1

II.

Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

1. Introduction 2. Definitions 2.1 Call Center: Since the 1970s, call centers have traditionally been defined as physical places where calls were received in high volume. This was initially for the purpose of answering customer queries of service industry. There is not much change in recent decade except that many industries are conducting standard services through Call Centers such as banking, insurance, traveling, telecommunication services, airliner, and etc. Also it is broadly used in plenty of business activities such as telesales, telemarketing, and technical support. In these contexts, the call centers entitle organizations to interact with their customers through a telephone from any location in the world with no reference to physical boundaries. Call centers allow organizations to keep their customers in track for business purpose. Apart from traditional functions, call center can make outgoing calls to customers (Shanti N.Tiwari, 2009)1. The call center can be a focal point for most specific business activities of an organization such as answer incoming calls; log calls as well as solicits customers for new sales, donations, conduct customers’ survey etc. According to Shanti (2009), call center can be any of the following:
• • • •

Huge telemarketing centers Fund-raising and collection organization Help desks, both internal and external Outsourcers (better known as service bureaus) that use their large capacity to serve lots of companies

Reservation centers for airlines and hotels Recent globalization has made call center a rapid rate growth industry the in

developing world when worldwide organizations outsourced their call centers to lower-cost regions. This growth reflects aspiration of companies to improve access to their business in more efficient time period manner to attain satisfied customers (Bird, 1998)2. The

1987). Service industry is growing at a rapid pace across developed and developing countries. amusement. processes and performances (Zeithaml and Bitner. Services are deeds. hotel. restaurants.2 development of technologies has forced the companies to restructure the ways they managed relationships with customers. such as banking. traveling. cooking. education service. retail service etc. and beauty salon as being servicebased business. They allow organizations to understand how customers feet about service performance.). Since we were born. 2001)4 2.Baruch and Paquette. 2003)5. Bui (2004)7 service is an activity that impacts all parts of our life. nowadays a wide range of products heavily rely on its services to acquire competitive advantages.3 Service quality . 24 hour technical support etc. For instance.6 Service has been entering every part of life from the most essential demands (such as eating. and telecommunication). These modern marketers view services as a business that produces no tangible product.2 Service The 21st century is considered as the service industry century. our lives have relied on services (such as hospital service. There are many definitions of what constitutes service. sleeping) to other entertainment needs (such as sport. (Gilmore. timeliness. Call centers provide organizations valuable information about the performance of their services (Staples et. have been innovatively applying state-of-the-art technology in their customer relationship management through telephone and internet banking. services include all economic activities whose output is not a physical product or construction is generally consumed at the time it is produced and provides added value in forms (convenience. 2. Armstrong. a TV buyer is now buying not only tangible components of a TV set but also other service benefits like free delivery and installation. Saunders and Wong 19998). Broadly speaking. al. Another definition of service is that a service is any activity or benefit that one party offers to another which is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. we readily define bank. 2001)3. Similarly said by Hung N. comfort or health) that are essentially intangible concerns of its first purchaser (Quinn. In addition to that. Its product may or may not be tied to a physical product (Kotler. Many industries. In other words.

these researchers defined satisfactions as a “highly personal assessment” that is greatly influenced by “individual expectations”. service quality is key of survival to all servicing companies. Booms and Mohr (1994)9 defined service quality as ‘the consumer’s overall impression of the relative inferiority / superiority of the organization and its services’. Boshoff and Gray. Boulding et al. Zeithaml and Berry (1985)11 defined service quality as ‘a function of the differences between expectation and performance along the quality dimensions’. . many researchers (Oliver. Brady and Robertson. Maintaining service quality at certain level and improving service quality must be life-time efforts to those companies who desire life-time prosperity in customers’ heart. This definition views “individual” element as powerful force to create satisfaction. 1981. To another extent. Parasuraman.. Cronin and Taylor (1994)10 viewed service quality as a form of attitude representing a long-run overall evaluation. Likewise. Roest and Pieters’ (1997)12 held the same definition that service quality is a relativistic and cognitive discrepancy between experience-based norms and performances concerning service benefits. Therefore. 1992.4 Customer satisfaction Definitions of customer satisfaction have been widely discussed from the view of many researchers and organizations who increasingly desire to measure it.15 Whereas. For example: Bitner. (1993)16 and Yi and La (2004)17 conclude satisfaction into two general conceptualizations: transaction-specific satisfaction and cumulative satisfaction. A group of researchers of the Center for the Study of Social Policy (2007)13 conceptualize that satisfaction is based on the customer’s experience of both contact with the organization (the moment of truth) and personal outcomes. According to these researchers. 200114) conceptualize customer satisfaction as an individual’s feeling of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. Likewise.3 Service quality was defined differently through the view of many researchers. satisfaction can be experienced in a variety of situations and connected to both goods and services. 2. Transaction-specific satisfaction is a customer’s evaluation of his or her experience and reactions to a particular service encounter (Cronin and Taylor.

To another extent. (Boulding et. They argued that there are 5 antecedents that contribute to satisfaction: clear understanding of customer needs and expectations. internal satisfaction and complaint management. service quality.. Cumulative satisfaction refers to the customer’s overall evaluation of the consumption experience to date (Jones and Suh 2000) 18. Because customer satisfaction is highly variable assessment individuals do based on their experiences with specific features of products and services they receive. 3. Fornell et al. it makes sense for servicing organizations to involve customer satisfaction measurement as their meaningful benchmark for development. (1996)21 reported that the service quality divisions are related to overall service quality and or customer satisfaction. 1995)20. This research showed that Service quality is one major attribute of satisfaction. al. Dabholkar et al. It is said by Olivier (1993) that service quality is a casual antecedent of customer satisfaction. Theoretical Framework . perceptions of fairness etc.. From the review of literature it can be inferred that performance of service delivery can result in level of customer satisfaction... other researches suggested that in service field service quality and customer satisfaction (also called the “construct”) are separate but distinct constructs.4 2004). Corrin and Taylor (1992)19 consider that service quality and customer satisfaction “share a close relationship”. They report that expectations for quality are based on ideals or perceptions of excellence. due to the fact that service quality is viewed at transactional level and satisfaction is viewed as an attitude. whether or not it is quality related. They argued that service quality has specific dimensions judgments while customer satisfaction can be resulted from any dimension. Service quality is the key to measure user satisfaction (Pitt et al. (1996)22 expressed that satisfaction is a consequence of service quality. perceived value. whereas customer satisfaction assessment comprise by non-quality issue such as needs. Taylor and Baker (1994) and Rust and Olivier (1994) identified several factors that precede customer satisfaction.5 Link between service quality and customer satisfaction Many researches have realized the interrelated values of service quality and customer satisfaction. equity. 1993)23. 2.

or there is inadequate use of marketing research. poor employees. As such. Early research done by Parasuraman et al. lack of appropriate . (1985. This gap might be originally caused by lack of team work.1 Instruments to measure Service Quality SERVQUAL model The service sector is expanding at an increasing rate and is becoming intensely competitive (Chen. but they lack of formal process to set up the service quality goals.1 3. • Gap 3: occurs when there is differentiation between Service Quality Specifications and Service Delivery. This discrepancy is illustrated by Service Quality Gap. defining and measuring quality in services might be difficult due to intangible nature of service offering. SERVQUAL model developed by extensive research by Parasuraman et. realized that determinants of Perceived service quality comprise of 02 elements of expected service and perceived service. However. • Gap 2: appears when there is discrepancy between Management Perceptions of Customer Expectations and Service Quality Specifications. 199424).1. Reasons creating this gap are because the servicing organizations don’t have sufficient marketing research. This gap exists when the company management is not committed to service quality. Gupta and Rom. lack of interaction between management and customers.5 3. This gap is displayed in A “Gaps” Model in Service Quality as follows: • Gap 1: This gap appears when there is discrepancy between Customer Expectations and Management Perceptions of Customer Expectations. and there is inadequate standardization of tasks to implement the promises. poor technology. Corporate now pay appropriate attention to continuously revisit their service quality system in order to improve approaches their organizations using to serve customers. service quality becomes pivotal across all business units of an organization. or there is insufficient communication between contact employees and managers. Or even when they are committed. al. It also happens the managers don’t have the perception of infeasibility to the areas that customer expectations can’t be met. 1988 and 1991) has been carried out widely to measure service quality in many sectors.

Big organizations are likely to commit this mistake if there are differences between polices and procedures across the branches and departments. There are 10 potentially overlapping dimensions: tangibles. creditability. • Responsiveness: concerns the willingness or readiness of employees to provide service. it may cause to create the gap. understanding/knowing the customer and access. Security. Especially it involves first call resolution. • Gap 4: happens when there is discrepancy between Service Delivery and External Communications to Customers. reliabilities. • Gap 5: exists when there is distinction between Customers’ Service Expectations and Customers’ Service Expectations. Parasuraman used this gap to measure service quality in his approach. If a Sales person fails to communicate with customers the service quality properly.al. role conflict among contact employees or role ambiguity among contact employees. calling the customer back quickly. and following up ATM card delivery on designated time to customers. Parasuraman et.25 • Tangibles: include the physical evidence of the service: physical facilities. (1985) established a model based on dimensions of service quality that customers use to assess the service. It means that the firm performs the service right the first time. Initially in their research. physical presentations of the service such as plastic ATM cards or bank statements. • Reliabilities: involve consistency of performance dependability. communication. competence. responsiveness. appearance of personnel. tools or equipment used to provide the service. Poor advertising of the organization service quality also fail ways of customers approach. It also means that the firm honors its promises. It involves timeliness of service: emailing forms of registration to customers immediately. courtesy.6 compensation system. or giving prompt service (cooperating with other personnel quickly to solve customers problems) .

reputation. It involves having the customer’s best interests at heart. consideration. convenient location of service facility (location of bank branches. It involves physical safety while doing transaction at ATM. and research capabilities of the organization. explaining the service correctly and assuring the consumers that problem will be handled right away by authorized persons. providing individualized attention ( say customer name while communicating) or recognizing the regular customers • Access: involves approachability and ease of contact. waiting time to receive service. or financial security (Can I trace where my credit card was used) and confidentiality ( Are my dealings with the bank private?) • Competence: means possession of the required skills and knowledge to perform the service. and honesty. there is a need to develop industry-specific measures of service quality. • Creditability: involves trustworthiness. believability. Contributing to credibility includes company name. It involves speaking English with foreign customers. as noted by Babakus and Boller (1992)26. It involves: learning the customer’s specific requirements. It may mean that the company has to adjust its language for different consumers – increasing the level of sophistication with a well-educated customer and speaking and plainly with a novice. or ATM) This model was applicable to any servicing organization in any industry.7 • Communication: means keeping customers informed in language they can understand and listen to them. their sweet voices and helpful attitudes. Understanding/knowing the customer: involves making the efforts to understand the customer’s needs. convenient hours of operation. • • Courtesy: involves politeness. risk or doubt. It involves knowledge and skill of the agents. respect. This is particularly important . and personal characteristic of contact agents. There were intensive debate regarding this model. • Security: is the freedom from danger. and friendliness of agents. It means: the service is easily accessible by telephone (lines are not busy and they do not put you on hold).

equipment. 1990. 1988. a better approach is to develop an instrument specifically for the focal service. the 10 dimensions were reduced to five by: • • • • • Tangibles: Appearance of physical facilities.item scale that are covered in 5 dimensions that customers can receive from specific servicing company. Babakus and Mangold. and communication materials. Responsiveness: Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. Assurance: Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence. Employees who instill confidence in customers . 1992. Providing service at promised time 5. al. Readiness to respond to customers’ request Assurance 9. Keeping customers informed about when services will be performed Responsiveness 6. Willingness to help customers 8. Reliability: 1. individualized attention the firm provides its customers.. Parasuraman revised the SERVQUAL model items into 21. Thus. Because many of the questions in existing instruments (notably SERVQUAL batteries) intended to be applied across situations/services just do not apply in a specific context and force researchers to drastically alter the items (Babakus and Boller. personnel. Providing service as promised 2. Afterwards.. 1999)27. Carman. Performing services right the first time 4. Reliability: Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. Prompt service to customers 7. McAlexander et al. In a speech given at University of Miami (2004). Dependability in handling customers’ service problems 3. 1994). Empathy: Caring. 1992. (Parasuraman et. 1990).8 from a managerial perspective (Shemwell and Yavas. instead of taking an existing instrument and trying to fit it to the context.

Jabnoun and Al-Tamimi. 2002. convenient business hours This 21 item-scale then will be adjusted according to the nature of call center of the banking industry to build research measurement scales in later chapter. Visually appealing facilities 19. Employees who have a neat. and Arasli et. the area covered by the tangibles criteria does not apply. In the call center industry the empirical research for SERVQUAL model appears to be scarce. Having the customers’ best interest at heart 16. Duncan and Elliott. 2000. Employees who are consistently courteous 12. assurance and . professional appearance 20. 3. Via the telephone.2 Empirical studies Many empirical studies have been conducted to test SERVQUAL model in specific industries. Employees who deal with customers in a caring fashion 15. Warren et. Modern equipment 18. the only dimension of “tangible” contact is customer service representative’s (CSR) voice.9 10. 2002. which is extremely important in any encounter with a customer through telephone. al. Lassar et.. al. Employees who understand the needs of their customers Tangibles 17. 2005. They found that as a customer never comes into contact with the physical appearance of a call center. reliability. (1997)28.al. In the banking industry. It is not possible for the customer to evaluate the service level but the customer has to interact with other criteria. al. (2002)29 conducted a research to assess a case call center using SERVQUAL model. Responsiveness. Bahia and Nantel 2000. there were many researches done by Yavas et. Giving customer individual attention 14. Visually appealing materials associated with the service 21. Employees who have the knowledge to answer customer questions Empathy 13.. Making customers feel safe in their transactions 11.

This research is hoped to be the platform for discussing the issues on the service quality and customer satisfaction in the call center industry in Vietnam. These dimensions are responsiveness. Satisfied employees reinforce customer satisfaction. In addition to that. it seems that SERVQUAL approach is the most common method for measuring service quality. which in turn reinforced employee satisfaction. communication and discipline. Author’s research model and research hypothesis 4. Tangibles • Responsiveness describes the willingness to help customers and provide prompt answers and helps at first-call attempt.10 empathy are all transmitted by CSR’s voice and are dependent on CSR’s communication skills. (2008)30 applied SERVQUAL approach in evaluating customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 4.2. The traditional SERVQUAL five dimension model was adjusted into four dimension model.1 Author’s research model From the literature review of previous researches about interrelationship between service quality and customer satisfaction using SERVQUAL model. Upal M. Author’s research model . assurance. The research showed that call center agents are vital to the success of any call center. Managerial orientation also is one of the major forces that drive customer satisfaction. customers’ education in the service delivery process contributes to their satisfaction. The current research designed a conceptual framework for measuring the service quality of the call center in ABBANK also using SERVQUAL model as follows: Reliability H1 H2 Assurance H3 Customer satisfaction Responsiveness H4 The model comprises of 5 independent components: Empathy • Reliability describes the ability to answer questions to customers dependably H5 and accurately. In another research.

which means that the more responsive the call center is. And there is one dependent variable: • 4. and call center physical present in their advertisement. the more they are satisfied. which means that the more empathetic customers feel when interacting with the call center. Empathy describes caring fashion. operation hours. which means that the more visual customers feel about the call center. It is noteworthy that these dimensions are interrelated and affect significantly on customer satisfaction. which means that customers are satisfied about call center when they are assured about the services they receive. 5. • H1: There is a positive impact of reliability on customer satisfaction. Research hypothesis Hypothesis must be formulated in order to evaluate the level of satisfaction of the service provided by call center using above quality dimensions. Introduction to An Binh Bank & Call Center . which means that the more reliable customers feel about call center services. Tangible describes the appearance of telecommunication tools. the more they are satisfied. • H2: There is a positive impact of responsiveness on customer satisfaction. • H3: There is a positive impact of assurance on customer satisfaction. individualized attention call center agents provide customers.11 • • • Assurance describes the knowledge and courtesy of agents and their ability to inspire trust and confidence to customers through telephone.2 Customer satisfaction describes the level of satisfaction that customer is experiencing with the services delivered by Call Center. • H4: There is a positive impact of empathy on customer satisfaction. the more they are satisfied. the more satisfied customers feel. • H5: There is a positive impact of tangible dimension on customer satisfaction.2.

. Dist 1.12 5. individuals and investors: Corporate banking: ABBANK provides corporate with all-in financial-banking products and services such as loans. Through its distribution channel. unsecured loan for consumption.Installment loan for house/land purchase or house renovation. . ABBANK provided products and services to thousand of corporate and ten thousands of consumers. After 15 years of development since its establishment in 1993. import/export financing. flexible secured loan for consumption. working capital financing. account services.Installment loan for house/land purchase with tenor up to 30 years . . . factoring. HCMC An Binh Bank (ABBANK) is one of the leading commercial joint-stock banks and among top ten largest commercial banks in terms of charter capital in Vietnam. Ward Da Kao. ABBANK’s total assets. ABBANK has made major breakthrough over the last 3 years.Installment loan for car purchase. ABBANK’s current charter capital exceeds VND 2. trade services… Consumer banking: ABBANK provides individuals with fast and complete credit products as well as flexible savings products: . guarantee services.1 Name: General view of An Binh Commercial Joint Stock Bank AN BINH COMMERCIAL JOINT STOCK BANK Head Office: 170 Hai Ba Trung Street. Over the past 2 years. ABBANK currently aims at 3 categories of customers: corporate.700 billion and its national network of nearly 70 branches and sub-branches covers 20 cities and provinces as of 2008. incomes and profit kept growing more than 300%.Life insurance for consumer.Installment loan for manufacturing.

acting as agent of bond issue. email.YOUsaving products: interest rate based on actual deposit days. escalating savings. ensuring of excellent and consistent service delivery based on standard technology and process as well as skilled staffs.Consulting about banking products and banking services of BA BANK to clients through telephone. the call center of ABBANK was established with the purpose to maintain and develop customer care service. . consulting and guarantee on bond issuance. According to the decision 225/QD-HDQT-07. ABBANK’s competitive features are recognized by the provision of flexible. call center was set up in March of 2008 with the following objectives: . focus on customers’ needs and satisfaction in the development of any business models and organizational structure.Responding and handling directly payment transaction and services or transferring to authorized departments .Responding and handling directly information requested by customers or transferring to authorised departments. effective and safe financial solutions with friendly service. ABBANK particularly provides corporate investors with services such as financial consulting. internal and external remittance… Investor banking: ABBANK provides individual and corporate investors with authorized services as well as investment consultancy. 5.13 . fax… .… and payment services.Implementing telemarketing about banking products and services to individual clients. Call center performance statistics from Mar 2008-Jun 2009 .2 Introduction to ABBANK call center In March 2008.

14 Endnotes .

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