bisphenol-A fumarate polyesters with selected corrodents. 10% Acetic acid. and 30% chromic acid will also attack the resin.3 Chemical structure of bisphenol A fumarate resins. Solvents such as benzene. 10% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.

20% Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium fluoride. LLC . sat. Calcium hypochlorite. moist Bromine. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 10% Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide 8F 220 180 120 100 140 220 180 80 220 110 80 80 200 X X 220 X 200 220 150 220 140 X X 200 180 X X 220 220 90 100 X 80 80 X 220 180 210 200 220 180 160 80 220 220 160 X 8C 104 82 49 38 60 104 82 27 104 43 27 27 93 X X 104 X 93 104 66 104 60 X X 93 82 X X 104 104 32 38 X 27 27 X 104 82 99 93 104 82 71 27 104 104 71 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dry Bromine gas.8 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride.168 TABLE 3. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.

20% Iodine solution. dil. 10% Lactic acid. 25% Lactic acid.8 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon dioxide. moist Hydrobromic acid. LLC .Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. dry Chlorine gas. 30% Hypochlorous acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 15% Citric acid. Hydrobromic acid. conc. wet Chlorine. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid to 25% Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Magnesium chloride 8F 350 210 X 350 110 90 140 140 80 200 200 X X X X X X 150 220 220 180 220 220 220 X X 100 X 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 160 190 X 200 90 90 200 210 220 220 8C 177 99 X 177 43 32 60 60 27 93 93 X X X X X X 66 104 104 82 104 104 104 X X 38 X 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 104 71 88 X 93 32 32 93 99 104 104 (continued) 169 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Hydrochloric acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. conc.

Schweitzer.8 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Malic acid Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid.A. 90% Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 100% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 5th ed. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 5% Nitric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Source: From P. 10% Sulfuric acid. 1–4. 50% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 160 X X 130 160 100 X X X X 220 110 200 150 160 220 130 220 200 X 210 200 220 220 220 160 X X X X 110 X X 180 180 250 8C 71 X X 54 71 38 X X X X 104 43 93 66 71 104 54 104 93 X 99 93 104 104 104 71 X X X X 43 X X 82 82 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. anhydrous Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. conc. Vols. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Sodium hydroxide.. 50% Sulfuric acid.170 TABLE 3. LLC . fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2004.

50% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Boric acid Bromine.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 10% Carbon bisulfide Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chloroacetic acid. conc. 10% Acetic acid. 8F 200 160 X X X X 200 X 200 200 200 200 100 X 200 90 X 80 X 180 200 X X 210 X X 210 X X X X 120 210 210 180 X X X 90 210 210 X X 200 210 8C 93 71 X X X X 93 X 93 93 93 93 38 X 93 32 X 27 X 82 93 X X 99 X X 99 X X X X 49 99 99 82 X X X 32 99 99 X X 93 99 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride. wet Chloroform Chromic acid. liquid Butyl acetate n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite.9 Compatibility of Hydrogenated Bisphenol A–Bisphenol A Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. LLC 171 . 50% water Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine gas. 50% Citric acid. 15% Citric acid.

50% Sulfuric acid 70 % Sulfuric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 100% Hypochlorous acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 98% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 50–80% Sodium carbonate. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Hydrobromic acid. LLC . 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid 25 % Toluene 8F 210 210 210 210 X 210 X 210 200 200 210 210 90 90 180 190 X X X X 210 210 210 210 X X 190 90 X X X X 210 100 210 100 X X 160 210 210 90 X X X X 210 90 8C 99 99 99 99 X 99 X 99 93 93 99 99 32 32 82 88 X X X X 99 99 99 99 X X 88 32 X X X X 99 38 99 38 X X 71 99 99 32 X X X X 99 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. conc.172 TABLE 3. 10% Perchloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Lactic acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide.9 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 5% Oleum Perchloric acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.

A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. A noncombustible rating of 20 can be achieved. Table 3. hoods. alcohols. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.A. concentrated sulfuric acid. ducts.1 Typical Applications Bisphenol A resins find applications similar to the isophthalic resins but in areas requiring greater resistance to corrosion. They also resist neutral and acid salts.10 is a general application guide. 5th ed. These are also known as chlorendic polyesters.9 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 90 200 8C 32 93 173 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.5. 1–4. Excellent resistance is exhibited in contact with oxidizing acids and solutions such as 35% nitric acid at elevated temperatures. This fire retardancy is achieved by the addition of antimony trioxide. some of which may reach a temperature of 4008F (2048C). Schweitzer. aliphatic. New York: Marcel Dekker. primary and aromatic amines. organic acids. Corrosion Resistance Tables.. and 15% hypochlorites. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. They are also inherently fire retardant. 70% nitric acid at room temperature. Source: From P. wet chlorine.4 Halogenated Polyesters Halogenated resins consist of chlorinated or brominated polymers. Table 3. These resins have a very high heat distortion point. alkaline solutions with pH greater than 10. glycols. and acid halides. These laminates are routinely used as chimney liners at temperatures of 240–2808F (116–1388C). and other alkaline organics. 2004. or wherever a fire hazard might exist.11 provides the compatibility of halogenated polyesters with selected corrodents. These polymers are not resistant to highly alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide. 40% chromic acid. nonoxidizing acids. Incompatibility is shown by an X. phenols. The chlorinated polyester resins cured at room temperature and reinforced with fiberglass possess unique physical. These resins have the highest heat resistance of any chemically resistant polyester. ketones. and the laminates. making this the safest possible polyester for stacks. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. and fats and oils. 3. LLC .5. chlorine water. Vols. mercaptans. 3. organic esters. fans. and corrosion resistance properties. amides. mechanical.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. aldehydes.3. show very high retention of physical strength at elevated temperature upsets as in flue gas desulfurization scrubbers.

organic Fats and oils Glycols Ketones Mercaptans Phenol Salts. acid Salts. 10% Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate 8F X 140 90 110 100 X X X X 220 X X 200 120 90 170 160 250 8C X 60 32 43 38 X X X X 104 X X 93 49 32 77 71 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. distilled.174 TABLE 3. demineralized. 10% Aluminum chloride. mineral nonoxidizing Acids.11 Compatibility of Halogenated Polyester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. glacial acetic acid to 1208F/498C Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 1808F/828C Not recommended for continuous exposure Can cause severe attack Can cause severe attack Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 2008F/958C Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 1808F/828C Resistant to 1808F/828C Not recommended Resistant to 2508F/1218C Resistant to 2508F/1218C Resistant to 2128F/1008C. aqueous Aluminum fluoride. deionized. 10% Acetic acid. neutral Water. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum. steam and condensate Comments Not recommended Resistant to 2508F/1218C Resistant to 2508F/1218C. Lowest absorption of any polyester TABLE 3. aliphatic. LLC . 50% Acetic acid. other alkaline organics Esters. organic Alcohols Aldehydes Alkaline solutions pH O10 Amines.10 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers General Application Guide for Chlorinated Polyester Laminates Environment Acid halides Acids. primary aromatic Amides.

10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 20% 8F 150 140 200 200 200 140 140 90 90 200 140 150 200 120 100 190 200 X 120 200 X 250 250 X 180 X X 90 120 250 X X 190 180 100 100 X 80 100 X 200 X 150 210 250 250 X 80 8C 66 60 93 93 93 60 60 32 32 93 60 66 93 49 38 85 93 X 49 93 X 121 121 X 82 X X 32 49 121 X X 88 82 38 38 X 27 38 X 93 X 66 99 121 121 X 27 (continued) 175 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium fluoride. liquid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.11 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. Calcium Hypochlorite. dry Bromine gas. 20% Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 50% Aqua regia 3:1 Barium Carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. sat. Ammonium fluoride.

dil. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. wet Chlorine. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% 8F 220 150 250 140 X 250 250 X 170 120 160 80 100 90 200 220 X X X X 180 140 210 250 250 210 250 250 250 X 140 100 100 X 250 250 250 250 250 160 200 160 200 230 180 150 120 100 8C 104 66 121 60 X 121 121 X 77 49 71 27 38 32 93 104 X X X X 82 60 99 121 121 99 121 121 121 X 60 38 38 X 121 121 121 121 121 71 93 71 93 110 82 66 49 38 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc.176 TABLE 3. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. dry Carbon dioxide. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. dry Chlorine gas. 25% Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 30% Hydrochlorous acid.11 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Chromic acid. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid. LLC . 15% Citric acid.

70% Phenol. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 5% Nitric acid. conc. 70% Nitrous acid. 25% Lactic acid. 20% Nitric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 5% Phosphoric acid. 10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. LLC . Schweitzer.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. conc. 100% Sulfuric acid. 2004. conc. Vols. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. 10% Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. Source: From P. 70% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous Chloride Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide.11 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Lactic acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Sodium hypochlorite. fuming Sulfurous acid. 10% Perchloric acid.A. New York: Marcel Dekker. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Oleum Perchloric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 10% Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. 10% Sulfuric acid.. conc. Magnesium Chloride Malic acid. 1–4. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate. 5th ed. 50% White liquor Zinc chloridex 8F 200 200 250 90 80 X 80 190 210 80 80 90 X 90 90 90 250 100 230 130 190 250 110 X X X X X 80 250 260 200 190 X X X X 80 X 110 200 X 200 8C 93 93 121 32 27 X 27 88 99 27 27 32 X 32 32 32 121 38 110 54 88 121 43 X X X X X 27 121 127 93 88 X X X X 27 X 43 93 X 93 177 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.

5 Terephthalate Polyesters (PET) Terephthalate polyesters are based on terephthalic acid. 8F 300 300 X X X 80 170 300 170 8C 149 149 X X X 26 77 149 77 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. but as the unsaturation increases. the gasoline resistance reverses with the PET performing better. and chemical piping among other applications.5. They are also used for hightemperature applications such as chimney liners. fans. chemical storage tanks. 50% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Aluminum chloride aqueous Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. LLC . TABLE 3.12 Compatibility of Polyester Terephthalate (PET) with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. This follows the general trend for thermosets that as crosslink density increases. The trend was seen only at unsaturated acid levels of greater than 50 mol%. This was achieved with a reversal performance in 10% sodium hydroxide where the PETwith lower unsaturation was better than the isophthalic level. This trend is also followed where retention offlexural modulus is elevated for various terephthalic resins versus the standard grade isophthalic resin. with the terephthalics having higher heat distortion temperatures and being somewhat softer at equal saturation levels. Refer to Table 3.4. The properties of cured terephthalic-based polyesters are similar to those of isophthalic polyesters. Testing has indicated that the benzene resistance of comparably formulated resins is lower for PET versus isophthalic polyesters. and other areas where potential fire hazards may be present.12 for the compatibility of terephthalate polyester with selected corrodents. The PET’s corrosion resistance is fairly similar to the isophthalics. solvent resistance increases. the para isomer of phthalic acid.1 Typical Applications Halogenated polyesters are widely used in the pulp and paper industry in bleach atmospheres where they outperform stainless steel and high-nickel alloys. 3.178 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. 10% Acetic acid. Applications are also found for ductwork.5. The PET’s loss of properties in gasoline is greater than the isophthalics at the same level of unsaturation. sat.

50% Citric acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl ethyl ketone 8F 140 180 80 250 X 250 80 250 250 X X 250 80 250 200 80 250 250 250 250 250 X 80 80 250 250 250 150 170 170 X 80 X 250 170 250 250 250 250 90 80 X X X 250 250 250 250 8C 70 82 26 121 X 121 26 121 121 X X 121 27 121 93 27 121 121 121 121 121 X 27 27 121 121 121 66 77 77 X 27 X 121 77 121 121 121 121 32 27 X X X 121 121 121 121 (continued) 179 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Chlorine gas. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. conc. 100% Lactic acid. LLC . 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 15% Citric acid. wet Chloroform Chromic acid. Copper chloride Copper sulfate Cresol Cyclohexane Dichloroethane Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 50% Chlorine gas.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Boric acid Bromine liquid Butyl acetate Butyric acid Calcium chloride Calcium hypochlorite Carbon tetrachloride Chloroacetic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 20% Hydrochloric acid.

5. 10% Perchloric acid. Sodium hypochlorite.12 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 50–80% Sodium carbonate.5. LLC . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 5% Perchloric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. They dominated the reinforcing piping field until the introduction of the vinyl esters.A. 1–4. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 20% Sulfuric acid.1 Typical Applications The terephthalates are used in applications similar to those of the isophthalates but where corrosive conditions and temperatures are more moderate. 10% Sulfuric acid. 3. including adhesives. New York: Marcel Dekker. 98% Sulfuric acid. 3. 10% Sodium hydroxide. and molding compounds. 90% Sulfuric acid. fuming Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F X 90 150 X X X 250 250 250 150 X X 80 160 140 X X X X X 250 250 250 8C X 32 66 X X X 121 121 121 66 X X 27 71 60 X X X X X 121 121 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 2004. Schweitzer. encapsulants. tooling compounds. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. They find usage in many applications. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Sulfuric acid. Their versatility is due to the wide latitude in properties that can be achieved by formulation. Vols. 100% Sulfuric acid. composites.. 50% Sulfuric acid. conc.180 TABLE 3. Source: From P. coatings. and they are still widely used. 10% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid.6 Epoxy Polyesters Epoxy-based thermosets are the most widely used and versatile thermosets. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5th ed.

n is 2 or greater. and parts where superior thermal properties and high resistance to solvents and chemicals are required. the n in the structured formula is generally less than 1. These materials are used as transfer molding powders. Figure 3. 3. for solid resins. and curing agents are available that permit the epoxy formulator to tailor the epoxy system to meet the needs of each application.Thermoset Polymers 181 A large variety of epoxy resins. Two or more epoxide groups per molecule are required to form a cross-linked network. Solids with very high meeting points have n values as high as 20.1 Resin Types The epoxide or oxirane functionality is a three membered carbon-oxygencarbon ring. For liquid resins. The chemical structure is shown in Figure 3.2-epoxide is ethylene oxide: O CH2 CH2 A common term used in naming epoxy resins is the term “glycidyl. modifiers.4. They are produced by reacting a novolac resin.6. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The most widely used thermoset epoxy is the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). By controlling operating conditions and varying the ratio of epichlorohydrin to bisphenol A. It is available in both liquid and solid forms.5 shows the general structure.” The terminology for the glycidyl group: O CH2 CHCH2 comes from the trivially named glycidyl O CH2 CHCH2OH and glycidic acid: O CH2 CHCOOH Figure 3.4 illustrates the structures of the most common epoxy resins in use today. LLC . electrical laminates. The novolacs are another class of epoxy resins. products of different molecular weight can be produced. The simplest 1. usually formed by the reaction of o-cresol or phenol and formaldehyde with epichlorohydrin.

and Lewis acid catalysts. Cross-linking takes place at the epoxy and hydroxyl groups that are the reaction sites.4 Common commercial epoxy resins. anhydrides.4 epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3.2 Curing Epoxy resins must be cured with cross-linking agents (hardeners) or catalysts to develop desired properties. aldehyde condensation products.4epoxycyclohexane carboxylate O CH CH2 O Vinyl cyclohexane diepoxide O CH3 (CH2)2 CH2 O CH2 CH CH2 Butyl glycidyl ether CH3 O O CH3 CH CH2 O C O CH2 CH CH2 CH3 Diglycidyl ether of neopentyl glycol FIGURE 3.182 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers O CH2 CH2 O CH3 C OH O CH2 CH CH2 O n CH3 O CH3 O O CH2 CH CH2 CH3 Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol-A O CH2 CH CH2 O CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol-F O O CH2 CH CH2 CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 Glycidyl ether of phenolic novolac n O O CH CH2 CH2 CH N CH2 N CH CH2 CH2 CH O O Tetraglycidyl ether of Methylenedianiline O O CH2 O C O 3. Useful agents are amines. 3. LLC . To achieve a balance of application properties and initial handling q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.6.

2. 3.2. and offer optimum high-temperature properties to the cured resin. catalytic curing agents.6. aliphatic amines. 3. The electrical and physical properties of these aliphatic-cured resins had the greatest tendency toward degradation of electrical and physical properties at elevated temperatures. Epoxies cured with aromatic amines usually have a longer working life than epoxies cured with aliphatic amines.4 Acid Anhydrides These curing agents are becoming more widely used because they are easy to work with. 3.2 Aliphatic Amines These are widely used because the curing of the epoxies takes place at room temperature.3 Catalytic Curing Agents Catalytic curing agents require a temperature of 2008F (938C) or higher to react. Typical aliphatic amines used include diethylene triamine (DETA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA).2. However. characteristics.6. 3.1 Aromatic Amines Aromatic amines usually require an elevated temperature cure. These curing agents are relatively difficult to use because they are solids and must be melted into the epoxy.6. have minimum toxicity problems compared with amines.5 General structure of novolac epoxy resins.Thermoset Polymers 183 O O CH2 CH CH2 O CH2 CH O CH2 O CH2 CH O CH2 CH2 CH2 n FIGURE 3.2. boron trifluoride ethylamine complex.6. These epoxy formulations exhibit a longer working life than the aliphatic amine cured epoxies. The exothermic reaction may be critically affected by the mass of the resin mixture. careful selection of the proper curing agent is required. LLC . Typical acid q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The primary types of curing agents are aromatic amines. and acid anhydrides. Typical materials used include piperidine. and benzyl dimethylamine (BDMA). the allowable operating temperature for epoxies cured with aromatic amines are higher than those epoxies cured with aliphatic amines. High exothermic temperatures develop during the curing reaction that limit the mass of material that can be cured.

13 for the compatibility of epoxies with selected corrodents.6. 3. 70% Methylene chloride Wet chlorine gas Hydrogen peroxide Wet sulfur dioxide Refer to Table 3. hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA). 10% (1508F (668C)) Benzoic acid Butyric acid Fatty acids Hydrochloric acid. encapsulating. 3. Refer to Reference [2] for more details. and many solvents. Embedding applications (potting. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dodecenyl succenic anhydride (DDSA). casting.3 Corrosion Resistance The epoxy resin family exhibits good resistance to alkalies. Formulations range from flexible to rigid in the cured state and from thin liquids to thick pastes and molding powders in the uncured state.4 Typical Applications Epoxy resins find many applications in the chemical process industry as piping. 10% Aluminum Calcium Iron Alcohols Methyl Ethyl Magnesium hydroxide Distilled water Seawater White liquor Bromine water Chromic acid Bleaches Trisodium phosphate Salts Magnesium Sodium Metallic salts Most ammonium salts Potassium Solvents Isopropyl to 1508F (668C) Naphtha Benzene to 1508F (668C) Toluene Ethylacetate to 1508F Xylene (668C) Miscellaneous Sour crude oil Diesel fuel Jet fuel Black liquor Gasoline Epoxies are not satisfactory for use with Fluorine Sulfuric acid above. 10% Sulfamic acid.184 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers anhydrides used include nadic methyl anhydride (NMA). 50% to 1808F (828C) Sodium sulfide. Typically. non-oxidizing acids. LLC . and alkendic anyhydride.6. 20% to 1808F (828C) Bases Calcium hydroxide Rayon spin bath Oxalic acid Sodium hydroxide. and impregnating) in molded parts and laminated construction are the predominant uses. epoxies are compatible with the following materials at 2008F (938C) unless otherwise noted: Acids Acetic acid. They are also widely used in the electronics field because of the wide variety of formulations possible.

10% Benzoic acid 8F 150 90 190 110 110 X 110 X X 90 250 X 140 300 300 90 180 180 250 300 210 90 140 180 150 140 150 250 250 140 300 100 80 140 80 150 180 X 240 250 200 250 300 X 160 160 200 8C 66 32 88 43 43 X 43 X X 32 121 X 60 149 149 32 82 82 121 149 99 32 60 82 60 60 66 121 121 60 149 38 27 60 27 66 82 X 116 121 93 121 149 X 71 71 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. dry Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 50% Acetic acid. 1% Aluminum chloride. aqueous. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 80% Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride.13 Compatibility of Epoxy with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas. Ammonium nitrate. sat. 10% Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. LLC 185 .

50% Citric acid. 50% 8F X 60 250 200 X X X 100 170 140 X 210 200 300 200 190 180 150 250 250 X 100 200 100 80 170 200 140 150 X 150 X 150 110 X 110 X 190 190 200 150 250 150 210 100 80 80 8C X 16 121 93 X X X 38 77 60 X 99 93 149 93 88 82 66 121 121 X 38 93 38 27 77 93 60 66 X 66 X 66 43 X 43 X 88 88 93 66 121 66 99 38 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.186 TABLE 3. sat. LLC . liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride. dry Chlorine gas. 5% Cupric chloride. dry Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. Calcium hypochlorite. moist Bromine. 4% Bromine gas. 37. 92% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 70% Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Calcium acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 17% Cresol Cupric chloride. dry Bromine gas.5% Calcium hydroxide.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid. 15% Citric acid. 32% Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate. 10% Chromic acid.

general Lactic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. dry Hydrobromic acid. dil. 50% Sodium hypochlorite. Oleum Perchloric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. conc. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Magnesium chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 8F 90 80 X X 300 300 250 250 250 90 180 180 110 200 140 160 X X X 200 X 220 200 190 X 90 140 140 160 100 X X X X 90 80 X 110 80 200 140 300 210 190 200 X X 8C 32 27 X X 149 149 121 121 121 32 82 82 43 93 60 71 X X X 93 X 104 93 88 X 32 60 60 71 38 X X X X 32 27 X 43 27 93 60 149 99 88 93 X X (continued) 187 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.13 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. LLC . 5% Nitric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. 20% Nitric acid. 38% Hydro cyanic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. conc. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.

A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. The structural formulas for typical vinyl ester resins are shown in Figure 3. Present-day vinyl esters possess several advantages over unsaturated polyesters. Over the next several years. Source: From P. changes in the molecular structure of the vinyl esters produced resins that found extensive use in corrosion-resistant equipment. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Vinyl esters were first used as dental fillings.6. They provide improved toughness in the cured polymer while maintaining good thermal stability and physical properties at elevated temperatures. 100% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 10% Sulfuric acid. 20% Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 250 200 160 140 110 110 X X X X 240 X 150 X 90 250 8C 121 93 71 60 43 43 X X X X 116 X 66 X 32 121 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.. 90% Sulfuric acid. 2004. 3. 50% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed.188 TABLE 3. Vols. These resins have improved bonding to inorganic fillers and reinforcements as a result of the internal hydroxyl group. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Vinyl ester resins are also available in halogenated modifications for ductwork and stack construction where fire retardance and ignition q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Schweitzer.A. fuming Sulfurous acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Composites produced from vinyl esters have improved bonding to the reinforcements and improved damage resistance.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium sulfide to 10% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 1–4. This improved toughness permits the resins to be used in castings as well as in reinforced products.7 Vinyl Esters The vinyl ester class of resins was developed during the late 1950s and early 1960s. replacing acrylic materials that were being used at that time.

4. The family of vinyl esters includes a wide variety of formulations. They cure rapidly and give high early strength and superior creep resistance as a result of their molecular structure. highly chlorinated. These resins can be used at 325–3508F (163–1778C). The vinyl esters have better impact resistance and greater tolerance to cyclic temperatures. LLC . resistance are major concerns. Vinyl ester laminates have slightly higher strengths than polyesters. 2. and acid mixtures at elevated temperatures. there can be differences in the compatibility of formulations among q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. This results in a tough laminate that is resistant to cracking and crazing. In many cases. vinyl esters can be used to handle most hot. Vinyl esters have a number of basic advantages including: 1. Vinyl esters excel in alkaline and bleach environments and are used extensively in the very corrosive conditions found in the pulp and paper industry. In general. Exceptions to this are the vinyl ester resins having a novolac backbone.6 Structural formula for typical vinyl ester resins. but they are not as high as the heat-cured epoxies. They also provide excellent resistance to strong mineral acids and bleaching solutions. they are similar to the amine-cured epoxies but less than the heat-cured epoxies.Thermoset Polymers 189 CH3 O H2C C C OH CH3 C CH3 DGEBA vinyl ester OH O CH3 C O CH2 CH CH2 O O CH2 CH CH2 O C C CH2 n O CH3 OH CH CH2 O C C CH2 CH2 O CH2 O CH3 OH CH CH2 O C C CH2 CH2 O CH2 O CH3 OH CH CH2 O C C CH2 CH2 O n Phenolic novalac vinyl ester FIGURE 3. They provide excellent fiber wet-out and good adhesion to the glass fiber. 5. and mechanical shock than the chlorendic and bisphenol polyester resins. 3. Because of the basic structure of the vinyl ester molecule. As a result. it is more resistant to hydrolysis and oxidation or halogenation than the polyesters. The vinyl ester resins have an upper temperature limit of approximately 2258F (1078C). pressure fluctuations.

10% Ammonium fluoride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.190 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers manufacturers. one must keep in mind that all formulations may not act as shown. When one checks compatibility in a table. This is the case in Table 3. 10% Acetic acid. sat.14 Compatibility of Vinyl Ester with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . 10% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 80% Acetic acid.14 that shows the compatibility of TABLE 3. 50% Acetic acid. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite 8F X 200 180 150 150 100 X X 100 X 180 90 90 240 210 260 140 100 200 200 250 100 150 150 200 200 200 140 140 100 130 250 180 200 220 120 220 8C X 93 82 66 66 38 X X 38 X 82 32 32 116 99 127 60 38 93 93 121 38 66 66 93 93 93 60 60 38 54 121 82 93 104 49 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonia bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. An indication that vinyl ester is compatible generally means that at least one formulation is compatible.

liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. moist Bromine. dry Bromine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% water 8F 110 210 120 X 160 X 260 200 150 200 180 X X 200 180 100 90 210 200 100 100 X 80 120 X 130 180 180 260 180 180 180 180 210 160 250 220 X 200 220 X 350 180 120 140 150 8C 38 99 49 X 71 X 127 93 66 93 82 X X 93 82 38 32 99 93 38 38 X 27 49 X 54 82 82 127 82 82 82 82 99 71 116 104 X 93 104 X 177 82 49 60 66 (continued) 191 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 10% Calcium hydroxide. LLC . sat.

100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. dry Fluorine gas. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.14 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Ketones. Magnesium chloride 8F 200 250 250 X 110 X X 150 X 210 210 210 210 220 210 240 X 260 220 150 150 200 100 110 210 210 210 200 200 200 X X 180 180 200 220 180 160 X X X 150 150 X 210 200 260 8C 93 121 121 X 43 X X 66 X 99 99 99 99 104 99 116 X 127 104 66 66 93 38 43 99 99 99 93 93 93 X X 82 82 93 104 82 71 X X X 66 66 X 99 93 127 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. conc. 15% Citric acid. 25% Lactic acid. wet Chlorine. 20% Hydrobromic acid. dry Chlorine gas. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. LLC . liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. general Lactic acid. Hydrobromic acid. dil. conc. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid.192 TABLE 3. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid.

Sodium hypochlorite. 100% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. 10% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. LLC . conc. Schweitzer.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 70% Nitric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Oleum Perchloric acid. 10% Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid.A. 2004. Source: From P. 90% Sulfuric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 1–4. 5% Nitric acid. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sodium hydroxide. fuming Sulfurous acid. 50% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 140 210 X X 180 180 150 X X 150 X 150 X X 210 200 160 150 180 180 170 220 180 100 220 210 200 200 210 180 X X X X 120 X 120 210 180 180 8C 60 99 X X 82 82 66 X X 66 X 66 X X 99 93 71 66 82 82 77 104 82 38 104 99 93 93 99 82 X X X X 49 X 49 99 82 82 193 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50% Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 5th ed. 98% Sulfuric acid. Vols. conc. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Malic acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Perchloric acid.

Reference [2] provides detailed information concerning vinyl esters as piping materials. and exhaust stacks. process vessels. Curing for a fresh laminate should start with an initial temperature of 508F (668C) for 4 h. storage tanks. The structural formula for the resin is: O CH2 O CH2 CH2 O O CH2 Furan thermosets are noted for their excellent resistance to solvents. which generates heat and a by-product of water. Furan resin catalysts should have exotherms above 658F (188C) but not over 858F (308C).8 Furans Furan polymers are derivatives of furfuryl alcohol and furfural. Because there are different formulations of furans. The exotherm must be controlled to prevent the water vapor from blistering and cracking the laminate. They also exhibit excellent resistance to strong concentrated mineral acids. All furan laminates must be postured to drive out the reaction condensate to achieve optimum properties. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. A final Barcol hardness of 40–45 is necessary to develop optimum laminate properties. which all handling corrosive materials. hood scrubbers. and combinations of solvents with acids and bases. LLC . piping. which is slowly raised to 1808F (828C) for 8 h of curing. 3. 3. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.194 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers vinyl ester laminates with selected corrodents. With an acid catalyst. The resin manufacturer must be consulted to verify the resistance. They are considered to have the best overall chemical resistance of all the thermosets. Too fast a cure can result in a blistered or cracked laminate.7.1 Typical Applications Vinyl ester laminates are used in industrial equipment and scrubbers such as absorption towers. caustics. the supplier should be consulted as to the compatibility of a particular resin with the corrodents to be encountered. ducts. polymerization occurs by the condensation route.

dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum sulfate Ammonium carbonate 8F X 212 160 80 80 80 80 200 80 80 280 300 300 140 300 300 280 260 160 240 8C X 100 71 27 27 27 27 93 27 27 138 149 149 60 149 149 138 127 71 116 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid. LLC . peroxides. 5% Phosphoric acid Bases Sodium sulfide Water Distilled Others Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Trichloroethylene Xylene Sulfuric acid. 5% Aluminum chloride.15 Compatibility of Furan Resins with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. 50% Furan resins are not satisfactory for use with oxidizing media such as chromic or nitric acids. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. 60% to 1508F (668C) Sodium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid. and concentrated sulfuric acid. chlorine.15 for the compatibility of furan resins with selected corrodents. 10% Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Refer to Table 3. TABLE 3. 25% Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum.Thermoset Polymers 195 Typical materials with which furan resins are compatible are: Acetone Benzene Carbon disulfide Chlorobenzene Perchloroethylene Acetic acid Hydrochloric acid Diethylamine Sodium carbonate Demineralized Pulp mill liquor Solvents Styrene Toluene Ethanol Ethyl acetate Acids Nitric acid. hypochlorites. phenol. 50% Acetic acid.

moist Bromine. 3% max Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . dry Bromine gas. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. sat. dry Carbon dioxide. sat.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.196 TABLE 3. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Cellosolve 8F 250 200 250 260 260 260 260 240 260 278 X 80 250 X 240 260 260 260 80 160 160 260 80 140 140 300 X X 300 260 212 X 260 260 160 260 X 260 260 250 160 90 80 260 212 240 8C 121 93 121 127 127 127 127 116 127 137 X 27 121 X 116 127 127 127 27 71 71 127 27 60 60 149 X X 149 127 100 X 127 127 71 127 X 127 127 121 71 32 27 127 100 116 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

conc. LLC . 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. general Lactic acid. Magnesium chloride 8F 100 240 260 260 X 260 X 260 X X 250 250 250 260 260 240 300 260 300 300 140 X 250 160 260 160 160 160 X X 212 212 212 212 80 160 230 140 140 X X 100 212 160 260 8C 38 116 127 127 X 127 X 127 X X 121 121 121 127 127 116 149 127 149 149 60 X 121 71 127 71 71 71 X X 100 100 100 100 27 71 110 60 60 X X 38 100 71 127 (continued) 197 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 15% Citric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. conc. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. Hydrobromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Ketones. 5% Cupric chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Chromic acid. wet Chlorine. dry Fluorine gas.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroacetic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 50% Hydrochloric acid. dry Chlorine gas. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.

10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 100% Sulfuric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. conc. 10% Perchloric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available.. 70% Nitric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. conc. 15% Sodium hypochlorite. Sodium sulfide to 10% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. LLC . Source: From P. 10% Sulfuric acid.198 TABLE 3.A. Sodium hypochlorite. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 90% Sulfuric acid. 5% Nitric acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Vols. anhydrous Nitrous acid. A blank space indicates that data are unavailable. 2004. 1–4. 5th ed.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Malic acid. 30% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 260 200 120 80 160 80 X X X X X 190 X 260 X 212 260 260 212 260 X X X X X 260 260 250 160 80 80 X X X X 160 X 212 80 140 160 8C 127 93 49 27 71 27 X X X X X 88 X 127 X 100 127 127 100 127 X X X X X 127 127 121 71 27 27 X X X X 71 X 100 27 60 71 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. New York: Marcel Dekker. conc.

Bakeland.8. the water-resistant adhesive for exterior grade plywood. formic. alcohols and ketones. Refer to Table 3. and special equipment such as scrubbing columns. and the catalysts.Thermoset Polymers 199 3. can attack phenolics. An extremely large number of phenolic materials are available as a result of the many resin and filler combinations. There is some loss of properties when phenolics are in contact with organic acids such as acetic. Sulfuric and phosphoric acids may be suitable under some conditions. and acids such as nitric. Refer to Reference [2] for more information regarding furan piping systems. plasticizers. Phenolic resins exhibit resistance to most organic solvents. They find application as piping. and q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Although phenolics have an aromatic character. depending on the nature of the reactants. after the “heat and pressure” patent was applied for in 1907 by Leo H. Although first discovered in 1876. 3. and oxalic. fillers. it was not until.1 Typical Applications Furan resins cost approximately 30–50% more than polyester resins and do not have as good of an impact resistance as the polyesters. LLC . clutch parts. chromic. lubricants. Strong mineral acids also attack the phenolics. tanks. They serve as binders for core material in furniture. phenolics are used to bond friction materials for automotive brake linings. Phenolic resin precursors are formed by a condensation reaction and water is formed as a by-product. The structural formula is: OH CH2 O CH2 OH n Phenolic compounds are available in a large number of variations.1 Typical Applications In addition to molding compounds. 3.16 for the compatibility of phenolics with.9. the ratios used. and hydrochloric cause severe degradation. the phenolic hydroxyls provide sites for hydrogen bonding and attack by caustics. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. especially aromatics and chlorinated solvents. Organic polar solvents capable of hydrogen bonding. Phenolics are not suitable for use in strong alkaline environments. that the development and application of phenolic molding compounds became economical. and pigments employed. and transmission bands. selected corrodents. binders for wood particle boards.9 Phenolics These are the oldest commercial classes of polymers in use today.

50% Acetic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride 8F 8C 212 100 70 70 X 21 21 X 90 32 300 90 90 80 80 80 149 32 32 27 27 27 X X 160 X X 71 300 149 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. aqueous Aluminum chloride. sat. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.16 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Phenolics with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. sat. Ammonium fluoride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonia bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid.200 TABLE 3. 10% Ammonium chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. LLC . 80% Acetic acid.

dry Chlorine gas. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 25% Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyl phthalate Butyric acid. 10% Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. 10% 8F 8C 201 70 160 70 21 71 21 70 21 X X 160 71 300 149 X X 300 300 149 149 200 200 93 93 X X 260 160 X X X 127 71 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Chlorine.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. LLC . Calcium hypochlorite. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. moist Bromine. dry Bromine gas.

general Lactic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 10% Ketones. 60% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% 8F X 160 160 8C X 71 71 300 149 70 300 300 21 149 149 200 200 200 300 300 X X X 93 93 93 149 149 X X X 160 71 160 X 160 300 X X 71 X 71 149 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. dry Fluorine gas. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. conc. LLC .16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. 5% Nitric acid. dil.202 TABLE 3. 20% Hydrobromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 10–50% Ferrous chloride. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 40% Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 15% Citric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid. conc.

30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Oleum Perchloric acid. conc. the bonding agent for converting organic and inorganic fibers into acoustical and thermal insulation pads. LLC . and automotive applications. 70% Sulfuric acid.. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Vols.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Nitric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 1–4. anhydrous Nitrous acid. Decorative or electrical laminates are produced by impregnating paper with phenolic resins. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid.A. 100% Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Schweitzer. 98% Sulfuric acid. They also find applications as gears. conc. 70% Nitric acid. baths. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. 15% Sodium hypochlorite. or cushioning for home. Sodium sulfide to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. industrial. 50% Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 5th ed. 2004. Source: From P. New York: Marcel Dekker. 30% White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 8C X X 203 X 212 X 100 300 X X X X X 149 X X X X X 250 250 200 70 X X 80 200 121 121 93 21 X X 27 93 300 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. The excellent water resistance of phenolics makes them particularly suitable for marine applications.

10.204 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers wheels. they have somewhat poor resistance to electric arcs. and pulleys because of their wear and abrasion resistance. Second. When graphite is used as a filler. the laminate is suitable for use with hydrofluoric acid and certain fluoride salts. a division of Ametek. However. wheels. they are used in printed circuits and terminal blocks. Reference [1] provides a more comprehensive listing. It is sold under the tradename of Haveg SP. reaching 14% in some paper-based grades of laminates. in general. salts. 3. Although they maintain their properties in the presence of water. it does not have the impact resistance of the polyesters or epoxies. Because of their suitability in a variety of environments.7 Structural formula for phenol-formaldehyde resins. Phenol-formaldehyde laminates are generally used with mineral acids. produces a phenolic piping system using silica filaments and filler. 3. Haveg. because of the nature of the resin.10 Phenol-Formaldehyde As the name implies. and even though high filler loading can improve the low-power arc resistance. and piping. Refer to Reference [2] for more details. and pulleys. dirt. terminal blocks.7. printed circuits. The laminates are only available in dark colors. and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. their water absorption is high. has approximately the same basic physical and mechanical properties as other phenolic resins. Reference [2] provides details on phenol-formaldehyde H C H H H C H FIGURE 3. Their use is limited because of two disadvantages. usually brown or black. LLC H OH OH C C C C C H H H C C C C H C H H C C C C C . moisture. Inc. Refer to Table 3. these resins are derived from phenol and formaldehyde.17 for the compatibility of phenol-formaldehyde with selected corrodents. or high voltage usually result in complete arcing breakdown.1 Typical Applications Applications include gears. Phenol-formaldehyde is crosslinked phenolic resin and. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The structural formula is shown in Figure 3.

wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. dry Aluminum sulfate Ammonium hydroxide. sat. liquid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid. 8F X 212 160 120 120 X X 80 X 300 300 300 X X 160 X X 160 160 160 300 300 260 300 X X X 160 212 160 160 160 80 X X 300 300 300 80 300 300 300 212 8C X 100 71 49 49 X X 27 X 149 149 149 X X 71 X X 71 71 71 149 149 127 149 X X X 71 100 71 71 71 27 X X 149 149 149 27 149 149 149 100 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 10% Chromic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 80% Acetic acid. LLC 205 . 10% Benzyl chloride Boric acid Bromine. dil. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 40% Hydrobromic acid. Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia 3:1 Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 3% max Butyric acid Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 90% Acrylonitrile Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hypochlorite Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorine gas. dry Chlorine gas.17 Compatibility of Phenol-Formaldehyde with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.

conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 2004. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid.A. Corrosion Resistance Tables. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 5th ed. 5% Nitric acid. Sulfuric acid.206 TABLE 3. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. Phenol-formaldehyde resins have high heat resistance and good char strengths. rocket nozzles. they find application as ablative shields for re-entry vehicles. conc. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 30% Zinc chloride 8F 212 300 300 160 X X X X 160 160 300 X X 300 X X X X X 212 X X X X X X 300 300 250 100 160 80 212 80 300 8C 100 149 149 71 X X X X 71 71 149 X X 149 X X X X X 100 X X X X X X 149 149 121 38 71 27 100 27 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. anhydrous Phenol Phosphoric acid.17 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrobromic acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which date are available. conc. Vols. Schweitzer. They also produce less smoke and toxic by-products of combustion and are often used as interior aircraft panels. 1–4. 10% Sulfuric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 15% Sodium hypochlorite. 25% Lactic acid. nose cones. New York: Marcel Dekker. Sodium hypochlorite. Because of this. piping systems. and rocket motor chambers.. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 10% Lactic acid. 70% Nitric acid. Source: From P. 90% Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid. 50% Sodium carbonate Sodium hydroxide. 38% Hydrocyanic acid.

high-temperature steam. They are also resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. animal and vegetable oils. The silicones are a family of synthetic polymers that are partly organic and inorganic.Thermoset Polymers 207 3. Silicone polymers possess several properties that distinguish them from their organic counterparts. generally phenol (CH6H5–). Extreme water repellency 4. methyl (CH3). and lubrication oils. the silicon atoms will have one or more organic side groups attached to them. They have a backbone structure of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms rather than a backbone of carbon–carbon atoms. Inertness and compatibility both physiologically and in electronic applications Silicone resins and composites produced with silicon resins exhibit outstanding long-term thermal stability at temperatures approaching 5728F (3008C) and excellent moisture resistance and electrical properties. but aromatic solvents such as benzene. Weather resistance 3. alcohol. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and reactivity with organic chemicals and polymers. LLC . Low surface tension 7. High degree of slip or lubricity 8. Uniform properties over a wide temperature range 5. These groups impact properties such as solvent resistance. they are not resistant to high-pressure. or vinyl (CH2aCH–) units. Excellent release properties 9. Excellent electrical properties over a wide range of temperature and frequencies 6. and chlorinated solvents will cause excessive swelling.11 Silicones Silicon is in the same chemical group as carbon. lubricity. Silicone laminates can be used in contact with dilute acids and alkalies. These are 1. These materials are also useful in the cryogenic temperature range. Silicone polymers may be filled or unfilled. Chemical inertness 2. Although they exhibit excellent resistance to water and weathering. gasoline. but it is a more stable element. toluene. depending upon the properties required and the application. The basic structure is: CH3 Si CH3 O CH3 Si CH3 O n Typically.

18 Compatibility of Methyl Appended Silicone Laminate with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. the silicon atoms may have one or more organic side groups attached. it is necessary to check with the supplier as to the properties of the silicone laminate being supplied. 10% Acetic acid. Therefore. glacial Acetone Acrylic acid. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium nitrate Amly acetate Amly alcohol Amly chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia 3:1 Benzene Benzyl chloride Boric acid Butyl alcohol Calcium bisulfide Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. Table 3. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. sat. 80% Acetic acid. The addition of these side groups has an effect on the corrosion resistance.18 lists the compatibility of a silicone laminate with methyl-appended side groups.208 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers As previously discussed. 75% Acrylonitrile Alum Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride. TABLE 3. 50% Acetic acid. 20% 8F 90 90 90 90 100 80 X 220 410 X 80 80 80 X 210 80 X X X 80 X X X 390 80 400 300 200 400 X X 400 400 X X 400 400 X 90 8C 32 32 32 32 43 27 X 104 210 X 27 27 27 X 99 27 X X X 27 X X X 189 27 204 149 99 204 X X 204 204 X X 204 204 X 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. LLC . Carbon bisulfide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbonic acid Chlorobenszen Chlorosulfonic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Hydrobromic acid.

5% Nitric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Tartaric acid Tetrahydrofuran Toluene Tributyl phosphate Turpentine Vinegar Water.18 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrochloric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid. LLC . New York: Marcel Dekker. sea Xylene Zinc chloride 8F X X 80 80 400 410 X X 80 X X X X X X 400 300 400 90 90 90 X 400 80 X X X X X X X X 400 X X X X 400 210 210 210 210 210 X 400 8C X X 27 27 204 210 X X 23 X X X X X X 204 149 204 32 32 32 X 204 27 X X X X X X X X 204 X X X X 204 99 99 99 99 99 X 204 209 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 98% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 90% Sulfuric acid. salt Water. 5th ed. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sodium hydroxide.. conc. conc. Source: From P. 2004. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature. distilled Water. Corrosion Resistance Tables.A. Vols. Magnesium chloride Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. Schweitzer. 70% Sulfuric acid. demineralized Water. 20% Nitric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 30% Lactic acid. acid mine Water. 20% Sodium sulfate Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. all conc.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. 1–4. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 50–80% Propyl alcohol Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride. Sodium hypochlorite. anhydrous Oleum Phenol Phosphoric acid. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. Lactic acid. 100% Sulfuric acid.

The operating temperature will be tempered by the material being handled. The absence of the hydroxyl (found in epoxies) and ester groups (found in vinyl esters) eliminates the built-in failure modes of other polymers and provides superior performance.12 Siloxirane Siloxirane is the registered trademark for Tankenitics homopolymerized polymer with a cross-linked organic–inorganic (SiO) backbone with oxirane endcaps.210 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 3. rocket components. slot wedges.1 Typical Applications Silicone laminates find application as radomes. Following is a list of some of the chemicals with which siloxirane is compatible: Acetamide Acetic acid. coil forms. and terminal boards. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. 17% Sodium hypochlorite.11. 50% Dibutyl phthalate Dichlorobenzene Dimethylformamide Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ferric chloride Formaldehyde Furan Furfural alcohol Gasohol Gasoline Green liquor Hydraulic oil Hydrazine Hydrochloric acid. structures in electronics. Siloxirane is a homopolymerized polymer with an ether crosslinkage (carbon–oxygen–carbon) having a very dense. 10% Chromic acid. 3. 85% Sodium chloride Sodium dichromate Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite. The end products are extremely resistant to material abrasion and have an operating temperature range of K80 to C5008F (K62 to C2608C). 52% Iodine Jet fuel Kerosene Ketones Latex Methanol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Methylene chloride Molten sulfur Monochloroacetic acid Nickel plating solutions Nitrous oxide Phosphoric acid Phosphoric acid. ablation shields. aged Sulfate liquor (paper) Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid. Siloxirane laminates have a wide range of chemical resistance. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Aluminum chloride Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide Aqua regia Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Black liquor Bromine hypochlorite Carbon tetrachloride Chloric acid Chlorine water Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chromic acid. 1–98% Sulfuric acid. 0–37% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 1% Hydrochloric acid. salt White liquor (paper) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. fuming oleum Tallow Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroethylene Tricresyl phosphate Water. deionized Water. highly cross-linked molecular structure. heaters.

Consequently. aliphatic. LLC .14 Melamines Melamine is a polymer formed by a condensation reaction between formaldehyde and amino compounds containing NH2 groups. polar solvents. prepolymers of the isocyanate and the polyol are generally used in casting. Polyurethane resin is resistant to most mineral and vegetable oils.12. and fatty foods. fuels. ductwork. Polyurethanes can be formulated to produce a range of materials from elastomers as soft as Shore A of 5 to tough solids with a Shore D of 90. However. Flexible foam has also been used in furniture. This makes these materials particularly useful for service in contact with lubricating oils and automotive fuels. depending on the formulation. and tank liners. They are used in refrigerators. and curing agents. Their structural formula is shown in Figure 3. Class 11 vessels may be a maximum of 144 inches in diameter.8. storage tanks.13. and chlorinated hydrocarbons. butane-diol-cured polyurethanes have been approved by the FDA for use in applications that will come into contact with dry. and shock and vibration mounts. aqueous.13 Polyurethanes Polyurethanes are reaction products of isocyanates. picnic boxes. Melamine resin can be combined with a variety of reinforcing fibers. Foam materials blown with halocarbons have the lowest thermal conductivity of any commercially available insulation. and ketones will attack urethane. 3. 3. Polyurethane thermosets can be rigid or flexible. polyols. 3. esters. Some 1–4. and the product of pressure (psig) and the diameter in inches may not exceed 7200.1 Typical Applications Siloxirane laminates are used in piping.Thermoset Polymers 211 3. Because of the hazards involved in handling free isocyanate. and building construction. Aromatic hydrocarbons. They are also resistant to greases. the best properties are obtained when glass cloth is used as the q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. they are also referred to as melamine formaldehydes. packaging. Vessels produced from Siloxirane have been approved to receive ASME Section X Class 11 certification and stamping as code vessels.1 Typical Applications Applications include large automotive parts and building components.

Included are such materials as Beet juice Bluing Dyes Ink Iodine solution Mercurochrome solution Phenol (lysol) Tea Vinegar q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . greases. Finished melamine products exhibit excellent resistance to moisture. but some color changes may take place. resist scratching and marring. and offer excellent electrical properties. Melamine formulations filled with cellulose are capable of producing an unlimited range of light-stable colors with a high degree of translucency. Melamine laminates are compatible with the following chemicals: Acetone Alcohol Ammonium hydroxide. are selfextinguishing. The basic material properties are not affected by the addition of color. and solvents. are tasteless and odorless. oils. However.212 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers CH2 N H H CH2 N C N N C N H C N N H (CH2)2 N N C H C N N C N H (CH2)2 H N C N N C H C N CH2 N N H CH2 CH2 FIGURE 3. reinforcement material. 10% Amyl acetate Carbon tetrachloride Citric acid Coffee Detergent Fly spray Gasoline Moth spray Mustard Naphtha Olive oil Soaps Shoe polish Sodium bisulfite Trisodium phosphate Urine Water Wax and crayons There are certain chemicals and household preparations that tend to stain the melamine laminate. The clarity of melamine resins permits products to be fabricated in virtually any color. Melamines exposed outdoors suffer little degradation in electrical or physical properties. the stain can be removed by buffing with a mild abrasive.8 Structural formula for melamine-formaldehyde resins. Prolonged exposure at high temperature will affect the color and cause a loss of some strength characteristics. Low temperatures have relatively little effect on the properties of the melamine.

14. Because of their formulating flexibility. calcium carbonate. Alkyd compounds are chemically similar to polyester compounds but make use of higher viscosity or dry monomers.15 Alkyds Alkyds are saturated resins produced from the reaction of organic alcohols with organic acids. chemical resistance. They are still used for finishing by the machine tool and other industries. melamine-surfaced decorative laminates find wide application in the home. 3. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Typical Applications The heat resistance and water-white color of melamine polymers make them ideally suited for use in the home as high-quality molded dinnerware. 3. and electrical properties. The alkyds exhibit poor resistance to solvents and alkalies. LLC . Alkyd-modified acrylic latex paints are excellent architectural finishes. they are not as durable to long-term exposure as the acrylics. and their color and gloss retention are inferior. or any design.Thermoset Polymers 213 The following chemicals and household preparations may damage melamine laminates: Berry juices Gentian violet Hydrogen peroxide Hypochlorite bleaches Lye solutions Mineral acids Potassium permanganate Silver nitrate Silver protein (argyrol) Sodium bisulfate 3. Formulating can provide resins that demonstrate a wide variety of characteristics involving flexibility heat resistance.15. Alkyd compounds often contain glass fiber filler but may contain clay. they exhibit good resistance to weather. a wood grain. but their durability to exterior exposure is only fair. Their durability to interior exposure is good. sealers. and caulks for wood finishing. they are used in fillers. The decorative pattern may be a solid color.1 Typical Applications Alkyds are used for finishing metal and wood products but not to the degree previously used. or alumina. Their resistance to dilute acid is fair. The greatest limitations of alkyds are in the extremes of temperature above 3508F (1178C) and in high humidity. The ability to use any of the many suitable polyfunctional alcohols and acids permits selection of a large variation of repeating units. Although alkyds are used outdoors. However.

Amino polymers are self-extinguishing and have excellent electrical insulating properties.214 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers CH2 N C CH2 O CH2 N C CH2 N C CH2 O CH2 N C CH2 O CH2 N C N C CH2 O N CH2 O N C N CH2 O CH2 N CH2 O CH2 N N C CH2 O CH2 N N C CH2 O CH2 N N C CH2 O N N C CH2 O N FIGURE 3. The most commonly used filler for the amines is alpha cellulose. but the most commonly used are Diallyl phthlate (DAP) and diallyl isophthalate q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Basic material properties are unaffected by the addition of color.16 Ureas (Aminos) Ureas (commonly referred to as aminos) are polymers formed by condensation reactions and do not produce by-products. cracks develop. 3. Amino resins are used in modifying other resins to increase hardness and accelerate cure. Therefore. 3. the melamine resins exhibit better chemical. Certain strength characteristics also experience a loss when amino moldings are subjected to prolonged elevated temperatures. The addition of alpha cellulose produces an unlimited range of light-stable colors and high degrees of translucency. and resist scratching and marring. However.9 Chemical structure of urea-formaldehyde. When urea moldings are subjected to severe cycling between dry and wet conditions. greases. The general chemical structure of urea formaldehyde is shown in Figure 3. LLC .17 Allyls The allyls. they are often referred to as urea formaldehydes. and solvents.9. and moisture resistance than the amines. oils. are tasteless and odorless. They are reaction products of formaldehyde with amino compounds containing NH2 groups. are produced in several variations. or diallyl phthalates. Aminos are unsuitable for outdoor exposure. Finished products containing an amino resin surface exhibit excellent resistance to moisture. heat.

or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) where abrasion resistance and high heat distortion or impact resistance are required. It is also used to impregnate wood to reduce water absorption and increase impact. low resin bleed out. compressive.4 0. 3% Sulfuric acid.4 0. vinyl groups. 1% Sodium hydroxide.18 Polybutadienes Polybutadienes have essentially hydrocarbon structure as follows: CH CH CH2 CH2 The basic materials are monopolymers or copolymers that react through terminal hydroxyl groups.5 0. Allyl carbonate (diethylene glycol) is marketed as CR-39 by PPG Industries.3 0.9 DAIP K0. 3.Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3. When physical abuse is likely. or a combination of these materials.03 0. terminal carboxyl groups. 10% Sulfuric acid. DAP finds application for the impregnation of ferrous and nonferrous castings because of its low viscosity.19 Chemical Resistance of DAP and DAIP % Gain in Weight after 30 Days Immersion at 778F/258C Corrodent Acetone Sodium hydroxide. LLC . Refer to Table 3. and shear strengths. excellent sealing properties. DAP and DAIP glass laminates have high-temperature electrical properties superior to those of most other structural laminates.8 215 (DAIP). DAP and DAIP are seldom used as cast homopolymers except for small electrical parts because of their low tensile strength and impact resistance. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.6 0.8 0. The primary difference between the two is that DAIP will withstand somewhat higher temperatures than DAP. It is used largely in optical castings in competition with glass. 30% Water DAP 1.7 0.7 0.7 0.19 for the chemical resistance of DAP and DAIP. Cure cycles are shorter and little or no post cure is required to provide usable strength up to 4828F (2508C). and ease of cleanup. the polymer is provided with a glass or mineral filling.

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Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Polybutadiene polymers that have a 1,2 microstructure varying from 60 to 90% offer potential as moldings, laminating resins, coatings, and cast liquid and formed sheet products. Outstanding electrical and thermal stability results from the structure that is essentially pure hydrocarbon. Peroxide catalysts used to cure polybutadienes produce carbon–carbon double bonds in the vinyl group. The final product is 100% hydrocarbon except where the starting polymer is the –OH or –COOH radical. Poly BD marketed by Atochem North America, Inc. is a family of hydroxyl-terminated butadiene homopolymers and copolymers with styrene or acrylonitrile. These materials are usually reacted with isocyanates to produce polyurethanes that have excellent resistance to boiling water. The B. F. Goodrich Chemical Company produces monopolymers and copolymers with acrylonitrile. These are known as the Hylar series. Acrylonitrile increases the viscosity and imparts oil resistance, adhesion, and compatibility with epoxy resins. Carboxy-terminated butadieneacrylonitrile copolymer (CTBN) improves impact strength, low-temperature shear strength, and crack resistance in epoxy formulations. Amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymers (ATBN) are also used to modify epoxy resins. These are formulated on the amine-hardener side of the mix. Applications for these formulations include electrical potting compounds (with transformer oil) sealants and moisture block compounds for telephone cables. The hydrocarbon structure is responsible for the excellent resistance shown by polybutadiene to chemicals and solvents and for the electrical properties that are good over a range of frequencies, temperatures, and humidity, and resistance to high temperature. Refer to Table 3.20 for the compatibility of polybutadiene with selected corrodents.

TABLE 3.20 Compatibility of Polybutadiene with Selected Corrodents
Maximum Temperature Chemical Alum Alum ammonium Alum ammonium sulfate Alum chrome Alum potassium Aluminum chloride, aqueous Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride, 10% Ammonium chloride, 28% 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 (continued)

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Thermoset Polymers TABLE 3.20 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride, 50% Ammonium chloride, sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium sulfate, 10–40% Calcium chloride, sat. Calcium hypochlorite, sat. Carbon dioxide, wet Chlorine gas, wet Chrome alum Chromic acid, 10% Chromic acid, 30% Chromic acid, 40% Chromic acid, 50% Copper chloride Copper sulfate Fatty acids Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate Hydrochloric acid, dil. Hydrochloric acid, 20% Hydrochloric acid, 35% Hydrochloric acid, 38% Hydrochloric acid, 50% Hydrochloric acid fumes Hydrogen peroxide, 90% Hydrogen sulfide, dry Nitric acid, 5% Nitric acid, 10% Nitric acid, 20% Nitric acid, 30% Nitric acid, 40% Nitric acid, 50% Nitric acid, 70% Nitric acid, anhydrous Nitric acid, conc. Ozone Phenol Sodium bicarbonate, 20% Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate Sodium hydroxide, 10% Sodium hydroxide, 15% Sodium hydroxide, 30% Sodium hydroxide, 50% Sodium hydroxide, 70% Sodium hydroxide, conc. 8F 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 X 90 X X X X 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 80 80 X X X X 80 X 80 90 80 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 X 32 X X X X 32 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 27 27 27 X X X X 27 X 27 32 27 32 32 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 (continued)

217

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218 TABLE 3.20 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hypochlorite to 20% Sodium nitrate Sodium phosphate, acid Sodium phosphate, alkaline Sodium phosphate, neutral Sodium silicate Sodium sulfide to 50% Sodium sulfite, 10% Sodium dioxide, dry Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid, 10% Sulfuric acid, 30% Sulfuric acid, 50% Sulfuric acid, 60% Sulfuric acid, 70% Toluene 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 X 90 80 80 80 80 90 X 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 X 32 27 27 27 27 32 X

The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data are available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. A blank space indicates that the data are unavailable. Source: From P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

3.19 Polyimides
Polyimides can be prepared as either thermoplastic or thermoset resins. There are two types of polyimides, condensation, and addition resins. Condensation polyimides are available as either thermosets or thermoplastics. The additional polyimides are available only as thermosets. The polyimides are heterocyclic polymers having an atom of nitrogen in the inside ring as shown below:
O C N C O

n

The fused rings provide stiffness that provides high-temperature strength retention. The low concentration of hydrogen provides oxidative resistance by preventing thermal fracture of the chain.
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Thermoset Polymers

219

Polyimides have continuous high-temperature stability up to 500–6008F (260–3158C) and can withstand 9008F (4828C) for short-term use. Polyimides are sensitive to alkaline chemicals and will be dissolved by hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide. They are also moisture sensitive, gaining 1% in weight after 1000 hours at 50% relative humidity and 728F (238C). The polyimides exhibit excellent resistance to ionizing radiation and very low outgassing in high vacuum. 3.19.1 Typical Applications Polyimides find use in various forms, including laminates, moldings, films, coatings, and adhesives (specifically in the areas of high temperature). Coatings are used in electrical applications as insulating varnishes and magnet wire enamels at high temperatures. They also find application as a coating on cookware as an alternative to fluorocarbon coatings.

3.20 Cyanate Esters
Cyanate esters are a family of aryl dicyanate monomers that contain the reactive cyanate (–O–CaN) functional group. When heated, this cyanate functionality undergoes an exothermic cyclotrimerization reaction to form triazine ring connecting units, resulting in the formation of a thermoset polycyanate polymer. The cyanate ester monomers are available from low-viscosity liquids to meltable solids. Ciba-Geigy produces a series of cyanate esters under the trademark AroCy L-10. Cyanate esters are used in manufacturing structural composites by filament winding, resin transfer molding, and pultrusion.

References
1. 2. P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker. P.A. Schweitzer. 1994. Corrosion Resistant Piping Systems. New York: Marcel Dekker.

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4
Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers
The corrosion tables on the following pages are arranged alphabetically according to the corrodent. The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is indicated by an x. A blank space indicates that data is not available. A greater range of corrodents can be found in Reference [1]. The following polymers are identified in the table by abbreviations:
Halar–ECTFE Noryl–PPO Kynar–PVDF Penton–CPE Polyetheretherketone–PEEK Polypropylene–PP Polysulfone–PSF Kel-F–CTFE Ultem–PEI Ryton–PPS Polyamide imide–PAI Polyether sulfone–PEF Polybutadiene–PB Polyurethane–PUR Tefzel–ETFE Telflon–PTFE Saran–PVDC

Because many of the polymers may be compounded, the manufacturer should be checked to see that the material being furnished is satisfactory for the service. For example, there are three different formulations of polyamides.

221
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Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Acetaldahyde
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE, 40% HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 130/54 200/93 200/93 X 80/27

450/232 450/232 150/66 90/32 X

230/110 120/49 150/66 X X X X 140/60 X 80/27 X X X X 150/66 X X X

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223

Acetamide
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C

200/93 250/121 400/204 250/121

450/232 450/232 90/32 140/60

240/116 110/43 80/27 X X

X

X 90/32

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Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Acetic Acid, 10%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 X 250/121 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 240/116 220/104 150/66 200/93 140/60 100/38 180/82 250/121 X X 220/104 140/60 200/93 180/82 300/149 190/88 200/93 260/127 210/99 90/32

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225

Acetic Acid, 50%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 130/54 X 250/121 250/121 400/204 X 200/93 140/60 80/27 140/60 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 90/32 X

90/32 160/71 90/32 160/71 110/43 300/149 110/43 200/93 160/71 90/32

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Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Acetic Acid, 80%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 150/66 230/110 400/204 X 200/93 140/60 80/27 200/93 450/232 450/232 190/88 80/27 80/27 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 X X 250/121 X 90/32 160/71 90/32 X 300/149 110/43 150/66 200/93 120/49 90/32

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Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 227 Acetic Acid. 40% HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 200/93 230/110 400/204 X 200/93 140/60 80/27 200/93 400/204 460/238 190/88 100/38 80/27 300/149 150/66 250/121 190/88 140/60 200/93 130/54 X X 250/121 X X X 110/43 X 300/149 150/66 270/132 120/49 120/49 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Glacial Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE.

228 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Acetic Anhydride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 100/38 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 450/232 450/232 100/38 X X X X 280/138 100/38 90/32 X X X 150/66 X X 130/54 100/38 X X X X 100/38 90/32 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 229 Acetone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 80/27 210/99 80/27 X 450/232 450/232 X 120/49 80/27 X X 260/127 220/104 90/32 X X X X 90/32 X 120/49 X X X X X 110/43 X 200/93 X 100/43 Corrodent will be absorbed.

LLC .230 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Acetyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI DRY PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 100/38 150/66 150/66 400/204 X 120/49 460/238 460/238 120/49 X 80/27 X X 130/54 X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X X 200/93 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

90% Methyl appended silicone.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 231 Acrylic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. 25% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde. LLC . 75% PB 8F/8C 200/93 80/27 460/238 150/66 100/38 X X X X 100/38 X X X 100/38 100/38 90/32 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .232 Acrylonitrile Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 80/27 460/238 460/238 130/54 140/60 150/66 130/54 90/32 90/32 X X X 150/66 X X X X 80/27 90/32 X 260/127 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 233 Adipic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. 25% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 280/138 400/204 460/227 460/227 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 150/66 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 220/104 220/104 250/121 180/82 280/138 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

90% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 200/93 210/99 400/204 90/32 430/221 430/221 200/93 140/60 140/60 140/60 80/27 90/32 90/32 200/93 250/121 X X X X 90/32 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.234 Allyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 235 Allyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 300/149 190/88 400/204 450/232 450/232 200/93 80/27 110/43 X 140/60 X X X 90/32 X X X 140/60 90/32 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . 5% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 450/232 450/232 210/99 140/60 140/60 150/66 120/49 300/149 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 200/93 250/121 150/66 300/149 240/116 140/60 220/104 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.236 Alum Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 237 Aluminum Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. LLC . 10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 200/93 460/238 250/121 210/99 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 250/121 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

238 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aluminum Chloride. 10% PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF. LLC . 25% ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides. 1% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 200/93 300/149 300/149 400/204 90/32 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 300/149 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 120/49 200/93 180/82 170/77 300/149 260/127 300/149 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Aqueous Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE. 10% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy.

10% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 80/27 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 90/32 X 140/60 180/82 100/38 280/138 Corrodent will penetrate. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 239 Aluminum Fluoride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVCS Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 10% Halogenated. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic.

LLC .240 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aluminum Hydroxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 450/232 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 300/149 250/121 200/93 170/77 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 160/71 170/77 160/71 300/149 200/93 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 241 Aluminum Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 250/121 210/99 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 160/77 160/77 250/121 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .242 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aluminum Oxychloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 300/149 400/204 450/232 450/232 280/138 460/238 200/93 140/60 150/66 140/60 200/93 220/104 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 243 Aluminum Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 140/60 220/104 80/27 450/232 450/232 300/149 140/60 140/60 300/149 200/93 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 250/121 200/93 180/82 300/149 300/149 250/121 260/127 290/143 410/210 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .244 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonia Gas Polymer ABS DRY Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC DRY CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy dry Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 400/204 200/93 210/99 80/27 450/232 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 150/66 80/27 250/121 150/66 X X 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 200/93 160/71 90/32 150/66 210/99 150/66 90/32 100/38 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will permeate. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 245 Ammonium Bifluoride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 450/232 450/232 260/127 140/60 200/93 140/60 90/32 90/32 200/93 230/110 90/32 150/66 Corrodent will be absorbed.

LLC .246 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 430/221 430/221 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 100/38 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 90/32 140/60 X 300/149 160/71 150/66 240/116 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 247 Ammonium Chloride. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 290/143 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 410/210 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 300/149 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 80/27 200/93 200/93 160/71 170/77 200/93 200/93 220/104 90/32 X 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

248 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Chloride. 37% PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 430/221 460/238 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 300/149 180/82 200/93 140/60 180/82 90/32 220/104 200/93 160/71 170/77 270/132 200/93 220/104 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides. LLC .

LLC . Sat. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 410/210 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 300/149 200/93 160/71 200/93 140/60 140/60 190/88 250/121 90/32 220/104 200/93 200/93 180/82 170/77 260/127 200/93 260/127 80/27 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 249 Ammonium Chloride.

10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurateb Halogenatedb Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalicb PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 430/221 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 90/32 140/60 90/32 200/93 250/121 180/82 140/60 90/32 200/93 280/177 Corrodent will permeate.250 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Fluoride. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Synthetic veil or surfacing mat should be used.

Synthetic veil or surfacing mat should be used. 25% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurateb Halogenatedb Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalicb PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 420/216 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 200/93 90/32 140/60 90/32 200/93 250/121 120/49 140/60 90/32 150/66 220/104 260/127 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 251 Ammonium Fluoride.

LLC . 25% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 X 200/93 140/60 140/60 X 250/121 90/32 X 100/38 90/32 X 300/149 140/60 150/66 260/127 90/32 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.252 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Hydroxide.

Sat. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl estersa Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 80/27 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 80/27 80/27 370/188 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 300/149 140/60 250/121 200/93 X 200/93 140/60 140/60 X 250/121 80/27 X 90/32 X 300/149 160/71 130/54 200/93 X Synthetic veil or surfacing mat should be used.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 253 Ammonium Hydroxide.

254 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 25% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 230/110 400/204 200/93 200/93 350/177 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 240/116 220/104 220/93 200/93 160/77 140/66 250/121 250/121 260/127 200/93 210/99 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 255 Ammonium Persulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE. 5% PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 150/66 300/149 400/204 X 450/232 460/238 280/138 140/60 150/66 180/82 140/60 220/104 90/32 140/60 140/60 200/93 180/82 X 180/82 140/60 200/93 160/71 180/82 250/121 180/82 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

65% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 300/149 450/232 280/138 80/27 140/60 300/149 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 90/32 250/121 80/27 150/66 160/71 140/60 200/93 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .256 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Phosphate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS.

10–40% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. Epoxy Vinyl esters. 10% PET. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET. sat. sat. PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 257 Ammonium Sulfate. Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 200/93 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 300/149 200/93 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 200/93 180/82 170/77 300/149 220/104 260/127 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Furans. LLC . sat. sat. sat.

258 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ammonium Sulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 220/104 80/27 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 110/43 120/49 100/38 X 120/49 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 259 Amyl Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 100/38 160/71 250/121 400/204 150/66 200/93 200/93 450/232 190/88 140/60 80/27 80/27 X 300/149 X 120/49 X X X X 180/82 X 80/27 190/88 X X 80/27 80/27 110/43 260/127 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .260 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Amyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 100/49 210/99 200/93 150/66 200/93 140/60 X 130/54 220/104 X 200/93 200/93 200/93 160/71 250/121 200/93 210/99 260/127 190/88 160/71 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 261 Amyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 450/232 280/138 X X X 200/93 X 80/27 X X X X 220/104 X X 90/32 X 80/27 120/49 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .262 Aniline Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 90/32 230/110 400/204 X 200/93 200/93 X 200/93 450/232 200/93 130/54 130/54 X X 300/149 180/82 X X X X X 150/66 X 80/27 X 120/49 X X X 150/66 X 260/127 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

50% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 100/38 220/104 400/204 X 300/149 460/238 150/66 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 180/82 160/71 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 220/104 200/93 80/27 160/71 250/121 220/104 220/104 250/121 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 263 Antimony Trichloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. LLC .

264 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Aqua Regia 3:1 Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 200/93 250/121 210/99 400/204 X X 240/116 450/232 170/77 130/54 130/54 80/27 X X 120/49 X X X 80/27 80/27 X X X X X X 80/27 X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . 80% PVDC PSF PVC Type 1. 198 Be Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/183 140/60 140/60 60/15 210/99 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 180/82 180/82 180/82 180/82 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 80% PVC Type 2. 80% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 80% CPVC.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 265 Arsenic Acid Polymer ABS. 80% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP.

LLC .266 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Barium Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 260/183 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 200/93 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 250/121 180/82 160/71 250/121 240/116 260/127 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 267 Barium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 30% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 200/93 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 90/32 220/104 250/121 200/93 140/60 250/121 250/121 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO. 25% PPS PP PVDC PSF.

268 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Barium Hydroxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. LLC . 10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 350/177 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 X 140/60 200/93 200/93 180/82 200/43 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 150/66 X X X 200/93 150/66 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic to 10% PET Epoxy.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 269 Barium Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 400/204 80/27 450/232 270/132 140/60 170/77 210/99 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 170/77 200/93 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .270 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Barium Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 330/166 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 X 140/60 200/93 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 220/104 180/82 160/71 X 250/121 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 271 Barium Sulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 360/182 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 140/60 220/104 200/93 150/66 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 90/32 140/60 X 90/32 300/149 180/82 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .272 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Benzaldehyde Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 200/93 150/66 210/99 400/204 150/66 200/93 80/27 300/149 450/232 120/40 X X X X 250/121 80/27 X X X X X 80/27 X X X X X X X X 260/127 60/15 Corrodent will be absorbed. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Material is subject to stress cracking.

LLC . Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 150/66 210/99 400/204 250/121 80/27 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 150/66 X X X X 300/149 140/60 80/27 X X X X 150/66 X 90/32 X 90/32 X X X 180/82 X 260/127 160/77 X Corrodent will be absorbed.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 273 Benzene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.

10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic.274 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Benzene Sulfonic Acid. 30% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 150/66 210/99 400/204 X X X 90/32 380/139 450/232 100/38 140/60 90/32 250/121 200/93 250/121 180/82 120/49 X 140/60 140/60 180/82 220/104 X 200/93 120/49 180/82 250/121 220/104 200/93 266/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

10% PAI PEEK PEI. 10% PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 250/121 200/93 400/204 200/93 170/77 90/32 80/27 400/204 450/121 250/121 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 230/110 190/88 150/66 X 140/60 140/60 90/32 250/121 X 200/93 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 200/93 180/82 260/127 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 275 Benzoic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides.

276 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Benzyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 200/93 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 X 300/149 450/232 280/138 170/77 X 80/27 X 200/93 140/60 X X X 220/104 X 90/32 X X X 80/27 X 100/38 260/177 60/15 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 277 Benzyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 110/48 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 120/49 300/149 450/232 280/138 250/121 X 300/149 80/27 80/27 X X X 80/27 X X X X X 250/121 80/27 90/32 260/127 170/77 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

278 Black Liquor Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. pH7 Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 400/204 450/232 260/127 140/60 150/66 140/60 140/60 200/93 230/110 X 220/104 X 210/99 180/82 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 279 Borax Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 210/99 210/99 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 220/104 170/77 140/60 250/121 210/99 140/60 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 80/27 300/149 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 200/93 140/60 210/99 220/104 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 220/104 180/82 210/99 180/82 200/93 220/104 200/93 260/127 300/149 390/189 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.280 Boric Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 281 Bromine Gas. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 100/38 X 150/66 200/93 X 210/99 210/99 X X X X X X X 90/32 100/38 X X 100/38 Corrodent will penetrate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Moist Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 210/99 200/93 X 120/49 X 200/93 250/121 210/99 X X X 200/93 X X X X 100/38 100/38 X X 100/38 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.282 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Bromine Gas. LLC .

Liquid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 283 Bromine. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will penetrate.b PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde 3% Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 150/66 400/204 X 300/149 450/232 140/60 X X 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X 60/15 300/149 Corrodent will be absorbed.

Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 250/121 400/204 210/99 300/149 450/232 210/99 X X X X 140/60 X X X 180/82 X 100/38 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.284 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Bromine Water. Sat. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 285 Butadiene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAb PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 200/93 250/121 250/121 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 X X X 100/38 X 150/66 X 140/60 X 150/66 250/121 X 80/27 150/66 110/43 X Corrodent will be absorbed. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Corrodent will permeate.

286 Butyl Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 150/66 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 400/204 450/232 140/60 90/32 90/32 250/121 X 250/121 X 120/49 X X X X 140/60 X 80/27 80/27 X X 250/121 170/77 80/27 260/127 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 287 Butyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 200/93 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 100/38 200/93 200/93 150/66 200/93 X X 140/60 220/104 X 80/27 100/38 80/27 100/38 140/60 120/49 210/99 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .288 n-Butylamine Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 120/49 400/204 200/93 200/93 400/204 450/232 X X X X 200/93 90/32 X X X X X X X X X X X Corrodent will be absorbed.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 289 Butyl Ether Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 200/93 200/93 400/204 210/99 200/93 400/204 450/232 200/93 X 210/99 X 200/93 140/60 X 150/66 80/27 X 80/27 210/99 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

20% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 250/121 250/121 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 210/99 130/54 X 250/121 250/121 180/82 80/27 130/54 X X 140/60 230/110 X 220/104 200/93 X 120/49 250/121 210/99 130/54 260/127 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.290 Butyric Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC !1% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. LLC . 20% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. 50% Halogenated.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 291 Calcium Bisulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 400/204 450/232 260/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 120/49 160/71 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .292 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Bisulfite Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 400/204 140/60 400/204 450/232 260/138 80/27 140/60 X 80/27 200/93 210/99 80/27 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 180/82 150/66 150/66 X 270/132 260/127 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 293 Calcium Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 250/121 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 210/99 210/99 160/71 250/121 300/149 180/82 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

5% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 380/193 450/232 280/132 140/60 140/60 220/104 160/71 140/60 140/60 200/93 150/66 90/32 200/93 250/121 210/99 160/71 200/93 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.294 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Chlorate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 295 Calcium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. LLC . 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy.5% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 230/110 200/93 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 150/66 80/27 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 190/88 180/82 260/127 200/93 300/149 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 37.

LLC .296 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Hydroxide. 30% PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 150/66 90/32 400/204 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 250/121 300/149 220/104 160/71 100/38 140/60 140/60 200/93 90/32 80/27 180/82 170/77 160/71 250/121 210/99 180/82 260/127 X 200/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone.

Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 297 Calcium Hydroxide. LLC . Sat. 25% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 150/66 90/32 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 180/82 100/38 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 160/71 X 160/71 250/121 180/82 180/82 260/127 X 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

20% Vinyl esters. LLC . 20% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 400/204 450/232 200/93 140/60 100/38 210/99 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 X X 210/99 170/97 180/82 120/49 150/66 160/71 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.298 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Hypochlorite. 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. 10% Isophthalic PET Epoxy.

20% PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO. 10% Isophthalic. 20% Halogenated. 10% PET Epoxy. LLC . to 20% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 X 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 200/93 X X 80/27 80/27 180/82 120/49 250/121 150/66 180/82 240/116 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Vinyl esters Furans.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 299 Calcium Hypochlorite. 20% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. Sat.

LLC .300 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 260/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 210/99 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 220/104 160/71 170/77 250/121 210/99 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 301 Calcium Oxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 270/132 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 80/27 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 150/66 150/66 80/27 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 160/71 170/77 250/121 250/121 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .302 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Calcium Sulfate Polymer ABS.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 303 Caprylic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 220/104 210/99 400/204 250/121 390/199 450/232 220/104 250/121 140/60 90/32 120/49 180/82 220/104 160/71 140/60 160/71 250/121 X 220/104 250/121 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .304 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Carbon Dioxide. Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 200/93 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 350/177 250/121 160/71 200/93 200/93 90/32 300/149 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Wet Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 220/104 170/77 140/60 140/60 160/71 250/121 80/27 210/99 250/121 150/71 250/121 220/104 80/27 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 305 Carbon Dioxide. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.306 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Carbon Disulfide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. LLC .b PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 80/27 80/27 150/66 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 80/27 X X 80/27 60/15 200/93 X 90/32 X X X X X 80/27 X X X X 80/27 100/38 X 260/127 180/82 X Corrodent will permeate. Corrodent will be absorbed.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 307 Carbon Monoxide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 140/60 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 350/177 170/77 160/71 210/99 200/93 350/177 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .308 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Carbon Tetrachloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa. Corrodent will permeate.c PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b c 8F/8C X X 300/149 270/132 400/204 250/121 80/27 80/27 80/27 380/193 450/232 280/138 X X 250/121 X 120/49 X 140/60 X X X X 200/93 X 80/27 110/43 120/49 X X 250/121 170/77 260/127 200/93 Material is subject to stress cracking. Corrodent will be absorbed.b.c Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa.b. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 309 Carbonic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 100/38 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 140/60 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 80/27 90/32 160/71 160/71 210/99 200/93 120/49 200/93 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

10–50% Halogenated. 10% PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET. 10–50% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET. 50% CPE PUR. to 50% Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate.310 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Caustic Potash (Potassium Hydroxide) Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE. 50% Epoxy Vinyl esters. 50% PPO. 50% PSF. LLC . 50% PPS PP PVDC. 35% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC. to 50% PAI PEEK PEI. 10–50% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 210/99 400/204 120/49 80/27 390/199 450/232 180/82 140/60 140/60 X 90/32 170/77 80/27 130/54 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 80/27 170/77 120/49 X X 200/93 150/66 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10–50% FEP Polyamides.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

311

Cellosolve
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 200/93 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93

380/193 450/232 280/138 X 80/27 X X 200/93 200/93 80/27 X X X X 220/104 80/27 140/60 80/27 X X 140/60 140/60 240/116

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

312

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorine Gas, Dry
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE, 10% PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 150/66 210/99 X X 80/27

X 240/116 80/27 80/27 80/27 X X X 80/27 X 140/60 140/60 X 100/38 X X 350/177 200/93 210/99 160/71 80/27 150/66 240/116 260/127 160/171

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

313

Chlorine Gas, Wet
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF, 10% EHMWPE, 10% HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C 140/60

250/121 250/121 400/204 X

400/204 450/232 250/121 120/49 X 80/27 80/27 X X 80/27 X X X X 80/27 X 80/27 200/93 220/104 210/99 160/71 80/27 X 250/121 260/127 150/66 X

Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

314

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorine Liquid
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X

250/121 400/204 X X

X 210/99 X X X 200/93 X X X X X X X

X X X

X X X

Corrodent will be absorbed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

315

Chloracetic Acid
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE, 50% FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA, 50% PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated, 25% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic, to 25% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters, 25% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 120/49 250/121 230/110 400/204 X

400/204 450/232 200/93 X X 80/27 200/93 180/82 120/49 X 140/60 X X 220/104 X X 80/27 90/32 150/66 80/27 X 200/93 240/116 X

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

316

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorobenzene
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI DRY PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals, dry Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 150/66 210/99 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 X 390/199 450/232 220/104 X X X X 200/93 X 80/27 X X X X 150/66 X 80/27 X X X X X 190/88 110/43 260/127 250/121 X

Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

317

Chloroform
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 250/121 230/110 400/204 200/93 120/49 80/27

390/199 450/232 250/121 80/27 X 230/110 X 150/66 X X X X X X 80/27 X X X X X X 230/110 110/43 X 240/116 160/171

Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

318

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chlorosulfonic Acid
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 80/27 80/27 400/204 X 80/27 X 390/199 450/232 110/43 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 260/127 130/54 X

Corrodent will be absorbed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

319

Chromic Acid, 10%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF, 12% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 X 250/121 150/66 400/204 X 200/93 90/32 X 380/193 450/232 220/104 140/60 140/60 250/121 X 200/93 140/60 180/82 140/60 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 X 80/27 X 180/82 X 250/121 110/43 150/66 260/127 X

X

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

320

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Chromic Acid, 50%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB
a

8F/8C X X 250/121 150/66 400/204 X 200/93 X 380/193 450/232 250/121 90/32 90/32 250/121 X 200/93 150/66 180/82 X X X 210/99 200/93 X 80/27 X 140/60 X X 250/121 X X X X

X

Corrodent will be absorbed.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers

321

Citric Acid, 15%
Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 120/49 400/204 200/93 170/77

390/199 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 250/121 120/49 250/121 220/104 180/82 100/38 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 160/71 250/121 190/88 210/99 250/121 160/71

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

40% PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. 32% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 400/204 200/93 170/77 250/121 80/27 370/188 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 170/77 90/32 250/121 220/104 180/82 80/27 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 200/93 170/77 190/88 200/93 250/121 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Conc.322 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Citric Acid. Polymer ABS. 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 323 Copper Acetate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 290/143 450/232 250/121 300/149 80/27 80/27 200/93 180/82 210/99 210/99 180/71 200/93 210/99 260/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

324 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Copper Carbonate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 150/66 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 250/121 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 160/83 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 325 Copper Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 220/104 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 170/77 250/121 220/104 260/127 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .326 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Copper Cyanide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE. 10% PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 210/99 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 220/104 250/121 210/99 160/71 150/66 210/99 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 327 Copper Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. 17% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 300/149 300/149 400/204 140/60 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 250/121 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 200/93 170/77 210/99 240/116 260/127 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

328 Cresol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 300/149 270/132 400/204 X 390/199 450/232 210/99 140/60 X X X 200/93 X 150/66 X 130/54 X X 140/60 X X X X X X X 100/38 X 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

5% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 270/232 140/60 250/121 150/66 300/149 140/60 160/71 200/93 150/66 X 170/77 250/121 80/27 270/132 300/149 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 329 Cupric Chloride.

50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE. 5% EHMWPE. 5% FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF. Sat. sat.330 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cupric Chloride. PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 270/132 80/27 140/60 250/121 170/77 300/149 140/60 170/77 200/93 150/66 180/82 200/93 X 140/60 250/121 80/27 220/104 300/149 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% HMWPE PET PPO PPS. 5% PP PVDC PSF. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 331 Cupric Cyanide Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF. 10% EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP. LLC . 10% PVDC. 10% PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE. 10% PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 240/116 90/32 220/104 240/116 210/99 160/71 250/121 150/66 210/99 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

332 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cupric Fluoride Polymer ABS. LLC . 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 250/121 280/138 140/60 140/60 140/60 200/93 160/71 140/60 140/60 182/82 250/121 150/66 120/49 X 250/121 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 333 Cupric Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 380/193 450/232 270/132 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 200/93 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 240/116 X 220/104 140/60 210/99 160/71 170/77 240/116 210/99 280/183 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

334 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cupric Sulfate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 X 300/149 300/149 390/199 140/60 390/199 450/232 280/132 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 250/121 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 230/110 200/93 170/77 250/121 200/93 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 335 Cyclohexanol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 250/121 400/204 250/121 200/93 390/199 450/232 210/99 170/77 80/27 190/88 250/121 150/66 90/32 200/93 X X X 220/104 80/27 120/49 150/66 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

336 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Cyclohexanone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 400/204 450/232 110/43 140/60 X 250/121 X 200/93 X X X X X X 80/27 80/27 X 100/38 X X 250/121 X 120/49 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 337 Detergents Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 110/43 390/199 450/232 140/60 140/60 140/60 90/32 290/143 220/104 80/27 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 90/32 90/32 90/32 140/60 250/121 100/38 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

338 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Detergent Solution. Heavy Duty Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 100/38 390/199 450/232 140/60 140/60 120/49 300/149 150/66 140/60 140/60 160/71 80/27 80/27 120/49 250/121 120/49 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 339 Dextrin Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 300/149 400/204 390/199 450/232 230/110 140/60 140/60 160/71 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

340 Dextrose Polymer ABS. 20% PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 140/60 300/149 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 X 220/104 220/104 160/71 80/27 200/93 240/116 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 341 Dibutyl Ether Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 200/93 200/93 400/204 200/93 200/93 400/204 350/177 200/93 X 210/99 X 200/93 140/60 X 150/66 80/27 X 80/27 200/93 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .342 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Dibutyl Phthalate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 150/66 400/204 80/27 200/93 380/193 450/232 X 140/60 X 80/27 120/49 300/149 110/43 120/49 180/82 X X X X 180/82 100/38 230/121 160/71 80/27 250/121 200/93 230/110 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

20% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 150/66 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 80/27 100/38 100/38 120/49 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 100/38 X 100/38 X 100/38 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 343 Dichloroacetic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC.

LLC .344 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Dichlorobenzene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 150/66 400/204 250/121 380/193 450/232 120/49 X X 250/121 200/93 150/66 X X X X X 110/43 X X X 250/121 190/88 110/43 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 345 Dichloroethane (Ethylene Dichloride) Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 340/171 450/232 180/138 X X X X X 80/27 X X X X 120/49 90/32 X X X X X X 110/43 250/121 200/93 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

346 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ethyl Alcohol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 80/27 90/32 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/38 180/82 150/66 100/38 140/60 140/60 210/99 220/104 X 90/32 150/66 90/32 80/27 250/121 150/66 100/38 260/127 150/66 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 347 Ethyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/127 200/93 390/199 450/232 260/138 X X 250/121 X 200/93 X X X X X X 220/104 X 80/27 80/27 X 250/121 X X 260/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .348 Ethyl Ether Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 150/66 210/99 400/204 200/93 80/27 370/188 450/232 150/66 X X 250/121 X 150/66 90/32 X X X X X 220/104 X 80/27 X X X X 250/121 X X 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 349 Ethylene Glycol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 205/121 200/93 160/71 80/27 90/32 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 200/93 140/60 300/149 230/110 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 220/104 90/32 180/82 220/104 250/121 250/121 200/93 300/149 210/99 260/177 100/38 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

350 Fatty Acids Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 200/93 60/15 250/121 140/60 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 150/66 100/38 200/93 250/121 220/104 180/82 200/93 200/93 250/121 260/127 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

50% FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 210/99 140/60 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 300/149 210/99 260/127 300/149 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 351 Ferric Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE.

352 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ferric Nitrate. 10–50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 210/99 200/93 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 220/104 250/121 200/93 180/82 170/77 250/121 200/93 260/127 300/149 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 353 Ferrous Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics. 40% Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 90/32 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 210/99 130/54 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 250/121 200/93 260/127 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .354 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Ferrous Nitrate Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 390/199 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 210/99 210/99 80/27 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 220/104 160/71 210/99 160/71 200/93 220/104 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 X X 100/38 200/93 440/227 X X 310/154 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X X X X 80/27 X 90/32 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 355 Fluorine Gas.

LLC . Moist Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 80/27 100/38 X X X X 200/93 250/121 X 80/27 80/27 X X X X X X X 80/27 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.356 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Fluorine Gas.

LLC . Dil. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 140/60 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 300/149 120/49 140/60 140/60 240/116 200/93 200/93 140/60 200/93 140/60 140/60 220/104 80/27 80/27 150/66 220/104 140/60 240/116 110/43 150/66 160/71 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 357 Formaldehyde.

358 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Formaldehyde. 35% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 150/66 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 450/232 140/60 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 200/93 120/49 200/93 140/60 100/38 140/60 220/104 80/27 80/27 150/66 200/93 140/60 250/121 110/43 140/60 160/71 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

37% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 150/66 230/110 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 450/232 120/49 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 200/93 210/99 140/60 200/93 140/60 100/38 140/60 220/104 80/27 80/27 150/66 210/99 140/60 250/121 150/66 200/93 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 359 Formaldehyde. LLC .

50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 80/27 400/204 250/166 450/232 280/138 250/121 200/93 200/93 130/54 140/60 120/49 150/66 220/104 80/27 120/49 190/88 250/121 110/43 140/60 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.360 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Formaldehyde. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 361 Formic Acid. 10% PEI. to 25% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 250/121 270/132 400/204 X 90/32 90/32 80/27 390/199 450/121 250/121 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 210/99 150/66 200/93 110/38 90/32 180/82 220/104 X 150/66 150/66 90/32 X 250/121 X 100/38 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC. LLC . 10–85% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK.

LLC .362 Furfural Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 210/99 400/204 90/32 80/27 390/199 450/232 110/43 80/27 130/54 80/27 X 300/149 X 80/27 X X X X 140/60 X X X X 80/27 X X 260/127 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 363 Gallic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 210/99 400/204 80/27 200/93 450/232 160/71 140/60 140/60 250/121 250/121 180/82 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X 250/121 200/93 250/121 120/49 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

364 Gas. LLC . Natural Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 140/60 80/27 200/93 450/232 X X 140/60 160/71 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 90/32 200/93 200/93 280/138 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 365 Gasoline. Refined Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 200/93 400/204 250/127 120/49 380/193 450/232 X 250/121 90/32 300/149 X 90/32 200/93 120/49 X X 80/27 80/27 80/27 200/93 90/32 90/32 250/121 150/66 180/82 260/127 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

366 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Gasoline. Sour Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 80/27 370/160 450/232 280/138 250/121 300/149 X 140/60 140/60 X 250/121 80/27 X 90/32 80/27 250/121 300/149 200/93 190/88 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 367 Gasoline. Unleaded Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 X 250/121 X 300/149 X 150/66 200/93 140/60 X 250/121 80/27 80/27 90/32 200/93 90/32 100/38 250/121 250/121 100/38 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

368 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Glycerine (Glycerol) Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 75% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 200/93 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 300/149 210/99 180/82 80/27 140/60 140/60 210/99 220/104 90/32 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 280/138 300/149 260/127 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 369 Green Liquor Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 400/204 380/193 450/232 280/138 250/121 140/60 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 220/104 X X 190/88 200/93 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Dil.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 200/93 230/110 120/49 300/149 140/60 140/60 130/54 250/121 220/104 200/93 140/60 250/121 180/82 180/82 250/121 200/93 Material is subject to stress cracking. Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will permeate.b PTFEa. LLC .370 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrobromic Acid.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa.

Corrodent will permeate. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 371 Hydrobromic Acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. LLC .b PTFEa.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 120/49 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 200/93 200/93 120/49 180/82 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 220/104 160/71 90/32 140/60 250/121 180/82 180/82 250/121 200/93 Material is subject to stress cracking.

50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will permeate.b PTFEa.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 200/93 190/88 130/54 140/60 140/60 190/88 250/121 160/71 200/93 90/32 150/66 250/121 110/43 200/93 260/127 200/93 X X Material subject to stress cracking.372 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrobromic Acid.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 373 Hydrochloric Acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrodent will permeate. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa. LLC .b PTFEa.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 90/32 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 90/32 90/32 140/60 250/121 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 160/71 210/99 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X X 210/99 230/110 180/82 160/71 250/121 200/93 220/104 260/127 300/149 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 90/32 140/60 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 90/32 190/88 210/99 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 140/60 170/77 250/121 X X 180/82 170/77 160/71 90/32 140/60 180/82 250/121 300/149 X 90/32 Material subject to stress cracking. Corrodent will permeate.b Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa. LLC . 38% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa.374 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrochloric Acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 375 Hydrocyanic Acid. LLC . 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 380/183 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 250/121 150/60 120/49 140/60 140/60 80/27 250/121 200/93 150/66 X 90/32 80/27 160/71 160/71 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Synthetic veil surfacing mat should be used. LLC . 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurateb Halogenatedb Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 200/93 250/121 270/132 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 X 90/32 200/93 180/82 160/71 100/38 130/54 130/54 X 250/121 X 90/32 120/49 X X X X X X X X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.376 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrofluoric Acid.

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 377 Hydrofluoric Acid. 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X 240/116 250/121 400/204 X X 200/93 450/232 210/99 X X X 200/93 X 80/27 90/32 X X X X X X X X X Corrodent will permeate.

LLC . Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 300/149 300/149 400/204 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 150/66 220/104 180/82 90/32 80/27 250/121 100/38 250/121 230/110 140/60 250/121 Corrodent will permeate.378 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Chloride Gas. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . Moist Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 450/232 270/132 140/60 80/27 210/99 210/99 120/49 350/177 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 379 Hydrogen Chloride Gas.

LLC . 3% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. Dil. 10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 270/132 250/121 400/204 80/27 200/93 80/27 200/93 450/232 250/121 120/49 120/49 120/49 90/32 100/38 120/49 90/32 140/60 X 150/66 80/27 150/66 200/93 80/27 180/27 120/49 150/66 140/60 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Polymer ABS. 5% PET Epoxy. 5% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic.380 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Peroxide.

LLC . 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 270/132 250/121 400/204 80/27 200/93 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 120/49 90/32 100/38 120/49 180/82 140/60 X 180/82 150/66 X 90/32 100/38 90/32 X 120/49 140/60 170/77 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 381 Hydrogen Peroxide.

50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 200/83 90/32 80/27 200/93 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 80/27 X 150/66 130/54 80/27 140/60 100/38 90/32 150/66 X X 100/38 X 80/27 X 110/43 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.382 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Peroxide. LLC .

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 383 Hydrogen Peroxide. 90% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 150/66 150/66 400/204 80/27 200/23 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 120/49 80/27 140/60 80/27 X 110/43 120/49 100/38 140/60 X 80/27 140/60 X X X 80/27 X 150/66 80/27 80/27 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Dry Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 150/66 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 80/27 250/121 170/77 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/60 220/104 80/27 200/93 250/121 140/60 80/27 250/121 250/121 250/121 300/149 90/32 Corrodent will permeate.384 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hydrogen Sulfide.

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Wet Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/232 X 200/93 80/27 200/93 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 X 180/82 160/71 140/60 140/60 180/82 X 210/99 210/99 140/60 80/27 300/149 180/82 250/121 300/149 Corrodent will permeate.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 385 Hydrogen Sulfide.

50% Furans. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A.386 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Hypochlorous Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 50% Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters. 20% Halogenated. LLC . 10% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 120/49 140/60 140/60 180/82 150/66 90/32 100/38 210/99 90/32 200/93 150/66 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

General Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 400/204 150/66 80/27 400/204 450/232 110/43 80/27 80/27 X X 110/43 90/32 X X X X X X X X X 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 387 Ketones.

25% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 150/66 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 60/15 400/204 450/232 130/54 140/60 150/66 250/121 190/88 250/121 150/66 120/49 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 X 210/99 200/93 210/99 160/71 250/121 220/104 210/99 250/121 160/71 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.388 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Lactic Acid. LLC .

Conc.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 389 Lactic Acid. 10% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 150/66 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 90/32 400/204 450/232 110/43 140/60 250/121 190/88 250/121 150/66 80/27 200/93 80/27 80/27 X 150/66 80/27 220/104 200/93 210/99 160/71 250/121 200/93 200/93 260/127 160/71 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals.

LLC . 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals. 10% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 380/193 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 300/149 210/99 180/82 140/60 140/60 230/110 270/132 80/27 80/27 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 190/88 260/127 260/127 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.390 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Magnesium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 391 Malic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 270/132 400/204 X 390/199 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 80/27 130/54 80/27 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 160/71 90/32 90/32 80/27 140/60 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

LLC . Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.392 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Methyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEb PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X X 300/149 300/149 400/204 210/99 X 390/199 450/232 X X X 80/27 X X 80/27 X X X X 230/110 X 80/27 80/27 X X 120/49 300/149 Material is subject to stress cracking.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 393 Methyl Ethyl Ketone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 230/110 400/204 240/116 200/93 370/188 X X 400/204 450/232 X X X 250/121 X 200/93 150/66 X X X X X 90/32 X X X X X X 250/121 90/32 X 170/77 X X Corrodent will permeate. LLC .

LLC .394 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa. Material subject to stress cracking. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.b PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a b 8F/8C X 150/66 300/149 400/204 110/43 400/204 450/232 110/43 80/27 80/27 X X 250/121 80/27 80/27 X X X 80/27 X 80/27 X X X 140/60 160/71 X Corrodent will permeate.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 395 Muriatic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 140/60 60/15 80/27 210/99 200/93 160/71 150/66 180/82 130/54 190/88 180/82 160/71 80/27 140/60 180/82 80/27 300/149 Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.396 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Nitric Acid. LLC . 5% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 150/66 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 200/93 140/60 140/60 150/66 140/66 150/66 140/60 90/32 X 140/60 100/38 150/66 180/82 X X 160/71 210/99 90/32 120/49 150/66 160/71 180/82 200/93 X 80/27 80/27 Corrodent will permeate.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 397 Nitric Acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 130/54 X 250/121 160/71 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 X 400/204 450/232 180/82 140/60 140/60 80/27 90/32 100/38 140/60 150/66 X 140/60 140/60 160/71 80/27 X X 100/38 80/27 X 80/27 100/38 150/66 X X 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .

70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 250/121 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 X X 80/27 X X X X 140/60 140/60 110/43 80/27 X X 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X Corrodent will permeate. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.398 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Nitric Acid. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 399 Nitric Acid. 90% PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 X 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 150/66 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X X Corrodent will permeate. Anhydrous Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .400 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Nitric Acid. 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 150/66 250/121 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 X X 80/27 X X X X 140/60 140/60 110/43 80/27 X X 80/27 X 80/27 X X X X X Corrodent will permeate.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 401 Oleum Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 60/15 150/66 400/204 X 120/49 400/204 450/232 X X X 80/27 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 190/88 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 200/93 150/66 230/110 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 X X 150/66 130/54 X 140/60 60/15 180/82 140/60 X X 90/32 X X X 90/32 150/66 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.402 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Perchloric Acid.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 403 Perchloric Acid. 70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 200/93 150/66 150/66 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 120/49 X X X X X 120/49 60/15 60/15 180/82 X X X 90/32 X X X 80/27 X 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. LLC .404 Phenol. 5% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X 90/32 150/66 230/110 400/204 X 140/60 X X 400/204 450/232 210/99 100/38 100/38 X X 290/143 200/93 80/27 X X 90/32 90/32 X X X 90/32 X X X X 100/38 210/99 90/32 X 80/27 Corrodent will permeate.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 85% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X 90/32 150/66 210/99 400/201 X 140/60 X 400/202 450/232 200/93 100/38 100/38 X 300/149 180/82 X 60/15 X 140/60 90/32 X X X 90/32 X X X X X 210/99 X X 80/27 Corrodent will permeate. LLC . 5% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 405 Phenol Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated.

406 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Phosphoric Acid. LLC . 50–80% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 130/54 80/27 250/121 250/121 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 200/93 200/93 450/232 250/121 100/38 100/38 250/121 140/60 220/104 210/99 130/54 80/27 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X 220/104 250/121 210/99 180/82 250/121 110/43 210/99 260/127 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . 10% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 90/32 80/27 120/49 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 80/27 100/30 X X 140/60 120/49 X X X 150/66 110/43 100/38 X X 80/27 200/93 160/71 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 407 Picric Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters.

408 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Potassium Bromide. 30% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides. 30% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 210/99 140/60 140/66 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 140/60 200/93 210/99 110/43 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 90/32 200/93 230/110 160/71 80/27 220/104 200/93 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. LLC .

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 409 Salicylic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 250/121 250/121 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 220/104 140/60 130/54 130/54 100/38 140/60 X X 220/104 150/66 130/54 100/38 250/121 150/66 260/127 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

410 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Silver Bromide. LLC . 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 400/204 450/232 250/121 170/77 140/60 90/32 170/77 180/82 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 411 Sodium Carbonate Polymer ABS. 50% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 X 300/149 300/149 400/204 240/116 200/93 210/99 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 200/93 300/149 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 160/71 190/88 100/38 90/32 250/121 300/149 180/82 260/127 X 300/149 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 25% Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. 20% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans. 10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. 10% Isophthalic.

10% PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 200/93 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 100/38 300/149 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 210/99 250/121 80/27 180/82 220/104 250/121 210/99 200/93 250/121 210/99 180/82 260/127 300/149 400/204 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals. 10% Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone.412 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 413 Sodium Hydroxide. 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 230/110 400/204 250/121 X 220/104 90/32 80/27 400/204 450/232 210/99 170/77 150/66 130/54 140/66 210/99 220/104 90/32 200/93 140/60 140/60 190/88 180/82 80/27 130/54 110/43 100/38 X 130/54 190/88 170/77 X X 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

414 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Hydroxide. LLC . 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 230/110 400/204 250/121 X 180/82 80/27 400/204 450/232 220/104 170/77 150/66 X 140/60 210/99 220/104 150/66 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 90/32 X 220/104 X X X X 200/93 220/104 X X 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDFa EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 150/66 400/204 200/93 450/232 150/66 X 140/60 X 80/27 140/60 140/60 190/88 180/82 X X X X 90/32 90/32 Material is subject to stress cracking. Conc.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 415 Sodium Hydroxide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

10% PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO. LLC . 20% Polymer ABS Acrylics. 5% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 100/38 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 80/27 200/93 120/49 130/54 300/149 140/60 140/60 200/93 180/82 X X X X 160/71 X 80/27 80/27 180/82 X X X 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. 5% PP PVDC. 15% CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI. 20% PPS. 10% Isophthalic PET Epoxy.416 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Hypochlorite.

LLC . Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 300/149 300/149 400/204 X X 80/27 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 80/27 80/27 250/121 110/43 120/49 300/149 140/60 140/60 200/93 200/93 X X 140/60 X X 80/27 100/38 X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 417 Sodium Hypochlorite. Conc.

25% PPS. PET Epoxy. to 10% Vinyl esters. sat. LLC . Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic.418 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sodium Sulfide. sat. all PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate. 10% Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 300/149 400/204 250/121 X 400/204 450/232 260/138 140/60 140/60 240/116 140/60 250/121 190/88 140/60 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 230/110 210/99 X X 240/116 250/121 220/104 260/127 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. all Furans. to 50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO.

all Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 90/32 230/110 200/93 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 200/93 80/27 180/82 170/77 200/93 210/99 260/127 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. all PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 419 Stannic Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. LLC .

dry PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. LLC .420 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Stannous Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides. all PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 100/38 80/27 210/99 300/149 300/149 400/204 450/232 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 170/77 140/60 210/99 200/93 180/82 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 250/121 180/82 170/77 220/104 200/93 240/116 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . 10% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 300/149 400/204 80/27 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 160/71 140/60 250/121 200/93 120/49 300/149 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X X 220/104 260/127 210/99 160/71 160/71 140/60 200/93 250/121 300/149 X 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 421 Sulfuric Acid.

50% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 130/54 90/32 230/110 250/121 300/149 400/204 X 200/93 80/27 X 400/204 450/232 220/104 140/60 140/60 140/60 90/32 250/121 200/93 X 300/149 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X X 220/104 200/93 210/99 150/66 140/60 110/43 210/99 260/127 280/138 X 80/27 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .422 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfuric Acid.

70% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X 80/27 230/110 250/121 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 220/104 80/27 80/27 X 90/32 250/121 180/82 X X 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 X X 160/71 190/88 90/32 X X 110/43 180/82 260/127 200/93 X 90/32 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 423 Sulfuric Acid. LLC .

LLC .424 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfuric Acid. 90% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 210/99 150/66 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 210/99 X X X 80/27 220/104 180/82 X X 140/60 X 120/49 140/60 X X X X X X X X X X 80/27 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

98% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 210/99 150/66 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 140/60 X X X 180/82 120/49 X X X X 120/149 X X X X X X X X X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 425 Sulfuric Acid. LLC .

100% Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C X X 210/99 80/27 300/149 400/204 X X X X 400/204 450/232 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.426 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfuric Acid. LLC .

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . Fuming Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X X 200/93 300/149 120/49 400/204 X 120/40 X X X 400/204 450/232 X X X 60/15 X X X X X X X X X X X X Corrodent will permeate.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 427 Sulfuric Acid.

10% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A. 10% PET Epoxy. 10% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 250/121 210/99 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 200/93 180/82 80/27 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 220/104 X 110/43 80/27 210/99 X 240/116 120/49 160/71 160/71 X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 25% Isophthalic. LLC . 10% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated. to 20% Vinyl esters.428 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Sulfurous Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 429 Thionyl Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEPa Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C X 150/66 210/99 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 X X X X 100/38 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 200/93 Corrodent will permeate. LLC .

LLC .430 Toluene Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C X X 150/66 250/121 400/204 200/93 200/93 80/27 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 210/99 X X 250/121 X 300/149 60/15 80/27 X X X X 80/27 X X X 110/43 90/32 110/43 250/121 150/66 120/49 260/127 200/93 X X q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

50% Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic. 50% Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde. 20% CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 431 Trichloroacetic Acid Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE. 30% Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 150/66 210/99 400/204 X 400/204 450/232 130/54 140/60 80/27 250/121 140/60 210/99 150/66 80/27 90/32 X 140/60 X 180/82 200/93 90/32 170/77 250/121 X 210/99 260/127 100/38 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 50% Halogenated. 50% HMWPE PET PPO. 10% PPS. 50% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC. 50% PET Epoxy Vinyl esters.

432 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Water. LLC . Acid Mine Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 210/99 400/204 80/27 80/27 200/93 450/232 220/104 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 180/82 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 100/38 210/99 110/43 300/149 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 433 Water. Demineralized Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 300/149 210/99 400/204 80/27 150/66 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 160/71 210/99 210/99 150/66 250/121 250/121 210/99 250/121 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

LLC . Distilled Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 210/99 400/204 80/27 200/93 90/32 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 300/149 220/104 170/77 210/99 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 80/27 180/82 200/93 210/99 210/99 180/82 250/121 210/99 210/99 200/93 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.434 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Water.

LLC . Potable Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 450/232 280/138 180/82 170/77 140/60 140/60 210/99 210/99 170/77 210/99 210/99 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 435 Water.

10% Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 8F/8C 140/60 90/32 300/149 250/121 400/204 140/60 90/32 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 220/104 180/82 200/93 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 X 80/27 180/82 210/99 160/76 250/121 210/99 180/82 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.436 Water. Salt Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy. LLC .

Sea Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 90/32 300/149 250/121 400/204 140/60 150/66 400/204 450/232 280/138 140/60 140/60 250/121 90/32 300/149 220/104 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 220/104 180/82 200/93 120/49 250/121 300/149 180/82 250/121 210/99 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 437 Water.

LLC . Sewage Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 80/27 300/149 270/132 400/204 110/43 400/204 450/232 250/121 140/60 140/60 220/104 170/77 140/60 140/60 180/82 250/121 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.438 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Water.

LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 439 White Liquor Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFA PTFE PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB 8F/8C 140/60 250/121 400/204 80/27 400/204 450/232 200/93 90/32 220/104 140/60 140/60 200/93 220/104 180/82 X X 200/93 180/82 140/60 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

440 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Zinc Chloride Polymer ABS Acrylics CTFE ECTFE ETFE FEP Polyamides PAI PEEK PEI PES PFAa PTFEa PVDF EHMWPE HMWPE PET PPO PPS. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 70% PP PVDC PSF PVC Type 1 PVC Type 2 CPVC CPE PUR Acetals Polyesters Bisphenol A-fumurate Halogenated Hydrogenated-Bisphenol A Isophthalic PET Epoxy Vinyl esters Furans Phenolics Phenol-formaldehyde Methyl appended silicone PB a 8F/8C 140/60 80/27 300/149 300/149 400/204 X 90/32 400/204 450/232 260/127 140/60 140/60 250/121 140/60 250/121 200/93 170/77 200/93 140/60 140/60 200/93 250/121 250/121 200/93 200/93 180/82 250/121 250/121 180/82 260/127 300/149 400/204 Corrodent will be absorbed.

1–4. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Corrosion Resistance Tables. New York: Marcel Dekker.A. Schweitzer.. 2004. 5th ed. Vols. LLC .Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Thermoplastic and Thermoset Polymers 441 Reference 1. P.

LLC .q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

either natural or synthetic. In the raw state. Depending on the application of the elastomer. Ingredients are added to make elastomers stronger. Elastomers are primarily composed of large molecules that tend to form spiral threads. tougher. similar to a coiled spring. to impart specific properties to meet specific application needs. to make them age better.1 Introduction The technical definition of an elastomer. Vulcanizing agents are also added because the vulcanizing process extends the temperature range within which they are flexible and elastic. As a small stress is applied. elastomers tend to be soft and sticky when hot and hard and brittle when cold.5 Elastomers 5. these coils tend to stretch or compress but exert an increasing resistance as additional stresses are applied. resembles natural rubber in feeling and appearance. certain specific properties may be required. that are attached to each other at infrequent intervals. or harder. LLC . as given by ASTM. The following examples illustrate some of the important properties that are required of elastomers and the typical services that require these properties: 443 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. These materials are sometimes referred to as rubbers. The maximum utility of elastomers. states: An elastomer is a polymeric material which at room temperature can be stretched to at least twice its original length and upon immediate release of the stress will return quickly to its original length. an elastomer is generally considered to be any material that is elastic or resilient and. in general. and in general. More commonly. to color them. is achieved by compounding. This property is illustrated by the reaction of an elastic band.

O-rings Resistance to oils: gasoline hose. special belts. electrician’s tape. stack linings Resistance to ozone: ignition distributor gaskets. gaskets. hose covers Resistance to tearing: tire treads. O-rings. valve cups. bathing caps. LLC . Synthetic rubbers now produced are similar to. refrigeration hose. mountings High resilience: sponge rubber. life rafts. thread. adhesive tapes. belts conveying hot materials. ignition cables. windshield wipers Resistance to sunlight: wearing apparel. hot-water bags. wire insulation Electrical conductivity: hospital flooring. welding hose These materials are sometimes referred to as rubbers. auto tires. creamery hose. V belts. steam hose. gaskets. brewery and winery hose. O-rings High rigidity: packing. soles and heels (shoes). gaskets. O-rings Minimum heat buildup: auto tires. special footwear Stickiness: cements. O-rings Resistance to cold: airplane parts. steam packing. windshield wipers Resistance to chemicals: tank linings. life rafts. hose covers. mountings. oil suction hose. forestry hose. sandblast hose. balloons Lack of odor or taste: milk tubing. but not identical q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. valve diaphragms. special diaphragms.444 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Resistance to abrasive wear: automobile tires. packing house hose. O-rings Resistance to flexing: auto tires. automotive parts. matting Impermeability to gases: balloons. footwear. Natural rubber is polymerized hydrocarbon whose commercial synthesis proved to be very difficult. mountings. cables. tank linings. transmission belts. transmission belts. battery boxes Long life: fire hose. tubing Electrical resistivity: electrician’s tape. V belts. elastic bands. transmission belts. and footwear Resistance to high temperatures: auto tires. nipples. pressuresensitive tapes Low specific gravity: airplane parts. switchboard mats. gasoline hose. conveyor belt covers. jar rings. hose covers. hose for chemicals. nonstatic hose. belt covers. electrician’s gloves. soles and heels (shoes). O-rings Acceptance of color pigments: ponchos. suction hose. jar rings. paint hose.

Elastomers 445 to. Table 5. Two of them were isobutylene and ethylene. this does involve trade-offs. CH2aCH–CHaCH2. However. Butadiene. has two unsaturated linkages and is easily polarized. It is commercially produced by cracking petroleum and also from ethyl alcohol.1 Compounding Trade-Offs An Improvement in Tensile strength. TABLE 5.1.1 Importance of Compounding The rubber chemist is able to optimize selected properties or fine-tune the formulation to meet a desired balance of properties. natural rubber. Natural rubber has the hydrocarbon butadiene as its simplest unit. other compounds were used as the parent material in place of butadiene. As development work continued in the production of synthetic rubbers.1 illustrates some of these effects. 5. it is important that these effects be taken into consideration. LLC . hardness Dynamic properties Balanced properties Optimized properties Compression set resistance Oil resistance Abrasion resistance Dampening Can Be at the Expense of Extensibility Dynamic properties Thermal stability Compression set resistance Processability Higher cost Flex fatigue strength Resilience Low-temperature flexibility Resilience Resilience Compression set resistance q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Therefore. the units link together to form long chains that contain over 1000 units. Natural rubber is a polymer of methyl butadiene (isoprene): CH3 CH2 C CH CH2 When butadiene or its derivatives become polarized. In early attempts to develop a synthetic rubber. Better results are obtained by introducing side groups into the chain either by modifying butadiene or by making a copolymer of butadiene and some other compound. it was found that simple butadiene does not yield a good grade of rubber because the chains are too smooth and do not sufficiently interlock strongly. Improvement in one property can come at the expense of another property.

and acrylic acid and its esters. LLC . a thermoplast or elastomeric polymer is a supercooled liquid that behaves in many ways like a rigid solid. a cross-linked elastomer will display rubber-like properties. the modulus is relatively insensitive to temperature. are carbon-based. with the exception of silicones. flexible solid.446 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. Many of the same monomers are found in both thermoplastic and elastomeric polymers. ethylene. whereas an engineering thermoplastic is a rigid solid. acrylonitrile.2 Similarities of Elastomers and Thermoplastic Polymers All thermoplastic polymers and elastomers. causing it to spring back to its original shape when deforming stress is removed. extending well above and below room temperature. pliable gum or a leathery. The cross-links join the elastomer’s molecular chains together at a cross-link density such that many molecular units exist between cross-link sites. The distinction refers to a modulus of the material—a ratio between an applied force and the amount of resulting deformation.3 Differences between Elastomers and Thermoplasts At room temperature. 5. crystallinity. A noncrystalline (amorphus) polymer will display a large decrease in modulus at the glass transition temperature. Elastomers in the uncured state have glass-transition temperature well below room temperature. the presence of side chains. They are made up from the linking of one or more monomers into long molecular chains. Engineering thermoplastics have glass-transition temperatures that fall in a wide temperature range. Between the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature.1. propylene. most amorphous thermoplastic materials could be converted into elastomers in some appropriate temperature range by the controlled addition of a limited number of cross-links. Typical examples include styrene. Molecular mobility is the fundamental property that accounts for the differences among elastomers and the differences between elastomers and engineering thermoplasts. The behavior of a thermoplast above its glass transition temperature will depend on its level of crystallinity. an uncured elastomer can be a soft. This only slightly increases the resistance of deformation. The factors that influence the resistance to motion include various intermolecular attractions. When the molecular resistance to motion is the least. Below this temperature. In principle. and physical entanglements of the molecular strands. An elastomer is in a thermoplastic state prior to vulcanization. but it increases the resilience of the elastomer. Above this temperature. deformation is the greatest.1. A partially crystalline thermoplast will display a relatively small modulus change at the glass transition temperature followed by a steady decreasing modulus as the temperature increases. The major physical differences between a cured elastomer and an engineering thermoplastic is the presence of cross-links. The glass transition temperature of the polymer is determined by the cumulative effect of these factors. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

thicknesses of 0. especially organic liquids. cracking. Some elastomers. Unlike metals. and penetration to the substrate in an elastomer-lined vessel. Thick linings may be required when mechanical factors such as thinning because of cold flow. in a lined vessel. factors that influence the permeation rate are diffusion and temperature rather than concentration and temperature. Though permeation is a factor closely related to absorption. mechanical abuse.4 Causes of Failure Chemical deterioration occurs as the result of a chemical reaction between the elastomer and the medium or by absorption of the medium into the elastomer. this is not necessarily the answer to q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. but the permeability rate of some elastomers tends to be an order of magnitude greater than that of metals. elastomers absorb varying quantities of the material they are in contact with. caused by an accumulation of fluids at the bond when the substrate is less permeable than the lining or from the formation of corrosion or reaction products if the substrate is attacked by the corrodent 2. When the corrodent permeates the elastomer. LLC . such as the fluorocarbons.010–0. All materials tend to be somewhat permeable to chemical molecules. Bond failure and blistering. Normally. This attack results in a swelling of the elastomer and a reduction in its tensile strength. introduce high stresses and failure of the bond. it is not necessary for an elastomer to have a high absorption rate for permeation to occur. Increasing lining thickness will normally decrease permeation by the square of the thickness. and permeation rates are taken into consideration.Elastomers 447 5. This can result in swelling. it comes into contact with the metal substrate that is then subject to chemical attack. are easily permeated but have very little absorption. are usually satisfactory. depending on the elastomeric material and the specific corrodent. When an elastomer exhibits a high absorption. for which data are usually available. Failure of the substrate because of corrosive attack 3. permeation usually results. Loss of contents through lining and substrate as the result of eventual failure of the substrate The degree of permeation is affected by lining thickness. An approximation of the expected permeation and/or absorption of an elastomer can be based on the absorption of water. However. the chemical attack is greater as the temperature and/or concentration of the corrodent increases. This can result in 1.1. Permeation is another factor that can cause failure of a lining. Permeation can pose a serious problem in elastomer-lined equipment. Swelling can cause softening of the elastomer and. For general corrosion resistance.020 in. However. The temperature and concentration of the corrodent will determine the degree of deterioration.

As the liner thickness increases. 5.2 shows the ozone resistance of selected elastomers. serious loss of tensile strength. Temperature and temperature gradient in the liner also affect the rate of permeation. In addition. the labor cost of installing the liner increases as the thickness increases. provide the best service. Linings can be installed either bonded or unbonded to the substrate. the material is weakened. and serious loss of tensile strength. when used under ambient conditions such as storage tanks. and other rubber-like properties are the result of the attack. discoloration of colored stocks. the thermal stresses on the boundary increase that can cause bond failure. ozone. Elastomers in outdoor use can be subject to degradation as a result of the action of ozone. These three weathering agents can greatly affect the properties and appearance of a large number of elastomeric materials. Therefore. Although elastomers can be damaged by mechanical means alone. oxygen. With many elastomers. and sunlight. and consequently. and oxygen can cause surface cracking. and other rubber-like properties. Some elastomeric materials are subject to degradation when placed in outdoor applications as a result of weathering. In unbonded linings. Table 5. LLC . crystallization takes place at low temperatures. The low-temperature properties must also be taken into account for outdoor use. when the material is to be installed where it will be subject to weathering. Lowering these will reduce the permeation rate. The action of sunlight. it is important that the space between the liner and support member be vented to the atmosphere to permit the escape of minute quantities of permeant vapors and also to prevent the expansion of entrapped air that could cause collapse of the liner. When the elastomer is in a deteriorated condition. Table 5. Most mechanical damage occurs as a result of chemical deterioration of the elastomer. this is usually not the case. These stresses are influenced by thickness and modulus of elasticity of the elastomer. it is more susceptible to mechanical damage from flowing or agitated media. discoloration of colored stocks.4 gives the brittle points of the common elastomers. the resistance to weathering must also be taken into account when selecting an elastomer as well as other corrosion resistance properties. and chemical resistance properties must all be taken q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. elongation. Table 5. Surface cracking.5 provides the operating temperatures of the common elastomers.5 Selecting an Elastomer When the need arises to specify an elastomer for a specific application. Table 5. Lined vessels. physical.448 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers the problem because increasing the liner thickness can introduce other problems. mechanical. Temperature changes and large differences in coefficients of thermal expansion are the most common causes of bond failure.1. when the elastomer is brittle and will easily fracture.3 gives the relative low-temperature flexibility of the more common elastomers. elongation.

poor. LLC .2 Ozone Resistance of Selected Elastomers Excellent Resistance EPDM Epichlorhydrin ETFE ECTFE Fluorosilicones Ethylene acrylate Ethylene vinyl acetate Chlorinated polyethylene Good Resistance Polychloroprene Fair Resistance Nitrile Poor Resistance Buna S Isoprene Natural rubber Chlorosulfonated polyethylene Polyacrylate Polysulfide Polyamides Polyesters Perfluoroelastomers Urethanes Vinylidene fluoride Butyl 449 Polybutadiene SBR SBS TABLE 5. excellent. fair. good. F.3 Relative Low-Temperature Flexibility of the Common Elastomers Elastomer Natural rubber NR Butyl rubber IIR Ethylene–propylene rubber EPDM Ethylene–acrylic rubber EA Fluoroelastomer FKM Fluorosilicone FSI Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (Hypalon) CSM Polychloroprene (Neoprene) CR Nitrile rubber (Buna-N) NBR Polybutadiene BR Polyisoprene IR Polysulfide T rubber Butadiene–styrene rubber (Buna-S) SBR Silicone rubber SI Polyurethane rubber AU Polyether–urethane rubber EU a Relative Flexibilitya G–E F E P–F F–G E F–G F–G F–G G–E G F–G G E G G E.Elastomers TABLE 5. P. G. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

450 TABLE 5.4

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Brittle Points of Common Elastomers
Elastomer NR; IR CR SBR NBR CSM BR EA EPDM; EPT SEBS Polysulfide SF Polysulfide FA AU Polyamide No. 11 PE TPE SI FSI HEP FKM ETFE ECTFE FPM 8F K68 K40 K76 K32 to K40 K40 to K80 K60 K75 K90 K58 to K148 K60 K30 K85 to K100 K94 K94 K67 to K70 K75 K75 K80 K25 to K75 K150 K105 K9 to K58 8C K56 K40 K60 K1 to K40 K40 to K62 K56 K60 K68 K50 to K100 K51 K35 K65 to K73 K70 K70 K55 to K60 K60 K60 K62 K32 to K59 K101 K70 K23 to K50

into account. The major physical and mechanical properties that may have to be considered, depending on the application are: Abrasion resistance Electrical properties Compression set resistance Tear resistance Tensile strength Adhesion to metals Adhesion to fabrics Rebound, cold and hot Resistance to heat aging and flame It should be remembered that these properties may be altered by compounding, but improvement of one property may result in an adverse effect on another. Because of this, it is best to provide a competent manufacturer with complete specifications and let that manufacturer provide an appropriate elastomer.
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.5 Operating Temperature Ranges of Common Elastomers
Temperature Range 8F Elastomer Natural rubber, NR Isoprene rubber, IR Neoprene rubber, CR Buna-S, SBR Nitrile Rubber Buna, NBR Butyl rubber, IIR Chlorobutyl rubber, CIIR Hypalon, CSM Polybutadiene rubber, BR Ethylene–acrylic rubber, EA Acrylate–butadiene rubber, ABR Ethylene–propylene, EPDM Styrene–butadiene–styrene, SBS Styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene, SEBS Polysulfide, ST Polysulfide, FA Polyurethane, AU Polyamides Polyesters, PE Thermoplastic elastomers, TPE Silicone, SI Fluorosilicone, FSI Vinylidene fluoride, HEP Fluoroelastomers, FKM Ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene elastomer, ETFE Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene elastomer, ECTFE Perfluoroelastomers, FPM Min K59 K59 K13 K66 K40 K30 K30 K20 K150 K40 K40 K65 K102 K50 K30 K65 K40 K40 K40 K60 K100 K40 K10 K370 K105 K58 Max 175 175 203 175 250 300 300 250 200 340 340 300 150 220 212 250 250 300 302 277 450 375 450 400 300 340 600 Min K50 K50 K25 K56 K40 K34 K34 K30 K101 K40 K40 K54 K75 K45 K35 K54 K40 K40 K40 K51 K73 K40 K18 K223 K76 K50 8C

451

Max 80 80 95 80 105 149 149 105 93 170 170 149 65 105 100 121 121 149 150 136 232 190 232 204 149 171 316

The primary requirement of the elastomer is that it must be compatible with the corrodent to be handled. Therefore, all temperatures and concentrations of the corrodent to which it will be exposed, must be provided. Specifications should include any specific properties required for the application, such as resilience, hysteresis, static or dynamic shear and compression modulus, flex fatigue and cracking, creep resistance to oils and chemicals, permeability, and brittle point, all in the temperature ranges to be encountered in service. 5.1.6 Corrosion Resistance The corrodent’s concentration and temperature is a determining factor in the capacity of the elastomer to resist attack by the corrodent. Another important factor is the elastomer’s composition. It is a common practice in the
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

452

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

manufacture of elastomers to incorporate additives into the formulation to improve certain of the physical and/or mechanical properties. These additives may have an adverse effect on the corrosion resistance of the base elastomer, particularly at elevated temperatures. Conversely, some manufacturers compound their elastomer to improve their corrosion resistance at the expense of physical and/or mechanical properties. Because of this, it is important to know whether or not any additives have been used as the corrosion resistance charts are applicable only for the pure elastomer. Keep in mind that there are several manufacturers of each generic compound. Because each may compound slightly differently, the corrosion resistance may be affected. When a generic compound is listed as being compatible with a specific corrodent, it indicates that at least one of the trade name materials is resistant to the corrodent, but not necessarily all. The manufacturers must be checked. 5.1.7 Applications Elastomeric or rubber materials find a wide range of applications. One of the major areas of application is that of vessels’ linings. Both natural and synthetic materials are used for this purpose. These linings have provided many years of service in the protection of steel vessels from corrosion. They are sheet-applied and bonded to a steel substrate. These materials are also used extensively as membranes in acid-bricklined vessels to protect the steel shell from corrosive attack. The acid-brick lining, in turn, protects the elastomer from abrasion and excessive temperature. Another major use is as an impermeable lining for settling ponds and basins. These materials are employed to prevent pond contaminants from seeping into the soil and causing pollution of groundwater and contamination of the soil. Natural rubber and most of the synthetic elastomers are unsaturated compounds that oxidize and rapidly deteriorate when exposed to air in thin films. These materials can be saturated by reacting with chlorine under the proper conditions, producing compounds that are clear, odorless, nontoxic, and noninflammable. They may be dissolved and blended with varnishes to impart high resistance to moisture and to the action of alkalies. This makes these products particularly useful in paints for concrete where the combination of moisture and alkali causes the disintegration of ordinary paints and varnishes. These materials also resist mildew and are used to impart flame resistance and waterproofing properties to canvas. Application of these paints to steel will provide a high degree of protection against corrosion. Large quantities of elastomeric materials are used to produce a myriad of products such as hoses, cable insulation, O-rings, seals and gaskets, belting, vibration mounts, flexible couplings, expansion joints, automotive and airplane parts, electrical parts and accessories. With such a wide variety of applications requiring very diverse properties, it is essential that an
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understanding of the properties of each elastomer be acquired so that proper choices can be made. 5.1.8 Elastomer Designations Many of the elastomers have common names or trade names as well as the chemical name. For example, polychloroprene also goes under the name of neoprene (DuPont’s tradename) or Bayprene (Mobay Corp’s tradename). In addition, they also have an ASTM designation that for polychloroprene is CR.

5.2 Natural Rubber
Natural rubber of the best quality is prepared by coagulating the latex of the ` Hevea brasıliensis tree that is primarily cultivated in the Far East. However, there are other sources such as the wild rubbers of the same tree growing in Central America, guyayule rubber coming from shrubs grown mostly in Mexico, and balata. Balata is a resinous material and cannot be tapped like the Hevea tree sap. The balata tree must be cut down and boiled to extract balata that cures to a hard, tough product used as golf ball covers. Another source of rubber is the planation leaf gutta-percha. This material is produced from the leaves of trees grown in bush formation. The leaves are picked and the rubber is boiled out as with the balata. Gutta-percha has been used successfully for submarine-cable insulation for more than 40 years. Chemically, natural rubber is a polymer of methyl butadiene (isoprene):
CH3 CH2 C CH CH2

When polymerized, the units link together, forming long chains that each contain over 1000 units. Simple butadiene does not yield a good grade of rubber, apparently because the chains are too smooth and do not form a strong enough interlock. Synthetic rubbers are produced by introducing side groups into the chain either by modifying butadiene or by making a copolymer of butadiene and some other compound. Purified raw rubber becomes sticky in hot weather and brittle in cold weather. Its valuable properties become apparent after vulcanization. Depending upon the degree of curing, natural rubber is classified as soft, semihard, or hard rubber. Only soft rubber meets the ASTM definition of an elastomer, and therefore, the information that follows pertain only to soft rubber. The properties of semihard and hard rubber differ somewhat, particularly in the area of corrosion resistance. Most rubber is made to combine with sulfur or sulfur-bearing organic compounds or with other cross-linking chemical agents in a process known
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as vulcanization that was invented by Charles Goodyear in 1839 and forms the basis of all later developments in the rubber industry. When properly carried out, vulcanization improves mechanical properties, eliminates tackiness, renders the rubber less susceptible to temperature changes, and makes it insoluble in all known solvents. Other materials are added for various purposes as follows: Carbon blacks, precipitated pigments, and organic vulcanization accelerators are added to increase tensile strength and resistance to abrasion. Whiting, barite, talc, silica, silicates, clays, and fibrous materials are added to cheapen and stiffen. Bituminous substances, coal tar and its products, vegetable and mineral oils, paraffin, petrolatum, petroleum, oils, and asphalt are added to soften (for purposes of processing or for final properties). Condensation amines and waxes are added as protective agents against natural aging, sunlight, heat, and flexing. Pigments are added to provide coloration. Vulcanization has the greatest effect on the mechanical properties of natural rubber. Unvulcanized rubber can be stretched to approximately ten times its length and, at this point, will bear a load of 10 tons/in.2. It can be compressed to one-third of its thickness thousands of times without injury. When most types of vulcanized rubbers are stretched, their resistance increases in greater proportion than their extension. Even when stretched just short of the point of rupture, they recover almost all of their original dimensions on being released and then gradually recover a portion of the residual distortion. The outstanding property of natural rubber in comparison to the synthetic rubbers is its resilience. It has excellent rebound properties, either hot or cold. 5.2.1 Resistance to Sun, Weather, and Ozone Cold water preserves natural rubber, but if exposed to the air, particularly in sunlight, rubber tends to become hard and brittle. It has only fair resistance to ozone. Unlike the synthetic elastomers, natural rubber softens and reverts with aging to sunlight. In general, it has relatively poor weathering and aging properties. 5.2.2 Chemical Resistance Natural rubber offers excellent resistance to most inorganic salt solutions, alkalies, and nonoxidizing acids. Hydrochloric acid will react with soft rubber to form rubber hydrochloride, and therefore, it is not recommended that natural rubber be used for items that will come into contact with that
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acid. Strong oxidizing media such as nitric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, permanganates, dichromates, chlorine dioxide, and sodium hypochlorite will severely attack rubber. Mineral and vegetable oils, gasoline, benzene, toluene, and chlorinated hydrocarbons also affect rubber. Cold water tends to preserve natural rubber. Natural rubber offers good resistance to radiation and alcohols. Unvulcanized rubber is soluble in gasoline, naphtha, carbon bisulfide, benzene, petroleum ether, turpentine, and other liquids. Refer to Table 5.6 for the compatibility of natural rubber with selected corrodents.
TABLE 5.6 Compatibility of Natural Rubber with Selected Corrodents
Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid, 10% Acetic acid, 50% Acetic acid, 80% Acetic acid, glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride, aqueous Aluminum chloride, dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride, 10% Ammonium chloride, 50% Ammonium chloride, sat. Ammonium fluoride, 10% Ammonium fluoride, 25% Ammonium hydroxide, 25% 8F X X 150 X X X X 140 X 8C X X 66 X X X X 60 X

140 140 160 X X 140

60 60 71 X X 60

140 140 140 140 X X 140

60 60 60 60 X X 60
(continued)

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456 TABLE 5.6 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide, sat. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate, 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia, 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid, 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas, dry Bromine gas, moist Bromine, liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide, 10% Calcium hydroxide, sat. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide 8F 140 140 140 140 140 X 140 X X X 140 140 140 140 140 X X X 140 X X 140 140 8C 60 60 60 60 60 X 60 X X X 60 60 60 60 60 X X X 60 X X 60 60

X 140 X 140 140 140 140 140 140 X X 140 140 X

X 60 X 60 60 60 60 60 60 X X 60 60 X
(continued)

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Elastomers TABLE 5.6 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Carbon dioxide, dry Carbon dioxide, wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid, 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas, dry Chlorine gas, wet Chlorine, liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid, 10% Chromic acid, 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid, 15% Citric acid, conc. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride, 5% Cupric chloride, 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride, 50% in water Ferric nitrate, 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas, dry Fluorine gas, moist Hydrobromic acid, dil. Hydrobromic acid, 20% Hydrobromic acid, 50% Hydrochloric acid, 20% 8F 8C

457

X X X 140 X X X X X X X X X X X 140 X X X 140 140 X X X X

X X X 60 X X X X X X X X X X X 60 X X X 60 60 X X X X

X 140 140 140 X 140 X X 140 140 140 X

X 60 60 60 X 60 X X 60 60 60 X
(continued)

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458 TABLE 5.6 Continued

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Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrochloric acid, 38% Hydrocyanic acid, 10% Hydrofluoric acid, 30% Hydrofluoric acid, 70% Hydrofluoric acid, 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution, 10% Ketones, general Lactic acid, 25% Lactic acid, conc. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid, 5% Nitric acid, 20% Nitric acid, 70% Nitric acid, anhydrous Nitrous acid, conc. Oleum Perchloric acid, 10% Perchloric acid, 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid, 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide, 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide, 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide, 10% Sodium hydroxide, 50% Sodium hydroxide, conc. Sodium hypochlorite, 20% Sodium hypochlorite, conc. Sodium sulfide, to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid, 10% Sulfuric acid, 50% Sulfuric acid, 70% Sulfuric acid, 90% Sulfuric acid, 98% 8F 140 X X X 8C 60 X X X

X X 140 X X X X 140 X X X X X

X X 60 X X X X 60 X X X X X

X 140 140

X 60 60

140 140 140 X X X X 140 140 140 140 X X X X

60 60 60 X X X X 60 60 60 60 X X X X
(continued)

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Elastomers TABLE 5.6 Continued
Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid, 100% Sulfuric acid, fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X X 8C X X X

459

140

60

The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is shown by an X. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Source: From P.A. Schweitzer. 2004. Corrosion Resistance Tables, Vols. 1–4, 5th ed., New York: Marcel Dekker.

5.2.3 Applications Natural rubber finds its major use in the manufacture of pneumatic tires and tubes, power transmission belts, conveyer belts, gaskets, mountings, hose, chemical tank linings, printing press platens, sound and/or shock absorbers, and seals against air, moisture, sound, and dirt. Rubber has been used for many years as a lining material for steel tanks, particularly for protection against corrosion by inorganic salt solutions, especially brine, alkalies, and nonoxidizing acids. These linings have the advantage of being readily repaired in place. Natural rubber is also used for lining pipelines used to convey these types of materials. Some of these applications have been replaced by synthetic rubbers that have been developed over the years.

5.3 Isoprene Rubber (IR)
Chemically, natural rubber is natural cis-polyisoprene. The synthetic form of natural rubber, synthetic cis-polyisoprene, is called isoprene rubber. The physical and mechanical properties of IR are similar to the physical and mechanical properties of natural rubber, the one major difference being that isoprene does not have an odor. This feature permits the use of IR in certain food-handling applications. IR can be compounded, processed, and used in the same manner as natural rubber. Other than the lack of odor, IR has no advantages over natural rubber.
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5.4 Neoprene (CR)
Neoprene is one of the oldest and most versatile of the synthetic rubbers. Chemically, it is polychloroprene. Its basic unit is a chlorinated butadiene whose formula is
Cl CH2 C CH CH2

The raw material is acetylene which makes this product more expensive than some of the other elastomeric materials. Neoprene was introduced commercially by DuPont in 1932 as an oilresistant substitute for natural rubber. Its dynamic properties are very similar to those of natural rubber, but its range of chemical resistance overcomes many of the shortcomings of natural rubber. As with other elastomeric materials, neoprene is available in a variety of formulations. Depending on the compounding procedure, material can be produced to impart specific properties to meet specific application needs. Neoprene is also available in a variety of forms. In addition to a neoprene latex that is similar to natural rubber latex, neoprene is produced in a “fluid” form as either a compounded latex dispersion or a solvent solution. Once these materials have solidified or cured, they have the same physical and chemical properties as the solid or cellular forms. 5.4.1 Resistance to Sun, Weather, and Ozone Neoprene displays excellent resistance to sun, weather, and ozone. Because of its low rate of oxidation, products made of neoprene have high resistance to both outdoor and indoor aging. Over prolonged periods of time in an outdoor environment, the physical properties of neoprene display insignificant change. If neoprene is properly compounded, ozone in atmospheric concentrations has little effect on the product. When severe ozone exposure is expected, as for example around electrical equipment, compositions of neoprene can be provided to resist thousands of parts per million of ozone for hours without surface cracking. Natural rubber will crack within minutes when subjected to ozone concentrations of only 50 ppm. 5.4.2 Chemical Resistance Neoprene’s resistance to attack from solvents, waxes, fats, oils, greases, and many other petroleum-based products is one of its outstanding properties. Excellent service is also experienced when it is in contact with aliphatic compounds (methyl and ethyl alcohols, ethylene glycols, etc.), aliphatic hydrocarbons, and most Freon refrigerants. A minimum amount of swelling
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gasolines. Properly compounded neoprene can be buried underground successfully. Included in this category are nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid. or alkalies. bacteria. It is unaffected by soils saturated with seawater. chemicals. organic esters. wastes. dry Aluminum fluoride 8F 200 200 160 160 160 X X X X X 140 160 120 X 200 150 200 8C 93 93 71 71 71 X X X X X 60 71 49 X 93 66 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.7 for the compatibilities of neoprene with selected corrodents. Highly oxidizing acid and salt solutions also cause surface deterioration and loss of strength. aromatic hydroxy compounds.Elastomers 461 and relatively little loss of strength occur when neoprene is in contact with these fluids. oils. 50% Acetic acid. LLC . inorganic salt solutions. 10% Acetic acid. change in appearance or change in properties. These products can be used in continuous or periodic immersion in either freshwater or saltwater without any loss of properties. and soil chemicals usually found in the earth have little effect on its properties. aqueous Aluminum chloride. TABLE 5. 80% Acetic acid. since moisture. Neoprene formulations can be produced that provide products with outstanding resistance to water absorption. and consequently. Refer to Table 5. neoprene products show little.7 Compatibility of Neoprene with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons. When exposed to dilute mineral acids. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. if any. and other industrial byproducts. only limited serviceability can be expected with them. and certain ketones have an adverse effect on neoprene.

3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. moist Bromine. 10% Ammonium chloride. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. dry Bromine gas. 10% Ammonium fluoride.7 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine 8F 180 200 200 140 X 200 150 150 150 200 200 200 200 200 200 150 150 160 X 200 X X 140 X 150 150 230 200 200 X X 100 150 X X 200 150 X X X 140 60 200 8C 82 93 93 60 X 93 66 66 66 93 93 93 93 93 93 66 66 71 X 93 X X 60 X 66 66 110 93 93 X X 38 66 X X 93 66 X X X 66 16 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat.462 TABLE 5. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. LLC .

conc. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. LLC . 5% Cupric chloride. dry Chlorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate 8F X X 200 200 150 230 230 X 150 200 150 X 200 200 X X X 150 X X X X X X X X X 140 100 150 150 160 200 160 200 X 200 160 X X 8C X X 93 93 66 110 110 X 66 93 66 X 93 93 X X X 66 X X X X X X X X X 60 38 66 66 71 93 71 93 X 93 71 X X (continued) 463 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. 15% Citric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. sat.7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. wet Chlorine. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 10% Chromic acid.

conc. 30% Salicylic acid 8F X X 100 160 160 200 90 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X 80 X 140 90 200 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X 150 200 160 8C X X 38 71 71 93 32 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X 27 X 60 32 93 93 X X X X X X X X X X X X 66 93 71 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.464 TABLE 5. general Lactic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 20% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. dil. dry Fluorine gas. 10% Perchloric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 70% Nitric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 10% Ketones. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 5% Nitric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid.7 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. LLC .

to 50% Stanic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.3 Applications Neoprene products are available in three basic forms: 1..7 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Silver bromide. 2004.A. Highly compressed cellular materials 3. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sulfiric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 10% Sulfuric acid. or calendering. LLC . Incompatibility is shown by an X. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Schweitzer. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 70% Sulfuric acid. 1–4. Source: From P. Sodium sulfide. Molding can be accomplished by compression. Vols. Sodium hypochlorite. Conventional solid rubber parts 2. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. conc. 90% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfiric acid.4. New York: Marcel Dekker. extruding. Solid products can be produced by molding. Free-flowing liquids Each form has certain specific properties that can be advantageous to final products. 98% Sulfuric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 200 200 230 230 230 X X 200 200 X 150 100 X X X X X 100 X X X 140 160 8C 93 93 110 110 110 X X 93 93 X 66 38 X X X X X 38 X X X 60 71 465 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. conc. injection.Elastomers TABLE 5. transfer. 5th ed. blow. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 5.

nonconnecting cells that impart the added advantage of nonabsorbency. boating accessories. transportation seating. absorbent material whose cells are uniform and interconnected. This property makes closed-cell neoprene especially suitable for sealing applications where fluid contact is expected such as in wetsuits for divers. It is also used extensively in latex-based adhesives. or wrapped-mandrel methods. and diaphragms. and knife-coated fabrics. sealants. meteorological balloons. filaments. shoe soles and heels. LLC . rods. Neoprene products manufactured by these processes include tubing. O-rings. Extrusion processes provide means to economically and uniformly mass produce products quickly. cushioning. it has also found application as a railroad car lubricator. and asphalt. and a variety of rubber-coated metal parts. radiator hose. and friction and coated fabrics. This material is particularly useful for gasketing and dustproofing applications where exposure to fluids is not expected. A large proportion of sheet stock is later die-cut into finished products such as gaskets. “Fluid” neoprene is the primary component in such products as adhesives. Open-cell neoprene is a compressible. caulks. Neoprene latex is an elastomer–water dispersion. protective coatings. belting. It is available in two forms—as a neoprene latex or as a solvent solution. household and industrial gloves. a closed-cell neoprene. for example. seating. This absorbent open-cell structure provides a wicking action to deliver oil to the journal bearings. and many types of hose. wire jacketing. mortar. sealing strips. Fluid forms of neoprene are important in the manufacture of many products because of their versatility. Typical products produced by these methods are instrument seals. acoustical filtering. automotive deck lid seals. shoe soles. It is used primarily in the manufacture of dipped products such as tool grips. and for other appplications where a compressible nonabsorbent weather-resistant material is required. and as an elasticizing additive for concrete. auto sparkplug boots. Foam neoprene is similar to open-cell neoprene in that it is a compressible material with interconnecting cells. and fiber binders. and carpet underlay.466 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers vacuum. coatings and paints. These products produced from neoprene latex possess the same properties q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. in mattresses. Its main area of application is for cushioning. and other miscellaneous components. Because of the good heat and oil resistance of neoprene. pads. Closed-cell neoprene is a resilient complex of individual. appliance parts. This material provides compressibility not found in solid rubber but still retains the advantageous properties of neoprene. and a foam neoprene. insulation. and packaging. sealed fractionalhorsepower motors. Other applications include use as a binder for curled animal hair in resilient furniture cushioning. and sound and vibration damping. as a binder for cellulose and asbestos. It is available as an open-cell sponge. foams. Calendered products include sheet stock. Cellular forms of neoprene are used primarily for gasketing.

Neoprene solvent solutions are prepared by dissolving neoprene in standard rubber solvents.1 Resistance to Sun. alkalies. Containers have been designed to hold oils. It was later designated GR-S. ozone. The solvent solution can be readily applied and will cure into a roofing membrane that is tough.Elastomers 467 as those associated with solid neoprene. possessing many of the advantageous properties of natural rubber while also overcoming many of its shortcomings. Collapsible nylon containers coated with neoprene are used for transporting and/or storing liquids. These solutions can be formulated in a range of viscosities suitable for application by brush. Neoprene.5 Styrene–Butadiene Rubber (SBR. government developed what was originally known as Government Rubber Styrene-Type (GR-S) because it was the most practical to put into rapid production on a wartime scale. and various bulk-shipped products. 5. and flowable dry solds. spray. has proved to be a reliable. including resistance to oil. weather. a shortage of natural rubber was created when Japan occupied the Far Eastern nations where natural rubber was obtained. Continued development since World War II has improved its properties considerably over what was initially produced by either Germany or the United States. in its many forms. Neoprene roofing applied in liquid form is used to protect concrete. These coatings protect the vessels from corrosion by acids. the U. pastes. plywood. molasses. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. chemicals. Because of the great need for rubber. GR-S) During World War II. As with natural rubber and the other synthetic elastomers. indispensable substitute for natural rubber. fuels. 5. and weather resistant. Major areas of application include coatings for storage tanks. and most hydrocarbons. compounding with other ingredients will improve certain properties. and metal decks. or roller. and flame. and chemical processing equipment. industrial equipment. Buna-S. it does have better water resistance than natural rubber. oils. The rubber is produced by copolymerizing butadiene and styrene. However. They can be used to join a wide variety of rigid and flexible materials. Sunlight will cause it to deteriorate. Solvent-based neoprene adhesives develop quick initial bonds and remain strong and flexible most indefinitely. Weather. LLC . and Ozone Butadiene–styrene rubber has poor weathering and aging properties.S.5. elastic.

10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Copper sulfate Corn oil Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. 40% Chromic acid. Calcium hydroxide.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of Buna-S is similar to that of natural rubber. dil. 10–40% Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. Ammonium sulfate. gasoline. 37% 8F X X X X 200 200 200 200 200 X X X X X 200 200 200 200 200 200 X X X X X X X 200 X X 200 200 200 200 8C X X X X 93 93 93 93 93 X X X X X 93 93 93 93 93 93 X X X X X X X 93 X X 93 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 80% Acetic acid. 30% Chromic acid. hydrocarbons. LLC . 10% Chromic acid. Formaldehyde. Refer to Table 5. 50% Acetic acid. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 28% Ammonium chloride.8 for the compatibility of SBR with selected corrodents. sat. 10% Acetic acid.5. TABLE 5. It is resistant to water and exhibits fair to good resistance to dilute acids. 20% Calcium hydroxide. glacial Acetone Ammonium chloride. sat. or oxidizing agents. Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Chromic acid. and alcohols.8 Compatibility of SBR with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. alkalies. 10% Ammonium chloride.468 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. sat. It is not resistant to oils. 50% Ammonium chloride.

sound. dil. Source: From P. sea 8F 200 200 X X X X X X X X X X X 200 200 X X X X X 200 X X 200 X X X X 210 200 200 200 8C 93 93 X X X X X X X X X X X 93 93 X X X X X 93 X X 93 X X X X 99 93 93 93 469 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.5. 2004. all conc. and dirt. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. 35% Hydrochloric acid. LLC . 20% Hydrochloric acid. to 50% Propane Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. and seals against air. gaskets. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. dil. Schweitzer. Lactic acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables.. demineralized Water.A. 5. moisture. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 5th ed. 10% Potassium hydroxide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. 100% Hydrogen peroxide. Hydrochloric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Vols. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid Phenol Phosphoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. Sulfuric acid.3 Applications The major use of Buna-S is in the manufacture of automobile tires. distilled Water.. 1–4. 38% Hydrochloric acid. all conc. salt Water. dil.8 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Formaldehyde. Incompatibility is shown by an X. hoses. all conc. although Buna-S materials are also used to manufacture conveyor belts. New York: Marcel Dekker.

fuel. gasoline and oil hose. printing rolls.and oil-resistant applications. and it requires special formulation to prevent sticking to mixer surfaces and premature vulcanization. or esters should be avoided. 5. The main advantages of nitrile rubbers are their low cost.6. The deterioration of physical properties as a result of this swelling is small. and their weathering qualities are not good. They are copolymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile (CH2aCH–CaN) and are one of the four most wildely used elastomers. Refer to Table 5. Other applications include carburetor diaphragms. Carbonated nitrile rubber (XNBR) incorporates up to 10% of a third comonomer with organic acid functionality. BunaN’s major area of application is in the manufacture of aircraft hose.6. As with other elastomers. oil. 5. alcohols. LLC . making NBR suitable for gasoline. XNBR can be difficult to process.6. Their greater resistance to oils. When compared to NBR.2 Chemical Resistance Nitrile rubbers exhibit good resistance to solvents. since these materials will attack the nitrile rubbers.6 Nitrile Rubber (NBR. good oil and abrasion resistance. and solvents compared to that of neoprene is their primary advantage.9 for the compatibility of NBR with selected corrodents. and good low-temperature and swell characteristics.3 Applications Because of its exceptional resistance to fuels and hydraulic fluids. ether. and hydraulic fluids. XNBR is a carboxylic-acrylomtrilebutadiene-nitrile rubber with somewhat improved abrasion resistance over that of the standard NBR nitrile rubbers.470 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. 5. and Ozone Nitrile rubbers offer poor resistance to sunlight and ozone. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. gaskets. NBR has excellent resistance to water. and self-sealing fuel tanks. nitro hydrocarbons. water. XNBR rubbers are used primarily in nonalkaline service. appropriate compounding will improve certain properties. and glycols. Buna-N) Nitrile rubbers are an outgrowth of German Buna-N or Perbunan. Weather. ozone. fatty acids. Very slight swelling occurs in the presence of aliphatic hydrocarbons. and machinery mountings. chlorinated hydrocarbons. The use of highly polar solvents such as acetone and methyl ethyl ketone.1 Resistance to Sun. cables. XNBR has improved abrasion resistance and strength.

10% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. 50–80% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride 8F X 180 X X X X X X X X X 180 180 X 150 150 180 190 200 190 X 150 150 150 X 125 150 150 150 X 100 100 150 150 X X X X X X 150 125 200 8C X 82 X X X X X X X X X 82 82 X 66 66 82 88 93 88 X 66 66 66 X 52 66 66 66 X 38 38 66 66 X X X X X X 66 52 93 (continued) 471 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . 20% Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid. 10–50% Hydrofluoric acid. anhydrous Phenol Phosphoric acid. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. 100% Hypochlorous acid Nitric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. aqueous Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate Amyl alcohol Aniline Barium chloride Benzene Benzoic acid Boric acid Calcium hypochlorite Carbonic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric nitrate. 80% Acetic acid.9 Compatibility of Nitrile Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.

7. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. fuming Zinc chloride 8F 150 X X 150 150 150 X X X X X 150 8C 66 X X 66 66 66 X X X X X 66 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.A. It is a general-purpose synthetic rubber whose outstanding physical properties are low permeability to air (approximately one-fifth that of natural rubber) and high energy absorption. 1–4. Commercial butyl rubber may contain 5% butadiene as a copolymer. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. New York: Marcel Dekker. 5. Vols.472 TABLE 5. 98% Sulfuric acid. Chlorobutyl rubber is chlorinated isobutylene–isoprene.. Weather. It has the same general properties as butyl rubber but with slightly higher allowable operating temperatures. 2004.1 Resistance to Sun. Source: From P. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 50% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.9 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. 5th ed. and ozone. conc. Stannic chloride Sulfuric acid. LLC . 5. 90% Sulfuric acid. Its weathering qualities are outstanding as its resistance to water absorption. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Schweitzer. and Ozone Butyl rubber has excellent resistance to sun.7 Butyl Rubber (IIR) and Chlorobutyl Rubber (CIIR) Butyl rubber contains isobutylene CH3 C CH2 CH3 as its parent material with small proportions of butadiene or isoprene added. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sulfuric acid. weather. 10% Sodium hypochlorite.

TABLE 5. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride.Elastomers 473 5.2 Chemical Resistance Butyl rubber is very nonpolar. and most solvents (except oxygenated solvents). is good.11 for the compatibility of chlorobutyl rubber with selected corrodents. acetane. 8F 80 150 110 110 X X 100 X X 190 X 200 200 200 200 180 100 100 200 X 190 200 200 200 150 150 190 190 8C 27 66 43 43 X X 38 X X 88 X 93 93 93 93 82 38 38 93 X 88 93 93 93 66 66 88 88 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Unlike natural rubber. Resistance to concentrated acids. It has poor resistance to petroleum oils. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. ethylene glycol.10 for the compatibility of butyl rubber with selected corrodents and to Table 5. Refer to Table 5. LLC .7. CIIR has the same general resistance as natural rubber but can be used at higher temperatures. alkalies. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride.10 Compatibility of Butyl Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum chloride. phosphate ester oils. gasoline. sat. CIIR cannot be used with hydrochloric acid. ethylene. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 50% Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. it is very resistant to swelling by vegetable and animal oils. Unlike butyl rubber. 10% Acetic acid. except nitric and sulfuric. and water. It has exceptional resistance to dilute mineral acids.

Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon dioxide. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10–40% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Chlorine. 10% 8F 200 190 150 150 X 150 150 150 150 190 190 90 X 90 150 190 X 190 150 X 140 X 120 150 190 190 190 190 X 190 100 190 190 190 X 90 150 150 150 100 X X X X X X 8C 93 88 66 66 X 66 66 66 66 88 88 32 X 32 66 88 X 88 66 X 60 X 49 66 88 88 88 88 X 88 38 88 88 88 X 32 66 66 66 38 X X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.10 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. sat.474 TABLE 5. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. LLC .

Hydrobromic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 70% Nitric acid.10 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Chromic acid. conc. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. dry Hydrobromic acid. LLC 475 . 15% Citric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 5% Cupric chloride. Copper chloride Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Citric acid. 10% Phenol Phosphoric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. conc. 100% Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid. 25% Lactic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. dil. conc. 50–80% Salicylic acid Sodium chloride 8F X 190 190 150 190 X 150 150 X X 200 175 160 190 175 190 X 125 125 125 125 125 140 150 150 150 X 125 125 200 X 90 100 80 X 200 150 X X 125 X 150 150 150 80 200 8C X 88 88 66 88 X 66 66 X X 93 79 71 88 79 88 X 52 52 52 52 52 60 66 66 66 X 52 52 93 X 32 38 27 X 93 66 X X 52 X 66 66 66 27 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 20% Nitric acid.

10 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. 2004. Source: From P. Incompatibility is shown by an X.11 Compatibility of Chlorobutyl Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. Vols.476 TABLE 5. 10% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 150 150 150 X X 150 150 150 200 150 X X X X X 200 X X X 200 8C 66 66 66 X X 66 66 66 93 66 X X X X X 93 X X X 93 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer. conc. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 80% Acetic acid.A. 10% 8F 150 150 150 X X 100 200 200 190 200 200 200 8C 60 60 60 X X 38 93 93 88 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 100% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. 1–4. Sodium hypochlorite. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Alum Aluminum chloride.. TABLE 5. conc. 70% Sulfuric acid. 10% Acetic acid. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 5th ed. 50% Sodium hydroxide. aqueous Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. LLC . Sodium sulfide. 50% Acetic acid. 90% Sulfuric acid.

5% Cupric chloride. 25% Lactic acid. 70% Nitric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Hydrobromic acid. conc. Magnesium chloride Nitric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 50% Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. Hydrobromic acid. conc. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.11 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. 5% Nitric acid. 10% Chromic acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. 38% Hydrofluoric acid. 100% Lactic acid. LLC 477 . dil. Phenol 8F 200 200 200 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 160 160 160 100 150 100 X X 90 150 160 160 150 150 200 175 100 160 175 125 125 125 X X X X 125 125 200 200 150 X X 125 150 8C 93 93 93 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 71 71 71 38 66 38 X X 32 66 71 71 66 66 93 79 38 71 79 52 52 52 X X X X 52 52 93 93 66 X X 52 66 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Hydrobromic acid. sat. 50% Citric acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. 15% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cupric chloride. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Nitric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium chloride Benzoic acid Boric acid Calcium chloride Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon monoxide Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid Chromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid.

and good resistance to permanent deformation under heavy loading. Vols.3 Applications Because of its impermeability. good flex life. 10% Sodium sulfide.478 TABLE 5. balloons. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 50–80% Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. fuming Sulfurous acid Zinc chloride 8F 150 200 150 150 200 X X X X X 200 200 8C 66 93 66 66 93 X X X X X 93 93 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. better electrical properties. 100% Sulfuric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. butyl rubber finds many uses in the manufacture of inflatable items such as life jackets. 1–4. 2004. In many respects it is similar to neoprene. Corrosion Resistance Tables.8 Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber (Hypalon) Chlorosulfonated polyethylene synthetic rubber (CSM) is manufactured by DuPont under the trade name Hypalon. General-purpose compounds can operate continuously at q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5th ed. life boats. shock and vibration absorbers. high impact resistance. when properly compounded. The excellent resistance it exhibits in the presence of water and steam makes it suitable for hoses and diaphragms.A. It has better heat and ozone resistance. 98% Sulfuric acid. 5. Hypalon. Applications are also found as flexible electrical insulation. curing bags for tire vulcanization. and inner tubes. LLC . but it does possess some advantages over neoprene in certain types of service. 10% Sulfuric acid.. 90% Sulfuric acid. better color stability.11 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Phosphoric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Incompatibility is shown by an X.7. also exhibits good resistance to wear and abrasion. and better chemical resistance. and molding. Source: From P. to 50% Sulfuric acid. Hypalon has a broad range of service temperatures with excellent thermal properties. 5. Schweitzer.

Elastomers 479 temperatures of 248–2758F (120–1358C).8. it has found widespread use as an acid transfer hose.8. Many elastomers are degraded by ozone concentrations of less than 1 part per million parts of air. Its physical and mechanical properties make it suitable for use in hose undergoing continuous flexing and/or those carrying hot water or steam. and Ozone Hypalon is one of the most weather-resistance elastomers available. and other deteriorating factors associated with burial in the earth. however. Hypalon is highly resistant to attack by hydrocarbon oils and fuels. chromic. Nitric acid at room temperature and up to 60% concentration can also be handled without adverse effects. Refer to Table 5. aldehydes.2 Chemical Resistance When properly compounded. ferric chloride. even at elevated temperatures. Hypalon has poor resistance to aliphatic.8. Long-term contact with water has little or no effect on Hypalon. It is also inherently resistant to ozone attack without the need for the addition of special antioxidants or antiozonants to the formulation. it is used to line railroad tanks cars and other tanks containing acids and other oxidizing chemicals. For the same reason. if any. sodium peroxide. conventional compounds can be used continuously down to 0 to K208F (K18 to K288C). and ketones. Hypalon is also resistant to salt solutions. adverse effects on its physical properties. It is also resistant to radiation. and sulfuric. It is also resistant to such oxidizing chemicals as sodium hypochlorite. and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Hypalon. it is necessary to sacrifice performance of some of the other properties. Because of its outstanding resistance to oxidizing acids.3 Applications Hypalon finds useful applications in many industries and many fields. 5. Sunlight and ultraviolet light have little. Oxidation takes place at a very slow rate. Concentrated hydrochloric acid (37%) at elevated temperatures above 1588F (708C) will attack Hypalon but can be handled without adverse effect at all concentrations below this temperature. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC . aromatic. Weather. Special compounds can be formulated that can be used intermittently up to 3028F (1508C). On the low-temperature side. and both weak and concentrated alkalies and is generally unaffected by soil chemicals. 5. moisture.12 for the compatibility of Hypalon with selected corrodents.1 Resistance to Sun. alcohols. 5. is unaffected by concentrations as high as 1 part per 100 parts of air. but to produce such a compound. and hydrofluoric acids. Special compounds can be produced that will retain their flexibility down to K408F (K408C).

Ammonium fluoride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride 8F 60 X 200 200 200 X 200 X X 140 140 200 200 200 200 180 90 140 190 190 190 200 200 200 200 80 140 200 200 60 200 X 140 140 200 200 200 200 200 X X X 200 140 X 8C 16 X 93 93 93 X 93 X X 60 60 93 93 93 93 82 32 60 88 88 88 93 93 93 93 27 60 93 93 16 93 X 60 60 93 93 93 93 93 X X X 93 60 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Acetic acid. 50% Ammonium chloride. 80% Acetic acid. LLC . 10% Ammonium hydroxide. sat.480 TABLE 5. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. sat. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Acetic acid.12 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Hypalon with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.

50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol 8F 200 200 60 60 60 X 60 200 X 200 90 90 200 200 200 200 100 200 200 X 200 200 200 X 200 X X X 90 X X X 150 150 200 200 X 200 200 200 X 200 200 X X 8C 93 93 16 16 16 X 16 93 X 93 32 32 93 93 93 93 38 93 93 X 93 93 93 X 93 X X X 32 X X X 66 66 93 93 X 93 93 93 X 93 93 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. moist Bromine. sat. LLC 481 . 10% Chromic acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. 5% Cupric chloride. Copper acetate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Calcium hydroxide.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon dioxide. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. dry Carbon dioxide. conc. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. dry Bromine gas. dry Chlorine gas. 15% Citric acid.

482 TABLE 5. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 30% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. dry Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Perchloric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Fluorine gas. 20% Nitric acid.12 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. conc. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. conc. 70% Nitric acid. to 50% 8F X 200 200 200 200 200 140 90 100 100 160 140 90 90 90 90 X X 140 80 200 180 X X X 140 100 100 X X X 100 90 X 200 80 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 8C X 93 93 93 93 93 60 32 38 38 71 60 32 32 32 32 X X 60 27 93 82 X X X 60 38 38 X X X 38 32 X 93 27 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Sodium sulfide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Ketones. general Lactic acid. Magnesium chloride Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl lsobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.

escalator rails. excellent weatherability. LLC . Because of its heat and radiation resistance. light weight. and grease makes it useful for application under the hood for such components as emission control hose. Source: From P. tubing. It is also used in applicance cords. advantage is taken of Hypalon’s color stability and good weathering properties by using the elastomer for exterior parts on cars. 5th ed. Its resistance to heat. and welding cable. grease. insulating hoods and blankets. 70% Sulfuric acid. flexibility. 90% Sulfuric acid. In the automotive industry. and air-conditioning and power-steering hoses. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. abrasion resistance. spark plug boots. ignition wire jacketing. The electrical industry makes use of Hypalon to cover automotive ignition and primary wire. trucks. and many other electrical accessories. 98% Sulfuric acid.. the properties of color stability. 100% Sulfurous acid Toluene Zinc chloride 8F 90 200 200 200 160 X X X 160 X 200 8C 32 93 93 93 71 X X X 71 X 93 483 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. floor tiles. As an added protection from storms at sea. reservoir covers. curtain-wall gaskets. and good aging characteristics are of importance. and fuels. When combined with cork. it is also used as a jacketing material on heating cable embedded in roadways to melt ice and on x-ray machine cable leads. ozone. 50% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sulfuric acid.A. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. The construction industry has made use of Hypalon for sheet roofing. nuclear power station cable. and decorative and maintenance coatings. 2004. The ability to remain soil-free and easily cleanable makes it suitable for tire whitewalls.Elastomers TABLE 5. Vols. useful temperature range. oil. control cable. and other commercial vehicles. In these applications. Schweitzer. Corrosion Resistance Tables. pond liners. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. New York: Marcel Dekker. 1–4. power and lighting cable on offshore oil platforms are sheathed with Hypalon.12 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Hypalon provides a compressible yet setresistant gasket suitable for automobile crankcase and rocker pans. Hypalon protects the cork from oxidation at elevated temperatures and also provides excellent resistance to oil.

TABLE 5. but it displays fair to good resistance in the presence of mineral acids and oxygenated compounds. LLC .9. and hatch and boat covers.13 for the compatibility of polybutadiene rubber with selected corrodents. 5.484 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Application is also found in the coating of fabrics that are used for inflatable structures. and other products also make use of fabrics coated with this elastomer. It shows poor resistance to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. apparently because the chains are too smooth.9 Polybutadiene Rubber (BR) Butadiene (CH2aCH–CHaCH2) has two unsaturated linkages and can be readily polymerized. 5. it will deteriorate when exposed to sunlight for prolongated periods of time. Simple butadiene does not yield a good grade of rubber. It also exhibits poor resistance to ozone. boating garb. convertible tops. Consumer items such as awnings. and Ozone Although polybutadiene has good weather resistance. 5. the units link together to form long chains that each contains over 1000 units. Weather. and gasoline. When butadiene or its derivatives becomes polymerized. tarpaulins. oil. aqueous 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 5. flexible fuel tanks.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of polybutadiene is similar to that of natural rubber. Better results are obtained by introducing side groups into the chain either by modifying butadiene or by making a copolymer of butadiene and some other compound.9. These products offer the advantages of being lightweight and colorful.1 Resistance to Sun.13 Compatibility of Polybutadiene (BR) with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Alum Alum ammonium Alum ammonium sulphate Alum chrome Alum potassium Alum chloride.

sat. 40% Chromic acid. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. to 20% Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfite Sodium carbonate Sodium chlorate 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 X 90 X X X X 90 90 90 90 90 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 80 80 X X X X 80 X 80 90 80 90 90 80 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 X 32 X X X X 32 32 32 32 32 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 27 27 27 X X X X 27 X 27 32 27 32 32 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.13 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. wet Chlorine gas. 40% Nitric acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid fumes Hydrogen peroxide. Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. LLC 485 . sat. 10–40% Calcium chloride. 10% Chromic acid. wet Chrome alum Chromic acid. 70% Nitric acid. 28% Ammonium chloride. dry Nitric acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. Ozone Phenol Sodium bicarbonate. 50% Nitric acid. dil. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Nitric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 30% Nitric acid. Carbon dioxide. Calcium hypochlorite. 20% Nitric acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Copper chloride Copper sulfate Fatty acids Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate Hydrochloric acid. 90% Hydrogen sulfide. anhydrous Nitrous acid. conc.Elastomers TABLE 5. 30% Chromic acid.

15% Sodium hydroxide. Corrosion Resistance Tables. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. seals. 60% Sulfuric acid. conc. abrasion resistance. particularly in the manufacture of automobile tire treads.10 Ethylene–Acrylic (EA) Rubber Ethylene–acrylic rubber is produced from ethylene and acrylic acid. 5.. 70% Toluene 8F 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 X 90 80 80 80 80 90 X 8C 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 X 32 27 27 27 27 32 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 30% Sodium hydroxide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 50% Sulfuric acid.486 TABLE 5. Sodium hypochlorite. to 20% Sodium nitrate Sodium phosphate. 2004. the properties of the EA rubbers can be altered by q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Sodium hydroxide. to 50% Sodium sulfite. As with other synthetic elastomers. LLC . 1–4.A. Vols. dry Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid. and/or low-temperature properties. shoe heels and seals. acid Sodium phosphate.13 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. alkaline Sodium phosphate.3 Applications Very rarely is polybutadiene used by itself. 70% Sodium hydroxide. Schweitzer. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 5th ed. Source: From P.9. 30% Sulfuric acid. It is generally used as a blend with other elastomers to impart better resiliency. 10% Sulfuric acid. 10% Sodium dioxide. 5. New York: Marcel Dekker. neutral Sodium silicate Sodium sulfide. gaskets. and belting.

10. highly aromatic hydrocarbons. EA is a cost-effective. 5. Basically. oxidation.or glycol-based proprietary lubricants and to transmission and power steering fluids. damping components. and ozone. 5. fluids. Ethylene– acrylic rubber in engine parts provides good resistance to heat. Ethylene–acrylic rubber also has outstanding resistance to hot water. 5. 5. Good resistance is also displayed to dilute acids. and Ozone EA elastomers have extremely good resistance to sun. and ozone. low-smoke floor tiling. Its resistance to water absorption is very good.1 Resistance to Sun.1 Resistance to Sun. LLC .3 Applications Ethylene–acrylic rubber is used in such products as gaskets.10. ships. hoses. 5. weather. the polymer has excellent resistance to heat. and animal and vegetable oils.Elastomers 487 compounding. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. ketones. boots. and cable jackets for offshore oil platforms. and ozone. aliphatic hydrocarbons. or concentrated acids. Long-term exposures have no effect on these rubbers. It is one of the few elastomers with higher heat resistance than EPDM. and building plenum installations. Weather. The swelling characteristics of EA will be retained better than those of the silicone rubbers after oil immersion. weather. gasoline.2 Chemical Resistance Ethylene–acrylic elastomers exhibit very good resistance to hot oils and hydrocarbon. Because of its fully saturated backbone.11.10. Weather. seals. hot-oil-resistant rubber with good low-temperature properties. and Ozone Acrylate–butadiene and acrylic ester–acrylic halide rubbers exhibit good resistance to sun. Ethylene–acrylic rubber is not recommended for immersion in esters. and wear as well as good low-temperature sealing ability.11 Acrylate–Butadiene Rubber (ABR) and Acrylic Ester–Acrylic Halide (ACM) Rubbers Acrylate–butadiene and acrylic ester–acrylic halide rubbers are similar to ethylene–acrylic rubbers. Neither should it be used in applications calling for long-term exposure to highpressure steam.

excellent electrical properties. EPDM has exceptional heat resistance. acids. alcohol. synthetic lubricants. and phosphate hydraulic fluids. and weather.2 Chemical Resistance Acrylate–butadiene and ACM rubbers have excellent resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons (gasoline. Hoses manufactured from EPDM have had lives several times longer than that of hoses manufactured from other elastomers. it will perform better than other materials. These monomers are combined in such a manner as to produce an elastomer with a completely saturated backbone and pendant unsaturation for sulfur vulcanization. It also has very high resistance to sunlight. Experience has shown that EPDM has exceptional resistance to steam. it is not resistant to petroleum-based oils or flame. 5. it will last longer or require less maintenance and may even cost less. Ethylene–propylene rubber possesses many properties superior to those of natural rubber and conventional general-purpose elastomers. compounding plays an important part in tailoring the properties of EPDM to meet the needs of a q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and weather. oxygen. The dynamic properties of EPDM remain constant over a wide temperature range. As with other elastomers. They are unsatisfactory for use in contact with alkali. and silicate hydraulic fluids. toluene). while also finding application at temperatures as low as K708F (K568C). 5.11. This material may be processed and vulcanized by the same techniques and with the same equipment as those used for processing other generalpurpose elastomers. being hydrocarbon based. aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene.3 Applications These rubbers are used where resistance to atmospheric conditions and heat are required. whereas in other applications.11. In some applications. halogenated hydrocarbons. aging. vulcanizates of EPDM elastomers are extremely resistant to attack by ozone. LLC . kerosene) and offer good resistance to water. As a result of this configuration. being able to operate at temperatures of 300–3508F (148–1768C).12 Ethylene–Propylene Rubbers (EPDM and EPT) Ethylene–propylene rubber is a synthetic hydrocarbon-based rubber made either from ethylene–propylene diene monomer or ethylene–propylene terpolymer. However. making this elastomer suitable for a variety of applications. good mechanical properties. and good chemical resistance.488 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5.

However. and Ozone Ethylene–propylene rubber is particularly resistant to sun.15 compatibility of EPT with selected corrodents. in general. In the absence of air. or black. its resistance to oil can be improved to provide adequate service life in many applications where such resistance is required. this elastomer is used as the gap-filling panel between the grills and bumper. Weather. or turpentine. 5. Ozone resistance is inherent in the polymer. It is very similar in physical and mechanical properties to EPDM. it can be considered immune to ozone attack. and ozone attack. white. Standard formulations can be used continuously at temperatures of 250–3008F (121–1488C) in air. and glycols. alcohols.14 for the compatibility of EPDM with selected corrodents and to Table 5. chlorinated hydrocarbons. It exhibits exceptional resistance to hot water and high-pressure steam. that provides a durable and elastic q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Ethylene–propylene terpolymer rubbers. Standard compounds can be used in intermittent service at 3508F (1768C). are resistant to most of the same corrodents as EPDM but do not have as broad a resistance to mineral acids and some organics.12. Refer to Table 5.1 Resistance to Sun. weather. such as in a steam hose lining or cable insulation covered with an outer jacket. Each of the properties of the elastomer can be enhanced or reduced by the addition or deletion of chemicals and fillers. It is not necessary to add any special compounding ingredients to produce this resistance. being hydrocarbon-based. Ethylene–propylene terpolymer (EPT) is a synthetic hydrocarbon-based rubber produced from an ethylene–proplene terpolymer.Elastomers 489 specific application. phosphate esters. Because of its paintability. weak acids and alkalies.3 Applications Extensive use is made of ethylene–propylene rubber in the automotive industry. is not resistant to hydrocarbon solvents and oils. and for all practical purposes.12. ethyl acetate. the properties discussed must be considered in general terms. Excellent weather resistance is obtained whether the material is formulated in color. 5. higher temperatures can be tolerated.2 Chemical Resistance Ethylene–propylene rubber resists attack from oxygenated solvents such as acetone. The elastomer remains free of surface crazing and retains a high percentage of its properties after years of exposure. detergents. It is also possible by special compounding to produce material that can be used in services up to 3508F (1768C). The elastomer.12. by proper compounding. 5. LLC . methyl ethyl ketone. Ethylene–propylene rubber has relatively high resistance to heat. Because of this.

80% Acetic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.14 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of EDPM Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride. LLC . sat. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride.490 TABLE 5. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Ammonium chloride. sat. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide 8F 200 200 140 140 140 140 X 200 X 140 200 200 X 200 190 200 200 190 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 140 200 X 200 200 200 200 140 8C 93 93 60 60 60 60 X 93 X 60 93 93 X 93 88 93 93 88 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 38 38 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 X 60 93 X 93 93 93 93 60 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Ammonium chloride.

LLC . wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 15% Citric acid. dry Carbon dioxide. conc. Copper acetate Copper carbonate 8F 150 X X X X X 200 190 X X X X 140 200 140 X 200 140 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 X 200 200 200 X 200 X 200 160 X X X X X X X 200 200 100 200 8C 66 X X X X X 93 88 X X X X 60 93 60 X 93 60 93 93 93 93 93 93 93 X 93 93 93 X 93 X 93 71 X X X X X X X 93 93 38 93 (continued) 491 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Chlorine. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chlorite Calcium hydroxide. dry Chlorine gas. sat. dry Bromine gas. 50% Citric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. moist Bromine. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide.

100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. dil. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. anhydrous Oleum Perchloric acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 70% Nitric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. Hydrobromic acid. 30% 8F 200 200 200 X 200 200 X X X 200 200 200 200 200 200 60 90 140 140 100 90 200 60 X X 200 140 X 140 200 X X 80 60 60 60 X X X 140 140 200 200 8C 93 93 93 X 93 93 X X X 93 93 93 93 93 93 16 32 60 60 38 32 93 16 X X 93 60 X 60 93 X X 27 16 16 16 X X X 60 60 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 10% Phosphoric acid. conc. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Cupric chloride.492 TABLE 5. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 20% Nitric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid.14 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 5% Nitric acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Nitric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. LLC . general Lactic acid. 10% Ketones. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas.

conc. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Corrosion Resistance Tables.A. conc. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 28% 8F 200 X X X X X 140 180 180 8C 93 X X X X X 60 82 82 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Elastomers TABLE 5. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide.15 Compatibility of EPT with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 80% Acetic acid. 5th ed. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. Vols. 98% Sulfuric acid. fuming Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 200 200 140 200 180 180 200 200 200 200 200 150 150 140 X X X X X 80 200 200 8C 93 93 60 93 82 82 93 93 93 93 93 66 66 66 X X X X X 27 93 93 493 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Schweitzer. Source: From P. Sodium hypochlorite.14 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 90% Sulfuric acid. TABLE 5. 10% Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. New York: Marcel Dekker.. 10% Sulfuric acid. Sodium sulfide. 1–4. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Sulfuric acid. 2004. 100% Sulfuric acid. LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide.

sat. Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride dil.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. Calcium chloride sat. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. dil. 40% Chromic acid. Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Bromine water.494 TABLE 5. sat. 10% Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid. general 8F 180 180 140 140 140 180 180 X X 140 X X X X 180 180 180 180 180 180 210 180 X X 180 160 X 80 X X X X X X 180 180 180 180 180 X 80 100 210 100 8C 82 82 60 60 60 82 82 X X 60 X X X X 82 82 82 82 82 82 99 82 X X 82 71 X 27 X X X X X X 82 82 82 82 82 X 27 38 99 38 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 15% Citric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. Bromine water. Cane sugar liquors Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Cellosolve Chlorine water. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium sulfate. conc. 50% Citric acid. 20% Calcium hydroxide. 30% Calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. sat. sat. LLC . 5% Citric acid. 30% Chromic acid. Copper sulfate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Diacetone alcohol Dibutyl phthalate Ethers.

Lactic acid.15 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. to 70% Sulfuric acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid. to 70% Sodium hypochlorite.Elastomers TABLE 5. Potassium hydroxide. Sulfuric acid. all conc. 38% Hydrochloric acid. dil. Hydrochloric acid. all conc. 100% Hydrogen peroxide. LLC . 40% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. 10% Propane Silicone oil Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Formaldehyde. 37% Formaldehyde. all conc. distilled Water. salt Water. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Muriatic acid Nitric acid Oxalic acid Phenol Phosphoric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. demineralized Water. 93% Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. sea 8F X 180 X 180 180 180 140 180 210 X X X X 210 140 X X X X X 210 X X X X X 140 80 180 210 210 X 200 180 180 200 X 200 X X X 210 210 210 210 8C X 82 X 82 82 82 60 82 99 X X X X 99 60 X X X X X 99 X X X X X 60 27 82 99 99 X 93 82 82 93 X 93 X X X 99 99 99 99 (continued) 495 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. dil. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. to 50% Potassium sulfate.

A. Its heat and chemical resistance combined with its physical properties make it ideal for such appliances as door seals and cushions. splices. and ozone. ovens. line-tap and switching devices. It provides excellent resistance to tearing and failure caused by high voltage contaminants and stress. Each application takes advantage of one or more specific properties of the elastomer. Appliance manufacturers. element. ignition wire insulation. inlet nozzles. have also found wide use for EPDM. and insulation for automotive ignition cable. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. spring mounting pads. plugs. Its excellent electrical properties make it suitable for high-voltage cable insulation. gaskets. refrigerators. jacketing and insulation for types S and SJ flexible cords.and high-voltage underground power distribution cable insulated with EPDM offers many advantages.496 TABLE 5. New York: Marcel Dekker. exhaust emission control tubing. and various other items make use of EPDM because of its resistance to heat. bleach tubing. chemicals. This elastomer is also used in dishwashers. drain and water-circulating hoses. Medium. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Vols. LLC . floor mats. Other automotive applications include body mounts. diaphragms. coverings for line and multiplex distribution wire. overflow tubing. One of the primary applications is as an insulating material. Schweitzer.. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 1–4. especially washer manufacturers. and pedal pads. 5th ed. and a variety of grommets. Source: From P. seals. Ethylene–propylene rubber finds application in the electrical industry and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. It is used for medium-voltage (up to 35 kV) and secondary network power cable. and insulating and semiconductor tape are also produced from EPDM. boots. window washer tubing. and a variety of small appliances. Accessory items such as molded terminal covers. 2004. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.15 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Whiskey Zinc chloride 8F 180 180 8C 82 82 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Under hood components such as radiator hose. vibration isolators. Incompatibility is shown by an X. miscellaneous body seals. It withstands heavy corona discharge without sustaining damage. transformer connectors.

LLC . and bases. industrial tires. sealant. They have excellent resistance to water.13. particularly when they are in a stressed condition. or coating formulations. physical durability. however. ozone resistance.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of SBS rubbers is similar to that of natural rubber. O-rings. acids. They are most suitable as performance modifiers in blends with thermoplastics or as a base rubber for adhesive.3 Applications The specific formulation will determine the applicability of various products.Elastomers 497 Manufacturers of other industrial products take advantage of the heat and chemical resistance. These rubbers are used as performance q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and Ozone SBS rubbers are not resistant to ozone. tugboat and dock bumpers. 5. gaskets. Standard formulations of EPDM are also used for such consumer items as garden hose.13. 5. Applications include a wide variety of general-purpose rubber items and use in the footwear industry. 5. These compounds have a wide range of properties and provide the benefits of rubberiness and easy processing on standard thermoplastic processing equipment. high-temperature conveyor belting. Prolonged exposure to hydrocarbon solvents and oils will cause deterioration. and a variety of molded products. water and chemical hose. marine accessories.1 Resistance to Sun. Typical applications include high-pressure steam hose. 5. bicycle tires. sporting goods. SBS compounds are formulations containing block copolymer rubber and other suitable ingredients. hydraulic hose for phosphate-type fluids. These rubbers are used primarily in blends with other thermoplastic materials and as performance modifiers.13 Styrene–Butadiene–Styrene (SBS) Rubber Styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS) rubbers are either pure or oil-modified block copolymers. tanks and pump linings. Neither are they resistant to prolonged exposure to sun or weather. Weather. and dynamic properties of EPDM. 5. short exposures can be tolerated. vibration mounts.14 Styrene–Ethylene–Butylene–Styrene (SEBS) Rubber Styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene (SEBS) rubbers are either pure or oilmodified block copolymer rubbers.13. and tires for garden equipment.

1 Resistance to Sun. high creep under strain. poor rebound. Many applications are found in the electrical industry for such items as flexible cords.14. sealant. the use of 0.1 Resistance to Sun.498 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers modifiers in blends with thermoplastics or as the base rubber for adhesive. For prolonged outdoor exposure. and poor abrasion resistance.5 part of nickel dibutyldithiocarbamate (NBC) per 100 parts of FA polysulfide rubber will improve the ozone resistance. welding and booster cables. 5. In general. they have poor tensile strength. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5. acids. a pungent odor. 5. They have excellent resistance to water. and bases. The sulfur forms part of the polymerized molecule.14.15 Polysulfide Rubbers (ST and FA) Polysulfide rubbers are manufactured by combining ethylene (CH2aCH2) with an alkaline polysulfide. Modified organic polysulfides are made by substituting other unsaturated compounds for ethylene that results in compounds that have little objectionable odor. but short exposures can be tolerated. If high concentrations of ozone are to be present. o coating formulations. 5.3 Applications SEBS rubbers find applications for a wide variety of general-purpose rubber items as well as in automotive. LLC . Their resistance is superior to that of ST polysulfide ribbers. Weather. and automotive primary wire insulation. Soaking in hydrocarbon solvents and oils will deteriorate the rubber. Formulations of SEBS compounds provide a wide range of properties with the benefits of rubbermess and easy processing on standard thermoplastic processing equipment.14. and Ozone FA polysulfide rubber compounds display excellent resistance to ozone. Compared to nitrile rubber. the addition of an ultraviolet absorber or carbon black pigment or both is recommended. sporting goods. Weather. and exposure to ultraviolet light. and Ozone SEBS rubbers and compounds exhibit excellent resistance to ozone. 5. but they do have good resistance to heat and are resistant to most solvents. They are also known as Thiokol rubbers.15. weathering. these elastomers do not have great elasticity.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of SEBS rubbers is similar to that of natural rubber. and other products. flame-resistant appliance wiring materials.

16 for the compatibility of polysulfide ST rubber with selected corrodents. ST polysulfide rubber also possesses satisfactory weather resistance. concentrated inorganic acids such as sulfuric. nitric. very good water resistance. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. good alkali resistance. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline 8F X 80 80 80 80 80 X 150 150 150 90 X X X X 80 X 8C X 27 27 27 27 27 X 66 66 66 32 X X X X 27 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Refer to Table 5. TABLE 5. gasoline.16 Compatibility of Polysulfide ST Rubber with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium sulfate. For high resistance to esters and ketones. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium chloride. They exhibit excellent resistance to oils. Contact of either rubber with strong. 5. 80% Acetic acid. Ammonium hydroxide. neoprene W is compounded with FA polysulfide rubber to produce improved physical properties. 50% Ammonium chloride. Its resistance to ozone is good but can be improved by the addition of NBC. this addition can degrade the material’s compression set. ST polysulfide rubbers exhibit better resistance to chlorinated organics than FA polysulfide rubbers. and aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon solvents. or hydrochloric acid should be avoided. FA polysulfide rubbers are somewhat more resistant to solvents than ST rubbers.Elastomers 499 ST polysulfide rubber compounded with carbon black is resistant to ultraviolet light and sunlight. LLC . 50% Acetic acid. sat.2 Chemical Resistance Polysulfide rubbers posses outstanding resistance to solvents. 10% Acetic acid. 28% Ammonium chloride. sat. however. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. and fair acid resistance. Compounding of FA polymers with NBR will provide high resistance to aromatic solvents and improve the physical properties of the blend.15.

sat. Bromine water.16 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Benzene Benzoic acid Bromine water. Cane sugar liquors Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Cellosolve Chlorine water. Calcium hydroxide. dil. 50% Glycerine 8F X 150 80 80 150 80 80 150 150 X X X X X X X 150 80 80 X X X X X X X X X X X X 90 90 X 80 80 90 80 80 80 150 80 80 80 80 8C X 66 27 27 66 27 27 66 66 X X X X X X X 66 27 27 X X X X X X X X X X X X 32 32 X 27 27 32 27 27 27 66 27 27 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.500 TABLE 5. 10% Calcium hydroxide. sat. Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. 50% Citric acid. 15% Citric acid. conc. 30% Chromic acid. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. sat. 10% Citric acid. sat. 5% Citric acid. 40% Chromic acid. Copper sulfate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Diacetone alcohol Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. 37% Formaldehyde. dil. dil. LLC . 20% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid. 30% Calcium hydroxide. general Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. Calcium chloride. Formaldehyde.

all conc. 2004. all conc. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. Vols. Hydrochloric acid. Schweitzer. dil.16 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrochloric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. sea Whiskey Zinc chloride 8F X X X X X X X X X X X X X 150 80 X X X X X X 80 90 150 X X 80 X X X X X 80 80 80 80 X X 8C X X X X X X X X X X X X X 66 27 X X X X X X 27 32 66 X X 27 X X X X X 27 27 27 27 X X 501 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Hydrofluoric acid.A. all conc.. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 1–4. 38% Hydrochloric acid. salt Water. all conc. 100% Hydrogen peroxide. Incompatibility is shown by an X. all conc. Oxalic acid. Sodium hypochlorite. Sulfuric acid. dil. New York: Marcel Dekker. to 50% Potassium sulfate. Source: From P. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. LLC . Potassium hydroxide. Phosphoric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Muriatic acid Nitric acid. all conc. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. all conc. Phenol. 20% Hydrochloric acid. demineralized Water. Lactic acid. 10% Propane Silicone oil Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 5th ed. distilled Water. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. all conc.

The impermeability of the polysuldife rubbers to air and gas has promoted the use of these materials for inflatable products such as life jackets. LLC . seals. lacquers. paint can gaskets. ketones.1 shows typical TPU structures. gasoline. Such bonding increases the O C O NH CH2 NH C O O CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 O R n R CH2 CH2 or CH2 CH CH3 or CH2 CH2 m CH2 CH2 O C O CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 C O n = 30 to 120 m = 8 to 50 FIGURE 5.16 Urethane Rubbers (AU) The first commercial thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) were the thermoplastic urethanes (TPU). The major reason for this is its high degree of resistance to many types of solvents.502 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. oils. The urethane linkages in the hard blocks are capable of a high degree of inter. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Large amounts of material are also used to produce caulking compounds. both polyester and polyether types.3 Applications FA polysulfide rubber is one of the elastomeric materials commonly used for the fabrication of rubber rollers for printing and coating equipment. and plasticizers. Applications are also found in the fabrication of hose and hose liners for the handling of aromatic solvents. balloons. The soft block is represented by B and can be derived from either a polyester or a polyether. esters. that are used as vehicles for various printing inks and coatings. and other inflatable items. Their general structure is A–B–A–B. life rafts.15. Figure 5. paints.and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. and flexible mountings. where A represents a hard crystalline block derived by chain extension of a diisocyanate with a glycol. including ketones. aromatic hydrocarbons. esters. 5. fuels. cements.1 Typical urethane rubber chemical structure. and thinners.

At room temperature. and ceramics. simplifying the production of many large and intricately shaped molded products. Compositions with a Shore A hardness of 95 (harder than a typewriter platen) are elastic enough to withstand stretching to more than four times their own lengths. They have specific gravities comparable to that of carbon black-filled rubber. the nature of the soft segments determines the elastic behavior and low-temperature performance. 5. TPUs based on polyester soft blocks have excellent resistance to nonpolar fluids and high tear strength and abrasion resistance. Such factors as elevated temperature. these elastomeric parts are hard enough to be machined on standard metalworking equipment. Parts made of urethane rubbers may build up heat when subjected to high-frequency deformation. thermal stability. and Ozone Urethane rubbers exhibit excellent resistance to ozone attack and have good resistance to weathering.1 Resistance to Sun. a number of raw polyurethane polymers are liquid. Those based on polyether soft blocks have excellent resistance (low heat buildup.Elastomers 503 crystallinity of the hard phase and can influence the mechanical properties— hardness. Melting of the hard phase causes morphological changes and is reversible. However. whereas. and hydrolytic stability. There are other factors that can have an adverse effect on aging. extended exposure to ultraviolet light q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. TPUs are noted for their outstanding abrasion resistance and low coefficient of friction on other surfaces. When cured. Urethane (AU) rubber is a unique material that combines many of the advantages of rigid plastics. Weather. tear strength—of the TPU. or any combination of these factors will lead to a loss in physical and mechanical properties. and they do not enjoy the density advantage over thermoset rubber compounds. metals. Cured urethane does not require fillers or reinforcing agents. It can be formulated to provide a variety of products with a wide range of physical properties. TPUs with polyether soft blocks have greater resistance to thermal and oxidative attack than TPU based on polyester blocks. LLC . Urethane rubbers exhibit excellent recovery from deformation. TPUs slowly deteriorate but noticeably between 265 and 3408F (130 and 1708C) by both chemical degradation and morphological changes. dynamic forces. contact with chemical agents. As with other block copolymers. As the temperature increases. but their high strength and load-bearing capacity may permit the use of sections thin enough to dissipate the heat as fast as it is generated. Urethane rubbers are produced from a number of polyurethane polymers. both processes become progressively more rapid. or hysteresis). The properties exhibited are dependent upon the specific polymer and the compounding. yet still has the extensibility and elasticity of rubber.16. oxidative degradation is slow and irreversible. modulus.

50% 8F X X X X X X 90 90 90 8C X X X X X X 32 32 32 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.504 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers will reduce their physical properties and will cause the rubber to darken. but they are resistant to the swelling and deteriorating effects of being immersed in water. This can be prevented by the use of pigments or ultraviolet screening agents. 50% Acetic acid. Refer to Table 5. 80% Acetic acid. these rubbers were more resistant to stress cracking than other elastomers and retained a large proportion of their original flexibility and toughness. 28% Ammonium chloride. 10% Acetic acid.17 for the compatibility of urethane rubber with selected corrodents and to Table 5. and to aliphatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Satisfactory service was given even when the material was exposed to the relatively large gamma-ray dosage of 1!109 roentgens. When irradiated with gamma rays. esters. polar solvents. Alcohols will soften and swell urethane rubbers. glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. This makes these materials particularly suited for service in contact with lubricating oils and automotive fuels. TABLE 5. and ketones will attack urethane. They are not resistant to steam or caustic. 5. ethers.16.18 the compatibility of polyether urethane rubber with selected corrodents. offered the greatest resistance to the effects of gamma-ray irradiation of the many elastomers and plastics tested.17 Compatibility of Urethane Rubbers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. Aromatic hydrocarbons. greases and fuels. 10% Ammonium chloride. LLC .2 Chemical Resistance Urethane rubbers are resistant to most mineral and vegetable oils. Urethane rubbers have limited service in weak acid solutions and cannot be used in concentrated acids. as manufactured by DuPont. indicated that adiprene urethane rubber. Tests conducted at the Hanford Laboratories of General Electric Co.

sat.17 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium chloride. Calcium hydroxide. Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Bromine water. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. 30% Chromic acid. 40% Chromic acid. LLC . Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. 20% Calcium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. dil. sat. 10%. Bromine water. sat. sat. Ammonium sulfate. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Citric acid. conc. dil.Elastomers TABLE 5. 5% Citric acid. sat. sat. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Citric acid. Copper sulfate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Dextrose Dibutyl phthalate Ethers. 15% Citric acid. Calcium chloride. Calcium hydroxide. general Ethyl acetate 8F 90 90 90 80 X X X X X X 100 X X X X X 90 90 90 8C 32 32 32 27 X X X X X X 38 X X X X X 32 32 32 505 X 90 90 X X X X X X X X X X X 32 32 X X X X X X X X X X 90 90 X X X X X 32 32 X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Cane sugar liquors Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Cellosolve Chlorine water. 10% Ammonium hydroxide.

JP 5 Kerosene Lard oil Linseed oil Magnesium hydroxide Mercury Methyl alcohol Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Mineral oil Muriatic acid Nitric acid Oils and fats Phenol Potassium bromide. all conc.506 TABLE 5. salt Water. 20% Hydrochloric acid. JP 4 Jet fuel. Fomaldehyde. Hydrochloric acid. LLC .17 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Fomaldehyde. 30% Potassium hydroxide. sea 8F X 90 X X X 90 X X X X X X X X X 90 90 90 90 90 X X 90 X X 80 X 90 90 90 90 90 X X 80 90 X X X X 90 X X X 8C X 32 X X X 32 X X X X X X X X X 32 32 32 32 32 X X 32 X X 27 X 32 32 32 32 32 X X 27 32 X X X X 32 X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 35% Hydrochloric acid. to 50% Sodium hypochlorite. dil. 10% Silver nitrate Soaps Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 30% Potassium chloride. Sulfuric acid. to 50% Potassium sulfate. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 37% Formaldehyde. dil. all conc. 50% Isoprapyl alcohol Jet fuel. Toluene Trichloroethylene Trisodium phosphate Turpentine Water. 50% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid.

A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. sat.A. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Acetic acid. Ammonium hydroxide. dil. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Ammonium sulfate. 5th ed. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride.Elastomers TABLE 5. LLC . Source: From P. 28% Ammonium chloride. 50% Acetic acid. TABLE 5. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Borax Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. 1–4. 25% Ammonium hydroxide.18 Compatibility of Polyether Urethane Rubbers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. New York: Marcel Dekker. Calcium chloride. Vols. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. sat. 80% Acetic acid.17 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Whiskey Xylene 8F X X 8C X X 507 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 8F X X X X X X X 130 130 130 130 110 110 100 120 X X X X X 90 80 X X 130 130 8C X X X X X X X 54 54 54 54 43 43 38 49 X X X X X 32 27 X X 54 54 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Ammonium chloride. 2004. Schweitzer.. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Ammonium chloride.

5% Citric acid.508 TABLE 5. 50% Citric acid. sat. Hydrochloric acid. 75% Fluorosilicic acid Formic acid Freon. 40% Chromic acid. 10% Chromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 100% 8F 130 130 130 130 130 X X 80 130 130 X X X X X X X 90 90 90 130 X 80 X X X X X X 100 100 X X 130 130 X X X X X X X X X X X 8C 54 54 54 54 54 X X 27 54 54 X X X X X X X 32 32 32 38 X 27 X X X X X X 38 38 X X 38 38 X X X X X X X X X X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Citric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Calcium hydroxide. LLC . 30% Chromic acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. F-11 Freon. F-12 Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 15% Cottonseed oil Cresylic acid Cyclohexane Dioxane Diphenyl Ethyl acetate Ethyl benzene Ethyl chloride Ethylene oxide Ferric chloride. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. Calcium hypochlorite Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Castor oil Caustic potash Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. 40% Hydrofluoric acid.18 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium hydroxide. dil.

cellular. alk. 1–4. Source: From P. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Muriatic acid Nitrobenzene Olive oil Phenol Potassium acetate Potassium chloride. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. 2004. impellers. Vols. 30% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium peroxide Sodium phosphate. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. and films and coatings. Included under the solid category are those products that are cast or molded. 30% Potassium hydroxide Potassium sulfate. all conc.18 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Isobutyl alcohol Isopropyl acetate Lactic acid.3 Applications The versatility of urethane has led to a wide variety of applications. acid Sodium phosphate. neut.Elastomers TABLE 5. comprising such items as large rolls. New York: Marcel Dekker. demineralized Water. Sodium phosphate. LLC . distilled Water..16. salt Water. 10% Propane Propyl acetate Propyl alcohol Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Products made from urethane rubber are available in three basic forms: solid. abrasion-resistant q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Corrosion Resistance Tables. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 5. 5th ed. sea Xylene 8F X X X X X X X X 120 X X 130 130 130 X X X 130 140 X X 130 130 130 X X 130 130 130 130 X 8C X X X X X X X X 49 X X 54 54 54 X X X 54 60 X X 54 54 54 X X 54 54 54 54 X 509 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. A. Schweitzer.

Nylon 6/6. clarifiers. tank linings. mallets and hammers. industrial. etc. particularly in anaerobic. and paper. Cellular products are items such as shock mountings. There are many varieties of polyamides in production. Although the polyamides find their greatest use as textile fibers. and treatment sumps constructed of reinforced concrete are widely used in the treatment of municipal. and their cost is greater. It is possible to apply uniform coatings or films of urethane rubber to a variety of substrate materials including metal. and the soft segment may have a polyester or a polyether structure. In many cases. fabrics. These films also provide abrasion resistance. Amide linkages connect the hard and soft segments of these TPEs. 5. glass. solid tires.510 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers parts for textile machines. Examples of products to which a urethane film or coating is often applied are tarpaulins. and Nylon 12. but the four major types are Nylon 6. pipe linings. resiliency. and exterior coatings for protection against atmospheric corrosion. The highest performance class of TPE are block copolymeric elastomeric polyamides (PEBAs). and load-bearing capacity. The amide linkages connecting the hard and soft blocks are more resilient to chemical attack than either an ester or urethane bond. and small intricate parts. the most popular of which are Nylons (Nylon 6. and thermal generating station wastewater. wood. impact mountings. the PEBAs have higher temperature resistance than the urethane elastomers. Filtration units.17 Polyamides Polyamides are produced under a variety of trade names.2. Of these. they can also be formulated into thermoplastic molding compounds with many attractive properties. Nylons 11 and 12 find application as elastomeric materials. The use of urethane rubbers in manufactured products has been established as a result of their many unique properties of high tensile and tear strengths. and gaskets. contact wheels for belt grinders. gears. LLC . gear couplings. bowling pins. shoe soles. Their relatively high price tends to restrict their use. Other products made from urethane rubbers include bearings. urethane linings are used to protect the concrete from severe chemical attack and prevent seepage into the concrete of chemicals that can attack the reinforcing steel.) manufactured by DuPont. These linings provide protection from abrasion and erosion and act as a waterproofing system to combat leakage of the equipment resulting from concrete movement and shrinkage. electrical encapsulations. Nylon 11. and thermal generating systems. impact resistance. industrial. The structures of these commercial PEBAs are shown in Figure 5. holding tanks. tooling pads. O-rings. conveyer belts. Consequently. and many other miscellaneous items. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

polyether.1 Resistance to Sun. The soft segment may consist of polyester. and ozone. Many metals are coated with polyamide to provide protection from harsh weather. and phosphoric acids at ambient temperatures. Polyether chains provide better low-temperature properties and resistance to hydrolysis. oleic. particularly ammonium hydroxide and ammonia even at elevated temperatures and sodium potassium hydroxide at ambient temperatures. Refer to Table 5. and Ozone Polyamides are resistant to sun. They have good resistance to most inorganic alkalies. polyester chains provide better fluid resistance and resistance to oxidation at elevated temperatures. tartaric.Elastomers 511 C (CH2)6 C NH (CH2)10 C NH(CH2)8 CO O Hard x (CH2)y O z (CH2)5 C NH B NHC A C NH B NH x CH2 O C CH2 C NH Soft Where A = C19 to C21 dicarboxylic acid B= CH2 O 2 CH2 Hard CH2 O CH2 4 3 FIGURE 5. stearic.19 for the compatibility of Nylon 11 with selected corrodents. whereas. and uric) and most aldehydes and ketones at normal temperatures.17. lactic.17. oxalic. They are also resistant to organic acids (citric. Weather. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC O O Soft O O O O O O O NH A C CH2 C O .2 Structures of three elastomeric polyamides The hard and soft blocks’ structure also contributes to their performance characteristics. weather. or polyetherester chains. 5.2 Chemical Resistance Polyamides exhibit excellent resistance to a broad range of chemicals and harsh environments. They display limited resistance to hydrochloric. 5. They also display good resistance to almost all inorganic salts and almost all hydrocarbons and petroleum-based fuels. sulfonic.

glacial Acetone Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chromic acid. Calcium hydroxide. sat. 10% Acetic acid. LLC . 10% Bromine. 50% Chlorine gas Chlorine water. 80% Acetic acid. Calcium chloride. sat. dil. sat.19 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Nylon 11 with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% 8F 140 X X X X 8C 60 X X X X 200 200 200 200 200 200 80 100 X 200 200 X X 140 200 200 200 140 140 140 140 X 80 140 80 140 X X X X X X X 200 200 93 93 93 93 93 93 27 38 X 93 93 X X 60 93 93 93 60 60 60 60 X 27 60 27 60 X X X X X X X 93 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Calcium hydroxide.512 TABLE 5. 50% Acetic acid. 30% Chromic acid. liquid Butane Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Calcium chloride. 50% Citric acid. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. 5% Citric acid. 28% Ammonium chloride. sat. Ammonium hydroxide. 50% Ammonium chloride. 30% Calcium hydroxide. 10% Chromic acid. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 40% Chromic acid. 20% Calcium hydroxide. 10–40% Amyl alcohol Aniline Benzene Benzoic acid. Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Caustic potash. gas Bromine.

40% Hydrofluoric acid. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. 15% Citric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorobenzene Naphtha Nitric acid Oxalic acid Phenol Phosphoric acid. all conc. Hydrofluoric acid. dil. to 10% above 10% Potassium hydroxide. 38% Hydrochloric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. general Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Ethylene oxide Ferric chloride Formic acid Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. Copper nitrate Corn oil Cottonseed oil Cresol Cyclohexanone Dibutyl phthalate Ethers.19 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Citric acid. LLC . dil. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 50% Potassium sulfate. Hydrochloric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Propane Silicone oil Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride 8F 200 200 X 200 X 200 80 8C 93 93 X 93 X 93 27 513 200 200 200 100 X X 200 80 X X X X X X X X X X X X 200 160 100 X 120 X 140 X 80 X 200 80 80 80 220 200 93 93 93 38 X X 93 27 X X X X X X X X X X X X 93 71 38 X 49 X 60 X 27 X 93 27 27 27 104 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 100% Hydrogen sulfide Iodine Lactic acid.

Source: From P. acid mine Water. gaskets. distilled Water.18 Polyester (PE) Elastomer This elastomer combines the characteristics of thermoplastics and elastomers. all conc. Since polyamides can meet specification SAE J844 for air-brake hose.19 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sodium hydroxide. 2004. these parts can withstand repeated stretching and flexing over long periods of time. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 5. automotive cables. Coiled air-brake hose produced from this material has been used on trucks that have traveled over two million miles without a single reported failure. 1–4. 5. A wide range of flexibility permits material to be produced that is soft enough for high-quality bicycle seats and other materials whose strength and rigidity are comparable to those of many metals. and seals. and resistant to impact and flexural q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sea Whiskey Zinc chloride 8F 200 X X 140 160 80 80 140 140 80 X 8C 93 X X 60 71 27 27 60 60 27 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.17. Superflexible grades are also available that are used for shoe soles. coiled tubing is produced for this purpose for use on trucks. all conc. It is structurally strong. and electrical wire are also produced. resilient.. High-pressure hose and fuel lines are also produced from this material. Incompatibility is shown by an X. Sodium hypochlorite. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Vols. 5th ed.3 Applications Polyamides find many diverse applications resulting from their many advantageous properties. A. Sulfunc acid. Toluene Trichloroethylene Water. Corrosion-resistant and wear-resistant coverings for aircraft control cables. all conc. Because of the high elastic memory of polyamides. Schweitzer. New York: Marcel Dekker. diaphragms. salt Water. LLC .514 TABLE 5.

good abrasion resistance. they are not susceptible to the solvent extraction or heat volatilization of such additives. 5. Resistance is very poor at temperatures of 1588F (708C) or above.20 for the compatibility of polyester elastomers with selected corrodents. Its physical and mechanical properties vary depending upon the hardness of the elastomer. Their hydrolytic stability can be further improved by compounding. These rubbers should not be used in applications requiring continuous exposure to polar fluids at elevated temperatures. 63. and Ozone Polyester rubbers possess excellent resistance to ozone. the fluid resistance of polyester rubbers increases with increasing hardness. Since these rubbers contain no plasticizers. and 72 Shore D. outstanding flex-fatigue resistance. Weather. 5. LLC .Elastomers 515 fatigue.18. When formulated with appropriate additives. and good retention of properties at elevated temperatures. Their chemical resistance to oils and hydraulic fluids coupled with their high q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. However. and drums. their resistance to sunlight aging is very good. Polyester elastomers can successfully replace other thermoset rubbers at lower costs in many applications by taking advantage of their higher strength and by using thinner cross sections. retention of flexibility at low temperatures. high resistance to deformation under moderate strain conditions. Many fluids and chemicals will extract plasticizers from elastomers.1 Resistance to Sun. At room temperature. swimming pools. Combined are such features as resilience. Refer to Table 5. 55. Resistance to general weathering is good. PE has better high-temperature properties than polyurethanes and can be used satisfactorily at higher temperatures in the same fluids.18. elastomers are resistant to most polar fluids such as acids. they are also used for inflatables. ponds. The standard hardnesses to which PE elastomers are formulated are 40. Because of their low permeability to air.2 Chemical Resistance In general. Overall. Polyester elastomers also have good resistance to hot. amines. base. and glycols. even at elevated temperatures. causing a significant increase in stiffness (modulus) and volume shrinkage. PE elastomers are resistant to the same classes of chemicals and fluids as polyurethanes are. moist atmospheres. 5. Hardnesses range from 40 to 72 on the Shore D scale. Polyester elastomers have excellent resistance to nonpolar materials such as oils and hydraulic fluids.18. Large quantities of PE materials are used for liners for tanks.3 Applications Applications for PE elastomers are varied.

30% Calcium hydroxide. wet Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Citric acid. Calcium hypochlorite. Calcium chloride. 20% Calcium hydroxide. 28% Ammonium chloride. Calcium hydroxide.20 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Polyester Elastomers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. sat. liquid Butane Butyl acetate Calcium chloride. 10% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. Ammonium chloride.516 TABLE 5. glacial Acetic acid. LLC . 10–40% Amyl acetate Aniline Beer Benzene Borax Boric acid Bromine. conc. sat. 15% Citric acid. dil. dry Chlorine gas. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium chloride. vapor Ammonium chloride. 5% Citric acid. 5% Carbon bisulfide Carbon tetrachloride Castor oil Chlorine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. to 50% Cyclohexane Dibutyl phthalate 8F 80 80 80 100 90 90 90 90 90 80 80 X 80 80 80 80 X 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 X 80 X X X X X 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 8C 27 27 27 38 32 32 32 32 32 27 27 X 27 27 27 27 X 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 X 27 X X X X X 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 10% Citric acid. 80% Acetic acid. Copper sulfate Cottonseed oil Cupric chloride.

all conc. all conc. salt Water. 40% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid.20 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Dioctyl phthalate Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol Formaldehyde. 15% Stearic acid Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. sea 8F 80 80 80 X 80 80 80 80 80 80 X X X X X X X X X X 80 80 80 80 X 80 X X X 80 X 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 X 80 160 160 160 160 8C 27 27 27 X 27 27 27 27 27 27 X X X X X X X X X X 27 27 27 27 X 27 X X X 27 X 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 X 27 71 71 71 71 (continued) 517 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Toluene Water.Elastomers TABLE 5. Stannous chloride. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. demineralized Water. dil. 35% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrochloric acid. 100% Hydrogen Hydrogen sulfide. dry Lactic acid Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Mineral oil Muriatic acid Nitric acid Nitrobenzene Ozone Phenol Potassium dichromate. Hydrofluoric acid. Formaldehyde. distilled Water. 50% Hydrofluoric acid. dil. dil. 37% Formic acid. 10–85% Glycerine Hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid. 30% Potassium hydroxide Pyridine Soap solutions Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. LLC .

pump parts. New York: Marcel Dekker. and the thermoplastic is favored because of its lower viscosity. heat resistance make PE elastomers very suitable for automotive hose applications. hose and tubing produced from them do not stiffen with age.. The six generic classes of TPEs are. Each polymer will have its own phase. and the rubber phase will have little or no cross-linking (that is. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Blends of NBR and PVC are also significant but less common in Europe and North America than in Japan. Other PE products include seals. styrene block copolymers. Since the PE elastomers do not contain any plasticizers. Schweitzer. The family of thermoplastic olefins (TEO) are simple blends of a rubbery polymer (such as EPDM or NBR) with a thermoplastic such as PP or PVC. industrial solid tires. EPDM rubber and PP are the constituents of the most common TEOs. Cross-linking is not required.518 TABLE 5. gears. 5th ed. electrical connectors. low-pressure tires. 5. 2004. Incompatibility is shown by an X. thermoplastic copolyesters. elastomeric alloys.19 Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) Olefinic Type (TEO) Thermoplastic elastomers contain sequences of hard and soft repeating units in the polymer chain. Vols. 1–4. LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. noise-damping devices. flexible shafts. Elastic recovery occurs when the hard segments act to pull back the more soft and rubbery segments. speciality belting. piping clamps and cushions. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. vulcanization).A. thermoplastic urethanes. and thermoplastic polyamides. TEOs are similar to thermoset rubbers because they can be compounded with a variety of the same additives and fillers to meet specific applications. in order of increasing cost and performance. flexible couplings. The discontinuous phase should have a smaller particle size for the best performance of the TEO. and fasteners. polyolefin blends. sports equipment. wire and cable jacketing. The polymer present in the larger amount will usually be the continuous phase.20 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Xylene Zinc chloride 8F 80 80 8C 27 27 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. Corrosion Resistance Tables. gaskets. Source: From P.

Their water resistance is excellent. and other polar fluids such as alcohols and glycols. all that tend to concentrate in the soft rubber phase of the TEO.20 Silicone (SI) and Fluorosilicone (FSI) Rubbers Silicone rubbers. functional parts and under-the-hood components. showing essentially no property changes after prolonged exposure to water at elevated temperatures. antioxidants. gaskets and profile extrusions. and wire and cable jacketing. and fillers.1 Resistance to Sun. LLC . The silicones are derivatives of silica.19. Weather. automotive trim. The EPDM/PP TEOs have very poor resistance to hydrocarbon fluids such as the alkanes.19. but they swell excessively with toss of properties when exposed to halocarbons and hydrocarbons such as oils and fuels. also known as polysiloxanes. silicone rubber is produced: CH3 Si CH3 O CH3 Si CH3 O n q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 5. Blends with NBR and PVC are more resistant to aggressive fluids with the exception of the halocarbons.Elastomers 519 These additives include carbon black. 5. mechanical goods. or alkyl substituted benzenes. are a series of compounds whose polymer structure consists of silicon and oxygen atoms rather than the carbon structures of most other elastomers. When the atoms are combined so that the double linkages are broken and methyl groups enter the linkages. 5. 5.3 Applications These elastomeric compounds are found in a variety of applications.2 Chemical Resistance As a result of the low level of cross-linking. including reinforced hose. especially at elevated temperatures.19. The absence of unsaturation in the polymer backbone of both EPDM and PP makes these TEO blends very resistant to oxidation. plasticizers. seals. and Ozone TPEs possess good resistance to sun and ozone and have excellent weatherability. aqueous solutions. alkenes. flexible and supported tubing. The nonpolar nature of EPDM/PP TEOs make them highly resistant to water. a TEO is highly vulnerable to fluids with a similar solubility parameter (or polarity). SiO2 or OaSiaO.

Although they have excellent resistance to water and weathering. They have excellent resistance to aliphatic hydrocarbons and good resistance to aromatic hydrocarbons. 8F 80 90 90 90 90 90 90 110 110 X 80 X X 400 410 X 80 80 80 8C 27 32 32 32 32 32 32 43 43 X 27 X X 204 210 X 27 27 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Their properties are virtually unaffected by longterm exposure. and lubricating oils. weathering.520 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. The fluorosilicone rubbers have better chemical resistance than the silicone rubbers.1 Resistance to Sun. they are not resistant to high-pressure and high-temperature steam.20. 10% Ammonium chloride. 20% Acetic acid. animal and vegetable oils. and Ozone Silicone and fluorosilicone rubbers display excellent resistance to sun.2 Chemical Resistance Silicone rubbers can be used in contact with dilute acids and alkalies. and chlorinated solvents will cause excessive swelling. 10% Acetic acid. LLC . 80% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. and alcohols and fair resistance to concentrated alkalies. gasoline. TABLE 5. vapors Acetone Acetone.21 for the compatibility of silicone rubbers with selected corrodents. but aromatic solvents such as benzene. glacial Acetic acid. 75% Acrylonitrile Aluminum acetate Aluminum phosphate Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium chloride. oil and gasoline. dilute acids and alkalies. sat. They are also resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. animal and vegetable oils. and ozone.20. Weather. toluene. 50% water Acetophenone Acrylic acid. alcohols.21 Compatibility of Silicone Rubbers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetamide Acetic acid. 5. Refer to Table 5. 29% Ammonium chloride.

Fuel oil Gasoline Glucose (corn syrup) Glycerine Green liquor Hexane Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid. general Ethyl acetate Ethyl alcohol Ethyl chloride Ethylene chloride Ethylene diamine Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Fluosilicic acid Formaldehyde. Calcium hydroxide. 35% Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen peroxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. Hydrochloric acid. Carbon bisulfide Carbon monoxide Carbonic acid Chlorobenzene Chlorosulfonic acid Dioxane Ethane Ethers. sat. 8F 210 400 80 X X 80 X 400 X X 390 80 X 400 300 210 400 X 400 400 X X X X X 170 400 X X 400 400 400 X 200 X X 400 410 400 X X 90 90 X X 200 8C 99 204 27 X X 27 X 204 X X 189 27 X 204 149 99 204 X 204 204 X X X X X 77 204 X X 204 204 204 X 93 X X 204 210 204 X X 32 32 X X 93 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium hydroxide. 20% Hydrochloric acid. all conc. LLC 521 . Ammonium nitrate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Aqua regia. all conc. dil. to 30% Calcium hydroxide. 3:1 Barium sulfide Benzene Benzyl chloride Boric acid Butyl alcohol Calcium acetate Calcium bisulfite Calcium chloride.21 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Ammonium hydroxide. all conc. sat.

to 50% Potassium hydroxide.21 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Lactic acid. 20% Nitric acid. anhydrous Nitrous acid–sulfuric acid. 10% Potassium sulfate.522 TABLE 5. LLC . Lead acetate Lime sulfur Linseed oil Magnesium chloride Magnesium sulfate Mercury Methyl alcohol Methyl cellosolve Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Mineral oil Naptha Nickel acetate Nickel chloride Nickel sulfate Nitric acid. to 80% Potassium sulfate. vegetable Oleic acid Oleum Oxalic acid. 30% Potassium dichromate Potassium hydroxide. to 50% Ozone Palmitic acid Paraffin Peanut oil Perchloric acid Phenol Phosphoric acid Picric acid Potassium chloride. pure Propane 8F 80 X 400 X 400 400 80 410 X X X X 300 X X 400 400 80 80 X X X X 400 X 400 X X 80 400 X X 400 X X X X 400 410 410 210 80 400 400 400 X 8C 27 X 204 X 204 204 27 210 X X X X 149 X X 204 204 27 27 X X X X 204 X 204 X X 27 204 X X 204 X X X X 204 210 210 99 27 204 204 204 X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 30% Potassium cyanide. 50:50 Nitrobenzene Nitrogen Nitromethane Oils. 5% Nitric acid. all conc. 90% Potassium nitrate. 10% Nitric acid.

silicone rubbers find many uses in the electrical industries. Their excellent weathering qualities and wide temperature range have also resulted in their employment as caulking compounds. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Vols. 1–4. heaters. LLC . Corrosion Resistance Tables. A. sea Xylene Zinc chloride 8F X 400 X X 410 X 410 400 300 400 90 X 400 400 80 X X X X 400 X X X X 400 210 210 210 210 210 X 400 8C X 204 X X 210 X 210 204 149 204 32 X 204 204 27 X X X X 204 X X X X 204 99 99 99 99 99 X 204 523 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. demineralized Water. 10% Sodium hydroxide.21 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Propyl acetate Propyl alcohol Propyl nitrate Pyridine Silver nitrate Sodium acetate Sodium bisulfite Sodium borate Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride.. furnaces. New York: Marcel Dekker. acid mine Water.Elastomers TABLE 5.20. 5. primarily in appliances. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. all conc. Source: From P. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. and automotive parts. Sodium peroxide Sodium sulfate Sodium thiosulfate Stannic chloride Styrene Sulfite liquors Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid Tartaric acid Tetrahydroturan Toluene Tributyl phosphate Turpentine Vinegar Water. 5th ed. 2004.3 Applications Because of their unique thermal stability and/or their insulating values. salt Water. Incompatibility is shown by an X. distilled Water. Schweitzer. aerospace devices.

PVDF is one of the easiest fluoropolymers to process and can be easily recycled without affecting its physical and chemical properties. Exclusion or containment plus pressure or vacuum sealing to provide both EMI/EMP attenuation and pressure containment and/or weatherproofing 4.524 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers When silicone or fluorosilicone rubbers are infused with a high-density conductive filler. PVDF) Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a homopolymer of 1. As q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. In general. an electric path is created.1-difluoroethene with alternating CH2 and CF2 groups along the polymer chain.21 Vinylidene Fluoride (HFP. chemical. and ultraviolet conditions. These conductive elastomers are used as part of an EMI/RFI/EMP shielding process in forms such as O-rings and gaskets to provide 1. Shielding for containment to prevent the escape of EMI internally generated by the device 2. The polymer has the characteristic stability of fluoropolymers when exposed to aggressive thermal. Shielding for exclusion to prevent the intrusion of EMI/RF/EMP created by outside sources into the protected device 3. LLC . Grounding and contacting to provide a dependable lowimpedance connection to conduct electric energy to ground. These groups impart a unique polarity that influences its solubility and electrical properties. often used where mechanical mating is imperfect or impractical The following equipment is either capable of generating EMI or susceptible to EMI: Aircraft and aerospace electronics Analog instrumentation Automotive electronics Business machines Communication systems Digital instrumentation and process control systems Home appliances Radio-frequency instrumentation and radar Medical electronics Military and marine electronics Security systems (military and commercial) 5.

Chapter 1. high abrasion resistance. weather.” This material has the ASTM designation of MFP. heat-shrinkable tubing. high dielectric strength. and resistance to weathering. resistance to weathering. The broader molecular weight of PVDF gives it greater resistance to stress cracking than many other materials. PVDF is used for multiwire jacketing. Weather.21. resistance. radiation. PVDF possesses mechanical strength and toughness.S. Because of cross-linking. to most chemicals and solvents.2520. Refer to Table 5. high dielectric strength. 2000. strong acids. aliphatic solvents. Department of Agriculture (USDA). high purity. Cross-linking of the polymer chain and control of the molecular weight are also done to improve particular properties. PVDF is completely resistant to chlorinated solvents. resistance to ultraviolet and nuclear radiation. Code of Federal Regulations. and resistance to fungi. Part 177. 5. PVDF also exhibits excellent resistance to nuclear radiation.22 for the compatibility of PVDF with selected corrodents.1 Resistance to Sun. high thermal stability. 5. compounding can be used to improve certain specific properties. 5. but it is subject to stress cracking in the presence of sodium hydroxide. whereas the percent elongation to break decreases to a lower level and then remains constant. This resistance makes PVDF useful in plutonium reclamation operations. weak bases and salts.21. and ozone. LLC . plenum cables. the impact strength and elongation are slightly reduced. Strong bases will attack the material. PVDF is also permitted for use in processing or storage areas on contact with meat or poultry food products prepared under federal inspection according to the U.3 Applications PVDF finds many applications where its properties of corrosion resistance. ultraviolet light. In the electrical and electronics fields. strong oxidants. halogens. and aromatic solvents. computer q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Use is also permitted under “3-A Sanitary Standards for Multiple-Use Plastic Materials Used as Product Contact Surfaces for Dairy Equipment Serial No.2 Chemical Resistance In general. anode lead wire. high abrasion resistance. and fungi are useful. Its mechanical properties are retained. It can be used in applications intended for repeated contact with food per Title 21. mechanical strength and toughness. wide allowable operating temperature range.21. and Ozone PVDF is highly resistant to the effects of sun.Elastomers 525 with other elastomeric materials. The original tensile strength is essentially unchanged after exposure to 1000 Mrads of gamma irradiation from a cobalt-60 source at 1228F (508C) and in high vacuum (10K6 torr).

10% Ammonium chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F 150 90 300 300 190 190 X 120 150 130 280 200 200 180 250 300 270 300 260 300 290 300 270 250 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 190 280 280 200 150 130 280 8C 66 32 149 149 88 88 X 49 66 54 138 93 93 82 121 149 132 149 127 149 143 149 132 121 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 88 138 138 93 66 54 138 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. glacial Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 80% Acetic acid. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10 – 40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. sat.22 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of PVDF with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid.526 TABLE 5. LLC . 50% Ammonium chloride. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 50% Acetic acid.

wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.22 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. wet. liquid Chlorobenzene 8F 280 280 280 280 120 150 100 250 280 280 280 280 210 210 140 280 140 280 X 230 280 280 280 280 280 270 280 280 280 250 280 220 80 280 280 80 280 280 280 280 210 200 210 210 210 220 8C 138 138 138 138 49 66 38 121 138 138 138 138 99 99 60 138 60 138 X 110 138 138 138 138 138 132 138 138 138 121 138 104 27 138 138 27 138 138 138 138 99 93 99 99 99 104 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas.Elastomers TABLE 5. LLC 527 . dry Bromine gas. moist Bromine. sat. 10% Chlorine.

20% Hydrochloric acid. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. LLC . 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 10% Ketones. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. Hydrobromic acid. dil.22 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 15% Citric acid. conc. 25% Lactic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. general Lactic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. conc. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid.528 TABLE 5. 50% Hydrochloric acid. dry Fluorine gas. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride 8F 250 110 220 250 110 250 250 250 250 280 280 280 210 270 270 250 210 80 120 280 280 280 280 280 280 280 80 80 260 280 280 280 280 280 260 200 200 280 250 110 130 110 280 250 280 8C 121 43 104 121 43 121 121 121 121 138 138 138 99 132 132 121 99 27 49 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 27 27 127 138 138 138 138 138 127 93 93 138 121 43 54 43 138 121 138 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 10% Chromic acid. 5% Cupric chloride.

A. 100% Sulfuric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. 10% Perchloric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. conc.. conc. LLC . Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. 10% Sulfuric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 20% Nitric acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Oleum Perchloric acid. conc. Source: From P. Schweitzer.22 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F X X 110 280 200 180 120 150 210 X 210 120 200 220 80 280 220 250 280 280 230 220 150 280 280 280 280 280 250 220 220 210 140 X X 220 X X 130 80 260 8C X X 43 138 93 82 49 66 99 X 99 49 93 104 27 138 104 121 138 138 110 104 66 138 138 138 138 138 121 104 104 99 60 X X 104 X X 54 27 127 529 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. New York: Marcel Dekker. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 50% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. 1–4. 70% Nitric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Sodium sulfide. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2004. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. Vols. 5% Nitric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sodium hydroxide. anhydrous Nitrous acid. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.

5. FKM are capable of being compounded with various additives to enhance specific properties for particular applications. Its corrosion resistance is also a factor in these applications. As a result of its resistance to fungi and its exceptional corrosion resistance. Trade Name Viton Technoflon Fluorel Manufacturer Dupont Ausimont 3M These elastomers have the ASTM designation FKM. these compounds have found wide use in other applications because of their chemical resistance at high temperatures and other desirable properties. 5. valve diaphragms. FKM are suitable for all rubber processing applications. More details are available in the Federal Register. Vol. FKM are manufactured under various trade names by different manufacturers. In fluid-handling systems. calendering. Subpart F—Food Additives Resulting from Contact with Containers or Equipment and Food Additives Otherwise Affecting Food—Rubber Articles Intended for Repeated Use. Because of its acceptance in the handling of foods and pharmaceuticals.S. it is also used as the insulation material for underground anode bed installations. and tetrafluoroethylene. Part 121—Food Additives. transfer molding. injection molding. 1968. PVDF finds applications as gasketing material. and cable and cable ties. this material was used to produce O-rings for use in severe conditions. Food and Drug Administration for use in repeated contact with food products. Fluoroelastomers have been approved by the U. Three typical materials are listed below. These compounds possess the rapid recovery from deformation. of a true elastomer and exhibit mechanical properties of the same order of magnitude as those of conventional synthetic rubbers. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 33. hexafluoropropene. and dipping. The result is a high-performance synthetic rubber with exceptional resistance to oils and chemicals at elevated temperatures. transfer hose are lined with PVDF. including compression molding. LLC . or resilience. extrusion. and membranes for microporous filters and ultrafiltration.22 Fluoroelastomers (FKM) Fluoroelastomers are fluorine-containing hydrocarbon polymers with a saturated structure obtained by polymerizing fluorinated monomers such as vinylidene fluoride. As with other rubbers. Tuesday January 9. Although this remains a major area of application. injection/compression molding. spreading. Initially.530 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers wiring. No.

which in turn q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. certain amines. and hot water. reduced costs. Products made of this elastomer are unaffected by ozone concentrations as high as 100 ppm. 5. benzene. fuels. xylene) that act as solvents for other rubbers. 5.22. energy saving. require resistance only to 0. These elastomers are not suitable for use with low molecular weight esters and ethers. samples showed little or no change in properties or appearance. and military communities. or hot anhydrous hydrofluoric or chlorosulfonic acids. toluene. LLC . Special formulation can be produced to obtain resistance to hot mineral acids. aerospace.22. A typical compound tested against specification MIL-E-5272C showed no fungus growth after 30 days.3 Applications The main applications for fluoroelastomers are in those products requiring resistance to high operating temperatures together with high chemical resistance to aggressive fluids and to those characterized by severe operating conditions that no other elastomer can withstand. Weather. This property is particularly important considering that standard tests. By proper formulation.Elastomers 531 The biological resistance of FKM is excellent.5 ppm ozone. 5. in the automotive industry. most mineral acids. Similar results were experienced with samples exposed to various tropical conditions in Panama for a period of 10 years. Their solubility in low molecular weight ketones is an advantage in producing solution coatings of FKM. ketones. cured items can be produced that will meet the rigid specifications of the industrial. Refer to Table 5. for example. many aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride.22. Recent changes in the automotive industry that have required reduction in environmental pollution. gasoline. This specification covers four common fungus groups. chlorinated solvents. and improved reliability have resulted in higher operating temperatures. naphtha. No cracking occurred in a bent loop test after one year of exposure to 100 ppm of ozone in air at 1008F (388C) or in a sample held at 3568F (1808C) for several hundred hours.23 for the compatibility of FKM with selected corrodents. lubricants. FKM exhibit excellent weathering resistance to sunlight and especially to ozone. steam.1 Resistance to Sun. and Ozone Because of their chemically saturated structure.2 Chemical Resistance Fluoroelastomers provide excellent resistance to oils. After 13 years of exposure in Florida in direct sunlight. and pesticides.

sat.23 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Compatibility of Fluoroelastomers with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. aqueous Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. LLC . Ammonium fluoride. sat. Ammonium fluoride. 10% Ammonium chloride.532 TABLE 5. 50% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Ammonium chloride. 3:1 Barium carbonate 8F X 210 190 180 180 X X X 400 X X 190 190 100 190 180 400 400 190 400 X 390 X 140 190 400 300 300 140 140 190 190 X 140 180 180 X X 200 190 230 190 190 250 8C X 99 88 82 82 X X X 204 X X 88 88 38 88 82 204 204 88 204 X 199 X 60 88 204 149 149 60 60 88 88 X 60 82 82 X X 93 88 110 88 88 121 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 80% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride. 10%.

dry.Elastomers TABLE 5. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 25% Bromine gas. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium sulfate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. moist. sat. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform 8F 400 400 400 400 X 400 190 400 400 400 190 400 180 180 350 400 X 400 X 120 400 400 190 190 300 300 400 400 400 200 400 80 X 400 400 350 400 X X X 190 190 190 400 400 8C 204 204 204 204 X 204 88 204 204 204 88 204 82 82 177 204 X 204 X 49 204 204 88 88 149 149 204 204 204 93 204 27 X 204 204 177 204 X X X 88 88 88 204 204 (continued) 533 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 25% Bromine. LLC .23 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. wet Chlorine. dry Chlorine gas. 10% Calcium hydroxide. dry Carbon dioxide.

conc. dry Fluorine gas. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 10% Ketones. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 25% Lactic acid. conc. dil. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone 8F X 350 350 300 400 X 190 400 400 400 X 180 180 400 400 80 190 400 400 400 400 180 210 X X 400 400 400 350 350 400 210 350 X 400 190 X 300 400 390 390 180 190 X X 8C X 177 177 149 204 X 88 204 204 204 X 82 82 204 204 27 88 204 204 204 204 82 99 X X 204 204 204 177 177 204 99 177 X 204 88 X 149 204 199 199 82 88 X X (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Citric acid. LLC . 10% Chromic acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroethane (ethylene dichloride) Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. 15% Citric acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. general Lactic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution.23 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 5% Cupric chloride. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.534 TABLE 5.

10% Perchloric acid. 70% Nitric acid. Incompatibility is shown by an X. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Sodium sulfide. conc.23 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hypochlorite. 10% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 20% Nitric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid.. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sodium hydroxide. 2004. conc. 5th ed. 1–4. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 350 400 400 190 190 90 190 400 400 210 300 400 190 300 190 400 X X X 400 400 190 400 400 350 350 350 350 350 180 200 400 X 400 190 190 400 8C 177 204 204 88 88 32 88 204 204 99 149 204 88 149 88 204 X X X 204 204 88 204 204 177 177 177 177 177 88 93 204 X 204 88 88 204 535 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. New York: Marcel Dekker. 5% Nitric acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 90% Sulfuric acid. Vols. 50% Sodium hydroxide. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. conc. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. LLC .A. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 70% Sulfuric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. Source: From P.

fluoroelastomers are being applied as shaft seats. The main innovations resulting from these requirements are Turbocharging More compact. Their chemical stability solves the problems of chemical corrosion by making it possible to use them for such purposes as a protective lining for power station stacks operated with high-sulfur fuels. diaphragms for metering pumps. turbocharge lubricating circuit bellows. The high. water pump gaskets. At the present time.536 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers require a higher performance elastomer. heat-shrinkable tubing and fittings for wire and cable. filter casing gaskets. These extreme operating conditions require elastomers that have high chemical resistance. and antifreeze fluids has caused automotive fluids to be more corrosive to elastomers. V-rings. The same problems exist in the chemical industry. protective coatings. The exploitation of oilfields in difficult areas. and numerous types of O-ring seals. linings for valves. has increased the problems of high temperatures and pressures. specifically manifold gaskets. high viscosities. valve stem seals. and overall reliability to reduce maintenance. the use of lead-free fuels. mastic adhesive sealants. and tank linings for the chemical industry. thermal stability. carburetor needle-valve tips. and faster engines Catalytic exhausts Cx reduction Soundproofing In addition. In the field of aerospace applications. Another important application of these elastomers is in the production of coatings and linings. more efficient. coated fabrics. valve seats. alternative fuels. LLC . U-rings. Fluoroelastomers provide a solution to these problems and are used for O-rings. firewall seals. hose. a coating on rolls for the textile industry to permit scouring of fabrics. engine head gaskets. diaphragms for fuel pumps. The ability of fluoroelastomers to seal under extreme vacuum conditions in the range of 10K9 mm Hg is an additional feature that makes these materials useful for components used in space. O-ring (water-cooled cylinders and injection pumps). the reliability of materials under extreme exposure conditions is of prime importance. safety clothing and gloves. carburetor accelerating pump diaphragms. expansion joints. and high acidity. such as deserts or offshore sites. gaskets. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sour gasoline lubricants. fuel hose. and maintenance coatings. and seals for exhaust gas pollution control equipment.and lowtemperature properties of the fluoroelastomers have permitted them to give reliable performance in a number of aircraft and missile components.

Weather.24 Compatibility of ETFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. inorganic bases.1 Resistance to Sun. aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. and Ozone Ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene has outstanding resistance to sunlight. 10% Acetic acid. makes the material particularly suitable for outdoor applications subject to atmospheric corrosion. esters. 5. chloro-carbons. ozone. ketones.23. as will organic bases such as amines and sulfonic acids.Elastomers 537 5. Very strong oxidizing acids near their boiling points.2 Chemical Resistance Ethylene–tetrafluoroethylene is inert to strong mineral acids. and metal salt solutions. This feature. ETFE is a modified partially fluorinated copolymer of ethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). and classic polymer solvents have little effect on ETFE. alcohols. coupled with its wide range of corrosion resistance. aldehydes. Refer to Table 5. glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride 8F 200 250 250 250 230 230 300 150 150 150 280 210 190 8C 93 121 121 121 110 110 149 66 66 66 138 99 88 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. ethers. anhydrides.23. 80% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. 5. halogens. and weather.24 for the compatibility of ETFE with selected corrodents. Since it contains more than 75% TFE by weight.23 Ethylene–Tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) Elastomer This elastomer is sold under the trade name Tefzel by DuPont. such as nitric acid at high concentration. will affect ETFE in varying degrees. TABLE 5. LLC . it has better resistance to abrasion and cut-through than TFE while retaining most of the corrosion resistance properties. Even carboxylic acids.

10%. aqueous Aluminum chloride. 10% Butadiene Butyl acetate 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 300 300 300 230 300 300 300 300 250 300 300 230 210 210 300 300 300 300 300 210 210 210 270 300 300 300 300 150 230 250 230 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 149 149 149 110 149 149 149 149 121 149 149 110 99 99 149 149 149 149 149 99 99 99 132 149 149 149 149 66 110 121 110 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Ammonium chloride.24 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Alum Aluminum chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC . sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. Ammonium fluoride.538 TABLE 5. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. sat. 50% Ammonium chloride. Ammonium fluoride. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. dry Bromine water. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.

Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Chlorine gas. dry Carbon dioxide.Elastomers TABLE 5. water Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 50% Chromyl chloride Citric acid. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. LLC . 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. sat. wet Chlorine. 5% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride. 15% Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 50% in water 8F 300 120 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 260 300 210 150 300 300 150 300 270 300 300 230 230 210 250 100 210 230 80 150 150 210 120 300 300 300 270 300 300 250 150 150 300 300 8C 149 49 121 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 127 149 99 66 149 149 66 149 132 149 149 110 110 99 121 38 99 110 27 66 66 99 49 149 149 149 132 149 149 121 66 66 149 149 (continued) 539 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 10% Chromic acid.

conc. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 70% Nitric acid. LLC . 10% Sodium hydroxide. dil. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 20% Nitric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. conc. conc. 20% Hydrobromic acid. Oleum Perchloric acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid.24 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Ferric nitrate. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 5% Lactic acid. 5% Nitric acid. dry Fluorine gas. to 50% Stannic chloride 8F 300 300 300 100 100 300 300 300 300 300 300 270 250 230 300 250 250 300 270 120 300 230 300 300 150 150 80 X 210 150 230 150 210 270 130 300 250 300 300 230 230 300 300 300 300 8C 149 149 149 38 38 149 149 149 149 149 149 132 121 110 149 121 121 149 132 49 149 110 149 149 66 66 27 X 99 66 110 66 99 132 54 149 121 149 149 110 110 149 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. Hydrobromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 50% Sodium hypochlorite.540 TABLE 5. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. Sodium sulfide. 20% Hydrochloric acid.

Incompatibility is shown by an X. and seals (O-rings. 98% Sulfuric acid. 5th ed. 50% Sulfuric acid. LLC . and for bearing pads for pipe and equipment support where expansion and contraction or movement may occur. good electrical properties. 1–4. ECTFE is a tough material with excellent impact strength over its entire operating temperature range. New York: Marcel Dekker. 2004. split curled.Elastomers TABLE 5. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid Zinc chloride 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 120 210 210 250 210 300 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 49 99 99 121 99 149 541 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. and broad-use temperature range [from cryogenic to 3408F (1718C)] and meets the requirements of the UL-94V-0 vertical flame test in thicknesses as low as 7 mils. Source: From P. and thrust bearings. The material is also used for sleeve. Vols. lip and X-rings) in areas where corrosion is a problem. It possesses excellent chemical resistance. Corrosion Resistance Tables. 10% Sulfuric acid.23.A. 100% Sulfuric acid. Schweitzer. 5. packings. 70% Sulfuric acid. Of all the fluoropolymers. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group..3 Applications The principal applications for ETFE are found in such products as gaskets. 5. 90% Sulfuric acid. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available.24 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. ECTFE ranks among the best for abrasion resistance.24 Ethylene–Chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) Elastomer Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE) elastomer is a 1:1 alternating copolymer of ethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene. This chemical structure gives the polymer a unique combination of properties.

glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyl chloride Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum chloride. this does not impair the usefulness of the polymer. Under normal circumstances. aqueous Aluminum chloride. Its physical properties undergo very little change after long exposures. It is resistant to most of the common corrosive chemicals encountered in industry. 10% Acetic acid.2 Chemical Resistance The chemical resistance of ECTFE is outstanding. weather. and practically all organic solvents except hot amines (aniline. ECTFE will be attacked by metallic sodium and potassium.1 Resistance to Sun. 80% Acetic acid. LLC . When the part is removed from contact with the solvent and allowed to dry. TABLE 5. dry Aluminum fluoride Aluminum hydroxide 8F 250 250 150 200 100 150 150 150 150 300 300 300 300 300 8C 121 121 66 93 38 66 66 66 66 149 149 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.25 for the compatibility of ECTFE with selected corrodents.24. Weather.542 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5. its mechanical properties return to their original values. etc. As with other fluoropolymers.). Some halogenated solvents can cause ECTFE to become slightly plasticized when it comes into contact with them. alkalies. metal etchants. No known solvent dissolves or stress cracks ECTFE at temperatures up to 2508F (1208C). liquid oxygen. dimethylamine. The useful properties of ECTFE are maintained on exposure to cobalt-60 radiation of 200 Mrads.24. Included in this list of chemicals are strong mineral and oxidizing acids. and ozone attack. Refer to Table 5.25 Compatibility of ECTFE with Selected Corrodents Maximum Temperature Chemical Acetic acid. indicating that no chemical attack has taken place. 5. and Ozone Ethylene–chlorotrifluoroethylene is extremely resistant to sun. 50% Acetic acid.

Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate. 50% Ammonium chloride. 10% Ammonium fluoride. Ammonium fluoride. sat. 10% Ammonium chloride. 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid. 10–40% Ammonium sulfide Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol Butyric acid Calcium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate 8F 300 150 300 300 300 300 290 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 150 300 300 300 160 300 300 90 100 250 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 250 300 300 300 300 X 150 250 150 300 250 300 300 300 8C 149 66 149 149 149 149 143 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 66 149 149 149 71 149 149 32 38 121 149 149 149 149 149 66 66 66 121 149 149 149 149 X 66 121 66 149 121 149 149 149 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. sat. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl atcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas. dry Bromine.Elastomers TABLE 5.25 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. LLC 543 .

conc. Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 5% Cupric chloride. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. wet Chlorine. dry Carbon dioxide. 10% Calcium hydroxide. 15% Citric acid.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 50% Citric acid. 10% Chromic acid. dry Fluorine gas. 50% in water Ferric nitrate 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. LLC . dry Chlorine gas. sat.544 TABLE 5. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid. 50% water Chloroacetic acid Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. moist 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 220 80 300 300 80 150 300 300 300 250 250 150 250 250 150 250 80 250 250 300 300 150 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 X 80 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 104 27 149 149 27 69 149 149 149 121 121 66 121 121 66 121 27 121 121 149 149 66 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 X 27 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

70% Nitric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 30% Salicylic acid Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sulfuric acid. Sodium hypochlorite. 38% Hydrocyanic acid. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Perchloric acid. 10% Lactic acid.25 Continued Maximum Temperature Chemical Hydrobromic acid. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. conc. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid. 70% Sulfuric acid. 20% Hydrobromic acid. 90% 8F 300 300 300 300 300 300 250 240 240 300 250 150 150 300 250 300 150 150 300 300 250 150 150 250 X 150 150 150 250 80 300 250 300 300 300 250 150 300 300 300 300 300 250 250 250 150 8C 149 149 149 149 149 149 121 116 116 149 121 66 66 149 121 149 66 66 149 149 121 66 66 121 X 66 66 66 121 27 149 121 149 149 149 121 66 149 149 149 149 149 121 121 121 66 (continued) q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Hydrochloric acid. Sodium sulfide. to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid.Elastomers TABLE 5. conc. 20% Nitric acid. conc. 20% Sodium hypochlorite. 50% Sulfuric acid. dil. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid. 25% Lactic acid. Hydrobromic acid. LLC 545 . 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Sodium hydroxide. Oleum Perchloric acid. 5% Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. anhydrous Nitrous acid. 50% Hydrochloric acid. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. conc.

there are no other elastomers that can outperform the FPMs.546 TABLE 5. oil well wire and cable insulation. Source: From P. seals. connectors. closures. Incompatibility is shown by an X. and other equipment. Corrosion Resistance Tables. logging wire jacketing and jacketing for cathodic protection. tapes. 98% Sulfuric acid. pumps.A. Schweitzer.25 Perfluoroelastomers (FPM) Perfluoroelastomers provide the elastomeric properties of fluoroelastomers and the chemical resistance of PTFE. mass transit and automotive wire. coil forms. LLC . and hose.25 Continued Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Maximum Temperature Chemical Sulfuric acid. plenum cable insulation. Applications are also found in other industries as diaphragms. These synthetic rubbers provide the sealing force of a true elastomer and the chemical inertness and thermal stability of polytetra– fluoroethylene. 1–4. resistor sleeves. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. aircraft. Materials of ECTFE are also used for lining vessels. wire tie wraps. convoluted tubing. they are more resistant to swelling and embrittlement and retain their elastomeric properties over the long term. These compounds are true rubbers. Compared with other elastomeric compounds. cryogenic. 5. particularly in the chemical. tubing. In difficult environments. and aerospace industries. 5th ed. Vols.24. 5. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. flexible tubing.. fuming Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 8F 150 80 300 250 150 150 150 250 300 8C 66 27 149 121 66 66 66 121 149 The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. 2004. New York: Marcel Dekker. 100% Sulfuric acid. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and flexible printed circuitry and flat cable. gaskets.3 Applications This elastomer finds many applications in the electrical industry as wire and cable insulation and jacketing.

contact the manufacturer for a recommendation on the use of a specialty compound. Compound 1050LF This compound has good water/steam resistance. Applications induce O-rings. Applications include O-rings. As with other perfluoroelastomers. and various fillers are used for this purpose. This compound should not be used in pure water/steam applications at elevated temperatures. and other parts used in the chemical process industry. The maximum allowable continuous operating temperature is 5008F/2608C with short-term exposures at 5508F/2888C in nonoxidizing environments. and other parts in the chemical process industry. One such perfluoroelastomer is sold by DuPont under the trade name Kalrez. It exhibits low swell in organic and inorganic acids and aldehydes and has good response to temperature cycling effects. It has a maximum continuous operating temperature of 6008F/3168C with short-term exposures at higher temperatures. excellent all around chemical resistance. excellent amine resistance. If the standard compounds do not meet the specified needs. These have been modified to meet specific needs. seals. Such materials as carbon black. This compound finds applications as O-rings. The maximum recommended continuous operating temperature is 5508F/2888C. perfluormated oil. and compression set properties. ethylene oxide. but it is recommended that the manufacturer be consulted before ordering. Specialty Compounds In addition to the three standard compounds. It is the suggested compound for use with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide. good mechanical properties. LLC . seals. and propylene oxide. The ASTM designations for these elastomers is FPM. Kalrez is available in different compounds to meet specific needs. Compound 4079 This is a carbon black filled compound having low compression set with excellent chemical resistance. It exhibits good mechanical properties. there are six specialty compounds available. and is slightly harder than compound 4079. It is not recommended for use with organic or inorganic acids at high temperatures. diaphragms. and outstanding hot air aging properties.Elastomers 547 As with other elastomers. seals. This compound is not recommended for use in hot water/steam applications or in contact with certain hot aliphatic amines. perfluoroelastomers are compounded to modify certain of their properties. and other parts used in the process and aircraft industries. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Compound 1050 This compound is carbon black filled.

548

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

5.25.1 Resistance to Sun, Weather, and Ozone Perfluoroelastomers provide excellent resistance to sun, weather, and ozone. Long-term exposure under these conditions has no effect on them. 5.25.2 Chemical Resistance Perfluoroelastomers have outstanding chemical resistance. They are virtually immune to chemical attack, at ambient and elevated temperatures. Typical corrodents that perfluoroeiastomers are resistant to include the following: Chlorine, wet and dry Fuels (ASTM Reference Fuel C, JP-5 jet fuel, aviation gas, and kerosene) Heat transfer fluids Hot mercury Hydraulic fluids Inorganic and organic acids (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric, and trichloroacetic) and bases (hot caustic soda) Inorganic salt solutions Metal halides (titanium tetrachloride, diethylaluminum chloride) Oil well sour gas (methane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and steam) Polar solvents (ketones, esters, and ethers) Steam Strong organic solvents (benzene, dimethyl formamide, perchloroethylene, and tetrahydrofuran) Strong oxidizing agents (dinitrogen tetroxide, and fuming nitric acid) These perfluoroelastomers should not be exposed to molten or gaseous alkali metals such as sodium because a highly exothermic reaction may occur. Service life can be greatly reduced in fluids containing high concentrations of some diamines, nitric acid, and basic phenol when the temperature exceeds 2128F (1008C). Uranium hexafluoride and fully halogenated Freons (F-11 and F-12) cause considerable swelling. The corrosion resistance given above is for the base polymer. Since the polymer is quite often compounded with fillers and curatives, these additives may interact with the environment, even though the polymer is resistant. Therefore, a knowledge of the additives present is essential in determining the material’s suitability for a particular application. A corrosion testing program is the best method whereby this evaluation can be undertaken. Kalrez compounds have virtually universal chemical resistance. They withstand attack by more than 1600 chemicals, solvents, and plasmas. Table 5.26 lists the compatibilities of Kalrez compounds with selected
q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Compatibility of Kalrez Compounds with Selected Corrodents
Abietic Acid Acetic acid, glacial (4079) Acetic acid, 30% (4079) Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenetidine Acetophenone Acetyl bromide Acetyl chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile (1050LF) Alkyl acetone Alkyl alcohol Alkyl benzene Alkyl chloride Alkyl sulfide Aluminum acetate Aluminum bromide Aluminum chlorate Aluminum chloride Aluminum ethylate Aluminum fluoride Aluminum fluorosilicate Aluminum formate Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxalate Aluminum phosphate Aluminum sulfate Alum Ammonia, anhydrous (1050LF) Ammonium acetate Ammonium arsenate Ammonium benzoate Ammonium bicarbonate Ammonium bisulfite Ammonium bromide Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride Ammonium citrate Ammonium dichromate Ammonium fluoride (1050LF) Ammonium fluorosilicate Ammonium formate Ammonium hydride, conc. (1050LF) Ammonium iodide Ammonium lactate
(continued)
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549

550 TABLE 5.26 Continued
Ammonium nitrate Ammonium nitrite Ammonium oxalate Ammonium salicylate Ammonium sulfate Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Ammonium thiosulfate Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Amyl mercaptan Amyl naphthalene Amyl nitrate Amyl nitrite Amyl phenol Aniline hydrdochloride Aniline sulfate Aniline sulfite Animal fats Animal oils Anthraquinone Antimony sulfate Antimony tribromide Antimony trichloride Antimony trioxide Aqua regia Arsenic oxide Arsenic trichloride Arsenic trioxide Arsenic trisulfide Ascorbic acid Barium carbonate Barium chlorate Barium chloride, aqueous Barium cyanide Barium hydroxide Barium iodide Barium nitrate Barium oxide Barium peroxide Barium salts Beet sugar liquors Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid Benzocatechol Benzoyl chloride Benzyl chloride

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

(continued)

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Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Bismuth carbonate Bismuth nitrate Bismuth oxychloride Boric acid Brine Bromic acid Bromine, anhydrous Butadiene Butane Butyl acetate Butyl chloride Butyl ether Butyl lactate Butyl mercaptan Butyl chloride Cadmium chloride Cadmium nitrate Cadmium sulfate Cadmium sulfide Calcium acetate Calcium arsenate Calcium bicarbonate Calcium bisulfide Calcium hydrosulfide Calcium carbide Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium chromate Calcium fluoride Calcium hydroxide Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium peroxide Calcium phosphate Calcium stearate Calcium sulfate Calcium sulfide Calcium sulfite Cane sugar liquors Capric acid Carbamate Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon fluorides Carbon monoxide Caustic lime
(continued)

551

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552 TABLE 5.26 Continued
Caustic potash Chloric acid Chlorine, dry Chloroacetic acid Chloroacetone Chloroform Chlorosilanes Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid Chromic chloride Chromic fluorides Chromic hydroxide Chromic nitrates Chromic oxides Chromic phosphate Chromic sulfate Coconut oil Cod liver oil Coke oven gas Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper nitrate Copper oxide Copper sulfate Corn oil Coconut oil Cresylic acid Crude oil Cutting oils Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Denatured alcohol Detergent solution Dextrain Dextrose Diacetone Diallyl ether Diallyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroaniline o-Dichlorobenzene Dichloroethane Dichloroethylene Dichloromethane Dichlorophenol Diesel oil

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

(continued)

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Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Diethanolamine (1050LF) Diethylamine (1050LF) Diethyl sulfate Diethylbenzene Diethylene glycol Difluoroethane Difluoromonochloroethane Diisobutyl ketone Diisobutylcarbinol Diisobutylene Diisopropyl ether Diisopropyl ketone Epichlorohydrin Ethane Ethanol Ethanolamine (1050LF) Ethers Ethyl acetate Ethyl acetoacetate Ethyl acrylate Ethyl alcohol Ethylamine (1050LF) Ethyl benzene Ethyl benzoate Ethyl bromide Ethyl butylate (4079) Ethyl cellulose Ethyl chloride Ethyl ether Ethyl formate (4079) Ethyl nitrite Ethyl oxalate Ethylene Ethylene chloride Ethylene dibromide Ethylene dichloride Ethylene glycol Ethylene oxide (2035) Fatty acids Ferric acetate Ferric hydroxide Ferric sulfate Ferrous carbonate Ferrous chloride Fuel oils Fuming sulfuric acid Gallic acid Gasoline Gelatin
(continued)

553

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554 TABLE 5.26 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Glauber’s salt Gluconic acid Glucose Glue Glycerine (glycerol) Helium Heptane Hexane Hydrolodic acid (4079) Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid, 40% Hydrochloric acid, 37%, cold Hydrochloric acid, conc. Hydrochloric acid, 37%, hot Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous Hydrofluoric acid, conc., cold conc., hot (4079) Hydrogen peroxide, 90% Iodic acid Iodine Iodoform Isopropyl chloride Isopropyl ether Isopropylamine (1050LF) Kerosene Lacquer solvents Lacquers Lactic acid, cold Lactic acid, hot Lauric acid Lead, molten Lead acetate Lead arsenate Lead bromide Lead carbonate Lead chloride Lead chromate Lead dioxide Lead nitrate Lead oxide Lime bleach Lime sulfur Linoleic acid Linseed oil Lithium carbonate Lithium chloride Lithium hydroxide Lithium nitrate Lithium nitrite
(continued)

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Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Lithium salicylate Lithopone Lye Magnesium chloride Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium sulfate Magnesium sulfite Maleic acid Manganese acetate Maleic anhydride Manganese carbonate Manganese dioxide Manganese chloride Manganese phosphate Manganese sulfate, aqueous Mercuric cyanide Mercuric iodide Mercuric nitrate Mercuric sulfate Mercuric sulfite Mercurous nitrate Mercury Mercury chloride Methane Methyl acetate Methyl acrylate Methyl alcohol (methanol) Methyl benzoate Methyl butyl ketone Methyl chloride Methyl ether Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Methyl salicylate Methylene bromide Methylene chloride Methylene iodide Mineral oil Mixed acids Morpholine Motor oils Mustard gas Myristic acid Naphtha Naphthalene Natural gas Neon Nickel acetate aqueous Nickel chloride aqueous
(continued)

555

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556 TABLE 5.26 Continued
Nickel cyanide Nickel nitrate Nickel salts Nicotine Nicotine sulfate Niter cake Nitric acid, 0–50% (4079) Nitric acid, 50–100% (4079) Nitroaniline Nitrobenzene Nitrocellulose Nitrochlorobenzene Nitrogen Nitrogen oxides Nitrogen peroxide Nitroglycerine Nitroglycerol Nitromethane Nitrophenol Nitrotoluene Nitrous acid Nonane n-Octane Octyl acetate Octyl alcohol Octyl chloride Olefins Oleic acid Oleum Olive oil Oxalic acid Oxygen, cold (4079) Paint thinner Palmitic acid Paraffins Peanut oil Pectin (liquor) Penicillin Peracetic acid Perchloric acid (4079) Perchloroethylene Petroleum Petroleum ether Petroleum crude (1050LF) Phenyl acetate Phosgene Phosphoric acid, 20% Phosphoric acid, 45% Phosphorous, molten

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

(continued)

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Elastomers TABLE 5.26 Continued
Phosphorous oxychloride Phosphorous trichloride Phthalic acid Phthalic anhydride Pickling solution Picric acid Pine oil Pine tar Pinene Piperazine (1050LF) Piperidine Plating solution, chrome Potassium acid sulfate Potassum alum Potassum aluminum sulfate Potassium bicarbonate Potassium bichromate Potassium bifluoride Potassium bisulfate Potassium bisulfite Potassium bitartrate Potassium bromide Potassium carbonate Potassium chlorate Potassium chloride Potassium chromates Potassium citrate Potassium cyanate Silicone tetrachloride, dry Silicone tetrachloride, wet Silver bromide Silver chloride Silver cyanide Silver nitrate Silver sulfate Soap solutions Soda ash Sodium acetate Sodium benzoate Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bichromate Sodium bifluoride Sodium bisulfate Sodium bisulfide Sodium bisulfite Sodium borate Sodium bromate Sodium bromide Sodium carbonate
(continued)

557

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558 TABLE 5.26 Continued

Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers

Sodium chlorate Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium chloroacetate Sodium chromate Sodium citrate Sodium cyanate Sodium cyanide Sodium terricyanide Sodium terrocyanide Sodium fluoride Sodium fluorosilicate Sodium hydride Sodium hydrosulfide Sodium hydroxide Sodium hypochlorite Sodium lactate Sodium nitrate Sodium oleate Sodium oxalate Sodium perborate Sodium percarbonate Sodium perchlorate Sodium peroxide Sodium persulfate Sodium phenolate Sodium phosphate Sodium salicylate Sodium salts Sodium silicate Sodium stannate Sodium sulfate Sodium sulfide Sodium sulfite Sour crude oil (1050LF) Sour natural gas (1050LF) Soybean oil Stannic ammonium chloride Stannic chloride, aqueous Stannic tetrachloride Stannous bromide Stannous chloride, aqueous Stannous fluoride Stannous sulfate Steam above 3008F/1498C (1050LF) Steam below 3008F/1498C (2035) Stearic acid Stoddard solvent Strontium acetate
(continued)

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LLC . liquefied Sulfur dioxide.26 Continued Strontium carbonate Strontium chloride Strontium hydroxide Strontium nitrate. dry Sulfur dioxide. conc. Sulfuric acid. dil. wet Sulfur trioxide Sulfuric acid. aqueous Styrene (3018) Succinic acid Sucrose solution Sulfamic acid Sulfite liquors Sulfur chloride Sulfur dioxide. Sulfurous acid Sulfuryl chloride Sulfonated oil Tallow Tannic acid Tar. bituminous Tartaric acid Tetraethyl lead Tetrahydrofuran Thionyl chloride Thiourea Toluene Transformer oil Transmission fluid type A Triacetin Trichloroacetic acid (4079) Trichlorobenzene Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Triethanolamine (1050LF) Triethyl phosphate Triethylamine (1050LF) Trimethylamine (1050LF) Trimethylbenzene Trinitrotoluene Trisodium phosphate Tung oil Turbine oil Turpentine Uranium sulfate Uric acid Valeric acid Vanilla extract (2035) (continued) 559 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.Elastomers TABLE 5.

O-rings of FPM are employed in mechanical seals. cold Water. pump housings. corrodents. and miscellaneous sealing elements including U-cups and V-rings. The listing is based on standard compounds 4079 and 1050LF for the majority of the fluids. In the petrochemical industry. Freon-21 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. any Kalrex compound may be used. valves. gaskets.560 TABLE 5. compressor casings. LLC . In some chemicals. FPM is widely used for O-ring seals on equipment. N 2O 4 and other oxidizers. When no compound is specified. Kalrez will be resistent to the corrodents listed up to a maximum temperature of 2128F/1008C. any Kalrez compound may be used. In contact with some chemicals.26 Continued Vegetable oils Vinyl benzene Vinyl benzoate Vinyl chloride Vinyl fluoride Vinylidene chloride Water. a higher operating temperature may be allowable. The listing is based on standard compounds 4079 and 1050LF for the majority of the fluids.25. Other industries where FPM contributes importantly are aerospace (versus jet fuels. packings. When no compound is specified. diaphragms. hydrazine. Custom-molded parts are also used as valve seats.3 Applications Perfluoraelastomer parts are a practical solution wherever the sealing performance of rubber is desirable but not feasible because of severe chemical or thermal conditions. and other instruments. hot (1050LF) White oil White pine oil Wood oil Xenon Xylene Zinc acetate Zinc chloride Zinc chromate Zinc nitrate Zinc oxide Zinc sulfate Zinc sulfide Zirconium nitrate Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers Kairez is resistant to the above chemicals up to a maximum temperature of 2128F/1008C. rotameters. 5. a higher operating temperature may be allowable.

and resistant to acids. 5. and terpolymers (GECO).Elastomers 561 fluorocarbon. oil and gas recovery. weathering. 5. However.3 Applications Epichlorhydrin rubber applications include seals and tubes in airconditioning and fuel systems.26. high-temperature conditions). gas.26. and geothermal drilling (versus sour gas. and analytical and process instruments (versus high vacuum. rail cars. LLC . Other industries that also extensively use FPM include Pharmaceuticals.26 Epichlorohydrin Rubber The epichlorhydrin polymer group includes the homopolymer (CO). 5. etc. bases. liquid and gas chromotography exposures.and/or heat-resistance properties can be utilized and other elastomeric materials will not do the job or where high maintenance costs results if other elastomeric materials are used. and aromatic hydrocarbons. and Ozone These rubbers have excellent resistance to sun.1 Resistance to Sun. water. nuclear power (versus radiation. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.). and ozone. agricultural chemicals. aminecontaining hydraulic fluids. The semiconductor industry makes use of FPM O-rings to seal the aggressive chemical reagents and specialty gases required for producing silicon chips. Also the combination of thermal stability and low outgassing characteristics are desirable in furnaces for growing crystals and in highvacuum applications. 5. ships. and barges carrying hazardous and corrosive chemicals.2 Chemical Resistance Epichlorhydrin rubbers are resistant to hydrocarbon fuels. extreme temperatures and pressures). and analytical and process control instrumentation. perfluoroelastomers are used primarily as seals where their corrosion. The chemical transportation industry is also a heavy user of FPM components in safety relief and unloading valves to prevent leakage from tank trucks and trailers. oil. high temperature).26. Weather. high-purity reagents. the copolymer with ethylene oxide (ECO). acidic fluids. to swelling in oils. Because of their cost. they are susceptible to devulcanization in the presence of oxidized fuels such as sour gasoline.

1 Resistance to Sun. The elastic properties of EVM are due to the absence of crystallinity in the copolymer. 5.3 Applications CM finds application as vinyl siding.27.27. and various wire and cable applications. protective boots. Higher levels of vinyl acetate increase the polarity of the polymer and. increase the hydrocarbon resistance. window profiles. LLC .3 Applications EVM finds application as wire insulation in the automotive industry. hoses. and ozone. Weather.27. 5. and Ozone CM has excellent resistance to sun.2 Chemical Resistance Chlorinated polyethylene has reasonably good resistance to fuels and oils and excellent resistance to atmospheric pollutants.28. Ethylene vinyl acetate is also used in the production of thermoplastic elastomers as the soft phase. Chlorination of the polyethylene polymer disrupts the crystallinity and allows the polymer to become elastic upon vulcanization. 5. 5. weathering.28. CM can be vulcanized by peroxides or certain nitrogencontaining organic compounds that cross-link the chlorine atoms.1 Resistance to Sun. and Ozone EVM has excellent resistance to sun. therefore. Weather.27 Ethylene–Vinylacetate Copolymer (EVM) EVM can only be cured by peroxide. q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. flexible dust shields.28 Chlorinated Polyethylene (CM) Unmodified polyethylene cannot be converted into an elastomer because of its molecular crystallinity. and ozone.2 Chemical Resistance The resistance of EVM to hydrocarbon fluids is dependent upon the vinyl acetate content. 5.562 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers 5.28. 5. weathering. 5.

Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available. It must be remembered that many of these elastomers may be compounded. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable.6 Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers On the following pages. The information is taken from Reference [1]. Incompatibility is shown by X. it is important that the composition be verified as to its suitability for the application. the compatibility of selected elastomers in contact with selected corrodents is found. therefore. The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated.1). The tables are based on the pure elastomer (Table 6. LLC . 563 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

aqueous Aluminum chloride. dry Aluminum fluoride 180 82 200 93 210 99 180 82 180 82 210 99 150 66 200 93 190 88 190 88 150 66 250 121 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 99 140 60 200 93 200 93 X X 190 X 190 X X 88 X 88 200 X 93 X 140 140 200 60 60 93 140 200 300 X 200 200 60 93 149 X 93 93 100 140 80 X 140 180 38 60 27 X 60 82 160 71 X X X X 300 X 149 X X X X X X 190 X X 180 190 100 190 180 X 88 X X 82 88 38 88 82 210 210 99 99 210 210 210 110 210 99 99 99 43 99 X X X 90 80 80 X 150 X X X 32 27 27 X 66 X X X 160 160 120 X 200 X X X X 71 71 49 X 93 X X X X X 180 180 X 200 200 X X X X 82 82 X 93 93 150 66 220 104 X X X X X X 210 99 X X 90 32 200 93 150 110 110 90 66 43 43 32 8F 80 8C 27 Hypalon 8F 60 X 200 200 200 X 8C 16 X 93 93 93 X 8F 200 200 140 140 140 140 EPDM 8C 93 93 60 60 60 60 8F 210 200 X X X X EPT 8C 99 93 X X X X Viton A 8F X 210 190 180 180 X 8C X 99 88 82 82 X 8F X X 200 200 90 80 Kalrez 8C X X 93 93 32 27 Rubber 8F X X 150 X X X 8C X X 66 X X X Neoprene 8F 200 200 160 160 160 X 8C 93 93 71 71 71 X Buna-N 8F X 180 200 200 210 100 8C X 82 93 93 99 38 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 80% Acetic acid. 50% Acetic acid. 10% Acetic acid.1 Natural Butyl Chemical Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid. LLC . glacial Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetyle chloride Acrylic acid Acrylonitrile Adipic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl chloride Alum Aluminum acetate Aluminum chloride.564 TABLE 6.

25% Ammonium hydroxide. 25% Ammonium hydroxide. 10% Ammonium fluoride. 100 190 38 88 250 250 121 121 210 210 99 99 140 180 60 82 190 190 X 88 88 X 88 X 60 88 88 88 88 60 60 88 210 210 99 99 150 66 180 200 82 93 180 200 82 93 190 88 200 140 93 60 210 140 300 99 60 148 149 99 99 149 99 149 38 210 140 140 180 180 180 180 210 140 140 99 60 60 82 82 82 82 99 60 60 190 X 140 190 190 190 190 140 140 190 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 160 X X 150 150 150 150 160 80 X 71 X X 66 66 66 66 71 27 X 200 140 X 200 200 190 200 100 200 200 93 60 X 93 93 88 93 38 93 93 210 190 180 200 200 200 200 200 120 200 99 88 82 93 93 93 93 93 49 93 X 190 190 190 190 150 150 190 X 88 88 88 88 66 66 88 250 121 140 200 200 200 200 60 93 93 93 93 300 210 210 300 210 300 100 190 88 250 121 100 38 140 60 190 88 210 99 90 32 210 99 200 93 (continued) 565 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50% Ammonium chloride. sat.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Aluminum hydroxide Aluminum nitrate Aluminum oxychloride Aluminum sulfate Ammonia gas Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium carbonate Ammonium chloride. sat. Ammonium fluoride. LLC . 10% Ammonium chloride.

10–40% Ammonium sulfide Ammonium sulfite Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Amyl chloride Aniline Antimony trichloride Aqua regia.566 TABLE 6. LLC . 3:1 Barium carbonate Barium chloride Barium hydroxide Barium sulfate 200 93 300 149 180 82 190 88 210 99 180 82 160 71 180 82 190 190 88 88 250 250 121 121 250 250 121 121 180 180 82 82 190 190 88 88 210 99 150 150 66 66 200 200 93 93 200 200 93 93 200 93 X 300 X 149 X 180 X 82 190 250 88 121 210 210 99 99 X 180 X 82 X 160 X 71 X 180 X 82 150 150 66 66 X 180 X 82 60 200 X 140 140 16 93 X 60 60 210 210 X 140 300 99 99 X 60 149 X 180 X X X X 82 X X X X 200 190 230 190 X 93 88 110 88 210 210 210 250 210 99 99 99 121 99 X 150 X X X 66 X X X 200 X X 140 X 93 X X 60 X 180 X X X 82 X X 210 99 160 71 200 93 300 149 210 99 X X 210 99 160 71 180 82 190 88 200 93 300 149 180 82 180 82 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 180 82 140 60 300 149 180 82 180 82 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 190 88 80 27 300 149 210 99 140 60 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 8F 180 8C 82 Hypalon 8F 200 8C 93 8F 250 EPDM 8C 121 8F 180 EPT 8C 82 Viton A 8F X 8C X 8F 300 Kalrez 8C 149 Rubber 8F 170 8C 77 Neoprene 8F 200 8C 93 Buna-N 8F 180 8C 82 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Ammonium nitrate Ammonium persulfate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium sulfate.

moist Bromine. dry Bromine gas. LLC . 10% 190 90 X 90 150 190 X 190 190 88 32 X 32 66 88 X 88 88 200 X X X 200 140 X 200 290 60 60 60 X 93 X X X 93 60 X 93 143 16 16 16 X 16 121 X 140 150 X X X X X 300 190 X X X X 140 200 140 60 66 X X X X X 149 88 X X X X 60 93 60 140 X X X 140 X X 210 140 X 60 X X X 60 X X 99 60 X 190 X 190 170 190 350 110 190 190 88 X 88 77 88 177 43 88 88 210 210 210 210 310 210 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 154 99 99 99 99 99 150 X X X 150 X X 150 150 66 X X X 66 X X 66 66 200 X X 100 200 X X 200 200 X X 93 X X 38 93 X X 93 93 X X X 60 16 93 X 200 X X X X 140 X 180 180 X X X 200 X X 80 X 180 93 X X X X 60 X 82 82 X X X 93 X X 27 X 82 93 82 93 82 82 X X X 180 X X X X X X 82 X X X X 60 60 82 82 350 190 X 250 X 120 190 190 190 190 190 190 177 88 X 121 X 49 88 88 88 88 88 88 140 210 210 240 210 X 210 210 200 210 210 210 60 99 99 116 99 X 99 99 93 99 99 99 120 180 150 150 200 49 82 66 66 93 X X X 150 X 66 X 140 60 200 X X 140 X X 60 X 60 250 X 120 150 190 190 190 49 66 88 88 88 250 90 90 200 200 121 32 32 93 93 X 210 140 210 210 X 99 60 99 99 X 140 140 180 180 180 60 200 200 220 82 16 93 93 104 200 180 200 180 180 (continued) 567 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. liquid Butadiene Butyl acetate Butyl alcohol n-Butylamine Butyric acid Caicium bisulfide Calcium bisulfite Calcium carbonate Calcium chlorate Calcium chloride Calcium hydroxide. 10% Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol Benzyl chloride Borax Boric acid Bromine gas.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Barium sulfide Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzenesulfonic acid.

50% water Chloroacetic acid 160 71 X X 160 71 X X X X 210 99 X X X X X X X 150 150 X 66 66 X X X 300 X 149 X X X X X X 350 X X 177 X X 210 210 210 99 99 99 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 90 32 200 93 250 121 180 82 190 88 210 99 X X 200 93 180 82 190 X 88 X 230 X 110 X 250 X 121 X 180 X 82 X X 190 X 88 210 210 99 99 150 X 66 X X X X X 200 X 93 X 190 88 200 93 250 121 180 82 X X 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 190 88 X 200 X 93 X 250 X 121 X 180 X 82 190 X 88 X 100 38 190 88 100 200 250 38 93 121 300 210 300 149 99 149 180 82 200 93 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 X 150 X 66 X 200 X 93 X 200 X 93 180 82 180 82 190 88 210 99 150 66 200 160 160 93 71 71 200 180 180 93 82 82 190 88 250 121 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 99 200 93 220 104 80 27 8F 190 8C 88 Hypalon 8F 250 8C 121 8F 220 EPDM 8C 104 8F 180 EPT 8C 82 Viton A 8F 190 8C 88 8F 210 Kalrez 8C 99 Rubber 8F 200 8C 93 Neoprene 8F 220 8C 104 Buna-N 8F 180 8C 82 Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Calcium hydroxide. wet Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Carbonic acid Cellosolve Chloroacetic acid.568 TABLE 6. Calcium hypochlorite Calcium nitrate Calcium oxide Calcium sulfate Caprylic acid Carbon bisulfide Carbon dioxide. dry Carbon dioxide. sat. LLC .

conc. 10% Chromic acid. LLC . wet Chlorine. dry Chlorine gas. liquid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acid. 15% Citric acid. 50% Chromic chloride Citric acid. Copper acetate Copper carbonate Copper chloride Copper cyanide Copper sulfate Cresol Cupric chloride. 5% Cupric chloride.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Chlorine gas. 50% Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol X X X 90 X 32 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 190 190 190 190 190 X 350 350 88 88 88 88 88 X 177 177 210 99 X X X X X X X X X X 60 38 X X X X X X 190 190 X X X X X X 88 88 X X X X 100 X X X X X 38 X X X X 150 160 X X X 66 71 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 140 100 X X X X X X 190 190 88 88 250 250 X 121 121 X 210 210 100 210 99 99 38 99 99 99 99 X 99 99 X X 180 180 100 210 180 210 180 100 210 210 X X 82 82 38 99 82 99 82 38 99 99 X X 190 X 190 190 190 190 X 180 180 190 190 88 X 88 88 88 88 X 82 82 88 88 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 110 150 43 66 200 200 160 93 93 71 180 180 180 X 82 82 82 X 93 82 93 X 99 82 82 X 190 190 X 88 88 X 200 250 250 X 200 200 93 121 121 X 93 93 X X 210 210 210 X 210 210 X X 150 160 150 X 66 71 66 X 200 160 200 X 210 160 93 71 93 X 99 71 X X 200 180 200 X 210 180 180 X X X X X 210 210 99 99 X X X X (continued) 569 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

20% Hydrobromic acid. moist Hydrobromic acid. 50% in water Ferric nitrate. 38% X X 140 60 90 32 X X 350 177 210 99 160 71 90 32 X X X X 160 71 100 38 X X 350 177 210 99 150 66 90 32 130 54 110 43 100 38 140 60 140 60 190 88 210 99 150 66 X X X X 160 71 100 38 140 60 140 60 190 88 210 99 110 43 X X X X 150 66 90 32 90 32 140 60 190 88 210 99 100 38 X X X X 190 190 X 88 88 X 140 60 60 16 250 121 200 210 93 99 180 180 X 100 82 82 X 38 180 210 X X 82 99 X X X X X X 210 99 150 150 X X 66 66 X X 90 200 X X 32 93 X X 200 200 X X 93 93 X X 190 88 250 121 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 99 150 66 200 93 200 93 X 190 190 160 X 88 88 71 X 200 250 250 X 93 121 121 X 200 220 210 X 93 104 99 X 180 180 180 X 82 82 82 190 350 190 180 88 177 88 82 210 210 210 210 99 99 99 99 X 150 150 150 X 66 66 66 X 160 160 160 X 71 71 71 X 200 200 180 X 93 93 82 210 99 X X 8F 8C Hypalon 8F 8C 8F EPDM 8C 8F X EPT 8C X Viton A 8F 80 8C 27 8F 210 Kalrez 8C 99 Rubber 8F X 8C X Neoprene 8F X 8C X Buna-N 8F X 8C X Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Dibutyl phthalate Dichloroacetic acid Dichloroethane Ethylene glycol Ferric chloride Ferric chloride.570 TABLE 6. dry Fluorine gas. 50% Hydrochloric acid. Hydrobromic acid. 20% Hydrochloric acid. 10–50% Ferrous chloride Ferrous nitrate Fluorine gas. LLC . dil.

LLC . 25% Lactic acid. 30% Hydrofluoric acid. 10% Ketones. Magnesium chloride Malic acid Manganese chloride Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl isobutyl ketone Muriatic acid Nitric acid.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Hydrocyanic acid. general Lactic acid. conc. 70% Hydrofluoric acid. 70% 140 350 150 X X 60 177 66 X X 90 90 90 90 X 32 32 32 32 X 200 60 X X 300 140 93 16 X X 149 60 X 60 121 X X 140 X X 140 140 X 60 X X 60 60 190 210 350 60 190 190 X 88 99 177 16 88 88 X 88 66 82 88 82 88 X X 177 88 88 88 210 210 210 210 190 99 99 99 99 88 90 100 X X 150 32 38 X X 66 X 200 200 X X 80 X 93 93 X X 27 X 60 32 99 200 X X X X 80 X X X 180 180 93 X X X X 27 X X X 82 82 38 X X X X X X X X 120 120 200 X 49 49 93 X 180 90 100 80 X 160 160 90 32 38 27 X 71 71 32 X X X 140 100 100 X 140 80 250 X 60 27 121 X 140 250 X 210 210 210 150 210 210 99 99 99 66 99 99 X X 80 150 80 X X 27 66 27 X 140 90 210 210 210 180 80 210 99 99 82 26 99 X X X X X X X 190 150 180 190 180 190 X X 350 190 190 190 82 X X X 60 38 38 X 60 60 X 16 16 X X 80 60 X 27 16 200 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 93 X X X X X X X 100 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 210 210 210 210 210 160 99 99 99 99 99 71 X X (continued) 571 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 20% Nitric acid. 100% Hypochlorous acid Iodine solution. 10% Hydrofluoric acid. 5% Nitric acid.

1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Nitric acid. 10% 180 180 82 82 240 250 116 121 140 210 60 99 180 210 82 99 190 X 88 X 210 210 99 99 130 150 54 66 200 200 93 93 180 160 82 71 180 82 250 121 300 149 180 82 190 88 210 99 180 82 200 93 200 93 80 27 210 99 180 82 190 88 210 210 99 99 80 250 27 121 300 210 148 99 140 180 60 82 190 190 88 88 210 210 99 99 X 160 X 71 200 160 93 71 130 180 54 82 150 150 66 66 X 200 X 93 140 60 80 180 27 82 210 190 99 88 210 210 99 99 X 110 X 43 X X X X X X 90 32 140 60 190 88 X X X X X 150 X 66 X 100 X 38 X 140 X 60 X 190 X 88 190 190 88 88 210 210 99 99 X 150 X 66 X X X X X X 120 49 100 38 210 99 X X X X X X 8F X 8C X Hypalon 8F X 8C X 8F X EPDM 8C X 8F X EPT 8C X Viton A 8F 190 8C 88 8F X Kalrez 8C X Rubber 8F X 8C X Neoprene 8F X 8C X Buna-N 8F X 8C X Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 50–80% Picric acid Potassium bromide. conc. anhydrous Nitrous acid.572 TABLE 6. 10% Sodium carbonate Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide. Oleum Perchloric acid. LLC . 10% Perchloric acid. 30% Salicylic acid Silver bromide. 70% Phenol Phosphoric acid.

to 50% Stannic chloride Stannous chloride Sulfuric acid. 20% Sodium hypochlorite Sodium sulfide. fuming 190 88 250 121 180 82 200 93 X X 210 99 150 66 200 93 150 66 180 82 250 121 180 82 80 27 X X 210 99 150 66 200 93 150 66 130 54 250 121 300 149 X X 190 88 90 32 X X X X 90 150 150 150 150 150 100 X X X 32 66 66 66 66 66 38 X X X 250 90 200 250 250 160 X 110 X X 121 32 93 121 121 71 X 43 X X 300 300 300 280 150 150 140 X X X X 149 149 149 138 66 66 60 X X X X X 210 210 210 210 210 210 80 X X X X 99 99 99 99 99 99 27 X X X 190 190 180 190 350 350 350 350 350 190 88 88 82 88 177 177 177 177 177 88 210 99 210 210 210 240 210 150 150 99 99 99 116 99 66 66 90 150 150 150 150 100 X X X X 32 66 66 66 66 38 X X X X X 200 210 160 200 200 200 X X X X X 93 99 71 93 93 93 X X X X X 180 180 180 150 200 X X X X X X 82 82 82 66 93 X X X X X (continued) 573 q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. conc. 90% Sulfuric acid. LLC . Sodium hypochlorite. 70% Sulfuric acid. 100% Sulfuric acid. 98% Sulfuric acid. 50% Sodium hydroxide. 10% Sulfuric acid.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers Sodium hydroxide. 50% Sulfuric acid.

New York: Marcel Dekker. Schweitzer. 5th ed. Vols. 1–4. Corrosion Resistance Tables. Source: From P. Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 2004.A.1 Continued Natural Butyl Chemical Sulfurous acid Thionyl chloride Toluene Trichloroacetic acid White liquor Zinc chloride 190 88 250 121 300 300 149 149 180 180 82 82 190 210 88 99 210 210 99 99 X 150 X 66 140 160 60 71 140 190 60 88 8F 150 X X X 8C 66 X X X X X X 80 X 27 X X X X Hypalon 8F 160 8C 171 8F X EPDM 8C X 8F 180 EPT 8C 82 Viton A 8F 190 X 190 190 8C 88 X 88 88 8F 210 210 80 210 Kalrez 8C 99 99 27 99 Rubber 8F X X X X 8C X X X X Neoprene 8F X X X X 8C X X X X Buna-N 8F X X 150 X 8C X X 66 X The chemicals listed are in the pure state or in a saturated solution unless otherwise indicated. A blank space indicates that data is unavailable. Incompatibility is shown by X. LLC .574 TABLE 6. Compatibility is shown to the maximum allowable temperature for which data is available..

LLC . q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. New York: Marcel Dekker. Corrosion Resistance Tables.A. Schweitzer. 1–4. 5th ed.Comparative Corrosion Resistance of Selected Elastomers 575 Reference 1. Vols. 2004.. P.

q 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC .