Lecture 15A.


Lecture 15A.1

Offshore Structures: General Introduction
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To identify the basic vocabulary, to introduce the major concepts for offshore platform structures, and to explain where the basic structural requirements for design are generated. PREREQUISITES None. SUMMARY The lecture starts with a presentation of the importance of offshore hydro-carbon exploitation, the basic steps in the development process (from seismic exploration to platform removal) and the introduction of the major structural concepts (jacket-based, GBS-based, TLP, floating). The major codes are identified. For the fixed platform concepts (jacket and GBS), the different execution phases are briefly explained: design, fabrication and installation. Special attention is given to some principles of topside design. A basic introduction to cost aspects is presented. Finally terms are introduced through a glossary.

Condition Conventional Average Middle East Non-Opec Offshore North Sea Deepwater



4000 - 8000 500 - 3000 3000 - 12000

5 1 8

10000 - 25000 15000 - 35000

5 - 10 10 - 15

World oil production in 1988 was 63 million barrel/day. These figures clearly indicate the challenge for the offshore designer: a growing contribution is required from offshore exploitation, a very capital intensive activity. Figure 1 shows the distribution of the oil and gas fields in the North Sea, a major contribution to the world offshore hydrocarbons. It also indicates the onshore fields in England, the Netherlands and Germany.

1. INTRODUCTION Offshore platforms are constructed to produce the hydrocarbons oil and gas. The contribution of offshore oil production in the year 1988 to the world energy consumption was 9% and is estimated to be 24% in 2000. The investment (CAPEX) required at present to produce one barrel of oil per day ($/B/D) and the production costs (OPEX) per barrel are depicted in the table below.

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Lecture 15A.1

Lecture 15A.1

2. OFFSHORE PLATFORMS 2.1 Introduction of Basic Types The overwhelming majority of platforms are piled-jacket with deck structures, all built in steel (see Slides 1 and 2).

Slide 1: Jacket based platform - Southern sector North Sea

Slide 2: Jacket based platform - Northern sector North Sea

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Lecture 15A.1

Lecture 15A.1

A second major type is the gravity concrete structure (see Figure 2), which is employed in the North Sea in the Norwegian and British sectors.

2.3 Construction The environment as well as financial aspects require that a high degree of prefabrication must be performed onshore. It is necessary to design to limit offshore work to a minimum. The overall cost of a man-hour offshore is approximately five times that of an onshore man-hour. The cost of construction equipment required to handle loads, and the cost for logistics are also a magnitude higher offshore. These factors combined with the size and weight of the items, require that a designer must carefully consider all construction activities between shop fabrication and offshore installation. 2.4 Codes Structural design has to comply with specific offshore structural codes. The worldwide leading structural code is the API-RP2A [1]. The recently issued Lloyds rules [2] and the DnV rules [3] are also important. Specific government requirements have to be complied with, e.g. in the rules of Department of Energy (DoE), Norwegian Petroleum Direktorate (NPD). For the detail design of the topside structure the AISC-code [4] is frequently used, and the AWS-code [5] is used for welding. In the UK the Piper alpha diaster has led to a completely new approach to regulation offshore. The responsibility for regulatory control has been moved to the Health and Safety Executive

A third type is the floating production unit. 2.2 Environment

(HSE) and the operator has to produce a formal safety assessment (TSA) himself instead of complying with detailed regulations. 2.5 Certification and Warranty Survey

The offshore environment can be characterized by: Government authorities require that recognized bodies appraise the aspects of structural • • • • • • water depth at location soil, at seabottom and in-depth wind speed, air temperature waves, tide and storm surge, current ice (fixed, floes, icebergs) earthquakes (if necessary) The major certification bodies are: • • • • • Det norske Veritas (DnV) Lloyds Register of Shipping (LRS) American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) Bureau Veritas (BV) Germanischer Lloyd (GL) integrity and issue a certificate to that purpose.

The topside structure also must be kept clear of the wave crest. The clearance (airgap) usually is taken at approximately 1,50 m, but should be increased if reservoir depletion will create significant subsidence.

Their requirements are available to the designer [2, 3, 6, 7, 8].

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The wells are drilled from a drilling rig on the permanent platform (see Slide 2). 3.2 Jacket Based Platform for Shallow Water 4. The wells are then drilled by a jack-up drilling unit standing close by with a cantilever rig extending over the jacket. As an alternative to this concept the wells are often accommodated in a separate wellhead platform. (In this instance it is engaged in exploratory drilling and is therefore working in isolation. In recent years pre-drilled wells have been used to allow an earlier start of the production. As soon as exploitation is decided and approved. taking 2 . The drilling and construction interaction is described below for two typical fixed platform concepts. Jack-up drilling rigs are used for this purpose for water depths up to 100 . JACKETS AND PILE FOUNDATION First the jacket is installed. Drilling starts after the platform is built and completely installed. there are four main technical activities. allowing production to start soon after deck installation. For further wells.3 months/well providing the off loading system (pipelines. linked by a bridge to the production platform (see Slide 1).1 Insurance companies covering transport and installation require the structures to be reviewed by warranty surveyors before acceptance.1 Lecture 15A. keeping it stable above the waves.1 Introduction Jackets. The warranty surveyors apply standards. After several initial phases which include seismic field surveying. for deeper water floating rigs are used. generally perform two functions: • • They provide the substructure for the production facility (topside). Design and construction of the topside are progressed parallel to the drilling. Factors involved in the evaluation may include number of wells required. tankers.Lecture 15A. one or more exploration wells are drilled. and pipeline or tanker off-loading. 3. fixed or floated production facilities.3 Jacket and Gravity Based Platform for Deep Water Page 7 of 32 Page 8 of 32 . number of such facilities. the tower-like braced tubular structures.1 Introduction The different requirements of an offshore platform and the typical phases of an offshore development are summarized in [9]. Slide 3 : Cantilevered drilling rig: Self-elevating (jack-up) exploration drilling platform. the jack-up drilling unit will be called once again and will reach over the well area of the production deck. Consequently production starts between one and two years after platform installation.120 m. on a confidential basis. if available. OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT OF AN OIL/GAS FIELD 3. etc.). Slide 3 shows a jack-up drilling unit with a cantilever rig. They support laterally and protect the 26-30 inch well conductors and the pipeline riser. 3. prior to production: • • • • engineering and design fabrication and installation of the production facility drilling of production wells.) 4. The results are studied and the economics and risks of different development plans are evaluated. The installation methods for the jacket and the piles have a profound impact on the design. In this case the platform has to be installed exactly above the pre-drilled wells.

parafines/waxes and sand • • • support for pumps/compressors required to transport the product ashore power generation accommodation for operating and maintenance staff. thus providing a stiffer structure. e.Lecture 15A. Pile-through-leg concept.1 Lecture 15A. Typically approximately 5% of the jacket weight is applied as anodes. This arrangement results in reduced structural weight and easier pile driving.1 4. 5. water.g.2 Jacket-based Topsides 5. all other guides are deleted. These forces lead to significant bending of the pile near to the seabed. with diameters up to 2m.2 Pile Foundation The jacket foundation is provided by open-ended tubular steel piles. oil and non-transportable components in the raw product.2. Page 9 of 32 Page 10 of 32 . Number.3 Pile Bearing Resistance Axial load resistance is required for bearing as well as for tension. They result from the lifting capacity of crane vessels and the load-out capacity at the yards: • • • • the single integrated deck (up to approx 100 MN) the split deck in two four-leg units the integrated deck with living quarter module the modularized topside consisting of module support frame (MSF) carrying a series of modules. where the pile is installed in guides attached to the jacket leg. The pile accumulates both skin friction as well as end bearing resistance. A sacrificial anode (approximate 3 kN each) consists of a zinc/aluminium bar cast about a steel tube and welded on to the structures. In contrast inclined piles enlarge the foundation at the bottom. where the pile is installed in the corner legs of the jacket.1 Introduction The major functions on the deck of an offshore platform are: • • • well control support for well work-over equipment separation of gas.1 Concepts There are four structural concepts in practice. TOPSIDES 5. Vertical skirt piles are directly installed in the pile sleeve at the jacket base. Skirt piles can be grouped in clusters around each of the jacket legs.80 m. 5. Lateral load resistance of the pile is required for restraint of the horizontal forces. diameter and penetration of the piles depend on the environmental loads and the soil conditions at the location. arrangement. 4.4 Corrosion Protection The most usual form of corrosion protection of the bare underwater part of the jacket as well as the upper part of the piles in soil is by cathodic protection using sacrificial anodes. and in some cases 120 m deep into the seabed. The steelwork in the splash zone is usually protected by a sacrificial wall thickness of 12 mm to the members. There are basically three types of pile/jacket arrangement (see Figure 3): 4. There are basically two structural types of topside. The piles are driven approximately 40 . the integrated and modularized topside which are positioned either on a jacket or on a concrete gravity substructure. Skirt piles through pile sleeves at the jacket-base.

The moderate vertical load and shear per column allows the topside to be supported by vertical columns (deck legs) only. with lateral bracing down to the top of jacket.T.2. Slide 4 : Integrated topside during load out 5. (Low Astronomic Tide). the support structure consists of trusses or portal frames with deletion of diagonals.3 Structural Design for Modularized Jacket-based Topsides A major modularized topside weighs 200 to 400 MN. In this case the MSF is a heavy tubular structure (Figure 4). up to approximately 100 MN weight. down to the top of the piles (situated at approximately +4 m to +6 m L.2 Structural Design for Integrated Topsides For the smaller decks. 5.1 Lecture 15A.Lecture 15A.A.2.1 Slide 4 shows an integrated deck (though excluding the living quarters and helideck) being moved from its assembly building. Page 11 of 32 Page 12 of 32 .

7. 7. can be distinguished: The backbone of the structure is a system of heavy box-girders with a height of approximately 10 m and a width of approximately 12 . Construction is illustrated below by four examples.1 5. 8. 3. module installation. offshore installation. This connection introduces wave-induced fatigue in the deck structure. The substructure of the deck is rigidly connected to the concrete column and acts as a beam supporting the deck modules. 4. all avoiding interior columns. is to provide a flexible connection between the deck and concrete column. In living quarter modules (5-25 MN) all sleeping rooms require windows and several doors must be provided in the outer walls. hook-up. stiffened plate walls (so called stressed skin or deck house type). 2.15 m (see Figure 5). fabrication. commissioning. A documented construction strategy should be available during all phases of the design and the actual design development should be monitored against the construction strategy.1 Lecture 15A. EQUIPMENT AND LIVING QUARTER MODULES Equipment modules (20-75 MN) have the form of rectangular boxes with one or two intermediate floors. thus eliminating fatigue in the deck [10].Lecture 15A. The floors are steel plate (6. 7. The jacket is loaded-out and seafastened aboard a barge. load-out. 8 or 10 mm thick) for roof and lower floor. Page 13 of 32 Page 14 of 32 . CONSTRUCTION 7. At the offshore location the barge is moored alongside an offshore crane vessel. Three types of structural concepts.2 Construction of Jackets and Topsides 7. sea transport. weight.1 Lift Installed Jackets The jacket is built in the vertical (smaller jackets) or horizontal position (bigger jackets) on a quay of a fabrication site. 5. heavy base frame (with wind bracings in the walls). A recent development. Floors are flat or stiffened plate. 6.1 Introduction The design of offshore structures has to consider various requirements of construction relating to: 1.2. • • • conventional trusses in the walls. This requirement can interfere seriously with truss arrangements. foreseen for the Norwegian Troll platform. 6. and grating for intermediate floors.3 Structural Design for Modularized Gravity-based Topsides The topsides to be supported by a gravity-based substructure (see Figure 2) are in a weight range of 200 MN up to 500 MN.

2 Launch Installed Jackets The jacket is built in horizontal position. It immerses deeply into the water and assumes a floating position afterwards (see Figure 6). 7. capable of taking the support reactions during launching. the piles are installed into the sleeves and. and pulled onto the barge (Slide 5). To reduce forces and moments in the jacket.1 The jacket is lifted off the barge. After setting down the jacket. rocker arms are attached to the stern of the barge. Fixing the piles to the jacket completes the installation.Lecture 15A.1 Lecture 15A. upended from the horizontal. Slide 5 : Jacket being loaded onto barge by skidding At the offshore location the jacket is slid off the barge. For load-out to the transport barge.2. the jacket is put on skids sliding on a straight track of steel beams. and carefully set down onto the seabed. driven into the seabed. Two parallel heavy vertical trusses in the jacket structure are required. Page 15 of 32 Page 16 of 32 .

immediately followed by the modules.1 Crane Vessel Lifting of heavy loads offshore requires use of specialized crane vessels.3 Topsides for a Gravity-Based Structure (GBS) The topside is assembled above the sea on a temporary support near a yard. dual crane vessel. Weather windows.3 Offshore Lifting Lifting of heavy loads from barges (Slide 6) is one of the very important and spectacular construction activities requiring a focus on the problem when concepts are developed. are required for these operations. 7. a Norwegian fjord. i.g. The floating GBS with deck is then towed to the offshore site and set down onto the seabed. Piling and pile/jacket fixing completes the installation.1 Lecture 15A. Figure 7 provides information on a typical big. the topside may be installed in one lift. first the MSF will be installed. Table 1 (page 16) lists some of the major offshore crane vessels.2. Self-upending jackets obtain a vertical position after the launch on their own. The barge is positioned between the columns and the GBS is then deballasted to mate with and to take over the deck from the barge. The GBS is brought in a deep floating condition in a sheltered site.e. Slide 6 : Installation of 60MN K12-BP topside by floating crane For the modularized topside. periods of suitable weather conditions. 7. Slide 6 shows a 60 MN topside being installed by floating cranes. Page 17 of 32 Page 18 of 32 .2. It is then taken by a barge of such dimensions as to fit between the columns of the temporary support and between the columns of the GBS.4 Jacket Topsides For topsides up to approximately 120 MN. e. 7.3.Lecture 15A.1 The next phase is to upright the jacket by means of controlled flooding of the buoyancy tanks and then set down onto the seabed. 7.

these cranes are situated at the vessels stern or bow at approximately 60 m distance c. connecting more than one shackle to the same column is not very attractive.1 7. 2. padears become an option.t. Heerema Odin Operator Name Thor Table 1 Major Offshore Crane Vessels Mode Monohull Type Fix Rev Monohull Fix Rev Hermod Semisub Fix Rev Balder Semisub Fix Rev DB50 Monohull Fix Rev DB100 Semisub Fix Rev DB101 Semisub Fix Rev DB102 Micoperi ETPM Notes: 1. and a safe working load (SWL) of 16 MN.1 Lecture 15A. Shackles are available up to 10 MN SWL to connect the padeyes installed at the module's columns. M7000 Semisub Semisub Rev Rev Rev. 1. steel wire ropes in a four-sling arrangement are used which directly rest in the fourpoint hook of the crane vessel.2 Sling-arrangement. (see Figure 8). So when the sling load exceeds 10 MN. When the crane vessels are provided with two cranes. Lifting capacity (Tonnes) 2720 1820 2720 2450 4536 + 3628 = 8164 3630 + 2720 = 6350 3630 + 2720 = 6350 3000 + 2000 = 5000 4000 3800 1820 1450 3360 2450 6000 + 6000 = 12000 7000 + 7000 = 14000 1600 McDermott DLB1601 Monohull Page 19 of 32 Page 20 of 32 . Fix = Load capability with crane fixed. Rated lifting capacity in metric tonnes. a breaking load of approximately 48 MN. Slings and Shackles For lifting.3. Due to the space required. The heaviest sling available now has a diameter of approximately 350 mm. 3.Lecture 15A.c. Rev = Load capability with fully revolving crane.

5. if possible.75 MN. Page 21 of 32 Page 22 of 32 .5.1 Introduction For load-out three basic methods are applied: The module requires fixing to the barge (see Figure 9) to withstand barge motions in rough seas. 7.4 Sea Transport and Sea Fastening Transportation is performed aboard a flat-top barge or.2 Skidding Skidding is a method feasible for items of any weight. The system consists of a series of steel beams. on which a group of skids with each approximately 6 MN load capacity is arranged. Each skid is provided with a hydraulic jack to control the reaction. on the deck of the crane vessel.Lecture 15A. The wheels are individually suspended and integrated jacks allow adjustment up to 300 mm.3 Platform Trailers Specialized trailer units (see Figure 10) can be combined to act as one unit for loads up to 60 .5. acting as track.1 7.1 Lecture 15A. The sea fastening concept is determined by the positions of the framing in the module as well as of the "hard points" in the barge. 7. • • • skidding platform trailers shearlegs.5 Load-out 7. 7.

Dynamic analysis is performed for the system behaviour under wave-attack if the natural period exceeds 3 seconds.g. Assessments at damaged structures.1 Lecture 15A.Lecture 15A. thus allowing deck and deckleg to be installed in one lift offshore. Provision for removal should be considered in the design phase. flare-stacks. under wave/current/wind attack with 50 or 100 years recurrence period. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 8.g. e. slender jacket members. Smaller decks (up to 10 . under wave/current/wind attack with 1 or 5 years recurrence period. crane-pedestals.1 Introduction The majority of structural analyses are based on the linear theory of elasticity for total system behaviour. Fatigue assessment. Accidental. e. under full operation.m.3 Construction Phase The major phases of construction when structural integrity may be endangered are: • • Load-out Sea transport Page 23 of 32 Page 24 of 32 .4 Shearlegs Load-out by shearlegs is attractive for small jackets built on the quay. All these analyses are performed on the complete and intact structure.1 7. and assessments of collision situations are occasionally performed. Many elements can exhibit local dynamic behaviour. The mode of removal depends strongly on the regulations of the local authorities.5. The units can drive in all directions and negotiate curves. with one member deleted.2 In-place Phase Three types of analysis are performed: • • • • Survival state. 8. Operational state. The load capacity over the projected ground area varies from approximately 55 to 85 kN/sq. conductors. 8. 8.6 Platform Removal In recent years platform removal has become common.12 MN) can be loaded out on the decklegs pre-positioned on the barge. compressor foundations. 7.

operational expenditure (OPEX). In a typical offshore field development. royalties. The CAPEX of an installed offshore platform topside amounts to approximately 20 ECU/kg. 10. 9.3 Operational Expenditure (OPEX) In the North Sea approximately 20 percent of OPEX are required for offshore inspection.e. Page 25 of 32 Page 26 of 32 . In the Gulf of Mexico and offshore California several fixed platforms in water depths of 250 - Cost estimates are usually prepared in a deterministic approach. one third on the drilling of wells and one third on the pipelines. The maximum depth of water at platform sites in the North Sea is approximately 220 m at present. IMR is the area in which the structural engineer makes a contribution by effort in design. The jacket weighed nearly 500 MN. Fixed platforms have recently been installed in water of 410 m.Lecture 15A.1 Lecture 15A.2 Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) The major elements in the CAPEX for an offshore platform are: • • • • • project management and design material and equipment procurement fabrication transport and installation hook-up and commissioning. The amount to be spent on IMR over the project life can add up to approximately half the original investment. COST ASPECTS 9. depth. avoiding jacket attachments dangerous to divers. basic provisions for scaffolding. "Bullwinkle" developed by Shell Oil for a Gulf of Mexico location. Norwegian Snorre and Heidrun fields have been developed with TLPs as well. accessibility. An option for deeper locations is to use subsea wells with flowlines to a nearby (approximately maximum 10 km) fixed platform at a smaller water depth. DEEP WATER DEVELOPMENTS Deep water introduces a wide range of extra difficulties for the operator. maintenance and repair (IMR). one third of the CAPEX is spent on the platform. Cognac). Alternatively subsea wells may be used with flexible risers to a floating production unit. Subsea wells are now feasible for 300 . Exxon has a guyed tower platform (Lena) in operation in 300 m deep water.900 m deep water. constructor of offshore platforms. the designer and 9.1 Introduction The economic feasibility of an offshore project depends on many aspects: capital expenditure (CAPEX). etc. 350 m are in operation (Cerveza. tied to the seabed by vertical prestressed tethers. The development of the Troll field situated in approximately 305 m deep water is planned for 1993. The first TLP was Hutton in the North Sea and recently TLP-Jolliet was installed at a 530 m deep location in the Gulf of Mexico. i. It consists of a semi-submersible pontoon. tax. Recently cost-estimating using a probabilistic approach has been developed and adopted in major offshore projects. improved corrosion protection. The tension leg platform (TLP) seems to be the most promising deepwater production unit (Figure 11). The deepest wells have been developed off Brasil in moderate weather conditions.1 • • Upending of jackets Lifting. 9. selection of material.

Lecture 15A.1 12. After drilling it protects the well casing. welded to the main structure. jacket.1 Lecture 15A. GBS-based.B. stable through its weight. JACKET Tubular sub-structure under a topside. standing in the water and pile founded. • • A basic introduction to cost aspects is presented. SUBSEA TEMPLATE Structure at seabottom. GLOSSARY OF TERMS AIR GAP Clearance between the top of maximum wave and underside of the topside. to guide conductors prior to jacket installation. 11. SPREADER Tubular frame. fabrication and installation. PIPELINE RISER The piping section which rises from the sea bed to topside level. PADEARS (TRUNNIONS) Thick-walled tubular stubs. after installation offshore. SUMPS Vertical pipes from topside down to 5-10 m below water level for intake or discharge. floating). LOAD-OUT The operation of bringing the object (module. G. sitting flatly on the sea bottom. • • The major codes are identified. HOOK-UP Connecting components or systems. SHACKLES Connecting element (bow + pin) between slings and padeyes. for offshore lifting. directly receiving slings and transversely welded to the main structure. the basic steps in the development process (from seismic exploration to platform removal) and the introduction of the major structural concepts (jacket-based. Special attention is given to the principles of topside design. used in lifting operation. receiving the pin of the shackle.S. For the fixed platform concepts (jacket and GBS). SLINGS Cables with spliced eyed at both ends. deck) from the quay onto the transportation barge. TLP. Page 27 of 32 Page 28 of 32 . Gravity based structure. Finally terms are introduced within a glossary. CONCLUDING SUMMARY SEA-FASTENING The structure to keep the object rigidly connected to the barge during • The lecture starts with the presentation of the importance of offshore hydro-carbon exploitation. PADEYES Thick-walled plate with hole. the upper end resting in the crane hook. the different execution phases are briefly explained: design. transport. CAISSONS See SUMPS CONDUCTORS The tubular protecting and guiding the drill string from the topside down to 40 to 100m under the sea bottom.

with all auxiliaries. Paris 1975. A period of calm weather. [10] AGJ Berkelder et al: Flexible deck joints.II pp. Lloyds Register of Shipping. The structural offshore welding code. London (UK) 1988. governs the majority of platforms. Bureau Veritas. American Bureau of Shipping 1983. Regulations of a major certifying authority. American Petroleum Institute 18th ed. Important code.A 2nd ed. UP ENDING Bringing the jacket in vertical position. [4] AISC: Specification for the design. 753-760. 13. mainly for the British offshore sector. defined on basis of operational limits for the offshore marine operation.K. U. Presents interesting new concept in GBS design. 1985. ASME/OMAE-conference The Hague 1989 Vol. [3] DnV: Rules for the classification of fixed offshore installations. Fundamental information about offshore oil and gas operations. 14. Regulations of a major certifying authority. [7] ABS: Rules for building and classing offshore installations. BS 6235: Code of practice for fixed offshore structures.Steel.1 TOPSIDE Topside. The structural offshore code. fabrication and erection of structural steel for buildings. British Standards Institution 1982. Part 1 Structures. Regulations of a major certifying authority.1 Lecture 15A. [2] LRS Code for offshore platforms. ADDITIONAL READING 1. American Welding Society 1990. Important set of rules. Det Norske Veritas 1989. [8] BV: Rules and regulations for the construction and classification of offshore platforms. prior to set down on the sea bottom. [6] DnV/Marine Operations: Standard for insurance warranty surveys in marine operations. WELLHEAD AREA Area in topside where the wellheads are positioned including the valves mounted on its top. REFERENCES [1] API-RP2A: Recommended practice for planning. Austin U. 1989. Regulations of a major certifying authority. Petex Publ. Page 29 of 32 Page 30 of 32 . Widely used structural code for topsides. American Institute of Steel Construction 1989. positioned above the waves. 2. WEATHER WINDOW Det norske Veritas June 1985. [9] ANON: A primer of offshore operations.1-90: Structural Welding Code . DoE Offshore installations: Guidance on design and construction. Department of Energy 1990.S. [5] AWS D1.Lecture 15A. the compact offshore process plant. designing and constructing fixed offshore platforms.

A. 6. 10.Strength and Safety for Structural design.J. Wardenier: Hollow section joints. Up to date presentation of offshore design and construction. OTC paper 5348. W. 9. Edition Technip. Johnston: Field development options. 5. 1987. pp 132 . OTC paper 5301. Good general introduction to offshore structures. Good presentation on development options. pp 79-93.I. Theoretical publication on tubular design including practical design formulae. May 5 1986. pp 531-539. Page 31 of 32 Page 32 of 32 . Vol 2 . 7. Graff: Introduction to offshore structures. Doody et al: Important considerations for successful fabrication of offshore structures. G. 11. Paris (France). Houston 1981. Fundamental publication on structural behaviour. T. Gerwick: Construction of offshore structures. Springer Verlag. Oil & Gas Journal. 3. Gulf Publishing Company. London 1992. John Wiley & Sons. D. B. J. Important theoretical and practical book. 8. ARSEM: Design guides for offshore structures welded tubular joints. UEG Offshore Research Publ.C. platforms. Houston 1986. Good presentation on offshore CAPEX assessment. I.1 Governmental regulations for British offshore sector only. D.33 1985. New York 1986. Karsan et al: An economic study on parameters influencing the cost of fixed 4. U. Delft University Press 1981.1 Lecture 15A. Valuable paper on fabrication aspects. Important theoretical and practical book.R. UEG: Design of tubular joints (3 volumes).Lecture 15A. Claum et al: Offshore Structures: Vol 1: Conceptual Design and Hydrimechanics. Houston 1986.142.

. required data. ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS Environmental loads are those caused by environmental phenomena such as wind. 2. wave. ice. Lecture 15A. For averaging intervals less than one minute. current. For averaging intervals of one minute or longer they are classified as sustained wind speeds. 5. PREREQUISITES A basic knowledge of structural analysis for static and dynamic loadings. etc. Environmental loads including earthquakes. waves. Permanent (dead) loads. etc. and marine growth. whilst the other loadings are treated in Lecture 15A. housing. Whilst the design of buildings onshore is usually influenced mainly by the permanent and operating loads.3. INTRODUCTION The loads for which an offshore structure must be designed can be classified into the following categories: In civil engineering. It is approximately equal to 1/13 for gusts and 1/8 for sustained winds in the open ocean. The wind velocity profile may be taken from API-RP2A [2]: Vh/VH = (h/H)1/n …………………. sea bed movement. the British Standards Institution and the British Department of Energy. This lecture deals with environmental loads.2 Lecture 15A.(1) where: 1. but in offshore engineering they are treated as environmental loads. depending on the sea state. derrick. as well as to the relevant regulations of the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. ice and snow. temperature. waves and earthquake are discussed in more detail together with their idealizations for the various types of analyses.3. simplifying assumptions. can be found in the regulations and codes of practice listed in [1] . defining design load values. VH is the wind velocity at reference height H. 3.. earthquakes.1 Wind Loads Wind loads act on the portion of a platform above the water level. The loads include: wind. located on the deck. 1/n is 1/13 to 1/7. while according to the British rules it should be 50 years or greater. Vh is the wind velocity at height h. Construction . 2. tides. earthquake. current. the static wind force Fw(N) acting perpendicular to an exposed area A(m2) can be computed as follows: Fw = (1/2) ρ V2 Cs A ……………………(2) Page 1 of 16 Page 2 of 16 . the design of offshore structures is dominated by environmental loads. as well as on any equipment. Det Norske Veritas. the distance from land and the averaging time interval. Accidental loads. Frequent references are made to the codes of practice recommended by the American Petroleum Institute. Operating (live) loads. marine growth and tide generated loads. typically 10m above mean water level. From the design wind velocity V(m/s). Loads due to wind. especially waves. Their characteristic parameters.[8]. wind speeds are classified as gusts. This practice is followed in the two lectures dealing with loads. earthquakes are normally regarded as accidental loads (see Eurocode 8 [1]). 1. 2.installation loads. and the loads arising in the various stages of construction and installation. the mean recurrence interval for the corresponding design event must be 100 years. To present briefly the loads generated by environmental factors. An important parameter pertaining to wind data is the time interval over which wind speeds are averaged. are determined in special studies on the basis of available data.2 Loads (I): Introduction and Environmental Loads OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To introduce the types of loads for which a fixed steel offshore structure must be designed.Lecture 15A. 4. Details of design criteria.2 and 15A. sea bed movement. According to US and Norwegian regulations (or codes of practice). temperature. SUMMARY The categories of load for which a pile supported steel offshore platform must be designed are introduced and then the different types of environmental loads are presented.

the graph shown in Figure 2 may be consulted. This static analysis is appropriate when the dominant wave periods are well above the period of the structure. The waves are assumed to be long-crested. the Stokes fifth-order theory. Shielding and solidity effects can be accounted for. The first is the sea state computed using an idealization of the wave surface profile and the wave kinematics given by an appropriate wave theory. API-RP2A [2] distinguishes between global and local wind load effects. the most probable maximum force during the lifetime of the structure is calculated using linear wave theory. For the second case it gives values of extreme wind speeds to be used without regard to waves.5 for beams and sides of buildings. Usually the 100-year wave. The statistical approach has to be chosen to analyze the fatigue strength and the dynamic behavior of the structure. b. the solitary wave theory. The second is the computation of the wave forces on individual members and on the total structure.2 Wave Loads The wave loading of an offshore structure is usually the most important of all environmental loadings for which the structure must be designed. is chosen. then this object (or structure) could be wind sensitive. Wind loads are generally taken as static. if dynamic analyses for extreme wave loadings are required for deepwater structures. Table 1 presents results of the linear wave theory for finite Page 3 of 16 Page 4 of 16 . 2. they can be described by a two-dimensional flow field. where a regular wave of given height and period is defined and the forces due to this wave are calculated using a high-order wave theory. i. are appropriate for different ranges of the wave parameters. The forces on the structure are caused by the motion of the water due to the waves which are generated by the action of the wind on the surface of the sea. developed on the basis of simplifying assumptions. though interrelated problems. the maximum wave with a return period of 100 years. the ratio of height to the least horizontal dimension of the wind exposed object (or structure) is greater than 5. period (T) and water depth (d) as shown in Figure 1. 1-minute sustained wind speeds combined with extreme waves. Among the most common theories are: the linear Airy theory. For the selection of the most appropriate theory.225 Kg/m3) Cs is the shape coefficient (Cs = 1. the DNV [4] and DOE-OG [7] rules recommend the most unfavorable of the following two loadings: a. Dean's stream function theory and the numerical theory by Chappelear. Determination of these forces requires the solution of two separate. 3-second gusts. and are characterized by the parameters: wave height (H). they serve to calculate the particle velocities and accelerations and the dynamic pressure as functions of the surface elevation of the waves. In particular. Two different analysis concepts are used: • The design wave concept. from the fluid motion.5 for cylindrical sections and Cs = 1. For the first case it gives guideline values of mean 1-hour average wind speeds to be combined with extreme waves and current.e. using appropriate coefficients. Cs = 0. 2. API-RP2A requires the dynamic effects of the wind to be taken into account in this case and the flow induced cyclic wind loads due to vortex shedding must be investigated.1 Wave theories Wave theories describe the kinematics of waves of water on the basis of potential theory. i. When.2 where: ρ is the wind density (ρ ≈ 1. Appropriate wave spectra are defined to perform the analysis in the frequency domain and to generate random waves. With statistical methods. however.e. Different wave theories of varying complexity. This is the case of extreme storm waves acting on shallow water structures. the cnoidal theory. As an example.2. in the judgment of the designer. No dynamic behavior of the structure is considered.Lecture 15A.2 Lecture 15A. For combination with wave loads. • Statistical analysis on the basis of a wave scatter diagram for the location of the structure.0 for total projected area of platform).

but as irregular sea states.2 Wave Statistics In reality waves do not occur as regular waves.2 Lecture 15A.2 depth and deep water conditions. 2.g.Lecture 15A. Results from highorder wave theories can be found in the literature. Note the strong influence of the water depth on the wave kinematics. e. usually called the wave spectrum for simplicity. Corresponding particle paths are illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. The best means to describe a random sea state is using the wave energy density spectrum S(f). It is formulated as a function of the wave frequency f using the parameters: significant wave height Hs (i.e. The irregular appearance results from the linear superposition of an infinite number of regular waves with varying frequency (Figure 5). the mean of the highest third of all waves present in a wave train) and mean wave period (zero-upcrossing period) To. As an additional parameter the spectral width can be taken into account.2. Page 5 of 16 Page 6 of 16 . see [9].

For fatigue analysis the total number and amplitude of load cycles during the life-time of the structure can be derived in this way. influence the wave field by diffraction and reflection. including marine growth (m) Page 7 of 16 Page 8 of 16 ... yielding finally the desired response spectrum.D (f. F is the wave force per unit length on a circular cylinder (N) v.σ) can then be defined as: maximum forces and motions have to be calculated by statistical methods or a time-domain analysis. i. PiersonMoskowitz (Figure 6). calculated with the selected wave theory at the cylinder axis (m/s2) ρ is the water density (kg/m3) D is the member diameter. Two different cases can be distinguished: • Large volume bodies. where σ is the angle of the wave approach direction (Figure 6)... It can be obtained from measurements over a long period or be deduced from weather observations in the region (the so-called hindcast method). For every pair of parameters the wave spectrum is calculated by a standard formula.. calculated with the selected wave theory at the cylinder axis (m/s) are water particle acceleration normal to the cylinder.. The scatter diagram contains the joint probability of occurrence of pairs of significant wave height and mean wave period.e.. From the resulting response spectrum the significant and the maximum expected response in a given time interval can be easily deduced. e..... |v| are water particle velocity normal to the cylinder. is calculated by multiplication of the wave energy spectrum with the square of a linear transfer function. The forces result from the dynamic pressure and the water particle motions. the CD. 2.. )... forces.σ ) = S(f).. motions.(3) Structures exposed to waves experience substantial forces much higher than wind loadings. a wave scatter diagram for the location of the structure is needed.2 Lecture 15A... The wave forces on the submerged members can therefore be calculated by Morison's equation..2 Wave directionality can be introduced by means of a directional spreading function D(f.. For structures with substantial dynamic response to the wave excitation.. A directional wave spectrum S (f.2.. where D is ... For long-term statistics....3 Wave forces on structural members S (f. respectively... The response of the structure.. Morison's equation may be applied when D/L the member diameter and L is the wave length. hydrodynamically transparent structures have no significant influence on the wave field..σ ) ………………..….2.. As a rule. The steel jackets of offshore structures can usually be regarded as hydrodynamically transparent.Lecture 15A.. (4) Where. The forces can be calculated in a straight-forward manner with Morison's equation. The forces on these bodies have to be determined by costly numerical calculations based on diffraction theory. CM are drag and inertia coefficients... • Slender. termed hydrodynamic compact structures...g.. which expresses the wave force as the sum of an inertia force proportional to the particle acceleration and a non-linear drag force proportional to the square of the particle velocity: 0.

Lecture 15A.2

Lecture 15A.2

In this form the equation is valid for fixed tubular cylinders. For the analysis of the motion response of a structure it has to be modified to account for the motion of the cylinder [10]. The values of CD and CM depend on the wave theory used, surface roughness and the flow parameters. According to API-RP2A, CD ≈ 0,6 to 1,2 and CM ≈ 1,3 to 2,0. Additional information can be found in the DNV rules [4]. The total wave force on each member is obtained by numerical integration over the length of the member. The fluid velocities and accelerations at the integration points are found by direct application of the selected wave theory. According to Morison's equation the drag force is non-linear. This non-linear formulation is used in the design wave concept. However, for the determination of a transfer function needed for frequency domain calculations, the drag force has to be linearized in a suitable way [9]. Thus, frequency domain solutions are appropriate for fatigue life calculations, for which the forces due to the operational level waves are dominated by the linear inertia term. The nonlinear formulation and hence time domain solutions are required for dynamic analyses of deepwater structures under extreme, storm waves, for which the drag portion of the force is the dominant part [10]. In addition to the forces given by Morison's equation, the lift forces FD and the slamming forces FS, typically neglected in global response computations, can be important for local member design. For a member section of unit length, these forces can be estimated as follows: FL = (1/2) ρ CL Dv2 ................................. (5)

square of the velocity, this addition can greatly increase the forces on a platform. For slender members, cyclic loads induced by vortex shedding may also be important and should be examined.

2.4 Earthquake Loads Offshore structures in seismic regions are typically designed for two levels of earthquake intensity: the strength level and the ductility level earthquake. For the strength level earthquake, defined as having a "reasonable likelihood of not being exceeded during the platform's life" (mean recurrence interval ~ 200 - 500 years), the structure is designed to respond elastically. For the ductility level earthquake, defined as close to the "maximum credible earthquake" at the site, the structure is designed for inelastic response and to have adequate reserve strength to avoid collapse.

FS = (1/2) ρ Cs Dv2 ................................. (6) where CL, CS are the lift and slamming coefficients respectively, and the rest of the symbols are as defined in Morison's equation. Lift forces are perpendicular to the member axis and the fluid velocity v and are related to the vortex shedding frequency. Slamming forces acting on the underside of horizontal members near the mean water level are impulsive and nearly vertical. Lift forces can be estimated by taking CL ≈ 1,3 CD. For tubular members Cs ≈ π. 2.3 Current Loads There are tidal, circulation and storm generated currents. Figure 7 shows a wind and tidal current profile typical of the Gulf of Mexico. When insufficient field measurements are available, current velocities may be obtained from various sources, e.g. Appendix A of DNV [4]. In platform design, the effects of current superimposed on waves are taken into account by adding the corresponding fluid velocities vectorially. Since the drag force varies with the

For strength level design, the seismic loading may be specified either by sets of accelerograms (Figure 8) or by means of design response spectra (Figure 9). Use of design spectra has a number of advantages over time history solutions (base acceleration input). For this reason design response spectra are the preferable approach for strength level designs. If the design spectral intensity, characteristic of the seismic hazard at the site, is denoted by amax, then API-RP2A recommends using amax for the two principal horizontal directions and 0,5amax for the vertical direction. The DNV rules, on the other hand, recommend amax and 0,7 amax for the two horizontal directions (two different combinations) and 0,5 amax for the vertical. The value of amax and often the spectral shapes are determined by site specific seismological studies.

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Lecture 15A.2

Lecture 15A.2

which are usually the result of a site specific seismotectonic study. More detail of the analysis of earthquakes is given in the Lectures 17: Seismic Design. 2.5 Ice and Snow Loads Ice is a primary problem for marine structures in the arctic and sub-arctic zones. Ice formation and expansion can generate large pressures that give rise to horizontal as well as vertical forces. In addition, large blocks of ice driven by current, winds and waves with speeds that can approach 0,5 to 1,0 m/s, may hit the structure and produce impact loads. As a first approximation, statically applied, horizontal ice forces may be estimated as follows: Fi = CifcA ......................................... (7) Where, A is the exposed area of structure, fc is the compressive strength of ice, Ci is the coefficient accounting for shape, rate of load application and other factors, with usual values between 0,3 and 0,7. Generally, detailed studies based on field measurements, laboratory tests and analytical work are required to develop reliable design ice forces for a given geographical location. In addition to these forces, ice formation and snow accumulations increase gravity and wind loads, the latter by increasing areas exposed to the action of wind. More detailed information on snow loads may be found in Eurocode 1 [8]. 2.6 Loads due to Temperature Variations Offshore structures can be subjected to temperature gradients which produce thermal stresses. To take account of such stresses, extreme values of sea and air temperatures which are likely to occur during the life of the structure must be estimated. Relevant data for the North Sea are given in BS6235 [6]. In addition to the environmental sources, human Designs for ductility level earthquakes will normally require inelastic analyses for which the seismic input must be specified by sets of 3-component accelerograms, real or artificial, representative of the extreme ground motions that could shake the platform site. The characteristics of such motions, however, may still be prescribed by means of design spectra, factors can also generate thermal loads, e.g. through accidental release of cryogenic material, which must be taken into account in design as accidental loads. The temperature of the oil and gas produced must also be considered.

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Lecture 15A.2

Lecture 15A.2

2.7 Marine Growth Marine growth is accumulated on submerged members. Its main effect is to increase the wave forces on the members by increasing not only exposed areas and volumes, but also the drag coefficient due to higher surface roughness. In addition, it increases the unit mass of the member, resulting in higher gravity loads and in lower member frequencies. Depending upon geographic location, the thickness of marine growth can reach 0,3m or more. It is accounted for in design through appropriate increases in the diameters and masses of the submerged members. 2.8 Tides

2.9 Sea Floor Movements Movement of the sea floor can occur as a result of active geologic processes, storm wave pressures, earthquakes, pressure reduction in the producing reservoir, etc. The loads generated by such movements affect, not only the design of the piles, but the jacket as well. Such forces are determined by special geotechnical studies and investigations. 3. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • • Environmental loads form a major category of loads which control many aspects of platform design. The main environmental loads are due to wind, waves, current, earthquakes, ice and snow, temperature variations, marine growth, tides and seafloor movements. • • • • Widely accepted rules of practice, listed as [1] - [13], provide guideline values for most environmental loads. For major structures, specification of environmental design loads requires specific studies. Some environmental loads can be highly uncertain. The definition of certain environmental loads depends upon the type of analysis used in the design. 4. REFERENCES [1] Eurocode 8: "Structures in Seismic Regions - Design", CEN (in preparation). [2] API-RP2A, "Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms", American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., 18th ed., 1989. [3] OCS, "Requirements for Verifying the Structural Integrity of OCS Platforms"., United States Geologic Survey, National Centre, Reston, Virginia, 1980. [4] DNV, "Rules for the Design, Construction and Inspection of Offshore Structures", Det Norske Veritas, Oslo, 1977 (with corrections 1982). [5] NPD, "Regulation for Structural Design of Load-bearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources", Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, 1985. [6] BS6235, "Code of Practice for Fixed Offshore Structures", British Standards Institution, London, 1982. [7] DOE-OG, "Offshore Installation: Guidance on Design and Construction", U.K., Dept. of Energy, London 1985.

Tides affect the wave and current loads indirectly, i.e. through the variation of the level of the sea surface. The tides are classified as: (a) astronomical tides - caused essentially from the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun and (b) storm surges - caused by the combined action of wind and barometric pressure differentials during a storm. The combined effect of the two types of tide is called the storm tide. Tide dependent water levels and the associated definitions, as used in platform design, are shown in Figure 10. The astronomical tide range depends on the geographic location and the phase of the moon. Its maximum, the spring tide, occurs at new moon. The range varies from centimeters to several meters and may be obtained from special maps. Storm surges depend upon the return period considered and their range is on the order of 1,0 to 3,0m. When designing a platform, extreme storm waves are superimposed on the still water level (see Figure 10), while for design considerations such as levels for boat landing places, barge fenders, upper limits of marine growth, etc., the daily variations of the astronomical tide are used.

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[9] Clauss. "Dynamic Response of Offshore Structures to Extreme Waves including Fluid . 1986. "Construction of Offshore Structures".J. Jr.Lecture 15A. [12] Graff. T. 1981. [10] Anagnostopoulos. G.T. Structures. Gulf Publishing Co. 1981.A. [13] Gerwick. "Applied Offshore Structural Engineering". et al: "Offshore Structures.C.. B. H. Vol 1 .2 Lecture 15A. 4. Vol.5 Finite water depth d/L < 0.2 [8] Eurocode 1: "Basis of Design and Actions on Structures".Structure Interaction".ω t Relative water depth d/L Velocity potential θ Surface elevation z ζa cos θ ρ gζa ekz cos θ Deep water d/L ≥ 0.. Engr. pp. Springer. Table 1 Results of Linear Airy Theory [11] Phase θ = kx . Houston. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston.. CEN (in preparation). S. "Introduction to Offshore Structures".. [11] Hsu. John Wiley.179-185.Conceptual Design and Hydromechanics". London 1992. W.. 1982. New York..5 Wave number k = Water particle displacements horizontal ξ vertical ζ -ζa ekz sin θ ζa ekz cos θ ko = kd tanh kd = Circular frequency ω = ω= ω= Group velocity cgr = cgr = cgr = Wave celerity c = co = c= Wave length L = Lo = L= ζa cos θ Particle trajectories Circular orbits Elliptical orbits Dynamic pressure pdyn = Water particle velocities ζa ω ekz cos θ horizontal u = Where ζ a = vertical w = Water particle accelerations ζa ω ekz sin θ ζa ω2 ekz sin θ horizontal u' = vertical w' = -ζa ω2 ekz cos θ Page 15 of 16 Page 16 of 16 .

PREREQUISITES A basic knowledge of structural analysis for static and dynamic loadings. production).g. drilling. c. For vessel mooring. the following values are recommended in BS6235 [1]: a. etc. while in the second case this factor becomes 2. The data need to be critically evaluated by the designer. may normally be treated as harmonic forces. Hydrostatic forces on the various members below the waterline. transportation. The categories of loads described herein are the following: 1. drilling equipment. except environmental loads. Permanent (dead) loads 2. Forces generated during operations are often dynamic or impulsive in nature and must be treated as such. 2. loadout. as well as forces generated during operation of equipment.5. b. e. More specifically. if necessary. An example of detailed live load specification is given in Table 1 where the values in the first and second columns are for design of the portions of the structure directly affected by the loads and the reduced values in the last column are for the structure as a whole.2 KN/m2 b. These forces include buoyancy and hydrostatic pressures. In the absence of such data.g. a horizontal load applied at the points of impact and taken equal to half the maximum take-off weight must be considered. The impact load in the first case is to be taken as 1. not to be taken less than 6.3 Loads (II): Other Loads OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present and briefly describe all loads. two types of helicopter landing should be considered. PERMANENT (DEAD) LOADS Permanent loads include the following: a.5 times the maximum take-off weight. crew quarters and passageways: 3. loads generated during fabrication and installation (due to lifts. including environmental. b. and the load combinations for which a fixed offshore structure must be designed. except environmental. furniture. These categories include permanent (dead) loads. the different load combinations for all types of loads. heavy and emergency landing. vessel mooring. Loads from rotating machinery. Weights of equipment. etc. helicopter landing. crane The various categories of loads. living quarters. as required (or suggested) by applicable regulations (or codes of practice) are given. Accidental loads The major categories of environmental loads are not included. operations.Lecture 15A. Fabrication and installation loads 4. Operating (live) loads 3. launching and upending) and accidental loads. etc. operating (live) loads. attachments or associated structures which are permanently mounted on the platform. γ is the specific weight of stored materials. according to the BS6235 rules.3 Lecture 15A. including the weight of grout and ballast. In addition.5 KN/m2 c.2. for which a pile-supported steel offshore platform must be designed are presented. OPERATING (LIVE) LOADS Operating loads arise from the operations on the platform and include the weight of all nonpermanent equipment or material. operating loads include the following: a. liquids. working areas: 8. drilling. 1. life support systems. consumable supplies. SUMMARY Sealed tubular members must be designed for the worst condition when flooded or nonflooded.87KN/m3. The necessary data for computation of all operating loads are provided by the operator and the equipment manufacturers. etc). design Page 1 of 13 Page 2 of 13 . For example. storage areas: γH KN/m2 where.g. H is the storage height (m). facilities (e. They are dealt with in Lecture 15A. Weight of the structure in air. The weight of all non-permanent equipment (e. heliport. In addition. Forces generated during operations.

however. transportation to the site. (as shown in Figure 2). The first is for designing the padeyes as well as all members and their end connections framing the joint where the padeye is attached.5 m/s. because lifting in the open sea creates a more severe loading condition which requires higher dynamic load factors. all loading Page 3 of 13 Page 4 of 13 . 3.15. Moreover. lifting eyes and the connections to the supporting structural members should be designed for the combined action of the static sling load and a horizontal force equal to 5% this load.Lecture 15A. If the loadout is carried out by direct lift. respectively. API-RP2A. All members and connections of a lifted component must be designed for the forces resulting from static equilibrium of the lifted weight and the sling tensions. For loadout at sheltered locations. FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION LOADS These loads are temporary and arise during fabrication and installation of the platform or its components. the angle between each sling and the vertical axis and the conditions under which the lift is performed (Figure 1). the minimum impact to be considered is of a vessel of 2500 tonnes at 0. leaves this design return period up to the owner. from movement of the barge due to tidal fluctuations. 3. marine traffic or change of draft. lifting forces need not be computed. unless the lifting arrangement is different from that to be used for installation.3 forces are computed for the largest ship likely to approach at operational speeds. while the second is for all other members transmitting lifting forces. During fabrication. while the BS6235 rules [1] recommend a minimum recurrence interval of 10 years for the design environmental loads associated with transportation of the structure to the offshore site. the return period for computing design environmental conditions for installation as well as fabrication should normally be three times the duration of the corresponding phase. API-RP2A recommends that in order to compensate for any side movements. If loadout is done by skidding the structure onto the barge. while in the installation phase forces are generated during platform loadout. with the jacket supported on its side. as well as during lifts related to installation. and from possible support settlements. the corresponding minimum load factors for the two groups of structural components become. Such loading conditions arise from the different positions of the jacket during the loadout phases. according to APIRP2A.1 Lifting Forces Lifting forces are functions of the weight of the structural component being lifted. for lifts made offshore API-RP2A recommends two minimum values of dynamic load factors: 2.5 and 1. then. then dynamic load factors should be applied to the static lifting forces. launching and upending. the number and location of lifting eyes used for the lift.0 and 1. the lifting derrick or the structure to be lifted is on a floating vessel. a number of static loading conditions must be considered.3 Lecture 15A. In particular. Since movement of the jacket is slow. 3. on the other hand [3]. erection lifts of various structural components generate lifting forces. All these design forces are applied as static loads if the lifts are performed in the fabrication yard. According to the DNV rules [2]. applied perpendicular to the padeye at the centre of the pin hole.35. If. 1. According to BS6235.2 Loadout Forces These are forces generated when the jacket is loaded from the fabrication yard onto the barge.

according to API-RP2A [3].. the following: 1..3 Transportation Forces These forces are generated when platform components (jacket... 0......... In order to minimize the associated risks and secure safe transport from the fabrication yard to the platform site........... Seasonal weather system 3................ Appropriate return period for determining design wind......25 steel on steel with lubrication....................... taking into account characteristics of the tow such as size........ geometry and support 5............. Typical values of friction coefficients for calculation of skidding forces are the following: • • • • steel on steel without lubrication...... deck) are transported offshore on barges or self-floating..................Lecture 15A.. Page 5 of 13 Page 6 of 13 ........ 0.......... Exposure time and reliability of predicted "weather windows" 3... it is important to plan the operation carefully by considering...10 teflon on teflon....... wave and current conditions... Previous experience along the tow route 2.............. sensitivity and cost...3 conditions can be taken as static....15 steel on teflon..3 Lecture 15A.........08 conditions of the structure (by barge or by buoyancy) and also on the environmental conditions (waves...................... They depend upon the weight....... The types of motion that a floating structure may experience are shown schematically in Figure 3... structure. Accessibility of safe havens 4....... 0..0.......... winds and currents) that are encountered during transportation..

amplitude pitch: 10° 3. Single . Jacket is upended by a combination of controlled flooding and simultaneous lifting by a derrick barge. Moreover. when rotation starts. when the size of the tow. The support length keeps decreasing and reaches a minimum. They are determined from the design winds. waves and currents. If the structure is self-floating. For open sea conditions. induced during each of these stages and the force required to set the jacket into motion can be evaluated by appropriate analyses.3 Transportation forces are generated by the motion of the tow. the barge must be ballasted to an appropriate draft and trim angle and subsequently the jacket must be pulled towards the stern by a winch. Special computer programs are available to compute the transportation loads in the structure-barge system and the resulting stresses for any specified environmental condition. Jacket rotates and slides simultaneously 4. perpendicular and at 45 to the tow axis. waves and currents expected during the operation. its weight is supported on the two legs that are part of the launch trusses. the loads can be calculated directly. It is generally at this instant that the most severe launching forces develop as reactions to the weight of the jacket. the structure and supporting barge. The loads. the following may be considered as typical design values: 1. A schematic view of these operations can be seen in Figure 5. To start the launch.amplitude roll: 20° 2. towing analyses must be based on the results of model basin tests or appropriate analytical methods and must consider wind and wave directions parallel. Heave acceleration: 0. stability against capsizing is a primary design consideration because of the high centre of gravity of the jacket. equal to the length of the rocker beams. Inertial loads may be computed from a rigid body analysis of the tow by combining roll and pitch with heave motions. Page 7 of 13 Page 8 of 13 . As the jacket slides.Lecture 15A. Jacket slides along the skid beams 2. During stages (d) and (e). Sliding of the jacket starts as soon as the downward force (gravity component and winch pull) exceeds the friction force. Period of roll or pitch: 10 second 4. which also consider the action of wind. 3.4 Launching and Upending Forces These forces are generated during the launch of a jacket from the barge into the sea and during the subsequent upending into its proper vertical position to rest on the seabed. There are five stages in a launch-upending operation: 1. According to API-RP2A [3].3 Lecture 15A.e. the relative stiffness of jacket and barge may need to be taken into account together with the wave slamming forces that could result during a heavy roll motion of the tow (Figure 4) when structural analyses are carried out for designing the tie-down braces and the jacket members affected by the induced loads.2 g When transporting a large jacket by barge. static as well as dynamic. Jacket rotates on the rocker arms 3. magnitude of the sea state and experience make such assumptions reasonable. Single . i. Jacket detaches completely and comes to its floating equilibrium position 5.

. appropriate to normal operations of the platform. i. 4.2. Buoyancy calculations are required for every stage of the operation to ensure fully controlled. b. Dead loads plus operating environmental loads plus minimum live loads. Operating (live). 4. but not in API-RP2A [3]. impact resistant covers. For well controlled dead and live loads during fabrication and installation. the 1. fire or explosion.7 E. Earthquakes are treated as an environmental load in offshore structure design. 6. dropped objects.g. Computer programs are available to perform the stress analyses required for launching and upending and also to portray the whole operation graphically.3 E where P. Operating environmental conditions are defined as representative of severe but not necessarily limiting conditions that. which the NPD rules also require [4].3 Lecture 15A.3 L + 1. differential settlement) and Environmental loads respectively. i. environmental loads. BS6235 [1] or the DOE-OG rules [5]. c.0. According to the DNV and the NPD rules for limit state design.15.0.e. Progressive Collapse limit state All load factors are to be taken as 1.0 D + 1. Dead loads plus extreme (design) environmental loads plus minimum live loads. accidental loads are loads. For example. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • • In addition to environmental loads.0 P + 1. Examples of accidental loads are loads due to collision with vessels.0 D + 0. fabrication and installation loads as well as accidental loads. ill-defined with respect to intensity and frequency. appropriate for combining with extreme conditions. whether limit state or allowable stress design is employed. For this limit state the following two loading combinations must be used: Page 9 of 13 Page 10 of 13 .3 load factor for environmental loads . are usually followed for specifying such loads. with the exception of earthquake loads. d. D and E stand for Permanent (dead). wind. and unintended flooding of buoyancy tanks. and Extreme : 1. Dead loads plus extreme (design) environmental loads plus maximum live loads. temperature. Moreover. The so-called characteristic values of the loads used in the above combinations and limit states are summarized in Table 2. ACCIDENTAL LOADS The DNV rules [2] permit allowable stress design but recommend the semi-probabilistic limit state design method. if exceeded. an offshore structure must be designed for dead and live loads. The load combinations recommended for use with allowable stress procedures are: a.. L. would require cessation of platform operations.except earthquakes .0 L + 1.Lecture 15A. an accidental load can be disregarded if its annual probability of occurrence is less than 10-4.0. etc. Deformation (e. protection of wellheads or other critical equipment from a dropped object can be provided by specially designed. 2. BS6235 permits both methods but the design equations it gives are for the allowable stress method [1].3 may be reduced to 1. Special measures are normally taken to reduce the risk from accidental loads. the load factor 1. This number is meant as an order of magnitude estimate and is extremely difficult to compute.e. taken from the NPD rules. listed in the references. According to the NPD regulations [4]. 3.3 variable hydrostatic forces arise which have to be considered at all members affected. Dead loads plus operating environmental loads plus maximum live loads. Widely accepted rules of practice. are to be imposed as a separate environmental load. appropriate to normal operations of the platform. not to be combined with waves. API-RP2A is very specific in recommending not to apply limit state methods. which may occur as a result of accident or exceptional circumstances. Furthermore. for structures that are unmanned during storm conditions and which are not used for storage of oil and gas. four limit states must be checked: 1. Fatigue limit state All load factors are to be taken as 1. Accidental loads are also specified as a separate category in the NPD regulations [4]. LOAD COMBINATIONS The load combinations used for designing fixed offshore structures depend upon the design method used. Serviceability limit state Ordinary: 1. stable motion. Ultimate limit state According to the DNV rules [2]. Earthquake loads. if applicable. All load factors are to be taken as 1. appropriate for combining with extreme conditions. 5.3 P + 1. should be combined in a manner consistent with their joint probability of occurrence during the loading condition considered.may be reduced to 1.

1982. 1985. Virginia.. 1980. Construction and Inspection of Offshore Structures". 5 (1) 5 (1) 2. Gerwick. Table 1 Minimum design live load specification Loads to be taken into account (kN/m2) For portions of the structure For the structure as a whole Zone considered Flooring and joists Other components (3) Process zone (around wells and largescale machines) Drilling zone Catwalks and walking platforms (except emergency exits) Stairways (except emergency exits) 5 (1) 5 (1) 2. transportation and installation loads depend upon the methods and sequences used for the corresponding phases.3 Lecture 15A. Hsu. 1977 (with corrections 1982).5 7. Load combinations and load factors depend upon the design method to be used. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms". "Construction of Offshore Structures".5 1 4 2 5 3 1. while DNV and NPD recommend limit state design. Oslo.. Accidental loads are not well defined with respect to intensity and probability of occurrence..light Delivery zone Non-attributed area 18 9 10 6 12 6 10 4 8 (2) 4 (2) 5 3 (1) Accumulated with a point load equal to the weight of the heaviest part likely to be removed. "Code of Practice for Fixed Offshore Structures".. (3) This column gives the loads to be taken into account for the structure's overall calculation.. United States Geologic Survey. 3. [3] API-RP2A. 1989. "Recommended Practice for Planning. These values are the input for the computer runs. Storage floors . D.. U.heavy Storage floors . 1986. BSI favours allowable stress design.5 5 0 1 0 Module roofing Emergency exits STORAGE [4] "Regulation for Structural Design of Load-bearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources". [2] "Rules for the Design. John Wiley. Det Norske Veritas (DNV). 2. Gulf Publishing Co.C.Lecture 15A. They will typically require special protective measures. "Introduction to Offshore Structures". Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD). Page 11 of 13 Page 12 of 13 .3m surface. 1981. with a minimum value of 5 kN.. B. 18th ed. [5] DOE-OG. Gulf Publishing Co. Graff.5 3 2.3m × 0.K. Houston. "Requirements for Verifying the Structural Integrity of OCS Platforms". OCS. Point loads are assumed as being applied to a 0. W.3 • • • • The type and magnitude of fabrication. American Petroleum Institute. London 1985. (2) Applied on the entirety of the flooring surface (including traffic). "Offshore Installation: Guidance on Design and Construction". 8. Reston. Department of Energy. 1981. Dynamic and impact effects are normally taken into account by means of appropriate dynamic load factors.G. APIRP2A is based on allowable stress design and recommends against limit state design. H. Jr. ADDITIONAL READING 1. New York. Houston. British Standards Institution. London. 4.C.. National Centre. "Applied Offshore Structural Engineering".T. REFERENCES [1] BS6235. Washington.

Lecture 15A.3 Table 2 Characteristic Loads according to NPD [4] LIMIT STATES FOR TEMPORARY PHASES LOAD TYPE Service ability Fatigue Ultimate Abnormal effects DEAD LIVE DEFORM ATION Depen dent on ENVIRON operati MENTAL onal require ments Expect ed load history Value dependent on measures taken Dependent on operational requirements Expect ed load history Annual exceedance probability 10 -2 LIMIT STATES FOR NORMAL OPERATIONS Progressive Collapse Serviceability Damage condition EXPECTED VALUE SPECIFIED VALUE EXPECTED EXTREME VALUE Fatigue Ultimate Abnormal effects Progressive Collapse Damage condition Annual exceedanc e probability 10-4 Annual Annual exceedance probability 10-2 ACCIDEN TAL Dependent on NOT APPLICABLE operational requirements NOT APPLICABLE exceedanc e probability 10-4 NOT APPLICABLE Page 13 of 13 .

Lecture 15A.4

Lecture 15A.4

Analysis I
OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present the main analysis procedures for offshore structures. PREREQUISITES Lecture 15A.1: Offshore Structures: General Introduction

2. ANALYTICAL MODEL The analytical models used in offshore engineering are in some respects similar to those adopted for other types of steel structures. Only the salient features of offshore models are presented here. The same model is used throughout the analysis process with only minor adjustments being made to suit the specific conditions, e.g. at supports in particular, relating to each analysis. 2.1 Stick Models

Lecture 15A.2: Loads I: Introduction and Environmental Loads Stick models (beam elements assembled in frames) are used extensively for tubular Lecture 15A.3: Loads II: Other Loads RELATED LECTURES Lecture 15A.5: Analysis II SUMMARY Analytical models used in offshore engineering are briefly described. Acceptance criteria for the verification of offshore structures are presented. Simple rules for preliminary member sizing are given and procedures for static in-place and dynamic analysis are described. 1. ANALYTICAL MODEL 2.2 Plate Models The analysis of an offshore structure is an extensive task, embracing consideration of the different stages, i.e. execution, installation, and in-service stages, during its life. Many disciplines, e.g. structural, geotechnical, naval architecture, metallurgy are involved. This lecture and Lecture 15A.5 are purposely limited to presenting an overview of available analysis procedures and providing benchmarks for the reader to appreciate the validity of his assumptions and results. They primarily address jackets, which are more unusual structures compared to decks and modules, and which more closely resemble onshore petro-chemical plants. 3.1 Code Checks The verification of an element consists of comparing its characteristic resistance(s) to a design force or stress. It includes: 3. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA Integrated decks and hulls of floating platforms involving large bulkheads are described by plate elements. The characteristics assumed for the plate elements depend on the principal state of stress which they are subjected to. Membrane stresses are taken when the element is subjected merely to axial load and shear. Plate stresses are adopted when bending and lateral pressure are to be taken into account. 2.1.2 Members In addition to its geometrical and material properties, each member is characterized by hydrodynamic coefficients, e.g. relating to drag, inertia, and marine growth, to allow wave forces to be automatically generated. structures (jackets, bridges, flare booms) and lattice trusses (modules, decks). 2.1.1 Joints Each member is normally rigidly fixed at its ends to other elements in the model. If more accuracy is required, particularly for the assessment of natural vibration modes, local flexibility of the connections may be represented by a joint stiffness matrix.

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Lecture 15A.4 • • a strength check, where the characteristic resistance is related to the yield strength of the element, a stability check for elements in compression where the characteristic resistance relates to the buckling limit of the element.

Lecture 15A.4 Partial factors are applied to the loads and to the characteristic resistance of the element, reflecting the amount of confidence placed in the design value of each parameter and the degree of risk accepted under a limit state, i.e: • Ultimate Limit State (ULS):

An element (member or plate) is checked at typical sections (at least both ends and midspan) against resistance and buckling. This verification also includes the effect of water pressure for deepwater structures. Tubular joints are checked against punching under various load patterns. These checks may indicate the need for local reinforcement of the chord using overthickness or internal ringstiffeners. Elements should also be verified against fatigue, corrosion, temperature or durability wherever relevant. 3.2 Allowable Stress Method This method is presently specified by American codes (API, AISC). The loads remain unfactored and a unique coefficient is applied to the characteristic resistance to obtain an allowable stress as follows: corresponds to an ultimate event considering the structural resistance with appropriate reserve. • Fatigue Limit State (FLS):

relates to the possibility of failure under cyclic loading. • Progressive Collapse Limit State (PLS):

reflects the ability of the structure to resist collapse under accidental or abnormal conditions. • Service Limit State (SLS):

corresponds to criteria for normal use or durability (often specified by the plant operator). 3.3.1 Load factors Norwegian Authorities (2, 4) specify the following sets of load factors:



Strong axis bending

Weak axis bending 0,75 1,00 ULS (normal) ULS (extreme) FLS PLS (accidental) PLS (post-damage) SLS Limit State P 1,3 1,0 0,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 L 1,3 1,0 0,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 D 1,0 1,0 0,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 Load Categories E 0,7 1,3 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 A 0,0 0,0 0,0 1,0 0,0 0,0

Normal Extreme

0,60 0,80

0,66 0,88

"Normal" and "Extreme" respectively represent the most severe conditions: • • under which the plant is to operate without shut-down. the platform is to endure over its lifetime.

3.3 Limit State Method This method is enforced by European and Norwegian Authorities and has now been adopted by API as it offers a more uniform reliability.

where the respective load categories are:

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Lecture 15A.4 P are permanent loads (structural weight, dry equipments, ballast, hydrostatic pressure). L are live loads (storage, personnel, liquids). D are deformations (out-of-level supports, subsidence). E are environmental loads (wave, current, wind, earthquake). A are accidental loads (dropped object, ship impact, blast, fire). 3.3.2 Material factors The material partial factors for steel is normally taken equal to 1,15 for ULS and 1,00 for PLS and SLS design. 3.3.3 Classification of Design Conditions Guidance for classifying typical conditions into typical limit states is given in the following table:

Lecture 15A.4

In-Place (extreme)


wind & 100 year wave



In-Place (exceptional) Earthquake Rare Earthquake Explosion Fire Dropped Object Boat Collision Damaged Structure


wind & 10000 year wave




10-2 quake 10-4 quake



blast fire drill collar


Condition P/L Construction Load-Out P P E

Loadings D A

Design Criterion ULS,SLS


boat impact


P + reduced L

reduced wave & wind


reduced wind

support disp




transport wind and wave

ULS The analysis of a structure is an iterative process which requires progressive adjustment of the member sizes with respect to the forces they transmit, until a safe and economical design flooded compart PLS is achieved. It is therefore of the utmost importance to start the main analysis from a model which is close

Tow-out (accidental) Launch Lifting In-Place (normal)


P P P+L wind, wave & snow actual


to the final optimized one. The simple rules given below provide an easy way of selecting realistic sizes for the main elements of offshore structures in moderate water depth (up to 80m) where dynamic effects are negligible.

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3 Jacket Bracings Lecture 15A. 4. J-tubes.1 Jacket Pile Sizes • • • • • calculate the vertical resultant (dead weight.3.Lecture 15A.1. boat-fenders.4 Deck Framing • • • select a spacing between stiffeners (typically 500 to 800mm). calculate the moment caused by wind loads on topsides and derive the appropriate thickness. and subjected to pseudo-static loads.1. Typical models for North Sea jackets may feature over 800 nodes and 4000 members. 5. determine by straight beam formulae the sizes of the main girders under "blanket" live loads and/or the respective weight of the heaviest equipments.2 Loadings This Section is a reminder of the main types of loads. derive the maximum axial and shear force at the top of the pile. 4.1 Main Model The main model should account for eccentricities and local reinforcements at the joints. buoyancy). calculate the axial force in the brace from the overall shear and the local bending caused by the wave assuming partial or total end restraint. derive the plate thickness from formulae accounting for local plastification under the wheel footprint of the design forklift truck. calculate the maximum moment in the pile and derive its wall thickness. They are represented by an equivalent load-dependent secant stiffness matrix. This matrix may need to be adjusted to the mean reaction corresponding to each loading condition. The structure is modelled as it stands during its operational life. which are described in more detail in Lectures 15A. the overall shear and the overturning moment (environmental forces) at the mudline.2 Appurtenances The contribution of appurtenances (risers. assuming that the jacket behaves as a rigid body.4 5. assuming an equivalent soil subgrade modulus and full fixity at the base of the jacket.3 Foundation Model Since their behaviour is non-linear. derive the penetration from the shaft friction and tip bearing diagrams. Page 7 of 14 Page 8 of 14 . 5.1 Structural Model 5.2 Deck Leg Sizes • • • adapt the diameter of the leg to that of the pile. with the main structure. derive the thickness such that the diameter/thickness ratio lies between 20 and 70 and eliminate any hydrostatic buckle tendency by imposing D/t<170/3 H (H is the depth of member below the free surface). foundations are often analysed separately from the structural model. etc. determine the effective length from the degree of fixity of the leg into the deck (depending upon the height of the cellar deck). This analysis is always carried at the very early stage of the project. 4.) to the overall stiffness of the structure is normally neglected.4 4.2 and 15A. coefficients are determined by an iterative process where the forces and displacements at the common boundaries of structural and foundation models are equated. select a pile diameter in accordance with the expected leg diameter and the capacity of pile driving equipment. STATIC IN-PLACE ANALYSIS The static in-place analysis is the basic and generally the simplest of all analyses. caissons. conductors. 5. often from a simplified model. to size the main elements of the structure. 5. live loads. They are therefore analysed separately and their reactions applied as loads at the interfaces • • • select the diameter in order to obtain a span/diameter ratio between 30 and 40.1.

2. for each the position of the crest relative to the platform must be established such that the maximum overturning moment and/or shear are produced at the mudline.4 6.e. the appurtenances.Lecture 15A.3 Loading Combinations The static in-place analysis is performed under different conditions where the loads are approximated by their pseudo-static equivalent. 6. The basic loads relevant to a given condition are multiplied by the appropriate load factors and combined to produce the most severe effect in each individual element of the structure.2. live loads must be positioned to produce the most severe configuration (compression or tension). The mass matrix consequently becomes diagonal but local modes of vibration of single members are ignored (these modes may be important for certain members subjected to an earthquake). the foundation model may be derived from cyclic soil behaviour.4 5. In general eight wave incidences are selected.2 Damping Page 9 of 14 Page 10 of 14 . Depending on the area of structure under scrutiny. 6. 5. Masses are generally lumped at discrete points of the model. Damping is the most difficult to estimate among all parameters governing the dynamic response of a structure. fluids. the added mass of water (mass of water displaced by the member and determined from potential flow theory) and the mass of marine growth. The selection of lumping points may significantly affect the ensuing solution. 6. in the most general case it may depend on the displacements of the structure also (i.2.1 Dynamic Model The dynamic model of the structure is derived from the main static model. 5. As a further simplification to larger models involving considerable degrees-of-freedom. live loads (equipments. the Some simplifications may however take place: • • • local joint reinforcements and eccentricities may be disregarded.1 Gravity Loads Gravity loads consist of: • • dead weight of structure and equipments. P(t) is the time dependent force vector. masses are lumped at the member ends. relative motion of the structure with respect to the wave velocity in Morison equation).2. liquids trapped in legs or tanks.1 Mass The mass matrix represents the distribution of masses over the structure. system can be condensed to a few freedoms while still retaining its basic energy distribution. this may occur for instance when positioning the drilling rig. but can be restricted to the main modes in the case of stiff structures.2 Environmental Loads Environmental loads consist of wave.2 Equations of Motion The governing dynamic equations of multi-degrees-of-freedom systems can be expressed in the matrix form: MX'' + CX' + KX = P(t) Where. velocity and acceleration vectors (function of time). M is the mass matrix C is the damping matrix K is the stiffness matrix X. Masses include that of the structure itself. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS A dynamic analysis is normally mandatory for every offshore structure. current and wind loads assumed to act simultaneously in the same direction. X'. personnel). 6. Lecture 15A. X'' are the displacement.

6. Therefore: • • the simple superposition method (mode-displacement) is applied to a truncated number of lowest modes for predicting earthquake response.5% structural. it must be corrected by the static contribution of the higher modes (mode-acceleration method) for wave loadings. The loading function is developed in Fourier series up to an order η: All other types of non-viscous damping should preferably be expressed as an equivalent viscous damping matrix. non-linear forces are linearized beforehand (drag). The total response is obtained by summing the responses of the individual single-degree-offreedom oscillators associated to each normal mode of the structure. as the transient part of the response vanishes rapidly under the effect of damping. 6. being roughly proportional to the strain energy involved in each. multi-degree-of-freedom structure up to a given order (30th to 50th). Representation of Damping Viscous damping represents the most common and simple form of damping.4 Modal Superposition Method A convenient technique consists of uncoupling the equations through the normal modes of the system.3 Stiffness The stiffness matrix is in all aspects similar to the one used in static analyses. and can be re-used for as many subsequent response calculations as needed at later stages. It may have one of the following representations: • • modal damping: a specific damping ratio ζ expressing the percentage to critical associated with each mode (typically ζ = 0.4 For rigid structures having a fundamental vibration period well below the range of wave periods (typically less than 3 s). the dynamic behavior is simply accounted for by multiplying the time-dependent loads by a dynamic amplification factor (DAF): DAF = where β = TN/T is the ratio of the period of the structure to the wave period.4. Hydrodynamic Damping Damping provided by the water surrounding the structure is commonly added to the former. It may however prove time-consuming when a large number of modes are required to represent the response accurately. 6.2.Lecture 15A.1 Frequency Domain Analysis Such analysis is most appropriate for evaluating the steady-state response of a system subjected to cyclic loadings. This consists in solving the eigenvalue problem: KX = λ MX Page 11 of 14 Page 12 of 14 . Structural Damping Structural damping is associated with the loss of energy by internal friction in the material. This method offers the advantage that the eigen modes provide substantial insight into the problem. This method is only applicable if: • • each mass. 6.4 It may consist of structural and hydrodynamic damping.3 Free Vibration Mode Shapes and Frequencies The first step in a dynamic analysis consists of determining the principal natural vibration mode shapes and frequencies of the undamped. It increases with the order of the mode. but may alternatively be accounted as part of the forcing function when vibrations are close to resonance (vortex-shedding in particular). Lecture 15A.5% hydrodynamic) proportional damping: defined as a linear combination of stiffness and mass matrices. ζ = 1. stiffness and damping matrix is time-independent.

Lecture 15A.e. Page 13 of 14 Page 14 of 14 .4. Usually. A dynamic analysis is normally mandatory for every offshore structure. significant values of pj only occur within a narrow range of frequencies and the analysis can be restricted to it.k = The spectral density of response in freedom j versus force is then: • The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is the most efficient algorithm associated with this kind of analysis. 7. • • • The verification of an element consists of comparing its characteristic resistance(s) to a design force or stress.2 Time Domain Analysis The response of the i-th mode may alternatively be determined by resorting to Duhamel's integral: Xj(t) = The overall response is then obtained by summing at each time step the individual responses over all significant modes. where all matrices (mass. Several methods are available. p(t) = The plot of the amplitudes pj versus the circular frequencies ωj is called the amplitude power spectra of the loading.4 • responses involving many vibration modes to be determined over a short time interval.4 Lecture 15A. The analytical models used in offshore engineering are in some respects similar to those used for other types of steel structures. The dynamic equilibrium at an instant τ is governed by the same type of equations. such as: H = [-M the elements of which represent: Hj. All available integration techniques are characterized by their stability (i.4). Unconditionally stable methods are always to be preferred (for instance Newmark-beta with β = 1/4 or Wilsonω2 + i x C ω + K] theta with θ = 1. Simple rules are available for preliminary member sizing. damping. stiffness. 6. load) are simultaneously dependent on the time and structural response as well. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • The analysis of offshore structures is an extensive task. the tendency for uncontrolled divergence of amplitude to occur with increasing time steps).5 Direct Integration Methods Direct step-by-step integration of the equations of motion is the most general method and is applicable to: • non-linear problems involving special forms of damping and response-dependent loadings. 6. Static in-plane analysis is always carried out at the early stage of a project to size the main elements of the structure. The relationship between response and force vectors is expressed by the transfer matrix H. The same model is used throughout the analysis process.

2).5 Lecture 15A.acceleration method may overcome this problem. 1. hydrodynamic loading. The dynamic effects are accounted for by factoring the loads by the relevant DAF. each associated with a characteristic wave and zero-upcrossing period. PREREQUISITES Lecture 15A.5 Analysis II OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present the analysis procedures for offshore structures relating to fatigue.1.Lecture 15A.2 Hydrodynamic Loading Model A very large number of computer runs may be necessary to evaluate the stress range at the joints. impact and progressive collapse. Modal analysis may be used instead. SUMMARY Methods of fatigue analysis are described including the fatigue model (structural.3: Loads II: Other Loads RELATED LECTURES Lecture 15A.2: Loads I: Introduction and Environmental Loads Lecture 15A. installation and local design.1. different phases to determine the stress range for a given wave at each joint. The mode . structures under rotating equipments. load-out and transportation. Abnormal and accidental conditions are considered relating to earthquake.1 Structural Model The in-place model is used for the fatigue analysis. The wave is repeatedly generated for: • different blocks of wave heights (typically from 2 to 28m in steps of 2m). 1. particularly near the waterline where direct wave action causes high out-of-plane bending (see Section 5. Analyses required for load-out and transportation and for installation are outlined. it offers computational efficiency. 1. 1.1. The cumulative damage caused by ni cycles of stress ∆σi. is implicitly accounted for in this formulation. • • different incidences (typically eight). formulated by S-N curves: log Ni = log α + mlog ∆σi The number of cycles to failure Ni corresponds to a stress range. The maximum local (hot spot) stress is obtained by multiplying the former by a stress concentration factor (SCF) given by parametric formulae which are functions of the joint geometry and the load pattern (balanced/unbalanced). but may also overlook important local response modes.3 Joint Stress Model Nominal joint stresses are calculated for eight points around the circumference of the brace. The effect of the constant stresses. and joint stress models) and the methods of fatigue damage assessment.1: Offshore Structures: General Introduction Lecture 15A. wind (flare booms. stair towers). floating structures).4: Analysis I 1. Quasi-static analysis is often chosen. Local analysis for specific parts of the structure which are better treated by dedicated models outside of the global analysis are identified.1. FATIGUE ANALYSIS A fatigue analysis is performed for those structures sensitive to the action of cyclic loadings such as: • • • wave (jackets. mainly welding residual stresses. it permits all local stresses to be comprehensively represented.4 Fatigue Damage Model The fatigue failure of joints in offshore structures primarily depends on the stress ranges and their number of occurrences. abnormal and accident conditions. over the operational life of the 1.1 Fatigue Model platform (30 to 50 years) is obtained by the Palmgren-Miner rule: Page 1 of 16 Page 2 of 16 .

Lecture 15A.5 Closed Form Expression The damage may alternatively be expressed in closed form: linearized) and stationary. height and period is quantified.4.3 Spectral Analysis Waves of a given height are not characterized by a unique frequency.θ) is the directional wave energy spectrum. k is a long-term distribution parameter. 1. depending on the position of the joint in the structure. The ratio should normally not exceed: • • • 1. Eventually the most thorough representation of a sea state consists of: • • the frequency spectrum constructed from the significant wave heights and mean zerocrossing periods.1 within. 1. ∆σ is the stress range exceeded once in N cycles.3 below the splash zone.0 above.5 This problem is overcome by using a scatter diagram. the directionality function derived from the mean direction and associated spreading function.5 Lecture 15A. The main feature of such analysis is the introduction of coherence functions accounting for the spanwise correlation of forces. If this range corresponds to a peak in the structural response.2 Deterministic Analysis This analysis consists of time-domain analysis of the structure.1 Wind Gusts The fatigue damage caused by the fluctuating part of wind (gusts) on slender structures like flare booms and bridges is usually predicted by spectral methods. The zero-upcrossing frequency of stress cycles is then approximated by: Tz = where mn is the nth order moment of the response.4 Wind Fatigue A minimum of four regular waves described in terms of height and associated period are considered for each heading angle. 0. high order wave theories) are handled explicitly. The significant stress range is readily obtained for each sea state as: σsig = where S(ω. This approach requires that the physical process be approximately linear (or properly 1. 1. but rather by a range of frequencies. each with different period and incidence: D= where α. The response has normally a narrow-banded spectrum and can be described by a Rayleigh distribution. N is the total number of cycles. Page 3 of 16 Page 4 of 16 . Wave directionality may also be accounted for. 1. The main advantage of this representation is that non-linear effects (drag.1. Transfer functions TF are determined from time-domain analyses involving various wave heights. 0. in which the joint occurrence of wave D= The limit of this ratio depends on the position of the joint with respect to the splash zone (typically +/-4m on either side of the mean sea level). the fatigue life predicted by the deterministic method can be seriously distorted. m are coefficients of the selected S-N curve.

However their distinctive feature is that they represent essentially a base motion problem and that the seismic loads are therefore dependent on the dynamic characteristics of the structure.3 Analysis Method Earthquake analyses can be carried out according to the general methods presented in Lecture 15A. the soil mass in the direct vicinity of the structure) shall accurately represent load-deflection behaviour. which can be determined by models such as those suggested in [1]. it can be accomplished using time-domain techniques presented in Section 6 of Lecture 15A. the behaviour of structures in such events has so far been only predicted by simple models based on: • equivalent static overpressure and plastic deformation of plates for blast analysis. Direct time integration can be used instead for specific accelerograms adapted to the site. 2.e. This phenomenon involves forced displacements. Typically all events with a probability level less than the 10-4 threshold are disregarded. 2.2 Blast and Fire Owing to the current lack of definitive guidance regarding explosions and fire.2. 2. This spectrum is the result of time-histories of a SDOF system for different natural periods of vibration and damping. but only have a limited risk of occurrence. eddies are shed at a frequency close to the resonant frequency of the member. 2. fender) is crushed by a supply boat.5 1. Should a more sophisticated analysis be required. global deformation along plastic hinges with possible appearance of membrane forces. improving the post-buckling behaviour of bracings. two load/deformation mechanisms occur simultaneously: • • local punch-through (cover) or denting (tube). or a tube (jacket leg.1.Lecture 15A. The whole energy must be absorbed within acceptable deformations. 2. Design recommendations are given by API to determine an efficient geometry. Within a specific range of fluid velocities. avoiding abrupt changes in stiffness.4.1 Dropped Object/Boat Impact When a wellhead protection cover is hit by a drill collar.1.2 Vortex Shedding Vortex induced failure occurs for tubes subjected to a uniform or oscillating flow of fluid. Modal spectral response analysis is normally used. mode response and forms a response spectrum curve characteristic of the input motion.1 Model Particular attention shall be paid to: • foundations: the near field (i.1 Earthquake Analysis 2. ABNORMAL AND ACCIDENTAL CONDITIONS Lecture 15A. 2. It consists of a superposition of maximum This type of analysis addresses conditions which may considerably affect the integrity of the structure.5 2.4. favouring X-bracings instead of K-bracings.1. As a general rule the lateral foundation behaviour is essentially controlled by horizontal ground motions of shallow soil layers.4.2.2 Ductility Requirements The seismic forces in a structure are highly dependent on its dynamic characteristics. The recommendations call for: • • • • providing sufficient redundancy and symmetry in the structure. • modal damping (in general taken as 5% and 7% of critical for ULS and PLS analyses respectively). Page 6 of 16 Page 5 of 16 .2 Impact The analysis of impact loads on structures is carried out locally using simple plastic models [2].

or grounded on the bottom of the harbour. The purpose of such analysis is to ensure that the spare resistance of the remaining structure is sufficient to allow the loads to redistribute. Their residual strength may be represented by forces applied at the boundary nodes with the intact structure. Since such a configuration is only temporary (mobilization period prior to repairs) and that operations will also be restricted around the damaged area. bracings. buoyancy tanks) which contribute significantly to the righting moment. analysis of load-out by trailers only requires a single step to determine the optimal distribution of trailers. and also the partition and intensity of buoyancy and slamming forces. a portion only of the barge is supported 3.1 Load-Out The jacket model is a simplified version of the in-place model.5 As the reaction on each trailer can be kept constant. the damaged elements are removed from the model. bulkheads) may partially or completely loose their strength as a result of accidental damage.3 Progressive Collapse The model consists of the rigid-body assembly of the barge and the structure. This analysis shall provide the linear and angular accelerations and displacements of the structure to be entered in the structural model as inertia forces. In the aftermath of recent mishaps however.1. local reinforcements may be omitted.2 Structural Model 3. by buoyancy (long barges may be spanning over a whole trough or be half-cantilevered).2. 3. For jacket transport.1. more accurate analyses may become mandatory. longitudinal and transversal bulkheads. LOAD OUT & TRANSPORTATION 3. from which eccentricities and The load-out procedure consists in moving the jacket or module from its construction site to the transportation barge by skidding.Lecture 15A. Lecture 15A. The model therefore represents the jacket and the barge as two structures coupled together by the seafastening members. with members having the equivalent properties of the The barge may be floating and is continuously deballasted as the package progresses onto it. Some elements of the structure (legs. As the barge passes over a wave trough or a crest. 3.5 • the reduction of material strength and elastic modulus under temperature increase. or by using trailers underneath it. Dry-transported decks and modules may be simply represented by their mass and moments of inertia. 3. from the barge just after it has left the quay. The barge is modelled as a plane grid.2 Load-Out by Trailers Page 7 of 16 Page 8 of 16 . 3. as well as sharp corners which introduce heavy viscous damping. reduced live and environmental loads are generally accepted.1 Skidding The most severe configuration during skidding occurs when the part of the structure is cantilevering out: • • from the quayside before it touches the barge.2. Barges are in general characterised by a low length/beam ratio and a high beam/draught ratio. particular care shall be taken in the representation of overhanging parts (legs.2 Transportation The analysis should also investigate the possibility of high local reactions being the result of settlement of the skidway or errors in the ballasting procedure. In this analysis. based on a better understanding of the pressure-time histories and the effective resistance and response of structures to explosions and fire.1 Naval Architectural Model 2.

For single lifts the slings converge towards the hook joint. 4. For heavier dual-crane lifts. vertical reactions and friction forces between jacket and barge. which is the sole vertical support in the model and shall be located exactly on the vertical through the centre of gracity (CoG) of the model. A local analysis of the lugs is performed for crane-assisted upendings. resistance of the mudmats against soil pressure. together with the A three dimensional analysis is carried out to evaluate the global forces acting on the jacket at various time steps during the launch sequence. All interface members must remain in compression.5 Piling At each time step. buoyancy and ballast forces. sleeves) shall also be checked. barge weight. Interface loads obtained by the rigid body analysis are input at boundary conditions on the launch legs. The force and elongation in these springs should always remain small.1 Launching 4. The stability of the jacket as a whole (overturning tendency) is investigated. inertia.5 4. INSTALLATION 4. otherwise they are inactivated and the analysis restarted for that step. which is essentially a naval architecture problem. .6. 4. accounting for first and second order moments arising from the pile batter.1 Model The model used for the lift analysis of a structure consists of the in-place model plus the representation of the rigging arrangement (slings.1 Naval Architectural Model Lecture 15A. The maximum reaction on the rocker arm is normally obtained when the jacket just starts rotating about the rocker hinge.1.3 Docking Docking of a jacket onto a pre-installed template requires guides to be analysed for local impact. Page 9 of 16 Page 10 of 16 4. 4. buoyancy and drag forces.2 Structural Model The structural model is in all aspects identical to the one used for the transportation analysis.2 Design Factors Different factors are applied to the basic sling forces to account for specific effects during lifting operations.4 Unpiled Stability The condition where the jacket may for a while stand unpiled on the seafloor is analysed for the design installation wave. two hook joints.2 Upending No dedicated structural analysis is required for this phase.Lecture 15A. the CoG shall be contained in the vertical plane defined by the Once the tilting phase has begun. see Section 5. the jacket is analysed at least for each main leg node being at the vertical of the rocker arm pivot.6 Lifting 4. The rocker arm is also represented as a vertical beam hinged approximately at midspan. spreader frames). Hydrodynamic actions are added for underwater driving.6.1. the jacket/barge rigid body system is repositioned to equilibrate the internal and external forces produced by: • • • jacket weight.1. 4. The maximum cantilevered (stick-up) length of pile must be established for the self-weight of the pile and hammer combined. The piles are checked during driving for the dynamic stresses caused by the impact wave of the hammer blow. Elements in the vicinity of the piles (guides. soft horizontal springs at the padeyes.5 4. with possibly a finer representation of the launch legs. The mathematical instability of the model with respect to horizontal forces is avoided by using 4. The same requirement applied for bumpers to aid the installation of modules.

1 Pile/Sleeve Connections Underwater pile/sleeve connection is usually achieved by grouting the annulus between the Lifted Weight W (tonnes) DAF offshore DAF inshore up to 100 t 100 t to 1000t 1000 t to 2500t more than 2500 t 1.3 Straightened Nodes Typical straightened nodes (ring-stiffened nodes. It shall normally be based on 5 respectively depending on whether cranes are on different vessels or not.6. A slamming coefficient Cs=3.15 for all members transferring the load to the lifting points.2/3 repartition).10 1.30 for spreader frames. Skew factors may either be directly computed by applying to a pair of opposite slings a temperature difference such that their elongation/shortening corresponds to the mismatch. 4. Caissons & J-Tubes Static In-Place and Fatigue Risers. Particular attention is paid to the 1.30 1.3 Consequence Factors Forces in elements checked under lift conditions are multiplied by a factor reflecting the consequence a failure of that specific element would have on the integrity of the overall structure: • • 1. The main verifications address: • • the shear stresses in the concrete.5 • 1. bottle legs nodes with diaphragms) are analysed by finite-elements models.6. lifting points (padeyes) and their attachment to the structure. or determined arbitrarily (typically 1/3 .5 is often selected.2.6.20 1.2. 1. DnV [24] recommends minimum values as follows: Lecture 15A. The list of analyses below is not exhaustive and more information can be found in [1-24] which provide a complete design procedure in each particular case. 5. the fatigue damage in the shear plates and the attachment welds to the main jacket accumulated during pile driving and throughout the life of the platform.2 Members within the Splash Zone Horizontal members (conductor guide frames in particular) located within the splash zone (+/5m on either side of the mean-sea-level approximately) shall be analysed for fatigue caused by repeated wave slamming.15 1. and 3 tilt Page 11 of 16 Page 12 of 16 .4. 5. from which parametric envelope formulae are drawn and applied to all nodes representative of the same class. caissons and J-tubes are verified either by structural or piping programs for the action of environmental forces.6.15 1.05 outside of the pile and the inner sleeve.2. 5.4 Appurtenances 5.10 1. 4.05 typically).2. LOCAL ANALYSES AND DESIGN Local analyses address specific parts of the structure which are better treated by dedicated models outside the global analysis.2 Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) This factor accounts for global dynamic effects normally experienced during lifting operations.6.3 Tilt Effect Factor (TEF) This factor accounts for additional sling loading caused by the rotation of the lifted object about a horizontal axis and by the longitudinal deviation of the hooks from their theoretical position in the case of a multi-hook lift. internal pressure and temperature.5 4.4 Yaw Effect Factor (YEF) This factor accounts for the rotation of the lifted object about a vertical axis (equal to 1. 4. 5.1 Risers. 5.05 4.Lecture 15A.00 for other elements.1 Skew Load Factor (SKL) This factor represents the effect of fabrication tolerances and lack-of-fit of the slings on the load repartition in a statically undetermined rigging arrangement (4 slings or more).

[4] DnV..M. reduced material characteristics due to high temperature in the vicinity of the tip during operation. The Behaviour of Steel Offshore Structures under Accidental Collisions/OTC paper 4136. A fatigue analysis is also performed to assess the fatigue damage to the clamps and the attachments to the jacket. April 1984. Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design and Construction/London. [5] DnV. They are verified by empirical plastic models against the forces generated during pull-in by the friction of the cable and the deformation of the pull head. • To retain enough control of the process of analysis. October1984 and Veiledning om Utforming.D. while the main framing is analysed elastically. these being provided by the horizontal framing of the jacket (typically 20 to 25 m span). September1989. An Heuristic Model for Determining Flow-Induced Vibrations of Offshore Structures/OTC paper 1843.. lift upright). Regulation for Structural Design of Loadbearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources.G.. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • With the trend to ever deeper and more slender offshore structures in yet harsher environments. [2] De Oliveira J. which can also be used to assess the influence of a particular parameter. 5.5 6. the following recommendations are given: ⋅ check the interfaces between the different analyses and ensure the consistency of the input/output. 5. [8] McClelland B. ⋅ make full use of "good engineering judgement" to criticise the unexpected results of an analysis. 5. local excitation of diagonals by wind vortex-shedding.4. May 1973.5 times the take-off weight of the heaviest helicopter factored by a DAF of 1. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms/18th edition. see [23]. Page 13 of 16 Page 14 of 16 . Recommended Practice for Planning. 1986. & Reifel M. Rules for the Classification of Fixed Offshore Structures. Pull-In J-tubes are empty ducts continuously guiding a post-installed riser pulled inside. 7. May 1981. There is a risk for the Engineer having increasingly to rely on the sole results of computer analyses at the expense of sound design practice. see [22].5 Helidecks The helideck is normally designed to resist an impact load equal to 2. Beregning og Dimensjonering av Stalkonstruksjoner i Petroleumsvirksomheten. Lecture 15A. Also the portion of compression force in the conductor caused by the hanging casings is regarded as an internal force (similar to prestressing) which therefore does not induce any buckling tendency. June 1985. [3] API-RP2A. The installation sequence of the different casings must be considered to assess the distribution of stresses in the different tubes forming the overall composite section. REFERENCES [1] Skop R. Planning and Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms/Van Nostrand Reinhold. [6] NPD. [7] DoE. more elaborate theories are necessary to analyse complex situations.5 bends not always satisfactorily represented by structural programs and the location of the touch-down point now known a-priori.A. ⋅ verify the validity of the data resulting from a complex analysis against a simplified model. & Griffin O. September 1989. Plastic theories are applicable for designing the plate and stiffeners.Lecture 15A. dynamic response under gusty winds.6 Flare Booms Analyses of flare booms particularly consider: • • • • variable positions during installation (horizontal pick-up from the barge.30.2 Conductors Conductors are analysed in-place as beam columns on discrete simple supports. December1989. Standard for Insurance Warranty Surveys in Marine Operations.

[22] Walker A.. & Stagg K. May 1982. October 1978. [12] Clough R.E. & Baur M.A. Hydrodynamic Analysis of Barge-Platform Systems in Waves/Royal Inst.5 [9] UEG. Dynamics of Marine Structures/ CIRIA Report UR8 (2nd edition).23. Numerical Methods in Offshore Engineering/Wiley Interscience. January 1989. November 1976.. of Petroleum Technology. September 1983. November 1983. Lewis R. October 1982.. [20] Hambro L. [24] DnV . Development of Unified Design Criteria for Heavy Lift Operations Offshore/OTC paper 4192. [10] Hallam M.G. & Davies P. 1984.W..W..W. [17] Anagnostopoulos S. 1984. & Mangiavacchi A. Random Vibrations and Spectral Analysis/Longman Scientific (2nd edition). Fatigue Analysis of Steel Offshore Structures/ICE Vol. Vol.C. A Design Basis for the J-Tube Method of Riser Installation/J.5 [23] Stahl B.60. Page 15 of 16 Page 16 of 16 . [11] Wilson J. Design Methodology for Offshore Platform Conductors/J. of Naval Architects. 1962. April 1982. [21] Bunce J.Rules for the Classification of Steel Ships. Wave and Earthquake Response of Offshore Structures: Evaluation of Modal Solutions/ASCE J.. & Rhinne J.P. No ST10.W. A Critical Review of Transportation Analysis Procedures/OTC paper 4617. [15] Davenport A. & Bentson J. [13] Newland D...A.E.. of Energy Resources Technology. & Penzien J.4 No. Lecture 15A. pp. of the Structural Div. 108. [19] Kaplan P... & Wyatt T. vol.J. 263-270.G. 1984. 1982..K. Heaf N..Lecture 15A. Jiang C. London. May1983.C. [14] Zienkiewicz O... & Wootton L. Jacket Launching Simulation by Differentiation of Constraints/ Applied Ocean Research.F. 1978. The Response of Slender Line-Like Structures to a Gusty Wind/ICE Vol. [16] Williams A.R. Dynamics of Offshore Structures/Wiley Interscience. Dynamics of Structures/McGraw-Hill. [18] Chianis J.G..W. 1975. New York.3. Node Flexibility and its Effect on Jacket Structures/CIRIA Report UR22.

transport and installation. The number of layers depends on the precision required of the analysis.4: Fatigue Behaviour of Hollow Section Joints Since the least significant of either of these parameters is often neglected. cohesion).4 Multi-Layered Strata 1.6 Lecture 15A. In this section theoretical aspects of the design of piles are presented. each having constant properties throughout. They include: Lecture 17.2. remoulded and pressed together. For 1.Lecture 15A. the soil is divided into several layers.1 Classification of Soils The stratigraphy of the sea bed results from a complex geological process during which various materials were deposited. analysis purposes. 1. they are generally over-consolidated. The different kinds of piles and hammers are described.02mm.12: Connections in Offshore Deck Structures Granular soils are non-plastic soils with negligible cohesion between particles. INTRODUCTION The nature and characteristics of the soil surrounding a pile generally vary with the depth. • sands : characterized by large to medium particle sizes (1mm to 0.05mm) offering a high permeability. over consolidation ratio. Checking of the pile itself is described in detail in the Worked Example. DESIGN Steel offshore platforms are usually founded on piles.2 Granular Soils Lecture 15A. The properties of a specific soil depend mainly on the following factors: • density. soils can be classified within "ideal" categories: • • granular soils. The piles have to transfer the loads acting on the jacket into the sea bed. Soil texture consists of small mineral or organic particles basically characterized by their grain size and mutual interaction (friction. their permeability is low.5: Requirements and Verifications of Seismic Resistant Structures • A general knowledge of design in offshore structures and an understanding of offshore installation are also required. driven deep into the soil (Figure 1). silts : characterized by particle sizes between 0. The three main execution phases are briefly discussed: fabrication. The lecture starts with the classification of soil.002mm which tend to stick together.2: Limit State Design Philosophy and Partial Safety Factors Lectures 10.05 and 0. The main steps in the design of piles are then explained. cohesive soils.6 Foundations OBJECTIVE\SCOPE • • • to classify different types of piles to understand main design methods to cover various methods of installation • • water content. Page 1 of 25 Page 2 of 25 2. SUMMARY 1. undrained shear strength Cu.6: Shear Connection Lectures 12. Clays are plastic soils with particle sizes less than 0.3 Cohesive Soils In this lecture piled foundations for offshore structures are presented. they may exhibit some cohesion. PREREQUISITES Lecture 1B. For design purposes the influence of these factors on soil behaviour is expressed in terms of two fundamental parameters: • • friction angle. . 1.

for clays: is calculated by the "alpha" or "lambda" method and is a constant equal to the shear strength Cu at great depth.2 Static Axial Pile Resistance The overall resistance of the pile against axial force is the sum of shaft friction and end bearing.6 Lecture 15A. and lateral shear force plus bending. Page 3 of 25 Page 4 of 25 .2 End bearing End bearing is the resultant of bearing pressure over the gross end area of the pile. 2. etc.Lecture 15A. They are calculated at the mudline.2. 2.1 Gravity loads Gravity loads (platform dead load and live loads) are distributed as axial compression forces on the piles depending upon their respective eccentricity. Lateral friction is integrated along the whole penetration of the pile. current.1. 2. with or without the area of plug if relevant. Their resultant at mudline consists of: • • shear distributed as horizontal forces on the piles. i. The bearing pressure: • for clays: is equal to 9 Cu.1.1. earthquake. 2.3 Load combinations The basic gravity and environmental loads multiplied by relevant load factors are combined in order to produce the most severe effect(s) at mudline. equilibrated by axial tension/ compression in symmetrically disposed piles (upstream/downstream).2. overturning moment on the jacket. The unit shaft friction: • • for sands: is proportional to the overburden pressure.6 2.e.1 Design Loads These loads are those transferred from the jacket to the foundation. are basically horizontal. resulting in: • • vertical compression or pullout force.1 Lateral friction along the shaft (shaft friction) Skin friction is mobilized along the shaft of the tubular pile (and possibly also along the inner wall when the soil plug is not removed). 2. wind. 2.2 Environmental loads Environmental loads due to waves.

particularly in soft soils.6 2.1 P-y curves P-y curves represent the lateral soil resistance versus deflection. the hammer is modelled as a mass falling with an initial velocity. 2. the cushion is represented by a weightless spring (see Figure 3). The fourth order differential equation which expresses the pile deformation is integrated by successive iterations.3 Lateral Pile Resistance The shear at the mudline caused by environmental loads is resisted by lateral bearing of the pile on the soil. 2. No bearing resistance can be mobilized against pull-out: the friction available must be equated to the pull out force multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety.2 Lateral pile analysis For analysis purposes. The impact is transmitted along the pile in the form of a wave.Lecture 15A. the soil is modelled as lumped non-linear springs distributed along the pile.2.6 • for sands: is proportional to the overburden pressure as explained in Section 6. 2. 2.4.4 Pile Driving Piles installed by driving are forced into the soil by a ram hitting the top.3. For large deformations. The shape of these curves varies with the depth and the type of soil at the considered elevation.2 Wave equation This method of analysing the driving process consists of representing the ensemble of pile/soil/hammer as a one-dimensional assembly of masses. the second order contribution of the axial compression to the bending moment (P-Delta effect) shall be taken into account. The energy is progressively lost by plastic friction on the sides and bearing at the tip of the pile. elastic/plastic behaviour for medium deflections. The general shape of the curves for increasing displacement features: • • • elastic (linear) behaviour for small deflections.3. constant resistance for large deflections or loss of resistance when the soil skeleton deteriorates (clay under cyclic load in particular). 2. which reflects on the pile tip. Each formula is 2. Page 5 of 25 Page 6 of 25 . This action may generate large deformations and high bending moments in the part of the pile directly below the mudline. generally limited to a particular type of soil and hammer. Lecture 15A.4.4. springs and dashpots: • • • • • the pile is modelled as a discrete assembly of masses and elastic springs.1 Empirical formulae A considerable number of empirical formulae exist to predict pile driveability.2 of API-RP2A [1]. the pile cap is represented by a mass of infinite rigidity.3 Pile penetration The pile penetration shall be sufficient to generate enough friction and bearing resistance against the maximum design compression multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety. the soil is idealized as a massless medium characterized by elastic-perfectly-plastic springs and linear dashpots. the secant stiffness of the soil springs being updated at each step.

6 Lecture 15A. mostly caused by the inaccuracies in the soil model. still suffers a lack of accuracy. Curves can be drawn to represent the number of blows per unit length required to drive the pile at different penetrations. the following alternatives may be chosen when driving proves impractical: • • • insert piles. Page 7 of 25 Page 8 of 25 . The plastic displacement of the tip relative to the soil is the set achieved by the blow.6 The energy of the ram hitting the top of the pile generates a stress wave in the pile. 3. drilled and grouted piles.Lecture 15A. The wave equation. As shown in Figure 2. though representing the most rigorous assessment to date of the driving process. which dissipates progressively by friction between the pile and the soil and by reflection at the extremities of the pile. belled piles. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PILES Driven piles are the most popular and cost-efficient type of foundation for offshore structures.

difficulties often noted for the setting-in of all the required volume of grouting. normally driven. external grouting just crushes the sand. A belling tool (underreamer) then enlarges the socket to a conical bell with a base diameter a few times that of the main pile. Longitudinal seams of two adjacent segments are rotated 90° apart at least. as an emergency procedure: when scheduled piles cannot be driven to the required penetration. The outside surface of grouted piles should be free of mill scale and varnished. i. Bevelling is mandatory should the wall thickness difference exceed 3mm between adjacent cans. 4. in case of calcareous sand. resulting therefore in one of the following drawbacks. A heavy reinforcement cage is lowered inside the bell which is subsequently filled with concrete made using fine aggregate (maximum size 10mm). They are therefore not subjected to skin friction over the length of the main pile and can reach substantial additional penetration. on land. Maximum deviation from straightness is specified (0. a thicker wall section of the main pile will be within the jacket height instead of below the mudline. oversized hole ahead. After placing and driving the first long segment. FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION 4. slightly extending the effective pile diameter but not increasing the friction significantly. An oversized hole is initially drilled to the proposed pile penetration depth.6 Lecture 15A. extension segments called add-ons are set on piece by piece as driving proceeds until the overall design length is achieved. Wall thickness may vary.Lecture 15A. at the pile tip (driving shoe) to resist local bearing stresses while driving.2 Insert Piles The main pile. Commonly used steel grade is X52 or X60.3 Drilled and Grouted Piles 3. 3.e. While belled piles.cylinders of rolled plate with a longitudinal seam.5m long or more. The insert pile is welded to the main pile at the top of the jacket and the annular space between the tubes is grouted. reduced friction area and end bearing pressure.4 Belled Piles Uniform wall thickness is however preferable thus avoiding construction and installation problems. are used to decrease the bearing stress under a pile.1 Fabrication The piles are usually made up of "cans" .1 Driven Piles Piles are usually made up in segments. Page 9 of 25 Page 10 of 25 .1% in length). Single cans are typically 1. The pile is then lowered down. sometimes centred in the hole by spacers and the annular space between the pile shaft and the surrounding soil is grouted. In recent years one-piece piles have been widely used in the North Sea since the offshore work is considerably reduced. the concern is the leakage of grout or the impossibility to fill with the calculated volume of grout.6 3. Design uncertainty results because: • • hard soil formation softens when exposed to the water or mud used during drilling and exhibits lower skin friction resistance. This procedure is the only means of installing piles with tension resistance in hard soils or soft rocks. it resembles that for drilling a conductor well. offshore belled piles provide a large bearing area to increase tip uplift resistance. serves here as a casing through which a rig drills a slightly Insert piles are smaller diameter piles driven through the main pile from which the soil plug has been previously drilled out. A thicker wall is sometimes required: • • in sections from mudline down to a specified depth within which bending stresses are especially high. 3. This type of pile is used: • • • • • in a preplanned situation: performance is good although material and installation costs are higher than for normal driven piles.

their design should take into Page 11 of 25 Page 12 of 25 . The hammer line from the crane boom is slackened so as to prevent transmission of impact and vibration into the boom. Padeyes are generally used (welded in the fabrication yard. Properties of some hammers used offshore are shown in Table 1.1 Barge transportation Pile segments are choked and fastened to the barge to prevent them from falling overboard under severe seastates.6 4.3 Hydraulic hammers Hydraulic hammers are dedicated to underwater driving (skirt piles terminating far below the sea surface).4 Installation 4. Hydraulic fluid under high pressure is used to force a piston or set of pistons.1 Steam hammers Steam hammers are widely used for offshore installation of jackets. They are held in place by shims which prevent them from escaping from their guides during launch and uprighting of the jacket. steel piles are protected underwater by sacrificial anodes or by impressed current. 4. Menck hydraulic hammers are widely used. Piles can then be driven using any type of hammer (or a combination of types). numerical modelling of driving for each particular site (see Pile Driving: Section 2. A selection of large offshore pile driving hammers driving on heavy piles is also shown in Table 2. or encased in sleeves protruding at the bottom of the jacket. 4. Several piles are driven immediately after the jacket has touched down.3.4. running vertical or parallel to the legs (typical batter 1/12 to 1/6). 4. They are lighter to handle and less energy consuming than steam hammers. providing initial stability against the action of waves and current. Hammers are illustrated in Figure 3. 4. They utilize a solid steel ram and a flexible steel pile cap to limit impact forces. wall thicknesses. (82KNm to 1725KNm per blow). generating additional weight and possibly buoyancy (if closed).6 In certain instances. The ends of the piles are sealed by steel closure plates or rubber diaphragms which should be able to resist wave slamming during the tow. 4.4) Typical values of pile sizes. monel or copper-nickel sheeting are provided. Lecture 15A. Pile plate should be thick enough to prevent any deformation caused by stacking. 4.3 Transport within the jacket The piles are pre-set inside the main legs or in the guides/sleeves. and hammer energies for steam hammers are shown in Table 3. 4. They are double acting. the ram up and down. but their effective energy is limited. and in turn.2.2 Transportation 4. extending the full height of the jacket.2 Diesel hammers Diesel hammers are much used at offshore terminals. Energies of current hammers range from 60 000 to 1 250 000 ft lb/blow.3.1 Pile handling and positioning Figure 4 shows the different ways of providing lifting points for positioning pile sections. the hammer with attached driving head rides the pile rather than being supported by leads.2 Self floating mode This method is attractive where long segments of pile are to be lifted and set in guides far below the sea surface (skirt piles for example).Lecture 15A.4 Selection of hammer size Selection of hammer size is based on: • • experience of similar situations (see Quality Control: Section They are generally single acting with rates of up to 40 blows/minute. 4.6).3 Hammers Piles are positioned: • • either inside the jacket legs. During driving.2. In the splash zone additional thickness to allow for corrosion (3mm for example) and epoxy or rubberized coating.

6 Sketch E shows the different steps for the positioning of pile sections: • • • pile or add-on lifted from the barge deck. Padeyes are then carefully cut before lowering the next pile section. 4. 4.4mm).Lecture 15A. .3 Hammer placement Figure 5 shows the different steps of this routine operation: Page 13 of 25 Page 14 of 25 .environmental conditions. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) or flux-cored. rotation of the crane to position add-on.4. installing and lowering of the pile add-on.4. Welding time depends upon: .2 Pile connections Different solutions for connecting pile segments back-to-back are used: • either by welding. 16 hours for 3in.breech block (twisting method). .number and qualification of the welders. thick.lug type (hydraulic method). (76. .pile wall thickness: 3 hours for 1in. • or by mechanical connectors (as shown in Figure 4): . Lecture 15A.6 account the changes in load direction during lifting). thick (25. segments held temporarily by internal or external stabbing guides as shown in Figure 4.2mm) (typical).

1 Welded shims The shims are inserted at the top of the pile within the annulus between the pile and jacket leg (see Figure 6) and welded afterwards. alignment of the pile cap. particular measures are taken to avoid an uncontrolled run.Lecture 15A.5. lowering leads after hammer positioning. Piles are then driven or drilled until pile refusal. 4. For soft soil conditions.6 4.6 Lecture 15A. A widely accepted rate for defining refusal is 300 blows/feet (980 blows/meters).. • • • • lifting from the barge deck.. very helpful in rough weather). Pile refusal is defined as the minimum rate of penetration beyond which further advancement of the pile is no longer achievable because of the time required and the possible damage to the pile or to the hammer. positioning over pile by booming out or in (the bell of the hammer acts as a stabling guide.4 Driving Some penetration under the self weight of the pile is normal. Page 15 of 25 Page 16 of 25 .5 Pile-to-Jacket Connections 4. Each add-on should be designed to prevent bending or buckling failure during installation and in-place conditions.4.

5.3 Grouting This hybrid connection is the most commonly used for connecting piles to the main structure (in the mudline area). The expansive.Lecture 15A.6 4.6 This type of connection is most popular for subsea templates. Page 17 of 25 Page 18 of 25 .2 Mechanical locking system This metal-to-metal connection is achieved by a hydraulic swaging tool lowered inside the pile and expanding it into machined grooves provided in the sleeves at two or three elevations as shown on Figure 7. Forces are transmitted by shear through the grout.5. Lecture 15A. It offers immediate strength and the possibility to re-enter the connection should swaging prove incomplete. 4. Figure 8 shows the two types of packers commonly used. non-shrinking grout must fill completely the annulus between the pile and leg (or sleeve).

radioactive tracers. self penetration of pile (under its own weight and under static weight of the hammer). e. . measured lengths of add-ons and cut-offs. (101.interruptions of driving (with set-up time and blowcount subsequently required to break the pile loose). Thorough filling should be checked by suitable devices.5in. 4.6 Bonding should be excellent.unexpected behaviour of the pile and/or hammer.6 Quality Control Quality control shall: • • confirm the adequacy of the foundation with respect to the design. record of incidents and abnormalities: .pile damage if any. it is improved by shear connectors (shear keys. provide a record of pile installation for reference to subsequent driving of nearby piles and future modifications to the platform. attached to the base of the sleeve to protect them during pile entry and driving.equipment and procedure employed. Page 19 of 25 Page 20 of 25 . Packers are used to confine the grout and prevent it from escaping at the base of the sleeve. . .record of interruptions and delays. • elevations of soil plug and internal water surface after driving. minimum. The installation report shall mention: • • • • • pile identification (diameter and thickness). The width of the annulus between pile and sleeve should be maintained constant by use of centralizers and be limited to: • • 1.g.overall volume of grout and quality. well-logging devices or overflow pipes checked by divers.6 • information about the pile/structure connection: . blowcount throughout driving with identification of hammer used and energy. as shown in Figure 9. Packers are often damaged during piling and are therefore: • • installed in a double set.6mm) maximum (to avoid destruction of the tensile strength of the grout by internal microcracking). . Lecture 15A. electrical resistance gauges.Lecture 15A. (38.1mm) about 4in. strips or weld beads disposed on the surface of the sleeve and pile in contact with the grout).

Technip ARGEMA (1988). CONCLUDING SUMMARY This lecture has described: • • • the difficult aspects of foundations in a variety of soils. Foundation analysis and design. Construction of Offshore Structures. 9. Gulf Publishing Company (1981). Vulcan 3250 Type (ft-lb x 1000) 750 1034 1100 1120 868 1000 1700 1800 1582 220 580 1160 1449 1566 KNm On Pile Single-acting steam Hydraulic underwater Hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater Single-acting steam Single-acting steam Hydraulic underwater Single-acting steam Single-acting steam Slender hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater Slender hydraulic underwater 60 50-60 40-70 40-70 48-65 38 53 40-70 37 38 32-65 40 40 30 - 300 175 190 170 135 280 337 222 380 385 235 30 80 160 260 - 1040 1430 1520 1550 1200 1380 2350 2490 2190 300 800 1600 2000 2300 600 542 796 800 618 629 800 1157 1440 1147 1169 - 5.. Analytical and computer methods in Foundation Engineering. John Wiley and Sons (1986). ADDITIONAL READING 1. 1989.. J. 8. 18th ed. Washington. Introduction to offshore structures.. E.. "Recommended Practice for Planning. Capacité patante des pieux . H. Offshore Structural Engineering. 4.C. E. D. mechanical breakdown of the hammer. Gerwick. Pieux dans les formatines carbonates . 5.. Poulos. American Petroleum Institute. grout pipe blockage. Planning and design of fixed offshore platforms. Bowles. the complexity of the process from design to installation. Von Mostrand Reinhold Company (1982).. P. Dawson.Technip ARGEMA (1988). T. REFERENCES [1] API-RP2A. D. 10. 7.6 4. John Wiley and Sons (1980). and Reifel.. Reconnaissance des sols en mer pour l'implantation des ouvrages Pétroliens.7 Contingency Plan Contingency documents should provide back-up solutions in case "unforeseen" events occur such as: Lecture 15A. M. the multiplicity of solutions and the different kind of piles and hammers. 3. E.. McClelland. Bowles. Prentice Hall Inc (1983). 2. MacGraw Hill Book Company (1983). MacGraw Hill Book Company (4th edition 1988). Pile foundation analysis and design. J. Technip (1976) 7. and Davis. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms". Graff. if any (metric tons) Energy • • • impossibility to get the required pile penetration.6 TABLE 1 Properties of some hammers used offshore Expected Net Energy (ft-lb x 1000) On Anvil 673 542 796 800 651 715 901 1157 1697 1384 1230 - Rated Striking Hammer Blows per Minute Weight including Offshore Cage. Le Tirant. Menck MRBS 12500 Menck MHU 1700 IHC S-300 IHC S-800 IHC S-1600 IHC S-2000 IHC S-2300 Page 21 of 25 Page 22 of 25 ... B. G. H. H. Ben C. J. HBM 3000 HBM 3000 A HBM 3000 P Menck MHU 900 Menck MRBS 8000 Vulcan 4250 HBM 4000 Vulcan 6300 6. 6. W.Lecture 15A.

7 12.000 170.5 132 207 110 22. the wall thicknesses must be near the upper range of those listed in order to prevent overstress (yielding) in the pile under hard driving.98 92.470 110.5 313 205 125 64 142 142 142 142 19.37 154 69 59 59 49 154.530 9.07 22. 3000 HMB 2@ 6850 5650 Conmaco 5300 300 200 510..9 11.7 312 262 92 86 74 180 160 160 150 120 8.65 150 3 60 Note 1: With the heavier hammers in the range given.6 C.14 38.000 141.14 335 150 20. Pilecap Weight (kips) Typical Hammer Weight (w/leads) (kips) (kips) (kips) (kips) (psi) 205 152 139 55 30.62 85.23 59 66..96 59 59 59 50 52.0 16.000 85 65 30 30 20 72 60 60 36 36 57. Page 23 of 25 Page 24 of 25 .700 15.58 18.000 60.3 84 77 415 617 386 3400 3400 3100 3550 3190 2755 2320 2830 2465 845 845 580 98 103 102 103 75 75 50-80 32-65 48-65 38 42 42 44 48 48 6.0 12.0 9.9 1.01 176.000 725.800 26.000 150.064 6.500 16.060 3.230.5 1. Stroke (m) Std.563 1.944 5.830 6 8 8 4@ 4 40 36 MH 36 38 35 MH 145 87.910 32.0 1.400 30.195 3 59 54 31.000 1.91 33.480 189. Air/Steam Hammers Rated Make Model Energy (ft-lbs) Ram Weight (kips) Max.05 11.220 954.750 867.000 5 3.000 3000A 800.070 325.Lecture 15A.0 6.840 12.1 33 490 414 40-70 17. Hydraulic Hammers Rated Energy Make Model (ft-lb) Rated Operating Pressure (psi) Steam Consumption (lbs ht) Air Consumption (lbs ht) Hose Rated ST/F BPM .000 4000 1. min) A.000 1.9 59 51 46 40 27 24 OS-60 MKT OS-40 OS-20 18.000 195 Menck MH 165 105.130 7.500 4 3@ 4 46 MRBU MHU 1700 MHU 2@ 12500 8800 8000 7000 Menck 5000 (MRBS) 4600 3000 1800 850 499.58 194.500 7.000 60.850 93.885 275.471 3 1.4 853 600 564 583 171 150 142 156 53.860 30.0 19.000 120.950 3 45 44 MH 80 42 MH 96 542.711 4 1.900 6 6.960 632.000 90..0 6.700 4 1.400 6 42 MH 120 58.000 325.200.000 40 900 45 500 72.000 69.000 900 650.340 101.000 60 40 20 36 36 36 38.5 59.32 103.7 12.8 9.5 13.000 Ram Weight Standard Pilecap Weight Hammer Weight Typical Operating Pressure Rated Rated Oil Flow BPM (gal.940 10.41 66.000 119..582.000 1500 290.900 14.0 6.6 TABLE 2 Large pile driving hammers Lecture 15A.000 760.6 172 88 27.

) 24 30 36 42 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 (mm) 600 750 900 1.800 2.000 50.2½ 1½ .000.000 120.000 .500.000 Hammer Energy (kN-m) 70 . Diesel hammers would normally only be used on 36-in. and hence the above table can be modified to fit the stress wave pattern.1 1 . TABLE 3 Typical values of pile sizes. the effective hammer energy is from one-half to two-thirds the values generally listed by the manufacturers and the above table must be adjusted accordingly.1.000 180.000 90.120.500 1.700 3.000 300.7/8 ¾ 7/8 .000 50.500. wall thickness and hammer energies Pile Outer Diameter (in.050 1.400 420 .100 2.700.120 126 .2 1¼ .700 168 .000 .2 1¼ .400 Page 25 of 25 .000.1¼ 17.1.400 420 .1.000 300.Lecture 15A.000 .1¾ 1¼ .120.252 84 .000 .980 252 .1.400 252 .700 126 .000 .000 .300.000 60.2 1½ .1.000 .000 .000. or less diameter piles.1.6 Note 2: With diesel hammers.000. Note 3: Hydraulic hammers have a more sustained blow.1.000 .200 1.2½ (mm) 15-21 19 21-25 25-32 28-44 28-44 32-50 32-50 32-50 37-62 37-62 (ft-lb) 50.400 2.000 .) 5/8 .1¾ 17 .000 180.000 .000 Wall Thickness (in.180.168 70 .000 90.168 70 .1.

7 Lecture 15A. Y. 1.1: Offshore Structures: General Introduction RELATED LECTURES Lecture 15A.7 Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present methods for the design of large tubular joints typically found on offshore structures. INTRODUCTION The main structure of topside consists of either an integrated deck or a module support frame and modules.12: Connections in Offshore Deck Structures SUMMARY The lecture defines the principle terms and ratios used in tubular joint design. Commonly tubular lattice frames are present. PREREQUISITES Lecture 15A. Two main calculations need to be performed in order to adequately design a tubular joint.8 : Fabrication Lecture 15A. It presents the classifications for T. K and KT joints and discusses the significance of gaps. DEFINITIONS The following definitions are universally acknowledged [1]: (refer to Figure 1 for clarification): The CHORD is the main member. presenting some detailed information on stress concentration factors. but they can never be larger. multiplanar joints and the details of joint arrangements. It is necessarily a through member. These are used extensively offshore. X. Static strength considerations 2. particularly for jacket structures. without piercing through the chord at the intersection. overlaps. The other tubulars are welded to it.Lecture 15A. however a significant amount of rolled and built up sections are also used. N. The joint designer must therefore always be "fatigue minded". receiving the other components. even where simple assessment of fatigue behaviour shows this will not be a problem. Page 1 of 23 Page 2 of 23 . It describes design methods for static and fatigue strength. 2. These are: 1. This lecture refers to the design of tubular joints. Fatigue behaviour considerations The question of fatigue behaviour always has to be addressed. are basically similar to those used for onshore structures. Connections of I-shape sections or boxed beams whether rolled or built up. Other tubulars belonging to the joint assembly may be as large as the chord. Refer to the corresponding lectures for appropriate design guidance.

or stiffeners.2 Geometrical ratios α= β= γ= τ= ζ= Can slenderness ratio Brace to chord diameter ratio (always ≤ 1) Chord slenderness ratio Brace to chord thickness ratio Relative gap These are non-dimensional variables for use in parametrical equations.7 The CAN is the section of the chord reinforced with an increased wall thickness. They physically terminate on the chord skin. CLASSIFICATION Load paths within a joint are very different. Different positions have to be identified along the brace . 3. a subscript identifies the brace) g is the theoretical gap between weld toes e is the eccentricity. 2. The BRACES are the structural members which are welded to the chord. see Figure 2. The STUB is the extremity of the brace. SADDLE position is located where the brace to chord intersection crosses the plane perpendicular to the plane containing the brace and chord.chord intersection line: • • CROWN position is located where the brace to chord intersection crosses the plane containing the brace and chord. Positive when opposite to the brace side.7 2. which also contains the brace axis. locally reinforced with an increased wall thickness. The following classification is used. Page 3 of 23 Page 4 of 23 . Negative when on the brace side θ is the angle between brace and chord axis. Lecture 15A. according to the joint geometry.Lecture 15A.1 Geometrical definitions Refer to Figure 1 L is the length of the chord can D is the chord outside diameter T is the chord wall thickness d is the brace outside diameter t is the brace wall thickness (where there are several braces.

2 have limitations. In fact.1 Geometrical Limits and Typical Ranges Parameter Typical range min Limitations max 0.1 shows these limits and their typical ranges. Engineering judgement must therefore be used to classify a joint.8 0. which in an ideal X joint have the same diameter and thickness. 3. perpendicular to the chord (T joint) or inclined to it (Y joints). Axial forces are balanced in the braces.2 1 (2) 30° (3) 90° (1) (2) Brace shall be less or equal to chord thickness (see punching shear) (3) Angle limitation to get a correct workmanship of welds.e.7 10 30 0. a Y joint when the force in one brace is reacted predominantly by the chord. One of them may be perpendicular to the chord (N joint) or both inclined (K joint).Lecture 15A. Page 5 of 23 Page 6 of 23 . The load pattern for these joints is more complex.e.2 1 12 . For example a geometrical K joint may be classified as. Ideally axial forces should be balanced within the braces.0. the axial force is reacted by bending and axial force in the chord.1 T and Y Joints These are joints made up of a single brace.6 How to classify a joint This classification deals only with braces located in one plane.2 X Joints Lecture 15A.7 3. 3.90° 0.5 Limitations For a joint to be able to be fabricated and to be effective. i. The important point to note is the balance of forces in the braces. the axial force acting in the brace is reacted by bending in the chord.20 X joints include two coaxial braces on either side of the chord.4 KT Joints These joints include three braces.3 . i. In a T joint. It must always be remembered that this classification is based on load pattern as well as the geometry. other considerations such as brace length. the joint may be classified as a Y (or a T) joint rather than an X joint. net force into chord member is low. (1) Physical limitation θ 40° . net force into chord member is low. may lead to two slightly different braces. In a Y joint. 3. 3.0. rather than by the second brace. The ideal load pattern of these joints is reached when axial forces are balanced in the braces. which can be very different on each side of the chord. 3. Table 3.7 Table 3.3 N and K Joints These joints include two braces. the geometrical ratios given in Section 2. Angles may be slightly different as well. • • a K joint when forces are balanced within braces.4 . If the axial force in one brace is far higher than the one in the other brace.

see Figure 4.7 4. from the nearest point of a brace-chord connection. The real gap is the one measured at the corresponding location.Lecture 15A. The following practice. The overlapping brace is always the thinner brace. 4. 5. measured on the line where they cross the chord outer surface. from the nearest point of the brace-chord connection. most designers use a 70 or 75mm theoretical gap. This limitation is set to avoid two welds clashing. secondary moments have to be introduced in the structural analysis by introducing extra nodes.7 4. The brace circumferential welds are to be located at either 600mm or a brace diameter. Eccentricity and offset are to be kept within a quarter of the chord diameter. This is important because the gap is a highly stressed zone. When higher values can not be avoided. by tapering the thicker wall. welds in a joint have to be kept away from zones of high stress concentration. 2. should be followed: 1. To achieve this. 3. 4.3 Multiplanar Joints The same definitions and limitations apply to multiplanar joints. A brace OVERLAPS another brace when one brace is welded to the other brace. 5. Page 7 of 23 Page 8 of 23 . Thickness transitions are smoothed to a 1 in 4 slope. The overlapped brace is always completely welded to the chord. The theoretical gap is the shortest distance between the outer surfaces of two braces. The chord circumferential welds are to be located at either 300mm or a quarter of the chord diameter.1 Definitions The GAP is the distance along the chord between the weld toes of the braces (Figure 3). The actual gap shall not be less than 50mm. whichever is the greatest. whichever is the greater.2 Limitations The minimum gap allowed is 50mm. GAP AND OVERLAP 4. JOINT ARRANGEMENT As a rule. Lecture 15A. between actual weld toes.

1 Acting punching shear The acting punching shear is the shear stress developed in the chord by the brace load. in-plane bending or out-of-plane bending stress in the brace (punching shear for each kept separate). see Figure 5.7 6. their presence must never be forgotten and in some specific cases.7 Lecture 15A. Page 9 of 23 Page 10 of 23 . their effects must be assessed. The other components (transverse shear and brace torsion moment) are usually neglected since unlike the preceding loads. in-plane and out-of-plane bending moments are normally the dimensioning criterion for tubular joints. these loads do not induce bending in the chord wall. the in-plane bending moment and the out-of-plane bending moment for each brace. Nevertheless. The axial load.1 Loads taken into account The loads considered in a joint static strength design are the axial force. STATIC STRENGTH 6.2 Punching shear 6. 6.2.Lecture 15A. The acting punching stress vp is written as: vp = τ f sin θ where f is the nominal axial.

1. • Interaction formulae are given for combined loading. fIPB. each brace connection is checked independently.3 The API method Several offshore design regulations are based on the punching shear concept [1. Tests are performed on experimental rigs such as the one shown in Figure 6. Punching shear for each load component (axial force. Qf is a factor to account for the nominal longitudinal stress in the chord The ultimate static strength obtained through these tests can then be expressed in terms of punching shear. as defined above. Principle • • This method applies to a single brace without overlap. Allowable punching shear stress The allowable punching shear stress for each load component is: Vpa = Qq Qf where: Fyc is the yield strength of the chord member Qq is to account for the effects of type of loading and geometry. Qf = 1 . and out of plane bending) is calculated and compared to the allowable punching shear stress for the appropriate load and geometry. Lecture 15A. in-plane bending.Lecture 15A.2].2.λ γ fAX. or out-of-plane bending). When the joint includes several braces.7 6. in-plane bending.2 Allowable punching shear Allowable punching shear values in the chord wall are determined from test results carried out on full scale or on reduced scale models. Statistical treatments of results allow formulae to be defined for the allowable punching shear stress. They are performed for a single load-case (axial force. fOPB are the nominal axial. in-plane bending and out of plane bending stresses in the chord Page 11 of 23 Page 12 of 23 . B. The following method is presented in API RP2A [2]: A. combining the three punching shear ratio calculated for each component.2. see Table 6. for a non-stiffened joint.7 6.

[2] allows the static shear strength of the overlapping weld section to be added to Qg = 1.021 λ The parametric formulae discussed in Section 6. Qg = 1. without that part of the load transferring through the chord.Lecture 15A.030 0. Loading Combination For combined loadings involving more than one load component.0.0 for β ≤ 0. part of the load is transferred directly from one brace to the other through the overlapping section.6 the punching shear capacity of the brace-chord connection.1 for γ ≤ 20 In an overlapping joint.6 for β > 0.2 were specifically established for nonoverlapping joints with no internal reinforcement.3 Overlapping joints 0. the following equations shall be satisfied: K joints where: IPB refers to in-plane bending component OPB refers to out-of-plane bending component T & Y Joints AX refers to axial force component Tension Compression Qq w/o diaphragm X and ax where: arc sin term is in radians.7 C.1 Values of Qq for allowable punching shear stress from APIRP2A Load component Stress in brace Acting punching shear Axial load fax Vpx = τ fax sin θ In-plane bending fby Vp = τ fby sin θ Out of plane bending fbz Vp = τ fbz sin θ Lecture 15A. API RP2A. The static strength of an overlapping joint is higher than a similar joint without an overlap. see Figure 7.0 Qβ = QB = 1.8 .4 .7 Value for λ and Qq are given in Table 6. These formulae cannot be used for overlapping joints.045 0.1 Table 6.4 g/D for γ > 20 but Qg must be ≥ 1. Page 13 of 23 Page 14 of 23 . w diaphragm 6.

tw is the lesser of the weld throat thickness or the thickness t of the inner brace (mm). P⊥ (in Newtons) should be taken to be: P⊥ = (vpa T l1) + (2vwa tw l2) where: vpa is the allowable punching shear stress (MPa) for axial stress.1 Definition Large chord wall thickness may be reduced by stiffening the chord.2 Ring Stiffening Ring stiffening consists of ring plates welded in the chord can prior to welding the braces to it. STRESS CONCENTRATION As in any mechanical body presenting discontinuities. stresses are not uniform along the connecting surface of a brace and chord. The most usual reinforcement consists of ring stiffening inside the chord.4. This may involve finite element analysis. the best known being published by Roark [3]. Page 15 of 23 Page 16 of 23 . Ring stiffeners can be justified through parametric formulae available in various publications.7 Some joints may require more complex stiffening. Figure 8 shows an example of the stress distribution in a joint with local discontinuities at and in the vicinity of the brace chord intersection.Lecture 15A.4. 6. Specific analyses must therefore be carried out for an accurate solution. 7. 6. measured perpendicular to the chord (mm). see Figure 7. This is the case for large diameter chords which would otherwise require an un-economic chord wall thickness. vwa is the allowable shear stress for weld between braces (MPa).4 Reinforced joints 6. Therefore there are no parametric formulae available for these designs. l2 is the projected chord length (one side) of the overlapping weld. The punching shear capacity of the chord still may be taken into account when calculating the forces acting on the stiffeners.7 Lecture 15A. l1 is the circumference for that portion of the brace which contacts the chord (mm). The allowable axial load component perpendicular to the chord. see Figure 7. There are very many different stiffening solutions for a large diameter chord.

They are based on many man years of work by numerous research teams. No parametric formulae are presently available for stiffened joints.3.36 {(g1+g2)/D}0. The only alternatives to these formulae are to perform model tests (full size or at reduced scale) or finite element analyses.1 to 7.8 γ0.7 Out-of-plane bending SCFCHORD = 1.2β3 α0.55 0.38) sin0.852 τ0.56 β(-0. 7.3 Parametric formulae 7.3 Kuang equations for KT joints [4] Balanced axial load Outer braces only loaded SCFCHORD = 1.852 τ0.Lecture 15A.441) (g/D)0.448 sin θ ) In-plane bending (bending moment applied to one brace only) SCFCHORD = 1. non overlapping joints.333 exp(-1. Sections 7.57 θ vp being the punching shear.702 γ0.024 γ1.5 θ 7.04) sin0.068 β0.396 {(g1+g2)/D}0. A large number of parametric formulae have been published [4].796 γ0.808 τ1.522 γ0.3.94 θ Balanced axial load SCFCHORD = 1.543 β0.3.543 β(-0.014 τ0.83 γ0.1 Kuang equations for T/Y joints [4] Axial load SCFCHORD = 1. The only ones published to date concern non-stiffened. the most commonly used and acknowledged formulae.7 7.55 0.033 θ 7.557 θ SCFCHORD = 0.38 τ0.058 Exp(1.1 τ0.88 θ 45° ≤ θ ≥ 90° SCFBRACE = 4.9 θ SCFBRACE = 2.3.75 SCF = fHS/fNOM SCFBRACE = 1.12 sin θ 0° < θ ≤ 90° SCFBRACE = 6.159 sin2.12 sin1.126 sin2.123 τ0.057 sin1.267 θ Page 17 of 23 Page 18 of 23 .462 γ1.35 sin0.89 γ0.06 sin0.822 γ0.8 √γ SCFCHORD = 0.55 τexp(-1.694 θ SCFBRACE = 3.35 β-0.787 sin1.35β 3) α0.1 τ0.36 {(g1+g2)/D}0.3 ≤ β ≤ 0. In using any set of formulae.126 sin0.301 γ0.55 ≤ β ≤ 0.751 γ0.60 τ0.666 τ1. care should be taken in classifying the situation and ascertaining any limitations that apply.75 0. In-plane bending fHS/vp = 1.23 τ0.827 τ0.94 β0.06 γ0. for preliminary analyses.801 sin2. as an example.033 θ This approximate formula can be used for rapidly assessing SCF.92 γ0.281) sin2.672 β-0.86 β(-0.3 give.68 β-0.014 τ0.21 θ 7.619) sin1.981 γ0.059) (g/D)0.557 θ 0.55 ≤ β ≤ 0.68 β-0.889 β0.157 τ0.3 ≤ β ≤ 0.5 θ 0° < θ ≥ 45° SCFBRACE = 13.1 Stress concentration factor The stress concentration factor (SCF) is defined as the ratio of the highest stress in the connection (or hot spot stress fHS) to the nominal brace stress fNOM: Lecture 15A. SCFBRACE = 1.889 β(-0.54 τ1.38 β(-0.2 Kellog equation SCFBRACE = 0.067 sin1.104 β(-0.506 γ0.521 θ SCFBRACE = 0.2 Kuang equations for K joints [4] SCF parametric formulae have been determined based on a large number of finite element analyses and cross-checked with either full scale or model tests.3.

8. Calculation of nominal stress ranges in the brace and the chords 2. Four to twelve phase angles per wave are usually considered. for one complete cycle (360°). Calculation of joint fatigue lives using S-N curves for tubular members at joints.8 unless stated otherwise 6. Calculation of hot-spot stress range 3.as for K joint Validity range The above equation for T/Y.5 4.7 8. calculated.8 0.1. FATIGUE ANALYSIS A fatigue analysis of a joint consists of the following steps: 1.7 In-plane bending .2 Nominal stress ranges Nominal stress ranges can be calculated by following the steps below: 1.2. For each block one representative wave is chosen. Different wave directions need to be considered with a minimum of three "blocks" per wave direction.2 Hot spot stress ranges Hot spot stress ranges are then evaluated for each chosen joint location by applying parametric formulae [4] (or by applying the SCF calculated from a detailed analysis).1 Nominal stress range Nominal stress ranges in braces and chords are calculated by a global stress analyses. Page 19 of 23 Page 20 of 23 . 2.5-3 3-4. The nominal stress range for the joint component is defined as the difference between the highest and the lowest stress obtained for a full wave cycle. 3. Lecture 15A. A simple form of a wave histogram is as follows: Wave height (metres) 0-1. Wave heights are grouped in "blocks".333 ≤ γ ≤ 33.3 ≤ β ≤ 0.5 1.20 ≤ τ ≤ 0.667 ≤ α ≤ 40 unless stated otherwise 0° ≤ σ ≤ 90° unless stated otherwise. K and KT joints are generally valid for joint parameters within the following limits: 8. for which just one stress range will be 8. The highest wave of the block is normally chosen.1 Wave histogram A wave histogram has to be obtained for each direction around the platform.3 0.5-6 6-8 8-10 Average number per year 3 100 000 410 000 730 000 5 000 800 20 8. Nominal stresses for each joint component are then calculated for different phase angles of the chosen wave.Lecture 15A. 8. whose action is supposed to represent the action of the whole block.

which should then be used to calculate the cumulative fatigue damage ratio. Where a chord and brace intersect. 9. Special analysis are required for reinforced joints. as the SCF formulae apply individually for each load component. Determination of static strength is generally based on the concept of punching shear.e. i. For each of these locations the stress response for each sea state should be computed. given by: D= Where. n is the number of cycles applied at a given stress range N is the number of cycles to cause failure for the given stress range (obtained from appropriate S-N curve). It should be noted that Curve X presumes welds which merge smoothly with the adjoining base metal. D. The presence of gaps and overlaps significantly influence joint behaviour. geometric ratios and joint classifications are now standardised for tubular joints. For weld without such profile control. giving adequate consideration to both global and local stress effects. For critical elements whose sole failure would be catastrophic. in plane bending and out of plane bending) have to be distinct throughout the calculations. Determination of fatigue strength is based on nominal stress range multiplied by appropriate SCF. use of a larger safety factor should be considered. Stress concentration factors (SCF) are defined for most commonly occurring joints. stress components (axial. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • • • • • • Terminology. with the allowance of overlapping joints. the X′ curve is applicable. Lecture 15A.2]. Page 21 of 23 Page 22 of 23 . The permissible number of cycles is obtained from the S-N curve by taking the hot spot stress range.7 When using parametric formulae. 8.Lecture 15A. The X and X1 curves should be used with hot spot stress ranges based on suitable stress concentration factors.7 8.0. a safety factor of 2.3 S-N Curves S-N curves to be used for offshore structures are given by statutory regulations [1. four to eight locations are usually chosen around the intersection line. APIRP2A uses the curves shown in Figure 9. In general the design fatigue life of each joint and member should be at least twice the intended service life of the structure. and entering the graph.4 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Ratio The stress responses should be combined into the long term stress distribution.

API RP2A Nineteenth Edition. McGraw-Hill. REFERENCES [1] Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design. Sixth Edition. [2] Recommended Practice for Planning. 1989. Warren C. Lloyds Register of Shipping-Offshore Division. HMSO. Page 23 of 23 . [4] Stress Concentration Factors for Simple Tubular Joints. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. [3] Young. Fourth Edition. Construction and Certification.Lecture 15A. 1990. Roark's Formulae for Stress and Strain.7 10. Volumes 1 to 5.

i. a lifted. beams. etc. For jackets destined for shallow water. The overall execution plan and the contractor's organisation for its implementation are introduced and constructability i. welding access considerations. jackets approaching this order of magnitude are now candidates for lifting into position.Lecture 15A.1: General Fabrication of Steel Structures Lectures 3. In general the preference is to lift the jacket in place. the more general aspects of design .8 Fabrication OBJECTIVE To describe the general methods of jacket fabrication. supports.e. girders. stress relieving on such items as welded tubulars. Such jackets may be lifted or skidded onto the barge. Thus fabrication includes processes such as cutting. through erection. is discussed.2: Erection Lectures 3. Erection The processes required to install assembled and shop fabricated items together in their final configuration. where the height is of the same order as the plan dimensions. With modern lifting capacity now up to 14.1: Offshore Structures: General Introduction Lectures 3.4: Welding Processes RELATED LECTURES Lectures 15: Structural Systems: Offshore SUMMARY The construction philosophy and definition of the construction phases of the fabrication of offshore structures are described. nodes.000 tonnes. erection is usually carried out vertically. The size of such jackets has being increasing as offshore lifting capacity has grown.e. rolling. including the fabrication procedure for a typical node is described together with jacket assembly and erection and the procedures for "big lift". welding. To indicate the calculations normally involved. including construction practices and equipment.the size and transportability of components. fitting. The fabrication of nodes and reinforced tubulars.3: Principles of Welding Lectures 3. These processes include fitting and welding. construction tolerance. 1. pressing. in the same attitude as the final installation. i. launched or self-floating jacket. To discuss the various stages of operation from material selection.2 Construction Philosophy The design of a jacket. Fabrication The processes normally carried out in a fabrication shop to produce relatively small units. clamps. 1. Page 1 of 22 Page 2 of 22 . is determined primarily by the offshore installation equipment available and the intended water depth. PREREQUISITES Lecture 15A.e.8 Lecture 15A. Assembly The processes normally performed outside the fabrication shop but at ground level in order to assemble groups of shop fabricated items into an (assembled) unit for subsequent erection in accordance with a construction sequence. INTRODUCTION 1. cones.1 Construction Phases Jacket construction involves the following work phases: Procurement The technical and commercial activities required to supply material and specialised products to enable the execution of construction activities. However the emphasis is on the transportation and lifting of heavy assemblies.

procurement through assembly and erection. offshore transportation and installation (which are construction activities executed under contractor responsibility). in all phases the contractor is required to demonstrate that the methods which he adopts are compatible with the specification requirements and do not affect the integrity of the structure. as a general principle. ENGINEERING OF EXECUTION Engineering of execution. 2. Avoidance of procedures that are overly sensitive to weather conditions. Each phase of execution has its own specific engineering requirements which are determined by the processes executed during that phase. the objectives of achieving quality requirements and efficiency are of fundamental importance. e. in excess of this. The assembly and erection phases are supported by a mix of repetitive engineering. This method of construction is currently applicable for jackets up to 25. Thus decreasing efficiency occurs as progress through these operations advances. i. 'construction engineering'. automatic welding. e. • • Simplification of configurations and standardisation of details. Such jackets are loaded by skidding out onto a barge.g. protective coating. In addition. e.g. the contractor. nodes are categorised as either complex or simple from the execution viewpoint based on the number of separate fitting-welding-NDT Page 4 of 22 . The volume of contractor construction engineering on a large jacket is typically 130. Historically most large jackets have been barge launched. audits. steel production. entails the work required during each phase of execution to ensure that the design requirements are fulfilled. hold point. The requirements for documentation. reviews and corrective actions are part of the quality Page 3 of 22 Lecture 15A. rather than finding problems after they occur. An offshore jacket goes through a series of very distinct stages as it moves from fabrication to load-out.8 Jackets destined for deeper water are usually erected on their side. A general method of execution is envisaged at the jacket design stage. the stable conditions in repetitive processes of the early operations are more conducive to the maintenance of high quality. It is applicable to this lecture and also to Lecture 15A.8 assurance process. including such items as synchrolifts. Since the shape of the jacket. A general note on Quality Assurance for Offshore Construction is included in Appendix 1. Accordingly the engineering which supports procurement and shop fabrication is voluminous but repetitive.Lecture 15A. However. Quality management is a vital and integral component of all aspects of offshore fabrication. there is considerable interfacing of engineering requirements in these phases. Some of the principles which reduce the time and cost of construction are: • • • Subdivision into as large components and modules as it is possible to fabricate and assemble. less risky phases of the project.000/150.g. The most effective quality scheme is one which prevents the introduction of defective materials and workmanship into a structure. cutting plans. Very large jackets. and specific studies for limited series of activities. These stages range from operations which are almost totally automatic under very controlled conditions.g. These general trends during construction are shown in Table 1. material take-offs. In considering the construction philosophy and contract strategy. scaffolding.g. ensuring that processes which are weather sensitive are completed during shop fabrication. Concurrent fabrication of major components in the most favourable location and under the most favourable conditions applicable to each component. and heavy-lift cranes. Avoidance of excessively tight tolerances. offshore activities. as much work as possible should be undertaken in the earlier more productive. This method of construction usually involves additional flotation tanks and extensive pipework and valving to enable the legs to be flooded for ballasting the jacket into the vertical position on site. In the earlier phases. The typical organisation of a contractor's technical documents is shown in Table 2. When designing larger components consideration must be given to their subdivision into elements which will not distort when fabricated and which can be relatively easily assembled without welding/dimensional problems. its form and properties require quite specific methods of load-out. e. Essentially it involves ensuring that what is produced is what is needed.e. It is clear therefore that.000 tonnes. A third basic consideration is that risk increases with each progressive stage. higher quality. Planning the flow of components to their assembly site. Providing adequate facilities and equipment for assembly. These processes range from those which are largely repetitive early in execution to one-off activities in the latter phases.000 hours. Quality control. to operations which are almost totally manual in very variable conditions. inspection and testing should be performed during all phases of construction to ensure that specified requirements are being met. yard erection. For instance. etc. They are crucial tools for controlling the project execution and providing verifiable evidence of the fabricator's competence. shop drawings.9: Installation. while being limited by design specification requirements. has freedom of choice with regard to the exact method of execution adopted. e. have been constructed as self-floaters in a graving dock and towed offshore subsequent to flooding the dock. grades and sizes. Selection of structural systems that utilise skills and trades on a relatively continuous and uniform basis.

Lecture 15A. care should be taken to define them at an early stage on critical nodes. it is almost essential that ring stiffeners be installed prior to fitting/welding of stubs.3. The number of fittingwelding-NDT cycles depends on the existence of ring stiffeners and the number and disposition of stubs. Where this is not possible. and achieving the required weld profile. However it also implies increasingly sophisticated and stringent fabrication and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements. elimination of "notch effects" at the root and especially the cap of node welds. statutory rules. For reasons relating to weld distortion and to allow automatic welding. client standards. Two recognised codes which are used extensively for establishing general requirements are the API RP2A Recommended Practice for Planning. Typical welding details from API RP2A [1]. Alternatively cast steel nodes may be used in order to eliminate critical welding details. In particular greater attention has been focused on the importance of complete joint penetration groove welds. For instance. Overlapping stubs add at least one complete cycle to node fabrication and should therefore be avoided where possible. both in the laboratory and as a result of in-service inspection. Figure 2. Recent experience. most stubs are accessible from both sides. This adds an extra cycle to the fabrication of the node. They are usually based on one or more of the well known codes. Fig. This process reduces the probability of brittle failure. showing tubular members framing into or overlapping another member with access from one side only. Lecture 15A. FABRICATION 3. Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings [2].8 Page 5 of 22 Page 6 of 22 . see API RP2A. However. For larger jackets.1 Fabrication Processes The specifications for fabrication of offshore jackets are determined by the designer. with additional requirements dictated by the specific design. in the weld details for the Bouri jacket. Node stubs can be classified as simple or overlapping.8 (non-destructive testing) cycles required during fabrication and the possibility of automatic welding between the node can and the tubular during sub-assembly. has prompted increasingly greater attention to the welding aspects of fabrication. The minimum separation between the weld toes of adjacent simple stubs is typically specified as 50mm. However this distance is too small to allow simultaneous welding of adjacent stubs . 4. Thus ring stiffeners are best avoided. etc. Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms. Welds which are critical for fatigue endurance may be required to be ground to a smooth curve. [1] and AISC Specification for the Design. are shown in Figure 1. a lot of emphasis is placed on designing stubs which can be welded from both sides. 3.150mm is a more practical distance. the nodes tend to be fabricated separately under highly controlled shop conditions.1-2 [1].

typical working points within 6mm of theoretical. e. Bearing these requirements in mind. in an effort to ensure that Welding procedures are required.Lecture 15A. maximum weld undercut length (t/2 or 10mm). The weld acceptance criteria. they should be rectified by grinding. Accordingly their fabrication presents particular problems. welding consumables. This requirement is introduced because of tearing or punching effects likely to be sustained by these elements during their design life and indeed during fabrication. mudmats. assuming that the can (with or without ring stiffeners) has already been fabricated. The contractor must work within tolerances which preserve dimensional compatibility and observe weight control requirements at each phase of construction. magnetic particle inspection (MPI) and ultrasonic test (UT) inspection. Alternatively they can be cut to exact dimensions during subassembly where the as-built dimension has already been determined. joint design. sub-assemblies are executed so that at least one of the two edges which will mate during subsequent assembly/erection has a cut-off allowance. API RP2A [1] provides specific tolerances for final fabrication. On a complex jacket the designer may specify the node cans. 3.8 Lecture 15A. especially from the points of view of welding and dimensional control. ductility or notch toughness should be completely removed prior to repair.25mm). The location and orientation of circumferential and longitudinal welds during construction is based on minimising interferences and ensuring the minimum distance between circumferential welds.2 Node Fabrication The primary structure nodes are frequently geometrically complex. Where welds are found to be defective. detailing steel grades. The designer may also "thicken" or reinforce the cans to withstand local stresses. node fabrication tolerances are tight. in material with specified through-thickness properties. e. Welds of insufficient strength. The typical fabrication process for a conventional node. This procedure provides flexibility in that the sub-assemblies can be sent to the field with the cut-off allowance in place and cut to fit on location. There is also an overriding necessity to ensure that such attachments are located at a safe distance from main structural welds in node welds contain minimal levels of residual stress due to fabrication. etc. or the whole node including stubs and ring stiffeners. launch runners.g. where planned avoidance of weld interference is critical. Temporary cut-outs should be of sufficient size to allow sound replacement. imply an exceptionally high quality of welding.g. In general. stub angle within 1 minute. all braces within 12mm of the design dimension. and maximum depth (t/20 or 0. Page 7 of 22 Page 8 of 22 . Corners should be rounded to minimise stress concentrations. This is frequently a requirement for thicker walled North Sea jackets. All temporary plates and fittings should be subjected to the same requirements for weld testing as the member to which they are being affixed. This is not unduly conservative . etc. Finally. Special attention is required on items such as pile sleeve shear plates. thermal stress relieving or post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of the heavier more restrained welds may be prescribed. Welds are typically subject to 100% visual. machining or welding as required. In addition all welders should be qualified for the type of work assigned to them and certified accordingly.the "Alexander Kielland" capsized due to a fatigue crack initiated at the attachment of a sonar device to a principal structural member. commences with profiling of stubs and terminates with UT inspection of the finished node after PWHT.8 order to minimise the risk of defect propagation.

Cut any required off-cuts on cans or stubs. Perform MPI test on ground roots. This ensures the highest weld quality since many node and tubular welds can be double-sided and/or automatic when performed in the fabrication shop. The emphasis is on performing the maximum number of welds in the shop. Grind weld beads at base metal to remove undercut. if possible. the straightness of elements. Visually inspect finished welds. blast or grind welds and perform NDT re-test on all welds. that of dimensional control. etc. tends to be exaggerated. etc. e. Finally dimensional control of items which are intended for "mating" or "removal" offshore. beams etc. Allow welds to cool. etc. etc. many aspects where the attention to dimensional control is justified even if the overall design might occasionally benefit if the designer did not always require that everything fitted so tightly.g. There are therefore. However the majority of fabricators tend to fit the stubs to a can placed on horizontal rollers. If the weld is double-sided. When all stubs have been fitted and welded out perform post weld heat treatment (PWHT) as required. the principal factors to be borne in mind are the following: • • Size/Weight/Dimensions: transportability.8 The intermediate stages can be performed in several different ways. involves potentially intricate calculations in the shop. onto the can. Thus for a large jacket. in particular. Lecture 15A. back-grind and clean weld roots from opposite side. Verify dimensional control and weld preparations around stub. working points. buoyancy tank/supports. the assemblies are typically of four types: • • Jacket levels incorporating conductor guide frames Top frames 3. The dimensional control of node fabrication. It is one of the most vexing incongruities of the tubular steel jacket concept that the theoretical tolerances on node stub eccentricity are generous from the structural viewpoint while the actual tolerances are very tight because of considerations regarding the fitting together of components during subsequent phases of construction. The sequential steps in the fabrication of a typical node are as follows: • Trace generators. The principal reason for requiring such accurate dimensional control of nodes and tubulars during fabrication is not because of the structural consequences of out-of-tolerance but rather because the parts may not fit together in the yard. Welding Sequence: sub-assemblies should not imply a difficult welding sequence causing distortion or induced stresses during sub-assembly welding or the subsequent assembly or erection. The welding processes used are usually shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) or flux cored arc welding (FCAW). However. 4. Complete weld body. Perform final dimensional control of node.g. conductor guides. after 3 or 4 passes. Particular care is required where shrinkage strains in the throughthickness direction may lead to lamellar tearing in highly restrained joints. Cut and profile the stubs. UT the cleaned areas to ensure that the steel is free from laminations. MPI and UT finished welds. large diameter infillings are difficult to erect vertically and are best included in sub-assemblies. 3. nodes. • • • Repeat previous steps for successive stubs. Trace node locations onto the can surface and grind or blast areas. Weld according to predetermined sequence to limit deformation. the most successful systems simply involve the inclusion on the shop drawings of several additional "checking" measurements and the correct marking of the node can and stub generators and offsets. When defining sub-assemblies. i. for example piles/pile sleeves. these are largely governed by considerations Page 9 of 22 Page 10 of 22 .8 • Constructability: certain sub-assemblies may have specific construction difficulties associated with them.4 Welding Processes. and assembly or erection. • • Assemble one or two adjacent stubs in the same plane on the can. e. launch runners. short. Some fabricators prefer to orient the can upright. Toegrind profiles if required.1 Jacket Assembly of Shop fabricated sub-assemblies and loose items are incorporated into assemblies which constitute the major lifts of the erection sequence.Lecture 15A. see Lecture 3.4 Dimensional Control Of all the areas of quality control (QC) which require attention. ovality of tubulars. some of which depend on the specific geometry of the node and many of which depend on fabricator preference. It is also clear that on a jacket the global alignment/verticality of items such as pile sleeves.3 Jacket Sub-assemblies Sub-assembly can be considered as an intermediate stage between standard shop fabrication. maintaining that it enables more stubs to be fitted simultaneously. it is clear that attention must be paid to the dimensions which have structural significance. Touch up bevels and trace generators onto the stubs. Deposit weld bead for cap profiling. tubulars. Tack-weld in position. However.e. eccentricities at node joints. is vital to the efficiency of offshore installation. are also important. JACKET ASSEMBLY AND ERECTION 4. jacket top/MSF base. as emphasised in the code and specifications.

of each assembly in the field in anticipation of its lifting procedure.e. i. the sub-assemblies. systems such as grouting. rows.e. Lecture 15A.3e. Page 11 of 22 Page 12 of 22 . loose items. risers. Infilling of secondary structure and position tacking. Such large dimensions mean that the thermal changes can be significant. However. The assembly and erection phases are based on the following objectives: • • Maximise on-the-ground assembly (as opposed to erection) and maximise access around the jacket during execution. It is normal to determine the exact location. anodes.g. orientation and attitude. The overall assembly sequence and programme requires that each assembly be completed prior to lifting. resulting in several centimetres distortion. can be by means of a series of self-checking measurements on the structure itself. Overall NDT. lifting aids. face-up or face-down. Preparation for transport/lift/erection. are incorporated into the final structure according to the sequence outlined in Figure 3a . The central co-ordinates are then used as local bench marks with the object of defining the assembly. Because of the difficulty associated with thermal distortion.8 • • Jacket rows i. dimensional control. caissons. Foundation displacements under the skid beams and temporary erection skids must be carefully calculated and monitored. aids. Include maximum quantity of secondary items such as anodes. etc. launch runners. Elastic deflections are also a source of difficulty in maintaining tolerances in the location of nodes. • Sub-assemble principal structural elements of jacket such as jacket legs. risers) prior to erection. temporary attachments. Align critical areas such as conductor guides. Preweld inspection. rows. Perhaps the most fundamental rule in fitting is the avoidance of "force-fitting" of members prior to welding or to force stresses into unwelded members through the welding sequence since such conditions cannot have been foreseen by the designer. such as scaffolding. supports. etc. reference drawings. weight. erection guides. ballasting. walkways. Installation of appurtenances (e. Weldout of structure subject to continuous inspection and according to approved sequence. Dimensional control of assembly and secondary structure. walkways. overall dimensions. the practice of 'using the sun' to fit elements which are not dimensionally intolerance is common in the field. Coat or paint required areas (top of jacket. J-tubes. the time consuming exercise of referring measurements to an external bench mark can be avoided. An outline sequence of events which apply to all types of assembly is as follows: • • • • • Preparation of assembly support and staging Rough setting of assembly main structure and position tacking. • • • Test (e. Normally the assembly is tacked in position to theoretical dimensions using allowable positive tolerances to compensate for weld shrinkage. together with loose items. appurtenances and temporary attachments which comprise. Assembly layout drawings are usually prepared showing central co-ordinates for each assembly. Temperature differences may be as great as 30°C between dawn and afternoon and as much as 15°C between various parts of the structure.4 Jacket Erection In this phase assembled. hydrotest) if required. Blasting and painting or touch up.Lecture 15A. sub-assembled and fabricated structures. J-tubes. caissons.8 Dimensional control of the assembly both prior to and after welding. and where possible pre-test. e. Removal of temporary assembly supports and staging. 20° C. launch runners. it is normal to "correct" all measurements to a standard temperature. such as jacket legs. • Minimise the use of temporary items which require subsequent removal. risers. The assembly of a jacket frame often having a spread at the base of 50m or more. levels. pile sleeves. Minimise erection joints in principal structural elements. Sub-assemble.g.g. levels. This procedure in itself tends to induce residual stresses in the structure. lifting. Provided cross checks are adequate. Dimensional control of assembly main structure. 4. field welds. grouting and ballasting) and scaffolding. and pre-install such aids where they are necessary. places severe demands on field layout and survey and on temporary support and adjustment bracing. bents or partial bents Pile sleeve clusters.

8 Lecture 15A.Lecture 15A.8 Page 13 of 22 Page 14 of 22 .

i. Crane release. Preparation for rigging. in the same attitude as the final installation. An outline sequence for the erection of all major components would be: • Technical appraisal of lift methods. firm and level foundations for the cranes and experienced. etc. i. erected in place and tied in to complete the jacket. These cases are then analysed to determine the maximum stresses and displacements. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • • • • • The design of a jacket is determined primarily by the offshore installation equipment available and the intended water depth. For jackets destined for shallow water erection is usually carried out vertically. well rehearsed operators. are completed and rendered functional. Calculations for crane configuration. saddles. the locations of the cranes. Each phase of execution has its own engineering requirements which are determined by the processes executed during that phase. Preparation of cranes for lift. Roll-up into position with scaffolding and staging in position. if possible. For the Bullwinkle jacket. both permanent and those required during installation. Thus modifications can be made to redistribute structural stresses and loads at "supports" to optimise both and ensure that neither the cranes nor the structure can be overloaded during erection.e. Weldout at least sufficient to allow crane release. a structural analysis computer programme is used for this purpose. Frequently. bogies. etc. For the Magnus platform and Bouri DP3. Transport assembly to lift location.8 Lecture 15A. Removal of rigging and temporary attachments. 5. The analysis will indicate where bending stresses are high and/or crane. As a general principle.9: Installation. The calculations should show that global and local stresses are within allowable limits according to API/AISC codes. Such jackets may be lifted onto the barge or skidded out. one of the world's largest.e. Coordinating such a rigging and lifting operation requires thoroughly developed threedimensional layouts. The load-out operations are covered in Lecture 15A. as much of the execution as possible should be undertaken in the early phases of fabrication. adequate temporary pads and braces must be provided under the columns to distribute the loads for skidding. rigging accessories. Jacket frames are typically laid out flat and then rolled using multiple crawler cranes. The structural analysis associated with the erection procedure for a given assembly usually involves a computer model with all relevant structural characteristics. Here the jacket horizontal levels were fabricated. Twenty four cranes were involved in the two major side frame lifts during the erection of platform Cerveza. Jackets destined for deeper water are usually erected on their side. sections of the jacket were fabricated in Japan. when the panel is being transported and when it is in horizontal and vertical attitudes. In general.8 analysed for a number of load cases which correspond (approximately) to the support conditions of the assembly at its presumed critical attitudes. a different procedure known as "toast rack" was used. which was 300m long. The assembly is • Jacket structural completion is followed by a short phase during which all the jacket systems. The structural analysis for lift/transport identifies the worst cases from the point of view of structural response. • • Preparation of fixing system and wind bracing (usually done by means of guy wires and turnbuckles). transported by barge to Texas and assembled using jacking towers which rolled up the sections to heights as great as 140m. bogie or support loads inadmissible. The specifications for fabrication of offshore jackets are determined by the designer and are usually based on one or more of the well known codes. In this latter case.Lecture 15A. the preference is to lift the jacket in place. Page 15 of 22 Page 16 of 22 .

6. Assembled. and are not product standards. All aspects of a company's activities are covered in the standards including:- Design Contract Review Documentation Control Management Responsibility Purchasing Corrective Action Quality Records Management Review/Audits QA Management Complexity Product Traceability Process Control Inspection/Testing Calibration of Equipment Control of Non-Conformances Handling/Storage/Delivery Training Etc.8 • • Shop fabricated sub-assemblies and hose items are incorporated into assemblies which constitute the major lifts of the erection sequence. Engineering design principles and practices that have evolved during the development of offshore oil resources. Standard for Quality Systems Management.1-88. 7. The overall programme for a jacket construction. ADDITIONAL READING [1] Det Norkse Veritas Marine Operations Recommended Practice RP5 . REFERENCES [1] API RP2A. Consider the documentation which is expected to flow from one location to another in respect to a single node. together with loose items. ISO 9000/EN 29000. NDT. All jacket welding and weld procedure qualifications are required by the API code to be undertaken in accordance with this code. [3] Det Norske Veritas. It is difficult to fully appreciate the scope of documentation on a jacket construction project. Because the standards deal with the quality system.Lecture 15A. From the time the plate is manufactured until it is located in the final structure. they are applicable to many sectors of industry including offshore construction. are incorporated into the final structure in a sequence which takes account of structural analyses of bending stresses. These standards set down the requirements that a soundly based quality management system must fulfil if it is to assist in properly defining and controlling product quality. Page 17 of 22 Page 18 of 22 . Lecture 15A. bogie and support loads. [2] AISC Specification for the Design. Based on Lloyd's experience from certification of over 500 platforms world-wide. 1989. Recommended Practice for Planning. and crane. Rules for the Design. latest edition.Lifting (June 1985). a dossier must be compiled. API code refers to this specification for calculations of basic allowable stresses of all jacket members. latest edition. shows that there are a very considerable number of offshore activities in many different locations within a very short period of time. They apply in any situation where management wish to adopt a clearly defined policy and an orderly approach to providing a quality product. [2] AWS Structural Welding Code AWS D1. Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Fixed Offshore Installations. 1977. The evaluation of the performance of such a range of activities and at a number of centres is a major QA/QC undertaking. Rules for construction and installation of steel jackets as required by DNV. Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings. Principles and good practice for offshore heavy lifts. [4] Lloyd's Register of Shipping. is recognised as the accepted standard in such situations.8 APPENDIX 1 Quality Assurance and Quality Control It is becoming increasingly common for operators to specify that the quality of construction for offshore structures be controlled by a recognised quality system management standard. Construction and Inspection of Offshore Structures. sub-assembled and fabricated structures. Designing and Construction of Fixed Offshore Installations. This documentation could commence with copies of certificates from the steel plate manufacturer and progress through several welding.

risers. Management of Jacket Completion Onshore. the anodes. several must be individually inspected.). launch runners. Construction Procedures/Specifications are also required (e. More recently with the advent of QA. For this reason it is important that agreement is reached at an early stage as to the individual items which require identification. the underwriters normally agree to insure the plant during its Clearly this is necessary on some items. culminating in the issue of a Release Note at the node fabrication shop. steel.g. This certification is also almost invariably required by the state authorities in whose waters the plant is installed. These documents may be useful during maintenance of the platform enabling many in-service problems to be traced to abnormalities which occurred during construction. Each plate inevitably becomes an individual as it is allocated a unique number corresponding to a Material Utilisation Schedule or Cutting Plan. the origin of each and every item can be traced back to a material certificate which in turn corresponds to a set of test/chemical composition etc. welds. e. etc.g. fabrication method/sequence. certification requires that the CA carry out independent surveillance to ensure that the standards chosen for the project are satisfactory and that the project is performed in accordance with them.000 items. Pile Installation Procedure. grout lines. It is normally performed by one of the traditional ship classification societies known as the Certifying Authority (CA).8 Certification On most offshore projects. at any stage of construction. Each of these must be welded.) in addition to a vast number of weld procedure specifications and qualifications. post-weld heat treatment along with the more obvious welding and NDT procedures and Inspection Plans.g. Procedure for Ultrasonic Testing of welds at Jacket Yard. forming.8 dimensional control phases at a number of successive locations. pre-heating. NDT Certificates for the jacket primary structure. the walkways on top of the jacket.) and Control Procedures (e. Typically hundreds of procedures/specifications must be developed by jacket subcontractors. Much more could be done to structure such documentation in such a way that it would really be of help throughout the platform life. operating life provided it is designed. the CA satisfies himself that the manner in which the construction is being managed and performed (based on incomplete but comprehensive inspection) is likely to lead to a satisfactory product. The primary object of material control is to ensure that. Even if the number of specific procedures required from each subcontractor is minimised.an enormous task. the certification function can mean audits of the construction so that. etc. Formerly this meant that the CA inspected every activity likely to influence the adequacy of the final product . Jacket Assembly and Erection Procedure. as contained in the Data Dossier. rather than inspect everything. In actual practice it has proven to be very difficult to make all materials really traceable. Construction of a large jacket typically involves thousands of steel plates. Lecture 15A. etc. a fabrication subcontractor will still be required to develop procedure and specifications for the following typical functions/activities: subcontract organisation. that these be kept to a minimum and that the identification system be simple. In the widest sense.g. Consider for instance the number of welds in a complex buoyancy tank. Dimensional Control Procedure for Node Fabrication at factory etc. However. material control. Procedures and Specifications Within the Contractor's organisation QA/QC procedures must be developed for the project. many of which will be specifically for jacket construction. These are divided into Management Procedures (e. Management of Non Conformities. it constitutes less than half of the total documentation produced for a complete jacket.Lecture 15A. constructed and maintained to predetermined standards and certified as such. procedures for cutting. Table 1 Jacket Construction Phases and Characteristics Phase Work Centre Efficiency Quality Variability Increasing Increasing Increasing Risk Engineering Procurement Fabrication Assembly and Erection Loadout and Seafastening Transport and Installation Office Factory Fabrication Shop Decreasing Decreasing Decreasing Increasing Increasing Increasing Yard Site Decreasing Increasing Increasing Transition Decreasing Increasing Increasing Offshore Site Decreasing Increasing Increasing Page 19 of 22 Page 20 of 22 . However the requirement to produce sophisticated documentation in respect of each is questionable. etc. The individual number of pieces of plate could be in excess of 20. voluminous as this documentation may be. welder qualifications and inspection plans.

Lecture 15A.8

Lecture 15A.8

5 Table 2 Jacket Construction Engineering: Typical Organisation of Contractor's Technical Documents No. 1 Document Series Shop Drawings, Cutting Plan Group or Individual Subject Title Welding standards, nodes, tubulars, piles, pile sleeves, clusters, conductor guide frames, launch runners, buoyancy tanks, cathodic protection system, protective coating systems, risers, j-tubes, caissons, boat landings, boat bumpers, walkways, grouting systems, ballasting system, installation aids, as-built drawings. 2 Method and Temporary Subassemblies, assemblies, supports, access, 8 7 6


Testing, commissioning and preparation of jacket for tow. Load-out manuals - jacket piles, topsides. Installation manuals - jacket, piles, topsides.

Weld Procedures

For each location - weld procedures - repair procedures.




Quay design, skidway design, mooring system design, soil improvement spec., skidding system spec., dredging spec., transportation of jacket and piles, buoyancy tanks, jacket launching and emplacement, on-bottom stability, pile driveability, jacket levelling study.

and Specifications

Works Drawings

scaffolding, lifting and transportation onshore, test and commission, identification. Onshore construction accessories. Offshore installation (preparation, lifting, launching, anchor patterns etc.). Offshore installation accessories (tools, guides, access, handling etc.). transportation,

Engineering Meetings

Normally held at critical phases of construction at the various construction locations.


Fabrication, Assembly and Erection

Fabrication/welding sequence (for principal items), forming, bending, stress relieving, coating, assembly and erection, temporary and secondary attachments, lifting and transporting, jackdown, weight control, settlement control, jacket weighing.

10 distribution points, and hold technical and

Inspection plan

Steel supply (at each supplier). Fabrication of typical jacket and pile components (at relevant centres). Assembly and erection.


Quality Procedures


Documentation approval, material

identification, and

witness control,

modifications and non-conformance management, material identification traceability, procurement and subcontracting, weld parameter control, management of specific problem areas. 4 Quality Control Procedures NDT methods (visual, UT, x-ray, dye penetrant, MPI), dimensional control, destructive testing methods, NDT operator training and qualification, calibration of inspection equipment, pressure testing, miscellaneous testing. 11 Technical Resolutions Proposals and

Technical Clarification Requests ) Technical Relaxation Requests ) Possible at every Major Non-Conformance Reports ) Phase of location Minor Non-Conformance Reports ) of the Project.


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Lecture 15A.9

Lecture 15A.9

OBJECTIVE To describe the general methods of jacket installation. To discuss the various stages of operation from loadout through offshore positioning and installation, including construction practices and equipment. To indicate the calculations normally involved. PREREQUISITES Lectures 15A.1: Offshore Structures: General Introduction RELATED LECTURES Lectures 3.1: General Fabrication of Steel Structures Lectures 3.2: Erection Lecture 3.3: Principles of Welding Lecture 3.4: Welding Processes Lectures 15A: Structural Systems: Offshore SUMMARY The phases of installation of a steel jacket - loadout, seafastening, offshore transportation and installation - are described and the associated analyses are indicated. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Project Phases A steel jacket installation usually consists of the following project phases: Loadout - Comprises the movement of the completed structure onto the barge which will transport it offshore. Seafastening - Comprises fitting and welding sufficient structure between the structure and the barge to prevent the jacket shifting during transit to the offshore site. Offshore Transportation - Comprises the tow to the location offshore and arrival of the barge at the offshore site with the seafastened structure.

Installation - Comprises the series of activities required to place the structure in the final offshore location. These activities include jacket lift and upending, positioning, pile installation, jacket levelling and grouting, together with support services for these activities. 1.2 Construction Philosophy In deciding how best to fabricate (i.e. vertical or on its side) and install (i.e. lifted, launched or self-floating) a given jacket, the options are principally determined by the installation equipment available and the jacket's intended water depth. In general, the preference is to lift the jacket into location. The motivation for this installation method, rather than the more traditional barge-launching, is a reluctance to spend money on jacket steelwork which will only be used during the temporary installation phase. The size of such lifted jackets has been increasing as offshore lifting capacity has grown. With modern lifting capacity now up to 14000 tonnes (see Table 1), jackets approaching this order of magnitude are now candidates for lifting into position. Figure 1 shows how the 6000 tonne jacket for the Kittiwake field in the North Sea was lifted from the barge into the water and up-ended in a continuous operation, ending with the jacket on the seabed ready for piling. The advantage of this approach is that the jacket, being lowered into the water, does not require the launch frames necessary for launching from a barge. Also, since the weight of the jacket is taken by the cranes throughout, there is no need for special buoyancy tanks and deballasting systems.

Page 1 of 19

Page 2 of 19

Lecture 15A.9

Lecture 15A.9

Jackets destined for deeper water are heavier and are usually erected on their side and launched from a barge (Figure 2). This method of construction is currently applicable for jackets up to 25000 tonnes. A launched jacket usually requires additional buoyancy tanks with extensive pipework and valving to enable the legs and tanks to be flooded in order to ballast the jacket into the vertical position on site. For instance, in the case of the Brae 'B' jacket (a large 19000 tonne jacket installed in 100m water depth in the North Sea) it was necessary to provide 11000 tonnes of additional buoyancy. This buoyancy was primarily to limit the jacket trajectory through launch (i.e. to stop it hitting the sea bed) but was also essential for maintaining bottom clearance during up-ending. The additional buoyancy took the form of two 'saddle' tanks, two pairs of twin 'piggy-bank tanks' and twelve 'cigar' tubes installed down the pile guides (Figure 3). Altogether the auxiliary buoyancy added about 3,300 tonnes additional weight to the jacket.

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Page 4 of 19

Normally therefore the contractor is obliged to produce procedures for these activities which demonstrate that the risk of failure has been reduced to acceptable levels. He is also required to demonstrate that. and installed on location by means of controlled flooding of the legs (see Figure 4).9 Lecture 15A. towed offshore subsequent to flooding the dock. seafastening and transporting the structure to the installation site. positioning the jacket on the site and achieving a stable structure in accordance with the design drawings and specifications. in anticipation of installation of the platform topsides. in excess of launch capacity. It is recognised that the potential cost to the project associated with failure to successfully execute marine activities is particularly high. 1.3 Installation Planning The installation of a jacket consists of loading out.Lecture 15A. Page 5 of 19 Page 6 of 19 .9 Very large jackets. all the necessary preparations have been completed. An important aspect is the avoidance of unacceptable risk during offshore activities from loadout through to platform completion. prior to the commencement of an activity. have been constructed as self-floaters in a graving dock.

grease on hardwood. Quality management is a vital and integral component of all offshore installation projects.Lecture 15A. Depending on the complexity of the installation. etc. are they accurately aligned and supported so they won't kick out during loadout? Have the pull lines. shackles and installation aids.g. which can span between points of support. detailed procedures and instructions may be needed for special items such as grouting. Then. Is the launch barge securely moored to the loadout dock. are there clear paint marks so that each step can be clearly identified? Page 7 of 19 Page 8 of 19 . are ballasting arrangements adequate? Will ballast be adjusted as the weight of the jacket goes onto the barge? Are there proper controls? Is there an adequate standby ballast system? Are there back-up systems to pull the jacket back to shore if anything goes wrong during loadout? If the ballast correction is to be made iteratively. the jacket is supported on the skid ways. In addition. Allowable static and dynamic stresses in the barge hull and framing due to loadout. Limitations on the various operations due to factors such as environmental conditions.9 Initial friction of the jacket on the skid ways may be as high as 15 per cent. transportation and installation. e. The engineering input into an offshore installation project also involves the design of all temporary bracing. or the US Coast Guard. as well as barge arrangements and tie-down details. During loadout. It is equally applicable to an offshore installation project. rigging. Jackets which have been fabricated on their side are usually loaded by skidding the entire structure onto a cargo or launch barge. especially if the jacket has been erected with its weight bearing continuously on the skid way. specifications and procedures must be prepared showing all the pertinent information necessary for construction of the total facility on location at sea. If compression struts are used between the barge skid ways and those on shore. etc. shackles.9 An installation plan must be prepared for each installation. For a barge which floats during the loadout. the ballast system must be capable of compensating the changes in tide and loading. the jacket is lowered onto the skid ways. In the case of a barge which will be grounded during loadout.e. e. Values of sliding friction as low as 3 per cent are usually attained. To reduce the sliding friction. stabbing points. Lecture 15A. are used. valving and controls of the flotation system. lifting capacity. drawings showing launching. without the use of a derrick barge. In some cases the jacket is initially fabricated slightly above the skid ways using hydraulic or sand jacks. The installation plan is normally subdivided into phases.. at the time of loadout. The barge should be of adequate size and structural strength to ensure that the stability and static and dynamic stresses in the barge and seafastenings due to the loading operation and during transportation remain within acceptable limits. seafastening. must be defined. Can the barge be properly ballasted? If the tide will vary during loadout. piles. barge stability. so that it won't move out during the loading? Is the barge properly moored against sideways movement? 3. Is the jacket complete? Has the structure been analysed for loadout stresses on the basis of the actual structure as fabricated at the time of loadout? 2. seafastenings. etc. LOADOUT AND SEAFASTENING Loadout entails the movement of the completed structure onto the barge which will transport it offshore.8 : Fabrication. Seafastening entails fitting and welding sufficient ties between the jacket and the barge to prevent the jacket shifting while in transit to the offshore site. A simplified check list for the operations relating to jacket loadout might be: 1. 9 of Lecture 15A. slings. launch runners or trusses. The plan will include the method and procedures developed for the loadout. For jackets installed by flotation or launching. usually on two inner legs of the jacket. diving. etc. These must be designed in accordance with an approved offshore design code. These drawings typically include details of all inspection aids such as lifting eyes. superstructure and equipment. etc. A general note on Quality Assurance for Offshore Construction is appended to Lecture 15A. see Fig. adequate temporary pads and braces must be provided under the columns to distribute the loads during skidding. The jacket must be loaded in such a manner that the barge is in a balanced and stable condition. or heavy lubricating oil on steel. the barge must have sufficient structural strength to distribute the concentrated deck loads to the supporting foundation material. and pad eyes been inspected to ensure they are properly installed and can't foul during loadout? 4.1. jacking brackets. loadout. The legs function as the bottom chord of a large truss. details are also provided for piping. The barge must also have the capability to launch the jacket. Barge stability can be determined in accordance with regulations such as those published by Noble Denton. transportation and launching must not be exceeded. seafastening and transportation and for the complete installation of the jacket. in the same attitude as the final installation. especially when part of the jacket is on the barge and part still on the skid ways. welding inspections. up-ending and flotation procedures must be prepared. step-by-step as the jacket is loaded. Where jackets are fabricated in the vertical.g. API RP2A [1]. if this is required. i. It is usual in this case to load out on a rising tide so that the tide assists the ballast system. or even fibre-filled Teflon faced pads. The American Bureau of Shipping. they may be lifted onto the barge or skidded out. 2. Installation drawings. In this latter case.

Seafastenings are installed after loadout and must be completed prior to sailaway. During loadout.9 5. the large tug and the much larger barge/jacket. and indeed Page 9 of 19 Lecture 15A. the requirement in the Mediterranean is typically that the main tug should maintain station against a 20 metre/second wind. The draft and freeboard will have been carefully selected to maximise stability. Thus the departure is normally subject to strict weather forecast conditions for a period which assumes that the speed of the tow is between 1 and 2 knots for the first 100 nautical miles from the coast. Weather forecasting is provided throughout the tow so that. In determining this criteria. It is especially so in the case of the jacket since the behaviour of the unit usually influences the verification of barge strength. impact must be minimised. close control is essential in order to avoid the possibility of running aground. many tanks will be partially full. in order to control deck elevation and trim. therefore. Thus it is standard practice to lengthen the towline once out of the port. calculations should be performed to demonstrate that freeing is not required by the reballasting procedure. tow route. the towline may break. e.g. particularly for larger structures. to be considered. a favourable 48-hour weather forecast is required. They are major structural systems. For instance. ballasting the barge to obtain the required draft and trim should preferably be done at the dock side before seafastenings are attached. Tug selection involves such considerations as length of tow route. There are several reasons for this. a pre-arranged port of refuge may be sought. If one scheme of ballasting is to be used for a sheltered channel tow and another for the open sea. Force 5 and decreasing. etc. Large jacket launch and cargo barges are relatively flexible structures in that the jacket structure is normally (much) stiffer. trim will be adjusted to optimise tow speed and give directional stability during tow. They should also be designed to facilitate easy removal on location. the reliability of the short term weather forecast should be considered. Have clear lines of supervision and control been established? Are the voice radio channels checked? Have the marine surveyors been notified so that they can be present? Owner's representatives? Certifying Authority? Have their approvals been received? Once the jacket is on the barge. Seafastenings are normally subject to the same code requirements for fabrication as the jacket. Ballast tanks should normally either be full or completely empty. 3. In the harbour area a big tug can normally exercise very little control even with a shortened towline. As a minimum the tugs should be capable of maintaining station in a 15 metre/second wind with accompanying waves. 5. Therefore. alternatively.e. The so-called dynamic stability of wind overturning criteria Page 10 of 19 . Since the loads are dynamic. because of the nature of many ports. the risk of snapping is high. The tug must have sufficient time to pick up the emergency towline and control the barge before it drifts into shallow water. to eliminate free surface and sloshing effects. the sensitivity of the dynamic analysis will usually warrant verification by model testing. Also. as a minimum. Once the tow is under way. However. However. proximity of safe harbours and the anticipated weather conditions and sea states.9 the design of the jacket itself. However. the barge must be ballasted for transportation. The size and power requirements of the towing vessels and the design of the towing arrangement must be calculated or determined from past experience. if exceptional weather threatens. this criterion depends on the location. When the barge is out of the port the problems are not totally solved since it must be assumed that the worst can happen. Usually the barge will be trimmed down by the stern. The behaviour of the jacket seafastened to the barge must be satisfactory both from the point of view of static and dynamic stability. these considerations are no longer relevant and the tanks can be ballasted to suit the demands of the sea voyage. the design of seafastenings. With a short towline between two considerable masses. The intact static stability criteria usually adopted is that the righting arm be positive throughout a range of 36 about any axis.5 metre/second current.0m significant sea-state and 0. Accordingly. Both are verified by means of numerical analyses. and especially to minimise submersion of projecting members of the jacket during the tow and the consequent slamming. Seafastenings should be attached to the jacket only at locations approved by the designer. Also there are the practical aspects of tug selection. Experience has shown that the first phase of transportation is the most treacherous. the seafastenings should be freed during the reballasting to avoid imposing undue stresses on the jacket legs or. When the barge is on the high seas it must be assumed that it can encounter conditions which are "as bad as could have been statistically foreseen". buoyancy and collapse forces. They should be attached to the barge at locations which are capable of distributing the load to the barge internal framing. Consequently. with the jacket fully supported on the barge.Lecture 15A. subjected to both static and dynamic loads. OFFSHORE TRANSPORTATION The transportation of heavy components from a fabrication yard to the offshore site is a critical activity. the gravity and inertial forces involved must be calculated for all anticipated barge accelerations and angles of roll and pitch during the design sea conditions adopted for the tow (usually the 10-year return storm for that season and location). Normally. i. the harbour tugs take the barge out under the guidance of a pilot who knows the port. acting simultaneously.

The jacket is then pulled along the barge skid ways (which were used for loadout) by winches. OFFSHORE INSTALLATION Lecture 15A. the seafastening securing the jacket to the barge is cut. A jacket launch naval analysis is required in order to: • • • • • ensure that an adequate sliding velocity is maintained during the rocker arm rotation. With heavy jackets in shallow water it may be necessary to launch the jacket in deep water at some distance from the installation location and tow the jacket to site. All of these considerations reflect static properties of the jacket and barge.1 Removal of Jacket from Barge Unless a jacket is a self floater. but nevertheless true. This is achieved by adding buoyancy tanks. the barge start to tilt and a point is reached when the jacket is self sliding. The jacket weight was 14. Further movement causes the rocker arm and jacket to rotate. it must first be removed from the transportation barge. There are two basic methods used: • • launch lift momentum of the jacket. This requires the jacket to be water tight.000 tonnes and was being installed in 105 metres of water. The jacket will then slide under its own self weight into the water. Various stages in the launch of a jacket are shown in Figure 1a to 1d. This can be achieved either by strengthening those members which might be over-stressed by the launching operation. define operational requirements during launch. An initial tilt to the barge may have been provided by ballasting immediately prior to launch. Once launched the jacket must float with a reserve of buoyancy in order to stop the downward This section is concerned with the stages of jacket installation commencing with removal of the jacket from the barge to its placing on the sea bed and temporary on-bottom stability. However. for a large jacket. The plots shown in Figures 1a to 1d are extracted from such an analysis. A stern trim of approximately 5 is usually aimed for. As the jacket moves along the skid ways its centre of gravity reaches a point where it is vertically above the rocker arm pivot. The jacket must be designed and fabricated to withstand the stresses caused by the launch. In considering the motions of the jacket and barge it is intuitively plausible that roll will be the most problematical motion (from the point of view of body accelerations) and that the largest roll will be caused by a beam sea. the energy which tends to overturn the barge is at least 40% less than that which is available due to the inherent righting stability of the barge. Buoyancy tanks from previous launches are often used. 4. the roll will diminish and if the barge is set at a (much) deeper draft. the barge selection process is normally performed at a very early stage of the design process. The analysis showed that it should take approximately 2 minutes between start of self sliding (Figure 1a) and the jacket reaching its final floating position (Figure 1d). that if the barge width and. It is common practice to gain additional buoyancy by sealing jacket legs and pile sleeves with removable rubber diaphragms. check the stability of the jacket during launch and when free floating. to a lesser extent the length. determine the jacket behaviour during launch. are reduced. there is frequently a need for even more buoyancy. Lecture 15A. the roll will also diminish. 4. including ballast configuration. These need to be removable and are located where they give most benefit. or designing into the jacket a special truss. The launch of a jacket is clearly a critical phase in the life of the jacket. It may be less obvious. Thus.1. 4. Page 11 of 19 Page 12 of 19 . Thus a jacket will generally be designed from the outset for installation by a specific barge.9 The skid ways terminate in rocker arms at the stern of the barge. Spacing between jacket members or launch trusses will be dictated by the spacing between launch skid ways. Considerable design effort is required in order to ensure that the launch sequence is feasible. commonly referred to as a launch truss.9 simply ensure that for a given wind. Once in the water the self floating jacket is brought under control with lines from tugs and/or the installation vessel. Immediately prior to launch.6: Foundations covers the subject of pile installation. As the jacket moves towards the stern of the barge.1 Launch The launch site is normally at or near the installation location.Lecture 15A. Improvements can occasionally be made by choosing a narrower barge (although obviously stability will suffer) or increasing the draft (although in this case stability may again suffer and parts of the structure which were previously 'dry' may now be subjected to 'slamming'). verify that the trajectory followed has a safe seabed clearance. Incorrect "balancing" of these aspects can have very serious cost/risk implications in overall project terms.

1. Two cranes will normally be used. reducing hook loads. the weight of lifting slings need to be considered. e. In more moderate waters they are often flat bottomed barges. They also have sophisticated computer controlled ballast systems to keep the vessel level during lifting operations. This results in part of the jacket being buoyant. The natural period of large installation vessels in roll. careful control and phasing with barge and crane vessel motions is required in order to ensure that once the jacket is lifted clear of the barge it does not hit the barge as a subsequent wave passes through. Up-ending may be achieved by controlled flooding of buoyancy tanks. When considering a tandem lift it should be noted that it is unlikely that both hooks will carry the same load. This installation vessel will also be used to help position the jacket. In this case the flooding system involved 42 primary and 22 contingency subsea valves under direct hydraulic control.. In intermediate environments. A second form of lift is the buoyancy assisted lift. In addition to lift capacity. However. The barge will normally be controlled by tugs. the barge is removed by tugs. the Gulf of Mexico. The large semi-submersible crane vessels used in the North Sea have full dynamic positioning systems for locating themselves on site.2 Lift An increasing number of jackets are being installed by direct lift. pitch and heave tend to be close to the typical peak periods of the sea spectra encountered offshore.Lecture 15A. Up-ending of the jacket will then normally proceed directly. Once the jacket is lifted clear of the barge. In this case the barge is flooded and hence submerged. Upending is therefore achieved by controlled flooding. A small installation vessel will usually be required for the installation of piles once the jacket has been set-down. the "best attitude" is not always possible since it depends on the work that the vessel is required to perform. these contributing as much as 7% of the lift weight. Buoyancy tanks may be added to the jacket if required. In this case no up-ending is required and installation is straight forward. Accordingly vessel operators perform extensive studies to determine permissible sea states for specific operations and vessel captains invariably "experiment" with different headings in a particular sea in order to minimise motions and maximise workability. This can further reduce the apparent lift capacity.2 Jacket Up-ending and Set-down Unless a jacket is transported and lifted in its upright position. The nitrogen power source and associated control panels were contained in watertight capsules. These motions therefore predominate.2. so this is used as the platform from which to control the various flooding operations. During a lift the ballast system is also used to counteract heel and increase hoisting and lowering speeds during the crucial lift-off and set-down operations. Finally. The first stages in lifting a jacket from the transportation barge involve positioning the barge In a direct lift the jacket is lifted off the barge completely in air. Lecture 15A. The next stage is to transfer the weight of the jacket from the barge to the crane. Another factor tending to increase direct lift jackets are savings in weight that are being achieved in jacket design. The jacket is then allowed to rotate until all legs are equally flooded as in Page 13 of 19 Page 14 of 19 . it is normal for the installation vessel to be correctly moored and positioned so that up-ending and set-down may proceed as one integral lift operation. Deep water jackets will in general be lifted on their side. The selection of a suitable installation vessel is clearly essential. It should also be noted that cranes are frequently guyed back to give maximum lift capacity and carry less load if they are revolving.9 4. In the harsh North Sea environments installation vessels are usually semi-submersibles such as the Micoperi 7000. More water line tanks are flooded in step 2 until by step 3 the upper frame of the jacket reaches waterline and may also be flooded. by using a crane vessel or by a combination of both. Normally this means that beam seas should be avoided since this excites roll and connecting the slings to the hook. and that the maximum permissible jacket weight will be less than the sum of the two crane capacities. This trend has been encouraged by the availability of large crane vessels such as the Micoperi 7000.g. Figure 4 shows a sequence of sketches indicating how a self floating jacket is upended. The general requirement here is to lift as rapidly as possible. 4. However. Figure 3 shows a sketch of the Brae 'B' jacket showing the auxiliary buoyancy tanks.9 which is the most disruptive motion. ship-shaped vessels may be used. Curves showing load capacity against lifting radius are shown in Figure 2. it will be necessary to up-end the jacket at the installation location. Once everything is ready for lift to proceed the seafastenings will be cut. noting that large derrick barges such as the Micoperi 7000 are fitted with two cranes as standard. The same lift procedure is adopted in both a direct and buoyancy assisted lift. In step 1 the waterline compartments at one end of the jacket are flooded. 4. When the jacket is to be removed from the transportation barge by lifting.1 Up-ending by Ballast control and Flooding A large crane vessel will not normally be required for either a launched or self-floating jacket. it is also necessary to consider stability and motion response characteristics. Shallow water jackets may be lifted in the vertical position.

as shown in Figure 6.2.2 Up-ending using the crane vessel Figure 5 shows the simplest use of a crane to up-end and set-down a jacket. This is acceptable for jackets that are launched. Although two crane hooks are shown in Figure 6. In this case the main and auxiliary hooks are used together. This may require closures to legs and some additional buoyancy. that the necessary rotation between slings and jacket can occur. This requires special padears so The up-ending of a launched jacket will be similar to that shown in Figure 4. An increasing trend is to install a jacket over an existing well or wells.Lecture 15A. The jacket may then be up-ended as shown in Figure 5. Contingency procedures and equipment must be provided. the same template being used to position the jacket. Careful naval analysis is also required in order to carefully determine hook loads and to ensure that the jacket remains stable. Perhaps the straightest forward is to lower the jacket into the water so that it floats. For horizontally oriented jackets that are lifted directly the procedure is more involved. The crane and ballasting operations need to be clearly defined before the operation begins. for example the main hook taking the weight of the jacket with the auxiliary hook providing the upending force. Lecture 15A. A feature of these analyses is the need to consider what happens in the event of buoyancy tanks being accidentally flooded. it should be noted that for light weight jackets it is possible to up-end using a single crane. Since the lifting points are submerged divers may be required to disconnect the slings from the jacket. This involves careful naval analysis of the free floating position of the jacket at various stages during the up-ending procedure. A horizontally lifted jacket may be upended in one of two ways.9 new slings attached at the top of the jacket. It is necessary to ensure that the well heads are protected from damage due to accidental contact with the jacket. The main difference is that there may be less excess buoyancy with which to control the operation. 4. Further flooding of the jacket as in step 6 will enable the jacket to be lowered onto the sea bed in a controlled manner.9 step 4. Page 15 of 19 Page 16 of 19 . A second method is to up-end directly. may be used to up-end and set-down the jacket. Slings can then be removed and Once up-ended the jacket can be set-down on the sea-bed. or of flooding valves failing to operate. In this case a combination of flooding and lift. The jackets natural position will then be floating upright as in step 5. as shown in Figure 5. A pre-drilling template will have been used to position the wells.

AISC Specification for the Design. Assuming installation to occur in the summer months. This is a result of long term weather forecasting being less reliable than short term forecasting. offshore transportation and installation offshore. These can influence launch and installation dynamics. A separate on-bottom stability analysis is therefore carried out. Since most piles are inclined.Lecture 15A. This should be the maximum statistical wave which may occur prior to piling being completed. AWS Structural Welding Code AWS D1.loadout. These will penetrate some distance under self weight providing additional sliding resistance. Loadout entails the movement of the completed structure onto the barge which will transport it offshore. Another option frequently used is to stab a number of piles as soon as the Lecture 15A. levelling should take place after a minimum number of piles have been driven by jacking or lifting. In this instance procedures should be used to minimise bending stresses in the piles.9 jacket is set-down. care should be exercised to maintain grade and levelness of the jacket during subsequent operations. It is necessary for the jacket to be stable and level during piling. seafastening. REFERENCES [1] API RP2A. Det Norske Veritas Marine Operations Recommended Practice RP5 . Page 17 of 19 Page 18 of 19 . 2. If necessary. Engineering design principles and practices that have evolved during the development of offshore oil resources. Construction and Inspection of Offshore Structures. and in silty or clay soils can allow nominal tension loading to resist overturning. Levelling the jacket after all piles have been installed should be avoided if at all possible as it is costly and frequently ineffective. Recommended Practice for Planning. For example. 5. 3. However. In deciding how best to fabricate and install a given jacket. 6. (3) stability against overturning under wave/current loading. 4. Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings. Once level. Det Norske Veritas. In these circumstances mudmats with skirts may be used. Principles and good practice for offshore heavy lifts. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • • There are broadly four phases to the installation of a steel jacket . Rules for construction and installation of steel jackets as required by DNV. Designing and Construction of Fixed Offshore Installations. this far into the installation procedure the weather and hence sea conditions may be detioriating. A number of engineering studies are required for jacket launch and set-down. with good soil conditions the jacket may be able to be supported directly on existing jacket steel with no extra provision made. However.1-88.Lifting (June 1985). • • • • An installation plan must be prepared for each installation. Three conditions need to be met: (1) vertical resistance to jacket weight and piling loads. API code refers to this specification for calculation of basic allowable stresses of all jacket members. Skirts considerably improve the resistance to sliding. height and on sea-bed soil conditions. 1977. it is normal for piling to proceed as rapidly as possible. Removal of the jacket from the barge is accomplished either by direct lifting with a derrick barge and lowering into position. The provisions that need to be made to ensure on-bottom stability vary greatly depending on jacket location. It should also be noted that any problems encountered during the installation procedure will result in delay and that it may be some time before the jacket is adequately fixed to the sea bed by piling. or by launching.9 Once set-down the jacket should be positioned at or near grade and levelled within the tolerances specified in the installation plan. For many jackets it is not possible to achieve stability against sliding and overturning using flat mudmats. ADDITIONAL READING 1. latest edition. latest edition. a typical criteria may be a 1 year summer storm wave. the piles also provide a degree of resistance to over turning. (2) stability against sliding under wave/current loading. The transportation of heavy components from a fabrication yard to the offshore site is a critical activity requiring careful calculation and planning. All jacket welding and weld procedure qualifications are required by the API code to be undertaken in accordance with this code. the options are principally determined by the installation equipment available and the jacket's intended water depth. Rules for the Design. 4. 7.3 On-bottom Stability Once set-down on the sea bed. with poor soil conditions large 'mudmats' may be required in order to spread the load. Seafastening entails fitting and welding sufficient ties between the jacket and the barge to prevent shifting while in transit to the offshore site. In carrying out the above analyses it is necessary to use an appropriate sea-state to generate hydro-dynamic loading.

Lloyds Register of Shipping. 1989.9 5. Page 19 of 19 . Based on Lloyd's experience from certification of over 500 platforms world-wide. Table 1 Major Offshore Crane Vessels Operator Name Type Mode Fix Lifting Capacity 2720 1820 2720 2450 4536 + 3628 = 8164 3630 + 2720 = 6350 3630 + 2720 = 6350 3000 + 2000 = 5000 4000 3800 1820 1450 3360 2450 6000 + 6000 = 12000 7000 + 7000 = 14000 Thor Monohull Rev Fix Odin Heerema Monohull Rev Fix Hermod Semisub Rev Fix Balder Semisub Rev Fix DB50 Monohull Rev Fix DB100 McDermott Semisub Rev Fix DB101 Semisub Rev DB102 Micoperi M7000 Semisub Semisub Rev Rev Notes: 1.Lecture 15A. Rated lifting capacity in metric tonnes 2. Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Fixed Offshore Installations. When the crane vessels are provided with two cranes. these are situated at the vessels stern at approximately 60m distance etc.

3.Lecture 15A.Offshore SUMMARY The topside lay-out is discussed.4: Steel Grades and Qualities Lecture 2. to introduce the structural concepts for jacket and gravity based structure (GBS) topsides. helideck.1: General Fabrication of Steel Structures Lecture 6. Floor concepts are presented and several aspects of the plate floor design are addressed. equipment. and to general aspects of interface control and weight control.6: Built-up Columns Lectures 8. see Figures 1 and 2.2: Welded Connections Lecture 12. and safety.5: Selection of Steel Quality Lectures 3. 2. microwave tower. The different types of topside structures (relevant to the type of substructure.2: Advanced Introduction to Fatigue Lectures 15A: Structural Systems . 1. logistics.10 Superstructures I OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To introduce the functional requirements. Page 1 of 21 Page 2 of 21 . referring to API-RP2G [1].3: Elastic Instability Modes Lecture 7. jacket or GBS) are introduced and described. to elaborate on structural design for deck floors.10 Lecture 15A. The topside of an offshore structure accommodates the equipment and supports modules and accessories such as living quarters. and crane pedestals.4: Plate Girder Behaviour & Design Lectures 11. The structural concept for the deck is influenced greatly by the type of substructure (jacket or GBS) and the method of construction. module support frame. to identify major interfaces with the process. integrated deck. modules. flare stack or flare boom. PREREQUISITES Lectures 1A & 1B: Steel Construction Lecture 2. INTRODUCTION This lecture deals with the overall aspects of the design of offshore topsides. These types are: 1.

Lecture 15A.1 Space and Elevations The first step in developing a new design concept is to consider all the requirements for the deck structure. are provided with a module support frame onto which a number of modules are placed. the vertical clearance as well as the access/egress requirements determine the deck area and deck elevations. Most of this lecture refers to this type of integrated deck such as is shown in Figures 3 and 4. is based on the maximum elevation of the design wave crest. plus an air gap of 1. piping and cable routings. The elevation on the lowest decks depends on the environmental conditions. The lay-out of the deck is influenced by the type of hydrocarbon processing to be undertaken.e. The selection of the concept for the structural deck is made in close cooperation with the other disciplines. i. are nowadays installed complete with all equipment in one lift to minimize offshore hookup. The design requirements and their impact on the structural system are discussed below.10 Heavy decks. such as those located in the southern North Sea.9m in the North Sea. The area required for the equipment. the lowest deck. 2. Smaller decks. including tide and storm sway. The vertical distance between the decks of the topside is generally in the range 6 .000 tons. BASIC ASPECTS OF DESIGN 2. The elevation of the cellar deck.10 Lecture 15A. over 10.5m minimum. Page 3 of 21 Page 4 of 21 .

based on API-RP2G [1]. cable routings. Shock loading and dynamic amplification increases the support reactions during operation. Hatches: access to the lower decks within reach of the crane is required to enable Living quarters and helideck: the helideck should be in the vicinity of the living quarters to enable fast evacuation. Deck penetrations: pipes connecting process-items on different decks and. Both vents and flares should be located outside hazardous areas and away from the helideck. and architectural outfitting. Tankful Page 5 of 21 Page 6 of 21 . In the second case a pair of heavy beams to support the drill rig must be provided. machinery. The hatches should be identified early in the design.10 Consideration of the prevailing wind direction is very important in determining the position of various components on the platform. injection of water. For safety reasons. whilst preventing entry of rain. Heat radiation shall be checked. The reservoir then requires stimulation by. Wells: the position of the wells depends heavily on whether the wells will be drilled and worked with a separate cantilevered jack-up rig or with a platform-based rig. Equipment. Other provisions: items such as monorails and inspection gangways may also be required. 2. for example.2 Lay-out Requirements The requirements for the various topside components are briefly described below. Microwave tower: A high mounting is required to provide obstacle free support for microwave antennae. In the first case the wells must be close to the platform edge and require significant deck area above free of obstacles. Risers. doors and louvres: the type of cladding depends on the operational requirements and the preference of the oil company. equipment. Caissons for pumps and sumps for discharge are hung from the cellar deck and introduce significant vertical and horizontal loads in the deck.3 Loads In Lecture 15A. A stiff support is required in order to comply with the stringent deflection criteria. snow and birds. Louvres may be used to allow natural ventilation. piping. maintenance. Drainage provisions: provision is required for spillage in drip pans under the equipment and for collecting oil-polluted rainwater to prevent spilling into the sea. Future compression may be needed in order to achieve acceptable gas flow through the export pipeline. walls. tankful live load and wind load are discussed here. and the logistic and safety provisions. etc. 2. without providing hatches through the decks. walls and doors may have to satisfy specified explosion and fire resistance requirements. The location of the deck crane should be outside the obstacle free area of the helideck and should not interfere with future facilities. Usually the helideck is located in the obstacle free area on top of the living quarters. caissons. cranes. It Gas compressor module: the pressure in gas reservoirs declines due to production.10 Survival capsules and man-overboard crane: the supporting structures for these items usually cantilever from the main structure. be non-slippery and have sufficient width to allow evacuation of personnel on stretchers. introduces vertical and horizontal loads (environmental and operational) in the deck structure. Vent/flare boom or stack: a vent discharges gaseous products in the air without burning them. Dead weight includes the weight of structure. Water or gas injection module: oil production declines after some years of operation. vessels.Lecture 15A. a flare discharges and burns these products. Lecture 15A. piping and cable-supports: all devices to treat the oil or gas shall comply with the requirements of API-RP2G [1]. The major penetrations should be identified early in the design and coordinated with major structural members. Lay down areas for equipment. cables. Walkways. The tip shall exceed the elevation of the helideck by at least 100 feet. can require significant areas to be clear of structural members. sumps: the riser section of the pipeline rises from the seabed to the deck. such as the vent of the flare.3 the different types of loads have been identified and partly quantified. Cladding. ladders and stairs: these items should be kept obstacle free. Dead weight. spares and consumables: these areas are provided by cantilevering from the main structure in order to allow access to the lower deck levels by the deck crane. repair and platform modification. Deck crane: the location of the crane should be selected so as to obtain maximum deck coverage and to enable the crane operator to keep eye contact with the lifted object and the supply vessel. helideck.

etc. Interface with the export riser. maintenance equipment. drilling rig. To control the design process. lubrication oil.deck leg . equipment and the floor overhead should be respected. Direct interface control.direct loaded deck stringer . glycol.10 2. Interface between platform crane and helideck. to +5% in the final fabrication phase. etc. the walkways. vessels and piping require support by the steel structure. cable routes.Lecture 15A. Due to the high cost of providing platform space. see Figure 5. helifuel. etc. Special elements such as communication towers and flare booms require consideration as wind sensitive structures.deck truss . The application of live load is typical for topsides.4 Interface Control The many functions of the topside result in the involvement of many disciplines in the design. pumps.5 below.pile . escape routes. 2. Interface between the deck and modules. weight distribution and centres of gravity. Page 7 of 21 Page 8 of 21 • • • • • • • Space allocation: the structure should not use space allocated for equipment or access routes. the complex shape of the platform creates problems in assessing the effective area for wind load.10 live load covers weight of potable water. For local strength.jacket . are considered as non-occupied by equipment and are thus loaded by live load. and flare stack. shall be performed by the project management staff. well-kill mud. Live load also covers all sorts of miscellaneous loads such as bagged or palletized consumables. Interface between drilling and workover operations. For overall structural integrity. spare parts. and variation over various decks. Overhead clearance between piping. diesel fuel. • the arrangement of loads that generates maximum stress. are considered as occupied (kept clear for evacuation) and consequently no live load is applied. the walkways. Interface between the topside and bridge from adjacent platform. Weight engineering consists of: • • • • weight prognosis weight reporting weight control weighing Weight prognosis is the methodology which applies an uncertainty surcharge as high as +30% in the conceptual design phase. Wind loads should be properly assessed. weight engineering as explained in Section 2. escape routes.deck beam . This requirement leads to several major areas of interdisciplinary control.5 Weight Engineering The weight of the overall facility as well as its major components is critical. For overall strength. .pile bearing resistance • the area to which live load is to be applied. etc. stating both variation of loads over one deck. deckhouse. This requires that the load file for the structural analysis and the weight report are compatible with respect to total weight. Lecture 15A. Lack of weight control can lead to costly design changes as well as to major provisions in order to keep within the limits of the construction strategy. For design considerable engineering judgement is required concerning: • the magnitude of the load to be applied to the various structural items: • . A policy on this item should be prepared for each project. Any structural analysis must be linked to the latest available information in the weight report. the facility must be designed to be very compact. This area is described in the code as the non-occupied area. Interface with the substructure. methanol. waste.

7.Lecture 15A. Item Discipline non-interference Flexibility during construction Flexibility during operation Automated fabrication Construction depth Inspection Maintenance Weight of structure Strength reserve Potential for high strength steel Structural CAPEX Platform CAPEX Truss type ++ + + + + + Frame type ++ ++ ++ ++ 0 ++ + 0 ++ ++ + ++ -. 5. 3. 4. ++ denotes greater benefit 12. 10. The two possible basic alternatives: a truss type (Figure 4) or a portalframe type without braces (Figure 3). In a 20-25m wide deck. STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS 3.1 Selection of Topside for a Main Jacket-Based Structure Note: The selection of the concept for the topside structure is the second step in the development of a structural system. 11. trusses will generally be arranged in longitudinal rows: centre line and both outer walls (Figure 6). Page 9 of 21 Page 10 of 21 . 1. 2. are compared in Table 1. truss or portal frame. 6. is linked with the decision of the position of the longitudinal structure in the cross-section.10 Table 1 Comparison of concepts for main jacket-based structures No.denotes greater disadvantage The selection of the topside main structure concept. 3.10 Lecture 15A. 8. 9.

thus creating stress concentrations. are covered by a chequered or flat steel plate 6-10mm thick. current development in Norway will show its A few elements only of the GBS-topside structural design are indicated below: • • due to portal frame action. equipment lay out optimization.3 Floor Systems The concept for the floor-system in offshore structures is conventional: hot rolled beams. could gain increased application as their weight per sq. Steel gratings. and requires tolerances on deck and substructure dimensions. The topside structure is an important element in the overall portal-type system.2 Selection of Topsides for Gravity Based Structures Topsides of gravity based concrete structures (GBS) are quite different from the jacket based topsides. a design case difficult to control in topside design. A rectangular or a T-arrangement of four shafts has been adopted. however. Aluminium has attracted much interest recently.Lecture 15A.m. temporary crushing devices for deckmating. allowing floor cantilevers of approximately 5m (Figure 3). • inspection and repair options must be planned carefully. portal frames will be arranged in 2 longitudinal rows. typically at 1000-1200mm centres. approximately 14-16m apart. There is a trend to use higher strength steel (420-460 MPa). Gravity based substructures have been built with one to four shafts. is attractive. especially as fatigue may occur. 3. to avoid fatigue problems. the connection area with the concrete shaft must provide the transition from circular (shaft) to square (deck). Further study is required to assess their actual feasibility for floors of offshore modules. Corrugated steel plate (approximately 1-3mm thick) as sub-flooring has been used in living quarters. Orthotropic decks in steel have found application in helidecks. The material used at present is high strength steel typically of 355 MPa yield stress. especially with the plate type. The options are: • • conventional steel floor steel grating (bar-type or plate type) aluminium floor system orthotropic deck in steel corrugated steel plate In such decks. real potential.10 • • attachment of secondary structures and of equipment/pipe/cable supports to the main structure must be strictly controlled. Page 11 of 21 Page 12 of 21 . It accommodates high strength anchor bars. logistic and emergency routes require many big openings and perforations of plate walls. The basic form is modularized topside with a grid of heavy box girders. see Lecture 15A.1.10 Lecture 15A. piping and cable routes. • • • The conventional steel floor contributes approximately half of the weight of the steel structure of an offshore deck. the deck is subject to fatigue. 3.

The cost is also a very important factor.10 In summary. there are two configuration options (see Figure 11). 4. pipe stress. The rhomboid solution should be chosen for the upper deck.5 Floor Stabilization Concept The deck structure requires lateral stabilization of each floor with respect to: • • • • • • lateral instability of beams horizontal forces. It is common practice in the structural analysis for underfloor bracing to neglect completely the floor plate.g. Clearances are very important for equipment height. 3. e. etc. The single most important structural aspect is the amount of prefabrication that can be carried out away from the main fabrication yard. sea transport horizontal components of permanent braces horizontal components of temporary braces.10 There are essentially two options for floor stabilization: • • provision of separate underfloor horizontal bracings allocate the stabilization function to the floor plate. The interactive process of conceptual design of the jacket and deck yields the spacing of the columns. Where underfloor bracing is adopted. The underfloor bracing under a plate floor does create a very unclear structural situation. the floor concept used for a typical floor of an offshore deck of a module is a conventional steel floor or steel grating.Lecture 15A. pipe routing. transverse column spacings are typically 9m Page 13 of 21 Page 14 of 21 . Lecture 15A. 4. with top flange in one plane. sea fastening horizontal components of sling forces module skewing during installation. 3. All elevations and overhead clearances are involved in the choice of arrangement. can be connected to the overall structure in two ways: • • stacked: stringer over the top of deckbeams. flush: stringer welded in between deck beam. but in practice the floor plate is much too stiff to allow that. e. In the Dutch sector of the North Sea.4 Floor Panel Concept for Conventional Steel Floor The floor panel. defined as the assembly of the floor plate and the stringer. The bracing is assumed completely to perform the stabilizing function. cable routing.1 Introduction The selection of the main deck dimensions have been considered above in relation to lay-out requirements. pipe reactions. It is practically impossible to change from the flush to stacked arrangement in a later phase of the design.g. due to congestion at the column by the padeyes for lifting. DECK FLOORING DESIGN There is a clear preference for the stabilization by the floor plate. wind.

especially for stacked floor panels. A continuous thin weld (a = 4 mm) is usually specified. chequered plate or tear plate.2 Floor Plate Design Options are to choose between flat plates. The shear in this weld is generally quite low. a profile which allows selection of heavier sections with practically identical depth to accommodate local heavy equipment. Designers should avoid choosing deeper sections or reinforcing them to accommodate late extra load requirements by welding another section underneath. small-deflection theory provides uneconomical conservative results.3 Stringers The typical stringer for a production platform is an IPE 240-270 or HE 240-280A profile positioned at approximately 1m centres and spanning 5m. An increased plate thickness may be required in these areas due to larger concentrated loads (1). hard piping or with cable trays then is quite likely. Joining floor plate and stringers requires welding. such as lay-down areas and food container platforms. Special attention is required to ensure that all welds between the floor plate and the underlying structure do not form brittle points. For main decks generally accepted figures are: p = 20kN/sqm. The floor plate thickness is usually 810mm and 6mm for lighter loaded floors.10 The same attention applies to the buckling of the floor plate by stresses which are picked up unintentionally. 4. Another option for providing slip resistance is to coat with a sand finish.3 x 0. or F = 10-25 kN on a 0. Interference with small diameter. column These components are identified in Figure 6. Strength of Floor Plate The strength of the floor plate is very high both for uniform as well as concentrated loads. In practice the floor plate acts as horizontal bracing between the columns. Next decisions are made on: • • • • floor system: plate versus grating main structure: truss versus portal frame floor panel concept: stacked versus flush floor stabilization underfloor bracing versus plate.3m load area Det Norske Veritas [3] presents an expression for the required plate thickness t. The structural concept is then complete. Longitudinally spacings are typically 15m.Lecture 15A. API-RP2A (2) does not specify live loads. Elastic. The joint between the stringer and the deck beam differs with the floor panel concept chosen. Intermittent welding is generally not accepted. deck beam (transversal) 15m 4. 4. A principle for economic design of steel structures is that the load-paths should be short. Page 15 of 21 Page 16 of 21 . Failure of such welds could lead to crack initiation in the rest of the structure. floor plate 1m 2. Equipment and containers are regularly offloaded by the crane in some deck areas. For a floor design of a production deck typical dimensions are: Structural item Typical span 1. main structure (longitudinal) 15m 5. which incorporates membrane effects and is of special interest for design for local loads. although welding distortion may rule out the 6 mm thickness. stringer (longitudinal) 5m 3.10 for a wellhead platform to 15m for a production platform. They are specified by the operator. It is important to choose. Lecture 15A.

Deck beam prefabrication is also required. It is different for the stacked and for the flush concept. some operators will require seal plates to be welded between the deck beam and the floor plate. A typical joint is depicted in Figure 7. • flush floors. The major joint in the deck beam is that with the main structure. Page 17 of 21 Page 18 of 21 . Welding the floor between deck beams requires removal of the top-flange of the stringer near its end and perfect fit between the deck beams and floor. though HL 1000 (400mm wide) or HX 1000 (450mm wide) are also used for heavier loads or greater spans. 4. The decision on the type of stringer joint should preferably be made prior to material ordering. This is quite expensive.Lecture 15A.4 Deck Beams Deck beams supporting the floor panels or providing direct support to major equipment are generally provided as HE 800-1000 beams.10 Stacked Floor Concept Figures 8 and 9 illustrate the problems. If the top of the deck beam becomes inaccessible for maintenance. The joint configuration is strongly determined by the prefabrication concept and elevation of the flanges. Lecture 15A.10 • stacked floors have a continuous fillet weld around the flange contact area and generally do not have web stiffening of the stringers.

5 Horizontal Bracing The lower flange of the main structure should be at least 250mm underneath. typically 20-25mm thick. 6. 4. together with general aspects of interface control and weight control. • • Floor concepts were described. The bracing members have to pass with sufficient clearance under the stringers. where both transverse and longitudinal main beam are positioned lower. stringer and deck beam. module support frame. 5. If the deck panel is fabricated as an assembly of plate and stringer only. Presents the basic requirements. Horizontal bracing can easily clash with vertical piping and major hatches. Lecture 15A. If the deck panel is prefabricated as an assembly of plate. Assembly of the braces is generally quite cumbersome. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • • The topside lay-out was discussed. These requirements generate the elevation and the maximum feasible diameter of the brace (Figure 11). REFERENCES [1] API-RP2G: Production facilities on offshore structures. 1974. If however separate bracing members are required. referring to API-RP2G. will be the most feasible. penetrate the web of the deck beams at sufficient distance from the lower flange. connection for the top flange of the transverse deck beam is more difficult. Several aspects of the plate floor design were addressed. jacket and GBS.10 For the full stacked concept (Figure 9). In Section 3. Direct welding of the top flange of the deck beam to the web should be rejected. if alignment of both flanges is ensured. welding of the top flanges is straightforward. modules.Lecture 15A. the detail shown in Figure 10a is the more appropriate. can only be welded to the web. to enable back welding of the root. American Petroleum Institute 1 ed. For the less suitable partially stacked concept (Figure 8). Flush Floor Concept Detailing is dependent of the prefabrication policy. Again it is apparent that a decision on joint configuration is required prior to material ordering. These types are: integrated deck. where only the transverse main beam is positioned lower. Page 19 of 21 Page 20 of 21 . the different types of topside structure were introduced and described. the elevation must be chosen carefully.5 the preference for the floor plate to act as horizontal bracing was indicated. Based on the type of substructure. Options are shown in Figure 9 with detail (a) haunching and detail (b) slotting the top flange through the web. typically 40mm thick. They also require good access for welding of the joint.10 To allow top flange welding a strip of the floor plate is fitted and welded last. the detail Figure 10b The lower flange.

ADDITIONAL READING 1. designing and constructing fixed platforms. pp 1001-1014. paper 90-335. D. Permanent decks for wheel loading.J.d. Part 5.10 [2] API-RP2A: Recommended practice for planning. Det Norske Veritas. plugging capacity of steel plates. IABSE Surveys S 31/1985. Floor and roof plate behaviour under accidental loading. Dubas & c. 9th.4. IRO Journal.G. The structural offshore code governs the majority of platforms. Practical approach for economic floor plate design under static load.. Berkelder: Placid K12BP biggest Dutch production platform.C.: Dropped objects. 1989. Zee & A. Good background to theory of plated structures. Gjerde et al: Design of steel deckstructures for deepwater multishaft gravity concrete platform. BOSS Conference 1988 Trondheim. P. 4. Page 21 of 21 .: Behaviour and design of steel plated structures. v. Presents a recent example for a portal-framed topside. pp 17-44.s. nr. 18th ed. 3. Langseth & c. Chapter 2. 1987. 38. 2. 7. Most recent presentation on GBS topside structure. August 1985. OMAE conference Houston 1990. American Petroleum Institute.s. M. P.Lecture 15A. [3] DNV: Rules for the classification of steel ships. pp 3-9.

following the introduction in Lecture 15A.2: Welded Connections Lecture 12. and modules. and stressed skin. i. i.: 1.1. module support frames. the in-place condition has to be considered. see Lecture 15A. bulbs or troughs) Horizontal bracing Deck beams } } Discussed in } Lecture 15A. hook-up 8. Figs. Most of this lecture refers to this type of integrated deck as described in Lecture 15A.1: General Fabrication of Steel Structures 7. The selection of the concept for the structural deck is made in close cooperation with the Lecture 6. load out 4. transport and installation. box girder. load-out.10. To show principles and methods of construction (from yard to offshore site).2: Advanced Introduction to Fatigue Lecture 15A: Offshore Structures SUMMARY Structural systems for each type of topside structure are introduced. module installation Page 1 of 22 other disciplines. commissioning A brief discussion on inspection and repair and on platform removal concludes this lecture. portal frame.e. fabrication 2. 1. are provided with a module support frame onto which a number of modules are placed. For the design of the deck structure. offshore installation especially deckmating 6. weighing 3.3: Elastic Instability Modes Lecture 7.10 } Primary girders Vertical trusses or bracing Deck legs } } Discussed in } this lecture Page 2 of 22 . 4 and 5.11 Superstructures II OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To elaborate on structural steel concepts for integrated decks. together with the various previous stages such as fabrication. over 10. such as those located in the southern North Sea. Smaller decks. PRE-REQUISITES Lectures 1A & 1B: Steel Construction Lecture 2.10. Heavy decks. truss. sea transport 5. INTRODUCTION This lecture deals with the structural design of jacket-based offshore deck structures.6: Built-up Columns Lectures 8.000 tons.5: Selection of Steel Quality Lectures 3.e.Lecture 15A.4: Steel Grades and Qualities Lecture 2.4: Plate Girder Behaviour and Design Lecture 11.11 Lecture 15A. Some special topics of design are addressed and the different construction phases are presented in more detail. A structural system for a deck structure comprises several of the following elements: Floors (steel plate or grating) Deck stringer (H beams. are nowadays installed complete with all equipment in one lift to minimize offshore hook-up.

The main girder/column joint. which is more lightly loaded-in-plane. though its cost per tonne is approximately twice that of a rolled beam. which is internally stiffened by rings.12).1 Introduction Lecture 15A.11 The severe restraint of welding a tubular in a diaphragm requires the selection of TTP steel for the column section. The assessment of ultimate resistance as well as fatigue strength has been the subject of recent research (see Lecture 15A. For lighter loaded truss structures. Placid K12 [5] and Penzoil L8. material selection and procurement. Haunching of the transverse main girder. 2. however is not an option as these girders become highly loaded during transport. Another option is to weld the girders directly onto the unstiffened can section of the column.5 times the original beam height built-up girders fabricated from rolled beam T-sections with a web plate welded-inbetween plate girder The plate girder of course provides the greatest flexibility for design. is very important in determining the height. TTP-steel is chosen also for the diaphragm.11 2. giving a height 1. Page 3 of 22 Page 4 of 22 Typically such trusses consist of rolled beams as chords and tubulars as diagonals.3 Main Structure-Truss Design Most offshore structures of moderate size have been provided with a truss-type structure. this non-stiffened type of joint has been used successfully.2 Main Structure-Portal Frame Design A portal frame design has been used in recent major projects in the Dutch sector such as Amoco P15. Member selection for portal frame structures with increasing section module usually includes: • • • • • • 300 mm wide rolled beam. the welding constraints on the web plates in between. 450 mm /460 mm wide rolled beam. 400 mm wide rolled beam.Lecture 15A. A third solution is to weld the girders directly to the can section of the column. Its most severe disadvantage is the difficulty of inspecting the column interior. castellated beams fabricated from rolled beams. as shown in Figure 1. Further improvement of the theoretical and experimental background is required. Due to the high importance of the diaphragm plates in the overall integrity of the structure and Some major topics in topside structural design are reviewed below. It is most practical to position the longitudinal and transverse main girder flanges at the same elevation. . The disadvantage of both direct girder-column joints is that the girder sizing is governed by the very high moments at the column/beam transition point. MAIN STRUCTURE DESIGN 2. 2. Cast steel nodes form an alternative to the welded designs.

An evaluation should yield a preferred location therefore for the node of the end brace. transparency is even more important. e. where full height plate walls take the function of the truss or the frame.g. see Figure 3a.4 Main Structure-Stressed Skin Design A third major structural option is the stressed skin concept. The chord section should be kept compact therefore and not given too much height. ventstack. It should be kept in mind that all diagonals and verticals form obstructions for piping and cable routings of all kinds. Other types of modules have not been built with stressed skin since the obstruction they cause during construction is severe. Modules for living quarters are frequently built to this concept.5 Non-Load Bearing Walls Blast or fire walls are provided in offshore platforms. Providing a W-truss with light verticals should be evaluated against choosing a heavier chord section. 2. Tubulars (circular.11 Truss design requires several choices which affect the structural efficiency and have impact on other disciplines: • • • • • • • number and configuration of braces falling or rising braces intermediate load carrying of chords presence of external moments on joints braces: tubulars or H-rolled sections chords: rolled section or plate girders truss joints: locally reinforced chord or prefabricated node section Lecture 15A. The choice depends primarily on the loads and the chord width. or crane pedestal for example. brace only. Thus a wider chord flange is preferred.11 If a joint. trapezoid corrugated plate can be used to provide a wall in a frame of square hollow sections. at the top deck. flat plate stiffened with through-stiffeners is used for the walls. The truss deflects under its vertical load which leads to restraint of the chord in the column and to bending of the chord. much of the bracing stress would result from unintended bending. A chord width of 300mm can accommodate a 10 in. is subject to severe moments due to lifting. For smaller stressed skin modules. 2. Due to their function full welding to the main structure is often unavoidable. For bigger modules. For the transverse trusses. The detailed design can only be made with a clear plan for assembling the module which shows the panels that must be prefabricated. Figure 2 shows different arrangements of braces (basically N or W-type) obtained by variation of the number of nodes. Page 5 of 22 Page 6 of 22 . The number of members required should therefore be reduced to a minimum. square or rectangular) or rolled sections can be chosen for the braces.Lecture 15A. especially near the well area. Generally the deck leg restraint creates a similar problem in the lower deck. Both effects can quite severely effect the efficiency.

preferably at the lower end of the pedestal. One solution is to provide a flexible detail. The functions of the main structure with respect to the crane pedestal are: • • • • to provide torsional support preferable at top deck level to provide lateral restraint at top deck level to provide lateral restraint at the lower end of the pedestal to provide vertical support. with stiffeners falling short. For a portal frame type with columns closer to the outer periphery. Bending restraint by deck beams and/or main structure girders is not required and should be reduced where possible. 2. The top section contains the large flange for the slewing bearing. For a truss type the main structure will be close to the platform periphery so a moderate length of crane boom is sufficient. see Figure 3b and 3c. Page 7 of 22 Page 8 of 22 . the stiffest element. the strength of welds to the main structure being stronger than the plate to avoid rupture and potential crack initiation of the main structure. are discussed briefly below. Fatigue due to crane operations is a design criterion and requires careful detailing of the pedestal and the adjoining structure.11 Special attention is required concerning: • • the capability of the walls to comply with the deformation of the main structure during load-out. the pedestal requires a special column in order to avoid using a crane with large boom length. Torsion caused by slewing of the crane should preferably be resisted by the floor plate.Lecture 15A. lifting and in-service. It has become practice to include the tapered top section of the pedestal in the supply package of the crane. Figure 4 depicts such a solution. It is structurally economical to put the crane pedestal on top of a main column.6 Crane Pedestals Crane pedestal.11 Lecture 15A. sea transport.

more recent research.3 Strength of Joints The most important joints in a topside steel structure are: • • • • the ring stiffened joint between rolled beams or plate girders with a circular column the non-stiffened joint between rolled beams or plate girders with a circular column the tubular brace joint to single web beams the non-overlapped tubular joint Page 9 of 22 Page 10 of 22 . Web buckling due to bending. 3.66 Fy 90 18 0. ANALYSIS OF DECK STRUCTURES 3.4 deal in more detail with plate girder design. 3. normal force and shear restricts the slenderness of the web which is expressed as the height of the web (h) divided by the web thickness (t).Lecture 15A. For example the local forces that act on the lifting points (Figure 5) have to be transmitted safely through to the deck structure. [3] and [6]. Instead of the above approach.4 Lifting Points The effect of lifting points on deck design is considerable.12. several aspects require special attention: • • • • • • Plate girder design Strength of joints Strength of the floor plate Lifting points Modelling of floor plates Support of modules. API-RP2A [2] refers to the AISC manual [3] which gives the figures below for material with yield-stress of 355 MPa: Allowable bending stress Ratio web height h to thickness t Ratio flange width b to thickness t 0. Lectures 8. Lecture 15A. The depth/thickness limits given above do not then apply.11 3. Figure 6.60 Fy 138 27 There are two types of lifting points.11 These joints are discussed in Lecture 15A.1 Introduction Although the analysis of deck structures is a standard task. 3. trunnions and padeye.2 Plate Girder Design Design of plate girders requires selection of many dimensional variables and of approaches for assessing load-carrying resistance. allows use of the postbuckling strength.

see Section 4. It is most efficient to leave these bending moments in the column. The basic phenomenon of this interaction is that the distribution of the support reactions of the module is quite unequal and varies with the load Page 11 of 22 Page 12 of 22 . i. CONSTRUCTION Padeyes generally provide a good opportunity to minimize or eliminate offset.1 the principal aspects of construction of offshore structures and their major equipment was introduced. For this reason the lifting concept must be developed in the concept phase of the structural development. A separate evaluation should then be performed on the effect to this deliberate "error" at least at some critical points. 3. A second option is to define representative members which model the plate stiffness by diagonals. in order to save nodes in the model. are often placed on anti-vibration pads in order to isolate them from vibrations. Prefabrication will avoid congestion in one working area and it speeds up the whole construction process. Fabrication of offshore steel structures is principally assembly by welding.1 Operations The design should allow efficient prefabrication of major sections.2 Fabrication 4. It should however be recognised that this "error" of elevation. acting at the support points.1m. "late" structural work should preferably not be positioned overhead in that underfloor area. can affect the results.2. There are several ways to model the plate.deck interaction. as far as they can be situated on top of the column. The deck plate is often positioned in the model at the elevation of the centre line. 3. amounting to 0. The most direct is to choose a computer-program which allows selection of plate elements. electrical and instrument cables and lines. by providing stiff columns. API-RP2A [1] requires that modules are modelled as elastic structures for the analysis of the supporting deck. further provide control over the module . For topsides more specific aspects are discussed below.6 Support of Modules Modules and deck structures interact structurally.5 Modelling of Floor Plates There are two points of major interest: • • representation of the floorplate in the structural model true elevation 4. API-RP2A [1] requires larger load factors to be used for members direct-loaded by padeyes or trunnions. Prefabrication and assembly shall properly incorporate the aspects of installation of major and smaller mechanical equipment. Dimensional controls of the module as well as the support. the mid height of the main structure girders. such as living quarter modules. Lecture 15A. because modules were represented as a set of loads for the different load cases.5 . can generate considerable offset of the sling force with respect to the topdeck system points. gas compressor and injection modules. Significant bending is generated which is transferred to the topdeck girders to the extent that they contribute to joint stiffness. 4.2 Design aspects Since the overhead space is well covered by extensive piping routes as well as cable trays during construction.11 Trunnions.e.11 case. 4. In the 1970's major difficulties arose in the decks for concrete gravity structures.1 Introduction In Lecture 15A. The prefabrication concept and joint detailing should maximize welding productivity with many horizontal welds preferably made using SMAW technology. 4.Lecture 15A. The requirement of recessed padeyes (recessed padeyes are those which are positioned between the top and bottom flange elevation) or the presence of other structures on the top deck can lead to very eccentric positioning and resulting heavy moments. It should be recognized that major mechanical and electrical equipment is often not available at the start of assembly and must be brought in during fabrication. though favourable from other points of view.2. and neglecting structural interaction. Support to the topside during construction should be well controlled to avoid settlement and to keep within construction tolerances. Some modules. as well as outfitting with piping. with corrective measures.

3 Weight Engineering The topside must be kept under strict weight control. Accuracy is necessary in order to check the actual position of the centre of gravity.4. 4. as explained in Lecture 15A. installed between the topside and the shop floor. To that end the topside is usually weighed prior to load out. 4. The most preferred option for load out is therefore to use a platform trailer with individual suspended wheels. The system for support of the topside should be similar to the anticipated method of load out. Where thick-walled elements are involved requiring Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT). see Figure 7 and Slide 1. Slide 1 : General arrangement of a load out through skidding The trailer drives from the quay over a rocker flap resting on the quay and the barge and then slowly onto the barge.1 Operations The load out usually combines two operations: • • moving the topside from the fabrication hall to the nearby quay moving the topside from the quay onto the barge Lecture 15A.Lecture 15A. The basic design of a weighing system usually consists of a set of hydraulic jacks with electrical load cells on top. the design should position such welding and the PWHT in the prefabrication phase.5-1%.4 Load Out 4.11 The short journey on land can be complicated when the track is not flat or curves have to be taken. The accuracy of such systems is typically 0. The barge is kept in right trim by ballast pumping. Page 13 of 22 Page 14 of 22 .10. Knowledge of the position is vital for the installation.11 Special consideration should be given to the selection of materials suitable for the fabrication.

4. Skid systems which are not provided with a proper load sharing system will lead to a non-uniform load distribution. Design for load-out requires coordination with sea fastening design. Planning the sea transport contains several steps: • • identification of critical clearances. (harbour depth. during transport. Page 15 of 22 Page 16 of 22 . platform crane. Furthermore.is avoided.5. assessment of deck/module integrity.4. length of tow). The barge is towed by one or two tugs to the offshore location. Internal bracing of topside for transport is not favoured since it creates obstacles and risk of damage or fire to cables. Prior to lifting. There the barge is positioned close alongside the crane vessel. see Lecture 15A. the sea fastening is cut free. The basic concept is therefore to fix the topside to the barge by its columns only. • • • • • A uniform distribution of loads is assumed for platform trailers.Lecture 15A.g. as the most critical and weather sensitive operation . instruments. The width of the topside requires an extra wide barge. especially for topsides (see Slide 2).11 After completion of the load out and full fastening to the barge.g. e. e. the offshore operation is simpler and quicker. All equipment in or on the topside is also subject to heavy loads. control panels. etc inshore) barge selection (a. 4. piping and equipment during subsequent removal. width of bridges or locks. generator skids. 4. assessment of barge motions in sea state. Usually an extra take over is required as the draft of the crane vessel exceeds the depth at the fabricator's quay. the topside is set down on the beam grid of the sea fastening.1. There is also the option with some crane vessels to transport the top side on board.lift off the barge.o. It is difficult to find "strong" points on the topside exterior.11 When it reached the right position. The designer should be aware that the bending stiffness of the topside often exceeds that of Slide 2: Seafastening of 105MN Brent C topside the barge.2 Design aspects load out When using platform trailers the lower deck should be designed to meet three basic load-out requirements: • • • the bottom flange plates of the transverse beams should all be in one plane the distance of transverse beams should not exceed approximately 7 m the lower deck should be able to take an upward reaction typically in the range of 5060 kN/m2 of ground area Lecture 15A. location of bulkends).5. The advantage however is that sea fastening requires less effort. the barge is ballasted to its target draft and cleared for the transport. dynamic behaviour. assessment of barge integrity.1 Operations Sea transport is a very critical operation.5 Sea Transport and Sea Fastening 4.2 Design aspects of sea transport and sea fastening Several elements of the structure are dominated by the load condition during transport. development of a sea fastening concept. stability. evaluation of sea route (weather. External bracing is also not without problems. Considerable "composite" action can result when the barge deflects in heavy headon seas.

The lifting capacity of crane vessels is defined by hook-load and reach.g. Design of the sea fastening should not require any welding in the column joint. cutting free. i.1 Operations Installation on the substructure can be: • • deck mating with a deep submerged floating GBS (Slide 3) lifting onto an already installed jacket (Slide 4) Lecture 15A. The major steps are: • • • • • • • review of the weight report assessment of "critical" elevations assessment of feasible crane vessels development of a lift concept preliminary sizing of slings. shackles. prior to lift off. When the tow is more than one or two days long. a Norwegian fjord or Scottish loch. Lifting is the usual installation method for jacket-based topsides.Lecture 15A. Braces cut loose at one end should therefore remain stable and safe while fixed at one end only. Deck mating requires that the deck is temporarily supported with the final supports free. the lift strategy should be defined as part of the overall construction strategy. since the topside would not then be ready for immediate set down onto the jacket. This requirement creates a very awkward load situation for the deck structure. e. The required reach is determined mainly by the width of the topside and/or the transport barge. and the need to remain safe in a moderate sea state. trunnions.6 Installation 4. De-seafastening should not require any handling by cranes. fatigue may have to be considered on critical nodes.11 It is very important for any sea fastening concept to consider aspects of de-seafastening. etc concept design of guides and bumpers analysis of deck or module structure for lift condition Slide 3 : Deckmating of the 500MN Gullfaks-C topside Page 17 of 22 Page 18 of 22 .11 Slide 4 : Installation of 60MN K12-BP topside by floating crane Deck mating is a floating operation in a sheltered location. During development of a platform concept.e. 4.6.

For economic reasons. A basic element in all elevations is the inevitable tolerance in sling length which leads to an unequal distribution of sling forces (typically 25%-75%) in a four sling lift.7 Hook up Hook up is the completion of all joints and connections after installation. Elsewhere only the structure 75 m or more above the mudline must be removed. double or paired slings the choice of padeyes.2 Design aspects of installation by lifting The lift concept consists of several elements: • • • • • • the single or dual crane lift the sling configuration choice of topside pick-up points the necessity (or not) for spreader bars or even spreader frames the single. In the Gulf of Mexico removed structures are dumped in the form of reefs. removal is required in some countries from the mudline upward.11 The use of a spreader frame should only be considered in exceptional cases and does not prevent module distortion. Critical hook up work is the work required immediately to secure the object in order to survive the next storm. It is very difficult and inefficient at present to include conceptual removal engineering in the design phase. as introduced in Lecture 15A. Crane vessels were listed in Lecture 15A. 4.g. Evaluation should lead to modification of the inspection programme where appropriate. Extensive engineering of removal is required to achieve a safe and effective operation. When Page 19 of 22 Page 20 of 22 .1. small clamps under the deck.1. or trunnions Lecture 15A. greatly speeds up scaffolding crack growth through fatigue is slow. Some requirements are: • • • • • • • inspection of the primary structure is a statutory. In some depths of water full The use of spreader bars leads to a fully balanced lift without distorting the module. A crack is usually detectable before one quarter of its life is passed. OPEX. e.8 Commissioning Commissioning is not relevant to the structural design. 4.6. The trunnion can accommodate higher loads. The unequal sling forces lead to significant stresses in the module (see Figure 8). the overall construction strategy should keep hook up work to a minimum. fully planned activity inspection is only possible when proper access to the area or joint is provided gaining access is costly and requires space to be left behind equipment minimum provisions.9 Inspection Maintenance and Repair (IMR) These activities are a major source of operational expenditure.Lecture 15A. 4.10 Removal Removal requirements are different from country to country. 4. Slings are available up to over 400mm nominal diameter with safe working loads of 20-25 MN. dirt accumulation promotes corrosion damage maximum use should be made of the results of inspection.11 4. However the spreader bar is quite expensive and usually leads to a requirement for a higher hook elevation. The padeye/shackle option is limited by the safe working load (maximum 10MN) of the biggest shackle.

nr. truss. 38. Berkelder: Placid K12BP biggest Dutch production platform. [2] AISC: Allowable stress design manual (ASD). 1983. then removal engineering should be developed early in the design. and stressed skin systems.d.e. 5. i. [3] API-Bulletin 2V: Bulletin on design of flat plate structures. offshore installation especially deckmating vi. Presentation of seafastening design for GBS topside. • • • Structural systems for each type of topside structure were introduced. i. 9th ed. [7] ANON: Gullfaks C platform deckmating. IRO Journal. Ocean Industry.. weighing iii. Good designers guide to plated structures design. 1987. American Petroleum Institute. box girder. Valuable specialist addendum to API-RP2A. 1989. Zee & A. American Petroleum Institute. designing and constructing fixed platforms. nr.e.11 re-use of the facility is planned. In the section on design some topics were addressed in more detail. Widely used for structural code for topsides. In the section on construction the different phases were presented in more detail. Presents a recent example for a portal framed topside.. portal. 1989. [5] D. London. pp 24. fabrication ii. 1987. Bouwen met Staal. American Petroleum Institute. pp 3-9. Page 21 of 22 Page 22 of 22 . 18th ed.. 6. April 1989. hook-up viii. governs the majority of platforms. module installation vii. [6] R.G. CONCLUDING SUMMARY Valuable specialist addendum to API-RP2A.J. sea transport v.G. 1987. 1st ed.J.11 [4] API-Bulletin 2U: Bulletin on stability design of cylindrical shells. REFERENCES [1] API-RP2A: Recommended practice for planning. i. commissioning • A brief discussion on inspection and repair and on platform removal concluded the lecture. 1st ed. American Institute of Steel Construction.v. The structural offshore code. load out iv. [8] A.24 1979. Good description of the actual mating of deck to GBS. Applied Science Publishers. Berkelder: Seafastening 105 MN Brent C deck. Narayanan: Plated structures/Stability and Strength. Lecture 15A..Lecture 15A.

and the exploration for gas and oil in deeper water. Furthermore. if the carbon and carbon equivalent (CEV) is low. The increase in lifting capacity. With the high lifting capacities currently available. CONNECTIONS IN OFFSHORE DECK MODULES The type of connections used in offshore deck modules depends directly on the type of structure involved: • truss types Page 1 of 19 Page 2 of 19 . the connections should be simple.5: Selection of Steel Quality Lectures 3. see Lectures 15A. was the development of cleaner steels. transport. The joints have to be designed to withstand the various loading conditions (see Lectures 15A. Other aspects such as inspection and corrosion protection requirements must also be considered.10 and 15A. installation and the inplace condition (operation and storm).11. a module support frame is built on top of the deck legs of the jacket structure on which the various modules are installed. and ease of fabrication. and where possible. load-out. Since the fabrication costs are mainly governed by the costs of welding.Lecture 15A. with modified chemical compositions and good through-thickness properties. the preheat temperature of the steel can be lowered. and have stimulated the use of higher strength steels. and has resulted in heavier modules. Another aspect influencing fabrication. 2.2 and 15A. if this is not the case the joints themselves must have sufficient deformation/rotation capacity. see Lecture 2. PREREQUISITES Lectures 11.4: Analysis of Connections Lectures 13: Tubular Structures Lectures 15A: Structural Systems: Offshore RELATED LECTURES (covering specific items in greater detail) Lecture 2. This socalled TTP steel (i. between main beams themselves. and thus the design.4: Fatigue Behaviour of Hollow Section Joints SUMMARY Various forms of structural connections in steel offshore deck structures are discussed.2: Advanced Introduction to Fatigue Lectures 12.5: Corrosion Protection in Offshore Structures and Sheet Piling Lecture 11.12 Lecture 15A. the fabrication sequence and the steel grades and qualities to be used.4: Steel Grades and Qualities Lecture 2.6: Inspection/Quality Assurance Lecture 4A. INTRODUCTION Large offshore deck structures have traditionally been built up using modular components. constructed of larger and heavier members. between main beams and deck legs. have both resulted in larger structures.4) has a low sulphur content to avoid lamellar tearing.3) experienced during fabrication. This development has had a considerable influence on the fabrication and design of deck structures.2: Welded Connections Lectures 11. 1. The importance of designing and dimensioning to minimise fabrication and maintenance is emphasised. truss connections and connections between columns and beams. avoid the use of stiffeners. these cover the connections between deck stringers and main beams.12 Connections in Offshore Deck Structures OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To outline and explain the best methods for forming structural connections in offshore deck structures.5: Simple Connections for Buildings Lecture 12. In order to allow redistribution of stresses it is important that the joints are stronger than the connected members. the topsides of light to medium offshore structures can now be installed in one lift. to discuss the importance of a proper choice of connection type to achieve both the required strength and stiffness.e. with consequences for the connections. resulting in easier welding (without preheating) which again influences the connection design. The connection design should take account of all the aforementioned aspects and should be considered as an interactive procedure involving the choice of the structural layout. with yield strengths above 355 N/mm2. steel with through-thickness properties.

3. deck penetrations.12 As discussed in more detail in Lectures 15A. see Lectures 15A. are generally used in helidecks. as shown in Figure 1. for the larger sizes. bulb flats or troughs) deck beams main beams or girders (beams on main grid lines) vertical trusses or braces deck legs and columns Depending on their function. the structural system for a deck includes several of the following elements: • • • • • • floor (steel plate or grating) deck stringers (I-beams. facilitates fabrication and is. since the modules are generally fabricated under controlled conditions at the fabrication yard. therefore to be preferred to the use of continuous connections. The use of stacked stringers. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN DECK STRINGERS AND BEAMS The deck floor structure can be designed as a floor plate with stringers. welded I or box plate girders or welded tubular members are used. stiffeners should be avoided if possible. as shown in Figure 1. The floor plate with stringers is the most common type as it gives design flexibility for later changes (local loads. or as an orthotropic plate. etc). welded connections are common practices.11.11. as shown in Figure 2. For ease of fabrication. This means that the vertical loads have to be transmitted by the webs. loading. the basic joint behaviour is discussed in this lecture without reference to the safety factors to be used. and availability of sections. over length ls for the stringer. Although it is common practice in offshore design to use the API-RP2A [1] or the AISC rules [2].12 • • frame types stressed skin Lecture 15A.Lecture 15A. or welded sections. Page 3 of 19 Page 4 of 19 . these elements can be made of rolled I or H-sections. These elements have to be connected together. rolled circular or rectangular hollow sections.10 and 15A. Orthotropic plate structures.10 and 15A. The main connection types are discussed more in detail below.

Since all loading cases are not always checked. or the material should have a low carbon content (see Lecture 2. Special attention should be given to the unsupported upper side of the web in Figure 2b. and the web by fillet welds or a full penetration weld depending on the thickness. as shown in Figure 3a. These are common details which are dealt with in Eurocode 3 [3] and other codes.11. see Figure 2. In case of equal heights. see Lecture 6. as local buckling may be a problem. The bottom flange and web can generally be connected by fillet welds. a plate connecting the flanges can be slotted through the web.10 and 15A. as shown in Figure 3b. shown in Figure 2.12 and lb for the deck beam. web crippling failure is also possible and should be checked. 4. however.e. i. etc. For the connection of beams with unequal heights. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN INTERMEDIATE AND MAIN DECK BEAMS The connection between the deck beams is most convenient if these beams have the same height. between stringers. the welds have to be designed to have at least the same strength as the connected parts. either the flange thickness of the intermediate beam should be less than 1.5). is preferred because of corrosion protection although this results in a small weld defect at the neck between flange and web. Here the flanges are connected with full penetration welds. to satisfy the requirements for avoidance of cold cracking.. no TTP requirements are necessary for the beams. Only in cases where very high strength steel (fy > 500N/mm2) is used and a high yield to ultimate stress ratio. However. without a 'mouse hole'. e. For the continuous connections. The shear loads are generally too high to allow a single or double sided notch as shown in Figure 3b since this results in a higher shear stress. It should be recognized that the shear stress distribution (Figure 2) for a detail with a 'mouse hole' is more severe than that without a 'mouse hole'.9 occurs should this detail be evaluated rigorously.2 and [5]. Tolerance control is necessary to avoid differences at the deck floor level.12 As an expensive alternative solution. A full penetration weld of the flange. fy/fu > 0. even under fatigue loading such a defect can be accepted [4] the same is also valid for static loading. Lecture 15A.5 times the web thickness of the main beam. Page 5 of 19 Page 6 of 19 . Furthermore. Haunched alternatives are given in Lectures 15A. the web of the main beam should have a TTP quality due to the loads being transferred through the web thickness. as the flange or web.Lecture 15A. the moment is assumed to be transferred by the flange connection and the shear by the web connection. as shown in Figure 4. The type of full penetration weld at the top flange for continuous connections depends on the fabrication sequence and should be decided by the fabricator.g.

12 All welds should be designed to have the strength of the connected parts. consisting of a tubular "can" with surrounding "diamond" (diaphragm) plates for the connection with the beams. as shown in Figure 5. the joint strength may be decreased. For a frame type structure. This formula is based on the test results for a ring-stiffened joint with two opposite loads. are generally prefabricated. which are normally fabricated tubular members. must be connected to the deck legs.12 Stiffened Connections The shear loads are transferred by the connection of the web plates to the tube walls. Lecture 15A. either rolled H sections or plate girders. As a consequence the connection is as strong as the member. only in case of large 'mouse holes' the shear stress and possible local buckling of the unsupported web part [5] have to be checked. which is simplified by Kurobane [6] as follows: NRd = Where. the joint strength will be greater.t1) (see Figure 5). is normally checked with the experimental Kamba formula. Furthermore. if the two loads in one direction are tensile and the two in the direction perpendicular to that are compressive. or nodes.Lecture 15A. The moment is transmitted by the diamond plate in combination with an effective ring width of the tubular "can". more detailed research is currently being carried out [7]. The design resistance. BEAM TO DECK LEG CONNECTIONS The main beams. However. for four loads acting in the same sense. Reference [7] reports that this decrease was found to be a maximum of 30%. In the case of multi-planar loading. These connections. NRd is the design resistance for the flange for factored loading fy is the yield stress of deck leg "can" b1 is the flange width of deck beam do is the outer diameter of tube to is the wall thickness of the deck leg "can" ts is the thickness of ring plate hs is the smallest width of the ring plate bf = Validity ranges: The axial force in the flange N. if the deck leg is loaded by axial compressive stress Page 7 of 19 Page 8 of 19 . for factored loading. 5. this connection should be rigid and capable of transmitting the yield moment resistance of the connected beams. is derived from N = Mcw/(h1 . This type of connection requires special material specifications and special welding procedures.

this is. Validity ranges: 0. which can be based on Togo's ring model. The design resistance for flange loads in one direction (X-joint loading) is given by Eurocode 3 [3] and [9]. the secondary bending moments can be neglected for static loading.0 For bending moments in-plane. could be used. the strength of the connection has to be reduced by 20%. not yet common practice. For practical cases these stress concentration factors can be in the order of 10 for [8].d (h1 . care should be taken with these secondary bending moments.4 ≤ β ≤ 1. as shown in Figure 6. because the stress concentration factors at the flange to tubular connection are rather high. NRd = where: NRd is the design strength for the flange for factored loading fyo is the yield stress of joint "can" to is the wall thickness of joint "can" β is the flange width b1 to "can" diameter do ratio kp is the influence function for additional stress in the chord. For an axial loading the flange connections can interact such that the connection strength (I to tubular) is not twice the strength of one flange connection but: NRd . however. Non-Stiffened Connections For truss type frames. see Lecture 15A. see Lecture 13. .12 amounting to 60% of the yield value.12 The static design resistance for factored load of the unstiffened connection is determined by the strength of the flange to tube connection.Lecture 15A. the beam to deck leg connection has to transfer mainly axial loading and an unstiffened connection. the axial force N is derived from N = Mcw/(h1 -t1) as shown in Figure 5. If fatigue loading has to be checked. however. If sufficient deformation capacity exists.2. Consequently the beam to deck leg connection has to be checked for: NSd ≤ NRd Mipsd ≤ NR.t1) Page 9 of 19 Page 10 of 19 .

similarly as discussed in Section 5. The connection with the deck beams can be flexible in the longitudinal direction if these columns have only to withstand lateral loading. No reduction has to be applied if the loads are acting in the same sense. Page 11 of 19 Page 12 of 19 . However the connections with overlapped braces as shown in Figures 8c and 8d are stronger. The bending moment resistance is here determined by the connection of the bottom flange to the tubular can. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN BEAMS AND COLUMNS Columns between decks are necessary where external surfaces of the modules are clad. even with different depths. for multi-planar loading with loads and moments acting in the opposite sense. although initial investigations indicate that this may be conservative [10]. If. Here the web of the plate girder is ended before the flange to allow a tubular section to be welded between the flanges. the connections with a gap between the braces are preferred. maintenance and fabrication. Lecture 15A. and the columns can be welded to the flanges. can be easily welded to this tubular section. the chord should be stiffened to obtain a full strength connection. with possible connecting side beams and an extended cantilever.12 The "joint can" should have about the same diameter and thickness as the column.Lecture 15A. or where cantilevers or laydown areas are provided. Figure 8 shows some connection details for lightly loaded trusses. The diagonals are tubular. TRUSS CONNECTIONS Since the chords of the trusses are part of the deck floors. the connections should have the same strength as the column or they should have sufficient deformation capacity. all have their advantages and disadvantages with regard to material costs. 6. or H sections. From a fabrication point of view. Figure 7 shows a possible full strength detail for columns connected to a plate girder. These connections generally do not develop a strength equal to or larger than the yield strength of the diagonals. The connection should be designed in such a way that fabrication and inspection will be easily possible. it should be kept in mind that intermediate beams may have to be connected to the chord at this location. Consequently the connection should have sufficient deformation capacity.12 Currently. Where these diagonals are connected to an I section chord. they are almost always made from an I or H-section. rectangular hollow sections. the same 30% reduction in joint strength as before is recommended. In Figure 7 longitudinal beams and a cantilever beam are also connected to this can. they are used to transfer loadings from cantilevers to both decks. however. in exceptional cases. However experimental evidence is only available for the connection according to Figure 8a. 7. welded box sections are used. Ibeam sections.

brace shear failure at the flange connection g.8. weld failure (to be avoided by full strength welds) h.8 and Appendix K. Since it is difficult to show that sufficient deformation capacity exists due to a lack of research evidence.2). chord web crippling under a compression brace c. For connections according to Figure 8a. Weld failure and lamellar tearing should always be avoided by choosing full strength welds and proper selection of the steel grade and quality.2 of Eurocode 3.b = 2 (be1 + be2) tp The strength of the connection is thus given by: N2sin θ2 = Aeff. chord web shear between the diagonals of a gap joint d. In these cases where the joint strength is lower than the brace member strength.Lecture 15A. be1 and be2 are given in Eurocode 3 (6.g. As an additional check the chord cross-section between the braces has to be checked for shear and shear in combination with axial loading and bending moments.12 The strength of the connection for axial loads at the chord intersection (cross-section A) is governed by the effective width area: Aeff. however one example is given for a connection between tubular braces and an I-section chord as shown in Figure 9.6. sufficient rotation capacity should be available if the bending moments are neglected. see Table K. either the bending moments have to be incorporated in the strength assessment or the joint is stiffened to such an extent that the joint strength is larger than the brace member strength.b fyo The effective widths bm1.e: a. depending on the geometry.12 The connection strength may be governed by various criteria. brace (diagonal) effective width f. The chord and braces have furthermore to satisfy the limits for d/t and h/t to avoid local buckling.c fyo and N2sin θ2 = Aeff. lamellar tearing (to be avoided by TTP material for the flange). chord web buckling e. Within the scope of this lecture it is not possible to deal with all connections in detail. as shown in Figure 10. bm2. Lecture 15A. Eurocode 3 [3] provides design strength formulae which can be used in a modified way for the connections of Figure 8b to 8d. Table K.8. chord web strength b. i.c = 2 (bm1 tp + bm2 tw) For the brace intersection the effective width is given by: Aeff. Page 13 of 19 Page 14 of 19 . e.

for example. padeyes or trunnions.87 d (tL + 2 tE) fy Page 15 of 19 Page 16 of 19 . The SWL is the least of the following values of Ni: N1 = 0.12 Lecture 15A. It is important that these lifting devices are designed in such a way that they can be connected to the deck structure at a later stage when the precise location of the centre of gravity of the module. can be provided for this purpose. SPECIAL CONNECTIONS The previous sections dealt with the most common types of connection. for example. and the lifting method. are known. however. shows the connection between two panels of stiffened plates.12 Special provisions are necessary for lifting the modules. other types of connections may be necessary. as shown in Figure 12. which are presented in the SWL (safe working load) format. 8. This procedure can be used for modules which are designed using the stressed skin method. depending on the platform layout.Lecture 15A. Figure 11. Strength of padeyes is often assessed by means of "Lloyds" formulae.d) tE) fy N3 = 0.08 (c tL + (D . Allowance is made for welding tolerances by welding the ends of the stringers after the fitting together of the panels. Here both panels are made by (semi) automatic welding processes.60 (a tL + 2 b tE) fy N2 = 1. nowadays these devices are sometimes made of cast steel.

Proceedings International Symposium on Tubular Structures. 2.Lecture 15A. Conference Weld Failures. to a large extent.. load out and installation engineers is important. American Institute of Steel Construction. and Wardenier.1. REFERENCES [1] API-RP2A "Recommended Practice for Planning.D. "The Fatigue Behaviour of Welded Splices with and without Mouseholes in IPE 400 and HEM 320 beams". • In general. for deck trusses can be economical. pp. Puthli. General Rules and Rules for Buildings. instead of beams. 1985. • The structural designer has to consider the fabrication sequence. mechanical. Delft University Press.3. access platforms and equipment supports. 1989 [2] AISC "Specification for the Design. CEN. J. [6] Kurobane. J. This shows that the use of RHS. economical solutions are mainly found for smaller platform sizes and for secondary steelwork such as staircase towers. J. 9.4. Delft. November 1990 [11] DNV "Rules for the Design. 1980 [3] Eurocode 3: "Design of Steel Structures": ENV 1993-1-1: Part 1. R. due to restrictions in available sizes. H. G. van der.J.D. [4] Dijkstra. coordination between structural. Chicago. 1989. most connections can be designed with the basic formulae used for tubular connections and beam-to-column connections. Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings".2nd edition". March 1989. Designing and Constructing Fixed • • 1. 11 . 1982 [10] Broek.S. Puthli. R. the consequences of the choice of material grade and quality on the fabrication. J. UK.0 ≤ and if ≤ 8. electrical. 1992.05 Tubular connections are not dealt with in this lecture since these are discussed in more detail in Lectures 13. the conditions for welding and inspection (e. and the various load conditions. Paper 14 Int. American Petroleum Institute. London [5] Lindner. fabrication. IIW doc XV-701-89 then put tL + 2 tE = d in the above formulae. XV488-81/XIII-1004-81. London. "New Developments and Practices in Tubular Joint Design". However. Construction and Inspection of Fixed offshore Structures" 1977 (with corrections 1982) [12] Lloyd's Register "Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Fixed Offshore Installation". for the layout. reference should be made to Lectures 8. built up from stiffened plate panels. Delft. London. • • tE not to exceed tL/2 dHOLE/dPIN ≤ 1.3 and 8.S.0 Offshore Platforms". F. and Wardenier. Y. and Gietzeit. 719-727 [9] Wardenier.. A. 18th Edition.2 and 13.. Wardenier. 1981 [7] Rink. R.12 where the following limitations apply: Lecture 15A. Page 17 of 19 Page 18 of 19 . • Recently a study has been carried out to investigate the use of RHS in deck structures [16]. on the coordination between the specialists for the various disciplines. IIW doc.g. Vol. Background information is given in [1. June 1991. "Zur Tragfähigkeit ausgeklinkter Träger" Stahlbauwz. Delft University Press. T. J. use can be made of the information in the previous sections. November 1988. International Institute of Welding. and Winkel.D. Wardenier.12 10.0 ≤ 1. II. Proceedings International Conference "Welded Structures 90". de "Numerical Investigation into the Static Strength of Stiffened I-Beam to Column Connections". "Hollow Section Joints". [8] Hertogs. For offshore deck structures. "The Influence of Multiplanar Loading on the Strength and Stiffness of Plate to Tubular Column Connections". Proceedings ASME/OMAE Conference.15].A. CONCLUDING SUMMARY • The optimal design of offshore deck structures depends.Predominantly Statically Loaded . O. 9. For living quarters and helicopter decks. July 1988 [13] IIW-XV-E "Design Recommendations for Hollow Section Joints . "Stress Concentration Factors in Plate to Tube Connections". can it be welded properly?).

Proceedings of the International Conference on Steel and Aluminium Structures. Proceedings of the third IIW International Symposium on Tubular Structures.P. P. "Structural Hollow Sections for Topside Constructions". de. J. London.12 [14] UEG "Design of Tubular Joints for Offshore Structures".. v. 1990. Paul. 4 11. and Wardenier.M. ADDITIONAL READING 1.. A.Lecture 15A.d..W. "The Design of Amoco's 'Rijn' Production Platform". C. D. Valk. Steel Structures 3. 1985 (3 volumes) [15] Voss. D. "Lasteinleitung in geschweisste Vollwandträger aus Stahl im Hinblick auf die Bemessung von Lagersteifen". and Wardenier. R. Elsvier. 8-10 July 1987. Cardiff. Pal. "The Static Strength of Circular Multiplanar X-joints". September 1989 Page 19 of 19 . Lappeenranta. v. J.C. 1983 [16] Guy. A.J.. UK.D.D-Thesis.A.H. Schaap. UEG. Ph. Vries. TU Berlin D83. Marshall. Steel Construction Today. 1991 2. Vol.. H.d. Dague. "Design of Welded Tubular Connections: Basis and Use of AWS Provisions".C.

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