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process, find the inner relation between each components and design the system. In a signal control intersection, the actors are far more than the driver himself, depends on the degree of complexity, much more actors interact with the system externally, such as signal system, pedestrians, other traffic, even roadway law and vehicle itself. The decision of actors depends on the scale and depth of the system design. However, after fix the scale and depth of the problem, it’s become much easier to write down the goals and scenarios, user cases and system behavior, however, with the consideration of accordance all the time. Comparatively, the logical design is the most difficult part of this project. It shows the core of our understanding of the system design, and a clear and brief explanation is difficult to achieve.
The purpose of this project is to develop a series of systems model for traffic passing through a 4-way intersection, controlled by traffic light. We will assume that arrangement of traffic lights and road lanes is fixed and that the lights switch from red to green to amber in a regular repetitive pattern. Moreover, we assume that driver behavior is constrained by the road rules (we keep this part really simple) and the desire to avoid vehicle collisions. Traffic signal intersections, a lot of actors apart from the driver, are involved. The road law of the land is as important. While designing a practical traffic control system, the real world situation and problems have to be considered and taken care of. With the help of UML diagrams, we can prepare a schematic approach to present the overview of the system.
Even during the horse and buggy days, traffic in big cities was often heavy. Police officers had to be stationed full time directing traffic at busy intersections.
The world’s first traffic light came into being before the automobile was in use, and traffic consisted only of pedestrians, buggies, and wagons. Installed at an intersection in London in 1868, it was a revolving lantern with red and green signals. Red meant "stop" and green meant "caution." The lantern, illuminated by gas, was turned by means of a lever at its base so that the appropriate light faced traffic. On January 2, 1869, this crude traffic light exploded, injuring the policeman who was operating it.
With the coming of automobiles, the situation got even worse. Police Officer William L. Potts of Detroit, Michigan, decided to do something about the problem. What he had in mind was figuring out a way to adapt railroad signals for street use. The railroads were already utilizing automatic controls. But railroad traffic traveled along parallel lines. Street traffic traveled at right angles. Potts used red, amber, and green railroad lights and about thirty-seven dollars worth of wire and electrical controls to make the world’s first 4-way three color traffic light. It was installed in 1920 on the corner of Woodward and Michigan Avenues in Detroit. Within a year, Detroit had installed a total of fifteen of the new automatic lights. At about the same time, Garrett Morgan of Cleveland, Ohio realized the need to control the flow of traffic. A gifted inventor and reportedly the first African American to own an automobile in Cleveland, Ohio, he invented the electric automatic traffic light. Though it looked more like the semaphore signals you see at train crossings today. Many others had obtained US Patents for Traffic Signals, some as early as 1918. But Morgan's Patent was purchased by General Electric Corporation and provided the protection they needed to begin building a monopoly on traffic light manufacture.
2.1 Purpose of Traffic signals The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) defines a traffic control signal as any highway traffic signal by which traffic is alternatively directed to stop and permitted to proceed. Traffic is defined as pedestrians, bicyclists, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, and other conveyances either singularly or together while using any highway for purposes of travel. It is with this need to assign the right of way at locations that we consider the dual purpose of traffic signals —efficiency and safety— which in some cases seem to be conflicting. Safety may be seen as an element needed to be sacrificed in order to achieve improvements in efficiency and meet ever-increasing demands. The reality is that traffic signals can, and in fact must, serve both operational efficiency and safety based on the conditions. The MUTCD goes on to describe that traffic control signals can be ill-designed, ineffectively placed, improperly operated, or poorly maintained, with resulting outcomes of excessive delay, disobedience of the indication, avoidance, and increases in the frequency of collisions. A traffic signal that is properly designed and timed can be expected to provide one or more of the following benefits: 1. Provide for the orderly and efficient movement of people. 2. Effectively maximize the volume movements served at the intersection. 3. Reduce the frequency and severity of certain types of crashes. 4. Provide appropriate levels of accessibility for pedestrians and side street traffic. The degree to which these benefits are realized is based partly on the design and partly on the need for a signal. A poorly designed signal timing plan or an unneeded signal may make the intersection less efficient, less safe, or both.
2.2 Intersection Design and its Relationship to Signal Timing The design of the intersection has a direct influence on its safety and operation from a design and user-ability perspective. Design elements that are particularly relevant include the number of lanes provided on each approach and for each movement, whether there are shared thru-and-turn lanes, the length of turn bays, the turning radii (especially important for pedestrians), the presence of additional through lanes in the vicinity of the intersection, the size and location of detectors, and presence or absence of left-turn phasing. Other geometric features, like additional through or turn lanes, can also have a significant positive impact on intersection capacity, provided that they are sufficiently long. The other aspect of intersection design is the perception and reaction of the end users. Various decisions need to be made as a user approaches the intersection, which makes it important to simplify the decision making process. Another aspect of the design is detection. Detectors provide the ability to sense vehicle and pedestrian demands at an intersection; enabling modes of operation that may be more efficient than fixed or pre-timed control. It is critical that functional and properly designed detectors communicate with the controller to ensure continued functional signal control at the intersection. Detectors that are improperly located or are an inappropriate length can unnecessarily extend the green indication and increase the frequency of phase termination to the maximum limit (i.e., max out). Conversely, a poorly located detector could cause premature gap-out. A protected left-turn phase provides a time separation for left-turning and opposing traffic streams and may reduce left-turn delays or related crashes. However, the additional phase increases the minimum cycle length and may increase intersection delays and, in the case of a protected-only left-turn, may even increase left-turn delay. The topics discussed in this section are intended to serve as a reminder of the close relationship between signal timing, intersection design, and traffic control device layout. The quality of the signal timing plan is directly tied to the adequacy of the intersection design and the traffic control device layout.
3. TYPES OF TRAFFIC LIGHTS ACROSS THE GLOBE
3.1 Three-set lights The universal standard is for the red to be above the green, and if there is also an amber it is placed in the middle. If the three-set lights are mounted horizontally, the red will typically be to the left of the green. The standards apply whether the country drives on the left or the right, but the placement of the mountings on the road would be mirror images of the other. Each country has differing road rules, including how traffic lights are to be interpreted. For example, in some countries, a flashing yellow light means that a motorist may proceed with care if the road is clear, giving way to pedestrians and to other road vehicles that may have priority (essentially the same as arriving at a non-signalized intersection and not facing a stop sign). A flashing red may be treated as a regular stop sign. In most countries, the sequence is green (go), amber (prepare to stop), and red (stop). In New Zealand and Canada, amber officially means 'stop (unless it would cause an accident to do so)' but in practice, is treated as 'prepare to stop'. In some places, such as the UK, the sequence is red (stop), red and amber (stop), green (go if clear), amber (stop). In Russia, Serbia, Austria, Israel, and parts of Canada and Mexico, the green light flashes for a few seconds before the amber light comes on. The single flashing amber signal is used in the UK, Ireland and Australia at Pelican crossings. It is used in Serbia and the United States to mark places where greater attention is needed (dangerous crossings, sharp curves etc.). In Canada, a flashing amber light means "drive with caution" and is frequently combined with a flashing red light (meaning "stop") at four-way intersections. In many S.E, Asian countries (e.g. Thailand) a flashing amber light indicates a driver may proceed cautiously across a junction where signals only operate at busy periods.
3.2 Pedestrian crossing lights Traffic lights for pedestrians normally have two main lights: a red light that means 'stop' and a green light that means 'go' (or, more correctly, 'proceed with caution'). There is usually a flashing phase (red in the US and Australia, green in Europe) that means 'complete your crossing'. In most locales in North America, the colors used are a redorange ("Portland orange") for "stop/wait" and a bluish-white ("lunar") for "go." While the "walk" signal is generally a walking human figure, North American pedestrian signals usually show an upraised hand for "stop," while most other countries display a standing human figure. Some older American signals display the verbal commands "Walk" (lunar white or green) and "Don't Walk" or "Wait" (red-orange). At selected pedestrian crossings in some countries, pedestrian traffic lights include a type of siren, beeper or warbler, which sounds in order to alert visually impaired pedestrians that it is safe to cross. These may be set to a timer and only sound at day time, to avoid annoying residents. Some other intersections include a white strobe light mounted inside the red light that flashes every few seconds when the light is red. This is mainly used when a new traffic light is installed or where running a red light has proven to be a problem. Some also include tactile warnings, like a vibrating plate, or a rotating cone, to help people with hearing impairment or visual impairment cross the road and street. 3.3 Lights for public transport Traffic lights for public transport often use signals that are distinct from those for private traffic. They can be letters, arrows or bars of white or coloured light. In Russia traffic signals for public transport have four white lights that form the letter T. If the three top lamps are lit, this means "stop". If the bottom lamp and some lamps on the top row are lit, this means permission to go in a direction shown. If there are no tram junctions on an intersection, a simpler system of one amber signal in the form of letter T is used instead; the tram must proceed only when the signal is lit.
The Netherlands use a distinctive "negenoog" (nine-eyed) design shown on the top row of the diagram; bottom row signals are used in Belgium and France. The signals mean (from left to right): "go straight ahead", "go left", "go right", "go in any direction" (like the "green" of a normal traffic light), "stop, unless the emergency brake is needed" (equal to "yellow"), and "stop" (equal to "red"). 3.4 Bar Traffic Light The bar traffic light is a traffic light found in Tiajin, China. It is in the shape of a bar. When you see a red bar, you have to stop. After awhile, the bar will start to get smaller. This shows how much time is left on red. Then when the red bar is two-thirds "eaten up," the red light will disappear and be replaced by a full green bar. When the green bar is finished, it will flash a two-thirds green bar. Then the green bar is replaced by a full yellow bar. The yellow bar stays for a few seconds. Then the bar flashes once quickly. Then the yellow bar disappears and is replaced with a full red bar. Then the process starts all over again. 3.4 Multiple Arrow Traffic Lights Another traffic light system in Tianjin is called the multiple arrow traffic light. This light uses arrows pointing in all the possible ways you can turn. Every arrow has its own color to show which way traffic can flow. But the one major disadvantage of this system, is that most people in the world have never seen this system.
3.5 Four-State Traffic Light Most traffic lights in the world change in the order of red, green, yellow (stop, go, slow down). But in some countries like the United Kingdom, Poland, New Zealand and Germany, the traffic lights go red, red and yellow, green, yellow. The red and yellow stage means that green will be coming shortly.
3.6 Lane Control On some busy highways, there are not an even number of lanes. One of the lanes may be used as a counterflow lane. This means the traffic in the counterflow lane can be reversed at any time. The lane control signal lets people know whether or not they can use the lane. The arrows tell whether or not you can go. The red X means the lane is closed. A green arrow pointing straight down means the lane is open. A yellow arrow slanted down to the right means that the lane is about to be closed.
4. Traffic signal Design Concepts
The traffic signal design process should recognize and accommodate signal timing considerations to insure effective operation of the intersection. A robust detection system is needed for the traffic signal to be able to respond to changes in traffic conditions. Detection systems sense when pedestrians and vehicles are at a traffic signal and use that information to determine who will be served next and how long the phase is served. The quality of intersection operation is particularly dependent on the relationship between the detection layout and the signal controller settings. For optimum performance, the detector layout and signal settings should be “tuned” to the geometry of the intersection, its traffic volume, and the approach speed. The tuning process consists of finding a balance between detector location (relative to the stop line), detector length, passage time, and minimum green time for the prevailing conditions. However, there is no strong consensus in the industry with regard to what is the “best balance.” Use of an iterative process in the design process results in an intersection that can take advantage of signal timing techniques to provide a high level of service to all users. The signal design can also be influenced by the traffic control device layout. Specifically, for a safe and effective signal design, it must be possible to properly position signal heads for maximum visibility for all movements. The MUTCD describes the minimum standards for traffic signal displays. These standards address the number, size, mounting alternatives, physical arrangement, and placement of the signal heads. They also include special considerations for left-turn phasing that address the number and arrangement of lenses in the left-turn signal head, the location of this head, and the display sequence it presents during the signal cycle.
Terminologies are the first thing we should define before starting the project. Because of the complexity of the intersection control system, terms can bring us better understanding of the properties.
Cycle: one complete sequence of signal indications Phase: part of a cycle allocated to any combination of traffic movements receiving the right of way simultaneously during one or more intervals. Conflict points: the potential points in a cycle that is possible to make collision. Level of Service: is defined in terms of average stopped delay per vehicle for signalized intersection. Queue: the total number of vehicle waiting at the intersection
A sample Intersection
When considering about an intersection, we should consider the following subsystems:
Control system: the control design subsystem, the facility subsystem, and the signal control subsystems. User system: includes pedestrians, drivers, and traffic engineers. Physical intersection: the geometric information, pavement information and the traffic information.
To design the systems model for traffic passing through a 4-way intersection, the core in this project is how to design the control system so that the drivers and pedestrians can perceive precise and reliable information, with maximized system capacity and safety.
5. Goals and scenarios
Goals 1. The system must be safe. Scenario 1.1 extend. The straight traffics in orthogonal direction can’t pass the intersection together. The left turn traffic can’t pass the intersection at the same time with the straight traffic in opposing direction. Scenario 1.2 :The time setting of each phase should be reasonable. :The setting of phases should eliminate the conflict points to a reasonable
The setting of green phase length must be long enough for a single vehicle cross the intersection from static status. The setting of red phase length must be long enough for a single vehicle in opposite vehicle cross the intersection from static status. The setting of yellow phase length must be long enough for an approaching vehicle to notice. The setting of pedestrian light length must be long enough for a senior person to cross the intersection. Scenario 1.3 :The driver must perceive the traffic before action
The driver should check the traffic on the same direction. The driver should check the traffic on the opposite direction. The driver should check the traffic on the orthogonal direction. The driver should check the traffic light. The driver should check the pedestrians.
Scenario 1.4:The pedestrian must perceive the traffic before action. The pedestrian should check the traffic light. The pedestrian should check the traffic on orthogonal direction. The pedestrian should check the right turn traffic on same direction. The pedestrian should check the left turn traffic on opposite direction. Goals 2. The system must be efficient. Scenario 2.1 Scenario 2.2 Scenario 2.3 :The timing for each phase should be long enough for cleaning the queue. :The length of a cycle should inside a proper range. :The computed capability should be optima.
Goals 3. The system must be economic. Scenario 3.1 Scenario 3.2 Scenario 3.3 :The setting of phase should be compatible with the traffic volume. :The setting of traffic light should be compatible with traffic volume. :The sign system should be compatible with the traffic volume.
Goals 4. The system must be compatible with traffic law. Scenario 4.1 Scenario 4.2 :The control design should according to the current traffic law. :The users should be aware of the traffic law.
The driver should be aware of the traffic law. The pedestrian should be aware of the traffic law. Scenario 4.3 :The sign design should according to the current traffic law. Goals 5. The system must be feasible. Scenario 5.1 Scenario 5.2 :The control design should be compatible with the sign system. :The control design should be compatible with the road geometries.
Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized general-purpose modeling language in the field of software engineering. UML includes a set of graphical notation techniques to create abstract models of specific systems. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is an open method used to specify, visualize, modify, construct and document the artifacts of an object-oriented software intensive system under development. UML offers a standard way to write a system's blueprints, including conceptual components such as: • • actors, business processes and
system components and activities as well as concrete things such as: • • • programming language statements, database schemas, and reusable software components.
UML combines best practices from data modeling concepts such as entity relationship diagrams, business modeling (work flow), object modeling and component modeling. It can be used with all processes, throughout the software development life cycle, and across different implementation technologies. UML has succeeded the concepts of the Booch method, the Object-modeling technique (OMT) and Object-oriented software engineering (OOSE) by fusing them into a single, common and widely usable modeling language. UML aims to be a standard modeling language which can model concurrent and distributed systems. UML is not an industry standard, but is taking shape under the auspices of the Object Management Group (OMG). OMG has initially called for
information on object-oriented methodologies, that might create a rigorous software modeling language. Many industry leaders have responded in earnest to help create the standard. UML models may be automatically transformed to other representations (e.g. Java) by means of QVT-like transformation languages, supported by the OMG. UML is extensible, offering revision. the following mechanisms for customization: profiles and stereotype. The semantics of extension by profiles have been improved with the UML 1.0 major
7. Identify Actors Drivers Pedestrians Signal System Physical Intersection/ roadway Laws
Define Users User 1: Pedestrians Requirements: 1. 2. 3. Safety: when the pedestrian is crossing the street, no car Perceivable: the information of when to walk and when to stop is perceivable to the Comfortable: the allowable time for walk is long enough to cross
pedestrian. User 2: Driver Requirements: 1 2 3 Safety: the number of conflicting points is as small as possible. Perceivable: the signals are perceivable and clear to the driver. Comfortable: the allowable time for walk is long enough to cross the street.
User 3: Signal System Requirements: 1. 2. 3. Safety: the system has the least possibility of traffic accidents. Efficiency: The capacity of the intersection is maximized. Economy: The total investment of this system is minimized.
a. Environmental consideration: air pollution, vibrations pollution, light pollution. b. Regional consideration: the influence to the up flow traffic and down low traffic.
Initial Use Case Modeling The use cases represent system goals or system functions. Since we consider the safety, efficiency and economy of the system, the behavior of driver drives through an intersection can be divided into 3 parts: 1. Driver’s action: go straight ahead or turning left or right 2. Driver’s preservation: watch the traffic lights, the traffic in other lanes and the pedestrians, etc. 3. System function: cycle length and phase setting.
System boundary The driver, other traffic, pedestrian and other obstacles, and traffic lights are all external systems. Use case (1): Cycle length setting. Description: The cycle length setting should improve the capability of the intersection. Primary Actor: Roadway, Law. Preconditions: The roadway geometries and traffic data are known, drivers always follow the traffic law. Flow of events:
(1) Collect daily traffic volume. (2) Limited the cycle length in 50 seconds to 90 seconds according to the daily traffic volume. Post–conditions: traffic data is known, and the cycle length is limited. Use case (2): Phase setting Description: The phase setting should improve the capability of the intersection. Primary Actor: Roadway, Law. Preconditions: The roadway geometries and traffic data are known, drivers always follow the traffic law, and the cycle length is known. Flow of events: (1) Decide the number of signal phases. (2) Decide the time setting for each phase. Post–conditions: Traffic cycle length and detailed phase setting are given. Use case (3): Watch the traffic lights. Description: The driver should be able to perceive the traffic light information. Primary Actor: Driver, signal system. Preconditions: The traffic signal system is available and stable; drivers always follow the traffic law. Flow of events: (1) The traffic lights are perceivable. (2) The driver has correct understanding of the traffic light. Post–conditions: the driver is clear about the current signal status and has enough expectation of the possible change. Use case (4): Watch traffic traveling in the same direction. Description: The phase setting should improve the capability of the intersection. Primary Actor: Driver Roadway, Law. Preconditions: The roadway geometries and traffic data are known; drivers always follow the traffic law.
Flow of events: (1) Watch the traffic in the same lane. (2) Watch the traffic in the other lanes. Post–conditions: Perceive the traffic in the same direction and find a proper Use case (5): Watch for oncoming traffic. Description: The driver should perceive the oncoming traffic before do any proceed action. Primary Actor: Driver, Roadway, Law. Flow of events: (1) Watch the oncoming (includes the traffic in orthogonal direction) straight traffic. (2) Watch the oncoming (includes the traffic in orthogonal direction) left-turn traffic. (3) Watch the oncoming (includes the traffic in orthogonal direction) right-turn traffic. Preconditions: The driver has perceived the signal information Use case (6): Watch out for pedestrians and other unexpected obstacles. Description: The driver should try to avoid the collision of pedestrian and vehicle. Primary Actor: Driver, Pedestrian, Law. Preconditions: The driver has already perceived the traffic signals and other traffic. Post– conditions: The signal information and traffic information are ready.
Use case (7): Drive straight ahead. Description: Driver should be able to drive the vehicle straight ahead. Primary Actor: Driver, other traffic, law. Precondition: The signal information and pedestrians’ information is perceived. Flow of events: (1) Judge if the integrated information allows driving. (2) Execute under the limitation of Law. Post–conditions: The driver drives the car pass the intersection
Use case (8): Turn right. Description: The phase setting should improve the capability of the intersection. Primary Actor: Driver, Roadway, Law. Preconditions: The traffic signal system is available and stable; drivers always follow the traffic law, the driver has perceived the signal information and traffic information in all direction. Flow of events: (1) If the traffic light is green and the gap is large enough when there is yield control. (2) Turn right with proper execution. Post–conditions: The driver drives the car pass the intersection. Use case (9): Turn left. Description: The phase setting should improve the capability of the intersection. Primary Actor: Driver, Roadway, Law. Preconditions: The traffic signal system is available and stable; drivers always follow the traffic law, the driver has perceived the signal information and traffic information in all direction. Flow of events: (1) If the traffic light is green and the gap is large enough when there is yield control. (2) Turn left with caution. Post–conditions: The driver drives the car pass the intersection.
INITIAL USE CASE DIAGRAM
10.1 Safety Requirements
1. Control system should avoid collision in the intersection 2. Time phasing should be reasonable for all directions and pedestrians 3. Drivers and pedestrians should perceive traffic before action
10.2 Performance Requirements
1. The timing for each phase should be long enough for cleaning the queue 2. The computed capability should be optimal
10.3 Compatibility Requirements
1. The setting of phase should be compatible with the traffic volume 2. The setting of traffic light should be compatible with traffic volume 3. The sign system should be compatible with the traffic volume and law 4. The control design should according to the current traffic law 5. The users should be aware of the traffic law 6. The control design should be compatible with the sign system 7. The control design should be compatible with the road geometries
11.1 Signal Timing Signal timings describe the set of parameters defining the operation of signalized intersection. From an analytical perspective it involves the definition of the sequence by which the various movement at an intersection is served as well as the time duration of service for each movement. The process of Identifying the sequence of service is called phasing and it precedes all other signal timing steps. Then the cycle length is estimated and and green times are allocated to each phase according to the relative magnitude of traffic flows served in each phase. The latter part also includes the allocation of phase change intervals (yellow and all red). Certain constraints must be checked to ensure the safe and efficient processing of vehicles and pedestrians at an intersection. 11.2 Signal Phasing Phasing is the sequence by which the various movements of both vehicles and pedestrians are being served at a signalized intersection. The objective of phasing is the minimization of the potential hazards arising from the conflicts of vehicular and pedestrian movements, while maintaining the efficiency of flow through the intersection. Typical conflicts are
1. Left turning vehicles conflict with opposing through traffic as well as with
2. Right turning vehicles conflict with pedestrians
12. THE LANGUAGE USED
We have used the C++ language as our platform to implement the logical design of the problem. Being an object oriented language, C++ allows the decomposition of the problem into a number of entities(objects) and then builds data and functions around these objects. 12.1. Advantages of C++ • • • • • • Emphasis is on data rather than procedure. Program is divided into what are known as objects. Possible to have multiple instances of an object to co-exist without any interference. It is easy to partition the work in a project based on objects. Software complexity can be easily managed. It is possible to map objects in the problem domain to those in the program.
The type of the project and the preference of our project makes these features essential and thus, are incorporated.
13. SCREEN SHOT IN C++
Screen shot in C++ 13.1. DESCRIPTION The graphical entities in the program are created using the graphics package available in C. • The heading (traffic signal)- ‘traffic signal’ is in gothic font. • The menu- it provides the option to the user to toggle the traffic signal control from manual to automatic and vice-versa. In the automatic version, the timer takes over and is responsible for phase and cycle changes. In the manual version, the user has the option to free any road at the crossing at a given point…he can also activate the blinker mode. • The roads- the roads are designed using the ‘setline’ function. Various attributes of the function are used to make the graphics realistic and appealing. 28
lights- the lights are circles which are timed so as they fill up
corresponding to the given traffic flow.
14. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
HARDWARE • • • • 256 MB RAM 300 kb HD Display: Monitor Processor
SOFTWARE Front end development tool: C/C++ • Windows 98/XP
Due to an increase in population traffic is increasing in the country day by day.There is an immediate need for the improvement of the traffic system in the country ,which is not possible without efficient and high performance traffic lights. Certain measures can be taken in order to improve the traffic light system in the country.For example cost-effective traffic light lamps using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) should be used instead of incandescent or halogen light bulbs. Unlike the incandescentbased lamps, which use a single large bulb, the LED-based lamps consist of an array of LED elements, arranged in various patterns. When viewed from a distance, the array appears as a continuous light source. LED-based lamps (or 'lenses') have numerous advantages over incandescent lamps; among them are:
Much greater energy efficiency (can be solar-powered). Much longer lifetime between replacement, measured in years rather than months. Part of the longer lifetime is due to the fact that some light is still displayed even if some of the LEDs in the array are dead.
Brighter illumination with better contrast against direct sunlight, also called 'phantom light'. The ability to display multiple colors and patterns from the same lamp. Individual LED elements can be enabled or disabled, and different color LEDs can be mixed in the same lamp
Much faster switching. Instead of sudden burn-out like incandescent-based lights, LEDs start to gradually dim when they wear out, warning transportation maintenance departments well in advance as to when to change the light. Occasionally, particularly in green LED units, segments prone to failure will flicker rapidly beforehand
We can also use solar powered traffic lights which are being used in countries like U.S.A and U.K.
For disabled persons traffic lights can be installed with sirens so as to indicate when to cross the road. In order to reduce the traffic crimes red light cameras should be installed .These cameras take pictures of those vehicles which pass the intersection before time .These cameras are capable of taking pictures in fraction of a second thus are very efficient. Taking these measures can be very useful in the development of an efficient traffic controlling system in the country. The system we designed actually is simplified to some extend. More extension can be done with the consideration of control method choice, signal setting details with system behavior, more specifications on user cases, etc. We are glad to see our improvement in the system design of signalized intersection, but, without doubt, there’s a lot of space for us to explore for a more precise and more concrete system design.
1. Computer graphics. 2. E. Balaguruswamy, “Object oriented programming with C++”,2007. 3. Roger Pressman, “Software Engineering”,2005. 4. K.K. Aggarwal and Yogesh Singh, “Software Engineering”,2001. 5. http://www.smartdraw.com/resources/tutorials/Introduction-to-UML
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