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9

Feedforward Control

**Objectives of the Chapter
**

• • Describe how to use feedforward control to compensate for measured disturbances. Show how to use the material in chapters 3, 4, 6, and 7 to design and tune combined feedforward/feedback control systems.

Prerequisite Reading Chapter 3, “One-Degree of Freedom Internal Model Control” Chapter 4, “Two-Degree of Freedom Internal Model Control” Chapter 6, “PI and PID Controller Parameters from IMC Designs” Chapter 7, “Tuning and Synthesis of 1DF IMC Controllers for Uncertain Processes”

221

222

Feedforward Control Chapter 9

9.1

INTRODUCTION

Combined feedforward plus feedback control can significantly improve performance over simple feedback control whenever there is a major disturbance that can be measured before it affects the process output. In the most ideal situation, feedforward control can entirely eliminate the effect of the measured disturbance on the process output. Even when there are modeling errors, feedforward control can often reduce the effect of the measured disturbance on the output better than that achievable by feedback control alone. However, the decision as to whether or not to use feedforward control depends on whether the degree of improvement in the response to the measured disturbance justifies the added costs of implementation and maintenance. The economic benefits of feedforward control can come from lower operating costs and/or increased salability of the product due to its more consistent quality. Feedforward control is always used along with feedback control because a feedback control system is required to track setpoint changes and to suppress unmeasured disturbances that are always present in any real process. Figure 9.1a gives the traditional block diagram of a feedforward control system (Seborg et al., 1989). Figure 9.1b shows the same block diagram, but redrawn so as to show clearly that the feedforward part of the control system does not affect the stability of the feedback system and that each system can be designed independently. Figure 9.2 shows a typical application of feedforward control. The continuously stirred tank reactor is under feedback temperature control. Feedforward control is used to rapidly suppress feed flow rate disturbances.

Feedforward Controller

Feedforward Control Effort

qff

Process

Measured Disturbance

d

Setpoint

Feedback Controller

−

uff ufb−

Total Control Effort

pd

de

r

PID

p

y

Output

Feedback Control Effort

u

Figure 9.1a Traditional feedforward/feedback control structure.

Setpoint TC + Feed FFC Feedforward Controller Flow Transmitter Temperature Controller Temperature Transmitter FT TT TC TT Σ _ FFC FT • Cooling Water Product Figure 9.2 Feedforward control on the feed to a continuously stirred tank reactor operating under reactor temperature control. .1 Introduction 223 Feedforward Controller Feedforward Control Effort uff qff Process Measured Disturbance d pd de − p Setpoint r Feedback Controller − dc Feedback Control Effort ufb PID p y Output Figure 9.9.1a.1b Block diagram equivalent to that of Figure 9. Temp.

3) becomes: q ff = ~ −1 ~d f . The PID controller in Figure 9. . one that contains no deadtime or right half plane zeros). however.2) If the deadtime and relative order of pd are both greater than those of p. the unmeasured disturbances are not severe enough to justify the added complication of a 2DF PID controller. (9. Even in the above case. as in the design of an IMC controller.224 Feedforward Control Chapter 9 9.. 1989). then qff can be chosen as q ff = ~ −1 ~d .e. just as was done for IMC controllers for perfect models (see Chapter 3).1) 1 + PID ∗ p 1 + PID ∗ p To eliminate the effect of the measured disturbance. then the noise amplification can be reduced by adding a filter. In this case. so that Eq. it may not pay to implement a feedforward controller when the process p is well approximated as a minimum phase system (i. where the feedforward controller can perfectly compensate the measured disturbance. p p f ≡ 1 /(εs + 1) r (9.1 can be designed and tuned as either a 1DF or 2DF controller using the techniques of chapters 6. it is usually possible to design a 1DF or 2DF PID controller to suppress disturbances well enough so that there is little to be gained by the addition of feedforward control (Morari and Zafiriou.1b is ( p d − pq ff )d dc = y( s) = . 7. (9.2 CONTROLLER DESIGN WHEN PERFECT COMPENSATION IS POSSIBLE The transfer function between the process output y and the measured disturbance d from Figure 9. p p Whenever the relative order of ~d ( s ) is less than or equal to that of ~ ( s ) . The filter time constant ε is chosen to limit noise p p d amplification.3) As in previous chapters. (9. and 8 without regard to the addition of a feedforward controller.4) p− p The order r of the filter f is either the relative order of ~d 1 ~ ( s ) or 0 if the relative order of ~ −1 ~ ( s ) is equal or less than zero. p p (9. Most often. a ~ over a process transfer function indicates that it is a model of the process. we need only choose qff so that pd − pq ff = 0. and p has no right half plane zeros.

p ~ ( s ) = p ( s ) = e −0. then the feedforward controller qff.6) For the above system. The 2DF controller. perfect compensation is no longer possible. is not realizable. and from equations (9. In this case.1. by assumption. does not need a filter. as it is already a lag that does not amplify noise. Much of the literature suggests designing the feedforward controller by simply dropping the unrealizable part of the controller. Indeed. we return to Example 8.7b).473s + 1) /( 4s + 1)(0. the model is ~~ −1 rather than just ~. Example 9. unless qff is chosen so that the zeros of (1 − ~q ff ~d 1 ) cancel the poles of ~ d . there is no realizable choice of the feedforward controller qff that makes the term in brackets in Eq. (9.3 CONTROLLER DESIGN WHEN PERFECT COMPENSATION IS NOT POSSIBLE When the deadtime in the disturbance lag pd is less than that of the control effort lag p.5) are q ff ( s ) = ( s + 1) /( 4s + 1). the lag of p.7a).5 time units before the disturbance enters the disturbance lag.3) and (9.5) zero. the 2DF controller design capability of IMCTUNE can be used to determine qff.1 Comparison of 1DF and 2DF Feedforward Controller Designs The purpose of this example is to compare the performance of 1DF and 2DF feedforward controllers when the process models are perfect. or larger than. except that here. The procedure for such a choice of qff is the same as p p− p that described in Chapter 4.9. except now the disturbance is measured and there is a deadtime of 0. (9. Therefore. The process is ~ ( s ) = p( s ) = e − s /( s + 1). Eq.5 s /( 4 s + 1).4).006 s + 1). (9. satisfies the requirement that . However. (9. the 1DF and 2DF feedforward controllers from IMCTUNE. there will be a long tail to the response of dc to a step disturbance d if the lag of pd is on the order of. Eq. (9. A better feedforward controller can be obtained using a 2DF design.7b) Notice that the 1DF controller. the foregoing is by no means the best design.7a) (9. as in the pp p d design of 2DF feedback controllers. To see why this is. To illustrate.5) − Since. given by Eq.3 Controller Design when Perfect Compensation is Not Possible 225 9. as is done for a single-degree of freedom IMC controller. we rewrite the expression for the net effect of the measured disturbance on the output from Eq.1) as − − d c = (1 − pq ff pd 1 ) p d d = (1 − pq ff pd 1 )d e . q ff ( s ) = ( s + 1)(. (9. (9. the term ppd 1 contains a deadtime. pd d (9. as we shall soon see by example.

However.226 Feedforward Control Chapter 9 (1 − ~q ff ~d 1 ) cancel the poles of ~d . (9.4 compare the responses of the process output with and without feedback. but degrades the output response using a 2DF feedforward controller. and the order of the controller filter is set to zero.5)) . Entering a filter time constant of 0. (9.3 and 9.12 .006 is needed to p p− p reduce the controller noise amplification to 20 because of the relatively large disturbance lag.02 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time 14 16 18 20 q ff = q ff = ( s + 1) (4s + 1) ( s + 1)(.08 0.475s + 1) (4 s + 1)(. Of course it cannot. . created by the feedforward control system.7a) and (9.04 0. Only a small filter time constant of 0. when the feedback loop is open.02 0 −0.006s + 1) Figure 9.5). The reason for the degradation in response is that the PID controller attempts to suppress the pulse dc.10 0.7b) from IMCTUNE. Notice that the addition of the feedback system improves the response of the output using a 1DF feedforward controller. and the attempt creates another pulse in the opposite direction that is diminished in amplitude but broader in time.5 s /( s + 1) and the model “disturbance” lag as (4s + 1) . (9. The same effect occurs with the 1DF feedforward controller.7b).3 Comparison of compensated disturbance responses for Example 9. we entered the process model as ~~ −1 = (4 s + 1)e −. the response of this controller is long enough with respect to the settling time of the feedback loop that the feedback loop is capable of diminishing the effect of the disturbance on the output. (9.06 0.1b and defined by Eq. dc(t) (Eq.006 yields Eq. using the IDF and 2DF controllers given by equations (9.7b). Compensated disturbance response. To obtain Eq. The part of the ppd model to invert is taken as (4s + 1) /( s + 1) . shown in Figure 9. is the same as the compensated disturbance signal dc.1. The output y. Figures 9.

06 0 2 4 6 q ff = 8 10 12 Time 14 16 18 20 Figure 9.02 0 −0.179 s /(. the pulse-compensated diagram should be used only when the feedforward control system settling time. This is accomplished by subtracting the pulse from the feedback system.04 0. Thus.4. an IMC filter time constant of 0.1.5 improves the response of the 2DF control system.02 −0.4 was obtained as described in Chapter 6. as shown in Figure 9.5.04 −0.9. which has a slow response relative to that of the feedback system. for Example 9.3 Controller Design when Perfect Compensation is Not Possible 227 0.12 0.06 Output q ff = ( s + 1) (4s + 1) ( s + 1)(. with the feedback loop open. (9.1 the pulse compensation of Figure 9.4 Comparison of feedforward plus feedback control system responses to a unit step disturbance for Example 9.10 0.006s + 1) 0. PID = 0.7c) ♦ It is possible to prevent the degradation in output response by making the feedback loop blind to the pulse generated by the feedforward controller. Based on the responses given in Figures 9. The PID controller used to obtain the responses shown in Figure 9. which has a fast response.24 s ) + .3 yields the following PID controller. For a perfect model.3 and 9.610(1 + 1 /(1. .08 0.090 s + 1)). which overshoots a step setpoint change by about 10%. is significantly faster than the feedback control system settling time.475s + 1) (4s + 1)(. but degrades the response of the 1DF feedforward control system.

on the process output.228 Feedforward Control Chapter 9 ~ pd Model − Feedforward Controller Measured Disturbance ~ p qff Process pd y Output Setpoint r − − Controller PID − p Figure 9. Mathematically. The gain of the feedforward controller Kf should be chosen to minimize either the maximum magnitude of the steady-state compensated disturbance dc(∞) or the ratio of the compensated to the uncompensated disturbance dc(∞)/de(∞).9) The maxima in equations (9. and at the lower bound of Kp and the upper bound of Kd.5 Pulse-compensated feedforward control system.4.4 CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR UNCERTAIN PROCESSES 9.Kd (9. K f K p . 9. the problem can be expressed as d c ( ∞ )opt . The values of Kf that minimize these maxima are those values that equalize the values of the two extremes. for Eq.1 Gain Variations Gain variations in either or both p(s) and pd(s) can result in a nonzero value for the steady state effect of the compensated disturbance dc (see Figure 9.1b).Kd (9. = min max 1 − K p K f / K d . = min max K d − K p K f K f K p .8) or ( d c ( ∞ ) / d e ( ∞ ))opt . (9.8) and (9.8) .9) occur at the simultaneous upper bound of Kp and lower bound of Kd. That is.

K d ≤ 1.11) depends to a large degree on engineering judgment.11) The feedforward controller gain given by Eq. (9. (9. Modest Uncertainty: 0. (9. That is.2)(12 / 13) (.4 Controller Design for Uncertain Processes 229 max( K d ) + min( K d ) ( K f ) opt = 2 ≡ ( K d ) ave /( K p ) ave max( K p ) + min( K p ) . However. and from Eq. this feedforward controller gain also yields the same relative improvement if the ratio of ( K d / K p ) is at its maximum or its minimum.11) assures that the magnitude of the compensated disturbance effect dc(∞) is always less than the magnitude of the uncompensated disturbance effect de(∞).9. (9.2 .10) can cause the compensated disturbance to be worse than the uncompensated disturbance in some situations.8.2.2 Variation in Process and Disturbance Lag Gains Case 1.2 = Kd − K p K p =1. d = 1 From Eq. The worst case uncompensated effect of the disturbance is de(∞)max = (Kd)maxd(∞) = 1. (9. From Eq. the worst-case compensated effect of the disturbance is d c (∞) max . the feedforward controller gain given by Eq.8 = 0.2.385. K d =1. 2 (9. Example 9.Kd .8).10) and (9.) 2 (1. and from Eq.11) we have ( K f ) opt = ( d c (∞) / d e (∞) max 3 / 2 + 2 / 3 −1 ) = 12 / 13.2 Since de(∞)max = (Kd)maxd(∞) = 1. and to some degree on the amount of uncertainty in the process and disturbance lag gains. then . the choice between equations (9. As we shall see from Example 9.9. On the other hand.10).2. (9.10) and for Eq. K d =.8 1.9) max( K p / K d ) + min( K p / K d ) . ( K f ) opt = 2 ≡ ( K p / K d ) −1 ave −1 (9.8 ≤ K p . we have ( K f ) opt = 1.8)(12 / 13) = max 1 − K p K f / K d = 1 − = 1− =.4. = max K d − K p ( K f ) opt d (∞) = K d − K p K p . (9.Kd K p =. the action of the feedforward controller always improves the output response over that which would have been achieved without feedforward control.2. K p . and this weighting tends to amplify the effect of large values of ( K d / K p ) on the output.

the relative order of the process p(s) is the same as that of the disturbance transfer function pd (s). So. However. while in the second instance. The process description is therefore given by y ( s ) = Kg ( s )e −T p s u ( s ) + K d g d ( s )e −T s d ( s ). in the first instance the gain given by Eq. d = 1 From Eq. (9. and Kp = 3.4 respectively. For most engineering situations the feedforward controller gain from Eq.10) and Eq.e. (9.0. (9.46.12) .385)( de(∞)max) = .10) is preferred.10) (i. and 2 Kp = 3.11) we have ( K f ) opt = ( 3 + 1 / 3 −1 ) = 3 / 5.11) is preferred. (9. “You pays your money and takes your choice.11) is clearly preferred. and from Eq.2 Deadtime Variations This section considers the effect of deadtime variations on the choice of feedforward controller deadtime. if the gains of Kd and Kp are reversed so that Kd = 1.0 From Eq. if Kd = 1.9). (9. (9. Large Uncertainty: 1 ≤ K p . ♦ 9. However. Case 2. the feedforward gain given by Eq.46). Kd ≤ 3 .11) are 2 and 2. and the compensated effect of the disturbance for the feedforward gains given by Eq.4 versus .11). Further. and Kp = 3.10) we have: ( K f ) opt = 1 and from Eq.8). the disturbance deadtime. We assume that the process deadtime is on the order of.4. then the compensated effect of the disturbance is d c (∞) / d e (∞) = 1 − K p ( K f ) opt / K d = (1– (3)(3/5)/1) = – 0.” The authors prefer the gain given by Eq.. and all time constants are known exactly. the gain given by Eq. if Kd = 1. and Kp = 3. d (9. (9. then the uncompensated effect of the disturbance is 3. (9.8 Thus for the situation where Kd = 1. (9.230 Feedforward Control Chapter 9 dc(∞)max = (. (9. K f = 1 ) would be preferred because this minimizes the maximum effect of the compensated disturbance d c (∞) max on the output (0. then the compensated effect of the disturbance is d c (∞) = 1 – 3 = –2. the uncompensated effect of the disturbance is only 1. (9. or greater than.0 since de(∞) = Kdd(∞) = 1.

3 Disturbance and Process Deadtimes of Roughly the Same Size p( s ) = Ke −T p s /( s + 1). and hence perfect feedforward compensation is not possible. the maximum magnitude of the integral of dc(t) occurs when ((T p + ∆) − Td ) is a maximum. (9. 9. (9.4 Controller Design for Uncertain Processes 231 where g (0) = g d (0) = 1 . Example 9.16b) (9. (9. the deadtime between the measured disturbance and the output is on the order of the process deadtime.5) gives d c ( s ) = ( K d e −Td s − KK f e − (T p + ∆ ) s ) g d ( s )d ( s ). (9.16a) (9.1.13) where ∆ is a parameter that we need to find. for this process we use a 2DF feedforward controller.2 (9. 0.3 we present the results of simulations on two processes.2 q f ( s ) = K f (4s + 1) /( s + 1) The feedforward controller given by Eq. the deadtime between the measured disturbance and the output is smaller than the process deadtime.16c) has a deadtime of zero. In the first example. Figures 9. Notice . Therefore. and hence perfect feedforward compensation is possible for most choices of models in the uncertain set. since the difference between (Td)ave and (Tp)ave is zero (see Eq. When (Td < (T p + ∆)) . using feedforward controller gains given by equations (9. T d ≤ Td ≤ Td . K d ≤ K d ≤ K d The feedforward controller is given by q f ( s ) = K f g d ( s )e − ∆s / g ( s ).16c) pd ( s ) = K d e −Td s /( 4 s + 1). the maximum magnitude of the integral of dc(t) occurs when (Td − (T p + ∆)) is a maximum.14) When (Td > T p + ∆) .6b show the worst-case feedforward-only responses for the above process.15) In Example 9.15). each of which are similar to Example 9. T p ≤ 1. (9. (9. In the second example. Substituting Eq.13) into Eq.8 ≤ K d . 0.9. Choosing ∆ so that these two maxima are equal gives ∆= (Td + T d ) − (T p + T p ) 2 ≡ (Td ) ave − (T p ) ave . K ≤ K ≤ K . T p ≤ T p ≤ T p . Td ≤ 1.8 ≤ K . For this process we use a simple 1DF feedforward controller.10) and (9.6a and 9.11).

However.2 1. (9.8 0. K = .2.2.8. Kf = 1 from Eq.e. Kp = . Kf = 0.. when the gains are reversed.11) dc.8. Td = 1.10) dc. Compensated (dc) and Uncompensated (de) Feedforward Only Responses 1.923 from Eq.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 de dc.2 0 −0. Kf = 0.e.8. Kd = .6b Example 9. (9.8. (9.2 and a process gain of .11) gives the better response.4 0 5 de dc.923 from Eq.10) gives the better response.4 0. Tp = .8 0. Kp = 1.6 0. Tp = .4 0.2. (9.11) 10 15 20 25 30 Time Figure 9.2). the controller gain given by Eq..8). .2 0 −0.0 0.6a Example 9.3 responses of the feedforward-only control system to a unit step disturbance for Kd = .8.8 (i. Td = 1. (9. (9.3 responses of the feedforward-only control system to a unit step disturbance for Kd = 1.0 0.6 0.232 Feedforward Control Chapter 9 that for a disturbance lag gain of 1. (i. Compensated (dc) and Uncompensated (de) Feedforward only Responses 1. the controller gain given by Eq.10) Time Figure 9. K = 1.2.2 −0. Kf = 1 from Eq.2. Kd = 1.

(9.9.3 output responses of the feedforward plus feedback control system to a unit step disturbance Kd = 1.10 Kf = 0. Clearly. Td = 1.8 was obtained using the design and tuning methods described in Chapter 8. the performance of the combined feedforward/feedback control system is superior to that of a standalone 2DF feedback control system.8.15 Feedforward plus Feedback 0.10) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time Figure 9. and the resulting PID controller is PID = 0.6b.10 Kf = 1 from Eq.24 s ) + . K = . as shown in Figure 9.11) Outputs.05 is 1.2.090 s + 1)).05 −0.610(1 + 1 /(1. y(t) 0.17) The responses in figures 9.6a and 9.7b show worst-case feedforward plus feedback responses corresponding to the responses in figures 9. 0.7a and 9. The controller used to generate the responses in Figure 9. (9.923 from Eq.05 0 −0.8.4 Controller Design for Uncertain Processes 233 Figures 9.7a and 9.2. The IMC filter time constant required to achieve an Mp of 1.8. (9. Tp = . .7b should be compared to those of a well-tuned 2DF feedback-only control system.179 s /(. The 1DF PID feedback controller was obtained using Mp tuning (see Chapter 7) and the IMC to PID controller approximation method of Chapter 6.04.7a Example 9.

010 0.923 from Eq.2 0.3 output responses of the feedforward plus feedback control system to a unit step disturbance Kd = .10 −0.8 Example 9.17s + 1).30 0.16 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time Figure 9.7b Example 9.965s) /(4. Kp = 1.04s) + . Tp = . Tp= 1.05 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time 14 16 18 20 Figure 9.02 −0.35 0.3 responses of a 2DF feedback control system to a unit step disturbance with feedback controller = 3.04 Kf = 0.15 . Tp = 1. 0.08 −0.14 −0. y(t) −0. Tp = 1 K = 1.11) Kf = 1 from Eq.10) Outputs.4 0. ♦ . Td = 1.2.05 0 −.8.12 −0.2.2.2 K = 1.25 Output K = 0.06 −0. (9.234 Feedforward Control Chapter 9 0 Feedforward plus Feedback −0. (9.20 0.8.52(1 + 1/(4.8.

Eq.18f) As before.18f) . there is little difference in the responses of the compensated (via Figure 9. Figures 9. (9.18e). Notice that the undershoots in Figure 9.18e) The PID feedback controller is the same as that of Eq. except that the disturbance transfer function deadtime is always smaller than the process deadtime.473s + 1) /( 4s + 1)(0. (9. .4 ≤ Td ≤ . ~ ( s ) = e − s /( s + 1).8 ≤ K d ≤ 1.24 s ) + .8.2.7a): q ff 1 ( s ) = ( s + 1) /(4s + 1) .5 s /( 4 s + 1) . (9. (9. p ~ ( s ) = e −.9f) has been tuned to accommodate the specified process uncertainty.18a) (9. .17): PID = 0.8.18c) p d ( s ) = K d e −Td s /(4 s + 1).6 . (9. was obtained for a difference between the disturbance deadtime and process deadtime of 0. (9.4 Disturbance deadtime < process deadtime p( s ) = Ke −T p s /( s + 1). the following feedforward/feedback responses to a unit step disturbance should be compared with the 2DF feedback-only responses given by Figure 9. (9. 0.7b): q ff 2 ( s ) = ( s + 1)(.5) and uncompensated 2DF controllers. which is the smallest in the set of uncertain parameters.090 s + 1)).9 repeats the perfect model responses for the feedback controller of Eq. Example 9. T p ≤ 1.18b) (9. Unlike Figure 9. (9. (9. The poorer behavior of the 2DF controllers relative to the 1DF controller arises from the fact that the 2DF feedforward controller.3. and both controllers perform better than the 1DF controller.9 of the uncompensated controllers are less severe than those in Figure 9.2.5.179 s /(.2 . Figure 9.12 shows typical best-case responses that result when the difference between the disturbance deadtime and process deadtime is 0.4.7c) because Eq.18f). 0. (9.006s + 1) .610(1 + 1 /(1.11 show typical worst-case responses of the 1DF and 2DF feedforward/feedback control systems.10 and 9. This occurs because the feedback controller. is less aggressive than that of Eq. Eq. Figure 9. pd The 1DF feedforward controller is the same as that of Eq.4 Controller Design for Uncertain Processes 235 The next example is the same as Example 9. (9.9. (9.18d) The 2DF feedforward controller is the same as that of Eq.8 ≤ K .

02 −0. and Td = 0.15 One-Degree of Freedom Feedforward Controller.4. and Td = 0. and K = Kd = Tp = 1. qff 1 Two-Degree of Freedom Feedforward Controller.5 Output 0.9 Responses of feedforward/feedback control systems to a unit step disturbance at time 1. K = Kd = Tp = 1.10 0. qff 2 compensated as in Figure 9.0 for Example 9.12 0.02 0 −0.20 0.05 −0. qff 2 compensated as in Figure 9. 12 14 16 18 20 0. qff 2 uncompensated Two-Degree of Freedom Feedforward Controller.04 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time Figure 9. qff 2 uncompensated Two-Degree of Freedom Feedforward Controller.08 0.25 0.4.5.0 for Example 9. qff 1 Two-Degree of Freedom Feedforward Controller.4 .04 0.236 Feedforward Control Chapter 9 0.10 Responses of feedforward/feedback control systems to a unit step disturbance at time 1.10 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 9.10 0.5 0.05 0 −0.06 Output One-Degree of Freedom Feedforward Controller.2.

04 0. K = .4. K = Kd = Tp = .1 0. and Td = 0.4.11 Responses of feedforward/feedback control systems to a unit step disturbance at time 1. qff 2 compensated as in Figure 9.06 0 2 4 6 8 Two-Degree of Freedom Feedforward Controller. qff 1 Output −0.8.5 0.03 0.4 Controller Design for Uncertain Processes 237 0. q ff 2 compensated as in Figure 9. q ff 2 uncompensated Two-Degree of Freedom Feedforward Controller.01 −0.0 for Example 9.12 Responses of feedforward/feedback control systems to a unit step disturbance at time 1.5 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time Figure 9.03 −0.2.04 −0.02 −0. Kd = Tp = 1.05 −0.8.9.15 0.0 for Example 9.4. 0. q ff 2 uncompensated Two-Degree of Freedom Feedforward Controller.02 0.6.05 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time Figure 9. qff 1 Two-Degree of Freedom Feedforward Controller.2 Output One-Degree of Freedom Feedforward Controller.25 0.01 0 One-Degree of Freedom Feedforward Controller. . and Td = 0.

If there is also relatively little process uncertainty.5 SUMMARY A properly designed feedforward/feedback control system will always improve performance over a simple feedback control system. the less the potential improvement in response for processes at the extremes of the uncertainty ranges. (9.e. For an uncertain process. depending as f on the uncertainties in the gains and on control objectives.10)) or as f (see Eq. ♦ 9.12 are quite small relative to those in figures 9. Problems Select and tune control systems for each of the following processes. The control objective is to control the measured output y(t). the feedforward controller gain should be chosen either K = ( K d ) ave /( K p ) ave K = ( K p / K d ) −1 ave (see Eq. then a feedforward controller should be designed like a single-degree of freedom IMC controller.1 y(s) = 2( 1 − 2s)e −6 s ( 2s + 1 ) 2 u(s) + 50e −4 s d(s) ( 50 s + 1 ) 9. When the deadtime between the measured disturbance and the output is greater than the deadtime between the control and the output. independent of the process uncertainty.238 Feedforward Control Chapter 9 Since the deviations from setpoint in Figure 9. only the latter choice (i. provided only that the measured disturbance does not enter directly (i. then the feedforward controller should be designed as a 2DF IMC controller. the greater the process uncertainty. When the deadtime between the measured disturbance and the output is less than the deadtime between the control and the output. (9. better performance can be achieved by modifying the feedforward control system structure to prevent the pulse generated by the feedforward action from being propagated around the feedback control loop. However. with a unity transfer function) into the process output. as one might expect. Eq. (9. However. and all disturbances di(t) are measured.e.10 and 9.11.11). our conclusion from these figures is that the 2DF feedforward controller design is preferred. 9. except that the difference between the deadtimes is included in the controller.11)) guarantees that the feedforward/feedback controller will perform better than a simple feedback controller for all processes in the set of uncertain processes..2 y(s) = e −10 s y 2(s) + d1(s) 30 s + 1 y 2(s) = e −5 s u(s) + d 2(s) 4s + 1 .

Mellichamp. 1989. D.4 y2 ( s ) = 9. and D. 2 ≤ T ≤ 4 y2 ( s) = 9. A. John Wiley & Sons. 3 ≤ K d ≤ 4 s (τs + 1) s (τs + 1) K1e −Ts y 2 ( s ) + d1 ( s ) 5s + 1 K 2e− s u(s) + d 2 (s) 3s + 1 1 ≤ K1 ≤ 3. Process Dynamics and Control. ..3 y ( s) = y ( s) = K e −5 s Ke −4 s u ( s) + d d ( s ) 1 ≤ K ≤ 3 . 4 ≤ T ≤ 6 1 ≤ K 2 ≤ 5. F. NY. 0 ≤ u (t ) ≤ 10 9. 2 ≤ τ ≤ 5. E.5 Summary 239 9. Edgar.9.5 y(s) = K1e−Ts y2(s) + d1(s) 3s +1 1 ≤ K1 ≤ 5.6 K 2e − s u (s) + d 2 1 ≤ K 2 ≤ 5 2s + 1 1≤ K ≤ 5 2 ≤T ≤ 4 y ( s) = y1 ( s ) = K1e −Ts e −Ts d1 ( s ) y1 ( s ) + 3s + 1 3s + 1 K 2 (−2s + 1) d u ( s) + 2 2 s +1 (2 s + 1) References Seborg. T.

240 Feedforward Control Chapter 9 .

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