d. c. The secretory product of odontoblasts is: a. Simple columnar d. The pain is mediated by: a. Urothelium does not line: a. Marginal ridges. Anteriorly. Principal fibers of the PDL d. Primary spermatocyte to intermediate spermatocyte b. Transseptal fibers d. Round spermatid to elongated spermatid 22. Primary spermatocyte to secondary spermatocyte c. Subcostal nerve 21. Embrasures. Inflammation of a retrocaecal appendix will produce pain when there is which of the following movements at the hip: a. above the superior mesenteric artery b. Simple squamous b. Rhodopsin 18. Cervical somites d.CO. 7. b. Simple columnar with brush border 12. 2|Page WWW. at the level of superior mesenteric artery d. Alveologingival fibers c. 6. type of collagen present is: a. Sharpey’s fibers c. adduction of thumb Left renal vein crosses the Aorta: . Metanephros c. Anteriorly. Mesonephric duct 4. Pulmonary vein c. Sensory loss of the medial 1/3rd of the hand b. Hydroxyapatite. Contact areas. Alveolar crest fibers b. Developmental grooves 17. The subodontoblastic plexus of Raschkow occurs: a. Perforating fibers consisting of collagen fibers embedded in alveolar bone proper are known as: a. Below the cell bodies of odontoblasts b. 16. Internal intercostals 23. Phrenic nerve d. Inferior Phrenic and pericardio phrenic vessels b. On examination she is found to have pericarditis with pericardial effusion. No neurological deficit One of the following is the watershed area of the colon between the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries: a. Medial rotation d.CC http://www. Hemiparesis c. Umbilical and superior gastric Seen in agenesis of corpus callosum is: a. Ascending colon b. Hemi sensory loss d. Extension c. Hepatic flexure c. All of the following statements are true for metaphysis of bone. Deep cardiac plexus b. blood flow to the lower limbs in maintained by increased blood flow through: a. Distal calf c. Mesoderm of the pharyngeal pouch c. Within the central pulp core d. Retina b. Flexion b.RXDENTISTRY. Perforators are not present at the: a. Which type of gingival fibers attaches to cementum of adjacent teeth and is present over the alveolar crest? a. It is the strongest part of bone. Transseptal fibers d. Type 3 d. Below the inguinal ligament 19. Claw hand d. Within the cell-rich zone of Weil Uppermost structure seen at the hilum of the left lung is: a. Nidogenin c. 5. 9. Anteriorly. 8. Mid thigh d. Intercostal and Superior epigastric c. The escapement spaces between teeth and the interdental spaces are called: a. The ureter develops from: a. Minor calyx d. c. In Hyaline cartilage. Alveolar fibers 11. Calcium salts. b. Transverses thoracis c. Tongue muscles develops from: a. Laminin b. Superficial cardiac plexus c. b. Occipital somites b. Noncalcified fibers associated with the attachment of periodontal ligament fibers c. Paramesonephric duct 10. Mantle dentin. below the inferior mesenteric artery What are intrinsic fibers of cementum? a. Descending colon Gall bladder epithelium is: a. Sclera c. Sub costal and Umbilical d. Type 1 b. except a.dentalmatrix. Ciliary body b. Astereognosis b. Bronchus d. d. Circular fibers 15. Urinary bladder 2. Basement membrane consists of all except: a. Weakness of the hypothenar muscles c. Fibers produced by cementoblasts b.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 1. Which muscle is not punctured while doing a thoracic procedure in the mid-axillary line: a. Secondary spermatocyte to round spermatid d. Type 4 25. Lateral rotation 24. Pulmonary artery b. 3. Ureter d. Mesonephros d. below the superior mesenteric artery c. Posteriorly. Ankle b. A female come with complaints of chest pain. Type 2 c. None of the above In post-ductal coarctation of the aorta. External intercostals d. Dangerous area of the eye is: a. Endoderm of pharyngeal pouch 20. 14. Simple cuboidal with stereocilia c. In the root region of the pulp c. Meiosis occurs at which of the following transformation: a. Optic nerve 13. Gingival fibers b. Collecting ducts c. Bronchial artery Ulnar injury in the arm leads to all except: a. Splenic flexure d. Innermost intercostals b. Entactin d.

Endoderm b. Inferior thyroid vein 28. Trigger finger 30. Blending with the covering periosteum b. The superior cerebellar artery d. an infarct causing bilateral infarction of the occipital lobes is likely to be secondary to occlusion in the territory of the : a. Tenth cranial nerve palsy d. Extramedullary intradural b. Inserting deeply into the diaphysis 42. d. c. Inserts into the scalene tubercle on the second rib 43. Transversalis facia b. Middle rectal 39. A patient has a tumour based in an enlarged jugular foramen .RXDENTISTRY. Inferior epigastric b. Lingual Vein 38. Which of the following respiratory system components is derived from neural crest? a. None of the above 34. Superior Constrictor. The Basilar Artery c. Epithelium of primary bronchi c. Vidian Nerve is formed by a. testosterone 33. Inserting deeply into the cartilage d. Carpal tunnel syndrome d. Inferior Ophthalmic Vein c. Maxillary Vein d. Superior vesical c. Inhibin d. Internal spermatic fascia is derived from a. Greater Superficial Petrosal Nerve and Lesser Superficial Petrosal Nerve. Right ventricular hypertrophy c. Hypoblast d. Splanchnopleuric mesoderm 40. Extra dural c. Extra meduralary extradural 35. Valvular pulmonic stenosis b. Thyroidea ima d. what is the most likely presentation? a. c. Kanavel’s sign is seen in: a. Superior ophthalmic Vein b. Most fascia of the body that attach to bones attach by which of the following mechanisms? a. Is an accessory muscle of respiration b. None of the above 29.dentalmatrix. Aorta overriding 36. Growth activity50 is maximized here. In emergency tracheostomy the following structures are damaged except: a. 26. Redifferentiation c. Inferior thyroid artery c. What is the origin of the definitive myocardium of the adult heart? a. External laryngeal nerve supplies Most common site of spinal tumour a. the process is called as: a. All of the following muscles are grouped together as ‘muscles of mastication’ except a. Dupuyteren’s contracture c. Is pierced by the phrenic nerve d. . Infundibular stenosis d. Internal abdominis muscle c. D cells – Insulin c. External Oblique Abdominis Muscle d. Deep Petrosal & Greater Superficial Petrosal nerve b. The Basilar Artery c. b. d. Ninth cranial nerve palsy c. The communicating vein responsible for spread of infection from the Dangerous area of the face. Cremasteric d.Temporalis. 27. Somatopleuric mesoderm c. G cells – Gastrin d. The superior cerebellar artery d. Transdifferentiation d. FSH b. It is the most vascular part of bone. Eight cranial nerve palsy b. When stem cell transforms to form other tissues. All are essential components of TOF except: a. The Posterior Cerebral Artery b.Pterygoids. d. The anterior inferior cerebellar artery 41. b. Eleventh cranial nerve palsy 3|Page WWW. Which of these statements about Scalenus anterior is true a.CO. c. Tenosynovitis b. Endothelial cells b. Subdifferentiation 37. A cells . Inferior constrictor. Intra medullary d. Dedifferentiation b. Lies anterior to the suprascapular artery c. Sertoli cells in the testis have receptors for: a. Laryngeal cartilage d. Inserting deeply into the cancellous bone c. The anterior inferior cerebellar artery 45. Which of the following is correctly matched: a. Middle Constrictor. It is the region favoring hematogenous spread of infection. B cells – Somatostain b.Masseter. a. Internal Oblique Abdominis Muscle 32.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 b. Tracheal glands 44.renin 31. Deep Petrosal Nerve and Lesser Superficial Petrosal Nerve d. The Posterior Cerebral Artery b. Buccinator. An infarct involving the seventh nerve and nucleus is likely to be secondary to occlusion in the territory of the: a.CC http://www. LH c. Artery to vas deferens is a branch of a. Isthmus of the thyroid b.

Develops from the septum transversum and cervical myotomes b. XX karyotype b. Which of the following hormones is secreted by anterior pituitary cells that stain with acidic dyes? 4|Page WWW. Contraction of which of the following muscles contributes most to the backward movement of the lower jaw during the process of mastication? a. The buccinator muscle: a. V b. 56 d. The anterior ethmoidal nerve d. Is the main nerve supply to the flexor compartments of the arm and forearm d. Closure of the neural tube occurs on around which day of the embryonic life period? a. No veins pass through it c. Is 40 cm in length b. XXY karyotype c. Temporalis 64. The femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve c. The optic nerve 57. VII c. Is attached to both jaws opposite the molar teeth b. Eleventh cranial nerve palsy . Buccinator 59. Is a muscle of mastication 56. Is derived from the posterior primary rami of the C5 to T1 nerve roots c. Is supplied by the V nerve c.dentalmatrix.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 46. 4 weeks d. XII 58. Digastric b. The superior thoracic artery c. Tenth cranial nerve palsy d. The ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve b. Lower esophageal sphincter b. The Posterior Cerebral Artery b. 6 weeks 61. Deep penetrating lacunar artery c. Supplies sensation to the extensor aspect of the radial three and a half digits 60. The most common sex chromosomal aneuploidy in males is a. Zonnules of Zinn b. In addition to tumor cells. True about diaphragm is a.RXDENTISTRY. Zonnules of Schlemm c. 3 weeks c. 74 52. Middle third of the esophagus d. An infarct causes a pure motor herniparesis .CC http://www. IX d. The cords of the brachial plexus b. This infarct is likely to be secondary to occlusion in the territory of the : a. Superior pharyngeal constrictor b. The thoracodorsal nerve in its posterior wall 50. Eight cranial nerve palsy b. The axilla contains all except a. What suspensory ligaments connect the outer edge of the lens of the eye with the ciliary processes? a. Which portion of the esophagus was the source of this biopsy? a.CO. Nerves that pass in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus include: a. Which cranial nerve exits the skull base at the pars nervosa of the jugular foramen ? a. Is lined by stratified squamous epithelium in the upper two-thirds c. Medial pterygoid c. The inferior vena cava passes through the diaphragm at the level of the T12 vertebra d. The tendon of psoas major b. The radial nerve a. The latissimus dorsi muscle in its medial wall 38 c. A 36-year-old Asian male complains of difficulty swallowing. Lower third of the esophagus c. The sixth cranial nerve c. XXX karyotype 55. Drains all of its blood into the azygos and hemiazygos veins 62. The anterior inferior cerebellar artery 54. Which of these statements about oesophagus is true a. the esophageal biopsy show normal smooth muscle and striated muscle in the same section. Which of the following is true of the optic disc? a. Is the principal branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus b. 26 b. The superficial epigastric vein 49. No arteries pass through it b. It is normally less than 1cm in diameter 53. XO karyotype d. The muscle least related to pterygomandibular raphe is a. Receives a nerve supply from phrenic nerve only c. The following structures pass under the inguinal ligament a. The aorta passes through the diaphragm at the level of the T8 vertebra 47. Is continuous with the superior constrictor of the pharynx d. 2 weeks b. Upper esophageal sphincter 63. Lateral pterygoid d. Is lined by transitional epithelium in the lower onethird d. Cruciate ligaments d. Ligaments of Treitz 51. Lateral pterygoid c. Medial pterygoid d. It appears dark red on fundoscopy d. The long saphenous vein d. The superior cerebellar artery d. The heart of an embryo first begins beating at which of the following ages? a. The nerve supplying submandibular gland is a. Esophagoscopy reveals a polypoid mass that is subsequently biopsied. Ninth cranial nerve palsy c.

This mass is most likely a cyst that developed from which of the following embryonic structures? a. Internal carotid artery d. First pharyngeal cleft b. Cavernous sinus b. ACTH LH b. Prolactin . a destructive fungal infection of the sinuses. FSH d. A 7-year-old patient presents with a mass in the anterior midline of the neck. slightly above the larynx. Zygomycosis. First pharyngeal pouch c. Thyroglossal duct 66.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 a. External carotid artery c. is likely to reach the brain by which of the following routes? a. Second pharyngeal cleft d.CO. The mass is mobile and elevates upon protrusion of the tongue.RXDENTISTRY. Superior sagittal sinus 5|Page WWW.dentalmatrix.CC http://www.

Second c. Age at which meiosis begins b. Male-type internal reproductive tract and female-type external genitalia 82. The diagnosis of testicular feminization syndrome is made. The lobule and the stroma c. Distension b. Splitting of the embryo at the blastocyst stage results in which of the following? a. DNA replication during meiosis d. 2 months c. who appears to be female. Dizygotic twins c. Fourth 76. Which of these statements about the thymus gland is false a. Lies in the free edge of the lesser omentum 67. XY. ending in a blind pouch. Fraternal twins d. A 25-year-old female presents to her obstetrician after taking a home pregnancy test with a positive result. Bulbus cordis b. What is the most common cause of such a congenital heart malformation? a. A newborn male child is noted to have hypospadias.RXDENTISTRY. Cauterisation d. A complete evaluation determines that the child has no other genitourinary anomalies. Which of these statements about the common bile duct is false a. and do not secrete testosterone or Müllerian regression factor. Is pierced by the middle colic artery 72. The patient's vagina is very shallow.and female-type internal reproductive tracts and male-type external genitalia b. In a genotypic male. Which of the following stimulus does not induce visceral pain ? a. 500 micrometers 70. Ligamentum venosum d. Sinus venosus 80. 200 micrometers d. Phimosis d. The smooth part of the right atrium derives from which of the following embryonic structures? a.dentalmatrix. a medical student notes a fibrous band that runs on the visceral surface of the liver. During anatomy lab. Amount of cytoplasm retained c. 6 months 78. Failure of formation of the septum secundum c. 4 months d. Descends anterior to the brachiocephalic vein 68. 100 micrometers c. Female-type internal reproductive tract and male-type external genitalia d. A 12-month-old child is diagnosed with an atrial septal defect. Derives part of its blood supply from the splenic artery only c. At which of the following ages does fetal movement first occur? a. Bladder exstrophy b. The lactiferous sinus and the terminal ductules d. Ligamentum teres c.CC http://www. Nonetheless. Female-type internal reproductive tract and femaletype external genitalia c.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 b. The morphofunction unit of the breast is composed of: a. It is attached on one end to the inferior vena cava and on the other end to the left branch of the portal vein. Radiographic studies confirm that the embryo has split at the blastocyst stage. 50 micrometers b. A patient. Which of the pharyngeal pouches develops into the palatine tonsil? a. Conjoined twins b. Length of prophase I 81. A streak ovary b. Third d. is found to be 46. 1 month She states that twins run in her family and would like an ultrasound to determine if she has a twin pregnancy. Hydrocele c. Is made up of cells of endodermal origin d. Incomplete adhesion between the septum primum and septum secundum d. Which of the following characteristics is similar for spermatogenesis and oogenesis? a. the testes fail to develop. Lies anterior to the left kidney b. Ductus venosus b. Which of the following was most likely present during the early fetal life of this individual ? a. Which of the following best describes the in utero reproductive system development of this individual? a. Primitive ventricle d. MIF (Mullerian inhibitory factor) 79. Depressed levels of testosterone d. this structure corresponds to the a. Which of these statements about the pancreas gland is false a. and there are palpable masses in the labia. The TDLU (terminal duct lobular unit) and the large duct system 69. The aveoli and the large duct system b. Pressure c. What is the length of the Human spermatozooa (Sperm)? a. Primitive atrium c. Umbilical arteries 77. A uterus c. Failure of formation of the septum primum 6|Page WWW. Decreases in size with age c.CO. Develops from the fourth pharyngeal pouch b. Urinary tract infection 74. Both male. hypospadias repair will be performed to prevent which of the following possible sequelae? a. First b. In the embryo. Monozygotic twins 73. Malformation of the membranous interventricular septum 75. Has parts in both the supracolic and infracolic compartments . Cutting 71.

Which of the following muscles adducts the vocal cords? a. Sigmoid sinus d. Hensen’s duct b. Lies to the right of the hepatic artery d. Cricothyroid. From which of the following fetal vessels do the umbilical arteries arise? a. Anterior lobe and hypothalamus c. 98. Multiple nuclei c. b. 91. The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the a. Which one is the exception? a. b. Ophthalmic nerve d. Internal jugular vein b. The superior and inferior ophthalmic veins drain into the a. Pericardioperitoneal canal d. Ductus arteriosus d. Superficial temporal artery. Palatine fovea 7|Page . 92. Hoffman’s duct 85. The greater omentum is derived from which of the following embryonic structures? a. Involution of the thymus would occur following which year in a healthy individual? a. c. Oculomotor nerve c. Infratemporal crest of the sphenoid bone c. Condyle of the mandible b. Basale. Dorsal mesoduodenum b. Pecquet duct d. Lateral surface of the medial pterygoid plate. Optic nerve b. Pterygoid plexus c. Retromolar area c. The lateral pterygoid muscle attaches to which of the following? a. Corneum. 60thyear. Aorta b. Carotid arteries c. Pleuropericardial membranes 86. Maxillary artery. 95.CC http://www. Deep auricular artery. c. 0 years (at birth). 87. Which of the following strata of oral epithelium is engaged in mitosis? a. Anterior and posterior lobes b. Palatoglossus.dentalmatrix. 93. Palatine raphe d. Lies anterior to the first part of the duodenum 83.RXDENTISTRY. Phrenic nerve. Tensor veli palatine. Medial surface of the medial pterygoid plate. All of the following are found in the posterior triangle of the neck except one. The masseter originates from the a.CO. d. d. d. Confluence of sinuses c. Palatopharyngeus. Tuberosity b. Granulosum. The auriculotemporal nerve encircles which of the following vessels? a. Spinosum. d. Intercalated discs c. Maxillary nerve 100. Straight sinus 96. Lies anterior to the portal vein c. Pyramidal process of the palatine bone 90. Stylopharyngeus. d. Lateral cricoarytenoid. Bernard’s duct c. Lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate. Blood from the internal carotid artery reaches the posterior cerebral artery by the a. Iliac arteries 84. Deoxygenated blood from the transverse sinus drains into the _ a. c. b. b. d. b. The most distal portion of the maxillary alveolar bone is the a. c. Inferior border of the zygomatic arch d. Posterior communicating artery d. d. Thoracic duct is also called a. a. b. 12th year. Median eminence and the optic chiasm 97. Fibers with spindle-shaped cells 94. Facial vein 89. Posterior lobe and hypothalamus d. Subclavian vein. Vocalis. Posterior cricoarytenoid. A peripherally placed nucleus b. 20th year.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 b. External jugular vein. The muscle that is found in the walls of the heart is characterized by ' a. b. Posterior superior cerebellar artery 99. c. c. Anterior cerebral artery b. The vestigial cleft of Rathke's pouch in the hypophysis is located between the . Medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate. Dorsal mesogastrium c. 88. Inferior sagittal sinus b. Hypoglossal nerve. Anterior communicating artery c. Middle meningeal artery. Frontal vein d. Which of the following muscles is responsible for the formation of the posterior tonsillar pillar? a.

in the right lung the uppermost structure in the hilum will be a bronchus. Ductal coarctation: The narrowing occurs at the insertion of the ductus arteriosus. 4.dentalmatrix. -Coarctation of the aorta is of three types: 1. 3. dysgenesis (malformation) of the corpus callosum. Nerve divergence continues.CC http://www. and hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the corpus callosum. adduction of thumb is not a clinical finding in ulnar nerve palsy. because the inferior vena cava is not laterally symmetrical. Signs and symptoms: Signs and symptoms of Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum and other callosal disorders vary greatly among individuals. Ans A. -Hence. -A collateral circulation develops distal to the obstruction between subclavian artery (internal thoracic artery) & descending aorta (posterior intercostal arteries). other callosal disorders include hypogenesis (partial formation). 7. Pre-ductal coarctation: The narrowing is proximal to the ductus arteriosus. left ovarian vein in females) left 2nd lumbar vein -This is in contrast to the right side of the body.RXDENTISTRY. Ans A. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (ACC) is a rare birth defect (congenital disorder) in which there is a complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum. Ans D. (Similar arrangement on both sides) -Bronchus & bronchial arteries are always posterior most structures at the hila of both lungs. This kind usually appears when the ductus arteriosus closes. Intrinsic fibers derived from cementoblasts. 6. 2. the left renal vein is generally the longer of the two. and social difficulties. early speech and language delays. Hence. poor motor coordination. pulmonary vein is inferior most.Now. which forms a shelf like projection into the lumen. Agenesis of the corpus callosum occurs when the corpus callosum. Organic matrix derived form 2 sources: Periodontal ligament (Sharpey’s fibers) Cementoblasts Extrinsic fibers derived from PDL.CO. hearing impairments. NOTE: There are 2 veins which are named anterior & inferior according to their location at the hilum. If . 3. early feeding difficulties and/or gastric reflux. delayed toilet training. Ans A. spasticity. low muscle tone (hypotonia). Classification of Cementum Based on the Nature and Origin of Collagen Fibers.. blood flow to the aorta distal (to lower body) to the narrowing is dependent on a patent ductus arteriosus. -This anastomosis produces characteristic notching of the ribs on X-RAY Superior epigastric is a branch of internal thoracic artery and gives the anterior intercostal arteries in the lower intercostal spaces. does not develop typically in 2. Recent research suggests that specific social difficulties may be a result of impaired face processing. and hence its closure can be life-threatening. the band of tissue connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. as is the changing configuration of the plexus with dentin formation. . individuals-fibers within small bundles lose their myelin sheath and divide repeatedly before finally ramifying into a plexus of single axons known as the subodontoblastic plexus or plexus of Raschkow. Explanation: Left renal vein crosses in front of the aorta from right to left towards the left kidney." From this plexus nerve fibers are distributed toward the pulp-dentin border with terminals showing a characteristic bead-like structure. Even with an open ductus arteriosus blood flow to the lower body can be impaired. low perception of pain. These fibers are grouped in bundles and enter through the apical foramina of the teeth. Explanation: 1. Ans A. -Pulmonary artery is uppermost whereas. Unusual social behavior in childhood is often mistaken for or misdiagnosed as Asperger's syndrome or other autism spectrum disorders. Run parallel to the root surface and at right angles to the extrinsic fibers The area where both extrinsic and intrinsic fibers is called mixed fiber cementum.e.. some characteristics common in individuals with callosal disorders include vision impairments. -This applies well to left lung. Explanation: Ulnar nerve supplies the Adductor pollicis muscle and hence it will be paralysed in its lesion. chewing and swallowing difficulties.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 1. perpendicular or oblique to the root surface. The exact function of this plexus is unknown. Other characteristics sometimes associated with callosal disorders include seizures. Ans B. Explanation: Mnemonic is Atal Bihari Vajpayee (ABV) -Arrangement of pulmonary structures at the hilum of the lungs ABV: From (A)bove to below: (A)rtery-(B)ronchus-(v)ein. These are in the same direction of the PDL principal fibers i. -Additional information: The vein lies below the superior mesenteric artery (L-1 vertebral level) and above the renal artery (lies between L-1 & L-2 vertebra) -Because the inferior vena cava is on the right side of the body. passing through the radicular to the coronal pulp where they fan out and diverge into smaller bundles. Newborns with this type of coarctation may be critically sick from the birth. where these veins drain directly into the IVC. However. Nerve fibers Pulp and Dentin entering the teeth have been identified histologically as myelinated A-fibers and unmyelinated C-fibers. 5. the left renal vein often receives the following veins: left inferior phrenic vein left suprarenal vein left gonadal vein (left testicular vein in males. Explanation: Coarctation (stenosis/narrowing) of aorta is due to defect in the tunica media. abnormal 8|Page WWW. Ans B. In addition to agenesis of the corpus callosum. Post-ductal coarctation: The narrowing is distal to the insertion of the ductus arteriosus.for right lung one additional bronchus goes above the artery and is called as ep-arterial bronchus. delays in motor milestones such as sitting and walking. most commonly in the region of the ductus arteriosus.

Ans C: DENTIN : It consists of about 80% hydroxyapatite (by dry weight) and 20% of organic matrix (collagen. past the height of the alveolar crest. urinary bladder and the proximal 2 cm of prostatic urethra. Ans A.there are three types of fibers within this group: fibers that extend towards the crest of the gingiva fibers that extend laterally to the outer surface of the gingiva and fibers that extend outward. The odontoblasts are of mesenchymal origin. innermost intercostal (intercostalis intimi) and the sterno-costalis. Odontoblasts are not separated from the pulp by a basement membrane. The odontoblasts furthermore secrete a 9|Page WWW. two other types of fibers have been described in this group: semicicular fibers . and thus the least likely to receive sufficient blood. -Brush border is also present in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of kidney. more exactly. Ans D. Each odontoblast sends a cytoplasmic process into one dentinal tubule. On the outside. these regions are particularly vulnerable to ischemia by virtue of the fact that they are supplied by the most distal branches of their arteries. When properly stained. However. 9. which stains pale in H&E and PAS preparations. Ans C. into which they are embedded. these regions are spared from ischemia by virtue of their dual supply. On its inner surface facing the pulp chamber and the root canal. attaching to the interproximal surfaces of the same tooth. the dentin is covered either by enamel (anatomical crown) or by cementum. -Inner most layer : Of the three group of muscles in this layer. Explanation: -Gall bladder is lined by columnar cells with irregular microvilli-brush border.fibers that run between two non-adjacent teeth and are embedded in the cementum of their proximal surfaces. Functions to anchor tendon (with fibers penetrating periosteum to bone) to bone.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 head and facial features. During times of blockage of one of the arteries that supply of the watershed area. the fibers within cementum and bone are visible and referred to as Sharpey's fibers. and wounds or injuries in this situation are peculiarly dangerous.fibers that run through the facial and lingual gingiva around each tooth. ureter. such as in atherosclerosis. namely . 15. Transversus thoracis will not be punctured in a mid axillary line approach. -Subcostalis are at the back and Transversus thoracis at the front of the thoracic cage. such as the splenic flexure of the large intestine. the innermost intercostals are at the side of the rib cage. -Stereo-cilia are present in the hair cells of internal ear and epididymis.CC http://www. reaching as far as 1/2 the thickness of the dentin. glycosaminoglycans) and is pervaded by the dentinal tubules. 11. Explanation: -The dangerous area of the eye is the region in the neighborhood of the ciliary Body.RXDENTISTRY. such as in DIC or Heart failure. -An inner arterial circle (of Riolan) between the ascending branch of left colic artery and the trunk of middle colic artery may supplement the blood supply to this region of colon. passing around the tooth in the middle of the two teeth attached with these . They secrete first a layer of predentin. reflecting its high rate of protein turnover. and mental retardation. circular group . It consists of collagen and some elastic fibers. Ans B. between the middle colic artery (mid-gut) & the left colic artery (hind-gut). A plexus of capillaries extends within the odontoblast layer close to the predentin (a thin uncalcified layer of dentin matrix facing the pulp chamber). synthesizing and secreting the components of the dentinal matrix. transgingival fibers . Formation by appositional bone growth around original attachment site. Ans C. However. -Collecting ducts are lined by columnar epithelium 14. "Watershed area" is the medical term referring to regions of the body that receive dual blood supply from the most distal branches of two large arteries. which are columnar cells arranged in a single layer (fig. Ans A. The periodontal ligament is much more cellular and more highly vascularized than ordinary ligaments. the external & internal intercostal muscles are always punctured. the dentin is lined by the odontoblasts. Transseptal fibers Types of gingival fibers There are three groups within which gingival fibers are arranged: gingivodental group .dentalmatrix. -Small intestine is lined by microvilli arranged in regular fashion -striated border.CO. during times of systemic hypoperfusion. 12. Ans b. pelvis. 19). Explanation: -Urothelium (or transitional) epithelium starts in the minor calyx region and lines major calyx. NOTE: Transversus thoracis muscle was formerly called as sterno-costalis. 13. now TRANSVERSUS THORACIS includes all the three inner layer muscles. Sharpey's Fibers = direct extensions of dense irregular CT from periosteum into compact bone. proteoglycans. Explanation: -The weakest link in the marginal chain of vessels (of Drummond) is near the left colic (splenic) flexure.Subcostalis. 10. The collagenous fibers penetrate into the cementum and into the surrounding bone.these fibers have traditionally been described as spanning the interproximal tissue between adjacent teeth. -Hence.these fibers are unique in that they exist entirely within the gingiva and do not contact the tooth transseptal group . Explanation: -During a thoracic procedure in mid-axillary line. In fact. and then downward along the cortex of the alveolar bone.

near the lower leg and ankle. whereas fibro-cartilage is more like bone & contain type-I cartilage. Ans B. Ans A. 18. Obturator sign: If an inflamed appendix is in contact with the obturator internus. 4. -Lamina Reticularis attached to basal lamina with anchoring fibrils (type VII collagen fibers) and microfibrils (fibrilin) is collectively known as the basement membrane. about 30–70 nanometers in thickness. Explanation: Hyaline & elastic cartilage contain type-II collagen. Ans A. Explanation: -Rhodopsin is present in the retinal rods -The basement membrane consists of an electron-dense membrane called the lamina densa. Apparently this phosphoprotein initiates the calcification of dentin. Growth activity is maximized here. integrins. Meiosis . 3. 21. entactins. -Great saphenous vein itself drains into the femoral vein below the inguinal ligament. Ans C. 17. 25. -Deep palpation of the left iliac fossa causes pain in the right iliac fossa.II changes secondary spermatocyte into the Explanation: -Meiosis .in the mid-thigh. Explanation: -Perforators connect the superficial veins with the deep veins. 19. Dentin stains strongly with H&E and PAS 16. Called also Cope’s sign. 26. 4 & 5. Embrasure: The space between two teeth which opens out from their contact point. in contrast to the fibrillar collagen found in the interstitial matrix. Below knee. 2. pressure over the point on the left side corresponding to the McBurney point will elicit the typical pain at the McBurney point on the right side in appendicitis. It is the most vascular part of bone.RXDENTISTRY. Ans A. Ans D. -The Lamina Densa (which is made up of type IV collagen fibers. 3. 22. Explanation: Psoas sign: flexion of or pain on hyperextension of the hip due to contact between an inflammatory process and the psoas muscle. Metaphysis as we all know is the most metabolically active part of the bone with rapid cell turn over and most vascular part also.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 phosphoprotein that is deposited specifically at the predentin-dentin junction. and dystroglycans) together make up the basal lamina. Muscles of Mastication Muscle Origin Temporalis Temporal bone Parietal bone Masseter Zygomatic arch Lateral Pterygoid (Superior Head) Sphenoid bone Lateral Pterygoid (Inferior Head) Lateral Side of Lateral Pterygoid Plate Medial Pterygoid Action Elevates jaw Retracts jaw Mandibular angle Elevates jaw Temporomandibular Disk Draws articular disk forward Mandibular neck (bilaterally) Protracts jaw (unilaterally) Abducts jaw (grinding) Medial Side of Lateral Pterygoid Plate Mandibular angle Elevates jaw Insertion Coronoid process 10 | P a g e WWW. Ans C.1–2 micrometers in thickness. Explanation: -Tongue muscles develop from occipital myotomes and are innervated by the 12 nerve.CC http://www. It is the region favouring hematogenous spread of infection. This type IV collagen is of the reticular type. . and an underlying network of reticular collagen (type IV) fibrils (its precursor is fibroblasts) which average 30 nanometers in diameter and 0. 20. -There are about 5 perforators along the great saphenous vein . -Extension of hip will cause pain Rovsing's sign: Rovsing sign. Since it is the most vascular part we have the Osteomyelitis that spreads through hematogenous route originate here in children and is one of the areas that get fractured in pathological fracturesof the bone.dentalmatrix. This manouvre will cause pain in the hypogastrium. It is the weakest part of bone and so this is a wrong statement. a sign often seen in appendicitis. -The fibrous and parietal layer of serous pericardium is supplied by the phrenic nerve. -Then. -Visceral layer is insensitive. The zone of maturation is more vulnerable 1.I changes primary spermatocyte into secondary spermatocyte. Ans C. Ans D. Ans B. perlecan (a heparan sulfate proteoglycan) coats these fibers and they are high in heparan sulfate) and the Lamina Lucida (made up of laminin.1. spasm of the muscle can be demonstrated by flexing and internally rotating the hip. -The inflamed appendix lies on the psoas muscle and the patient will lie with the right hip flexed for pain relief. 24. Explanation: -The pain of pericarditis originates in the parietal layer only and is transmitted by the phrenic nerve.CO. Ans B. 2. Explanation: -Mesonephric duct (Wolffian duct) gives the ureteric bud which further develops into ureter.

and has FSH-receptor on its membranes. Ans A. .flexion posture: finger is held in flexion for comfort. 34. or the round ligament of the uterus in the female. . Ans A.Delta cells (delta-cells or D cells) are somatostatin producing cells.CC http://www. prostate. -Insulin is synthesized in the pancreas within the beta cells (beta-cells) of the islets of Langerhans.CO.It is secreted from the Sertoli cells. pass through the transversalis fascia at the deep inguinal ring (see below).Explanation: Spinal cord tumours. The external laryngeal nerve. Ans A. Ans c. -Inhibin is a hormone that inhibits FSH production. Within the islets of Langerhans. the finger can be held straight without much pain. Explanation: -Gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the parietal cells of the stomach. .RXDENTISTRY.located in the seminiferous tubule inside the testes. intestine and the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Greater Petrosal Nerve is joined by the deep petrosal nerve from the internal carotid sympathetic plexus to become the Vidian nerve or nerve of the pterygoid canal which traverses the pterygoid canal to end in the pterygopalatine ganglion. 29. Ans A. lymphoma or renal cancers. which is primarily an exocrine gland. smaller than the internal. -LH binds to receptors on interstitial cells of Leydig and stimulate testosterone production. The endocrine portion only accounts for 2% of the total mass of the pancreas.dentalmatrix.for diagnosing infectious tenosynovitis.neoplastic cord compression is nearly always due to extra-medullary. .Epidural metaststic tumours are the most common.Explanation: Kanavel's . Transversalis Fascia: The spermatic cord in the case of a local furuncle. Sertoli cells secrete anti.5 cm proximal to the base of the little finger in infection of tendon 11 | P a g e WWW. -FSH binds to Sertloi cells stimulate testicular fluid production and synthesis of intracellular androgen receptor proteins. descends posterior to the sternothyroid with the superior thyroid artery but on a deeper plane. Ans D.percussion tenderness along the course of the tendon sheath..ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 27. This opening is not visible externally since the transversalis fascia is prolonged on these structures as the internal spermatic fascia Layers of Anterior Abdominal Wall Layers of Scrotum Mnemonic Skin S Some Superficial Fascia Dartos Muscle D Decent External Oblique Abdominis External Spermatic Fascia E Englishmen Internal Oblique Abdominis Cremateric Muscle and Fascia C Call Transversalis Fascia Internal Spermatic Fascia It Process Vaginalis Tunica Vaginalis Testis T Testis 32.pain will be noted along the course of tendon with extension.Discussion: . it lies at first on the inferior pharyngeal constrictor and then. behind the common carotid artery it connects with the superior cardiac nerve and superior cervical sympathetic ganglion.goal is to distinguish infectious tenosynovitis from superficial or localized abscess Kanavel's Four Cardinal Signs . curves round the inferior thyroid tubercle to reach and supply the cricothyroid.Explanation: In emergency tracheostomy following structures can be damaged: -Isthmus -Inferior thyroid veins -thyroid artery -left brachio-cephalic vein -pleura (especially infants) -Thymus 28.Explanation: -Sertoli cell (a kind of sustentacular cell) is a 'nurse' cell of the testes which is part of a seminiferous tubule.tenderness is marked along the course of inflamed sheath in contrast to its absence in a localized inflammation. It is activated by follicle-stimulating hormone. 31.this is the earliest and most important sign. piercing it. . Ans B. They can be found in the stomach. It also supplies the pharyngeal plexus and inferior constrictor. -Compression usually occurs by posterior expansion of vertebral metastases or extension of paraspinal metastses through the intervertebral foramina.this is absent in local involvement. a point of maximum tenderness in the palm 2.mullerian hormone and activins also. . -Somatostain. . which in turn binds to Sertoli cells to promote spermatogenesis. . extradural metastses usually from breast. 33. It is released by G cells in the stomach and duodenum. -most copmmon . -One to three million islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets) form the endocrine part of the pancreas. in contrast. 30. lung. .uniform swelling involving entire finger in contrast to localized swelling in local inflammation. beta cells constitute 60–80% of all the cells.intense pain accompanies any attempt to extend partly flexed finger. Ans A.

also called anaplasia. -SUB-DIFFERENTIATION: Further differentiation into sub-types eee. 38. Stem cells can. arterialcompromise. accounting for about 66 % oa all intramedullary tumours. B.RXDENTISTRY. Ans A. Ans c. -Differentiated tumor cells resemble normal cells and tend to grow and spread at a slower rate than undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumor cells. Ans A. Ans B. which includes all cell fate switches. Fascia do not usually attach to cartilage (choice C). arytenoid cartilages) are derived from neural crest. Laryngeal cartilages (e.Explanation: Vas deferens is supplied by a separate artery. It is derived from splanchnopleuric mesoderm and also forms the coronary vessels. for example. PCA infarction rarely involves the entire arterial territory. which is usually found in marrow. Fascia attaches to bony shafts. Explanation: In TOF Infundibular stenosis occurs due to anterior migration of AP septum. -There is no valvular stenosis in TOF. T lymphocytes sub-differentiate into Helper.. killer and suppressor subsets. Explanation: Transdifferentiation: a non-stem cell transforms into a different type of cell. The myocardium secretes the cardiac jelly and gives rise to the conduction system. Testis is mainly supplied by the testicular artery. The endothelial cells in the simple squamous epithelium that lines the pulmonary capillaries are derived from visceral mesoderm. -a normal process through which cells mature. Cancellous bone (choice B) is spongy bone. -Testis receives additional blood from the artery of ductus deferens and also from cremasteric(3) branch of inferior epigastric artery(1). -This artery of vas deferens anastomoses with the testicular The phrenic nerve lies on the anterior surface. 20 % lumbar spine and 10 % cervical spine. Ans C. Ans A. venous occlusion and vasogenic oedema of the spinal cord.g. -Redifferentiation:the return of a dedifferentiated tissue or part to its original or another more or less similar condition. 37.The myocardium. or cardiac muscle arises from splanchnopleuric mesoderm that invests the primary heart tube. which lack the structure and function of normal cells and grow uncontrollably. . but when it occurs is generally in the proximal segment of the vessel. all contributing to myelopathy. or when an already differentiated stem cell creates cells outside its already established differentiation. The subclavian vein passes anteriorly. conus medullaris anf filum terminale. No deep attachments are usually made by fascia. -Evidence for transdifferentiation in adult humans is given by Barrett's metaplasia in which epithelieal cells of the esophagus switch to intestinal mucin-secreting goblet cells. 41. Near its beginning the facial vein connects with the superior ophthalmic directly and via the supraorbital.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 -These result in demyelination. a characteristic of tumor tissue. 2 In cancer.This lining of the heart tube is derived from the lateral endocardial tubes. visual and behavioral function depend upon the degree of damage to the thalamus. differentiation refers to how mature (developed) the cancer cells are in a tumor. accounting for about 30 % of all intramedullary tumours 35. Sometimes thrombus may spread by contiguous ascent from the basilar apex. -Dedifferentiation: Dedifferentiation is a cellular process where a partially or terminally differentiated cell reverts to an earlier developmental stage. 2. They are usually located around the lower cord. occipital and inferomedial temporal lobes respectively. Endocardium . the thyroid. The subclavian artery and brachial plexus pass posteriorly. Atherothrombosis of the PCA is relatively uncommon. Ans D. Blockage of vessels derived from the proximal PCA can cause infarction in sensory and motor nuclei of the thalamus and nearby subthalamic structures. 40. The change of a cell or tissue from one differentiated state to another. The epithelial lining of primary bronchi is derived from . Myocardium . Differentiation: 1 The process by which cells become progressively more specialized. -Ependymomas are the most common primary spinal tumour. and is not the site for fascial attachment.dentalmatrix.CO. a bone marrow stem cell differentiating into a neuron. which is a branch of superior vesical artery(2). superficially via the periosteum. Explanation. Ans A.a loss of differentiation of cells and of their orientation to one another and to their axial framework and blood vessels. -Spinal astrocytoma are the second most common primary spinal tumour. Epicardium (visceral pericardium) .CC http://www. 12 | P a g e WWW.. and the variability of the resulting clinical deficits of primary sensory.g. This process of specialization for the cell comes at the expense of its breadth of potential. It inserts into the scalene tubercle of the first rib. 42. 43. or diaphyses (choice D). --Transdifferentiation: 1. 36. Fascial straps (retinacula) and fascial coverings of muscles or muscle groups characteristically attach to nearby bones by blending with the covering periosteum. it is thus connected to the cavernous sinus. 39. -Transdifferentiation is a type of metaplasia. for example. cricoid. 70 % occur in the thoracic spine. The differentiation of a tissue-specific stem cell into another type of cell as. including the interconversion of stem cells. differentiate into secretory cells in the intestine. an anterior branch of aorta. Ans.This outer tunic of thin serous membrane covers the myocardium. It consists of endothelium and a thin subendothelial connective tissue. Scalenus anterior arises from the transverse processes of the third to six cervical vertebrae.

b: The tendon of psoas major and the femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve both pass under the inguinal ligament. or accessory nerves. A. Symptoms relating to injury of the ninth or 10th to 12th cranial nerves are less common. vagus. to the left is the posterior chamber. Hoarseness and weakness of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles occur in some patients in whom the tumor is within the bone or extracranial. To the right is the margin of the vitreous humour. 13 | P a g e WWW. CN XI) nerves emerge cranial to caudal. Deafness. vagus (ie.CC http://www. Ans a. In this hammock of fine fibres lies the lens. It is made up of structures arising from the septum transversum. CN XI) nerves emerge cranial to caudal. Below in the ciliary processes lie cells which are excreting aqueous humour. They also can cause glossopharyngeal dysfunction (eg. which is typically centered or based in an enlarged jugular foramen with sharply rounded bone borders having a sclerotic rim. oesophagus and aorta pass through the diaphragm at the levels of T8. depending on the extent of the intracranial growth of the mass. The glossopharyngeal nerve is located in the pars nervosa of the jugular foramen. CN X. vagus. Ans. CN X). The axilla contains the cords of the brachial plexus. CN IX). They also can cause glossopharyngeal dysfunction (eg. Hoarseness and weakness of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles occur in some patients in whom the tumor is within the bone or extracranial. seventh nerve and nucleus. contrast-enhancing tumor. The hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) is formed by the fusion of multiple rootlets that emerge from the ventrolateral sulcus between the medullary olive and pyramid. which lies between the zonnules and the iris. The septum transversum forms the central tendon. AICA-related lateral Pontine infarction produces a syndrome similar to Wallenberg's. pleuroperitoneal membranes. Schwannomas in the jugular foramen that arise from the glossopharyngeal. and CN XI. Although the clinical presentation of a schwannoma of the jugular foramen may suggest the presence of a vestibular schwannoma. there is ipsilateral facial paralysis and deafness. and the vagus and accessory nerves are located within the more posterior pars . they course toward the jugular foramen and exit the skull base at the jugular foramen. The nerve exits the cranial vault via the hypoglossal canal. appropriate imaging techniques and interpretation should permit correct differentiation of tumor origin and type and suggest the appropriate surgical approach. 45. in that order. then lies medial to CN IX. or accessory nerves.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 Tracheal glands and epithelium both derive from endoderm. but instead of hoarseness. Type I pneumocytes are derived from endoderm. hoarseness. The hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) is formed by the fusion of multiple rootlets that emerge from the ventrolateral sulcus between the medullary olive and pyramid. Explanation: Also known as the suspensory ligament.The superficial epigastric vein passes in front of the inguinal ligament 49. Although the clinical presentation of a schwannoma of the jugular foramen may suggest the presence of a vestibular schwannoma. 47. From there. vertigo.Explanation: The AICA territory includes the middle cerebellar peduncle. vestibular nuclei and the descending sympathetic tracts. Ans B. can present with variable cerebellar and acoustic symptoms. Schwannoma of the jugular foramen appears as a sharply and ataxia were present if the mass is intracranial. CN IX). which is typically centered or based in an enlarged jugular foramen with sharply rounded bone borders having a sclerotic rim. appropriate imaging techniques and interpretation should permit correct differentiation of tumor origin and type and suggest the appropriate surgical approach. The sensory nerve supply is from the lower six intercostal nerves. and ataxia were present if the mass is intracranial. trapezius atrophy). fifth nerve sensory nucleus and tract. The nerve exits the cranial vault via the hypoglossal canal. In patients with a large proportion of the tumor below the skull base. from the ventral medulla. From there. can present with variable cerebellar and acoustic symptoms. The latissimus dorsi muscle forms the posterior wall of the axilla. from the ventral medulla. eighth nerve. The IVC. 46. difficulty swallowing) and/or spinal accessory symptoms (eg. 50. and accessory (ie. Symptoms relating to injury of the ninth or 10th to 12th cranial nerves are less common. the dorsal mesentery and body wall. 48. In patients with a large proportion of the tumor below the skull base. vagus (ie.RXDENTISTRY. The long saphenous vein terminates in the femoral vein about 3 cm below the inguinal ligament. they course toward the jugular foramen and exit the skull base at the jugular foramen. Ans D. which flows to the pupil. lateral to the medullary olive. CN X). contrast-enhancing tumor. then lies medial to CN IX.CO. Patients often present with symptoms consistent with eighth cranial nerve injury or cerebellar or brain stem compression. The clinical presentation of schwannomas of the jugular foramen varies significantly according to the tumor's growth pattern. Deafness. Explanation: The glossopharyngeal (ie. 44. The glossopharyngeal (ie. T10 and T12 respectively. Ans A. Most patients present with symptoms of decreased hearing. Explanation. in that order. Ans A: The diaphragm develops in the neck and hence receives its nerve supply from the cervical spinal cord (C4-C5). and CN XI. Schwannomas of the jugular foramen are rare. the Zonnules of Zinn comprise a network of collagen fibres which connect the outer edge of the lens with the ciliary processes. It is supplied by the thoracodorsal nerve. and accessory (ie. The motor nerve supply arises from the phrenic nerve. depending on the extent of the intracranial growth of the mass. palatal weakness and loss of taste. Schwannomas of the jugular foramen are rare. Schwannoma of the jugular foramen appears as a sharply demarcated. B. vertigo. Ans. the symptoms tended to reflect glossopharyngeal injury. Patients often present with symptoms consistent with eighth cranial nerve injury or cerebellar or brain stem compression. CN X. The clinical presentation of schwannomas of the jugular foramen varies significantly according to the tumor's growth pattern. trapezius atrophy). Schwannomas in the jugular foramen that arise from the glossopharyngeal. Most patients present with symptoms of decreased hearing. The long thoracic nerve supplies serratus anterior and lies on the medial wall. hoarseness. the symptoms tended to reflect glossopharyngeal injury. lateral to the medullary olive. difficulty swallowing) and/or spinal accessory symptoms (eg. and the vagus and accessory nerves are located within the more posterior pars vascularis. The glossopharyngeal nerve is located in the pars nervosa of the jugular foramen.

Cavernous sinus lies between the cranial and meningeal layers of the dura mater beside the body of the sphenoid bone. approximately 2mm in diameter. Explanation: Lacunes are caused by occlusion of a single penetrating artery. B. Explanation: As the neural tube forms.CO. corresponding to the three molar teeth. from the anterior border of the pterygomandibular raphé which separates it from the superior constrictor of the pharynx. In addition. Ans A.RXDENTISTRY. There are no photoreceptors C. posterior cerebral artery. An obese patient is brought into the emergency room in shock and in need of intravenous fluids. then. and by the other to the posterior end of the mylohyoid line of the mandible. The PAROTID DUCT (excretory) emerges from its (parotid glands) superficial portion. Notably absent are sensory disturbance. 52. In which of the following locations should the incision be made? 14 | P a g e WWW. which arise directly from much larger arteries (eg. cerebral peduncle. Its anterior border attaches to the posterior edge of the buccinator. and behind. The risk of a neural tube defect can be decreased by folic acid supplements. as defects in closure may result in spina bifida or other neural tube defects. Increased sympathetic activity reduces glandular bloodflow. Homolateral ataxia and crural paresis result from pontine lacunes involving post-decussating cerebellar tracts and pre-decussating corticospinal tracts. cranial nn. pulls the angle of the mouth laterally and flattens the cheek. Parasympathetic innervation to the submandibular glands is provided by the superior salivatory nucleus via the chorda tympani. and cranial n. Increased parasympathetic activity promotes the secretion of saliva. 58. Their small size and proximal position predispose them to the development of microatheroma and lipohyalinosis. It arises from the outer surfaces of the alveolar processes of the maxilla and mandible. thereby decreasing salivary secretions and producing an enzyme rich serous saliva. Intra. visual or language deficits. the posterior around day 26. the middle cerebral artery. The sympathetic nervous system regulates submandibular secretions through vasoconstriction of the arteries that supply it. Bilateral lacuries within the internal capsule in perithalamic locations may result in a mutism syndrome. the buccinator in conjunction with the tongue. but pressed the lips back upon the teeth. courses medially contacting the anterior border of the masseter muscle and the buccal fat pad. cerebellar arteries. hyperactive gag reflex with .ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 51. Its posterior border gives attachment to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle. III. Ans. Several distinct lacunar syndromes are recognized: the most common is pure motor herniparesis. BUCCINATOR. 54. The pure sensory stroke produces hemisensory deficits involving the face. Its medial surface is covered by the mucous membrane of the mouth. passes deeply through the buccinator muscle to open into the oral cavity opposite the second maxillary molar tooth. Explanation: Klinefelter's syndrome occurs in approximately 1/500 to 1/1. internal capsule. IV and V1 are in its lateral wall. Motor innervation is from the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). The site of such infarctions are within the corona radiata. Ans B. places the food between the upper and lower teeth for grinding. Explanation: This is the point at which axons leave the eyeball and join the optic nerve. and extracranial arterial sources are implicated as is cardioembolism of microparticulate matter. anterior cerebral artery. D.dentalmatrix. The resultant signs are of mild contralateral hemiparesis involving leg more than arm or face with more marked ataxia of the weak limbs. The clinical characteristics of this syndrome include severe herniparesis or herniplegia involving the limbs. It is a pinky-yellow oval. Lacunar strokes. limbs and trunk contralateral to the small infarction in the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus which causes the syndrome. Ans. During mastication. arteries enter and veins leave the retina at the optic disk. Its lateral surface is separated from the ramus of the mandible by a quantity of adipose tissue. and situated in the nasal retina 53. Ans A. This is a critical event. hence it is known as the 'blind spot'. basilar artery). and sensory innervation is from the buccal branch of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). the action of the muscle (in conjunction with that of the orbicularis oris). occurring from the cranial to the caudal end as the anterior neuropore closes around day 24. 56. attached by one extremity to the hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate. spasticity especially of the lower limbs extensor plantar reflexes. not only closes the mouth. Lacunar infarction in the genu or anterior limb of the internal capsule or pontine base produce clumsy hand-dysarthria syndrome which manifests clinically as clumsiness of the contralateral hand and tongue with contralateral facial paresis. No superficial veins can be seen or palpated. since its most anterior muscular fibres extend into the upper and lower lips. the closing process is critical. the internal carotid a. a branch of the facial nerve that synapses in the submandibular ganglion after which it follows the Lingual nerve leaving this nerve as it approaches the gland. This lacunar state is a major part of subcortical atherosclerotic encephalopathy. VI are in its lumen 57. gait apraxia with small hesitant steps and emotional incontinence. There is a 47XXY chromosome complement.CC http://www. representing the most common sex chromosomal aneuploidy in males 55. anterior choroidal artery. The accrual of multiple lacunae within the internal capsules of both hemispheres may result in a pseudobulbar syndrome in which there is dysarthria. The deep penetrating arteries are small nonbranching end arteries (usually smaller than 500 mm in diameter). pons and rarely the medullary pyramid. Also. face and trunk often with associated dysarthria. is the most deeply located facial muscle forming the muscular foundation of the cheek. Ans. posterior communicating artery. B. Ans A.000 newborn males. The pterygomandibular raphé (pterygomandibular ligament) is a tendinous band of the buccopharyngeal fascia. account for 10% of all strokes. which comprise the most common paradigm of small vessel infarction. There is evolving evidence that microvascular occlusive disease can be due not only to thrombotic or obliterative disease but also to embolic processes. The emergency room physician decides to make an incision to locate the great saphenous vein for the insertion of a cannula ("saphenous cutdown"). Ans.

both of which are potentially fatal. The cells of the thymus are of endodermal origin. which secrete prolactin. While the third-week embryo is a primitive trilaminar plate. and the mammotropes.consists lobule and smaller terminal ductules 15 | P a g e WWW. The oesophagogastric junction lies 40 cm from the incisors. The lateral pterygoid helps to move the lower jaw forward during chewing. forward movement. Ans A. Ans D. the heart begins to form and begins beating almost immediately. depression. The superior vena cava drains blood from the upper part of the body into the heart. This pouch normally remains patent. There is no such thing as the upper esophageal sphincter (choice D). and become a potential route of infection because they receive blood both from the face (via the ophthalmic veins and sphenoparietal sinus) and some of the cerebral veins. the heart is close to fully formed. If part of this pouch does remain patent. into the cavernous sinus. which is seen on the lateral side of the neck along the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.CO. The second pharyngeal pouch forms the tonsillar fossa of the pharynx. The spread of infection. and backward movement of the lower jaw. The chromophils can be further divided into acidophils (stain with acidic dyes) and basophils (stain with basic dyes). The oesophagus is 25 cm in length. The thymus lies within the anterior mediastinum. 60.RXDENTISTRY. in the fourth week.dentalmatrix. The medial pterygoid helps to elevate the lower jaw during chewing. 61. The thyroglossal duct develops as an evagination of the floor of the pharynx in the region where the tongue develops. Ans A. Ingrowth of mesoderm cells results in the formation of the palatine tonsil. The radial nerve is the main branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. The anterior and posterior interosseus nerves are branches of the median and radial nerves respectively. Ans D. The route from the face to the brain is not arterial (choices B and C). The acidophils include the somatotropes. as seen in this patient.CC http://www. Ans D. Failure of a part of the duct to degenerate may lead to a thyroglossal duct cyst or median cervical cyst. and may have assumed that she just "missed a period" (a very common phenomenon) for reasons other than pregnancy. All roots of the brachial plexus arise from the anterior primary rami. Other branches of the posterior cord include the axillary. and the thyrotropes. By the sixth week. During the fifth week. Ans C. Ans B. 66. The communication between the azygos and left gastric veins is an important portosystemic anastomosis that can be the site of oesophageal varices 62. 63. It develops with the inferior parathyroid gland from the third pharyngeal pouch. and a primitive circulatory system connects the capillary plexuses of the yolk sac and chorion to the embryo. The cells of the anterior pituitary can be classified as chromophils & chromophobes (do not stain with dyes). Ans C. 64.Terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) . This early sequence for the heart explains why it is so difficult to try to prevent congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system from . The oesophagus is lined by both striated (upper two-thirds) and smooth (lower third) muscle. It is at its largest in childhood and decreases in size with age 68. Partitioning of the atrium also begins in the fourth week. from which it eventually drains into the jugular vein. The second pharyngeal cleft (choice C) normally does not remain patent. which secrete FSH and LH (choices B and C).co. Mastication is a complex process involving alternating elevation. The distal end of this duct normally forms the thyroid gland.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 59. which secrete TSH 65. Hematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sac. the proximal part of the duct normally degenerates. can produce either CNS infection or cavernous sinus thrombosis. The digastric helps to depress the lower jaw during chewing. The basophils include the corticotropes. The lower third is line by columnar epithelium. The adult foramen cecum of the tongue marks the site of this evagination. thoracodorsal and upper and lower subscapular nerves. The pharyngeal mucosa in this area arises from the endoderm of the pouch. This cleft normally remains patent.. The first pharyngeal pouch (choice B) forms the middle ear cavity and the auditory tube. Zygomycosis does not reach the brain by way of the superior sagittal sinus. cardiac septa form and the atrioventricular (AV) cushions fuse. azygos and left gastric veins. Ans D. The superior sagittal sinus (choice D) is located in the falx cerebri. especially by Mucor sp. The cavernous sinuses are located on either side of the body of the sphenoid bone. 67. and drains venous blood from the brain to other dural sinuses. it may form a lateral cervical cyst. the gonadotropes. which secrete ACTH (choice A). The first pharyngeal cleft (choice A) forms the external ear canal. The backward movement step is accomplished by the posterior fibers of the temporalis muscle. A radial nerve palsy results in a classical 'wrist drop'. The mylohyoid helps to depress the lower jaw during chewing. The radial nerve supplies the forearm and wrist extensors. The lower third (choice B) and lower esophageal sphincter (choice A) contain only smooth muscle. The morphofunctional unit of the breast is composed of two units . It is typically covered over by the overgrowth of the second pharyngeal arch. The venous drainage is into the inferior thyroid. Ans A. The middle third (choice C) contains both striated and smooth muscle. which secrete growth hormone. The muscularis of the upper third of the esophagus is composed entirely of striated muscle. since the mother of a 6-week-old fetus is only about 8 weeks from her last menstrual period.

motile part of cell . deeply staining chromatin and the acrosomal cap anteriorly.3 µm Middle piece . leading to urinary retention and ascending urinary tract infections.0. Another important consequence of hypospadias is sterility. which contains acid phosphatase. Ans C. adipose A small amount of cytoplasm exists in the neck covered by plasma membrane continuous with that of the head & tail. which is congenital displacement of the urethral opening onto the ventral surface (underside) of the penis.RXDENTISTRY.dentalmatrix. or identical twins.together empty into the segmental duct. especially cryptorchidism. . Ans: (c) Cauterisation.The axoneme and the surrounding dense fibres are continuous from the neck region through the whole length of the tail except for its terminal 57µm. 73. neuraminidase and proteases necessary for fertilisation. The blood supply is from the splenic. Explanation: Hypospadias. the spermatozoon is non-motile but structurally mature. often producing a readily apparent scrotal mass. Ans D. They result from incomplete adhesion between the septum primum and the septum secundum during development. in which the axoneme alone persists.a long cylinder . They share the same genetic relatedness as do siblings of separate pregnancies. and are the most common type of twins. The tail is a complex flagellum and is divided into middle. 71. The tail of the pancreas crosses the left kidney as it passes to the hilum of the spleen. the axoneme. Explanation: Monozygotic twins. Isolated hypospadias is repaired because the abnormal opening is often constricted.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 . This type of twinning occurs because of simultaneous double ovulation followed by fertilization by two sperm. This results in two inner cell masses in the same blastocyst cavity. .crushing .3µm As it is released from the wall of the seminiferous tubule into the lumen. They usually develop a common placenta and chorionic cavities but separate amniotic cavities. In the centre of the neck. result from incomplete splitting of the embryo. The middle piece . 16 | P a g e WWW. elastic fibers that support the larger ducts (interlobular stroma) .Most of the breast stroma consists a loose connective tissue. Dizygotic twins (choice B) and fraternal twins (choice C) are the same. Ans A.0 µm Neck . The head contains the elongated flattened nucleus with condensed.However each lobule is surrounded by the intralobular stroma (hormonal responsive stroma) .dense body at the caudal end of the middle piece. Hydrocele (choice B) is a serous accumulation in the tunica vaginalis. Malformations of the interventricular septum (choices D) cause ventricular septal defects rather than atrial septal defects. Hypospadias frequently accompanies other genitourinary anomalies. Although hypospadias can occur in isolation. outside which is a cylinder of nine dense outer fibres. ans D.cutting . surrounded by a helical mitochondrial sheath.Large collecting ducts . corresponding to the proximal centriole of the spermatid from which it differentiated The axonemal complex is derived from the distal centriole. Splitting in the second week usually results in shared amniotic cavities as well. or Siamese twins. They each develop their own placenta and membranes. develop from a single fertilized egg that subsequently splits during either the blastomere or blastocyst stage. Conjoined twins (choice A). Phimosis (choice C) is the condition in which the foreskin cannot be retracted over the head of the penis. The end piece has a typical structure of a flagellum.burning However visceral pain is caused by Excessive distension Spasmodic contraction of smooth muscles Ischemia The pain felt in the region of the viscus is called true visceral pain Referred pain : Pain arising in viscera may also be felt in the skin or other somatic tissues. Atrial septal defects less commonly result from failures of formation of the septum primum (choice A) and septum secundum (choice B). The annulus is an electron . Bladder exstrophy (choice A) is a completely unrelated congenital malformation in which the abdominal wall and anterior bladder wall form incompletely. Hydrocele usually arises without any obvious cause. It is more common in the blastocyst stage at the end of the first week.CO. If the inflammation spreads from a diseased viscus to the parietal peritoneum it causes local somatic pain overlying body wall.3% going to internal mammary chain 69. Explanation: The most common form of atrial septal defect is located near the foramen ovale (not to be confused with a patent foramen ovale. which occurs if the opening is too close to the base of the penis to permit normal ejaculation. The measurements of different parts of spermatozoon :Head . The gland is pierced by the superior mesenteric artery.5-7µm Approximately 58. In acute appendicitis pain is at first felt in the peri umbilical region (T10) and then is localised to Mcburney’a point. then the collecting duct . principal and end pieces. Its expanded head contains little cytoplasm and is connected by a short constricted neck to the tail.Blood supply of the breast is predominantly from the internal mammary artery and lateral thoracic artery . then the lactiferous sinus.40 µm End piece .CC http://www. superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries. The principal piece .(d) Cutting Viscera are insensitive to: . supplied by somatic nerves arising from the same spinal segment. is due to malformation of the urethral groove and canal. which is of little or no hemodynamic significance). Ans D. 72.Majority of lymphatic drainage is to axillary nodes. 74.Lymphatic drainage is a valveless unidirectional flow from superficial to deep .consists of an axial bundle of microtubules. is a well formed centriole. with a simple nine plus two arrangement of microtubules. hyaluronidase. 97% . and the bladder mucosa is exposed to the environment. The middle colic arises from the lower border. it is strongly associated with other urogenital anomalies. It is usually either a congenital malformation or a consequence of scarring.7 µm Principal piece .

The first pharyngeal pouch (choice A) develops into the middle ear cavity and eustachian tube. This patient would not have a streak ovary . which is suppressed by MIF. 77.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 75. Explanation: The smooth part of the right atrium (the sinus venarum) is derived from the sinus venosus. Ans D. In the absence of testosterone. The situation described in choice D could occur with 5 α-reductase deficiency. Explanation: Testicular feminization is a disorder of the androgen receptor. 5 α. you probably chose choice C (ligamentum venosum). The primitive atrium (choice B) gives rise to the trabeculated part of the right and left atria." If you read the question too quickly and thought you were going to be asked to identify the structure described. ans A. In contrast. This patient would not possess a uterus. in oogenesis. but has a blindly ending vagina and lacks a uterus or other female internal reproductive organs. In fact. the process of meiosis begins before birth.reductase deficiency will lead to feminization. The testes in individuals with testicular feminization syndrome are often undescended and are usually removed surgically. Since the gene for testes determining factor (TDF) is on the Y chromosome. By the end of the eighth week. In fact. Explanation: The epithelial lining of the second pharyngeal pouch buds into the mesenchyme to form the palatine tonsil. Explanation: The description is that of gonadal dysgenesis. 76. The development of female external genitalia is the result of defective androgen receptors. Differentiation of the male external genitals is dependent on adequate dihydrotestosterone (via an action of 5 α. The fifth pharyngeal pouch gives rise to the C cells of the thyroid gland. Ans C. D. The coronary sinus and the oblique vein of the left atrium also derive from the sinus venosus. The patient has an XY genotype. appearance of testes and ovaries (but not distinguishable external genitalia). Ans. a head as large as the rest of the body. a substance that suppresses the paramesonephric ducts. would allow formation of female-type internal structures as well. Explanation: This question could have tricked you if you didn't catch the key words. while nearly all the cytoplasm is stripped during formation of a sperm. meiosis is arrested in prophase I. 81. appearance of digits on the hands and feet.reductase on testosterone). this prevents the depletion of oxygen and nutrient-rich blood in the hepatic sinusoids. 80. the Müllerian ducts will automatically differentiate into oviducts and a uterus. The embryonic umbilical arteries (choice D) become the medial umbilical ligaments. Sertoli cells at this stage will secrete MIF. Phenotypically. female-type external genitalia will develop. in the embryo. forward-looking eyes. The fourth pharyngeal pouch (choice D) gives rise to the superior parathyroid glands. and consequently do not contribute to the mitochondrial genome of the fetus.RXDENTISTRY.XO genotype. Since differentiation of the normal male external genitals requires dihydrotestosterone. meiosis is completed in a much shorter time (choice D).The primitive ventricle (choice C) gives rise to the trabeculated part of the right and left ventricles. but those of the sperm are left outside when the sperm nucleus enters the egg. The ductus venosus is an embryonic vessel that allows blood to bypass the fetal liver. preventing the formation of female internal reproductive organs. Depressed levels of testosterone would not occur in this patient. and a crown-rump length of approximately 30 mm.dentalmatrix. Normal male-type internal tracts can form because there is no requirement for dihydrotestosterone. The egg retains a large volume of cytoplasm (choice B). the patient would have testes. 78. the absence of Müllerian regression factor. which is secreted by the Sertoli cells. NOTE: Both the egg and the sperm have mitochondria. These cells secrete calcitonin–a hormone that lowers serum calcium. the Wolffian ducts will regress and fail to differentiate into normal male internal reproductive tracts. "in the embryo. since that is indeed the structure in question.CO. Both of these structures are derived from the paramesonephric duct. Normal Leydig cells would secrete testosterone and produce normal male-type internal and external tracts. which is consequently very prolonged in the female. the patient appears female.CC http://www. In spermatogenesis. the mitochondria are transmitted from the egg to the fetus. nearly all adult structures have at least begun to develop. Traits coded for by mitochondrial DNA are therefore inherited in a matrilineal Ans B. The bulbus cordis (choice A) gives rise to the smooth part of the right ventricle (conus arteriosus) and the smooth part of the left ventricle (aortic vestibule). The ligamentum teres is located in the free margin of the falciform ligament. Ans . a finding in Turner's syndrome that is associated with a 45. 17 | P a g e WWW. this fibrous band is actually the ductus venosus. not depressed levels of testosterone. 79. As noted above. since the genetic complement contained a Y chromosome. Müllerian regression factor will prevent differentiation of female-type internal tracts. However. Ans B. individuals with testicular feminization syndrome have normal or even slightly elevated levels of testosterone. Explanation: The actual process of manipulation of DNA and chromosomes during meiosis is very similar in spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Part of the pouch remains in the adult as the tonsillar fossa. The third pharyngeal pouch (choice C) develops into the thymus and the inferior parathyroid glands. In the absence of Müllerian regression factor. However. The embryonic umbilical vein (choice E) actually becomes the fibrous ligamentum teres (choice B). the processes also differ in many other respects: In oogenesis. and the fetus "looks like a baby". Recall that abnormal development of the 3rd and 4th pouches leads to DiGeorge syndrome and results in hypocalcemia as well as abnormal cellular immunity and consequent susceptibility to viral and fungal illnesses. Selective dysgenesis of the Sertoli cells could produce the situation described in choice A. In the absence of testosterone. Other features of week 8 include the first appearance of a thin skin. Female-type internal reproductive tract and male-type external genitalia (choice C) would not be likely to occur under any circumstances. spermatogenesis does not begin until puberty (see choice A). Explanation: Neuromuscular development is sufficient to allow fetal movement in the eighth week of life. TDF will cause the indifferent gonad to develop into a testis containing Sertoli cells. and arrests between birth and puberty in prophase I. Instead. However.

93. branches of the cervical plexus. After branching from the mandibular nerve (CN V. It then continues up towards the TMJ. respectively. Ans D. Hoffmann's duct. which is the mesentery of the stomach region. a small canal leading from the saccule to the cochlear duct. nerves to the upper limb and muscles of the triangle floor. Contents of the posterior triangle include the external jugular and subclavian vein and their tributaries. present in the submandibular triangle. 95. Lateral cricoarytenoid. which later disappears so that the duodenum and pancreas come to lie retroperitoneally. 90. The common bile duct lies in the free edge of the lesser omentum. Bernard’s duct: ductus pancreaticus accessorius. remaining posterior and medial to the condyle. its deep head inserts into the ramus and body of the mandible. Recirculating lymphocytes that have left the circulation in the lymph node return to the blood through the thoracic duct. the phrenic nerve. Hoffman’s duct: pancreatic duct. They supply unoxygenated fetal blood to the placenta. 89. between the pars intermedia and anterior lobe. specifically. Ans C. Its superior head attaches to the infratemporal crest of the greater wing of sphenoid bone. The transverse sinuses receive blood from the confluence of sinuses. Intercalated discs are only found in cardiac muscle. Its superficial head inserts into the lateral surface of the angle of the mandible. 18 | P a g e WWW. The anterior tonsillar pillar is formed by the palatoglossus. The cricothyroid muscle raises the cricoid cartilage and tenses the vocal cords. 91. Ans D. passing through the parotid gland and traveling with the superficial temporal artery and vein. 96.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 82. The hypoglossal (CN XII) nerve is not found in the posterior triangle. It also functions to close off the nasopharynx and larynx during swallowing. . The superior and inferior -ophthalmic veins drain into the facial vein and cavernous-:5inus. The deep fibers of the medial pterygoid muscle attaches to the medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate. The vestigial cleft of Rathke's pouch is located between the anterior and posterior lobesspecifically. Deoxygenated blood from the transverse sinus drains to the sigmoid sinus. it is. the subclavian artery and its branches. The pleuropericardial membranes (choice D) become the pericardium and contribute to the diaphragm. accessory pancreatic duct: a small inconstant duct draining a part of the head of the pancreas into the minor duodenal papilla. 85. Pecquet duct: The major efferent lymph duct into which lymph from most of the peripheral lymph nodes drains. called also minor pancreatic duct. the auriculotemporal nerve travels posteriorly and encircles the middle meningeal artery. The masseter originates from the inferior border of the zygomatic arch. Multiple. The palatopharyngeus forms the posterior tonsillar pillar. external ear. and temporal region. which empties into the internal jugular veins. Wirsung's duct.>. The excretory duct of the pancreas that extends through the gland from tail to head where it empties into the duodenum at the greater duodenal papilla. The site of cell division (mitosis) occurs in the stratum basale (basal layer. and the brachial plexus. The pericardioperitoneal canal (choice C) embryologically connects the thoracic and peritoneal canals. anterior to the portal vein and to the right of the hepatic artery. Ans A. 87. Ans C. stratum germinativum) of oral epithelium. 94. and Reichert's canal. The dorsal mesoduodenum (choice A) is the mesentery of the developing duodenum. Ans A. Explanation: Both the omental bursa and the greater omentum are derived from the dorsal mesogastrium.. Ans D.CC http://www. It passes posterior to the first part of the duodenum before opening into the second part.RXDENTISTRY. Hensen's canal or duct. Ans D. Ans C. Ans D. however. and duct of Santorini or Bernard. The inferior head of the lateral pterygoid muscle attaches to the lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone. Pecquet duct Hensen’s duct: ductus reuniens. Synonym: ductus pancreaticus. It consists of cyst-like spaces (Rathke's cysts) and represents the vestigial lumen of Rathke's pouch. Smooth muscle cells are spindle-shaped. 92. The single umbilical vein takes the newly oxygenated fetal blood from the placenta to the liver and then to the inferior vena cava via the ductus venosus. its superficial head and deep head originate from the anterior two thirds or posterior one third of the inferior border. Wirsung's canal. which is located in the posterior cranium. Ans C. Ans A. CN XI. Ans C. 88. 83.dentalmatrix. peripherally positioned nuclei are found in the fibers of skeletal muscle. The posterior cricoarytenoids abducts the vocal cords. called also canalis reuniens. Explanation: The paired umbilical arteries arise from the iliac arteries. Ans B.CO. Ans A. The oblique and transverse arytenoids and thyroartenoid also adduct the vocal folds.

98. It is a branch of the maxillary (CN V2) nerve. Ans A 19 | P a g e WWW.CO.ANATOMY MCQ’S 1 97.dentalmatrix. Ans C. 100.RXDENTISTRY. Ans .CC http://www. it terminates as the infraorbital and zygomatic nerves. The maxillary nerve branches from the trigeminal ganglion and exits the skull through the foramen rotundum. 99. The thymus is active at birth and increases in size until puberty (around age 12). When it reaches the pterygopalatine ganglion. which is part of the circle of Willis. The internal carotid artery is joined to the posterior cerebral artery via the posterior communicating artery. Ans B. after which it gradually atrophies and is replaced by fatty

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