1

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
• Agenda
Introduction
SDH advantages
Bit Rates
Standard Frame representation
Frame structure
Transport overhead
SDH Multiplexing
Concatenation
Justification
Architecture
SDH Equipment
Network topologies
Network protection
Quality standards
2
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
• Introduction
SONET(Synchronous Optical Network) or SDH(Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy) as it's known in Europe, is a set of standards for interfacing
Operating Telephone Company(OTC) optical networks.
They are a set of global standards for interfacing equipment from different
vendors(One of the few where telephony is concerned).
SONET is the protocol for North America and Japan while SDH is the
definition for Europe. The differences between SONET and SDH are
slight.
3
• SDH Advantages versus PDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
E1
Channel n°7
E2
E3
E4
Channel n°7
E3
E2 E1
PDH principle
4
• SDH Advantages versus PDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
SDH principle
Add/Drop
multiplexer
Channel n°X Channel n°Y
SDH
Equipment
channels
SDH
Equipment
5
• SDH Advantages versus PDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
SDH is based on the principal of direct
synchronous multiplexing.
Essentially, separate, slower signals can be
multiplexed directly onto higher speed SDH signals
without intermediate stages of multiplexing.
SDH is more flexible than PDH and provides
advanced network management and maintenance
features.
Can be used in the three traditional telecommunications
areas: long-haul networks, local networks and loop
carriers. It can also be used to carry CATV video traffic.
6
Bit Rates
STM-64 9953.280 STS-192 OC-192
STM-32 4976.640 STS-92 OC-96
STM-16 2488.320 STS-48 OC-48
STM-13 1866.240 STS-36 OC-36
STM-8 1244.160 STS-24 OC-24
STM-6 933.120 STS-18 OC-18
STM-4 622.080 STS-12 OC-12
STM-3 466.56 STS-9 OC-9
STM-1 155.520 STS-3 OC-3
--- 51.84 STS-1 OC-1
SDH
Equivale
nt
Line Rate
(Mbps)
Electrical
Level
Optical
Level
7
• Bit Rates
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
International organization defined standardized bit rates :
155, 520 Mbit/s
622, 080 Mbit/s
2,488 Gbit/s
9,953 Gbit/s
STM1
STM4
STM16
STM64
8
• SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
: Standard Frame Representation
0 1 11 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Bi t Tr ansmi ssi on
Byt e Tr ansmi ssi on
St andar d Fr ame Repr esent at i on
The St andar d STM1 Fr ame i s 9 Row s x 270 Col umns
and i s c ompl et el y t r ansmi t t ed i n 125 µ µµ µs.
9
• SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
: Standard Frame Representation
Everywhere in the world, the standard SDH frame
representation is a :
MATRIX with 9 rows
1
9
How to read the
matrix
10
• SDH frame structure
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
9 Row s
9 Row s
9 Row s
9 Col 261 Col
36 Col 1,044 Col
144 Col 4,176 Col
STM1
STM4
STM16
Section
Overhead
Section
Overhead
Section
Overhead
Eac h Fr ame i s
Sent i n 125µs!
155.52 Mbps
622.08 Mbps
2488.32 Mbps
11
• SDH frame structure
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
All SDH frames have the same structure :
Section OverHead
SOH
Payload (data)
Regenerator
Section Overhead
(RSOH)
Pointer
Multiplexing
Section Overhead
(MSOH)
12
• Transport Overhead : SOH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
STM1
frame
(Payload)
R SOH
Pointer
M SOH
AU4 Pointer
A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0
B1 E1
D1 D2
F1
D3
B2 B2 B2
D4 D5
K1 K2
D6
D7 D8 D9
D10 D11 D12
S1
M1 E2
AU4 pointer
13
• Transport Overhead : SOH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0
B1 E1
D1 D2
F1
D3
B2 B2 B2
D4 D5
K1 K2
D6
D7 D8 D9
D10 D11 D12
S1
M1 E2
A1 and A2 : frame alignment word
B1 : Regenerator setion error
monitoring
J0 : STM1 identifier (16 bytes word)
E1 : Service channel (transport a 64
Kbit/s channel)
F1 : user channel. May be used for
network exploitation
D1-D3 : Data communication Channel
at 192 Kbit/s.
14
• Transport Overhead : SOH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0
B1 E1
D1 D2
F1
D3
B2 B2 B2
D4 D5
K1 K2
D6
D7 D8 D9
D10 D11 D12
S1
M1 E2
B2 : Multiplexing section error
monitoring
K1 and K2 : Automatic protection
switching signalling
D4-D12 : Data communication
Channel at 576 Kbit/s.
S1 : bytes of synchronization status
M1 : Binary code for number of
errored blocks
E2 : service channel at 64 Kbit/s
15
• Transport Overhead : AU 4 pointer
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0
B1 E1
D1 D2
F1
D3
B2 B2 B2
D4 D5
K1 K2
D6
D7 D8 D9
D10 D11 D12
S1
M1 E2
The secret to making SDH work is the
payload pointer. The tributaries
coming into a multiplexer may have been
created with a clock running at a
different speed. They are not necessarily
aligned with each other or with the
clock in the multiplexer. To resolve this
problem, remember that this is a
SYNCHRONOUS network, the SDH
multiplexer finds the beginning of a frame for
each tributary.
16
• Transport Overhead : AU4 pointer
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
In order to illustrate the pointer working, have a look on
the following picture :
STM 1
155 Mbit/s
The container can move inside
the wagon
17
• Transport Overhead : AU4 pointer
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
You have exactly the same phenomenon in SDH :
Beginning of VC4
18
• SDH Multiplexing
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
SDH is a new way of multiplexing slow signals onto a faster signal.
It has mechanisms for dealing with tributaries that are not running at
the same clock rate.
STM 1 STM 1 STM 1
155 Mbit/s
E4
150 Mbit/s
140 Mbit/s
E
4
VC4 E4 VC4
19
• SDH Multiplexing
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Translation of the previous picture in SDH language :
STM1 frame
R SOH
M SOH
Payload
VC4
E4
P
O
H
20
• SDH Multiplexing
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Payload
R SOH
M SOH
STM4 frame
VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4
E4
P
O
H
E4
P
O
H
E4
P
O
H
E4
P
O
H
21
• SDH Multiplexing : another example (E3=>STM1)
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
You can map 3 E3 (34 Mbit/s) onto one STM1.
E3 (A) E3 (B) E3 (C)
P
O
H
P
O
H
P
O
H
VC3 VC3 VC3
S
T
U
F
F
S
T
U
F
F
P
O
H
P
O
H
P
O
H
P
O
H
P
O
H
= TU-3 = TU-3 = TU-3
22
• SDH Multiplexing : another example (E3=>STM1)
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
STM1 frame
R SOH
M SOH
Payload
VC4
P
O
H
23
• The SDH Multiplexing map
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
C12
C3
C4
E1
(2Mbit/s)
E3
(34Mbit/s)
E4
(140 Mbit/s)
VC12
VC3
VC4
TU12
TU3
TUG-2
TUG-3
AU4 STM-N
x 3
x 7
x 3
x N
x 1
24
• What is the « concatenation » ?
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Payload
R SOH
M SOH
STM4 frame
VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4
Concatenated VC4 (VC4-4c)
25
• What are the different « concatenation »
possibilities?
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
STM1
1 standard VC4.No concatenation !
SOH VC4
26
SOH
• What are the different « concatenation »
possibilities?
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
STM4
4 standard VC4
1 concatenated VC4-4c
VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 SOH VC4-4c
27
• What are the different « concatenation »
possibilities?
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
STM16
16 standard VC4
4 concatenated VC4-4c
1 concatenated VC4-16c
VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4VC4
VC4-4c VC4-4c VC4-4c VC4-4c
VC4-16
28
• What are the different « concatenation »
possibilities?
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
STM64
64 standard VC4
16 concatenated VC4-4c
4 concatenated VC4-16c
1 concatenated VC4-64c
29
• What is the « Justification » ?
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
E4 C4
In theorie, the E4 speed should
be the same than the C4 speed.
But in pratical, the E4 speed can be a little bit faster
or slower than the theorical speed.
If you want to adapt the speed variation, you need a special
system called « justification » each time you want to map a
tributary.
30
• What is the « Justification » ?
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
E4 C4
J
U
S
T
J
U
S
T
E4
J
U
S
T
J
U
S
T
C4
J
U
S
T
J
U
S
T
When the
tributary is slower
Positive
justification
31
E4
J
U
S
T
C4
When the
tributary is faster
J
U
S
T
• What is the « Justification » ?
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
E4 C4
J
U
S
T
J
U
S
T
Negative
justification
J
U
S
T
C4
32
• SDH architecture basics
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
STM1/4/16/64
Terminating equipment
Repeaters
Regenerator section
Multiplexing section
VC4 high path
33
• SDH architecture basics : Regenerator section
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
STM1/4/16/64
Terminating equipment
Repeaters
Regenerator section is the basic segment of SDH network.
It is the smallest entity which can managed by the system.
Each repeater monitors defects such as Loss Of Signal, Loss Of
Frame, B1 errored blocks ...
By passing through a repeater, the R-SOH is fully
recalculated.
34
• SDH architecture basics : Multiplexing section
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
STM1/4/16/64
Terminating equipment
Repeaters
The multiplexing section is the entity delimitated by 2 equipment
which process the payload of an STM-N.
Detects defects and errored blocks and generated special alarm in
the forward and backward direction.
Manage the Automatic Protection Switching wtih K1 and K2 bytes.
Regenerated a complete SOH.
35
• SDH architecture basics : VC4 high path
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
STM1/4/16/64
Terminating equipment
Repeaters
The VC4 High Path is an entity which transport a C4 container from
end to another end of a network.
A VC4 can be affected to one customer.
36
• SDH equipments : Terminal Multiplexer
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
» Input: Low Bit Rate and PDH/T-Carrier Tributaries
» Output: High Bit Rate SDH Signals
PDH
T-Carrier
STM-N
37
• SDH equipments : Regenerator
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
» Input: STM-N Synchronous Signal
» Output: STM-N Synchronous Signal
» Reconditions Transmission To Minimize Jitter,
Dispersion, Etc.
STM-N STM-N
38
• SDH equipments : Transponder (λ Converter)
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
» Input: STM-N Synchronous Signal at λ
1
» Output: STM-N Synchronous Signal at λ
2
» Changes the Wavelength of the Transmission
Signal
STM-N STM-N
λ
1
λ
2
39
• SDH equipments : Add/Drop Multiplexer
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
» Input: STM-N Synchronous Signal
» Output: STM-N Synchronous Signal
» Allows the Extraction and Injection of Synchronous
Tributaries
STM-N STM-N
Drop Add
40
• SDH equipments : Digital Cross Connect
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
» Input: Many STM-N Optical Signals
» Output: Many STM-N Optical Signals
» Allows Routing of STM-N Signals at High Data Rates
STM-N STM-N
STM-
N
STM-
N
41
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Metropolitan
Core or Transport
Local or Access
s Local or Access:
Low Bit Rates
No DWDM
s Core or Transport
Very High Bit Rates
DWDM Required
s Metropolitan
Higher Bit Rates
Possible DWDM
42
• Network Topology
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Traditional networks make use of Point to Point, Mesh and
Hub (i.e Star) arrangements :
but SDH allows these to be used in a much more comprehensive way.
Mesh
Hub
Point to Point
43
• Network Topology
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
SDH enables the previous arrangements to be combinated
with Rings and Chains of ADMs (Add/Drop Multiplexer) :
Ring
Chain
44
• Network Topology
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Point to Point
» Large Capacity (with DWDM)
» Few Links
» Example: Intercontinental Submarine Links
MUX MUX
45
• Network Topology
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Ring, Bus, Tree and Star
» Differing Capacity
» Many Links
» Example: Access Networks
MUX ADM ADM
MUX
MUX ADM
ADM
ADM
MUX
ADM
MUX
MUX
ADM
ADM ADM
ADM
46
• Network Topology
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
• Mesh
» Many Links
» High Capacity
» Example: Transport Networks
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM
47
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
s Network protection :
• 1+1 Protection
» Most Redundant
» Most Expensive
Eac h Bi di r ec t i onal SDH Channel (2 Fi ber s)
has a dedi c at ed bac k up c hannel (2 Fi ber s).
Bac k up 1
Bac k up 2
Bac k up N
PROTECT
.
.
.
.
.
.
Channel 1
Channel 2
Channel N
WORKI NG
.
.
.
.
.
.
48
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
s Network protection :
• 1:N Protection
» Least Redundant
» Most Efficient
Ever y Bi di r ec t i onal SDH Channel (2 Fi ber s)
shar es a dedi c at ed bac k up c hannel (2
Fi ber s).
Bac k up PROTECT
Channel 1
Channel 2
Channel N
WORKI NG
.
.
.
.
.
.
49
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
s Network protection : ring protection
ADM
ADM ADM
ADM
ADM
ADM ADM
ADM
50
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
s Network protection :
During an Automatic Protection Switching, the
network loses traffic (= the operator loses money!!!).
That ’s the reason why it ’s very important for an
operator to check the correct working of APS.
The main parameter is the switch duration. The
recommendation give 50 ms (max) to recover a
correct signal.
51
• Quality standard
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
» ITU-T G.826 – Quality parameters, objectives and calculations for
bit rates at or above the primary rate
» ITU-T G.821 – Error performance of a digital connection operating
below the primary rate
» ITU-T M.2100 – Performance limits for system turn-up and
maintenance
» ITU-T G.783 – Recommendation for automatic protection switching
and standardized pointer movements
I t I s I mpor t ant To Know That We
I t I s I mpor t ant To Know That We
Ar e Compl i ant Wi t h These St andar ds
Ar e Compl i ant Wi t h These St andar ds
52
• Quality parameters
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
» Errored Seconds (ES) – Seconds during which there is at
least one error per block or frame
» Severely Errored Seconds (SES) – Length of time during
which a major alarm (LOS, LOF, AIS, Etc.) is recorded or
when 30% of the frames received in one second contain errors
» Unavailability – Length of time where SONET equipment is
not available (beginning after 10 consecutive SES)
53
• THANK YOU !
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
• Introduction
SONET(Synchronous Optical Network) or SDH(Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) as it's known in Europe, is a set of standards for interfacing Operating Telephone Company(OTC) optical networks. They are a set of global standards for interfacing equipment from different vendors(One of the few where telephony is concerned). SONET is the protocol for North America and Japan while SDH is the definition for Europe. The differences between SONET and SDH are slight.

2

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
• SDH Advantages versus PDH
PDH principle
E1

E2 E3
E3

E2

E1

Channel n°7

E4

Channel n°7

3

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
• SDH Advantages versus PDH
SDH principle

channels

SDH Equipment

Add/Drop multiplexer

SDH Equipment

Channel n°X

Channel n°Y

4

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
• SDH Advantages versus PDH
SDH is based on the principal of direct synchronous multiplexing. Essentially, separate, slower signals can be multiplexed directly onto higher speed SDH signals without intermediate stages of multiplexing. SDH is more flexible than PDH and provides advanced network management and maintenance features. Can be used in the three traditional telecommunications areas: long-haul networks, local networks and loop carriers. It can also be used to carry CATV video traffic.

5

080 933.Bit Rates Optical Electrical Level Level OC-1 OC-3 OC-9 OC-12 OC-18 OC-24 OC-36 OC-48 OC-96 6 Line Rate (Mbps) 51.56 622.120 1244.240 2488.160 1866.520 466.320 4976.640 9953.84 155.280 SDH Equivale nt --STM-1 STM-3 STM-4 STM-6 STM-8 STM-13 STM-16 STM-32 STM-64 STS-1 STS-3 STS-9 STS-12 STS-18 STS-24 STS-36 STS-48 STS-92 STS-192 OC-192 .

488 Gbit/s 9. 080 Mbit/s 2. 520 Mbit/s 622.Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Bit Rates International organization defined standardized bit rates : 155.953 Gbit/s STM1 STM4 STM16 STM64 7 .

8 .Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH : Standard Frame Representation 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 Bit Transmission Byte Transmission Standard Frame Representation The Standard STM1 Frame is 9 Rows x 270 Columns and is completely transmitted in 125 µs.

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH : Standard Frame Representation Everywhere in the world. the standard SDH frame representation is a : MATRIX with 9 rows How to read the matrix 1 9 9 .

08 Mbps 36 Col 9 Rows Section Overhead STM16 4.044 Col 622.Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH frame structure 9 Rows Section Overhead STM1 261 Col 155.176 Col 2488.52 Mbps Each Frame is Sent in 125µs! 9 Col 9 Rows Section Overhead STM4 1.32 Mbps 144 Col 10 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH frame structure All SDH frames have the same structure : Section OverHead SOH Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH) Pointer Payload (data) Multiplexing Section Overhead (MSOH) 11 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Transport Overhead : SOH R SOH A1 A1 A1 Pointer A2 A2 A2 J0 B1 D1 E1 F1 D3 D2 (Payload) STM1 frame AU4Pointer AU4 pointer B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D7 D10 S1 D5 D8 D11 M1 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2 M SOH 12 .

May be used for network exploitation D1-D3 : Data communication Channel at 192 Kbit/s. B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D7 D10 S1 D5 D8 D11 M1 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2 13 .Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Transport Overhead : SOH A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 B1 D1 E1 D2 F1 D3 A1 and A2 : frame alignment word B1 : Regenerator setion error monitoring J0 : STM1 identifier (16 bytes word) E1 : Service channel (transport a 64 Kbit/s channel) F1 : user channel.

S1 : bytes of synchronization status M1 : Binary code for number of errored blocks E2 : service channel at 64 Kbit/s B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D7 D10 S1 D5 D8 D11 M1 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2 14 .Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Transport Overhead : SOH A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 B1 D1 E1 D2 F1 D3 B2 : Multiplexing section error monitoring K1 and K2 : Automatic protection switching signalling D4-D12 : Data communication Channel at 576 Kbit/s.

The tributaries coming into a multiplexer may have been created with a clock running at a different speed. 15 . remember that this is a SYNCHRONOUS network.Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Transport Overhead : AU 4 pointer A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 J0 B1 D1 E1 D2 F1 D3 B2 B2 B2 K1 D4 D7 D10 S1 D5 D8 D11 M1 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2 The secret to making SDH work is the payload pointer. They are not necessarily aligned with each other or with the clock in the multiplexer. To resolve this problem. the SDH multiplexer finds the beginning of a frame for each tributary.

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Transport Overhead : AU4 pointer In order to illustrate the pointer working. have a look on the following picture : The container can move inside the wagon STM 1 155 Mbit/s 16 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Transport Overhead : AU4 pointer You have exactly the same phenomenon in SDH : Beginning of VC4 17 .

It has mechanisms for dealing with tributaries that are not running at the same clock rate.Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH Multiplexing SDH is a new way of multiplexing slow signals onto a faster signal. 140 Mbit/s E4 150 Mbit/s E4 E4 VC4 VC4 155 Mbit/s STM 1 STM 1 STM 1 18 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH Multiplexing Translation of the previous picture in SDH language : R SOH Payload STM1 frame M SOH P O H VC4 E4 19 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH Multiplexing STM4 frame R SOH M SOH Payload VC4 P O H VC4 P O H VC4 P O H VC4 P O H E4 E4 E4 E4 20 .

VC3 P O H = TU-3 P O H VC3 = TU-3 P O H VC3 = TU-3 E3 (A) E3 (B) E3 (C) P O H S T U F F S P P P T O O O U H H H F F 21 .Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH Multiplexing : another example (E3=>STM1) You can map 3 E3 (34 Mbit/s) onto one STM1.

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH Multiplexing : another example (E3=>STM1) STM1 frame R SOH Payload M SOH P O H VC4 22 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • The SDH Multiplexing map xN E4 (140 Mbit/s) C4 VC4 AU4 STM-N x3 E3 (34Mbit/s) C3 VC3 TU3 x1 TUG-3 x7 TUG-2 E1 (2Mbit/s) C12 VC12 TU12 x3 23 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • What is the « concatenation » ? STM4 frame R SOH M SOH Payload VC4 VC4 VC4 Concatenated VC4 (VC4-4c) VC4 24 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • What are the different « concatenation » possibilities? STM1 1 standard VC4.No concatenation ! SOH VC4 25 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • What are the different « concatenation » possibilities? STM4 4 standard VC4 1 concatenated VC4-4c VC4-4c SOH VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 SOH 26 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • What are the different « concatenation » possibilities? STM16 16 standard VC4 4 concatenated VC4-4c 1 concatenated VC4-16c VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4 VC4-4c VC4-4c VC4-4c VC4-4c VC4-16 27 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • What are the different « concatenation » possibilities? 64 standard VC4 16 concatenated VC4-4c 4 concatenated VC4-16c 1 concatenated VC4-64c STM64 28 .

you need a special system called « justification » each time you want to map a tributary. But in pratical. If you want to adapt the speed variation. the E4 speed can be a little bit faster or slower than the theorical speed. 29 .Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • What is the « Justification » ? E4 C4 In theorie. the E4 speed should be the same than the C4 speed.

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • What is the « Justification » ? E4 C4 J U S T J U S T J U S T Positive justification When the tributary is slower E4 C4 J U S T J U S T J U S T 30 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • What is the « Justification » ? E4 C4 J U S T J U S T Negative justification When the tributary is faster J U S T E4 C4 J U S T J U S T 31 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH architecture basics Terminating equipment Repeaters STM1/4/16/64 Regenerator section Multiplexing section VC4 high path 32 .

It is the smallest entity which can managed by the system. B1 errored blocks . Each repeater monitors defects such as Loss Of Signal.. Loss Of Frame. By passing through a repeater.. the R-SOH is fully recalculated. 33 .Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH architecture basics : Regenerator section Terminating equipment Repeaters STM1/4/16/64 Regenerator section is the basic segment of SDH network.

Manage the Automatic Protection Switching wtih K1 and K2 bytes. Regenerated a complete SOH. 34 .Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH architecture basics : Multiplexing section Terminating equipment Repeaters STM1/4/16/64 The multiplexing section is the entity delimitated by 2 equipment which process the payload of an STM-N. Detects defects and errored blocks and generated special alarm in the forward and backward direction.

A VC4 can be affected to one customer. 35 .Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH architecture basics : VC4 high path Terminating equipment Repeaters STM1/4/16/64 The VC4 High Path is an entity which transport a C4 container from end to another end of a network.

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH equipments : Terminal Multiplexer » Input: Low Bit Rate and PDH/T-Carrier Tributaries » Output: High Bit Rate SDH Signals 6701 3'+ 7&DUULHU 36 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH equipments : Regenerator » Input: STM-N Synchronous Signal » Output: STM-N Synchronous Signal » Reconditions Transmission To Minimize Jitter. Dispersion. Etc. 6701 6701 37 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH equipments : Transponder (λ Converter) » Input: STM-N Synchronous Signal at λ1 » Output: STM-N Synchronous Signal at λ2 » Changes the Wavelength of the Transmission Signal λ1 6701 6701 λ2 38 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH equipments : Add/Drop Multiplexer » Input: STM-N Synchronous Signal » Output: STM-N Synchronous Signal » Allows the Extraction and Injection of Synchronous Tributaries 6701 6701 'URS 39 $GG .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • SDH equipments : Digital Cross Connect » Input: Many STM-N Optical Signals » Output: Many STM-N Optical Signals » Allows Routing of STM-N Signals at High Data Rates 670 1 6701 6701 670 1 40 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) s s Core or Transport Very High Bit Rates DWDM Required Local or Access: Low Bit Rates No DWDM Metropolitan Local or Access s Core or Transport Metropolitan Higher Bit Rates Possible DWDM 41 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Network Topology Traditional networks make use of Point to Point. Mesh and Hub (i.e Star) arrangements : Mesh Point to Point Hub but SDH allows these to be used in a much more comprehensive way. 42 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Network Topology SDH enables the previous arrangements to be combinated with Rings and Chains of ADMs (Add/Drop Multiplexer) : Ring Chain 43 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Network Topology Point to Point » Large Capacity (with DWDM) » Few Links » Example: Intercontinental Submarine Links MUX MUX 44 .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Network Topology Ring. Tree and Star » Differing Capacity » Many Links » Example: Access Networks MUX ADM ADM MUX ADM ADM ADM ADM MUX ADM MUX ADM ADM MUX MUX ADM 45 . Bus.

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Network Topology • Mesh » Many Links » High Capacity » Example: Transport Networks ADM ADM ADM ADM ADM ADM 46 .

. . . . . . . WORKING Channel N Backup 1 PROTECT . • 1+1 Protection » Most Redundant » Most Expensive Channel 1 Channel 2 . . . Backup 2 .Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) s Network protection : Each Bidirectional SDH Channel (2 Fibers) has a dedicated backup channel (2 Fibers). Backup N 47 .

. . . WORKING Channel N PROTECT Backup 48 .Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) s Network protection : Every Bidirectional SDH Channel (2 Fibers) shares a dedicated backup channel (2 Fibers). . • 1:N Protection » Least Redundant » Most Efficient Channel 1 Channel 2 . .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) s Network protection : ring protection ADM ADM ADM ADM ADM ADM ADM ADM 49 .

That ’s the reason why it ’s very important for an operator to check the correct working of APS. The recommendation give 50 ms (max) to recover a correct signal. The main parameter is the switch duration.Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) s Network protection : During an Automatic Protection Switching. 50 . the network loses traffic (= the operator loses money!!!).

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Quality standard » ITU-T G.2100 – Performance limits for system turn-up and maintenance » ITU-T G.826 – Quality parameters.783 – Recommendation for automatic protection switching and standardized pointer movements It Is Important To Know That We Are Compliant With These Standards 51 . objectives and calculations for bit rates at or above the primary rate » ITU-T G.821 – Error performance of a digital connection operating below the primary rate » ITU-T M.

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • Quality parameters » Errored Seconds (ES) – Seconds during which there is at least one error per block or frame » Severely Errored Seconds (SES) – Length of time during which a major alarm (LOS. Etc.) is recorded or when 30% of the frames received in one second contain errors » Unavailability – Length of time where SONET equipment is not available (beginning after 10 consecutive SES) 52 . AIS. LOF.

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) • THANK YOU ! 53 .

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