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PBSO Nurse Arrest Ruling

PBSO Nurse Arrest Ruling

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Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 1 of 27

UNI TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT SOUTHERN DI STRI OF FLORI CT DA

Cas No. 1 80374- ve 1Ci Hopki ns
M ARJ E DEPALI LACHAUD, ORI SPli tf, a n if
VS.

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KENNETH E. NOEL,e a . t l, Defnda s e nt.

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ORDER GR ANTI I PART AND DENYI I PART NG N NG N

DEFENDANTS' OTI FOR S M ARY JUDGM ENT ( 1 )AND M ON UM DE 6
GM NTI I PART AND DENYI I PART PLAI FF' CRO SS- OTI FOR NG N NG N NTI S M ON PARTI SUM M ARY JUDG M ENT ( 22) AL DE

THI CAUS i b f r t i Co ru o h p is c nsn t ma itaej d e midcin S E s eo e hs u t p nt e m e ' o e to gsr t u g j s ito
a a Or rr f ri t i t ntca et t u r i d Unied Stt M ag sr t J nd n de e e rng he nsa s o he nde sgne t aes ita e udgef rtna o l l

ds o iin.( 2 , 8 . ip sto DE 7 2 ) P e e tyb f r h Co r aetep ris co smoins o s mmo j d me t De e a t r sn l eo ete u t r h a t ' r s - to f r u e u g n . fnd n s fld t i moi n f rs mmayj d me to De e e 1 ,2 1 ( 1 ) Plitf tld h r ie her to o u r u g n n c mb r 5 01 . DE 6 . an if se e

r s o s t De e d n s mo ina daco smoinf r ril u r ud me t nDe e e 2 , e p n e o fn a t' to n r s- to o pata s mmayj g n o c mb r 6
2 1 ( 2 ) Thee fe,Plitf fld a sae n offcs ( 45 ,a d Dee a t Gld 01 . DE 2 . ra tr an if it ttme t a t DE ) n fnd ns e
r pons /e ypa r.( 58,59,60) s motonsaenow rpefrt sCour' rviw. es erpl pes DE .The e i r i o hi ts e e
BACK GRO UND

Pli ifi ta e t sc vi rght lws tf l nga i i ntt toc uredont eve ng antf niit d hi i l i s a ui olowi n ncde ha c r he ni
ofJ 1 2009,whie s waswor ng asa nur e a t U .S.Depa t une 7, l he ki s t he rmentofVeer nsAfa r t a f is

Medial ntri Pal Be hCount Fl i (ç A.'.Se Ame dCompli ( 1 .Ont t c Ce e n m ac y, orda $ ' e nde V. ) antDE 2) ha
eve ng,a pa i ntwa a itd t t V .A. o iju e hes tie i a c ra cd n . S o t ni te s dm te o he f r nti s usan d n a c ie t h rl y

Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 2 of 27

t r fe ,a ap oxi ael 1 00 p.m . De e ntNoel a de y s rf wih t Pal Bea h he ea tr t pr m t y 0: , f nda , put he if t he m c Co y She if sDe rment a rve a t V. t c unt rf pa t , ri d t he A. o onduc a i r t n mpaimenta s s e oft s es m nt he

pai n rve . Se D e e ntN o ' De . Tr a p.1 - 9 21( 1 - ) Afe itr iwi gte te vd i r e f nda els p . t 8 1 , DE 7 1 . tr n e ve n h

p te t Dee a tNo ls s ce t a h h d b e d i i u d rt e itu n e (DUI' and ain , fnd n e u pe td h t e a e n rvng n e h nl e c ( ', $ )
Def nda Noelwa ed t t abl s mpl rghta y i or rt c im hi s pi on. See e nt nt o ake ood s e i wa n de o onfr s us ci
NoelDe Tr a p. 25. p. . t 24-

At ppr ma el 1 30p. .De e nt la oa he t nur es sai a de a d a oxi t y 0: m , f nda Noe ppr c d he s ' t ton nd m nde t ts e c lc a bl s mpl fom t pa int Se Noe De Tr a pa s26 28; a n ips ha om one ole t ood a e r he te . e l p . t ge , Pli tf

De Tr a p g s3 - ( 1 -) Plitf a a ohe n re Li Deni on,expli t p. . t a e 9 40 DE 7 5 . an if nd n t r u s , nda s aned o
Defnda Noel ha t V. .Spolc pr cude t fom c lc i t bl . SeeNoe De Tr e nt t t he A ' iy e l d hem r ole tng he ood l p. . a pag 43,44; ai ipsDe Tr a pa s28, 35 44, Def ntNoelt n ad s d Pli if t es Pl ntf p. . t ge , 93. enda he vie antf a Nur eDe s t thene de t bl s mpl f hi DUIi si atona t ti t y f ie nd s nion ha e d he ood n e or s nve tg i nd ha f he a ld tc o ompl wih hi or r t y woul beo tuci hi i tgai , i vi a i ofFl i Stt e y t s de ,he d bsr tng s nvesi ton n olton orda a ut

j8 30 a dh wo l ars te S eNo l p. . t g s2 - 0) anifsDe Tr atpages 4 .2, n e u d re th m. e e De Tra pa e 8 3 Plitf p .
.

47,49. De e f ndan Noe a i die t Pli ift dr w t pa intsbl . Se NoelDe Tr a t l gan r ced antf o a he te ' ood e p. . t pa 30.Ac or ngt Defnda Noelh a k dPan ifç$ar y ug igt d a ti blo , e ge c di o e nt , e se litf,$ le o on o r w h s o d y s g orno, a s sae t '' Se N oe De . Tr atpage30. Howe r a cor ng t Pl ntf , s ' nd he t td No.' e l p . ve , c di o ai if he a s d De e ntNoelt t ç e'e watng f t docor Thedoc orha t m a t de ii n. dvie f nda ha : f r ii or he t . W t s o ke hat cs o W e'ewatngf t doc ort s ei hegi a or rt g t bl . W ec r ii or he t o e f ves n de o et he ood annot a bl fo t ke ood r m
t pa intwihouta docorsor r' SeePli ifsDe Tr a page 44- , 47. he te t t ' de . ' antf p. . t s 45

I a eve ,ti undipu e t tDef nda Noel a dPl ntf i ha ufsa e c t n ny nt i s s t d ha e nt pl ce ai if n ndc f nd s ored
he outi t hi par ca . Se Noe De Tr a page 30- ; antf De . Tr a page 5 5 r sde o s tol r e l p. . t s 31 Pl i ifs p . t s 0, 2
2

Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 3 of 27

54,5 1W he Def nda N oe r tm wdt t V .A .heha dNur eDe s t bl c lc i 7. n e nt l et o he , nde s nion he ood ole ton ki a s dr t bl fom t pa int Se Noe Dep.Tr atpa 34t nd he ew he ood r he te . e l . ges 35, 38. Ther a tr e fe , Def nda Noe r l s d Pl i iffom c t a is d he a notc t a e nt l eea e antf r usody nd s ue r ie o ppea i co ton t r n ur he obsr ton c g Se Noe De . Tr a pa 42;Pl ntf De Tr a pag 61. Uli t l t tuc i har e. e l p . t ge ai ifs p . t e tma ey, he Pal Be ch Count St t Atom e sOfi e de lne t pr e ut t c ge m a y a e t y' fc ci d o os c e he har .

( 1 a !3 , ) DE 2 t 4 91.

l h rAme d dCo an , litf alg st c u t o flear s ( u t Ia dI)a d ne n e mplit P an if l e wo o ns f as re t Co n s n l n e t c u t o flei rs n n ( t sI1a dI a an tDee d n No lbas on pur td wo o ns f as mp io me t Comt l n V) g is fn a t e, ed pore
vi a i of heFo t Am e oltons t urh ndme a t Equa Pr eci Clus of heFouree hA me m e . nt nd he l ot ton a e t t nt nd nt

( 1 )2Plitf as alg savo aino h rF u t Ame d n rg t obep oe tdfo a DE 2 . an if lo l e ilto f t o rh e n me t ih t r tce r m n
unr a ona es z ea i t f nd Br ds w ,i hi ofii l apa iya t Pal Be hCount e s bl eiur gans De e ant a ha n s fc a c c t s he m ac y She if Pli ifco e t tt She ifsDe rm e pr rf. antf nt nds ha he rf pa t nt omul td a unl wf polc die i gae n a ul iy r ctng de i t çobt n bl putes o l ai ood s mpl s fom medial safs by a me a e r c tf ny ans i l ng a r t or res , nc udi

i rs n n . t u tVIDE 1 a ! 9 ) Plitf alg sacam o ia e u t taniga d mp io me t' co n I 2 t 2 . an if le e li f n d q ae ri n n '
s r i i a ai t f nda Br ds w , whom s cl mswasde i r t l i fe e t he Fourh upe v son g ns De e nt a ha he ai lbe a ey ndif r nt o r t

Thes vela evi oft nures sai fom t te ni (ubmitdbyPli if m ilnc deo he s ' tton r ha ve ng s te antf i s p o t f rmo in , h wsDee d n No l te tn t h n Pli tf s mehng n u p r o he to ) s o fn a t e atmp ig o a d anif o ti ( r s ma l, b o dc le to kt a 1 :6p. On miu eltr at11: p. .t vi o p e u by a l o o lcin i t 10 m. e n t ae, ) 07 m , he de

s howsDe e ntNoe be nd t nur es sa i , physc lyr movi Pl i iffom herde k f nda l hi ht s ' t ton i al e ng antf r s c ra ha ufi he . Thevi o s hai nd ndc fng r de howst tDe e ntNoeli ha f nda mmedit l es re Pl n if a ey co td aitf fom t e ge y r . SeeDVD r c di ofV. e e ge y r r he mer nc oom e or ng A. m r nc oom s vela e vi o on ur ilnc de

Jme 1 , 0 9 ( 3 ) t 7 2 0 . DE 7 .
orgi '( 1 a !3) I he motonpa r,s cai t t r i çage neis offctms i n. DE 2 t . n r i pes he l ms hat hee s ç nui sue a '
t whehe De e ntN oe s l ce Pli iff ra r s ba edon herr c . o t r f nda l e e td antf o re t s ae
2 Acc di t t Amende Compl i , Pl i ifi ç Bl c U . Ciien ofHata or ng o he d ant antf s : a k S. tz a iin

Plitf alg sta d efnda Noe te td ( r difrntyt n smia'(st2tawhle1) anif l e h tr e nt l rae hel fee l ha i l'yDE 2 tp j 4 . e ae r iuaed t l
pe s ,a Pl i ifsr ceo nai na orgi wast motva i f c ori Defnda Noe ' r ons nd antf a r to l i n he i tng a t n e nt ls s e on ofPl ntf f a r s .' ( 2 a pa e1 ) eldi ai if or re t ' DE 2 t g 6 .
3

Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 4 of 27

Ame d n rg t ( u tVI,a wela t ne l e e camsa ans Dee a tBr d ha n me t ih s Co n ) s l s wo gi nc li g i t fnd n a s w g

( u t VI a dVIl.( 1 ) Co ns 1 n I) DE 2 . I termoin frs mmmyj d me t Dee d nsc ne t t fn a t e i e tte n h i to o u u g n , f n a t o tnd ha Dee d n No l s nild
t q aiidi ni .( 1 ) c r igt termo in Dee d n No l e s n byrle o o u lfe mmu t DE 6 .Ac o dn o h i to , fn a t e r a o a l eid n y
a o ni lte fom t Pa m Be chCount St t Ator y' Ofie, d e M a 1 2008, c n pi on et r r he l a y ae t ne s fc atd y 4, whi h

sae t a tan n rewh r f s g) od a blo wh nrq e tdb alw e o c me to fc r ttd h tt l y u s o e ue s t rw o d e e u se y a nfr e n fie g
i i vilto o F o ia S aue j 8 30 a a tv l o sr cig a p lc o fc ri hi lwf l s n oain f l rd ttt 4 .2 s ci ey b tu tn o ie fie n s a u iv si to ' ( 7 4 .Dee d n sfrhe c n e dta te ei n r c r e ie c t s p o t n e t in. DE1 -) fn a t u t r o tn h t h r s o e o d vd n e o u p r ga '
a oft cai i t Ame ed Compli , a t tbec us t ewa t r uabl pr bl c us ny he l ms n he nd ant nd ha a e her s t g e oba e a e a

f r( litf jars . . ocam i va l. ( 1 a pa e 5 6 o P an ifs re t . n li s ibe' DE 6 t g s - ) '
.

l he o p iinpa esa d co smoin f rsl r j d me , Pl i ifcontndst t n r p osto p r n r s - to o l mmay u g nt antf e ha
ç f nda t 'r i nc on t St t Ator y' opi on a abassf a cai ofqualfed i miy t e n s ela e he ae t ne s ni s De i or l m ii mmt t i notge m a be us i i wel s tl t tonl t c t ar c r d wih i e r t to of s r ne ca e t s l e ted ha y he ours e ha ge t nt m e ai n sa ut ,a a gene a couns lorsa e at ne sopi on i not1w and c nnotbet ba i f r tt es nd rl e tt tor y' ni s a a he ss o vi ai n ofFourho Foure nt Amendme rght .'( 2 a p g s - ) Ac o dn t Plitf, olto t r te h nt i s ' DE 2 t a e 6 7 . c r ig o an if

De e d n s s mma yj d me tmoi ns o l b d n e be a s fn a t' u r u g n to h u d e e id c u e
De yNoe a t dbe put l c e yondt s peofhi a hort . Hea r se and he co s ut iy retd dea ne Pl i ifoutoffusr ton a a r t s ta e ti d antf r tai nd nge , o e n xnmpl and e, t compe t V A sa ft dr w t bl i vi a i n ofVA polc o l he t f o a he ood n olto iy a m e c pr t ol ... De e ntNoe di notha a g bl nd di al o oc f nda l d ve r ua t pr bl ca e.. De e n skne ors dha knownt y ha oba e us . f nda t w houl ve he d no a hort t a r ta i ion f obsr c i a ofi e . . . ut iy o res nd mprs or tu tng n fc r

( 2 a p g s1 1 ) P an ifc ne d t t hei e t ldt s mmmyj d me t nh rF u t DE 2 t a e 0- 1 . litf o tn s ha s s ni e o u t u g n o e o rh
Ame e cli i Count 1 11 V,a VI I ndm nt a ms n s , 1, nd . d.

4

Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 5 of 27

DI SCUSSI ON A. Sum m aryJudEm e St nt andar asi Applv i O ualfe I uniy Cas s d t is n ii d mm t e
-

Rue5 () f h F d rl lso Ci iPr c d r a t o ie sl r j d me wh r t e l 6 c o t e e e a Ru e f vl o e u e uh rz s ' mma y u g nt ee h
pl di ands ea ngs uppori ma e i l e tbls t tt r i noge neis a t a ma e i f c and tng t ras sa ih ha he e s nui s ue s o ny t ral a t

t e vn p ryi e tte t u g n a amatr lw SeeAndersonv.fi rt obby, I .477 h mo ig a t s nild oj d me t s te ofa be yL nc ,
.

U. 2 2 2 8 ( 9 6 . The is e f rte c u ti l te te e ie c p e e t a s f in S. 4 , 4 1 8 ) su o h o r s t h r h vd n e r s ns u fce t whe
ds g e me torq ies b s int a(a t id r o wh t e ii s o e sd dt a o ep rymus ia re n t e ur u miso o fc fn e) r eh rts o n -ie h t n at t
pr vai asam at rofl 'Ale v T o Foods I . 1 F. e l te aw. ln ys n ' , nc , 21 3 6 2, 4 ( 1h Ci.1 9 ) Th d 4 6 6 1 t r 9 7. e
.

m ovi pa t bea st bur n ofe t ihi t a e eofag nui is a t a matra f . ng ry r he de sabls ng he bs nc e ne s ue s o ny e i l act I I t movi pa t me t isbur n, i i up t t nond f he ng ry e s t de t s o he movi pary t pr f rçs ii f c s ng t o ofe fpecfc a t s howi t tt r i age neis f til' ndt tçhe e de ei s h t t ng ha he e s nui s ue or ra 'a ha t vi nc s uc ha t

ara o a l j r e s n be u y
.

c dr t nave ditf t no m o ngpa t .'Ande s n, U. a 248) l e v Catet,477 oul e ur r c or he n- vi ry ' r o 477 S. t Ceotx r t

U.. 7 3 4( 9 6 .l rv e n tee ie c ,h c u t s ç rw a1 e s n bl ifrn e i S 31 , 2 1 8 ) n e iwi g h v d n e te o r mu t s a 1 ra o a e n ee c s n d
f vor of t non- ovi pa t , a i ma notm a c e biiy de e m i tons or wegh t a he m ng ry nd t y ke r di lt t r na i i he evi nc ' Ree s v Sande s Pl de e.' ve . r on umbig Pr ., I c,5 0 U..1 3,1 0 ( 0 0 .S e alo n ods n . 3 S 3 5 20) e s

An e s n 4 7U. . t2 5(hed src c u t tr me e ta ç rdbit d tr n to , t d r o , 7 S a 5 t itit o r mus e mb r h t ç e i l y eemiains he c i

weg igo e i e c , n t ed a ngo lgtmaeifrn e fo tefcsae u yf n to snot ihn f v d n e a d h r wi fe ii t n ee c s r m h a t r j r u cin ,
t s o aj d e' ho e f u g '. ) Th us a s e u lumma y u g n a ay i st o t a o ei a ple s me a u iu l i c s s r j d me t n lss e f rh b v s p id o wh t nq ey n a e
whe e ade e ntr iesaqualfed i r f nda a s ii mmuniy de e e. Alh u hçd ip tso e ra o be e s t f ns t o g s ls u e v r e s na ln s l

a eu u l fc q e to fr u is'i q aiidi n t c s scourssarenotconcer wiht r s al a t u sins o j re y n u lfe mmu iy a e , t t y ' ned t he
c r c nes oft de e nt c ore t s he f nda s' onduc , b tr te t i be tv r a o b e e s o terc o e t u ah r he o j cie e s na ln s ' f h i h s n

Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 6 of 27

c s ofa ton gi n t cic sa esconfo i t m a t s ne.' fe our e c i ve he r um tnc r ntng he t he ce ' nnon v M ilr 66 F . le ,

.

3 d

41 , 21( dCi. 9 5 . 64 2 r19 )
Thus tfa yr a ona eti roff c c d 5ndt tt def nt 'a tonswe e ,t n e s bl re a t oul i ha he enda s c i r
.

o j ciey be tv l

t e s n b e t nted fn a t a en t n ildt s mmo j d me t An ofi er' actonsar mra o a l,he h ee d n s r o e tte o u ug n tc s i e o j ciey u r a o a l whe n o fc rofra o a l c mp tn e c ud ha ema et es me b e tv l n e s n b e n o f e e s n be o ee c o l v d h n
c c i sm ia cic sanc .' l a 420- .Ac r ngl , S f hec t t r i st tt onl hoie n i l r r um t es ' d. t 21 co di y s t our de e m ne ha he y i

c n l so ar t n l uyc u dra h i ta ra o a l o fc r wo l d sg e a o t h lg lt o cu in ai a j r o l e c s h t e s n be fies u d ia re b u t e e ai o y
of t de enda s cond t unde t c r um sanc , he f nt ' uc r he ic t es
a oprae. I a 421 ppr i t ' d. t . '

s mmay j d me t f r t o fc r i u r u g n o he fi es s

I e ua i aqua ii d i t t de e e c t mus c i t f c si t r c d. l n val tng lfe mm miy f ns , ours t onsder he a t n he e or f Et f c ua r c d i no i s rousdipu e . . . (l ut t lg l eemiain wh t r. . ihe a t l e or s t n e i s t the lmae e a d tr n to ehe . a i r as bl polceofi e s d ha kno hea t u a uly i aq si oflw be trlf f e ona e i fc r houl ve wn ced nlwf l s ue ton a te e t or

t c u tod cd . I ( o ig Wa r nv Dwy r 9 6F.d7 , 6( dCi.1 9 :. he o r t e ie' d qu tn re . e , 0 2 0 7 2 r 9 0 '
I c e whe et r ar matra quesi off c , te emu tb d cd db aj r s t a n as s r he e e e i l tons a t h s s e e i e y u y o h t

t ec u t a t e a pl tej r ' fcu l eemi to st telw a de trapo ttil e ii n h o r c n h n p y h u ys a t a d tr nain o h a n n e s-ra d cso
on t def ns Johns v Br e e , 0F.d 1 0 ,1 1 ( 1 Ci. 0 2 (% ej r i efd cde he e e. on . e d n 28 3 3 8 3 8 1 * r 2 0 )çh u y t l e i s s t is ofhit rc lf c t ta edeer i tveoft q ii di uniydef ns he s ues s o i a a t ha r t m na i he ualfe mm t e e
,

b th u yd e u tej r o s

no a y t lw r ltngt qualfe i uniy t t ehit ialf c si fnds t ti t courts t ppl he a ea i o i d mm t o hos sorc a t t i ; ha s he '

dly: 3 l 1 t
3 Asa a i , t eCo r rj csP an ifsr p ae a s ri ni h rmoi pa esta n sde h u t ee t litf e e td se to n e t on p r h t c ran fndigst Diti tCour madei isde ii o t m o i n t dim is ar fnala e ti i n he src t n t c son n he to o s s e i nd bi
,

ndi ( 22a pa s4,6,1 1 1 ) Pli ipsr inc ont DititCour' denilof ng. DE t ge 0, 2, 3 . antf ela e he src ts a Dee a s motont dimis( 11 , c wa de de pro t t be t ofdic r , i fnd nt' i o s s DE ) whih s ci d ir o he nek sove y s miplc db c us çh sa d r sa pia l t moin f rs mmayj gme ta dmo in t s a e e a e d e tn ad p lc b e o to s o u r ud n n to s o t
6

Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 7 of 27

B. Ar guabl Pr e obabl Caus and Oualfe I m uniy e e ii d m t
Rahert ne ua i whe he De e an N oe ha a t l obabl c us t a r tPli if t ha val tng t r f nd t l d c ua pr e a e o res antf
,

t Co twilfr t c i r t l s one ous que ton of whet r Def nda Noelposes ed he ur l is onsde he es r si he e nt s s d r bl pr bl ca e't a r s he , t e ilng hi t qualfe i muniy. See Dtv. v t gua e oba e us ' o re t r hus ntti a m o ii d m t z/ . ç Wilams, F. 75 76 ,n. ( 1: rz o co rb g na ayss t ag a l p o a l c u e li 451 3d 9, 4 7 1 tci. o ot u t e a n l i wih r u be r b be a s
be a e i t r wasa i ufii nts c us f he e n ns fc e howi oft l s e bur n t n t r woul c e ry be a ng he e s r de he he e d lal n ,

i s fiin s o n t s p o th h ih e e b r no a t l r b bl c u e n u fce t h wig o u p r te eg tn d u de f cua p o a e a s )
.

As t Elve h Cicui has hel , Eth d crn o q aiid i nt p o d s ta he e nt r t d d l e o tie f u lfe mmu iy r vie h t l t r gove nmen ofi a spe f m i dic ei nay f to ge r ly a e s el d fom la lt f t fcil ror ng s r to r unc ins ne a l r hi de r ibiiy or ci lda a si of rast i c vi m ge ns a her onduc doe not olt cla l e t bls d saut r o c tt i l t s vi a e e ry sa ihe t t o y r onsiutona rght ofwhih ar s bl peron wo dha 110m 19' or v Camer n,3 Fe . Appx.88, i s c ea ona e s ul ve 11 . 'M an . o 62 d

9 ( 1h r J n. , ok lq o igCa ev Esig r 5 5F.d 1 1 , 3 5( 1hCi. 0 ).On e 2 1 tCi. a 21 z o l u tn s . l e , 5 3 3 7 1 2 1 t r20 9 ) c n
an ofi e r ie t a fr ai de e eofqualfe i muniy, t pli ift n bea st bur n fc r as s he fim tve f ns ii d m t he antf he r he de ofs wi t tt ofi e i note ild t i. Har rv. r n s201 W L 63851 *2( 1 Ci. ho ng ha he fc r s ntte o t pe Pe kis 2 8, 11 r

Fe . , Q 2 ( i n Ke tn v Ci o a , 98F.d7 3 7 2( 1h Ci 2 0 b 29 2 3 4ct g a ig . t fMimi 5 3 5 , 6 1 t r 01 :. i y
.

dimisa esgnii a l dif r .' RJSG Pr pe te ,LLC v M ar la Condomi um s s r i fc nty fe ent ' o r is . bel ni Dev lpe s LLC,201 W L 28 eo r 0 90307, # , . ( D. a J n 1 , o tat o g ap an ifma 4 n5 N. Fl. u e 1 zol ld lh u h litf y ç r s on ispl a ngsa t m otont dimissa , i mus dom or i or rt wihsa e t t e di t he i o s s t ge t t e n de o t t nd s mmayj d me ts r t y'tiigfa a ev Dug 'Drh Hou e I ., 146 F.d 832,835 u r u g n cui ' cfn ch nc . f s a n l s , nc 3 ( 1h Ci.1 9 ).Se a s Or v cv S n yIlsfl ty V nu e , L. ,2009 W L 6337121,*23 1 t r 9 8 ) e lo a e . u n se t f e trs C. xr ( D. a Jn.1 , 0 9 ( oigta çh sa d r o rve aes dfe e f . Gi n t tt S. Fl. a 2 2 0 )n tn h tf e tn ads f e iw r o ifr n ) ve ha he t l
t sCour i no bound by t DititCour' r lngsdurng t e ri pha eoft sltga i , hi ts t he src ts ui i he a ler s hi ii ton. S e Br ly v. us o e Ctl i Sc olDit 2011W L 3706567, 6( . Ga. e ante M c ge p// ho zy s ., * M D. Aug. 24,
.

e a sa d r a pl dt mo in t ds s a ds mma yj d me taespaaea dd sic g l tn ads p i o to s o imis n u r u g n r e rt n itn t e

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Her , e e nt lsi tga i of hes pe t dDula ci nta hi e D f nda Noe ' nvesi ton t us c e c de nd sde ii nt a r s c so o r e t Pli ifwe e t s r tona y f tons'c rid o ti t ec t s o h so fca j b d te a ntf r t c e i r unci , ' are u n h o l e f i fiil o uis di r
.

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Fl. 01 lç icein r a 2 ltr srto ay

a t rt icu e tej b-eae po r a d r s o sb l ist tt epu l o fca h s i te uho i n l d s h o r ltd wes n e p n iii e ha h bi fiil a n h y t c
ge r lf flm e ofhi ofi i ldu i s' Se as LIy v V nT s el 31 F d Ap x. 5 ne a ulil nt s fc a te . ). e lo o d . a a s l 8 e . p 7 5 ,
,

75 9

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d te ) Br wnv Ha d c , 1W L 1 5 5 0 * ( D. l. y2 2 lt re ta dtsn ae u is; o . d o k 201 6 5 8 , 3 N. F a Ma , 01 la r s n a ig r

d srto ayp wesit e aef are o t u i gt ep ror n eo (fiesl o ma j bd te , icein r o r f h y r ç rid u d rn h e f ma c f o fc r' n r lo u is c
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wihnt es o eo t ea t o i d lg tdt t e b t ie Ly ïàliigRihv Dolars841 ti h c p f h uh rt ee ae o h m y her mpo n' ctn c y l
.

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ofPli ifvi a e a cla l e t bls saut r orc tt i antf olt d e ry sa ihed t t o y onsiutonalrg ofwhih a r as bl i ht c e ona e pe s woul ha known. ron d ve The pur td vi ai Pli ifal ge , he Fourh Ame m e rg t be fe fom a pore olton a ntf le s r t nd nt i ht o re r n unr a onabl s i e i a clary e tbls d c tt i lrghtofwhi a llw e o es e ezur , s e l sa ihe ons iutona i ch l a nf
r ent cem

ofi e sa ee c e t bea r . Se Davsv.Wilams 45 F.d75 ,7 4, . ( 1hCi. 0 6 ; fc r r xpe t d o wa e e i li , 1 3 9 6 n8 1 t r 2 0 ) s aloRuz l or ev Ci o imi a h, 0 8W L5 81 31 *1 ( D. a De . ee s ide at r . t fM a Be c 2 0 y 3 4 , 2 S. Fl. c

2 ,0 ) I 2 2 08C$ n

a f lea r s c ext t si r i sr i hto wa d aso bi ng pr e ntc e ry hol t ta as r e t ont , hi nquiy s ta g f r r ur ndi ec de l a l ds ha n

ar s ma ewih u p o a ec us viltsteFo rhAme me t) ' . re t d t o t r b bl a e oae h u t nd n l ' )
. . .

A st whehe Defnda Noelvi aed Pli ifsFo t Ame m e rght t quesi o t r e nt ol t antf urh nd nt i hat ton
,

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8

Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 9 of 27

tusworhyi o m ai a es fce i he e ve t wa r nt. . . t r t t nf r ton r ufi intnt ms l s o ra he be ift ta ofe e ha bee ori bengcommit d . . . le ha n f ns s n s i te

Ev ni a ofie e r i h s u g n ta p o a l c u et a r s e it, hem ay silbe e f n fc r rs n i j d me t h t r b b e a s o re t x ss tl
e il dt t pr t c i ofqualfedi uniybas onar uabl pr bl c us . Ast Elvent ntte o he o e tons ii mm t ed g e oba e a e he e h Cic thasnot d, r ui e we do no a oma ialy hol a ofierla e f ma ng a a r t t ut tc l d n fc i bl or ki n res t t whe s en wih t be i ofhi i , t m s outnott have ha , n e t he neft ndsght u o bee s ppore bypr ba e c us . Ra he ,i a ofiervi a e t n u td o bl a e t r f n fc olt s he Consiuto be us helc pr bl ca e t ofi e m a silbe tt i n ca e a ks oba e us , he fc r y tl s eded fo la lt unde t s c hil r m i biiy r he e ond pr ong of t qualGe he i d i uniy a l i be a e hi a i ns di not vi a e ce l mm t nayss c us s cto d olt lary e t bls d saut y orc tt i lrght ofwhih a r s bl sa ihe t t or onsiutona i s c ea ona e pe s woul ha known. r on d ve l wr ula r tc s ,we ha defne t ç l a l esa ihed' n ongf res a es ve i d he ç e ry- t bls ' c pr ong as an Aa gua e pr bl caus ' i r . The fr bl oba e e' nquiy C e ry- t ihe ' t nda dmea t te n i t a r tngofi r f a l esabls d'sa r cl ns ha ve f he resi fce l kspr abl c us , i sile tte t quaii i muniyi t r ac ob e a e he s tl n ild o lfed m t f he e wasa g bl pr bl ca e f t a r t whih i a mor lnint r ua e oba e us or he res, c s ee e sa d t n pr babl ca e. tndar ha o e us l de e m i ng whehe a gua e pr bl c us e ss we as n t r ni t r r bl oba e a e xit k whe he e ona eofke si hes mecr um sa esa t rr as bl f r nt n ic t nc ndpos e sng ssi t s m e knowl d as t Def nda c d ha beleve t t he a e ge he e nt oul ve i d ha pr ba ec us e se t a r t The ei noar ua epr ba ec e o bl a e xit d o res. r s g bl o bl aus i no r as nabl ofk e c d ha f f e o e t r oul ve ound pr bl ca e unde t oba e us r ht t aiy oft cic sa e . ot lt he r um t nc s

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h h dp o a ec u et ar s P an ifb s do ()Flrd S au e9 6 1 334 ) whihpe mis e a r b bl a s o re t litf ae n:i o ia ttt 31 9 1, c r t
.

t f ci ee r tonofabl s mpl i a1 e or me ofkerha r as bl ca et bei he or bl xtaci ood a e f aw nf ce nt t s e ona e us o leve

t a ad ie iv le i asro sa cd n wa t e t ei l e c o ac h l (i F oi aSaue h t rv r n ov d n ei u c ie t s md r h ntu n e f lo o ; i) lrd tt t
j8 0 whihcrmi lz st obsr ci ofanofie ' i si ton;a (i)t Ma 2008 43.2, c i naie he tu ton fc rs nvetgai nd ii he y
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Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 10 of 27

opi onlte fom t Pam Be hCoun ySt t Ato ne ,whihi tu e ni e tr r he l ac t ae tr y c nsr ctdhos t st c pial o ompl t ywih

o d r t d a bo do rs a ars f ro sr cino j tc .( 1 a p g s4 5,7) r es o rw lo r ik n re t o b tu to f usie DE 6 t a e , .
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Ator y' o ni n lte , gi ng hi t a ho iy t a r s Pl n if wasr ona e,t Cour t ne s pi o et r as vi m he ut rt o r e t aitf, eas bl he t
fnds Co v Hai y 391 F.3 25( 'ci. 0 4 t b isr ci e Th r,te d fn a to fc r i x . ne d 1t r 2 0 ) o e n tu tv . e e h ee d n fie s ht outt advie oft pr ec orbef r a r si t pli if on a dr g c r . I hi oug he c he os ut o e r e tng he antf u ha ge n s

s bsq n j1 3a to fr as ar s,h p anif r u dta t o ieo fc rs ul n t ea l u e ue t 98 cin o f le re tt e litf ag e h ts lc fie ho d o b be ap
t i ul t hi s ffom la lt f a e r ous de e mi ton sm pl bec us he obt i a o ns ae m el r ibiiy or n r one t r nai i y a e a ned pr e ut ' bl sngt are tupon e denc t tdi notesa ih pr bl c us .' I a pag 3 os c ors es i o r s vi e ha d t bls oba e a e ' d t e 4.

Th Fis Cic iç g e g) t t a p l n 'p e s t t wa eo tepr s c trs n e rt r uts r ed wi he p el ts rmie ha a v fh o e u o ' wa d a h a
cn nnotm a c l ta f m a t e s bl pr babl ca ede e mi ton i o ar as gialy r nsor n mr a ona e o e us t r nai nt e onabl one.'' e
I Ho ve ,t Co tf d. we r he ur ound t tfhe f c oft c ulai n a t pur toft ha d a t he ons t to nd he por t h ea c dvie obti d s d bef c o e i ot t alt oft cr um sa sa c i r i de e mi ngt e a ne houl a t r d nt he ot iy he ic t nce nd onsde ed n t r ni h
ofi e ' e ilm e t quaii di muniy.'I .c n / n avSetig r 3 3F.d6 5 6 ( t fc rs ntte nt o lfe m t ' d t#fgftt # . i n e , 6 3 4 , 48 7 h ' l z

Ci.z o lp ear s c n u tto wih a pr sc tr ma ln ra o a ln s t a o fc rs r o 4 t r-re t o s lain t o e uo y e d e s n be e s o n fie '
c l i n t tpr bl c us e ssa , t , yhept e tbls q lfe i miy)s ealo oncuso ha oba e a e xit nd hus ma l o sa ih uai d mmt t ; e s
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deer ni a of rse ilme t quaii i t mi ng n fce ' ntte nto lfed mmuniy) Thus,t FistCicui concl d t t t he r r t ude ha
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t r i t o er he e s t m oom i t qualfed i s n he ii mmuniy c l usf c i i bot t f c ofa pr ar es t acul or onsderng h he a t e- r t cons t ton a t pur toft advie r c i d.' Co ,3 F.d a 35. TheCour c utone ula i nd he por he c e e ve ' x 91 3 t t a i d,

Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 11 of 27

howeve ,t t ons t ton comprs onl onef t , nmong m a ' nd t tt ç i yf r hat s ulai c ies y acor ny'a ha he t mar ocus pr
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r la eont Pam Be h Cot yStt Ator y' opi on l tera af ct i ei nc he l ac mt a e t ne s ni e t s a or n ise ua i ast t val ton o whehe , t r unde t t t lt oft cic tnc s ar as bl of e woul ha beleve t et r he o a iy he r umsa e , e ona e fc r d ve i d her o bepr bl c us t a r s Pl i if oba e a e o re t antf.

Theopi onlte r leduponbyDef nda Noel sda e M a 1 , 2008, ndc ude wih ni e tr ei e nt i td y 4 a oncl s t a sgna tr lne f Ba r E. Krs he ,a t t n- l Bea h Cot y St t Ator y i tle i or ry ic r s he he pam c mt ae t ne , b i ut s unsg i ned. Se Le trda e M a 1 , 2008 ( 1 4) l a r t be af m lte i t tt e te t d y 4 DE 7- . t ppeas o or etr n ha he

a de s ei b n ka dtelte b gn f e r( me ' I Thel ter dat oneyearpri t t d r se s ln n h etr e is r a Na ) ' d e t , ed or o he
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.

a e h s ias h ve itree wih (a e oc me ts Drvn Un e te I l n e ( U.. ra o ptl a n efrd t lw nfr e n ') iig d r h nf c D I) ue
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.

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.

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Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 12 of 27

c mpywi a o fc rsrq s f rab o dsmpl c nsi tsa o sr cino j siet e Fl o l t n fie ' e ue t o l o n e o tt e n b tu t f u tc md r a h u o
.

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I i alo sgnii a t tt opi on lte wasnotwrten s cii a l i r pons t t t s s i fc nt ha he ni e t r it pe tc ly n es e o he unde l ngi den .Ra he , helte wasaf m l t ,pu po tdl s ntt hos t st oughout he ryi nci t t r t e tr or eter r re y e o pial hr t Count i r s et wha 1 enf ce ntpe c ve a unc pe ai be orbyhos t lsa f y,n e pons o t aw or me r ei d s oo r tve havi pia t f SeeAf vi ofElza t Par r Fome Ch e Asitn S aeAton y( 2 - ) Th ,hi c s sda t i be h ke , r r if ssa t tt tr e DE 0 1. ust s a e i ditnguiha efom t e whe e apolc of e s s si s bl r hos r ie fc r oughta c fom a pr e ut i medit l dvie r os c or m a ey prort e f c i a a r s .He e Def nda Noe di notc a t he pr ec or sof ei a efo t i o fe tng n r e t r , e nt l d ont c t os ut ' fc n n f r
t co y t s ii f c soft st ton he e unt r d a t V .A.a s ek advi ,prort o nve he pecfc a t he iuai nco e e t he nd e ce i o a r tng Pli ifon t e ni ofJ 1 , 200 4 resi antf he ve ng une 7 9.

Theoper tvequesi f et Cour i whehe Def nt ai tonbe or he ts t r enda Noelsr la eo t opi on ' ei nc n he ni

lte wa o j cieyra o a eo wh te ara o a l o fc rl u dha ec u et b l v t a etr s b e tv l e s n bl r eh r e s n be fie û l v a s o ei e h t wo e
t pr e ut r sa c wastawe , of poi ,oro he wieuntusworhy.' Co 3 F. a 36. he os c o ' dvi e l d f nt t r s r t t ' x, 91 3d t
TheCour fndst t helga a ho iyoft lte i unc ran a t tar as bl of e t i ha t e l ut rt he e tr s e ti nd ha e ona e sc r woul ha vi we iwa iy.I t abs nc ofa l ga pr c dentt s d ve e d t rl n he e e ny e l e e o uppor t opi on lte t the ni e tr he
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4 N ot bl , De e ntNoeldi co a tt Pa m Be ch Count St t Ato ne sOfi e a y f nda d nt c he l a y a e t r y' fc f a ceaye ro t o e ri r whe hee unt r d anohe nur ewho pur t y r f e or dvi a r w a le , n nco e e t r s poredl e us d Def nda Noe ' r que tt obt i a bl s e nt ls e s o an ood ampl fom aDU1s pe t Se Pak rAfi a i a ! er us c . e r e fd vt t ( 1 5 . At ha tme, he pr e ut t ti t os c ora e wih Def nda Noelt tt nur e' co gr ed t e nt ha he s s nduc wasa t

actto f ro tuci n, c t Pal Be h Count St t Ator y' Ofi e uli a ey iai n o bsr to whi h he m ac y a e t ne s fc tm t l de i d t pr e ut .Se Defndan Noe ' Dep. Tr a page 40clne o os c e e e t ls .t s 42.

vi ai ofFl St . 8 02.I Dee ntNoe di notarett tnure buti tad,is olton a. atj 43. d fnda l d rs ha s , nse s ued

5 Eve t e y r a trt i i ntde c i i t Ame d Compli t r i no n hr e ea s fe he ncde s rbed n he nde ant he e s i , ndi ai t tt Pa m Be h Coun y St t Ator y' Ofkeha s c suly pr ec e s c a c ton ha he l ac t ae t ne s f s uc es f l os utd u h c eag ns ahos t lempl . Li wie i doe no a as ai t pia oyee ke s , t s t ppea t tt o ni pr s nt i t r ha he pi on e e ed n he
1 2

Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 13 of 27

pr e ng a hi own pe i, r het pl ea lhi f ih i aone- ye rol unsgnedopi on lte oc edi t s rl we e o ac l s at n a - d, i ni e tr t tf l t c t a ca el w , asaf pr blnke m ehod ofha i s h st tons ha ais o ie ny s a ool oof a t t ndlng uc iua i
.

I a n ny

e n,t eo i o lte wo l n trle ea o t ro hsS u y t e e cs ( s p o e son l ve t h pnin etr u d o eiv n f ke f i f t o x rie hi) r fsi a d j d me t'I F rt s r a o s t eCo r fn st a teo iinlt ri no afco t a weg s u g n. é o he e e s n ,h u ti d h th pno e t s t a tr h t ih ' e
he viy i De enda Noe ' f vori dee mi ngwhe he unde t t alt oft cr a l n f nt ls a n tr ni t r r he ot iy he icumsa s t nce
,
,

he i e ild t q lûe i mt t a ama trofl w . s ntte o uai d m miy s te a

2. W oul aR eas d onabl Of e have Re i on Fl . S a . 31 1 3 e lc r led a t tj 6.9 3 asgi nghi t LegalAut i t Or rt colecti of vi m he horW o de he l on
a Bl Sam pl ood e?
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Se ton 31 1 oft Fl i St t e pr desasf l w s ci 6. 933 he orda aut s ovi olo :

I a l e or me ofke haspr bl ca e t beleve t ta f aw nf ce nt f r oba e us o i ha m o orve c edrve by ori t a t physc lcontolofape s n t hil i n n he cual ia r ro unde t i l nc o aco lcbe r ge , a c m i a s t nce , r he nfue e f l ho i ve a s ny he c l ubsa s ora c r l s tnc sha ca e t deah ors rousbodiy ny ontoled ubsa e s us d he t ei l

ij r o ah ma b i , lw e f re n o fc rs al e ur t nu y f u n eng a a n o c me t fie h lr q ie he
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bele t theha t a r tl la ho iy t i s s h a or r ived ha d he ppa en ega ut rt o s ue uc n de . Exa esofl wf or r , c whe diobe d ha bee f mpl a ul de s whih n s ye ve n oundt s o uppor a a r tf t n res or

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t i iton c o nss ompla a t e or et ti it ewih a r twhe et r co d s ince nd o nf c ha ns senc t res r he e r howst tt r ha he e we eno cr m sa swa r i t s' 1 a 1 95- 6. l o he wor , t cour f r icu tnce rantng hi. ' d. t 0 9 n t r ds he t ound t tt ha he pl i ifwa notoblgaedt obe t ofi e sor r f a 1 96.Se alo Bar i v St e,807 antf s i t o y he fc r' de . #. t 0 e s ros . at

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r a ona ede a a t ti t xc de r s nabl lw e or men pr dtr a ne ds' Reese, e s bl m nd nd ha t t ee d ea o e a nf ce t oce le nd e . ' e
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a o t obsr tonbec us a s tf rh a m unt o tuci a e, s e o t bove, f nda Noe di not vet lwf la hort De e nt l d ha he a u ut iy
t is t unr as bl or r o s ue he e ona e de .Ast c s sdic s d erle i t sde ii n e an, r a he a e s us e i r n hi c so xpl i whe e n ofke l kst l ala hort t is a o de , hepe s a who i i die t i w ihi t i f r ac he tg ut iy o s ue n r r t r on t m t s r c ed s t n her

rg t t rf s t c mpy. e Re s v He b r, 2 F.d1 5 ( 1h r2 08 ; o v Ha d c , ih so eu e o o l S e e e . r e t5 7 3 2 3 1 tCi. 0 ) Br wn . d o k

2 1W L 1 5 8 ( D. I . a 2 2 1)C. (v Sa e 7 So3 1 9 ( a DitCtAp 2 1; 01 65 5 0 N. F a M y , 01 ) B . tt, 6 .d 0 3 Fl. s. . p. 01 )
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t r us De e n Noe ' or r he di no ha pr bl c us t a r s he f a lgt y o ef e f nda t ls de , d t ve oba e a e o r t t r or le dl obsr tng hi i tga in. The Co tfndsDef nda Noe ' r po e t t e tuci s nvesi to ur i e nt ls es ns o he ncountrt be e o

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bei ve t the c d lwf l a r tt ntre on dut unde t ecic t nce . le d ha oul a uly res he ls y r hos r umsa s

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tty ial, h sc l o d c mu ta c mpa ywo d t s p o t c r eo o sr cin. Sat v d lp c l p y ia c n u t s c o n r s o u p r a hag f b tu to ' t e . l y ' fe o k , 7So.d7 4 7 7( a Dit Ct Ap 2 0 .Th f lo n ç e ea p o o iin' a gn sy 2 3 9 , 9 Fl. s. . p. 01 ) e ol wi g i n r l r p sto 'h s g b e a pl d t j8 30 e n p i o 4 .2: e
I apolc ofi eri note ge i e utngpr es on ape s i f i e fc s nga d n xec i oc s r on, s notlgaly deti ng t tperon,orha not a ke t pe s f e l a ni ha s s s d he r on or a ssanc wih a ong ng eme ge y t tpr e sa s roust ea s it e t n oi r nc ha es nt e i hr t ofi i nt r t pe s orpr ry,heperon' wo dsal ca mm ne ha m o ron ope t t s s r one n r r l i e r rs t t lvelofa obsr c i Thus obsr c i a ey, f ve , ie o he e n t u ton. , tu tve c onduc r t t nofe i wor a enor l r uie t s t aher ha f nsve ds r maly eq r d o uppo t r ac c i unde t ssa ut onviton r hi tt e.

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( 1hCi.2006)tFl i c t ha ge r l hel wih vey lmied e ptons t tphysc 1t r (t orda ours ve nealy d, t r i t xce i , ha ial c onduc mus ac ompa ofe i wor t s t t c ny fnsve ds o uppor aco ci unde j8 02;'hee e i t nviton r 43. 't xc ptons
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b ig 1 sr igprc s; )lg l d tii apes n; r3 a kn f ra ssa et f a Fr n i en : ) e vn o e s 2 e al eanng ro o ) s ig o sitnc lc/ g a cs y ï
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.

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a unnmbi nd guousi e t pr c i onl a t orc nt nt o os rbe y c s onduc ha ope a et physcal oppos a ofi e tt t r t o i ly e n fc r

i t ep ro ma c o lwf d te .). n h ef r n e f a ul uis')8 '
He e,t r i no e de t t Pli if e r he e s vi nce ha a ntf ngag i a physc l conduc t pr ve ed n ny ia t o e nt Defnd Noe fo obt ni abl s e ant l r m ai ng ood nmpl fo t pa int l d, n unde Def nts e r m he te . ndee eve r enda ' Noe ' ve son, ai ifonl defe hi ve bal . I i doubtulhatt ec r um sanc swoul f l ls r i Pl ntf y i d m r ly t s f t hes ic t e d al unde t e e i ofa ofi e s e nga ssa ewiha G oi e ge y,'snc t r wa r he xc pton n fc r e ki s it nc t n t ong ng mer nc ' i e he e s

8 The Co r ha ie tfe xa lsfo oh r mi dcinsr g r igt s r o u t s d n i de mp e r m te j s ito e a dn he o t f e onduc t ta o st a obsr c i t ha m unt o n tu tonof1w e or me a t twhi doe no . Compar a nf ce nt nd ha ch s t e Smih v St e 31 Ga. t . at, 1 App.1 1 71 S.E.d4 4 4 7( . p. 01 ld fn a tsr f s l 84, 86, 5 2 3 , 3 Ga Ap 2 lt ee d n ' e u a

t o e lwf lo d rt r l d wnh rwi o c nsiu e o sr cin ; t S aev Gaie , 4 o b y a u r e o ol o e nd w o tttd b tu to ) wi t t . n s 3 6 h Or 1 0 1 3 2 6P.d 1 4 ,1 5 ( . 0 9 ( eear se ' a sv l r f sdt a c mp n . 6 , 8 , 0 3 0 2 0 7 Or 2 0 )wh r re te ç s iey e u e o c o a y p t eo fc rfo h rc l t teb o n ae rn )s eddn t n moe.. ( ha meer f s l h fi e r m e elo h o kig ra a d h i ohig r .t t r e u a l
wa no e s t nough t c c he ofavi a i ' Or gon' obsm ci sa ut whi h r quied a o onvit r olton'of e s t ton t t e c e r ç h sc ln efr n eo o sa l' a dHo r v UntdSa e , 6 A.d8 4 8 7( .C. t y ia itre e c r b tce); n wa d . ie tts 9 6 2 5 , 5 D p

z o ld fn a tsrf s l oob yofie ' o d rt r mo eh rh n sfo h rp k t d dn t o g t ee d n ' eu a t e fc rs r e o e v e a d r m e oc es i o c nsiu el cieyo ph sc l o p sig o itre l g wiht eofie s' Se as Pe pl o ttt s tv l r y ia l p o gn ) r ne fri ) t h fc r' a y n ) e lo o e v Co s299 11 App.3d 1 4,1 191 701N E,d 1 , 6 - 71(1. p. 4 l g xd fn n . pe 1. 8 89- , 2 65 1 9 1 11Ap 2 g 8 ee da t wa c a g dwi o tu to frl c igh ref n aj v nl nma yi a h rr sa rn a d s h r e t bsr cin o o kn e sl a d u e i h e wa n t e e tu a t n p e e tn o f r fo tk n j v n l it c so y c u t o ndt a d fnd n ' ç a sv rv n ig fke s r m a i g u e ie n o u t d ; o r fu h t ee a ts f sie p
.

r f alt ac es 't ofi e s de a t unl k t doorwa no obsr c i bec us t he e us o qui ce'o fc r ' m nds o oc he s t tu ton a e l t t nusçe itnce'a f bsr t i i aphysca ac ore ri ,'a t tçrefai ngfom e r ssa nd o tuc ' mpled i l t xe ton ' nd ha f j r ni r l ph iala ton orf ii t c ysc c i a lng o oope aewih t polc i g r ly no c i r d t s me a r t t he i e s ene a l t onsde e he n s

r itngorobsr tnga of r). essi tuci n sce'

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n d eiu tr a o i n n h r t ()p ro o p o ry' The Co r a k o e g st t o d ro s h e t f mmie t n m o a es n r r pet. s ' u t c n wld e ha
Def nda N oe wa f cngt i i ntt e tofde tu to ofe de e- ie, hebl acohol e nt l s a i he mm ne hr a sr c i n vi nc ..t ood/l

c e o t pai ntsbl -howe r t ecr ums a e a enotc e byt e p i n a ontnt f he te ' ood ve ,hos ic tnc s r over d he xce to nd,

t u , ono j tf a ars f ro sr cino j sieb s do wo d ao e h s d t usiy n re t o b tu to f u tc a e n r s l n .
Acc r ngl t Cour fndst tDef nda di notha a g bl pr bl c us e ilng o di y, ht t i ha e nt d ve r ua e oba e a e ntti

hm t t tp oe to o q aiidi nt a dt tPlitf i e ttt t s mmayj dg n o i o h r tcins f u l t mmu iy n ha an if s n ild o u r u me t n f
he Fo t Ame r urh ndme camsa i thi f flears ( nt li gans m or as ret Count Ia 11. s nd 1)
C . E pualPr e t on Cl m s ot c i ai

I t Am e d Compli , antf cli st tDe e ntN oe c et a r the , a he n he nde ant Pl i if am ha f nda l hos o res r r t r t nt Ca asa e oy sa t V . , ca eofhe r c a orna i o i i i vi ai of ha he uc in mpl ee t he A.be us r a e nd/ tonal r gn n ol ton t Equa Pr t c i Cl eoft Foure h Am e he l o e ton aus he tent ndme .To s nt uppor he cai ofdicrmi t y t rlm s i naor i e t Pl i ifpoi st an i de i 2007, n Defnda Noelwa co r t d wih a he nt n , antf nt o nci nt n whe e nt s nfon e t not r
n s sr f a t pr deabl s mpl fo aDU1s pe t Tha i i nti ve anurewho ur e' e us l o ovi ood a e r m us c . t ncde nvol d s

wasaCa sa m ae.Ac or ngt Def nt oe ' de ii n t si ony, di no a r tt t uca i n l c di o enda N ls posto e tm he d t res ha nur e f hi r f al bu mer l is d aN o i ofAppe r nce on t o tuc i c r Se s or s e us , t ey s ue tce aa he bsr ton ha ge. e De e n N oe ' De Tr a pa s40- , Ac or i oPl i if Def nda N oe ' i ons se f nda t ls p. . t ge 41 57. c dngt antfy e nt ls nc itnt

r a to t t e et S i lrst to s'u d rc rst dfe e tr ame th a c r sp o l e cin o h s wo t mia i inkl' n es o e he ifr n te t n e c o d e p e s ua
ofdifrntr c a i pr o hi dsrmi t yi e t ( 22a pa 1 ) fee a es nd s oof f s ici naor ntn . DE t ge 1 .
Howeve ,i hi de ii De e ntNoelt tied t ti Nt s De s or e n t r n s poston, f nda esi ha f u't nion, ve he

doc ori c r ha diecl r us hi or rt d a t bl t n ha ge, d r ty ef ed s de o r w he ood,ht ç bs utl ' woul ha û ol e y' a d ve a r se t aswe l Def nda NoelDe Tr a pa e 54. r e t d hem l. e nt p. . t g
Toe t ih a e sabls n qual ot c i vi a i unde t Fouree h Ame m e , ai ifm us pr e ton olton r he t nt nd nt Pl ntf t

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s o t a De e d n No lsa to : 1 h dad srmi tr ef c a d;2 weemoi t db a h w h t f n a t e' cins ( ) a ici nao y fe t n () r tvae y
dsrmi t ypur e.Se Was ngt v Davi 426U. 229, -42( 976) Br e v.Unie ici naor pos e hi on . s, S. 239 1 ) adly td

Stts 2 9F.d1 7 20 ( dCi. 0 2 .'os o d srmi ao yefc , anif s d mo tae ae , 9 3 9 , 5 3 r2 0 )tl h w ici n tr fe tPlitf mu t e nsrt t' t t(h )i ame e o ap ot tdca sa dt tsmial st td me eso a u p oe td ha s e s mb r f r t ct ls n ha i lry i e mb r f n n r tce ua
cls we e tea e dismia l Pl i ifmus t n de a s r r t d s i l ry. antf t he monsr t dic i i t y pu pos ,whih tae s rm na or r e c

rq ie as o n t a gee d n)tr ee ( e)b c u eo rc . Hu nv Unf #Sats 2 F. e ur s h wi g h t d f n a t ag td h r e a s f a e' r . f t e , 21 ' e
S p z 4 3 5 0( N.. 0 2 . u p.d 9 , 0 D. J 2 0 )
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t r s lto o s mmayj d me t e Wa dv Me e so o nr l fEa tr Mihga o e o uin n u r u g n .S e r . mb r fBd.fco to o se n c i n
Unv r i 7 0F. u . d 8 3 81 ( D. ih. 01 )c u t e id s mmayj dg n o e u l ie st 0 S pp 2 0 , 9 E. M c 2 0 (o r d ne u r u me t n q a y,
pr eci cai whe et ewa a is off t t t def nt'tl motvai andi enf'. ot ton l m r her s n sue ac as o he enda s t ' tue i ton nt )
D . M uni i Li lt c pal abiiy

Pl ntf c endst tDefnda Br ha i hi ofi i c pact a Sherf ofPa m Be h ai if ont ha e nt ads w,n s fcal a iy s if l ac

Co n y i l bl t r j 1 3 f rp o g t a t a u p lc t tv oae he F u t u t , s i e mde 98 o r mulai n mlwf l o iy ha i ltd r o rh a ng
Ame ndm e r gh s nt i t .

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a t o i wih u r g r fri dvd a rg so j rs ito , o siut d l rt idfe e c t u h rt t o t e ad o n iiu l iht r u idcin c n t td ei ae n ifr n e o y, t be Plitf srg t, n c usd o c nrb tdt t evilto o Plitf srg t. ( 1 a !9 anif ih s a d a e r o tiu e o h oain f anif i hs' DE 2 t 2, '
9 . 4)

I o d rt i s j 1 8 l blt o amu ii aiy, p an ifmu tie tf amu iia n r e o mpo e 9 3 i ii n a y ncp lt a litf s d niy ncp l

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p lc o c so t tc usdh rij re .Se Go zv f z o 75 F. u p. d 1 3 ,1 3 ( D. oiy r u t m ha a e e n u is e me . o an , 9 S p 2 3 5 3 8 S. Fl. 0 1( ffg## o t Co r v fr wn 5 0U. 3 7, 0 (9 7 .A mu iiaiyc no l a 2 1 )cfn .fcny m' . o , 2 S. 9 4 3 1 9 ) s n cp lt a ny
bela ei St c t m orpolc c us t m unii le o est vi a eactze sc tt i ibl f t s uso i iy a ed he cpa mpl ye o olt ii n' onsiutonal

rg t. Go z 7 9F. p 2 a 1 3 ( u t gGodv f o a , 5 F.d 1 4 , 3 0( 1h ihs' me , 5 Su p. 4 t 3 8 q o i ' n l . 71 fMi mi 1 1 3 3 6 1 5 1 t

Ci.1 98) t - p o eS ci n 1 8 la ii a an tamt cp lt b s do c so ap an if r 9 ). t o r v e to 9 3 iblt g i s ' l y mii aiy a e n u t m, litf
m us e t bls a wi pr d p a tc t t...i s pe mane a we ls tld a t c tt e a t sa ih des ea r ci e ha s o r nt nd l- e te s o onsiut c t m o us gewih t f ceoflw . Fe i anov. C# uso r a t he or a ' lci '

o a Be c , F. p . d fMimi a h - Su p 2

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He e t f c t tt Co yhad apolc oft e t ni hos t lsa fwih obsr ton of r , he a t ha he unt iy hr a e ng pia t f t tuci

j siec ag sf r aln t c mpywiho d r t obanbo dsmpe i DUI a e i e tbl h d u tc h r e o f i g o o l t r es o ti lo n ls n c s s s sa i e i s
by t exit nceoft Pam Be h Co y St t Ator so ni lte , aswel a De enda he s e he l ac unt ae t ney' pi on e tr l s f nt

Noelst tmony t thepr vi l is d a ctton t a t rnur ef t ss me ofe e I i ' esi ha e ousy s ue iai o no he s or hi a f ns . t s

evi ntt tt spolc diec l i ced t Fourh Am e e rght ofhos t empl es de ha hi iy r ty mpa t he t ndm nt i s pial oye ,

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( gg lplitf mus d mo srt t t tr u hisd l e aec nd c,l emu iiai wa te l 7 t anif t e n tae ha, h o g t ei r t o u t th n cp lt s h b t y

l vngf re b hn teij r alg d. .ha t emu ii a a to wa tk nwi t erq iie mo i o c ' e id h nu y l e . t t h ncp l cin s a e t h e u st e h
de e ofc pa lt a mus de gr e ul biiy nd t monsr t adie tc us lnkbewee hemuni pal c i a t tae r c a ali t nt ci a ton nd he

deprvai offde a rg s. i ton e r l iht)
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i de t opi on lte b t Pam Be c Count St t Ator y' Of , t She ifs na qua e ni e tr y he l ah y ae t ne s sce he rf De m e knew or s d ha known i e t ton oft polc woul i via y l d t pm nt houl ve mpl men a i he iy d ne t bl ea o
vi atonsoft FourhAmendme f f lea r s . Mo ev Ande s 571F. 81 81 1 ( h ol i he t nt or a s re t yl . r on, 3d 4, 7- 8 8t
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Ci. 0 9 (Th r aet b sccru tn e u d r ihmu iia l bii latc ( ) e e r2 0 )& e e r wo a i ic msa c s n e whc ncp li lt l ta h:1 wh r $ a ywi
apa tculrmunii lpolc orcusom is fvi a e f r lw,ordie t a e o t do s ri a cpa iy t tel olt s ede al a r c s n mpl yee o o;

a d ( ) wh r a fcal lwfl mu cp lp lc o c tm wa a o td wi lei eae n 2 ee a ily a u niia o iy r uso s d pe t d lb rt h idfee c 't i k o o o vo c ns q e c s). M o e ve,te c u ain rq ie n i n ifr n e o t n wn r b ius o e u n e ' s r o r h a sto e ur me t s
s tsi d bas d upon De e a ife e f ndan Noe ' t tm o t thedie tyr le upon t polc s tf t i t ls esi ny ha r c l ei d he iy e orh n
t opi o l te a aba i f hi dec son t a r s Pli tf.Se Nat ev Camde Coxnf Cor . he ni n e tr s ss or s ii o re t a n if e al . n y r .

Fa .31 F.d5 5 5 4( dCi.o 3 t eea niyG r mug t s g n r l p ia esae n c, 8 3 7 , 8 3 rz o lwh r ne tt t o lae a e eal pl bl ttme t p ya c
ofpolc a t s e nta tc iy nd he ubs que c ompl i ofi smpl a i e e ai n oft tpolc ' t aned s i y n mplm ntto ha iy, he '

mu iia e tt s o l b h l la l u d rj1 3 ; o e 5 F.da 81 (W h r a o fca ncp l niy h ud e ed ib e n e 98 ) M yl, 71 3 t 8 û ee n fiil i
polc i is l unconsiuto lo diecsempl est t ke unc tt i aci no e denc iy s t ef tt i na r r t oye o a onsiutonal ton, vi e

be yond a sae ntoft polc and ise r ie i ne say t esa ih j 1 la lt ' ttme he iy t xe cs s ce sr o tbls 983 ibiiy.' )

Th rf r , litf i e tte t s mmayj d me to Comt o teAme d dCo lit eeo e P an if s n ild o u r u g n n t V f h n e mp an .
E.Faiuret Tr n/npde t Supe vii l o ai l gua e r son
Asf rCo o untvloft Am e dCompl i , c s e oi he nde antwhih e kst mpos muni i li biiyunde e cpa la lt x

51 8 b s do ia e u t tann a afiu et s p r ie a dComt VI a dVllwhc alg 9 3 a e n n d q ae r iig nd al r o u e vs , n t s l n I, ih le e
ne i e tai ng a s r son und r Fl rda sa e l w,Pli tf ha pr s nt d i de t glg nt r ni nd upe vii e o i tt a a n if s e e e na qua e

e de ir s vi nta y uppor. I i wel s tl t ta a lged i de t tani t ta ie fom t t t s l e ted ha ny le na quae r i ng t mus rs r he
munii lt sde i r t i fe e t t rgh soft ewih whom t polc i e a t' Gome , cpa iy' lbe a e ndif r nce o he i t hos t he ie nt r c . ' z

7 9F. p 2 a 1 3 (iig f @ o n o v Ha rs 4 9U. 3 8 38 ( 98 ).Toe tbih 5 Su p. d t 3 8 ctn 7 fca t n . r i, 8 S. 7 , 8 1 9 ) sa ls
dei r t i fe e e, pli tf çmus s apat r ofi ope tani a mus s t tt lbe ae ndif r nc a a n if f t how te n mpr r r i ng nd t how ha he

ct wm a r ofistani pr r m' defce i . Gome , F. iy s wae t r i ng og n s iinces' ' z 759 Supp. a 1 ( ln Sk p 2d t 338 cffg o

v Ci o l na 4 5F.d 1 3 ,1 4 ( 1h Ci. 0 7 ) tW jt o t tc o an e t tano . t fAta t, 8 3 1 0 1 5 1 t r 2 0 ).t ih u noie f e d o r i r y l

Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 26 of 27

s r s i apa tc ara e amuni i iy i notla easa ma troflw f a f iur t tan upe vie n ri ul r a, cpalt s ibl te a or ny al e o r i

a s r s 'Gol 151F. a 1 SeealoFeii 201 W L 7521 *5(s anifmus nd upevie. d, ' 3d t 350. s lcano, 2 50, t itf t pl
pr s nts e e omee de et tt m uni paiykne ofane t tai a ors r s i apa tculr vi nc ha he ci lt w ed o r n nd/ upe vie n ri a

ae a d t emu ii lt ma eadeieae c oc n tt tk a y a to ' Hee d s t te r a n h ncpaiy d l r t h ie o o a e n ci n). r , epi h b e
Cour' fndi t t heCount unwitngyi e e e a unl wf polc Pli ifha pr s e ts i ng ha t y ti l mplm nt d n a ul iy, a ntf s e entd noe denc t tt Count wa onnotc t tiss rf sde i we ebe ngi quael ta ne vi e ha he y s ie ha t he if putes r i nadt t y r i d

o s p r ie Th rf r , fn a t' to f rs mma yj d me ton Co t Vl-VIlo te r u e vsd. e eo e De e d n s moin o u r u g n un s I fh
Ame d Com pl nti g a e nde ai s r nt d.

C O N CLU SI N O

Ba e on t f e ng,i i he e ORDERED AND ADJUDGED a f l s s d he or goi t s r by s olow :

1 P an ifsMo inf rPa t lS mmayJ dg n ( 2 )i GRANTED I PART a . litf to o ri u r u me t DE 2 s a N s
t Co s1 IIandV ; o unt , I

2 De e d n s Mo in frSu r J dg n ( 1 )i GRANTED I PART AND . f n a t' to o mma y u me t DE 6 s N
DENI I PART. Co sVIV1Ioft Ame ED N unt - 1 he nded Compl ntar he e di mis d. ai e r by s s e
3. Pl i ifsda a sa he Eq Pr t cto Cli t rt Fo te h Am e e antf m ge nd r ual o e i n a ms mde he ure nt ndm nt

( u t 1 a dI s al r c e t til eo eaj r , c d ldt c mme c o Juy 9 20 2. Co ns 1 n V) h l p o e d o ra b f r u y she ue o o n e n l , 1

26

Case 9:11-cv-80374-JMH Document 61 Entered on FLSD Docket 05/11/2012 Page 27 of 27

DONE and ORDERED i Cha n mber t s 11 da ofM a , 201 atW e tPam Be c i s hi * y y 2, s l ah n t Sout r DititofFl i . he he n src orda

# .
J ES M .HOPKW S AM UNI TED STATES M AGI STRATE J UDGE

Copi t Al Co elofRe r es o: 1 uns co d

27

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