2012 Ap® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS PHYSICSB

SECTION II Time-90 minutes 7 Questions Directions: Answer all seven questions, which are weighted according to the points indicated. The suggested times are about 11 minutes for answering each of Questions 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 and about 17 minutes for answering each of Questions 1 and 5. The parts within a question may not have equal weight. Show all your work in this booklet in the spaces provided after each part.

1. (15 points) Block A of mass 2.0 kg is pulled along a horizontal table by a force of 15 N, which is applied by a light string that passes over a light frictionless pulley, as shown above. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the surface is 0.25. (a) On the dot below, which represents the block, draw and label the forces (not components) that act on the block as it is pulled across the table.

(b) Calculate the magnitude of the acceleration of the block.

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2012 Ap® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS
A 2.0 kg ~
0

I

~
B

1.5 kg The applied force is removed. Block B of mass 1.5 kg is now attached to the string, as shown above. The system is released from rest so that the 1.5 kg box descends and the 2.0 kg block is again pulled across the table. (c) Calculate the acceleration of the 1.5 kg block as it descends. (d) Calculate the tension in the string connecting the two blocks. (e) Calculate the distance that the l.5 kg block descends in 0.40 s.
(f) If this system is set up in a laboratory and the acceleration of the 1.5 kg block is experimentally determined,

the experimental value is found to be smaller than the value calculated above. If the given value for the coefficient of friction is correct and air resistance is negligible, explain briefly, but specifically, why the experimental value of the acceleration is smaller.

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2012 Ap® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE

QUESTIONS

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Immediately After Large Sphere Strikes Floor

A small and a large sphere, of mass M and 3M respectively, are arranged as shown on the left side of the figure above. The spheres are then simultaneously dropped from rest. When the large sphere strikes the floor, the spheres have fallen a height H. Assume air resistance is negligible. Express all answers in terms of M, H, and fundamental constants, as appropriate. (a) Derive an expression for the speed
Vb

with which the large sphere strikes the

fiOOL

Immediately after striking the floor, the large sphere is moving upward with speed the small sphere, which is moving downward with identical speed
Vb

Vb

and collides head-on with

at that instant. Immediately after the

collision, the small sphere moves upward with speed "s and the large sphere has speed vL. (b) Derive an equation that relates vb' vs' and In this particular situation
vL "" VL .

0.

(c) Use your relationship from part (b) to determine the speed of the small sphere in terms of vb' (d) Indicate whether the collision is elastic. Justify your answer using your results from parts (b) and (c). (e) Determine the height h that

the small sphere rises above its lowest position, in terms of the original height H.

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2.012 Ap® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE
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QUESTIONS

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3. (10 points) A glass If-tube with a uniform diameter of 0.850 em is used to determine the density of an oil. As shown in the figure above, a 24.5 em column of water balances a 27.2 em column of the oil so that interfaces A and B of the mercury with the other liquids are at the same height. The density of water is 1.00
(a) Calculate the density of the oil.
X

103 kg/ m3

.

(b) Calculate the absolute pressure at B, the interface between the water and the mercury.

A new tube, identical to the If-tube except for a cone shape on the left, as shown above, is filled with the same volume of mercury that was in the If-tube. The mercury is at the same height on both sides of the new tube as it was in the U-tube, as shown by the dashed line. The same volumes of oil and water that were in the U-tube are' now poured into the new tube, on the left and right respectively. (c) Indicate the new position of B relative to A. Above A Justify your answer. (d) A small piece of wood with density less than that of the oil is placed so that it floats in the left side of the tube. Indicate whether the pressure at the bottom of the tube increases, decreases, or remains the same. Increases Decreases Remains the same Below A
__

At the same height as A

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2012 Ap® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE 4. (10 points)

QUESTIONS

A cylindrical container is fitted with a frictionless piston that is initially locked in place. The cylinder contains a fixed amount of an ideal gas that is initially at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. (a) The cylinder is placed in a hot-water bath. On the axes below, sketch a graph of pressure versus temperature for the process the gas undergoes as a result, and indicate the direction of the process on the graph.

o

roo!";\ Temperature (K)

(b) The cylinder is removed from the h;;;-~rer bath. After equilibrium is reached, the lock is removed so the piston is fre" to move. Indicate whether the piston moves up, moves down, or remains stationary.

_V_ Moves up
Justify your answer.

__

Moves down

__

Remains stationary

(c) When the system is again at equilibrium, the piston is pushed down very slowly. On the axes below, sketch a graph of pressure versus volume for the process the gas undergoes as a result, and indicate the direction of the process on the graph. Label this process "C_"

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(d) Now the piston is pulled up quickly, so no heat is added to or removed from the gas during the process. On the axes above, sketch a graph of pressure versus volume for the process the gas undergoes as a result, and indicate the direction of the process on the graph. Label this process "D."

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2012 Ap® PHYSICS B FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS

x
60 24 V

Y 30

+
120 240

z
S. (15 points)

Four lightbulbs are connected in a circuit with a 24 V battery as shown above.
(a)
L

Determine the average potential energy change of an electron as it moves from point Z to point X Indicate whether the electron gains or loses potential energy as it moves from point Z to point X. Gains energy __ Loses energy

11.

__

(b) Calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit.
(c)
1.

Calculate the magnitude of the current through point Y.

n. Indicate on the diagram the direction of the current through point Y (d) Calculate the energy dissipated in the 12 Q bulb in 5 s. (e) Rank the bulbs in order of brightness, with 1 being the brightest. If any bulbs have the same brightness, give them the same ranking. Bulb A Bulb B Bulb C BulbD

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2012 Ap® PHYSICS B FREE~RESPONSE QUESTIONS
7. (10 points) The momentum question. (a) Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of the proton. of a particular proton is 5.5 x 10-20 kg-m/s . Relativistic effects can be ignored throughout this

(b) Calculate the kinetic energy of the proton. The proton is directed toward a very distant stationary uranium nucleus,

2~iu. The

proton reaches a distance D

from the center of the nucleus and then reverses direction. Assume that the oucleus is heavy enough to remain stationary during the interactioo. (c) Calculate the value of D. (d) After the proton has moved away, the 2~~U nucleus spontaneously with three neutrons. As a result, 2.5 x 1011

fissions into l~~La and ~~Br, along
2~~

J of energy is released. Indicate whether the mass of the

U

nucleus is greater or less than the mass of the fission products. Greater Less

h (c.) t:::-::;
p

Calculate the mass difference.

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