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Storage Tank Design

Storage Tank Design

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Published by Rehman Shaik

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Published by: Rehman Shaik on May 21, 2012
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To determine the adiabatic flame temperature, the vapor is allowed to
react with air consisting of 21% oxygen and 79% nitrogen by volume. The
following chemical reaction equation describes the fuel, air, and their
products (Ferguson, 1986).

ε

α

β γ

=

+ −

0210
025

05

.

.

.

(4.2.1)

ελ

ν

ν

ν ν ν

ν ν ν ν

α β γ δ

CHON

O

N

CO

HO

N

O

CO

H

O

OH

NO

+

+

+

+ + +

+ + + +

021

079

2

2

1

2

2

2

3

2

4

2

5

6

2

8

9

10

.

.

(4.2.2)

where

ε = molar fuel-air ratio,

λ = fuel-air ratio: actual fuel-air ratio divided by the stoichiometric
fuel-air ratio,

223

α = number of Carbon atoms,

β = number of Hydrogen atoms,

γ = number of Oxygen atoms,

δ = number of Nitrogen atoms,

ν = mole numbers of each respective product.

The fuel-air ratio λ is assumed to be well mixed and can be arbitrarily
chosen, or calculated directly from known properties of the fuel and the
conditions at which the fuel exists:

Fm
m

MP

P

MP

f

a

a

t

f

f

f

= =

(

)2

2

(4.2.3)

Fs =

+

+

+

ε α

β

γ

δ

(.

.

.

.)

.

1201

1008

1600

1401

2885

(4.2.4)

λ =F
Fs

(4.2.5)

where

F = actual fuel-air ratio by mass,

Fs = stoichiometric fuel-air ratio by mass,

mf = mass of the fuel vapor (kg),

ma = mass of the air (kg),

Mf = molecular weight of the fuel (kg/kmol),

Ma = molecular weight of the air (kg/kmol),

Pt = total pressure of the fuel-air mixture (Pa),

Pf = vapor pressure of the fuel (Pa).

Following the procedure described by Ferguson (1986) for equilibrium
combustion, the mole numbers for the products of equation (4.2.2) are

224

calculated using data from Gordon and McBride (1971) to calculate the
enthalpy, specific heat at constant pressure, specific volume, and the internal
energy of the reactants and products. Two derivatives are calculated
numerically,



ln
ln

ln
ln

v
T

and

v
P

P

T


⎝⎜ ⎞
⎠⎟


⎝⎜ ⎞
⎠⎟

These are used to determine the constant volume adiabatic flame
temperature employing the Newton-Raphson iteration in the following
procedure:

1. Guess an initial flame temperature and pressure.

2. Calculate the change in internal energy from reactants to products.

3. Calculate the change in specific volume from reactants to products.

4. Solve the following equations to obtain the new guess for the flame
temperature and pressure.

Equations (4.2.6) through (4.2.10) are solved during the Newton-
Raphson iteration to yield the adiabatic constant volume flame temperature.
Define:

DETv

v
P

CT
Pv

v
T

v
T

v
T

v
P

p

= −

+


⎝⎜


⎠⎟+

+


⎝⎜


⎠⎟


⎣⎢


⎦⎥

2

2

10




∂ ∂

∂ ∂

ln
ln

ln
ln

ln
ln

ln
ln

ln
ln

(4.2.6)

then:

Δ

Δ

Δ

T

v
DET

U

P

v
P

v

v
T

v
P

= −

+

+


⎝⎜


⎠⎟


⎣⎢


⎦⎥

10 ∂


∂ ∂

ln
ln

ln
ln

ln
ln

(4.2.7)

Δ

Δ Δ

P

vP
TDET

CT
Pv

v
Tv

U

P

v
T

p

= −


⎝⎜


⎠⎟ −


⎣⎢


⎦⎥

10

10



ln
ln

ln
ln

(4.2.8)

T

T

T

new = − Δ

(4.2.9)

225

P

P

P

new = − Δ

(4.2.10)

where

v = specific volume (cm3/g),

P = pressure (bars),

T = flame temperature (K),

ΔU = internal energy of the reactants minus that of the products (J/g),

Δv = specific volume of the reactants minus that of the products

(cm3/g),

Cp = specific heat capacity at constant pressure (J/gK).

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