Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller | Control System | Valve

PID A/D

U
F

RAM

GLOBAL SUPPLIERS OF TURBINE

ID

AND COMPRESSOR CONTROL SYSTEMS

IM301

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller
for Axial and Centrifugal Compressors
Publication IM301 (6.1.3)
Product Version: 756-004 September 2005

Documentation Feedback Form
4725 121st Street Des Moines, Iowa 50323, U.S.A. Phone: (515) 270-0857 Fax: (515) 270-1331 Web: www.cccglobal.com

© 1987-2003, Compressor Controls Corporation. All rights reserved. This manual is for the use of Compressor Controls Corporation and is not to be reproduced without written permission. Air Miser, Guardian, Recycle Trip, Reliant, Safety On, SureLink, TTC, Total Train Control, TrainTools, TrainView, TrainWare, Vanguard, Vantage, WOIS, and the TTC and impeller logos are registered trademarks; and COMMAND, TrainPanel, and the Series 3++ and Series 5 logos are trademarks of Compressor Controls Corporation. Other company and product names used in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. The control methods and products discussed in this manual may be covered by one or more of the following patents, which have been granted to Compressor Controls Corporation by the United States Patent and Trademark Office: 4,949,276 5,622,042 5,879,133 6,116,258 6,494,672 5,347,467 5,699,267 5,908,462 6,217,288 6,503,048 5,508,943 5,743,715 5,951,240 6,317,655 5,609,465 5,752,378 5,967,742 6,332,336

Many of these methods have also been patented in other countries, and additional patent applications are pending. The purpose of this manual is only to describe the configuration and use of the described products. It is not sufficiently detailed to enable outside parties to duplicate or simulate their operation. The completeness and accuracy of this document is not guaranteed, and nothing herein should be construed as a warranty or guarantee, expressed or implied, regarding the use or applicability of the described products. CCC reserves the right to alter the designs or specifications of its products at any time and without notice.

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller

3

Document Scope
This manual tells how to configure, tune, and operate a Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller. It does not tell how to install or maintain it (see the Series 3 Plus Hardware Reference manual [IM300/H]), nor how to program a DCS to use its Modbus interface (see the Series 3 Plus Modbus Reference manual [IM300/M]). Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix F summarizes this controller’s applications and features. describes the operation of the Antisurge Controller. tells how to configure the analog and discrete inputs and outputs and serial communication ports. tells how the Antisurge Controller calculates the values of various process conditions. tells how to set up the proximity-to-surge calculation and fallbacks. tells how to set up the algorithms that calculate various control responses and select the required recycle flow rate. describes the additional features used to protect multisection and networked compressors from surge. tells how the valve position and actuator control signal are derived. tells how to set up the Antisurge Controller’s automatic sequencing, manual operation, and redundant control features. describes each Antisurge Controller configuration parameter. describes the controller test procedures that can be executed from the Engineering Panel. describes each fA mode of the standard Antisurge Controller that is currently recommended for general use. Appendix FS provides basic documentation of application functions that are not recommended for general use. defines and references various topics discussed in this manual. lists and describes the default data items that the Series 3 Plus OPC Server provides for this controller. lists this controller’s Modbus coils, discrete bits, and registers. describes the controller’s Front-Panel operator interface. describes the changes to each standard release of this controller. lists the configuration and tuning parameters by key sequence, organized by data group and page. lists the configuration and tuning parameters by name, grouped according to the associated controller feature.
IM301 (6.1.3)

Glossary/Index DS301/D DS301/M DS301/O DS301/V FM301/C FM301/L

Finally, the following supporting documents are included at the back of this manual:

September 2005

4

Contents

Document Conventions
The document title appears in the header of each odd-numbered page, while the chapter or appendix title appears in the header of even-numbered pages. Odd-page footers list the document number and revision level [IM301 (6.1.3)], while even-page footers provide the publication date (September 2005). Acronyms are defined in the sections of this manual that discuss the corresponding subjects, by placing them in parentheses following the spelled-out terms they represent. As an example, a three-letter acronym (TLA) is a way to represent a three-word subject by combining and capitalizing the initial letters of those three words. Most are also listed under Symbols and Acronyms on page 10. Cross-references to other documents specify a section and chapter, while cross-references between chapters of this document specify a page number. References that do not specify a location are internal to the chapter in which they appear. In computerized versions of this manual, all such references are hot-linked to their target locations and appear in green. Entries in the tables of contents, illustration and table lists, and index are also hot-linked but are not green. Attention may be drawn to information of special importance by using this text styling or one of the following structures:

Note: Caution: Warning!

Notes contain important information that needs to be emphasized. Cautions contain instructions that, if not followed, could lead to irreversible damage to equipment or loss of data. Warnings contain instructions that, if not followed, could lead to personal injury. The appearance of this electrical hazard warning symbol on CCC equipment or the word Warning appearing in this manual indicates dangerously-high voltages are present inside its enclosure. To reduce the risk of fire or electrical shock, do not open the enclosure or attempt to access areas where you are not instructed to do so. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. The appearance of this user caution symbol on CCC equipment or the word Caution appearing in this manual indicates damage to the equipment or injury to the operator could occur if operational procedures are not followed. To reduce such risks, follow all procedures or steps as instructed.

September 2005

IM301 (6.1.3)

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller

5

Table of Contents
Document Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Document Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Table of Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 List of Figures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Symbols and Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Chapter 1

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Major Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proximity to Surge Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fallback Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Responses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limiting Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loop Decoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equivalent Flow Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Automatic or Manual Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Redundant Controller Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardware Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analog and Discrete I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Valve Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Serial Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Configuration and Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 19 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 26 26 26 27 29 29 29 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 33 33

Chapter 2

Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Operator Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuous Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surge Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Performance Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sequencing Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stop State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purge State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manual Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Initiating Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restoring Automatic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Manual Override. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

September 2005

IM301 (6.1.3)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Tracking States . . . . . . . . . . .43 Discrete Inputs.50 Chapter 4 Calculated Variables . .40 Measured Variables. . . . . . . .39 Signal Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Redundant Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Compensating Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Analog Inputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Serial Communication Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Dual Flow Transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Displayed Net Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Modbus Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Analog-to-Digital Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Flow Rates. . .52 Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Serial Communication Errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Hardware Options . . . . . . . . . . .52 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Analog Outputs . . .59 Calculated Variable Displays. .56 Discharge Flow Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Reduced Flow . . . . . . .45 External Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 ID Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Control Valve Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Mass Flow Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Chapter 3 Input/Output Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Disabling Input Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Calculated Flow Measurement . . . . . . . . . .57 Aftercooler Flow Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Discrete Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Contents Fault Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Fault Relays. . . . . . . . .42 Output Loopback Test . . . .42 Valve Position Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Output Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Head . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Process Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Serial Ports . . . . . .60 Displayed Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Displayed Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Transmitter Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Compensating Pressure .1. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Function 5 Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Limit Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surge Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 7 Chapter 5 Proximity to Surge . . . . . . . . . . . . . Auxiliary Limiting . . . . . . . . . Valve-Sharing Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Antisurge PI Response. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filtering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loop Decoupling . . . . . . . . . Compression Ratio Fallback . . . . . . . Pressure Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tight Shut-Off Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Antisurge Control Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General PI Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fallback Strategies. . . Default Output Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minimum Flow Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Derivative Response . Adjacent Section Flow Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PI and RT Signal Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recycle Trip Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . .3) . Surge Control Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Characterizing Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable-Geometry Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 64 64 65 66 67 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 70 70 71 72 73 73 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 78 78 79 80 82 82 83 83 83 Chapter 6 Antisurge Control . . . . . . . . Dead Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fixed-Geometry Compressors . . . . . Polytropic Head Fallback . . . . . . . . Surge Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety On Response . . . . . . . . . Safety On Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Performance Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Application Function. . . . . . . . . . Speed Fallback. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Control Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recycle Trip Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sigma Fallback. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Stop State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Manual Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Alternate Parameter Sets .213 September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . .100 Remote Low Output Clamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 Glossary/Index. . . . . .103 Operating State Request Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Primary Capacity Control. . . . . . . . .106 Redundant Tracking . .106 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix F Appendix FS Configuration Parameters . . . . . . . . .97 Intended Valve Position.91 Networked Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 fA Mode Supplement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 Output Reverse . . . .3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 Recycle Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106 Switching Conditions . . .85 Reported Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Valve Sharing . . . . . . . . .86 Upstream Section Flow Known . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Contents Chapter 7 Multi-Compressor Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Valve Dead Band Compensation. .95 Chapter 8 Output Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 Output Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 Application Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Operating State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 Chapter 9 States and Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Valve Sharing Shutdowns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Startup Configuration. . . . . . .98 Valve Flow Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Equivalent Flow Measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . .100 Tight Shut Off Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Multisection Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 Downstream Section Flow Known . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Port 1 Balancing. . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Shutdown Configuration . . . . . . . . . .99 Output Clamps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Cold-Recycle Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Port 2 Balancing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 Actuator Control Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 Controller Test Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Proximity to surge for a fixed-geometry compressor . . . 60 Analog inputs required by each fA Mode . . Functions for OUT2 . . . . . . . 55 Compensating ∆Po for a suction control valve . . . . 80 Imaginary orifice coefficients and equivalent flow measurements . . . . . 97 Valve flow characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 42 44 46 Available calculated variable readouts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Proximity to surge for a variable-geometry compressor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Communication with other controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multi-section compressor with sidestreams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Defining the minimum safe flow as a function of head. . . . . . . . . . . Basic compressor control system . . . 66 Typical control lines for antisurge control responses . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Dead-zone error (e) as a function of the DEViation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 List of Tables Table 2-1 Table 3-1 Table 3-2 Table 3-3 Table 3-4 Table 4-1 Table F-1 Operating states. . . . . . . . . . . Setting Primary Capacity Control Thresholds . . . . . 98 Valve dead band compensation. . . . . . Multi-section compressor with shared recycle valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculating equivalent flows when discharge flow is measured. . . . 151 September 2005 IM301 (6. Simplified P&ID for compressors operating in series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 15 16 16 17 18 20 Analog input signal processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Antisurge Controller functional diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discrete input functions . . . . . . . . . 78 Typical Recycle Trip response . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 9 List of Figures Figure 1-1 Figure 1-2 Figure 1-3 Figure 1-4 Figure 1-5 Figure 1-6 Figure 1-7 Figure 3-1 Figure 3-2 Figure 4-1 Figure 4-2 Figure 5-1 Figure 5-2 Figure 5-3 Figure 6-1 Figure 6-2 Figure 6-3 Figure 7-1 Figure 7-2 Figure 7-3 Figure 7-4 Figure 8-1 Figure 8-2 Figure 8-3 Dynamic compressors have at least two control elements . . . . . . . . 85 88 90 92 Output transformations. . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Using dual flow transmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculating equivalent flows when suction flow is measured. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simplified P&ID for compressors operating in parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3) . . . . . . 30 Available symbols for measured variable labels . . . . . . . . . . . . Discrete output functions . . . . . . . . . . . . .

sometimes called Total b Compressor Controls Corporation analog input CHannels Central Processing Unit Control Relays (discrete outputs) Derivative Control Response accumulated Integral Control Response Integral Control Response Loop-Decoupling Control Response Proportional Control Response Primary Capacity Control Response Recycle Trip Control Response Safety On Control Response Cyclic Redundancy Checksum Cold-Recycle (flow) Indicating Controller Control Variable or Check Valve Discrete Inputs Distributed Control System distance between operating point and specified control line distance between operating point and surge control line parallel compressor load-balancing variable IM301 (6.10 Contents Symbols and Acronyms Many of the terms and phrases represented by the following symbols and acronyms are defined in the Glossary/Index (see page 213): α ηp σ a A ACR ACS AD1 to AD8 b CCC CH1 to CH8 CPU CR1 to CR5 CRD CRI ∆CRI CRLD CRP CRPC CRRT CRSO CRC CRIC CV D1 to D7 DCS dev DEV DEV' September 2005 guide vane angle polytropic efficiency polytropic head exponent mechanical power loss series load-sharing domain selection variable Antisurge Control Response Actuator Control Signal Analog-to-Digital variables width coefficient for margin of safety.1.3) .

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller devRT devSL devSO devTS DO1 to DO5 DPT e EEPROM ESD fA FIC FIOM FT FY GTIC Hp hr I/O I/P IRF IT IVP jr J k L LD LED LSIC M N Ne distance between operating point and Recycle Trip control line distance between operating point and surge limit line distance between operating point and Safety On control line distance between operating point and Tight Shutoff control line Discrete Outputs (control relays) Differential Pressure Transmitter error (control loop deviation) Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory Emergency ShutDown Application Function Flow Indicating Controller Field Input/Output Module Flow Transmitter Flow Transducer Gas Turbine (fuel) Indicating Controller polytropic Head reduced polytropic head Input and Output circuits Current-to-Pneumatic signal converter Intended Recycle Flow Current Transmitter Intended Valve Position reduced power consumption power consumption isentropic exponent series compressor load-balancing variable Loop Decoupling Light Emitting Diode 11 Load-Sharing Indicating Controller (slave Performance Controller) Molecular weight.3) . occasionally Motor rotational speed (generally. the Number of revolutions per unit time) equivalent speed September 2005 IM301 (6.1.

12 Contents Ne.ac ∆Po.s ∆Po.1.d ∆Po.r ∆Po.ss Ps Pss PCB PI PIC PID P&ID POC psi PT PV1 to PV8 Q equivalent speed relative to suction temperature Normally-Open/Normally-Closed Operating Point Output Failure analog OUTputs Pressure Aftercooler Pressure Compensating Pressure for mass flows Pressure rise across a Compressor Discharge Pressure Discharge Header Pressure Pressure at the flow measuring element Pressure drop across an Orifice plate (flow measurement) Flow measurement downstream from an aftercooler Calculated flow measurement Discharge flow measurement Reported flow measurement Suction flow measurement Sidestream flow measurement Suction Pressure SideStream Pressure Printed Circuit Board Proportional-Integral Pressure Indicating Controller Proportional-Integral-Derivative Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Performance Override Control pounds per square inch Pressure Transmitter Process Variables volumetric flow September 2005 IM301 (6.s NO/NC OP OutF OUT1 and OUT2 P Pac Pc ∆Pc Pd Pdh Pfe ∆Po ∆Po.3) .c ∆Po.

DEV) Slope of the operating point line relative to the surge limit line.1. represents proximity to surge limit Surge Control Line Surge Control Margin Station Control Signal Surge Limit Surge Limit Line Safety Margin Safety On® Safety On Line Safety On Margin Speed Transmitter Steam Turbine (speed) Indicating Controller Signal Variables Temperature AfterCooler Temperature Compensating Temperature for mass flows Discharge Temperature IM301 (6.d qr.3) .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Qd qr qr.s Qs R RAM Rc Rt RCS rpm RT RTL RTM S Ss SCL SCM SCS SL SLL SM SO SOL SOM ST STIC SV1 to SV8 T Tac Tc Td September 2005 13 volumetric flow in discharge reduced volumetric flow reduced volumetric flow in discharge reduced volumetric flow in suction volumetric flow in Suction universal gas law constant Random Access Memory Compression Ratio Temperature Ratio Redundant Control Selector revolutions per minute Recycle Trip® Recycle Trip Line Recycle Trip Margin proximity to the surge control line (1 .

1. also the argument and result of a characterizing function [Y = f(X)] compressibility. U5 UIC UsrQ V Vac Vdc W Wr X. also linear (Z-axis) position position Transmitter September 2005 IM301 (6. Y Z ZT Suction Temperature SideStream Temperature Temperature Indicating Controller Tight Shutoff Line Tight Shutoff Margin Temperature Transmitter Total Train Control™ User-defined argument variables for control line (f4 ) and general (f5 ) characterizing functions Antisurge Controller (User-defined multi-variable Indicating Controller) net mass flow rate Voltage alternating-current Voltage direct-current Voltage mass flow rate.14 Contents Ts Tss TIC TSL TSM TT TTC U4 . also Watt recycle mass flow rate generic coordinates for a compressor map.3) .

September 2005 IM301 (6. In the example shown above (Figure 1-2). geometry (guide vane angle).Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 15 Chapter 1 Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual Overview This chapter summarizes this controller’s applications and features. one to regulate its through flow and one to regulate its antisurge (recycle or blow-off) flow. Applications FY FT PT TT TT PT PT PIC UIC FY PIC — Performance Controller UIC — Antisurge Controller Figure 1-2 Basic compressor control system In a single-section compressor application.3) . the Performance Controller regulates a constant speed compressor’s discharge pressure by positioning a throttle valve in the suction line. and inlet conditions are fixed or variable. Blowoff Recycle Discharge Suction Suction Discharge Figure 1-1 Dynamic compressors have at least two control elements As shown in Figure 1-1. a centrifugal or axial compressor requires at least two control loops. gas composition. an Antisurge Controller can be combined with a Performance Controller to provide precise capacity control with minimum recycle or blowoff whether the speed.1.

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controllers can protect such a machine even when it has only one recycle or blowoff valve (see Figure 1-3) or the flow through some sections cannot be directly measured (see Figure 1-4). each section should be protected by its own controller.16 Chapter 1: Overview FT PT PT FT PT PT FY UIC 1 Port 1 UIC 2 UIC1 — Valve-Sharing Master Antisurge Controller UIC2 — Valve-Sharing Companion Antisurge Controller Figure 1-3 Multi-section compressor with shared recycle valve while the Antisurge Controller opens the recycle valve just enough to prevent surge. especially one that has sidestreams. FT PT PT FT PT FT PT UIC 1 Port 1 UIC 2 Port 1 UIC 3 FY FY FY Figure 1-4 Multi-section compressor with sidestreams September 2005 IM301 (6.3) . To adequately protect a multisection compressor.1.

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 17 FY FY FT PT TT PT TT FT PT TT PT TT PT SIC Port 1 LSIC Port 1 UIC FY SIC Port 1 LSIC Port 1 UIC FY PIC Port 2 Port 2 LSIC — Load-Sharing Controller SIC — Speed Controller PIC — Station Pressure Controller UIC — Antisurge Controller Figure 1-5 Simplified P&ID for compressors operating in series When several compressors are connected in series or in parallel to achieve a higher flow rate or compression ratio. In a parallel loadsharing application. a Performance Controller can serve as an auxiliary limiting control loop for an Antisurge Controller. each compressor or compressor section is equipped with a dedicated Antisurge Controller. If a recycle valve would also be the best control element for another limiting variable. In such systems (see Figure 1-5 and Figure 1-6). networks of Antisurge and Performance Controllers can distribute the total load and prevent surge with a minimum of recycling. In all of these applications.3) . September 2005 IM301 (6. Antisurge Controllers can also provide limiting control of their maximum discharge and minimum suction pressures. Antisurge Controllers can also be used to regulate the flow through a cold recycle loop.1.

1.3) .18 Chapter 1: Overview FY FY FT PT TT PT TT SIC LSIC UIC Port 1 FY Port 2 Hot Recycle Cold Recycle PT TT FY FY PIC TIC Port 1 CRIC Hot Recycle Port 2 Port 1 SIC LSIC UIC FY FY FY FT PT TT PT TT CRIC — Cold Recycle Controller LSIC — Load-Sharing Controller PIC — Station Pressure Controller SIC — Fuel Controller TIC — Temperature Controller UIC — Antisurge Controller Figure 1-6 Simplified P&ID for compressors operating in parallel September 2005 IM301 (6.

operator workstations.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 19 Major Features This software revision (756-004) offers the following features: • Proximity to Surge Calculations that are invariant to changing process conditions • Fallback Strategies that can provide continued protection when the analog and serial communication inputs required by the chosen proximity-to-surge calculation fail • Closed.3) . September 2005 IM301 (6. and test its accuracy • Serial Communication with companion Series 3 Plus Controllers. and Modbus host systems • Configuration and Tuning from either the Engineering Panel (from which three alternate parameter sets can be stored and recalled) or from a computer workstation Please refer to the Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Revision History [DS301/V] for information about previous revisions.and open-loop Control Responses that collectively protect against surge-induced compressor damage and process upsets without sacrificing energy efficiency or system capacity • Limiting Control features that can increase the recycle or blowoff rate as needed to maintain minimum suction and maximum discharge pressures and to help regulate a Performance Controller’s capacity or performance override control variable • Loop Decoupling that minimizes adverse interactions between a compressor’s capacity and antisurge control loops • Valve Sharing and Equivalent Flow Calculations for multisection or series compressor applications • Load Sharing for compressors operating in series or in parallel • Operating States that protect the compressor while it is running or stopped and during startups and shutdowns • Automatic or Manual Operation from the Front Panel or a host computer or control system • Redundant Controller Tracking that allows one Antisurge Controller to serve as an on-line backup to another • Basic or Extended I/O Hardware Configurations • Analog and Discrete I/O ports that can be assigned functions appropriate to each application • Control Valve Features that adapt the analog output to virtually any recycle valve. allow either that signal or its low clamp to track an analog input.1.

1.3) .20 Chapter 1: Overview Analog Inputs Calculated and Process Variables Pd Ps Application Function (fA Mode) Ss Safety On Surge Detector n · b2 SP2 SP3 · f4(X) 1–S DEV Dead Zone e2 e3 e1 S dSs /dt b b1 b3 · Td0 · dSs /dt Derivative Response Recycle Trip Response Valve-Sharing PI Algorithm Valve-Sharing and Performance Override PIs Loop Decoupling Interacting PIDs & RTs ACR (IRF) RTs Primary Capacity Control Station Controller Control Signal Parallel ACSs Recycle Balancing Valve Flow Characterizer IVP Remote Low Output Clamp Valve Dead Band Compensation Output Clamps Manual Tight Shut Off Output Reverse OUT Readout Output Tracking or ACS Figure 1-7 Antisurge Controller functional diagram September 2005 IM301 (6.

which quickly stops the surging and prevents its reoccurrence (see Safety On Response on page 75).1. • If the combined PI and derivative responses fail to maintain an adequate margin of safety. • Fast disturbances are countered by temporarily raising the surge control margin when the compressor is moving rapidly toward its surge limit. energy-wasting surge control margin: • A proportional-integral response protects the compressor from small. Application Function on page 63. and gas pressure. September 2005 IM301 (6. each of which embodies a different set of simplifying assumptions to define a coordinate system in which the surge limit is invariant to process changes (see Calculated Variables on page 51. if unanticipated circumstances do produce a surge.3) . Fallback Strategies The Antisurge Controller also offers numerous fallback strategies for calculating proximity to surge when analog input or serial port failures preclude using the selected fA mode. guide vane angle. additional limiting loops can be implemented using companion Performance Controllers (see Auxiliary Limiting on page 83 and Performance Override on page 83). flow rate. If there are other process constraints that can be satisfied by opening the antisurge valve. which will increase the recycle rate only when operating close to that limit (see Derivative Response on page 74). This enables it to provide continued compressor protection until the failed inputs can be restored (see Fallback Strategies on page 67). the surge control margin is permanently increased. rotational speed. and composition. it is a function of compression ratio. Control Responses Limiting Control The recycle rate can be increased as needed to limit the discharge and suction pressures (see Pressure Limiting on page 82). • Finally. temperature. The Antisurge Controller can use a variety of functions to calculate proximity to surge. slow disturbances when it is moving toward surge and closes the antisurge valve when the machine is moving away from its surge limit (see Antisurge PI Response on page 79). Instead. an open-loop response ratchets the control valve open to provide the rapid increase in flow needed to prevent surge (see Recycle Trip Response on page 80). The Antisurge Controller employs a unique combination of control responses that can prevent surge without needlessly upsetting your process or requiring a large. and Appendix F). a controller must accurately determine how close the compressor is operating to its surge limit.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 21 Proximity to Surge Calculations In order to prevent surge with a minimum of recycling. But that distance is not something that can be directly measured.

When the flow through one section of a compressor (or group of compressors operating in series) cannot be measured. its Antisurge Controller can calculate proximity to surge by combining a sidestream or recycle flow measurement with the flow reported by a companion controller protecting an adjacent compressor section (see Equivalent Flow Measurements on page 85). and/or speed inputs or by a companion controller. pressure.3) . the Antisurge Controllers can also equalize the recycle rates (see Recycle Balancing on page 94) and a dedicated Antisurge Controller can regulate the flow through a common recycle cooler (see Cold-Recycle Control on page 95). the Antisurge Controller can either ramp the recycle valve open or open it as quickly September 2005 IM301 (6. The Antisurge Controller participates by holding its control valve in a position that minimizes the risk of surge (see Operating State on page 103): • The compressor’s status can be monitored via flow. • When a shutdown is initiated or detected. Such control systems: • vary the compressors’ performance and recycle rates as needed to regulate the Station Controller’s capacity control variable (see Primary Capacity Control on page 92). For parallel compressor systems. • raise the recycle rates to limit the station performance override variable (see Performance Override on page 83). and • prevent any compressor from recycling until all are operating at their surge limits. and balance their loads when operating at a distance from those limits (see Load Balancing on page 93). Networks of Performance and Antisurge Controllers can be used to regulate and protect a group of compressors operating in series or in parallel.1. Valve Sharing Equivalent Flow Calculations Load Sharing Operating States Compressor startups and shutdowns are sequenced primarily by the Performance Controller. you should still install a dedicated Antisurge Controller for each section. The controller that actually manipulates the recycle valve can then keep it open enough to protect whichever section is closest to its surge limit (see Valve Sharing on page 91).22 Chapter 1: Overview Loop Decoupling The controller can counter the potentially destabilizing effects that can result from interactions between the various control loops regulating a single compressor by adjusting its control signal in response to changes in the control responses of companion controllers (see Loop Decoupling on page 83). When a multisection compressor (or group of compressors operating in series) has only one recycle or blowoff valve.

• When a startup is initiated or detected. while OUT2 can drive a remote display for a user-selected variable (see Analog Outputs on page 42).3) . computer control. However. If that controller’s fault relay de-energizes. in order to minimize the possibility of back flow and reverse rotation. Dual redundancy (that is. the system bumplessly transfers control of your process to the back-up unit. Analog OUT1 is usually used to position a recycle or blow-off valve. Although the inputs for most features are fixed. the recycle valve position can be directly controlled from the Front Panel or by a Modbus host (see Manual Operation on page 32). In contrast. It will then hold that valve fully open as long as the compressor is stopped.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 23 as possible. its operation requires little (if any) operator intervention. One or two of the five control relays can be set up to signal hardware and self-test failures. the others can be assigned a variety of controller and process conditions (see Discrete Outputs on page 45 and Fault Relays on page 45). Redundant Controller Tracking Hardware Configurations The Antisurge Controller can use either of two compressor controller configurations (see Hardware Options on page 37). In a typical application (see Redundant Control on page 36).1. Automatic or Manual Operation Because the Antisurge Controller is an automatic protective device. The backup controller then tracks (that is. the two controllers are interconnected via a Redundant Control Selector (RCS) that connects the control element to the primary controller. Each of the eight analog inputs (see Analog Inputs on page 38) is tested by comparing it to individually-defined alarm limits. one-to-one fault tolerance) is a standard feature of most Series 3 Plus Controllers. monitors and duplicates) the operating state and control response of the primary controller via the Port 1 serial communications link. In addition. the functions of the seven Analog and Discrete I/O September 2005 IM301 (6. The basic configuration provides back-panel terminals for its I/O circuits. while the extended I/O option uses external wiring modules. and input/output features (see Continuous Operation on page 26). It can also fully close the recycle valve so purge gas can be forced through the compressor. both its status and your process can be monitored using various Front Panel. the Antisurge Controller’s normal operation will slowly close its control valve to a position that minimizes recycle flow as efficiently as possible. ready to take over instantly if the first should fail. This means you can install one Antisurge Controller as an on-line “hot” backup to another. some can use any appropriate or otherwise unused channels.

This can be done from the Engineering Panel or a computer running one of our configuration programs. Each Antisurge Controller is adapted to its specific application by assigning values to its configuration and tuning parameters (see Appendix A). up to three sets of alternate parameter values can be stored. Control Valve Features The actuator control signal can be clamped. Loop Decoupling. Valve Sharing. and Redundant Controller Tracking). Operating States. Some of our support programs can also change the configuration and tuning of the controller.3) . Configuration and Tuning September 2005 IM301 (6.1. and compensated for a deadband or low-flow leakage (see Output Variables on page 97).24 Chapter 1: Overview discrete inputs (see Discrete Inputs on page 44) are predefined and cannot be changed. determining which one is in use. Equivalent Flow Calculations. adapted to a direct or reverse. linear. or equal-percentage valve. quick-opening. The controller can also detect an excessive deviation of the actuator control signal from its intended value (see Output Loopback Test on page 42) or of the recycle valve from its intended position (see Valve Position Test on page 43). This allows a host control system or a computer running controller support software (such as our COMMAND system) to monitor or even control the operation of your compressor. Engineering Panel procedures are provided for defining these alternate sets. • Ports 3 and 4 are used for computer communication and control (see Continuous Operation on page 26 and the Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Modbus Data Sheet [DS301/M]) using Modbus RTU commands. and switching to a different one (see Alternate Parameter Sets on page 106). Load Sharing. Serial Communication All Series 3 Plus Controllers have four Serial Ports (see page 48): • Ports 1 and 2 are used to coordinate their actions with other CCC controllers (see Limiting Control. If your application requires routine changes to a controller’s configuration or tuning. The Antisurge Controller also offers low and absolute signal select algorithms for sharing control of the recycle valve with another device (see Remote Low Output Clamp on page 100 and Output Tracking on page 102).

and Modbus interfaces. and readouts can be used to select automatic or manual operation. display and clear the surge count. monitor its antisurge and limiting control loops. Discrete Inputs (see page 44) can be used to select the operating state. This section summarizes the features that can be operated via the controller’s front-panel. and monitor various internal and process variables. Process variable Analog Inputs (see page 38) can be monitored directly. monitor the antisurge and limiting control loops. as described in the Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Modbus Data Sheet [DS301/M]. Note: Because all three interfaces are always active. while some internal variables can be monitored via Analog Outputs (see page 42). The front-panel keys. to trigger output tracking. monitor and clear the surge count. or to clear the surge count.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 25 Chapter 2 Operator Interfaces Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual Operation This chapter describes the operation of the Antisurge Controller. remote control. Discrete Outputs (see page 45) can be connected to external alarms and indicators for various operating conditions. and display various internal and process variables.3) . The controller’s remote control inputs and outputs are primarily for integration with other devices.1. change a limited number of configuration parameters. September 2005 IM301 (6. as described in the Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Operator Interface Description [DS301/O]. The Modbus interface can be used to select automatic or manual operation. although they could also be used to implement a limited remote control panel. LEDs. the compressor can be monitored and controlled using any combination of their features.

the Tracking LED will flash whenever that input exceeds the low clamp parameter. its Modbus Displayed OUT input register will track the master controller’s ACS. Modbus Displayed OUT register.26 Chapter 2: Operation Continuous Operation When operating automatically in its Run state. and any Valve Open relays will be set if that response exceeds its low clamp. flow. However. Performance Limiting. Valve Position The position of the recycle valve can be monitored via the OUT readout. This state is selected whenever specified inputs (usually speed. In that case. The AUXiliary readout will then display the operating state as “Status RUN” and any Run relays and the Modbus Run discrete bit will be set. If its own compressor is unloaded but one or more others are not. and its actuator control signal (ACS) cannot be manipulated manually or by a Modbus host. The controller that directly manipulates that valve is then referred to as the valve-sharing master. the Operator Interfaces serve primarily as a means of monitoring its operation (and that of the compressor). while the rest are called valve-sharing companions. regardless of the control response value. A group of Antisurge Controllers protecting the same multi-section compressor can use serial communications to share a single recycle or blow-off valve (see Valve Sharing on page 91). Because little intervention is needed. If an analog Remote Low Output Clamp (see page 100) has been set up. the controller’s own D2 and D6 inputs are cleared. The Modbus High Clamp or Low Clamp discrete bit will be set if the control response equals the corresponding clamp. This feature can also be applied to compressors that operate in series with a common recycle or blow-off valve. The master will modulate that valve as required to protect the compressors whose controllers are operating in the Run state. or analog output OUT1. and pressure) indicate the unit is running. some of their compressors might be loaded while others are stopped or idled. and a companion controller (if one is designated) is also operating in its Run state. it will operate in the Run state but will display it as “Status OFF”. and Load Sharing objectives. Valve Sharing September 2005 IM301 (6.1. Pressure Limiting. The OUT readout of a valve-sharing companion is always blank. the controller varies the Valve Position to satisfy its Surge Protection.3) .

Otherwise. or analog OUT2: • If DEV is at or near zero.3) . the compressor is operating close to or on its SCL. the Pressure Ratio. If the recycle valve is not fully closed. By allowing your compressor to safely operate that close to its surge limit. A Recycle Trip action should not be viewed as a cause for alarm. the controller will rely on its PI algorithm to raise the margin of safety back to the desired level. The yellow RT LED will then light and any RT relays and the Modbus Recycle Trip discrete bit will be set while the controller ratchets open the antisurge valve. it will vary as needed to keep the operating point exactly on that line. the Antisurge PI Response (see page 79) will gradually close it. where ##. DEViation register. Temperature Ratio. it simply means the compressor is operating close enough to its surge limit to justify aggressively increasing the recycle rate. the RT LED will go out (after a fixed delay).1. this feature actually saves you money by reducing recycling costs. A continuing or sudden drop in the DEViation will trigger the Recycle Trip Response (see page 80). If for some reason the compressor actually goes into surge. The controller’s analog inputs can be monitored via the front-panel AUXiliary readout Measured Variables menu or Modbus Channel # registers. The red SO indicator will then light and any SO relays and the Modbus Safety Note: September 2005 IM301 (6. The distance between the SCL and the actual surge limit depends on the rate at which the compressor is approaching its surge limit (see Derivative Response on page 74) and the number of times it has surged (see Safety On Response on page 75). and Sigma). and the RT response will decay to zero. If a non-zero Dead Zone (see page 78) has been defined. the RT relays and discrete will be cleared. the controller will detect the characteristic rapid fluctuations of head and/or flow and trigger its Safety On Response (see page 75). • If DEV becomes negative. OUT should remain steady. It can be displayed on the front-panel AUX readout by pressing the SCROLL key to scroll from the STATUS display to the “Total B= ##.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 27 Surge Protection The DEViation between the compressor’s operating point and the controller’s surge control line (SCL.# is the distance between the SCL and SLL in percent. Once a minimum safe DEViation is restored. see Chapter 5) can be monitored via the DEV readout. • When DEV is positive. the compressor is operating to the left of the SCL. where the distance between the operating point and surge limit is less than desired. As long as it does not get too close to the actual surge limit. Additional process conditions calculated by the selected proximity-to-surge algorithm can be monitored via the Calculated Variables menu and various Modbus registers (for example.#” variable. the compressor is operating to the right of its SCL.

you should determine why that response was tripped and whether or not the controller needs to be reconfigured to provide a larger. The cumulative count can be displayed in the ALT readout by pressing DISPLAY SURGE COUNT. you can reset the surge counts to zero and restore the initial surge control margin by pressing the RESET SAFETY ON key. that count is automatically reset).1. September 2005 IM301 (6. asserting discrete input D5. Any Surge Event relays are set if the event count reaches a user-defined threshold within a specified period of time (if not.3) . Warning! Do not reset the Safety On response until the cause of any surging has been determined and corrected.28 Chapter 2: Operation On discrete and coil bits will be set to indicate the surge control margin has been increased to prevent additional surges from occurring. Each detected surge increments the cumulative and event Surge Counters (see page 76) and triggers a further increase in the surge control margin. and can also be monitored via the Surge Count register. To minimize such destabilizing loop interactions. In a system with multiple control elements. Antisurge Controllers monitor changes in the control responses of specified companions and adjust their own output signals to keep their compressors operating at the same distance from surge. the actions of any controller can affect the control variables of the others. permanent margin of safety. Once that determination and any needed reconfiguration are completed. If a Safety On condition is indicated. or clearing the Modbus Safety On coil.

changes in the compressor network’s throughput are achieved by manipulating the control elements of the Load-Sharing Performance Controllers. In such a system. and the ALT readout will display its set point. the frontpanel ALT readout displays the “POC” acronym and the Modbus POC Active discrete bit is set. while the parameters that define their set points can be monitored and even changed via the Pd Limit and Ps Limit holding registers.3) . and any Limit relays and the Modbus Limit discrete bit will be set. The yellow Limit LED will light if the limiting loop opens the recycle valve faster than the surge protection features otherwise would.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 29 Pressure Limiting If either the discharge pressure is too high or its suction pressure is too low (or both). each Antisurge Controller will increase the recycle rate of its compressor (which will reduce the discharge header pressure and flow) when its operating point is already near or on its surge control line and less throughput is needed (which would move the compressor even closer to surge).1. Performance Limiting An Antisurge Controller can be configured to help a companion Performance Controller counter excessive deviations of its performance override control variable by increasing the recycle or blow-off flow (see Performance Override in Chapter 6). Load Sharing September 2005 IM301 (6. At such times. Under any other conditions. If you press the DISPLAY LIMIT key. The controller will then increase the recycle rate (see Pressure Limiting on page 82). the AUX readout will identify the out-of-range pressure. a Station (master Performance) Controller regulates a header pressure or flow by indirectly manipulating the throttle and antisurge control elements of the individual compressors (as described in the Station Controller section in Chapter 2 of IM302). In a Series 3 Plus Control System for multiple compressors operating in series or in parallel. which should raise the suction and lower the discharge pressure. the DEV readout will display its value. You can also monitor those pressures via the corresponding Modbus Channel # registers.

This compressor section is unloaded but the valve is being modulated to protect another. an Antisurge Controller operates its Stop State. September 2005 IM301 (6. the controller selects its Purge State. Its PI loop will then slowly close the recycle valve. the recycle valve is either ramped open or opened as fast as possible. Shutdown An Antisurge Controller can be set up to open the recycle valve to its high clamp position (see Operating State on page 103) when the compressor is idled or shut down: • An emergency shutdown immediately opens that valve. which modulates the recycle valve to prevent surge with minimal recycling. the controller simply selects its Run state. an Antisurge Controller will participate mainly by selecting an appropriate operating state (see Table 2-1): • While its machine is loaded.1. A normal shutdown was or is being used to idle or shut down the compressor.30 Chapter 2: Operation Sequencing Operation The loading and unloading of a compressor is sequenced primarily by its Performance Controller (see Chapter 2 of IM302). although it can be configured to open it immediately and will always do so if the operating point moves to the left of the RTL. an Antisurge Controller operates in its Run state (see Continuous Operation). The compressor is unloaded but the recycle valve is fully closed. • When a Shutdown is initiated. • When a Startup is initiated. Startups and shutdowns are usually sequenced by the controller for the compressor’s driver. Table 2-1 Operating states Name Display RUN Run OFF STOP Stop ESD Purge Track PURGE TRACK Description The compressor is loaded and the control response is being varied to prevent surge. • A normal shutdown usually ramps it open. which holds the recycle valve fully open.3) . Provided neither output nor redundant controller tracking is active (see Tracking States). • If the purge input is then asserted. which holds the recycle valve fully closed. • While its machine is stopped or idling. Actuator control signal is tracking the output of another device or controller. An emergency shutdown was used to idle or shut down the compressor.

A normal shutdown can be triggered by its own D6 discrete input. The operating status will display as STOP or ESD. this minimizes any reverse flow or rotation that might occur if the discharge check valve leaks. • If the compressor is stopped. An Antisurge Controller operating in its Stop state will automatically switch to the Run state if its D2 and D6 discrete inputs are cleared. or by a process condition that indicates the compressor is being stopped or idled (abnormally low flow.1. an Antisurge Controller will operate in its Stop state with all Run indicators cleared. any Run relays and the Modbus Run discrete are immediately cleared. Purge gas can then be forced through the compressor instead of bypassing it through the recycle line. Stop State While its compressor is stopped or idling. head. the operating state display changes to “Status STOP” or “Status ESD”. The PI response will then gradually reduce the recycle flow as far as surge protection and process limiting conditions permit. and the head. thus completely closing the recycle valve. This immediately sets any Run relays and the Modbus Run discrete bit and changes the operating state display to “Status RUN”. or rotational speed). by the stop or shutdown sequence of a companion controller.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 31 In either case. This sets the actuator control signal to zero (100 percent for a signal-to-close valve). The AUXilliary readout will display this operating state as “Status PURGE”.3) . Manual Operation can be initiated only if its selection while operating in this state is enabled. the designated companion controller (if any) selects its Run state or initiates its startup sequence. flow. asserting either its own D3 discrete input or that of a designated companion controller will select the Purge state. The DEViation display will be unpredictable and perhaps erratic. and speed exceed user-defined minimums (thus indicating the compressor is running). this minimizes the drive power and risk of surge. but can be safely ignored (a stopped compressor cannot surge).024). Requesting the Purge state while the compressor is idling not only leaves the unit unprotected but might even trigger a surge. Purge State If the controller is operating in its Stop state. It then holds the recycle valve fully open: • If the compressor is idling. An ESD can be triggered only by this controller’s own D2 discrete input. The displayed DEViation should show a positive value perhaps as great as “.A24” (1. depending on how this state was selected. Warning! Startup September 2005 IM301 (6. and the Surge Counters (see page 76) are reset to zero (if so configured).

Although Pressure Limiting is suspended during manual operation. Initiating Manual Manual operation can be selected at any time unless the controller is operating in its Stop or Purge state and manual operation in those states has not been enabled (see Manual Override). The Manual LED then lights and the Auto LED. but cannot reduce it below an analog low clamp. the Remote Low Output Clamp (see page 100) does. While in manual. The controller will also continue to monitor its operating state inputs and the AUXiliary readout will continue to display the selected state (for example. and the Automatic coil and discrete bit all clear. However: • If manual operation and Output Tracking are both selected. the controller will revert to automatic. an analog output assigned the Out function. holding either down changes it at a steadily increasing rate.3) . If those inputs dictate a transfer out of the Run state. any Auto relays. or the Displayed OUT input register. provided manual operation in the newly selected state is enabled. Manual is initiated by pressing the AUTO/MAN key or clearing the Modbus Automatic coil. only the active controller can be manually operated (the backup will track that selection). If you inadvertently move the operating point to the left of the Recycle Trip line. and you can still use the DISPLAY LIMIT key to display these control variables and their set points.1 percent. It will then remain in automatic even after an adequate safety margin is restored. the Limit LED and any Limit relays will continue to indicate whether or not the suction and discharge pressures are within their respective limits. the control signal can be set directly by writing to the Actuator CS holding register. • In a Redundant Control system. However. the controller will continue to calculate and display the deviation between the operating point and the surge control limit. you can raise the control signal above the high or reduce it below the low clamp parameter. September 2005 IM301 (6. Thus. the RT LED lights and the controller reverts to automatic operation. momentarily pressing the Raise or Lower key will change the actuator control signal by 0.32 Chapter 2: Operation Manual Operation When manual operation is selected. you can then switch back to manual by pressing the AUTO/MAN key. the remote device will control the output signal.1. Although the Output Clamps (see page 100) do not apply in manual. “Status RUN”). The resulting value can be monitored via the OUT readout. so you can tell if you are moving the compressor too close to surge by watching the DEV readout. Alternately.

and the Automatic coil and discrete bit all set. To indicate this danger. If the Manual Override is disabled (as recommended). any Auto relays. The Manual LED then clears and the Auto LED.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 33 Restoring Automatic Pressing the AUTO/MAN key while in manual or setting the Modbus Automatic coil initiates a bumpless return to automatic control. the front-panel Man LED will flash and any relays assigned the MOR function will trip. in which case it will jump back to that clamp. in which case the controller will remain in manual until the operator restores automatic operation (even if the compressor surges). the Manual While Stopped parameter determines whether or not manual can be initiated while the Antisurge Controller is in its Stop or Purge state. Manual Override To prevent surge while the controller is in manual. Caution: September 2005 IM301 (6. regardless of the DEViation. the RT LED will light and remain on until an adequate safety margin is manually restored. whenever manual is selected while that override is enabled. and can enable and disable this feature by setting and clearing that coil. When manually operating the controller via its Modbus interface. This action will not change the actuator control signal unless it is above its high clamp or below its low clamp. However. If the Manual Override is enabled. If the operating point then moves to the left of the RTL.1. you can determine whether or not Manual Override is enabled by reading the Manual Override coil or discrete.3) . We advise you not to permanently enable the Manual Override parameter. it will revert to automatic if the operating point moves to the left of the Recycle Trip control line (RTL). you can enable an override of this behavior (see Manual Override on page 105). because it disables all surge protection while in manual. the Valve Dead Band Compensation (see page 99) feature will remember which direction the operator last moved the output while in manual and resume operation accordingly. the controller will also remain in manual when the operating state inputs dictate a transfer out of the Run state and manual operation can be initiated even when the Stop or Purge state is selected. In addition.

If the fault relay has also been assigned a second function (see Fault Relays on page 45). assignable relays. This condition usually indicates a failure in the input loop (transmitter. that condition will not light the Fault LED. • If it fails. and Valve Position Failures. This can indicate either a software error or a hardware problem that prevents the control program from running. Analog Input or Transmitter Failures Whenever one or more analog inputs is beyond its valid range. If it does time out. multi-section compressor surge protection and valve sharing. Output Failures. signal wire. and Analog PCB circuit).34 Chapter 2: Operation In addition to a General Fault. automatic sequencing and operating state selection. It will also indicate a Fallback Condition if analog or serial failures prevent it from calculating the selected proximity-to-surge function. and redundant control. clear the relay.3) . Process disruptions or compressor damage can result if it is not immediately disconnected from your process. A Port 1 serial error can also disrupt those features. it will deenergize the fault relay and reset the CPU chip. it will reset the timer. and temporarily set the Modbus Reset discrete. Each Series 3 Plus Controller has a watchdog circuit that must be regularly reset by its control program. When the controller fails to detect expected serial transmissions. the fault relay will remain de-energized and the Front Panel will light its Fault LED (and turn the other thirteen off). the controller lights its TranFail LED and sets any Transmitter Failure (Tran) relays and the Modbus Tran Fail discrete (see Transmitter Testing on page 39). The Engineering Panel will beep and display “Reset”. Fault Indicators General Fault Caution: Serial Communication Errors The controller’s output signal is totally unpredictable when a watchdog fault is indicated. If that assigned function is one that has its own LED. thus causing the control program to restart: • If that restart succeeds. as well as loop decoupling. Analog Input or Transmitter Failures. and Modbus discrete bits to indicate Serial Communication Errors. you can tell why the fault relay has tripped by looking at the Front Panel. September 2005 IM301 (6.1. the Antisurge Controller can use front-panel LEDs. which would be indicated via the Fault LED and relays. Loss of Port 2 communications will disrupt load-sharing and performance override control. their interpretation will be highly site specific. it will light the ComErr LED and set any Serial Communication Error (SerC) relays and the Modbus Port 1 Fail or Port 2 Fail discrete (see Serial Communication Errors on page 49). Because the exact meaning of these conditions depends on which features have been enabled. but might also be used to alarm undesirable process conditions.

the Auto LED will flash to indicate the controller is operating automatically but is holding its actuator control signal steady. breaks or poor connections in the wiring between the input. it will light its Fallback LED. In the latter case. output and final control element. it might also indicate miscalibration or failure of the input or output circuitry. and switch to a simpler function. provided it is constant. or hold its output steady (see Fallback Strategies on page 67). Valve Position Failures If the measured recycle valve position deviates significantly from its intended value (see Valve Position Test on page 43). Although this condition would be triggered by a malfunctioning valve positioner or position transmitter. breaks or poor connections in the actuator control or position input loop. maintain a minimum flow. or a failure of the Analog PCB Assembly.1. such problems can prevent the controller from fully opening or closing the final control element. The controller’s integral action can often overcome such a discrepancy. September 2005 IM301 (6.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Output Failures 35 If the controller detects a difference of more than five percent between the intended and loopback values of the control signal (see Output Loopback Test on page 42). Even a genuine output signal miscalibration might not be critical. Fallback Condition If the controller is unable to calculate the selected proximity-to-surge function due to an analog input or serial communication failure. It could be caused by failures in the loop-back circuitry only — the actual output signal may in fact have the intended value. or actual failure of the Analog PCB Assembly. the controller will set any Position Failure (PosF) relays and the corresponding Modbus DO State discrete (there is no dedicated bit nor front-panel LED for this condition). it will set any Output Failure (OutF) relays and the corresponding Modbus DO State discrete (there is no dedicated bit nor front-panel LED for this condition). set its Modbus Fallback discrete.3) . However. This condition may indicate miscalibration of the input or output circuitry.

• When Redundant Control is active. it will use serial communications to track the outputs and states of that active controller whenever its own D1 discrete input is cleared. controls their D1 inputs. and you can manually select the active controller by pressing the Switch to Back-Up or Switch to Main push-button. and bits will indicate which mode the controller will return to when D4 is cleared. each pair of Antisurge Controllers is interconnected via a Redundant Control Selector (RCS) that monitors their fault relays. and the Tracking discrete is set by redundant but not output tracking.36 Chapter 2: Operation The Antisurge Controller includes two features that allow an external device to manipulate its actuator control signal (ACS): • When Output Tracking is active. In a typical redundant system. Note: September 2005 IM301 (6. If the main controller’s fault relay de-energizes. relays.1. the RCS automatically transfers control of the recycle valve to the backup controller (provided that it has not faulted as well). The Auto and Manual LEDs. Tracking States Output Tracking The Antisurge Controller can be set up as a signal selector for its final control element (see Output Tracking on page 102). If either feature is active.3) . That controller then initiates control beginning from the last conditions received from the main controller. and you can change that selection by pressing the AUTO/MAN key or forcing the Automatic coil. The RCS will not automatically return control of your process to the main controller after a fault is cleared (this must be done manually) and will never automatically or manually transfer control to a controller that appears to have failed. there are no relay functions that indicate either of these states. in which case the actuator control signal is kept equal to a designated analog input signal whenever discrete input D4 is asserted. the operating state will display as “Status TRACK” and the Tracking LED will either light (redundant tracking) or flash (output tracking). the ACS tracks an analog signal from a remote device. it tracks the ACS of another Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller. and connects the valve actuator to the selected controller’s analog output. The RCS also indicates which controller is active by lighting its green MAIN or red BACK-UP LED. Because they are triggered by discrete inputs that can be monitored directly. In either case. the transfer will be bumpless. A Modbus host can detect them by monitoring the corresponding DI Condition discretes. Redundant Control If one Antisurge Controller has been installed as an on-line “hot” backup to another (see Redundant Tracking on page 106).

configures the controller to ignore its analog and discrete inputs (which can then be updated via the Port 3 or Port 4 Modbus serial link). When the ECC configuration is used. • two standard Analog Outputs (OUT1 and OUT2).3) . when enabled. Either provides the following input and output circuits: • eight Analog Inputs (CH1 to CH8). as that would prevent it from receiving needed input signals. Note: Disabling Input Signals The availability of the discontinued FIOM cannot be guaranteed. • seven Discrete Inputs (D1 to D7). as described in the Components and Configurations section in Chapter 1 of IM300/H. Caution: September 2005 IM301 (6. Hardware Options The Antisurge Controller uses either the Basic Compressor Controller (BCC) or Extended Compressor Controller (ECC) hardware configuration. which is connected to an Extended I/O Back Panel by a High-Density Interconnect Cable (HDIC).1. • five Discrete Outputs (CR1 to CR5).Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 37 Chapter 3 Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual Input/Output Features This chapter tells how to configure the analog and discrete inputs and outputs and serial communication ports. An installed controller should not be operated with LOCK 6 enabled. and • four Serial Ports (Port 1 to Port 4). As an aid to developing and demonstrating Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controllers. they include a CPU Inputs Lockout [MODE:D LOCK 6] parameter that. all I/O terminals are provided on a separately mounted Field Input/Output Module (FIOM).

4 to 20 mA) CH (mA) Sampling Hardware Failed if: < AN IN LOW > AN IN HIGH TEST 4 Failed if: < AN IN LOW > AN IN HIGH TEST 4 Sampling Hardware AD (%) AD (%) SV = AD SV = 1. In this manual. As described in the Analog Input Installation section in Chapter 6 of IM300/H. we will refer to both the input circuits and their analog signals as Channels 1 through 8 (CH1 to CH8) — the meaning in each case should be clear from its context.. 0 to 10 V) CH (V) AN IN ON (e.g.20%) SV (%) SV (%) SV (%) SV (%) MV = Min + (Span · SV) PV = Bias + (SV · Gain) MV = Min + (Span · SV) PV = Bias + (SV · Gain) MV PV (%) MV PV (%) Figure 3-1 Analog input signal processing Each Series 3 Plus Controller is equipped with eight analog inputs. Analog Inputs September 2005 IM301 (6. Step 3: The AD variables are converted into percent-of-range Signal Variables (SV1 to SV8).g. Step 4: Gains and biases are then applied to obtain the Process Variables (PV1 to PV8) used by the control calculations.25 · (AD . The processing of these inputs and the terms used to distinguish their intermediate values are illustrated by Figure 3-1: Step 1: The raw analog inputs are converted to equivalent digital values called Analog-to-Digital Variables (AD1 to AD8).. Step 5: The signal variables are also independently scaled to obtain the Measured Variables (MV1 to MV8) displayed by the AUXiliary readout’s Analog In Menu. Step 2: Transmitter Testing compares each AD variable against its individual alarm limits.38 Chapter 3: Input/Output Features AN IN OFF (e.1. they are set up as either 0 to 5 Vdc or 4 to 20 mA inputs by installing resistors on either the Field Input/Output Module or setting jumpers on the Analog PCB Assembly (if not using FIOMs).3) .

September 2005 IM301 (6. which are set as percentages of the full-scale analog-to-digital variables. the signal variable is set equal to the analog-to-digital variable (AD).0. This feature is configured by defining the Analog Input Low Alarm Limit [MODE:D ANIN # LOW] and Analog Input High Alarm Limit [MODE:D ANIN # HIGH] for each input. lower values to 00. Signals that are so offset are scaled as: SV = 1. They are reported to the CPU as percentages of the analog signal’s full-scale value. a 20 mA signal would be reported as 100 percent.25 ⋅ ( AD – 20 percent ) Otherwise. Each signal is passed through a hardware filter to remove unwanted high frequency components. we refer to them as analog-to-digital variables (AD1 to AD8). You can use the Transmitter Status Test [MODE:D ANIN –] to identify the failed input. any Transmitter Failure (Tran) relays are energized and the Modbus Tran Fail discrete is set. Because these values are generated by an analog-to-digital converter. For example.0 mA. Using these values for unused inputs prevents them from interfering with the proper operation of this feature.3) .0. a 4 to 20 mA input) must be identified by enabling the corresponding Offset Zero Input [MODE:D ANIN #].Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 39 Analog-to-Digital Variables The input circuitry converts the analog input signals into equivalent digital values for use by the CPU. In either case. Transmitter Testing The controller tests each analog input against a user-defined range. the front-panel TranFail LED is lit. the SV values are constrained to the range 00. You can use the Signal Values Test [MODE TEST 4] to directly examine these signal variables from the Engineering Panel. while 4 mA would be reported as 20 percent.1. you would enter AN IN LOW as 15. If any of them is outside of its range.0 percent to set the lower limit of a 4 to 20 mA signal to 3.4) nor lower than 00.0 percent. Because an analog input can never be higher than 102.4 (A2.0. Signals that are not offset are identified by disabling the corresponding parameter. For example. setting ANIN HIGH and LOW to these values has the effect of excluding that channel from the transmitter alarm feature. Any signal that has an offset zero (for example. Higher values are changed to 100. Signal Variables Each analog-to-digital variable is then converted to a percent-ofrange signal variable according to whether or not the corresponding transmitter uses an offset zero (for example. 4 to 20 mA or 1 to 5 Vdc).0 to 100. and a windowing filter that samples each signal several times per scan cycle and reports the resulting average.

you might display an inlet temperature signal as: TempIn: 400 The available choices are set up by each input’s five Measured Variable [COND:D DISPLAY 0] parameters. the pressure measurements used to compute a compression ratio must be scaled as percentages of the highest absolute pressure either of their sensors can measure.40 Chapter 3: Input/Output Features Process Variables The analog inputs for some control calculations must be converted to absolute values. Measured Variables The AUXiliary Display’s Analog In menu is used to display the controller’s eight signal variables. along with descriptive labels of your choosing. September 2005 IM301 (6. To this end. For unused channels. scaled to appropriate ranges. If there is more than one transmitter of a given type. The default labels [see page 5 of DS301/O]. For example. this should be the largest such value for the group Offset = absolute measurement corresponding to lowest possible transmitter signal PV = Process Variable. Each can be any combination of eight symbols from Table 3-1. can be restored by entering the COND:D DISPLAY 0 0 key sequence.3) . the DISPLAY 0 1 parameters govern the display of signal variable SV1: • Each Measured Variable Display [COND:D DISPLAY 0 #] parameter defines whether the corresponding variable can be viewed (SV1 can be displayed only if DISPLAY 0 1 is On).1.000 (.A00) and the bias to 00.0. the controller converts its signal variables into process variables by applying appropriate gains and biases: PV = Gain ⋅ SV + Bias where: Bias = (Offset · 100) / Maximum Gain = Range / Maximum Maximum = absolute measurement corresponding to the highest possible transmitter signal. • Each Measured Variable Label [COND:D DISPLAY 0 # –] parameter defines the label that will precede the numeric value of the input. For example. For example. expressed as a percentage of absolute maximum Range = span of the transmitter in question The gain and bias for each process variable must be assigned to the corresponding Process Variable Gain [COND:D GAIN #] and Process Variable Bias [COND:D BIAS #]. set the gain to 1.

21 4: . Thus.<=>?@ ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP QRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_` abcdefghijklmnop qrstuvwxyz September 2005 IM301 (6. its Measured Variable Maximum [COND:D DISPLAY 0 # HIGH] defines the digits shown when it is 100 percent.3) . 2: 32. Because the decimal point is a character that requires one of the four display positions./ 0123456789:. Mathematically. while four is the left-most. the five possible values of DISPLAY 0 1 • would yield the following displays when SV1 is 100 percent: 0: 3210 1: 321. and its Measured Variable Decimal [COND:D DISPLAY 0 # •] defines the decimal point position. This will give more precise readouts than you would get by setting DISPLAY HIGH to 0600 and DISPLAY • to 0. Table 3-1 Available symbols for measured variable labels Î Í Ì ± ¥ Ò space ! " # $ %&'()*+. if DISPLAY 0 1 HIGH is 3210.1 3: 3. that parameter identifies the digit the decimal should replace (that and all less-significant digits are shifted one position to the right). Measured Variables will be displayed until another variable is selected. least-significant digit. If Auxiliary Display Reset [MODE:D LOCK 9] is disabled.321 To obtain the most precise possible readouts. only three digits can be displayed unless that parameter is disabled (Off).1. set DISPLAY HIGH to 6000 and DISPLAY • to 1 (for a trailing decimal).Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 41 • Each signal variable’s Measured Variable Minimum [COND:D DISPLAY 0 # LOW] defines the digits shown when it is zero. Otherwise. For example. the operating state display is restored 60 seconds after the MENU or SCROLL key was last pressed.-. most-significant digit. if you want to display three digit numbers from 0 to 600. A value of one corresponds to the right-most. this can be stated as: MV = [ Min + ( SV ) ⋅ ( Max – Min ) ] ⁄ 10 n dec where nSV is the signal variable’s normalized value. In other words. you should always make the DISPLAY HIGH parameters as large as possible.

• OUT 2 is generated as the equivalent of one of the variables listed in Table 3-2. while the Valve Position Test can be used to compare the measured and intended positions of the final control element. The Output Loopback Test can be used to compare the actual output signal to its intended value. as specified by the Second Output Assigned Variable [COND:D OUT 2]. Any discrete output assigned the output failure (OutF) function would then energize if SV8 differed from the intended actuator control signal by more than five percent. This feature is set up by connecting OUT1 to analog input CH8. Analog Outputs Table 3-2 Functions for OUT2 Code Out Flow S UsrQ Signal Actuator Control Signal (see page 99) Displayed Flow (see page 61) proximity to Surge Control Line (see page 72) Displayed Net Flow (see page 62) Output Loopback Test The controller can be configured to energize one or more discrete outputs to indicate an excessive deviation between the measured and intended values of the actuator control signal. as described in the Analog Output Installation section in Chapter 6 of IM300/H. or if the value of CH8 was outside of its Transmitter Testing range.42 Chapter 3: Input/Output Features The Antisurge Controller has two standard analog outputs. September 2005 IM301 (6.3) .1. both of which are generated as both 4 to 20 mA and 0 to 5 Vdc signals (although only one of these signals can be used for each output): • Unless the control response is sent to a companion valve-sharing controller (see Valve Sharing on page 91). OUT1 is used to manipulate the compressor’s recycle or blowoff valve (see Actuator Control Signal on page 99). It can be used to drive a readout or graphical display or be connected to a DCS analog input.

Any discrete output assigned the position failure (PosF) function would then energize if SV7 differed from the intended actuator control signal by more than the Position Failure Threshold [COND:D LVL 5] for at least the Position Failure Delay [COND:D CONST 5]. September 2005 IM301 (6.1. • For a signal-to-close control element. the position signal must decrease as the control element opens. or if the value of CH7 was outside of its Transmitter Testing range. the position signal must increase as the control element opens. This feature is set up by connecting a valve position signal to analog input CH7: • For a signal-to-open control element.3) .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 43 Valve Position Test The controller can also be configured to energize one or more discrete outputs to indicate an excessive deviation of the measured and intended positions of the final control element.

provided that feature is enabled (see Output Tracking on page 102). Setting D1 will cause this controller to track the operation of a companion Antisurge Controller. provided that feature is enabled (see Operating State Request Signals on page 103).3) . Setting D7 will recall the second alternate parameter set and clearing it will recall the first. The threshold level above or below which these inputs are asserted or cleared is listed on the Series 3 Plus Compressor Controllers Hardware Specifications [DS300/H]: Setting D2 will trigger an emergency shutdown. “DGI= 1234567” is then displayed. provided that feature is enabled and the controller is operating in its Stop state (see Operating State Request Signals on page 103). provided that feature is enabled (see Alternate Parameter Sets on page 106). Setting D4 will cause the actuator control signal to track a specified analog input. provided that feature is enabled (see Redundant Control on page 36). provided that feature is enabled (see Operating State Request Signals on page 103).1. The states of these inputs can be displayed on the front-panel AUX readout by pressing the SCROLL key while the operating STATUS is displayed. Setting D6 will select the Stop state and clearing it will select the Run state. where each digit appears only if that discrete input is set.44 Chapter 3: Input/Output Features All Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controllers are equipped with seven discrete inputs (D1 to D7) that can be used to trigger the control features listed in Table 3-3. Setting D3 will fully close the recycle valve. Setting D5 will reset the Cumulative Surge Count to zero (see Surge Counters on page 76). Discrete Inputs ESD Output Tracking Purge Recall Reset SO Stop Tracking Table 3-3 Discrete input functions Input D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 Function Redundant Tracking request Emergency Shutdown (ESD) request Purge request Output Tracking request Reset SO (Safety On) request Normal Shutdown (Stop) request Recall alternate parameter set September 2005 IM301 (6.

Fault Relays Discrete output CR1 is hard-wired as a fault relay. External Alarms You can use the controller’s discrete outputs to control external indicators (lights. Except for the Fault Relays. CR2 can be set to de-energize whenever CR1 does by setting a jumper on that assembly (its assigned function then affects only its Modbus DO State discrete bit). Whether energizing a relay opens or closes its circuit depends on the position of its NO/NC jumper. • The alarm device itself may light or sound when its control circuit is completed. etc. • If that parameter is negative. CR3 will be energized and its associated circuit will be closed whenever any analog input is outside the range of its transmitter testing limits. but can also be given one additional function. if MODE:D RA 3 is assigned the value +Tran and is normally open. or when it is opened. horns. the assigned condition energizes it.3) . “DGO= 12345” is then displayed. that condition de-energizes it.1. that condition would cause CR3 to de-energize. The states of these outputs can be displayed on the front-panel AUX readout by pressing the SCROLL key twice while the operating STATUS is displayed. The operation of the controller’s fault relays and LED are described in the Fault Indicators section in Chapter 8 of IM300/H. Relays with negative functions will de-energize when those conditions occur. For example. any non-fault relay energizes when that condition occurs. where each digit appears only if that discrete output is energized. as described in the Discrete Output Jumpers section in Chapter 5 of IM300/H. However. September 2005 IM301 (6. each can either energize or de-energize when that condition is detected: • If its RA parameter has a positive value.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 45 Discrete Outputs The controller’s discrete outputs can be used to automatically trigger alternate control measures or to control External Alarms for a variety of process and controller conditions.) for any of the conditions described below. setting up and interpreting such alarms can be confusing because three different factors affect whether they indicate that the assigned condition does or does not exist: • If the assigned function is positive. • The relay circuits in the controller can be set for normally-open operation (energizing the relay completes the circuit) or normally-closed operation (energizing the relay opens the circuit). The operation of each relay is set by selecting one of the conditions from Table 3-4 as its Relay Assigned Function [MODE:D RA #]. If it is given the value –Tran.

The PosF function indicates an excessive deviation of the measured valve position from its intended value (see Valve Position Test on page 43). the following descriptions assume each alarm circuit is set up to indicate that its assigned condition exists: Always Set Relays assigned the +On function de-energize only if the controller loses power.3) . The MOR function indicates the antisurge control response is being manually controlled with no automatic surge protection (see Manual Override on page 33). The Auto function indicates the controller is operating automatically. those with the -On function are always de-energized. The OutF function indicates a failure of analog output OUT1 (see Output Loopback Test on page 42). Fault Relays given the -On function never energize. Relays assigned the +Off function are always de-energized. Automatic Manual Override Never Set Output Failure Position Failure Pressure Limit September 2005 IM301 (6.1. those with the -Off function de-energize only if the controller loses power.46 Chapter 3: Input/Output Features Table 3-4 Discrete output functions Code Auto Lim MOR Off On Open OutF PosF RT Run SerC SO Surg Tran Function Automatic operation Pressure Limiting Manual Override (no automatic protection) Never Set Always Set control Valve Open analog Output Failure valve Position Failure Recycle Trip condition Run State Serial Communication Error Safety On condition Surge Event Transmitter Failure Unless otherwise noted. The Lim function indicates a pressure limiting control response is greater than zero (see Pressure Limiting on page 82). Fault Relays are often given the -Off function.

such relays should be used to trip an edge-triggered response (such as an emergency shutdown) or device (such as a latched alarm).Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Recycle Trip 47 Relays assigned the RT function are asserted when the operating point moves to the left of the Recycle Trip Line (RTL). It is particularly useful when that clamp is not zero. Such indicators are not cleared until the surge count is zeroed (see Safety On Response on page 75). If the controller is operating manually.3) . The Run function indicates the controller is modulating the recycle valve to prevent surge (see Operating State on page 103). they are cleared as soon as the operating point moves back to the right of the RTL (see Recycle Trip Line on page 73 and Recycle Trip Response on page 80). If it is being manually operated. If the Surge Event Duration is set to zero.1. Relays assigned the SO function are asserted when the controller detects a presumed surge and invokes the Safety On Response. September 2005 IM301 (6. thus indicating the control valve is open (see Output Clamps on page 100). such indicators are not cleared until the Recycle Trip Response restores an adequate safety margin. relays assigned the Surg function are set when the event surge count reaches the Surge Event Threshold and remain set only until the event timer expires (see Surge Counters on page 76). in which case it can be difficult to tell if the valve is open just by looking at the OUT readout. If the Surge Event Duration is not zero. The Open function is asserted when the actuator control signal is greater than the low output clamp. relays given this function are set when the cumulative surge count reaches the Surge Event Threshold and remain set until that count is zeroed. Run State Safety On Serial Communication Error Surge Event Transmitter Failure Valve Open The Tran function indicates at least one analog input signal is not within its valid range (see Transmitter Testing on page 39). The SerC function indicates the controller has failed to detect an expected transmission on its Port 1 or 2 communication network (see Serial Communication Errors on page 49). Thus.

3 OUT 75.2 Status AUX Auto Manual Remote Local Status AUX Auto Manual RUN Status AUX Auto Manual RUN RUN RUN Antisurge Controller AUTO MAN Antisurge Controller AUTO MAN Performance Controller AUTO MAN Performance Controller AUTO MAN ∆ ∇ DISPLAY LIMIT ∆ ∇ DISPLAY LIMIT ∆ ∇ DISPLAY LOOP 3 ∆ ∇ DISPLAY LOOP 3 RT SO Limit Tracking TranFail Fallback ComErr RT SO Limit Tracking TranFail Fallback ComErr RESET SAFETY ON DISPLAY SURGE COUNT RESET SAFETY ON DISPLAY SURGE COUNT REMOTE Limit Tracking TranFail Fallback ComErr REMOTE Limit Tracking TranFail LOCAL LOCAL DISPLAY LOOP 2 Fallback ComErr DISPLAY LOOP 2 MENU Fault SCROLL Fault MENU SCROLL Fault MENU SCROLL Fault MENU SCROLL COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION Load Sharing (Port 2) Figure 3-2 Communication with other controllers Series 3 Plus Controllers are equipped with four serial ports for communicating not only with other Series 3 Plus Controllers. Serial Ports September 2005 IM301 (6. Antisurge Controllers use it primarily for coordinating control with companion Antisurge and Performance Controllers. but is intended primarily for communication with a personal computer running one of our software support packages (Toolbox.2 SP PV OUT 90.4 Status AUX Auto Manual Remote Local 90.0 75.3) . • Port 2 is used for communicating load-sharing and performance override control information.0 SP PV OUT 4.48 Chapter 3: Input/Output Features Coordination (Port 1) Load Sharing (Port 2) . • Port 4 is functionally equivalent to Port 3. • Port 3 is used for computer communication and control. it is necessary to set the ID Numbers that identify the controller to other devices on these networks and the baud rates and parity for several of the serial ports.3 OUT 4. Although these features are automatically enabled when required by the chosen controller features.000 ALT DEV . but also with host computers and supervisory control systems: • Port 1 is used for circulating information among the Series 3 Plus controllers regulating a single rotating equipment train.1. A maximum of eight controllers may be connected to any one Port 1 network.2 50.000 ALT DEV 75. using the Modicon Modbus RTU protocol. for example).

3. or 9600. The controller indicates a hardware-level error by beeping and displaying an identifying message on the Engineering Panel. tripping any SerC relays. Because the interpretation of communication errors is highly site and application specific. If you wish to mix Series 3 and Series 3 Plus Controllers. It must be unique among all controllers (except backups) in that network. • Control-level errors occur when the controller fails to detect expected serial communication activity on Port 1 or Port 2. It must be unique among all devices connected to any of those networks. number of bits per character): • There are no configuration parameters for Port 1. Ports 3 and 4 both use one start bit. you must set the Port 2 baud rate to 2400 bps (the rate used by those older controllers). It is normally set to 9600.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 49 ID Numbers Each Series 3 Plus Controller must be given both a Controller ID Number [MODE:D COMM 0] and a Computer ID Number [MODE:D COMM 0 •] by setting those parameters from the Engineering Panel: • The Controller ID Number identifies it on Port 1. isolated hardware-level errors rarely affect the operation of the controller. and 4. The Port 3 Parity can be odd. both must be set up to send and receive information at the same speed and in the same basic format (for example. Serial Communication Formats In order for two devices to successfully communicate. Control-level errors are indicated by lighting the front-panel ComErr LED. however.3) .2k baud. eight data bits. 9600. and one stop bit. your operator instructions should list the various controllers from which this controller should be receiving transmissions and tell how to control and protect the compressor while identifying and correcting these errors. September 2005 IM301 (6. Serial Communication Errors A Series 3 Plus Controller can experience two different kinds of serial communication errors: • Hardware-level errors occur when the controller is unable to decode incoming characters of information. even. Because the protocols used by the controller reject faulty messages (and usually provide for their retransmission). • The Computer ID Number identifies it on Ports 2. or none. and setting the Modbus Port 1 or Port 2 Fail discrete bit. or 19.1. • The Port 2 Baud Rate [MODE:D COMM 2] can be set to 2400. 4800. • The Port 3 Baud Rate [MODE:D COMM 3] can be 4800. • The same options are available for the Port 4 Baud Rate and the Port 4 Parity [MODE:D COMM 4]. as described in Chapter 3 of IM300/H.

The interpretation of a Port 1 serial error depends on which of the features that utilize that port are employed (see Loop Decoupling on page 83. while the status of controllers from which no transmissions are being received will display as “Bad”.50 Chapter 3: Input/Output Features The offending port can be determined and additional diagnostic information obtained via the following Engineering Panel tests: • The Serial Port 1 Test [MODE COMM – 3] indicates (by controller ID number) the controllers from which Port 1 transmissions are or are not being received (regardless of whether or not such transmissions are needed or expected). • The Serial Port 2 Test [MODE COMM – 2] will reveal whether or not any serial communication activity is being detected on that port. If so. the result will display as “PT2 GOOD”. Networked Compressors on page 92. The addresses and ranges of the available data are listed on the Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Modbus Data Sheet [DS301/M]. A serial error is indicated only if the status of a controller from which information is required is bad. Auxiliary Limiting on page 83. September 2005 IM301 (6. Multisection Compressors on page 85. Modbus Configuration The Modbus interface can be used to monitor the operation of the compressor and controller. Loss of Port 2 communications will prevent an Antisurge Controller from helping control a compressor network’s throughput (see Primary Capacity Control on page 92) or a load-sharing or single-compressor application’s performance override variable (see Performance Override on page 83). it will display as “PT2 BAD”. you can limit Modbus access by setting the Read and Write Inhibit [MODE:D LOCK 1] and Write Inhibit Only [MODE:D LOCK 2] parameters.1. In addition. If not. Operating State Request Signals on page 103. the Numeric Values section in Chapter 2 of IM300/M of that manual tells how the input and holding registers are scaled and how their Port 3 values are affected by the Modbus Register Scaling [MODE:D LOCK 7].3) . As described in the Computer Inhibit section in Chapter 1 of IM300/M. The status of controllers that are transmitting will display as “Good”. and Redundant Control on page 36).

∆Pc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 1] should be Off. ∆Tc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 2] should always be Off. However. Temperatures Discharge Temperature Suction Temperature Temperature Ratio In some applications. they also employ specific Process Variables (see page 40).1.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 51 Chapter 4 Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual Calculated Variables This chapter tells how the Antisurge Controller calculates the values of various process conditions. Thus. you can configure the controller to use a differential ∆Pc measurement in place of either pressure input: • If you connect the ∆Pc signal to CH3 and set ∆Pc Substitution to Low. these four variables are calculated from the PV2 and PV3 Process Variables (see page 40). and explains how to set up its Calculated Variable Displays.3) . Chapter 7 describes the additional variables calculated for multisection and networked compressors. the suction pressure is calculated as: P s = P d – ∆P c = PV2 – PV3 • If you connect the ∆Pc signal to CH2 and set ∆Pc Substitution to High. which should be scaled as dictated by the transmitter ranges and required calculations: • the discharge temperature (Td ) is PV5 • the suction temperature (Ts ) is PV6 • the aftercooler temperature (Tac ) is PV7 Because differential temperature transmitters are never used. For example. To ensure that calculations using such measurements are valid. which should be scaled as dictated by the transmitter ranges and required calculations. September 2005 IM301 (6. Pressures Discharge Pressure Suction Pressure Compression Ratio Pressure Rise In most applications. absolute pressure. When Pd is PV2 and Ps is PV3. the controller must measure the suction and discharge pressures (Ps and Pd ) and calculate either the compression ratio (Rc ) or pressure rise across the compressor (∆Pc ): Rc = Pd ⁄ Ps ∆P c = P d – P s Such calculations are valid only if both pressure inputs are scaled to the same maximum. the discharge pressure is calculated as: P d = P s + ∆P c = PV3 + PV2 Control algorithms applied to these pressures are unaffected by such substitutions. the Antisurge Controller must also measure or compute various temperatures or temperature ratios. whether calculated or directly measured. limiting control always applies to Pd and Ps .

3) . the Recycling Gain [COND:A M 0] must also be set to zero. and gas composition. Equivalent speed (Ne ) is a dimensionless function of rotational speed. this usually has the same effect as selecting an fA mode that calculates proximity to surge as a function of Rc rather than a function of hr . it must be a Performance Controller that uses an analog input to monitor speed. Although it is often the third coordinate of an invariant compressor performance map. September 2005 IM301 (6. However. Note: Because it is difficult to determine the cause of a surge if the rotational speed is unknown. it must be a Speed or Fuel Controller that is regulating the compressor’s rotational speed. the speed of every compressor should be measured by at least one controller. suction temperature.52 Chapter 4: Calculated Variables Head Reduced Head Polytropic Head Exponent Application functions that calculate reduced polytropic head use the following defining equation: hr = ( Rc – 1 ) ⁄ σ where: hr = reduced head Rc = Compression Ratio (Pd / Ps ) σ = polytropic head exponent (sigma) The polytropic head exponent is calculated from the temperature and compression ratios: σ = log ( T d ⁄ T s ) ⁄ log ( P d ⁄ P s ) The resulting exponent is then passed through a first-order lag filter governed by the Sigma Filter Constant [PID:A Tf 2]. • If that source is not specified as the companion Load-Sharing Controller [SS 4 ≠ its ID]. our methods of computing proximity to surge do not require its explicit calculation. σ Speed Rotational Speed Equivalent Speed The Rotational Speed Source [MODE:A ANIN 4] specifies whether the controller should measure rotational speed (N) using its CH4 analog input [AN IN 4 Off] or obtain it via serial communication from a companion Series 3 Plus Controller [AN IN 4 equals that companion’s Controller ID Number]: • If that source is also specified as the companion Load-Sharing Controller [MODE:A SS 4] by setting that parameter equal to its Controller ID.1. If the polytropic head exponent is nearly constant. In non-load-sharing applications. this calculation can be configured to use the Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4] by enabling the Constant Sigma [MODE:A fC 2] option.

Because the controller detects surge by monitoring SV1 (that is. then f 5(J gross) = 1 ⁄ J net Net power can also be defined as the ratio of any single-input variable and a function of another: J net = PV1 ⁄ f 5(Z) For a steam turbine driven compressor. incorporate that correction into the f3 characterizer: J net ⁄ N = J gross ⁄ f 3(N) f 3(N) = N ⋅ J gross ⁄ J net • To define net power as a function of gross power.1. for example. PV1 should be defined as a constant by setting the CH1 Process Variable Gain to zero and its Process Variable Bias to the desired constant value.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 53 Power Drive Power Reduced Power The “power algorithm” (fA 51) calculates proximity to surge from the compression ratio and reduced power (jr). However. that signal can be connected to any otherwise unused input if it is defined as the f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9] and the General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] is defined as a simple inverse function: J = 1 ⁄ f 5(J) f 5(J) = J –1 In this case. the CH1 signal variable. it can be configured to detect surge by monitoring whatever signal you do connect to CH1.3) . You can compensate for mechanical power losses by defining the net power as a function of speed or power: • To define net power as a function of speed. which means that function should normally equal its argument: PV1 J j r = --------------. which is unaffected by the PV1 scaling). However. such rarely used approximations are not generally recommended. September 2005 IM301 (6. PV1 could be a steam flow rate and f5 a function of steam temperature. so the Safety On Surge Detection (see page 75) can use rapid power fluctuations as an indication of surging. which will in turn have no effect on the proximity-to-surge calculation. incorporate that correction into the f5 characterizer: J net = PV1 ⁄ f 5(J gross) if PV1 = J gross .= ---------------------------------------f 3(N) ⋅ f 5(Z) ⋅ P s N ⋅ Ps f 3(N) = N The drive power signal (J) is usually connected to CH1 (J = PV1). The X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] defines the dependence of reduced power on the rotational speed. then f 5(J gross) = J gross ⁄ J net if PV1 = 1 .

we refer to it generically as the calculated flow measurement (∆Po.d ): q r.1.c = PV1). In the simplest case. reduced flow variable (qr ) that is defined as: qr = where: ∆Po = differential pressure drop across an orifice plate or other flow measuring restriction Ps = suction pressure ∆Po must be a measurement of the total suction or discharge flow. The more complex flow calculations that might be required in multisection compressor applications are discussed in Chapter 7.c ). however. Proximity to Surge (see page 63) is usually calculated from a reduced flow variable based on a scaled. selected. compensated for a suction control valve.s ) or in discharge (qr. and we refer to the corresponding dimensionless flows as reduced flow in suction (qr.3) . or otherwise calculated measurement of the total flow through the compressor. suction or discharge differential pressure signal connected to analog input CH1 (in which case ∆Po.54 Chapter 4: Calculated Variables Flow Rates A variety of flow rates and measurements are calculated for control and informational purposes. s = ∆P o. this will be a directly-measured. or calculated by combining a sidestream flow with that through another compressor section. d ⁄ P s ∆P o ⁄ P s Calculated Flow Measurement Because the total flow measurement can optionally be selected from more than one source. September 2005 IM301 (6. d = ∆P o. Several other features calculate various Mass Flow Rates (see page 58). s ⁄ P s q r. Reduced Flow Proximity to surge calculations usually employ a dimensionless.

For example. This feature can be disabled by setting the Low Flow Input to either Off or 1. The proximity-tosurge calculation would then use PV7 until ∆Po reached 2.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 55 FT1 ∆Po. hydrogen compressors are often charged with nitrogen at such times. September 2005 IM301 (6.5 kPa signal is connected to CH7. in which case PV1 is used as the only analog flow input.25 kPa. PV1 would be used as the flow measurement regardless of its range.low UIC n Connect ∆Po.3) . SS – should then be set to PV7.875 kPa. respectively. and their process variables should be scaled as percentages of the same maximum pressure drop. If CH1 failed. As shown in Figure 4-1. after which PV1 would be used until SV7 fell back below 1.and lower-spanned transmitters should be connected to CH1 and the specified Low Flow Input [MODE:A SS –]. then set SS – = n Figure 4-1 Dual Flow Transmitters Using dual flow transmitters A differential pressure signal is generally unsuitable for control purposes below about ten percent of its transmitter span. This feature is particularly useful when the orifice pressure drops during normal operation are much higher than those encountered while the compressor is starting. If the gain and bias for PV1 are set to 1. The proximity-to-surge calculation would then use the low flow process variable as its flow measurement until its signal variable reached 90 percent. the Antisurge Controller can switch to a second flow input that is presumably connected to a transmitter with a lower range than that connected to CH1.000 and 00. stopping. Above that threshold. It would then use PV1 until the low flow signal variable fell back below 75 percent.low to any appropriate input CHn. the gain and bias for PV7 should be 0. For example.0 (so both signals would rise to 20 percent as ∆Po rises to 2. assume a 0 to 12. the higher. the Low Flow Input would be used as long as its signal variable was no higher than 90 percent. which yields much lower orifice pressure differentials. in applications that require frequent or sustained operation at low orifice pressure drops. If the specified Low Flow Input failed. Thus. the controller would invoke its Default Output Fallback (see page 67).1.200 and 00.0.high 1 FT2 ∆Po. or idling.5 kPa).5 kPa transmitter is connect to CH1 and a 0 to 2.

Then connect a second pressure signal (Pfe . Finally.s). This does not compromise surge protection. Note: Appendix F discusses the application (if any) of this feature to each fA Mode. Unless used as described for your selected fA Mode. s = ∆P o ⋅ P fe ⁄ P s ∆P o = PV1 First. because the actual flow measurement (∆Po) will always be lower than the equivalent suction flow measurement (∆Po. the controller can be configured to compensate its calculated flow measurement for the change in pressure across that restriction (see Figure 4-2): ∆P o.56 Chapter 4: Calculated Variables FT ∆Po 1 PT Pfe n 3 PT Ps Connect Pfe to any unused input CHn. this compensation must be explicitly disabled by setting SS 8 to Off.3) . set the Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A SS 8] equal to that pressure input’s channel number. this compensation is discontinued.1. upstream from the valve) to any otherwise unused analog input. September 2005 IM301 (6. c = ∆P o. If either pressure measurement fails. connect the suction pressure signal (measured at the compressor inlet) to analog input CH3. measured at the flow measuring element. then set SS 8 = n UIC Figure 4-2 Control Valve Compensation Compensating ∆Po for a suction control valve If flow is measured in suction and there is a control valve between the flow element and compressor inlet.

s = ∆P o. If both Ts and Tac are controlled. Thus.= ∆P o. Because Td /Ts = (Pd/Ps)σ for polytropic compression.s as. c = ∆P o. s ∝ ∆P o. the Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4] can be used to calculate the equivalent suction flow measurement from pressure measurements only. an invariant proximity to surge can be calculated from the reduced flow in discharge (qr. d ⋅ ( P d ⁄ P s ) ⁄ ( T d ⁄ T s ) = ∆P o.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Discharge Flow Measurement 57 When the flow is measured in discharge. fA 67 will calculate ∆Po.d and Td ). However.d ). Thus. ∆P o. s q r.3) .1. s = -------------. practical considerations often dictate the calculation and use of an equivalent reduced flow in suction (qr.ac and Tac ) are connected to CH1 and CH5 in place of the discharge measurements (∆Po.s ): ∆P o. if the Constant Sigma [MODE:A fC 2] option is enabled. ac ⋅ ( P d ⁄ P s ) ⋅ ( T s ⁄ T ac ) Pd Ts ∆P o.⋅ -------2 Ps P T ac s This calculation is explicitly implemented in fA 68. s = -------------. their ratio will be nearly constant. fA 68 will calculate ∆Po. if the Constant Sigma [MODE:A fC 2] option is enabled. ac ⋅ R c September 2005 IM301 (6. s 2 q r. d ⋅ ( P d ⁄ P s ) ⋅ ( T s ⁄ T d ) Pd Ts ∆P o. d ⋅ R c ⁄ R c = ∆P o. s = ∆P o.= ∆P o. ac ⋅ P d ⁄ P s = ∆P o. where the required correction can be incorporated into the Y Coordinate Characterizer [f1 (Rc )]. It can also be employed in fA 63 if aftercooler measurements (∆Po. d ⋅ ----.⋅ ----2 Ps P Td s This calculation is implemented in fA modes 63 and 67. an equivalent suction flow measurement can be calculated as: ∆P o. ac ⋅ ----.s without any temperature measurements: ∆P o. Aftercooler Flow Measurement When the flow is measured downstream from an aftercooler. d ⋅ R c σ 1–σ This option is not available in fA 63.

58 Chapter 4: Calculated Variables Mass Flow Rates The Antisurge Controller uses the same basic formula and compensating inputs to calculate several mass flow rate variables: • The Reported Flow (see page 86) of any Application Function between 61 and 69 is a squared mass flow rate. • The Displayed Flow (see page 61) can be viewed via the AUXiliary readout. the mass flow rate (W) through an orifice plate can be calculated as: W∝ where: W= ∆Po = P= T= mass flow rate pressure drop across the orifice absolute pressure absolute temperature ∆P o ⋅ P ⁄ T The Antisurge Controller calculates its mass flow rates as: W = C ⋅ ∆P o ⋅ Pc ⁄ T c where: C = an appropriate scaling coefficient ∆Po = an appropriate flow measurement (usually a designated analog input signal or process variable) Pc = Compensating Pressure Tc = Compensating Temperature The scaling coefficient should be proportional to the inverse of the maximum flow rate.mf = orifice pressure drop at maximum flow MaxFT = orifice pressure drop corresponding to the transmitter’s maximum signal Pmf = absolute pressure at maximum flow MaxPT = absolute pressure corresponding to the transmitter’s maximum signal September 2005 IM301 (6. Assuming little variation in gas composition and compressibility.⋅ ----------------. calculated as: C = where: Tmf = absolute temperature at maximum flow rate MaxTT = absolute temperature corresponding to the transmitter’s maximum signal ∆Po. mf P mf .3) or W = C ⋅ ∆P o ⋅ Pc ⁄ T c 2 Max FT Max PT T mf ----------------.⋅ ----------------Max TT ∆P o.1.

defined by the Compensating Temperature Offset [COND:D CONST 3] If Po and To are scaled to absolute units.3) .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 59 Tmf and MaxTT must be expressed in the same absolute units (for example. Pr and Tr should be zero. as must ∆Po. which are calculated as: Pc = absolute orifice pressure = Po + Pr Po = measured variable (see page 40) for the analog input designated as the Compensating Pressure Input [MODE:D fD 2] Pr = absolute pressure when Po is zero. psi) and Pmf and MaxPT (for example. Compensating Pressure Compensating Temperature All mass flow calculations use the same compensating pressure and temperature.mf and MaxFT (for example. °R).1. defined by the Compensating Pressure Offset [COND:D CONST 2] Tc = absolute orifice temperature = To + Tr To = measured variable for the analog input designated as the Compensating Temperature Input [MODE:D fD 3] Tr = absolute temperature when To is zero. September 2005 IM301 (6. psia). Note: The measured-variable scaling should be chosen to yield pressures that are less than sixteen times the temperature.

The Flow Variables Decimal [COND:D DISPLAY 1 5 •] sets the location of the decimal point (if any) in the Flow and UsrQ readouts. then press ENTER when you see the desired display format. where the fifth digit is leftmost (most significant) and the first is right-most (least significant).## Rt= #.3) .76 4: 9. scale the calculations to yield five-digit maximum flows.1. the Fallback Strategies can be configured to substitute default values for either those inputs or the calculated variable. Those readouts should be enabled only if you supply the required inputs.60 Chapter 4: Calculated Variables Calculated Variable Displays The AUXiliary readout can display any of the calculated variables listed in Table 4-1. the five possible values of that parameter would display it as follows: 0: 98765 1: 9876 2: 987. Special scaling is applied only to the Displayed Speed. Thus. and Displayed Net Flow. The resulting fallback value would then be displayed. The Reduced Head. Polytropic Head Exponent.876 When setting this parameter from the Engineering Panel. For example.## Speed= ##### Flow = ##### UsrQ = ##### September 2005 IM301 (6. Each such readout is enabled or disabled by the indicated parameter. Compression Ratio. It specifies the digit the decimal will replace.### Rc= ##. if the calculated Flow is 98765. you can try as many different values as you want. and Temperature Ratio readouts will be meaningless and should be disabled unless your chosen fA Mode calculates those variables.0. This will give more precise readouts than you would get by scaling the calculation to yield a maximum value of 00600 with no decimal. Table 4-1 Available calculated variable readouts Enabling Parameter Polytropic Exponent Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 1] Compression Ratio Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 2] Temperature Ratio Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 3] Rotational Speed Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 4] Mass Flow Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 5] Net Flow Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 7] Readouts Hpr = #. In the event that one or more of the inputs used to calculate these variables fail.### . Displayed Flow. Sigma= . if you want the Flow readout to range from 0 to 600. Then set the Flow Variables Decimal to 2 so the four most significant digits are displayed with a decimal after the third. To obtain the most precise readouts.6 3: 98. set the Displayed Flow Coefficient such that the maximum result (W) is 60000.

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller

61

If Auxiliary Display Reset [MODE:D LOCK 9] is disabled, Calculated Variables will be displayed until another variable is selected. Otherwise, the operating state display is restored 60 seconds after the MENU or SCROLL key was last pressed.

Displayed Speed

If the Rotational Speed Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 4] is enabled, the value of the Speed readout is calculated as: Speed = D 14 ⋅ N where: D14 = Rotational Speed Coefficient [COND:D DISPLAY 1 4 HIGH] N = normalized Rotational Speed (see page 52)

Displayed Flow

If the Mass Flow Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 5] is enabled, the value of the Flow readout is calculated as: Flow = D 15 ⋅ ∆P o ⋅ Pc ⁄ T c where: D15 = Displayed Flow Coefficient [COND:D DISPLAY 1 5 HIGH] Pc = Compensating Pressure (see page 59) Tc = Compensating Temperature (see page 59) ∆Po = Mass Flow Input [MODE:D fD 1] signal variable (if disabled, the Calculated Flow Measurement is used) As explained on page 60, the position of the decimal point is set by the Flow Variables Decimal [COND:D DISPLAY 1 5 •]. You can configure an external numeric or graphical display for this flow by assigning the Flow function to analog output OUT2 (see Analog Outputs on page 42). The value of that output signal (in percent of span) is then calculated as: OUT2 = β 0 ⋅ Flow ⁄ 1, 000 where: β0 = OUT2 Mass Flow Coefficient [COND:D β 0] For example, if Flow varies from 0 to 10,000, setting β 0 to 10.0 will configure OUT2 to vary from 0 to 100 percent.

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Chapter 4: Calculated Variables

Displayed Net Flow

If the Net Flow Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 7] is enabled, the value of the UsrQ readout is calculated by subtracting a calculated recycle flow from the Displayed Flow: Pd UsrQ = Flow – D 17 ⋅ f 2D(Act) ⋅ f 2A(R c) ⋅ --------Td where: Act = displayed output =Actuator Control Signal (see page 99) or its complement D17 = Net Flow Coefficient [COND:D DISPLAY 1 7 HIGH] f2A() = Reported Flow Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] f2D() = Recycle Flow Characterizer [COND:D f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] Flow = Displayed Flow (see page 61) Pd = Discharge Pressure (see page 51) Rc = Compression Ratio (see page 51) Td = Discharge Temperature (see page 51) Valve manufacturers usually provide the information needed to define the characterizers and coefficients in this equation. As explained on page 60, the position of the decimal point is set by the Flow Variables Decimal [COND:D DISPLAY 1 5 •]. You can configure an external numeric or graphical display for this flow by assigning the UsrQ function to analog output OUT2 (see Analog Outputs on page 42). The value of that output signal (in percent of span) is then calculated as: OUT2 = β 0 ⋅ UsrQ ⁄ 1, 000 where: β0 = OUT2 Mass Flow Coefficient [COND:D β 0]

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Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller
IM301

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Chapter 5

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual

Proximity to Surge

This chapter tells how to set up the proximity-to-surge calculation and fallbacks.

Application Function

The specific method that a Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller uses to calculate a compressor’s proximity to surge is defined by setting the Application Function [MODE:A fA], which selects one of several “fA Mode” equations sharing the general form: K ⋅ f 1 (P s, P d, T s, T d) ⋅ f 5 (U 5) K ⋅ f 1 (Y) ⋅ f 5 (U 5) S s = ----------------------------------------- = -----------------------------------------------------------------------X ∆P o ⁄ [ P s ⋅ f 3 (N) ] where: f1(Y) = f3(N) = f5(U5) = K= N= Pd = Ps = Td = Ts = U5 = X, Y =

Y Coordinate Characterizer X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient rotational speed discharge pressure suction pressure discharge temperature suction temperature secondary coordinate specified as the f5 Argument primary coordinates of the compressor map

This function is scaled so that Ss equals one when the compressor is operating on its surge limit line, and will be less than one when the operating point is safely to the right of the SLL. In theory, this could be accomplished without a Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K], simply by appropriately scaling the various Characterizing Functions. In practice, K is usually given a nominal value of 0.5 and the characterizers are set accordingly. Minor retuning can then be accomplished by simply varying K. In most fA Modes, the X coordinate is the Reduced Flow (see page 54), although Reduced Power (see page 53) can be used when no flow measurement is available. The Y coordinate is generally the Compression Ratio or Reduced Head (see page 52), depending on the variability of the Polytropic Head Exponent (in this discussion, hr is used as the generic case). U5 is most often the guide vane angle (α). Appendix F describes the generally recommended fA Modes, while Table F-1 summarizes their analog input signals.

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Chapter 5: Proximity to Surge
hr=10 Surge Limit Line

hr,3 COND:A X 1 n = hr,n COND:A f(X) 1 n = qr,n

0

qr,3

qr=10

Figure 5-1

Defining the minimum safe flow as a function of head
A first-order-lag software filter governed by the DEV Filter Constant [PID:A Tf 1] is applied to the fA mode’s numerator and denominator. As shown in Figure 5-1, the Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] defines the shape of the surge limit line. This is usually the minimum reduced flow (qr ) at each of ten values for the reduced head (hr ), so that proximity to surge is the ratio of that minimum flow (at the current head) to its actual value: q r, min = f (h r)
2

Filtering Characterizing Functions

S s = q r, min ⁄ q r = f (h r) ⁄ q r

2

2

2

The General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] can then be used to further define either coordinate variable or the surge limit as a function of the f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9]: • If SS 9 is Off, this argument is the Polytropic Head Exponent (σ), which is sometimes a good measure of gas composition. • Otherwise, this argument is the corresponding process variable (for example, if SS 9 equals 7, f5 is a function of PV7). This is most often used to define the surge limit as a function of the guide vane angle. In fA 51 applications, the X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] is used to calculate Reduced Power (see page 53). Otherwise, f3 should be defined as a constant. In applications using fA 34 or 35, the Reported Flow Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] is used to calculate an equivalent flow measurement (see Equivalent Flow Measurements on page 85). In series Load Balancing (see page 93) applications, the Balancing Variable Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 6 # and X 6 #] usually defines the load as a function of speed or compression ratio. Finally, the Control Line Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 4 # and X 4 #] is used to define various Control Lines (see page 71).
September 2005 IM301 (6.1.3)

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller
Proximity to surge is calculated by dividing the minimum flow at the current head [f1(hr)] by the actual flow. Ss = f(hr) qr

65

At the surge limit, qr and f1(hr) converge to the minimum qr at the current, unknown value of Ne .

Ne,3 hr Ne,2 P

S

P

S hr Ne,1

Ne

O

f1(hr)

qr,SL

qr

O

f1(hr) qr,SL

qr

Figure 5-2

Proximity to surge for a fixed-geometry compressor
Each of these functions is defined by ten data pairs representing the argument and corresponding function values. The controller then uses linear interpolation to calculate intermediate values. You must select eight values for each function’s independent variable (X1 through X8 ), each of which must exceed (and cannot equal) its predecessor. These are defined by the corresponding COND X # # parameters. X0 and X9 are predefined as 0.00 and 10.00 for f1 and f2 and as 0.000 and 1.000 for f3 through f6 . You must also determine the ten corresponding values of each function’s dependent variable [Yn = f(Xn )], which are defined by setting the corresponding COND f(X) # # parameters. Beginning with software revision 756-002, the values returned by the f1, f2, f3, and f5 characterizers can be viewed via the front-panel AUX readout. Whenever a particular characterizer is not being calculated, however, its result will display as “–.– –”. If invalid characterizer points are downloaded using the Configurator program, the controller will substitute a default set of X values and set all f(X) values to 1.00. The parameter checksum displayed on its engineering keypad will then be different from that indicated by Configurator program. Although three dimensionless-coordinates [reduced head (hr ), reduced flow (qr ), and equivalent speed (Ne)] are required to fully map the operation of a fixed-geometry compressor, only two of them are needed to calculate an invariant proximity to surge. In general, (hr , qr ) is the only practical coordinate system. Reduced power (jr ), which is essentially the product of head and flow, can be substituted for qr when no flow measurement is available, and reduced head can often be adequately characterized as a function of Rc alone.
IM301 (6.1.3)

Note:
Fixed-Geometry Compressors

September 2005

• If all three variables change. the difference between qr and f1(hr) will still decrease (and Ss will still rise) if the new operating point is closer to the surge limit line.1 α3 Ss = f(hr) · f(α) qr O qr Figure 5-3 Proximity to surge for a variable-geometry compressor If we draw performance curves that plot hr against qr at various equivalent speeds (Ne ). even though it would be different for those two points and might be changing: • If the operating point approaches the surge limit along a line of constant Ne (as shown). equivalent speed.66 Chapter 5: Proximity to Surge hr α1 α2 Ne. but only three of them (head. we can calculate Ss by comparing the actual reduced flow to the value it would have if the compressor was at its surge limit with the same reduced head. qr will decrease to f1(hr ) and the two values of Ne will converge. Because this approach is practically invariant to all process conditions. Variable-Geometry Compressors Four dimensionless-coordinates (generally reduced head.3) . reduced flow. however. as defined by K · f1(hr ). as shown in the left panel of Figure 5-2. and guide vane angle) are needed to quantify the operation of a variable-geometry compressor. there is no need to further characterize the surge limit as a function of gas composition or inlet temperature. The equivalent speed need not be known. flow.2 Ne. the surge limit would be characterized as: S s = K ⋅ f(α. • If the operating point approaches the surge limit along a line of constant hr . and vane angle) are needed to calculate an invariant proximity to surge (see Figure 5-3).1. qr and f1(hr) will converge. h r) ⁄ q r In the Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller.3 Ne. Ideally. this ideal is approximated using separate functions of head and vane angle: S s = K ⋅ f 5(α) ⋅ f 1(h r) ⁄ q r September 2005 IM301 (6.

When this fallback is triggered.1. the following fallbacks are always applied if the indicated conditions are detected: • If the calculated flow measurement is being compensated for a flow restriction (see Control Valve Compensation on page 56). the actuator control signal is ramped to the higher of this filtered value or the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. At the very least. • Suction or discharge Pressure Limiting (see page 82) is suspended if a required analog input fails. Because the actual flow measurement in such applications will always be less than a measurement of the true flow would be. continued surge protection can be provided by substituting an approximate constant value for the missing input or some intermediate calculation based on that input. Any SO and RT relays are also cleared. In many such cases. the controller will select the fallback mode or modes (from among those that have been enabled) that utilize as many valid inputs as possible. Default Output Fallback The purpose of the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is to open the recycle valve far enough to prevent surge under the worst possible conditions when all of the less-drastic fallbacks are either disabled or inapplicable. Toward this end. it is usually better to revert to minimum flow control than to continue controlling on the basis of a suspect input. This fallback then September 2005 IM301 (6.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 67 Fallback Strategies The Antisurge Controller offers a wide variety of fA Modes that allow you to tailor its proximity-to-surge computation to your specific application. In addition to the optional algorithms discussed below. Each of these can be enabled or disabled by setting its Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 #] parameter. The front-panel FallBack indicator will light whenever one or more of the fallback options is active. the controller continuously calculates a filtered control signal value that is relatively unaffected by transients caused by an input failure. But they are also more likely to succumb to transmitter failures. that compensation is discontinued if either required pressure measurement fails. because they require more inputs. as are those LEDs. In general. Depending on the selected fA Mode. In such cases. and most utilize one or more fallback constant [COND:A CONST #] parameters.3) . more than one of these algorithms might be applicable to a given input failure or combination of failures. During normal operation. this does not compromise surge protection. the more complicated modes will provide more energy savings. the Antisurge Controller offers a number of fallback strategies. because they allow you to tune the controller more aggressively.

the control signal will remain constant at the manually set value. temperature. If this fallback is triggered. it is triggered when the flow input is outside its acceptable range. Minimum Flow Fallback The purpose of the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is to maintain a worst-case minimum flow when that variable can be computed but its dynamic minimum limit cannot. c ) ≥ b ⋅ f 4(U 4) → ∆P o.68 Chapter 5: Proximity to Surge remains active until two seconds after the conditions that triggered it are corrected: • Most fA Modes maintain a flow measurement (∆Po). While this fallback is active.3) . If fD 31 is enabled in such an application.1. However. • Other fA Modes maintain a minimum mass flow (W). although you can initiate manual operation and set the output signal to any desired value. If fD 31 is enabled in such an application. However. it might also be triggered by the failure of a single input signal if no less-drastic fallback mode is appropriate to September 2005 IM301 (6. • A cold recycle controller (fA 00) initiates this fallback if it fails to receive a valid flow from any companion controller. Note: For fA mode 51. c ≥ ------------------------------1 – b ⋅ f 4(U 4) This fallback is usually triggered only if several pressure or temperature inputs fail. c or S s = Const 2 ⁄ W 2 It will then raise the recycle flow rate as needed to keep the compliment of this ratio above the desired surge control margin: Const 2 1 – ( Const 2 ⁄ ∆P o. the controller will calculate Ss as the ratio of its Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] and the calculated flow measurement (∆Po. or the controller requires but fails to receive a valid flow measurement from a designated Adjacent Section Controller [MODE:A SS 5]. it is triggered when the associated flow. the Auto LED flashes and the output is held constant. or pressure input is outside its acceptable range or if the controller requires but fails to receive a valid mass flow from the Adjacent Section Controller. you should not do so on the basis of the front-panel DEV display — its value will be based on that of the failed input! If you restore automatic operation while the fallback condition still exists.c) or mass flow rate: S s = Const 2 ⁄ ∆P o. • This fallback is also initiated if the controller is tracking the output signal of another device and the analog input for that signal fails (see Output Tracking on page 102). this the only fallback currently supported. which calculate Ss from a power measurement.

when the calculated value might be inaccurate). Such modes will also use the Polytropic Head Fallback in preference to this strategy if both are enabled. Normally.c when the adjacent stage pressure input (CH5) fails. that condition would cause the Reported Flow Characterizer to assume the value of its final defining point [COND:A f(X) 2 9]. However.3) Note: Speed Fallback September 2005 . Instead. In that event. However. Sigma Fallback Some fA Modes calculate the Polytropic Head Exponent (sigma) from the temperature and compression ratios. the compensated value is used unless a pressure input required to calculate it fails. ∆Po. conditions that would otherwise trigger this fallback will trigger the Default Output Fallback instead. There is no specific fallback that allows fA 34 to calculate its ∆Po. Because a worstcase value of this variable can often be predicted from a knowledge of the process. the uncompensated (and therefore lower) value of PV1 would be used. the Sigma Fallback should be enabled to allow them to use a default exponent. If this fallback is disabled. IM301 (6. if that measurement is compensated for a suction flow control valve (see Control Valve Compensation on page 56). or if all such modes have been disabled. enabling the Compression Ratio Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 3] configures the controller to substitute the Default Compression Ratio [COND:A CONST 3] when the discharge pressure input fails (a suction pressure input failure would trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback). If the chosen application function requires the Rotational Speed and the Speed Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 5] is enabled. An adequate fallback can thus be fashioned by assigning appropriate values to that characterizer point and the Default Minimum Flow. the controller will substitute the Default Speed [COND:A CONST 5] when the analog speed input or communication with the designated companion turbine controller fails. If fD 32 is Off. failure of the speed signal will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. If the selected fA Mode calculates sigma. Application functions that calculate the Polytropic Head Exponent from the compression ratio will not use the default ratio to calculate sigma.1. you must define a Default Sigma even if the Sigma Fallback is disabled (the default value is always used during startups and shutdowns.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 69 your chosen fA Mode. Compression Ratio Fallback If the selected fA Mode calculates the compression ratio.c is simply the process variable for the flow input (PV1). you can enable the Sigma Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 4] to configure such modes to substitute the Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4] when any input used only to calculate that exponent fails.

enabling the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] of the primary controller configures it to use an Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] for the Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] when it loses contact with any secondary controller. its argument will have no effect on the value of Ss . Valve-Sharing Fallback In valve-sharing applications. September 2005 IM301 (6. a fallback condition would still be indicated).4. Polytropic Head Fallback Enabling the Polytropic Head Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 9] configures “no-flow” fA modes to calculate that variable from the suction and discharge temperatures and the Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4] if the discharge pressure input fails: Rc = Td ⁄ Ts α Td – Ts ( Td ⁄ Ts ) – 1 h r = ----------------------------. you can configure the controller to use its Default Adjacent Section Flow [COND:A CONST 7] in any other calculation that requires the missing flow by enabling the Adjacent Section Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 7].0 and 102. If this fallback is disabled. If this fallback is disabled. speed failure would unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. The controller will then calculate the correct value for Ss from the Default f5 Argument.1. you should enable this fallback. However. regardless of its value (however. If the General Characterizer is defined as a constant. If that is not possible. so that it is always valid. If this fallback is disabled. the controller will use the Default f5 Argument [COND:A CONST 6] when the input defined as the f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9] fails. Adjacent Section Flow Fallback If the selected fA Mode requires a flow measurement or mass flow from an adjacent section controller. failure of that input signal will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback.70 Chapter 5: Proximity to Surge This fallback should be enabled if speed is the argument of an X Coordinate Characterizer that is defined as a constant. Its argument should then be an input for which the alarm limits can be set to 00. this default reported flow will also be used in the Ss calculation.= ----------------σ Ts ⋅ σ If enabled. this approach will be used in preference to the Compression Ratio Fallback. a Port 1 failure would trigger the Default Output Fallback (if it is enabled). it would still signal a fallback condition). loss of communication with any secondary controller will trigger the Default Output Fallback (if it is enabled). Function 5 Fallback When the selected fA mode includes the General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] and the Function 5 Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 6] is enabled. If the Default Output Fallback is disabled. Ss would then be correctly calculated from any Default Speed (however.3) .

• The Recycle Trip Response ratchets the control valve open when the operating point is to the left of the Recycle Trip Line.1. each control line is the locus of points for which: S s = 1 + bias ⋅ f 4(U 4) where f4 = Control Line Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 4 # and X 4 #] U4 = Control Line Argument [MODE:A fC 1] We can then define the margin (or distance) between any control line and its reference line (usually the SLL) as: m arg in = bias ⋅ f 4(U 4) Control Lines September 2005 IM301 (6. Just as the surge limit line (SLL) is the locus of points for which Ss equals one. Li ne Su rg e Lim it L O ine n Re c cy le ip Tr Lin e ol L ine e eC f Lin urg t-Of u S t Sh Tigh r ont SlopeRTL = 1 – b1 – CRSO + RT SlopeSCL = 1 – b1 – CRSO – CRD SlopeTSL = SlopeSCL – d1 qr Figure 6-1 Typical control lines for antisurge control responses Various control actions are triggered when the operating point crosses the corresponding control lines: • The Antisurge PI Response increases the recycle rate when the operating point is to the left of the Surge Control Line.3) . • The Safety On Response moves the surge control line to the right if the operating point crosses the Safety On Line. and reduces it when that point is to the right of that line. • The Tight Shut Off Response (see page 101) fully closes the control valve when the operating point is to the right of the Tight Shut-Off Line and the output is at its minimum clamp.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 71 Chapter 6 Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual Antisurge Control hr Sa fe ty SlopeSOL = 1 + SO SlopeSLL = 1 This chapter tells how to set up the algorithms that calculate various control responses and select the required recycle flow rate.

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Chapter 6: Antisurge Control
In addition, the deviation (devCL ) of the operating point from any given control line can be calculated as: dev CL = 1 + bias ⋅ f 4(U 4) – S s If a control line (for example, the RTL) is to the right of the SLL, its bias and margin are negative, the operating point crosses that line before the compressor surges, and the deviation of the operating point from the control line is less than its deviation from the SLL. If the control line is to the left of the SLL (the SOL), its bias and margin are positive, the operating point crosses the control line only while the compressor is surging, and the deviation of the operating point from the control line exceeds its deviation from the SLL. The Control Line Characterizer is typically defined as a constant [for example, f4(U4) = 1 for all U]. The control lines will then appear as shown in Figure 6-1, regardless of the argument or its value. Disabling the Control Line Argument defines these distances as functions of the calculated flow measurement (usually ∆Po,c ). Giving that argument a value between one and eight (1 < fC 1 < 8) defines them as functions of the corresponding signal variable. However, the value 4 selects the Rotational Speed (see page 52), regardless of the source.

Surge Control Line

The surge control line (SCL) defines the desired minimum distance between the operating point and surge limit line. The SCL is always to the right of the SLL. The surge control margin (SCM) is the distance between those lines, which is calculated as: SCM = – b ⋅ f 4(U 4) = – ( b 1 + CR SO + CR D ) ⋅ f 4(U 4) where b= b1 = CRD = CRSO = surge control line bias (total b) Initial Surge Control Bias [SPEC:A b 1] Derivative Response Safety On Response DEV = dev SC = 1 – b ⋅ f 4(U 4) – S s The Antisurge PI Response increases the recycle rate when the operating point is to the left of this line (DEV < 0) and reduces it when that point is to the right of this line (DEV > 0). The operating point’s proximity to this line is referred to as “S”, which will equal one when that point is on the SCL: S = 1 – DEV = S s + b ⋅ f 4(U 4)

The compressor’s deviation (DEV) from the SCL is:

September 2005

IM301 (6.1.3)

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller

73

Recycle Trip Line

The Recycle Trip line (RTL) defines an operating limit beyond which the Recycle Trip Response will ratchet the control valve open (that response is active when the operating point is to the left of this line). The position of this line is defined relative to the surge limit line. The distance between them is the Recycle Trip margin (RTM), which is calculated as: RTM = ( RT – b 1 – CR SO ) ⋅ f 4(U 4) where b1 = Initial Surge Control Bias [SPEC:A b 1] CRSO = Safety On Response RT = Recycle Trip Line Distance [SPEC:A RT] The compressor’s deviation (devRT) from the RTL is: dev RT = 1 + ( RT – b 1 – CR SO ) ⋅ f 4(U 4) – S s As with all control lines, this distance is positive when the compressor is operating to the right of the RTL.

Note:
Safety On Line

The Recycle Trip Line Distance should be less than the Initial Surge Control Bias, so the RTL is always to the right of the SLL. The Safety On line (SOL) defines an operating limit beyond which the compressor is assumed to be surging. The Safety On Response will increment the Cumulative Surge Count and increase the surge control line bias (total b) when the operating point moves to the left of this line. This line is to the left of the surge limit line. The distance between them is the Safety On margin (SOM), which is calculated as: SOM = SO ⋅ f 4(U 4) where SO =Safety On Line Distance [SPEC:A SO] The compressor’s deviation (devSO) from the SOL is: dev SO = 1 + SO ⋅ f 4(U 4) – S s As with all control lines, this distance is positive when the compressor is operating to the right of the SOL.

September 2005

IM301 (6.1.3)

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Chapter 6: Antisurge Control

Tight Shut-Off Line

The tight shut-off line (TSL) defines the minimum SCL DEViation above which the Tight Shut Off Response (see page 101) can reduce the actuator control signal to zero (100 percent if reversed). This line is always to the right of the SCL. The distance between them is the tight shut-off margin (TSM), which is calculated as: TSM = – d 1 ⋅ f 4(U 4) where d1 = Tight Shut-Off Line Distance [SPEC:A d 1] The compressor’s deviation (devTS) from the TSL is: dev TS = 1 – ( b + d 1 ) ⋅ f 4(U 4) – S s As with all control lines, this distance is positive when the compressor is operating to the right of the TSL.

Derivative Response

If the Derivative Response [MODE:A fC 3] is enabled, this algorithm varies the surge control margin as a function of the rate at which the operating point is approaching the surge limit. That margin can thus be kept small (to minimize energy consumption) except during a rapid approach to surge. The width of the surge control margin is governed by its total b coefficient, the third term of which is the derivative response: b = b 1 + CR SO + CR D where: b3 = Maximum Derivative Response [SPEC:A b 3] dSs/dt = time derivative of Ss (in percent of span/160 msec.), r3 = CRD Dead-Zone Bias [PID:A r 3], in percent of span /160 msec.) Td0 = CRD Time Constant [PID:A Td 0] subject to the restriction that 0 ≤ CR D ≤ b 3 The value calculated for this response is used only if it is larger than the value from the previous scan. Otherwise, it is ramped down at the General Ramp Rate [PID:A G]. This algorithm is suspended (that is, CRD is held constant) when the operating point is to the left of the surge limit line. It can and should be disabled if the flow measurement is excessively noisy. As an aid to tuning this response, the Maximum Ss Derivative [PID:A Td 0 •] procedure can be used to display and optionally clear the highest detected rate of change for that variable. dS s CR D = b 3 ⋅ Td 0 ⋅  --------- – r 3  dt 

September 2005

IM301 (6.1.3)

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller

75

Safety On Response

Configuration errors, process changes, compressor wear, or especially severe disturbances can occasionally cause surge despite the actions of the Antisurge PI, Recycle Trip, and Derivative responses. When that happens, the Safety On response limits both the number of surges that do occur and the likelihood of their recurrence. The width of the surge control margin is governed by its total b coefficient, the second term of which is the Safety On response: b = b 1 + CR SO + CR D where: n = Cumulative Surge Count b2,i = value of the Safety On Incremental Bias [SPEC:A b 2] when surge i was detected Note that unless the b2 parameter is changed between surges: CR SO = n ⋅ b 2 The detection of a surge increments the surge count and moves the SCL to the right, thus increasing the distance between the operating point and surge limit. CR SO =

∑ b2, i
i=1

n

Surge Detection

If the Safety On Repeat Interval [SPEC:A A 5] is less than one second, the Surge Counters are incremented each time the operating point crosses to the left of the Safety On Line. Otherwise, they are repeatedly incremented at that interval for as long as the Safety On deviation is negative. If the Surge Detection Method [MODE:A fD 2] is set to zero, this is the only method used to detect surge. If a non-zero Surge Detection Method is selected, the controller also monitors the rate of change of SV1 and/or SV2 (which are usually the unscaled flow and discharge pressure measurements) for indications of surge. A surge detected by any of these methods will also trigger a Recycle Trip Response: • If fD 2 is 1, a Safety On response is triggered when a rapid change in flow is detected followed by a rapid pressure change within the Pressure After Flow Time Lag [SPEC:A A 4], or a rapid pressure change is detected followed by a rapid change in flow within the Flow After Pressure Time Lag [SPEC:A A 2]. • If fD 2 is 2, this response is triggered when either a rapid change in flow or a rapid pressure change is detected. • If fD 2 is 3, it is triggered only by a rapid change in flow. • If fD 2 is 4, it is triggered only by a rapid pressure change. The derivative of SV1 is compared to the Flow Rate-of-Change Threshold [SPEC:A A 1], while that of SV2 is compared to the Pressure Rate-of-Change Threshold [SPEC:A A 3]. If one of these limits

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Chapter 6: Antisurge Control
has a positive value, the surge counters are incremented when the corresponding variable’s rate-of-change exceeds that level. If it has a negative value, the counters are raised when the rate-of-change is more negative than the limit. In any case, surge detection is then suspended for the Safety On Repeat Interval [SPEC:A A 5]. After surge testing your compressor, the Maximum Flow Derivatives [SPEC:A A 1 •] and Maximum Pressure Derivatives [SPEC:A A 3 •] procedures can be used to determine appropriate thresholds (the values they report are dimensionally consistent with the corresponding parameters). These limits can also be calculated from a strip chart or similar data log. In that case, you should note that the units for these parameters are percent of scale per 160 milliseconds. The “pressure” derivative is always based on the signal variable for analog input CH2. If ∆Pc Substitution is enabled for Pd [MODE:A SS 6 1 High], SV2 will be ∆Pc and surge detection will be based on the derivative of the unscaled ∆Pc signal. The controller can maintain two separate counts of the number of surges it has detected. The cumulative surge count is the total number of surges that have been detected. The Safety On Response will increase the surge control margin whenever it is not zero. If the Surge Event Duration [COND:D CONST 1] is set to zero, this count will also trigger any Surge Event outputs whenever it equals or exceeds the Surge Event Threshold [COND:D CONST 0]. If the Surge Event Duration is not zero, the controller will also maintain an event surge count: • If this count is zero, detection of a surge will start an event timer. • Each surge increments this count, which will trigger any Surge Event discrete outputs if it reaches the Surge Event Threshold. • This count is set back to zero and all Surge Event relays are cleared when the timer has run for the Surge Event Duration. Pressing the RESET SAFETY ON key, setting the D5 input, or clearing the Modbus SO coil resets both to zero, as will a shutdown if you enable the Safety On AutoReset [MODE:A fB 3].

Note:
Surge Counters Cumulative Surge Count Event Surge Count

September 2005

IM301 (6.1.3)

max + ∆CR LD + ∆CR PC where: CRI = accumulated integral response – CR I = previously accumulated integral ∆CRI. Note: PI and RT Signal Selection The ACR is calculated by adding loop decoupling and primary capacity (load-sharing applications only) control responses to selected proportional. Because raising that flow is often the best available solution for more than one protective or limiting control objective. For example.max = largest integral response from among the Antisurge PI Response and Pressure Limiting loops. so the recycle flow must be kept high enough to prevent surge in any section of that compressor. In other cases.1. and Recycle Trip responses: ACR = CR P. and Recycle Trip responses of several control loops. the Antisurge Controller will notify them if it is being manually operated or if the control valve has been fully opened. ACR is calculated by adding the highest proportional. opening a recycle valve may not only be the best way to prevent surge. max + CR I + CR RT. or any Valve Sharing (see page 91) controllers ∆CRLD = Loop Decoupling response ∆CRPC = Primary Capacity Control (see page 92) response CRP.max = the largest proportional response from any of the sources listed for ∆CRI. any Auxiliary Limiting or Performance Override Performance Controllers.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 77 Antisurge Control Response The antisurge control response (ACR) represents the intended recycle flow.3) . Any closure of the recycle valve in response to a declining POC signal will proceed at a maximum rate that is half of the General Ramp Rate [PID:A G].max CRRT. max CR I = CR I + ∆CR I. These control responses assume the compressor has a signal-toopen recycle valve. the controller assures that the recycle flow rate will be sufficient to meet all of their protective and limiting control objectives. but also the best way to limit the maximum system pressure. In order to prevent any of those control loops from experiencing integral windup. The resulting control signal is adapted to the actual valve by setting the Recycle Valve Direction [MODE:A REV]. integral.max = the largest of its own Recycle Trip Response or those of any designated Valve Sharing Antisurge Controllers By selecting the highest of the indicated PI and RT responses. – September 2005 IM301 (6. only one recycle valve may be installed on a multi-section compressor. integral.

the total width of which is twice the value of r 1. This creates a dead zone around the SCL.⋅ e ⋅ ∆t PB PB 60 where ∆t = scan time in seconds Kr = reset rate [PID:A Kr #. General PI Algorithm Dead Zone The Antisurge Controller can be configured to ignore minor deviations of the operating point from the surge control line (SCL) by setting its DEV Dead-Zone Bias [PID:A r 1]. Note that r 1 should be less than the Recycle Trip Line Distance [SPEC:A RT].⋅ ----. This dead zone can be disabled by setting r 1 to zero.3) . in repeats/minute] PB = proportional band [PID:A PB #] The PB and Kr coefficients are set independently for each control function using this algorithm.1. ∆CR I = --------.78 Chapter 6: Antisurge Control e DEV + r1 if DEV ≤ –r1 0 if –r1 ≤ DEV ≤ r1 DEV – r1 if DEV ≥ –r1 e= DEV r1 Figure 6-2 Dead-zone error (e) as a function of the DEViation The Antisurge Controller uses the following general PI algorithm to calculate proportional (CRP) and integral (∆CRI) responses from the deviation of each control variable from its set point: 100 100 Kr CR P = --------. The error for the antisurge PI loop is then calculated by adding or subtracting that dead-zone bias from the DEViation (see Figure 6-2). September 2005 IM301 (6.⋅ e .

DEV Reset Rate [PID:A Kr 1]. the controller uses its general PI control algorithm to calculate separate proportional and integral responses to the operating point’s deviation from the Surge Control Line (SCL): • When that deviation is positive (DEV > 0). and DEV DeadZone Bias [PID:A r 1]. This loop is configured by setting the DEV Proportional Band [PID:A PB 1]. the PI response will open the recycle valve as needed to restore the desired surge control margin. September 2005 IM301 (6. Under such circumstances. In other words.1. the antisurge PI response will gradually close the recycle valve to minimize unnecessary recycling. the antisurge PI response is used to counter routine disturbances by maintaining the operating point as close as possible to the SCL. Its error is then calculated from the DEViation and dead-zone bias: e = 0.3) .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 79 Antisurge PI Response During each scan. A ramping function is used to prevent sudden output changes when switching from manual to automatic surge protection. • When that deviation is negative (DEV < 0).512 ⋅ ( DEV ± r1 ) The output clamps prevent integral windup when the compressor is operating to the right of the surge control line with the control valve fully closed. the controller sets the effective value of its DEViation to zero and ramps it to the value calculated from the analog inputs at half the rate set by the General Ramp Rate [PID:A G].

In essence. it defines a maximum overshoot for Ss. the size of each step (∆RT) is calculated as: dS s ∆CR RT = C 1 ⋅  Td 1 ⋅ --------. The size of each step is subject to the restriction: 0 ≤ ∆CR RT ≤ C 1 Recycle Trip Response September 2005 IM301 (6.1. This response is triggered when the operating point moves to the left of the RTL (see Recycle Trip Line on page 73) or the SV1 or SV2 rate-of-change indicates a surge has occurred (see Surge Detection on page 75).3) . If that limit is exceeded. C1 = Maximum Recycle Trip Step Size [SPEC:A C 1]. The controller will then step the recycle valve open as shown on Figure 6-3. devRT = Recycle Trip deviation (negative when operating to the left of the RTL). and Td1 = Recycle Trip Time Constant [PID:A Td 1].80 Chapter 6: Antisurge Control Recycle Trip Response Quick Opening Slow Closing Time Figure 6-3 Typical Recycle Trip response The Recycle Trip response protects against disturbances that are too large or fast to be countered by the PI and derivative responses. the Recycle Trip response quickly ratchets the recycle valve open. then waits for the Antisurge PI Response to catch up.– C 0 ⋅ dev RT   dt where: C0 = Recycle Trip Gain [SPEC:A C 0].). If the Derivative Recycle Trip [MODE:A fC 4] is enabled. dSs/dt = derivative of Ss with respect to time (in percent of span/160 msec.

In addition. When the operating point returns to the right of the RTL. If the operating point reaches the SCL during this decay. if the approach to surge is slow. On the other hand. all RT indicators remain set until a positive devRT is restored. the derivative term might never become significant. As an aid to tuning this response. In applications where the flow measurement is excessively noisy. September 2005 IM301 (6. the Derivative Recycle Trip should be disabled [fC 4 Off]. In such cases. but any RT relays will be cleared as soon as the operating point moves back to the right of the RTL.1. when dSs /dt is positive). If the approach to surge is rapid. the Force Recycle Trip [MODE TEST] test can be used to evaluate your compressor’s response to a Recycle Trip control action. the proportional term would grow until the resulting Recycle Trip response was large enough to move the operating point back to the SCL. If the controller is operating automatically. the derivative term (Td1 · dSs /dt) usually restores a safe operating point before the proportional term (C0 · devRT) becomes significant. This response will then generate steps of constant magnitude C1 as long as the operating point is to the left of the RTL.3) .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 81 These step changes are added at intervals set by the Recycle Trip Repeat Interval [SPEC:A C 2] as long as the operating point is to the left of the RTL and the operating point is moving toward the surge limit (that is. If the controller is being manually operated. The front-panel RT LED will light and any discrete outputs assigned the RT function will be set when the operating point crosses the RTL (when devRT becomes negative). the RT LED will remain lit until the Recycle Trip response decays to zero. the Maximum Ss Derivative [PID:A Td 0 •] procedure can be used to display and optionally clear the highest detected rate of change for that variable. the PI response will increase to prevent any closer approach to surge. the accumulated Recycle Trip control response will decay exponentially at the Recycle Trip Decay Rate [SPEC:A TL].

For example. a discharge pressure limit of 250 psig would be entered as 52. In fA 01 and 02. the PV2 high-limiting loop applies to that pressure rise. September 2005 IM301 (6.7 psia / 514. in which the calculated pressure is limited and its limiting readouts are displayed in percent.82 Chapter 6: Antisurge Control Pressure Limiting The Antisurge Controller can limit the maximum discharge pressure and minimum suction pressure by increasing the recycle flow: • If Discharge Pressure Limiting [MODE:A MVAR 2] is enabled. Each loop’s readouts use the corresponding measured variable scaling unless ∆Pc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 1] is enabled for that pressure.3) . which use CH2 as a differential pressure input (∆Pc). that response is calculated by applying the Pd Proportional Band [PID:A PB 2] and Pd Reset Rate [PID:A Kr 2] to the deviation of Pd above the Maximum Discharge Pressure [COND:A SP 2]: e = P d – SP 2 • If Suction Pressure Limiting [MODE:A MVAR 3] is enabled. the DEV and ALT readouts will display it and its set point when the DISPLAY LIMIT key is pressed. The PV3 loop is available only in software revision 756-002 or higher. Pressure Limit Scaling When setting the pressure limiting thresholds and PI coefficients. a Series 3 Plus Performance Controller can be used to effectively add another limiting variable to the Antisurge Controller (see Auxiliary Limiting on page 83 and Performance Override on page 83). assume that the discharge pressure is measured by a 0 to 500 psig sensor and the suction pressure by a 0 to 50 psia sensor.7 psia). A suction pressure limit of 20 psia would be entered as 3.7 psia). and applies to whatever variable is connected to analog input CH3. If you have scaled PV2 and PV3 relative to their common absolute maximum. If your process has other variables that can be limited by increasing the recycle or blowoff flow rate.9 percent (20 psia / 514. the controller keeps the recycle rate high enough to satisfy the limiting control objectives without compromising surge protection.0% (264. By including these proportional and integral responses (CRP and ∆CRI) in its PI and RT Signal Selection. keep in mind that they are usually percentages of a common maximum absolute pressure. that response is calculated by applying the Ps Proportional Band [PID:A PB 3] and Ps Reset Rate [PID:A Kr 3] to the deviation of Ps below the Minimum Suction Pressure [COND:A SP 3]: e = SP 3 – P s If either pressure is beyond its control threshold.1.

This would increase the recycle rate when needed to limit that controller’s performance override control variable. such limiting loops can be implemented by configuring a Performance Controller to submit its PD and ∆I responses to an Antisurge Controller’s PI and RT Signal Selection algorithm. That Antisurge Controller is configured to accept them by enabling its Valve Sharing Companion [MODE:A SS 1 #] parameter that corresponds to the Performance Controller’s Controller ID Number.1. Assigning a non-zero Valve-Sharing Master ID [MODE:A SS 2] enables secondary Valve Sharing (see page 91). as described in the Loop Decoupling section in Chapter 6 of IM302. September 2005 IM301 (6. Loop Decoupling Note: The loop-decoupling response can only be positive. Loop decoupling can be completely disabled by setting all eight SS 0 parameters to Off.3) . Enabling Performance Override Control [MODE:A SS 3] configures an Antisurge Controller to include a Performance Controller POC response (received via Port 2) in its PI and RT Signal Selection. as described in the Performance Override Response section in Chapter 6 of IM302. To avoid integral windup. enable theDecoupling Controller [MODE:A SS 0 #] parameter corresponding to its Controller ID Number and assign an appropriate value to the corresponding Decoupling Gain [COND:A M #]. In that case. To decouple an Antisurge Controller from a specified companion.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 83 Auxiliary Limiting The recycle valve will sometimes be the most appropriate control element for a limiting variable other than the discharge and suction pressures. The potentially destabilizing effects that could result from interactions between an antisurge control response and its compressor’s performance and other antisurge control loops can be counteracted by the loop decoupling algorithm. the Performance Controller suspends its integral control action when the Antisurge Controller is being manually operated or its control valve is fully open. so it will never decrease the recycle flow rate. the loop-decoupling algorithm is not executed (even if it is enabled) and all MODE:A SS 0 parameters are automatically disabled when the controller is reset (see MODE TEST 6 on page 146). As described in the Auxiliary Limiting Control section in Chapter 6 of IM302. Note: Performance Override The proportional output reported by a Performance Controller includes its derivative response (CRP + CRD). which can be most easily accomplished by entering the key sequence MODE:A SS 0 0 from the Engineering Panel.

1.84 Chapter 6: Antisurge Control September 2005 IM301 (6.3) .

The equations used to calculate these measurements from suction.ss .s1 ∆Po.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 85 Chapter 7 Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual Multi-Compressor Protection Discharge Flow Measured This chapter describes the additional features used to protect multisection and networked compressors from surge.s2 Co.ss Co.d2 ∆Po. Suction Flow Measured Co.s2 .ss Co. If a single recycle valve is used to protect more than one section of the compressor. This generally requires the calculation of Equivalent Flow Measurements for all but the first or last section. ∆Po.s2 Co.d1 . ∆Po.d2 Figure 7-1 Imaginary orifice coefficients and equivalent flow measurements A multi-section compressor has one or more ports between the suction and discharge where sidestreams can be withdrawn or injected. ∆Po. ∆Po.d1 Co.3) 2 Multisection Compressors Equivalent Flow Measurements September 2005 . The required calculations utilize the following equation for the mass flow through an orifice plate or similar flow-measuring element: W = C o ⋅ M ⋅ P ⋅ ∆P o ⁄ ( Z ⋅ T ) where: Co = ∆Po = M= P= T= Z= constant orifice flow coefficient pressure drop across the orifice plate molecular weight absolute pressure absolute temperature compressibility IM301 (6.1.d1 Co. We use the term equivalent flow measurement to mean the differential pressure drop that would be measured by an orifice plate in a location where one is not and generally can not be installed.d2 ∆Po.s2 .d2 Co.ss . and sidestream flow measurements are derived from mass and energy balances across the relevant compressor sections or sidestream junctions. discharge. ∆Po.s1 ∆Po. Valve Sharing should be employed to ensure adequate protection under changing process conditions.d1 .s1 Co.s1 Co. ∆Po.

c f 2(R c) = 1 If not. c ⋅ f 2(R c) where: ∆Po.= ----------------. configure it to report its rescaled ∆Po. c ⋅ Pc ⁄ T c where: β5 = Mass Flow Coefficient [COND:A β 5] ∆Po. If fA Mode 31 or 33 is selected. s P s ∆P o.1.3) . f2 can be defined as a constant: ∆P o.c = ∆Po.R c C o. = R c  P s Ts C o.=  ----. the required function can be derived from a steady-state (equal molecular weight) mass balance across the compressor: C o. using an imaginary orifice constant that yields an acceptable range for the reported flow given the expected ranges of the measured flow and compression ratio. s -------------. inclusive. s Z d ∆P o. d P d ∆P o. d ⁄ Z d T d C o. s ⁄ Z s T s = C o. d d From the thermodynamic principles governing polytropic compression. All fA Modes between 61 and 69.86 Chapter 7: Multi-Compressor Protection Reported Flow Except as noted below. report squared Mass Flow Rates (see page 58): W = β 5 ⋅ ∆P o.c and the needed ∆Po.r correspond to the same location.  C o. s Z   P s  T d ∆P o. 2 September 2005 IM301 (6.r = f2(Rc) = Rc = Calculated Flow Measurement reported flow measurement Reported Flow Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps ) If ∆Po. d Z s 1 – σ ∆P o. it can be shown that: Pd σ Td σ ----. d Values for the Reported Flow Characterizer can be calculated from the relationship on the right.c = Calculated Flow Measurement If one of these modes is used with another controller using fA 34 or 35. the reported flow is calculated as: ∆P o. s -------------. r = ∆P o. d Z s P d T s ∆P o. any Antisurge Controller with Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] disabled reports its Calculated Flow Measurement (see page 54) to its companion controllers via Port 1.  ----. r = ∆P o.=  ----------------.  ----.c by selecting the same input for both Pc and Tc .

ss ∆P o. d = ∆P o. ss + C o. r = ∆Po. ss C o. s2 C 4 = C o. s2 = 1 = C 3 + C 4 + 2 C 3 C 4 C o. ss ∆P o. s2 = C o. ss + C 4 ∆P o. ss C o. 2s C5 = ±2 C3 C4 For a sidestream entering the compressor. ss + C o.1.s2 ) can be determined by setting both component flow measurements to one. d ∆P o. maximum protection can be obtained by calculating proximity to surge from the minimum flow given by the right side of the above equation. d = – ∆P o. d1 + 2 C o. s2 If the sidestream flowed out of rather than into the compressor. d1 September 2005 IM301 (6. C5 would be positive and the imaginary orifice constant (Co. Thus. s = C 3 ∆P o. s2 ≥ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C o. the above equation would be an equality with a negative third term. 1d ⁄ C o. the second section’s equivalent suction flow measurement can be calculated from the equivalent discharge pressure of the first: C o. d1 + 2 C o.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Upstream Section Flow Known 87 If the compressor’s suction flow and the sidestream flow into the second section are measured (as shown in the left panel of Figure 7-1). r ⋅ f 2(P s ⁄ P s ) where: C3 = C4 = C5 = – ∆P o. d1 ∆P o.ss = f2() = Ps = – Ps = – – – – – Sidestream Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 3] Main Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 4] Combined Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 5] equivalent upstream section discharge flow Reported Flow measurement from the Adjacent Section Controller [MODE:A SS 5] equivalent suction flow measurement sidestream flow measurement (PV1) Reported Flow Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] suction pressure of this section upstream section suction pressure Equations for the flow coefficient parameters can be derived by comparing the above equations: C 3 = C o. ss ⁄ C o. Because surge occurs under minimum flow conditions. d1 ∆P o.s = ∆Po. ss ∆P o. fA 34 computes an equivalent suction flow measurement as: ∆P o. d1 ∆P o.3) . d + C 5 ∆P o. Assuming the equivalent suction flow measurement should then be one as well: ∆P o.

s f 2(X) ∝ X ∆P o. the Antisurge Controller for the first section of a multisection compressor should be configured to report its equivalent discharge flow measurement. The Antisurge Controller for the second section can then use fA Mode 34 with its f2 characterizer defined as unity (equal to one for all values of its argument). but would have to use its own f2 characterizer to calculate the second section’s equivalent discharge flow measurement. As shown in Figure 7-2. September 2005 IM301 (6. s f 2(X) ∝ X ∆P o. r ∝ ∆P o.3) .1.s2 should equal ∆Po. Thus. c = ∆P o. c = ∆P o.88 Chapter 7: Multi-Compressor Protection FT PT PT FT PT FT PT UIC 1 Port 1 UIC 2 fA Mode: 34 ∆P o. it would need an input signal for the second section suction pressure. r ∝ ∆P o. s Port 1 UIC 3 fA Mode: 34 ∆P o. s2 = C o. Thus. it would not require an input signal for the first section’s suction pressure. and would report its equivalent suction flow measurement. d σ–1 Figure 7-2 Calculating equivalent flows when suction flow is measured If the sidestream flowed out of rather than into the compressor. The Antisurge Controller for the third section could also use fA Mode 34.d1 when the sidestream outflow is zero. s f 2(X) = 1 ∆P o. c = ∆P o. C5 should be negative and the imaginary orifice constant should have the same value as that for the preceding compressor section: C o. s σ2 – 1 fA Mode: 31 or 33 ∆P o. r = ∆P o. d1 based on the assumption that ∆Po.

ss ∆P o. s2 ∆P o.3) .d = ∆Po. ss + C 4 ∆P o. r where: C3 = C4 = C5 = f2() = ∆Po. d1 C5 = ±2 C3 C4 For a sidestream entering the compressor.ss = Rc = + + Sidestream Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 3] Main Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 4] Combined Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 5] Reported Flow Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] this section’s equivalent discharge flow measurement this section’s Reported Flow measurement reported downstream flow measurement from the Adjacent Section Controller [MODE:A SS 5] sidestream flow measurement (PV1) this section’s compression ratio Equations for the flow coefficient parameters can be derived by comparing the above equations: C 3 = C o. C5 should be negative and the imaginary orifice constant should have the same value as that for the downstream compressor section: C o. ss C o. d1 If the sidestream flowed out of rather than into the compressor. this equation would be an equality with a positive third term. d = C 3 ∆P o.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Downstream Section Flow Known 89 If the compressor’s discharge flow and the sidestream flow into the last section are measured (as shown in the right panel of Figure 7-1). s2 – 2 C o. r = ∆P o. ss ∆P o.d1 should equal ∆Po. s2 ∆P o. d1 = C o.1. For a sidestream leaving the compressor. Because surge occurs under minimum flow conditions. s2 based on the assumption that ∆Po. s2 ⁄ C o. d1 ≥ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C o.s2 when the sidestream inflow is zero. Thus. which is calculated as: ∆P o.r = + ∆P o. C5 should be positive and the imaginary orifice constant can be determined by setting both September 2005 IM301 (6. ss ⁄ C o. d ⋅ f 2(R c) ∆P o. maximum protection can be obtained by using the minimum flow given by the right side of the above equation. r = ∆Po. ss ∆P o. s2 ∆P o. ss + C o. the next-to-last section’s equivalent discharge flow measurement can be calculated from the equivalent suction flow of the last: C o. fA 35 computes proximity to surge from its own reported flow. d1 C 4 = C o. r + C 5 ⋅ ∆P o.

r ∝ ∆P o. the next-to-last section’s controller must use and report its suction flow measurement to the second-to-last section’s controller: P o. ss + C o. r ∝ ∆P o. s 1–σ ∆P o. r ∝ ∆P o. the Antisurge Controller for the last section of a multisection compressor should be configured to report its equivalent suction flow measurement. r = ∆P o. d1 = C o. r f 2(X) = 1 ∆P o.90 Chapter 7: Multi-Compressor Protection PT FT PT FT PT PT FT UIC 1 fA Mode: 35 ∆P o. If there are two upstream sections that lack flow measurements. so proximity to surge is calculated from its discharge flow measurement. ss C o. However. s Figure 7-3 Calculating equivalent flows when discharge flow is measured component flow measurements to one. r = ∆P o. s = ∆P o. d Port 1 UIC 2 fA Mode: 35 ∆P o. s2 As shown in Figure 7-3. s2 + 2 C o. r f 2(X) ∝ X 1–σ Port 1 UIC 3 fA Mode: 31 or 33 ∆P o. both of their Antisurge Controllers can use fA Mode 35. c = ∆P o. d September 2005 f 2(R c) = 1 IM301 (6. its Antisurge Controller can use fA Mode 35 with its f2 characterizer defined as unity (equal to one for all argument values). c = ∆P o. Assuming the equivalent discharge flow measurement should then be one: ∆P o. d f 2(X) ∝ X ∆P o.3) . c = ∆P o. d1 = 1 = C 3 + C 4 + 2 C 3 C 4 C o. If there is only one upstream section with no flow measurement. d ⋅ R c f 2(R c) = R c 1–σ 1–σ The second-to-last section can be configured to use and report its discharge flow by defining its f2 characterizer as unity: P o.1.

the system will manipulate the recycle valve as needed to protect the compressors that are running. To configure it as a valve-sharing companion. All other. September 2005 IM301 (6. valve-sharing companions suspend their integral responses when the master is being manually operated or the recycle valve is fully open.3) . On the other hand. set the Valve-Sharing Master ID equal to the master’s Controller ID Number. If the selected response fails to restore an acceptable DEV to any given compressor section. its controller should and will continue integrating until its response is chosen.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 91 Valve Sharing Each section of a compressor should be equipped with its own antisurge controller even if there is only one recycle path and control valve for the entire machine. Every valve-sharing controller must be configured to select its Shutdown state when its compressor is stopped (see Valve Sharing Shutdowns on page 104). To avoid integral windup. the response of a valve-sharing master controller is used to manipulate the recycle valve. valve-sharing companion controllers submit their control responses to the master. The master protects the entire compressor from surge by selecting the highest of several PI and RT responses (see PI and RT Signal Selection on page 77). In such cases. However. If each controller’s operating state selection is so configured. In such applications.1. nor can they be manipulated manually or via computer control. their Modbus Out Display input registers will track the master’s actuator control signal. To disable this feature. a valve-sharing companion will not suspend its integral control response simply because its output is not selected by the master. The actuator control signals of the valve-sharing companions are not displayed on their front-panel OUT readouts. To configure an Antisurge Controller as a valve-sharing master. disable the Valve-Sharing Master ID [MODE:A SS 2] and any Valve Sharing Companion [MODE:A SS 1 #] parameters that do not correspond to valve-sharing companion Controller ID Numbers. set SS 2 and all SS 1 parameters to Off. several Antisurge Controllers can be configured to use Port 1 serial communications to share a single valve (see Figure 1-3).

The primary capacity control response (∆CRPC ) that is added to the Antisurge Control Response (see page 77) is calculated as: ∆CR PC = M 0.A = Recycling Gain [COND:A M 0] S = S proximity-to-surge variable selected by the specified Load-Sharing Controller [MODE:A SS 4] ∆SCS = station control signal change since previous scan If configured as described in the above-referenced section of IM302. A or M 0. each compressor’s Antisurge Controller can not only participate in the Performance Override (see page 83) and Primary Capacity Control. The Station Controller Primary Capacity Control September 2005 β3 (P) can throttle compressor IM301 (6. as described in Chapter 7 of IM302. A and M 0. Such a system might also include an Antisurge Controller configured for Cold-Recycle Control. A ⋅ ∆SCS ≤ 0 where: ß3. the Antisurge Controllers can also be configured for Recycle Balancing (which occurs automatically in a series network). and Antisurge Controllers as functions of the station control signal. but also calculates the proximity-to-surge related variables required by the Load Balancing algorithm. In parallel compressor networks.1.A = Recycling Threshold [COND:A β 3] M0. A ⋅ ∆SCS > 0  0 if S < β 3. In such networks. ∆SCS ∆SCS S=1 S=1 S β3 (A) 0 2 0 station control response S 2 station control response can increase recycle Figure 7-4 Setting Primary Capacity Control Thresholds As described in the Primary Capacity Control section in Chapter 7 of IM302. this response (and the resulting recycle rate) will rise only if the selected S exceeds the Recycling Threshold. Unit. a load-sharing system’s primary capacity control objective is met by varying the antisurge and performance control responses of its Load-Sharing. A ⋅ ∆SCS ⋅ f A(S)  f A(S) =  1 if S > β 3.92 Chapter 7: Multi-Compressor Protection Networked Compressors Networks of Series 3 Plus Controllers can be used to regulate the capacity and maximize the efficiency of several compressors operating in parallel or in series.3) .

in percent of ten).Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 93 can then vary the outputs of the Antisurge Controllers in a way that minimizes recycling without compromising surge protection. If Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is enabled. For parallel compressors.+ ----------------------------------10 2 S user = S ⋅ ( 1 + W r ) Pd W r = f 2D(IVP) ⋅ f 2A(R c) ⋅ -----------------------100 ⋅ T d where: A = domain selector (0 ≤ A ≤ 1) calculated by the Station Controller CVb = Load Balancing Variable [MODE:A fD 9] f2A() = Reported Flow Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] f2D() = Recycle Flow Characterizer [COND:D f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] f6() = Balancing Variable Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 6 # and X 6 #] IVP = Intended Valve Position (see page 98) Pd = Discharge Pressure (see page 51) Rc = Compression Ratio (see page 51) S = proximity to the Surge Control Line (see page 72) Td = Discharge Temperature (see page 51) Wr = recycle flow rate The Load Balancing Variable can be any single input process variable [1 ≤ fD 9 ≤ 8]. Setting it to 4 selects the Rotational Speed (see page 52). Disabling that parameter [fD 9 = Off] selects the Compression Ratio (Rc. Load Balancing As explained in the Load Balancing section in Chapter 7 of IM302. Load balancing will then equalize the compressors’ proximity to surge. an Antisurge Controller will calculate the following measure (L) of the total load.1. regardless of its source. thus making L exclusively a function of either CVb or Suser .3) . and report its value over Port 1 instead of a Reported Flow: A ⋅ f 6(CV b ) ( 1 – A ) ⋅ S user L = ---------------------------. September 2005 IM301 (6. Note: The Station Controller can be configured such that A is always 0 or always 1. the Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] calculation should be disabled. the CV1 control loops of the Load-Sharing Controllers distribute the total load by equalizing an appropriate load-balancing variable.

1. the controller with the highest signal (presumably closest to surging) will operate normally (so adequate surge protection is maintained) while the others open their valves at the General Ramp Rate. you must enable both SS 1-3 and SS 7-3. Each Antisurge Controller with Port 2 Recycle Balancing [MODE:A SS HIGH] enabled will then raise its control response at one half its General Ramp Rate [PID:A G] if its control signal is more than two percent below that broadcast by the Station Controller. each Load-Sharing Controller monitors the DEViation.1. As explained in the Recycle Balancing section in Chapter 7 of IM302. It picks the highest control signal from among those operating automatically in their Run states with DEVs less than 0. Port 1 Balancing Port 1 recycle balancing equalizes the combined PI and RT signals of a group of Antisurge Controllers identified by each others’ Valve Sharing Companion [MODE:A SS 1 #] and Recycle Balancing Controller [MODE:A SS 7 #] parameters. in turn. It then broadcasts that value back to all of the Antisurge Controllers. the load-balancing algorithm for parallel compressors might not equalize their recycle flow rates. The Port 2 approach will be used if both methods are configured. and reports it to the Station Controller. The furthest open valve will thus catch up by closing more quickly than the others. the recycle flow rates of a parallel compressor network may differ. either Port 1 Balancing or Port 2 Balancing can then be used to equalize the recycle rates.3) . actuator control signal. while the valves are closing). All other controllers slow the rate at which they are closing their valves by holding their integral responses constant. selects the highest antisurge control signal reported by any Load-Sharing Controller. For example. The Station Controller. If neither is enabled. September 2005 IM301 (6. while the valves are opening).94 Chapter 7: Multi-Compressor Protection Recycle Balancing If recycling becomes necessary. the controller with the highest signal will close its valve at half the General Ramp Rate [PID:A G]. If those signals diverge while the compressors are moving toward surge (that is. This opens the more closed valves at a higher rate until they catch up with the most open. to balance this controller’s responses with those of a companion with Controller ID Number 3. Port 2 Balancing Under Port 2 recycle balancing. and operating state of its companion Antisurge Controllers. If their PI+RT signals diverge while the compressors are moving away from surge (that is.

the controller uses Port 1 to communicate directly with Antisurge Controllers specified by enabling the SS 1 parameters corresponding to their Controller ID Numbers. and • zeroing the Maximum Derivative Response [SPEC:A b 3]. This added margin assures that a Cold-Recycle Antisurge Controller will reach its surge control line and begin recycling before any hotrecycle Antisurge Controller. September 2005 IM301 (6. the Cold Recycle Controller calculates its DEViation by adding its own surge control margin to the selected DEVmin : DEV = DEV min – b ⋅ f 4 (Z) = DEV min – ( CR SO + CR D ) ⋅ f 4 (Z) Note that this margin is. In most cases.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 95 Cold-Recycle Control Parallel networks sometimes include a single station recycle line in addition to an individual unit-recycle line for each compressor (see Figure 1-6). in effect. Except in the case of a rapid or large disturbance. the cold or station recycle flow can be controlled by either an Antisurge or Performance Controller. The Control Line Argument [MODE:A fC 1] can then be given any value. you would define this added margin as a constant by: • setting the Initial Surge Control Bias [SPEC:A b 1] equal to the desired constant. opening the cold-recycle valve will provide enough extra flow to prevent surge without opening any hot-recycle valves. they can also be called cold.and hot-recycle lines. which selects the lowest DEV calculated by any of its Load-Sharing Controllers’ companion Antisurge Controllers. If the former is temperature controlled and the latter are not. As explained in the Cold-Recycle Control section in Chapter 7 of IM302. An Antisurge Controller is adapted to this application by selecting fA mode 00. • For large networks. added to that of the companion controller reporting DEVmin . It then calculates its surge control line deviation from the lowest DEViation (DEVmin) reported by any specified Valve Sharing Companion [MODE:A SS 1 #]: • For small networks. the controller gets DEVmin from the Station Controller. • zeroing the Safety On Incremental Bias [SPEC:A b 2]. • configuring the Control Line Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 4 # and X 4 #] to always return a value of one.3) . and only the SS 1 parameter corresponding to the Station Controller’s ID should be enabled. In either case. The Cold-Recycle and Station Controllers should be connected by an isolated Port 1 network.1.

1.96 Chapter 7: Multi-Compressor Protection September 2005 IM301 (6.3) .

1.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 97 Chapter 8 Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual Output Variables Antisurge Control Response (Intended Recycle Flow) Analog Inputs Valve Flow Characterizer Intended Valve Position Remote Low Output Clamp Valve Dead Band Compensation This chapter tells how the valve position and actuator control signal are derived from the antisurge control response.3) . Output Clamps Manual Tight Shut Off Output Reverse OUT Readout Output Tracking or Actuator Control Signal Figure 8-1 Output transformations September 2005 IM301 (6.

3) . when fC 8 is HIGH. If your control valve exhibits inherently non-linear flow. For quick-opening valves. For a signal-to-open valve with a 4 to 20 mA actuator.1. For example. Intended Valve Position Valve Flow Characterization September 2005 IM301 (6. the control signal is obtained by squaring the intended flow rate calculated by the control algorithms. Conversely. the flow rate for an equal-percentage valve is assumed to be proportional to the square of the fractional valve opening. the valve position would be 25 percent [(1/2)2 = 1/4]. Thus. which represents the intended recycle or blow-off flow rate. for example. if the intended flow is 25 percent (1/4). the intended valve position is calculated by applying Valve Flow Characterization to the Antisurge Control Response (see page 77). the output signal would be 12 mA. the control signal is obtained by taking the square root of the intended flow rate. Figure 8-2 illustrates the relationship between the intended recycle flow and intended valve position for each pre-defined characterizer: fC 8 High: for quick-opening valves fC 8 Low: for equal-percentage valves fC 8 Off: for linear flow valves. the flow is assumed to be proportional to the square root of the fractional valve opening. you can render its actual flow linear with respect to the intended flow rate by selecting an appropriate Valve Flow Characterizer [MODE:A fC 8]. the output signal would be 8 mA. the valve position would be 50 percent (1/2).98 Chapter 8: Output Variables 1 Intended Valve Position d Mo u (eq ef C 8L ow g al- p e erc nta a ev ef lve ) ff lve ) d Mo C 8O e (lin a a rv igh ) 8 H alve v fC de ing en Mo p k-o uic (q 0 Intended Flow Rate 1 Figure 8-2 Valve flow characterization As shown in Figure 8-1. when fC 8 is LOW. For a signal-to-open valve with a 4 to 20 mA actuator. If the intended flow is 50 percent (1/2). Thus.

3) .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 99 Actuator Control Signal The actuator control signal (ACS) is the intended value of the analog signal used to position the final control element. • The Output Clamps limit the control signal’s range. The Antisurge Controller can counter this effect by adding or subtracting a Valve Dead-Band Bias [COND:A OUT 1] to the intended valve position. As shown in Figure 8-1. For best results.1. IM301 (6. a control valve might exhibit a positioning dead band that must be overcome when the control action reverses direction. a change in the control response’s direction produces a step change in the control signal equal to twice this bias (see Figure 8-3). this feature should be used in conjunction with an antisurge loop Dead Zone (see page 78). Because this bias is added when the control response is rising and subtracted when it is falling. • The Tight Shut Off Response fully closes the control valve when it is at its low clamp position and the operating point is safely to the right of the surge control line. Signal A a ctu tor n Co tro l n Sig al OUT 1 e Int nd e a dV lve s Po itio n Time Figure 8-3 Valve dead band compensation Due to wear or design imperfections. The Remote Low Output Clamp allows a companion device to increase the low clamp (and thus the minimum recycle rate). Valve Dead Band Compensation Note: September 2005 This feature will not move the ACS beyond either output clamp. it is calculated by applying the following transformations to the Intended Valve Position: • Valve Dead Band Compensation adapts the controller to valves with worn actuator linkages. • Output Tracking keeps the control signal equal to a specified analog input whenever the D4 discrete input is asserted. • Output Reverse adapts the controller to a signal to-close valve. Valve dead-band compensation can be disabled by assigning its bias a value of zero.

without risking integral windup or restricting its ability to open the valve as needed to prevent surge. fE 4 must be set to 7. keep in mind that they are applied after flow characterization and valve dead band compensation but before the tight shut-off response and output reverse. In contrast to Output Tracking. the output will be constrained such that OUT never displays a number less than OUT LOW or higher than OUT HIGH. This prevents the Antisurge Controller from reducing its output below that of the remote device. These clamps are entered as the minimum and maximum intended valve positions. Remote Low Output Clamp The Antisurge Controller can be configured to use the output of another controller as its low output clamp when that signal is less than the low output clamp. To utilize this feature. if you connect the output of the remote device to CH7. even when the control signal is above and not limited by it. These clamps are implemented by raising or lowering the accumulated integral response (see General PI Algorithm on page 78) as needed to keep the ACS within the specified range. Because these clamps apply only when the controller is operating automatically. Note: When setting these clamps. so you do not have to define that offset by setting the corresponding output clamp. A 4 to 20 mA output is automatically generated with an offset zero. which correspond to the highest and lowest values that would be displayed on the front-panel OUT readout. Any Valve Open relays will be triggered whenever the actuator control signal is greater than the low output clamp. Unless the specified input fails. this feature holds the recycle valve open far enough to satisfy both controllers. connect the output of the remote device to any otherwise unused analog input and set the Remote Low Output Clamp [MODE:A fE 4] equal to that input’s channel number. they do not restrict your ability to manually adjust the actuator control signal. The Tracking LED will flash when the remote clamp is higher. That is. the low output clamp will then be the greater of its signal variable or the Recycle Low Clamp parameter. Setting fE 4 to zero (Off) disables this feature. If the Output Reverse feature is set up for a signal-to-close valve.3) . For example. the complement of the designated signal is used as the remote low September 2005 IM301 (6.1.100 Chapter 8: Output Variables Output Clamps The range of the actuator control signal is set by the Recycle Low Clamp [COND:A OUT LOW] and Recycle High Clamp [COND:A OUT HIGH].

The controller will then force the actuator control signal to zero (100 percent for a signal-to-close valve) when the intended valve position is at the low clamp and the operating point is to the right of the tight shut-off line.9 percent. set its line distance to 99. The actuator control signal will then decrease when additional flow is needed to prevent surge. the control valve should be fully seated and the recycle flow path completely blocked. the displayed output will remain at zero until operating conditions dictate that the control valve should be opened. this ideal can not always be achieved. The result can be a slight leakage that wastes energy and produces an annoying sound. The actuator control signal will then increase when additional flow is needed to prevent surge. or those with teflon seats. fails-open valve. the control signal jumps back to its low clamp before the controller’s response to those conditions is added.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 101 output clamp. For example. A better solution is to force the control signal to zero when the control response is below its low clamp and the possibility of surge is low. • Reverse action [REV On] should be selected for a signal-toclose. September 2005 IM301 (6. thus defining a non-zero tight shut-off margin (see page 74). any Recycle Trip response would begin from the low clamp. particularly with worn valves. The remote low clamp is ignored when the controller is operating in its Stop or Purge state. At this point. in which event raising the remote clamp can increase the displayed output (and open the valve) but lowering it will have no effect. Note: Tight Shut Off Response Output Reverse The actuator control signal is adapted to the recycle or blow-off valve’s direction (signal-to-close or signal-to-open) by setting the Recycle Valve Direction [MODE:A REV] parameter: • Direct action [REV Off] should be selected for a signal-to-open. This result can be obtained by setting a non-zero Tight Shut-Off Line Distance [SPEC:A d 1]. Reducing the low output clamp (see page 100) to more fully seat the valve would produce a range of control signal variations that would have little effect on the actual flow rate. Once this feature is activated. Unfortunately.1. To disable tight shut off. When the intended recycle flow rate is zero.3) . It applies during manual operation only if the Manual Override parameter is disabled. The remote device must then be set up to decrease its output when a higher low clamp is desired. rather than from zero. fails-closed valve.

September 2005 IM301 (6. then ramps it to the actual value (calculated from the analog inputs) at a rate set by the General Ramp Rate [PID:A G]. • When the controller returns to automatic operation. and restored automatic operation. The controller will indicate whether it will return to automatic or manual operation when the D4 input is cleared. This feature is set up by connecting the other controller’s analog output to an unused Antisurge Controller analog input and setting the Output Tracking [MODE:A fE 5] parameter equal to that input’s channel number. If the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is enabled and this feature is active. the Antisurge Controller will set and keep its actuator control signal equal to the designated input’s signal variable (for example. If you then initiated manual operation. ramped the output to another value. it sets the effective value of its DEViation to zero. the operating state will display as “Status TRACK”. the controller will continuously calculate a filtered value of the tracking input signal that would be relatively unaffected by that signal’s failure. and the Tracking LED will flash. This feature can be disabled by setting fE 5 to Off. if the output of the other device is connected to CH7.1. In either case. set fE 5 equal to 7. the control signal would remain constant at that manually set value. so it can serve as a backup or alternate to another controller (for example. If discrete input D4 is then asserted. SV7). and you can change that selection by pressing the AUTO/MAN key or forcing the Automatic coil. If that signal then failed. For instance.102 Chapter 8: Output Variables Output Tracking The Antisurge Controller can be set up as a signal selector for its final control element. the controller would flash the Auto LED and ramp its output signal to its averaged value. the control signal remains constant. a DCS). the transfer will be bumpless (there will be no discontinuity or rapid change in the output): • When returning from output tracking to Manual Operation (see page 32). Bumpless transfers to output tracking should be implemented in the other controller.3) .

and redundant control features. as does the failure of their analog inputs. • If the compressor is then purged. If it is idling.3) . the Antisurge Controller can select a Purge state that fully closes the recycle valve so purge gas can be forced through the compressor. Operating State As described in the Automatic Sequences section in Chapter 9 of IM302. an Antisurge Controller operates in a Stop state that fully opens the recycle valve. the Antisurge Controller selects its Run state. an Antisurge Controller will participate primarily by selecting an appropriate operating state in response to changes in its Operating State Request Signals: • When its compressor is stopped or idling. September 2005 IM301 (6. • When the compressor is loaded. It will continue to modulate that valve as needed to prevent surge with a minimum of recycling as long as the compressor is running. the Antisurge Controller will either ramp its recycle valve open (a normal shutdown) or open it as fast as possible (an emergency shutdown). • While the compressor is being unloaded. The controller startup and shutdown features initiate and stop the continuous recalculation of its output signals. loading and unloading of a compressor is sequenced mainly by its Performance Controller. thus providing transitions between its Run and Stop operating states. If the compressor is stopped. they can alternately be set up to load and idle a running compressor.1. Operating State Request Signals An Antisurge Controller can execute a shutdown and operate in its Stop state only if the Minimum Flow and Pressure [COND:A LVL 1] or Minimum Speed [COND:A LVL 2] has a non-zero value or the Stop Requests [MODE:A fB 1] are enabled: • If SV1 (usually a flow) or SV2 (usually the discharge pressure) falls below the Minimum Flow and Pressure or the Rotational Speed (see page 52) falls below the Minimum Speed. While these might be used to sequence a compressor startup or shutdown. Setting either threshold to zero disables the corresponding tests. the controller assumes the compressor is being unloaded and initiates a normal shutdown. this minimizes any reverse flow or rotation that might occur if the discharge check valve leaked. Provided neither redundant control nor output tracking is active. this minimizes the drive power and risk of surge.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 103 Chapter 9 Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual States and Transitions This chapter tells how to set up the Antisurge Controller’s automatic sequencing. manual operation. which reduces the recycle rate as much as possible without risking surge.

it is selected whenever this controller is operating in its Shutdown state and its D3 discrete input or that of its Stop/Purge Companion is asserted.104 Chapter 9: States and Transitions • If the Stop Requests are enabled. thus opening the valve as rapidly as possible. Shutdown Configuration A normal shutdown ramps the recycle valve to the position defined by the Recycle High Clamp [COND:A OUT HIGH] at the Stopping Ramp Rate [COND:A LVL 3]. as defined by the Recycle High Clamp [COND:A OUT HIGH]. • If the Stop Requests are enabled. which will then slowly close the valve as needed to prevent surge with a minimum of recycling. specifying a Stop/Purge Companion disabled an Antisurge Controller’s own D2. a normal shutdown is initiated if discrete input D6 is asserted or a designated Stop/Purge Companion [MODE:A fB –] controller selects or initiates its stop state or shutdown sequence. In a valve-sharing application (see page 91). In most applications. an emergency shutdown can be initiated by asserting this controller’s D2 discrete input. it will display its operating state as “Status OFF”).3) Stop State Valve Sharing Shutdowns September 2005 . D3. If the Purge State [MODE:A fB 2] is enabled. some compressors may be running while others are shut down. IM301 (6. the Sigma Filter Constant [PID:A Tf 2] will effect a gradual transition to the calculated value. any Application Function [MODE:A fA] that calculates the Polytropic Head Exponent (see page 52) will switch to the Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4] when the compressor is unloaded.1. an Antisurge Controller participates in a startup by simply switching to its Run state. manual control cannot be initiated while the Stop state is selected unless Manual Override or Manual While Stopped is enabled (see Manual Override). While operating in the Stop state. If that ramp rate is set to zero (0. If the Safety On AutoReset [MODE:A fB 3] is enabled. During any subsequent startup. Note: Startup Configuration Prior to revision 756-001. the control signal is immediately set to the high-clamp position.00). but not that of any Stop/Purge Companion. However. In addition. The primary Antisurge Controller will then modulate the recycle valve as required to protect the compressors whose controllers are operating in the Run state (if its own compressor section is unloaded. and D6 discrete inputs. because temperature and pressure measurements will often lag the actual usually be inaccurate during major process transitions. initiating a shutdown will also reset the Surge Counters (see page 76) to zero. the controller holds the recycle valve fully open.

Thus. the controller cannot be manually operated while the Stop state is selected unless you have enabled Manual While Stopped [MODE:A fB 4]. September 2005 IM301 (6. even if the compressor surges or is shut down. If fB 4 is On and the operating point is to the left of the Recycle Trip line. and can enable and disable this feature by setting and clearing that coil. pressure. It will also revert to automatic if its operating state inputs dictate a transfer out of the Run state. Manual Override To protect against surge while operating in manual. We advise you not to permanently enable that parameter. each valve-sharing controller must be set up to select its Stop state when its compressor is not running. The controller will then remain in manual until the operator selects automatic operation. you can determine whether or not Manual Override is enabled by reading the Manual Override coil or discrete. You can override these behaviors by enabling Manual Override [MODE:A MOR].Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 105 Any controller that continues to operate in the Run state after its compressor is shut down will probably calculate a very negative DEViation.1. the controller will normally revert to automatic if the operating point moves to the left of the Recycle Trip control line. If Manual Override is disabled (as recommended). Caution: Off is the “safe” Manual Override setting.3) . which would cause the primary controller to fully open its shared valve in a needless attempt to protect a stopped compressor. you can select manual only if the Stop state is selected. because it disables all surge protection while the recycle flow is being manually controlled. When manually operating the controller via its Modbus interface. either by defining non-zero flow. or speed thresholds or by enabling and asserting a discrete shutdown request.

displays its operating state as “Status TRACK”. Switching Conditions The redundant switching device is usually triggered by one of the main controller’s Fault Relays (see page 45). Modbus While Tracking [MODE:D LOCK 0] must be disabled. clearing discrete input D7 will recall the first alternate parameter set and asserting that input will recall the second set.3) . if you had two compressors that could be operated either in series or in parallel. and monitors and duplicates the outputs and auto/manual status of the active controller. The main controller and its backup must have Redundant Tracking [MODE:D fE 1] enabled and have the same Controller ID Number [MODE:D COMM 0]. while the Recall Alternate Parameters [MODE LOCK 3 • •] procedure replaces the working set with one of the alternates. The Store Alternate Parameters [MODE LOCK 3 •] key sequence can be used to create them. If they are also given the same Computer ID Number [MODE:D COMM 0 •].106 Chapter 9: States and Transitions The Antisurge Controller supports up to three alternate sets of configuration and tuning parameters. The Antisurge Controller also supports automatic switching between the first and second alternate sets. and either it or a hardware fault would then trigger a switchover. September 2005 IM301 (6. you can install one Antisurge Controller as an on-line “hot” backup to another. CR1 can be configured to indicate any one condition from Table 3-4. the Tracking discrete input is always D1. A tracking Antisurge Controller lights its Tracking LED. as described in Chapter 3 of IM300/H. so an automatic switch to the backup controller will occur if it de-energizes.1. In addition. If you want more than one of those conditions to initiate a control transfer. That relay (usually CR1) is set up for normally-closed operation. you could create a parameter set for each application and use D7 to switch between them. As described in the Redundant Controllers section in Chapter 8 of IM300/H. For Antisurge Controllers. For example. If Remote Parameter Switching [MODE:D LOCK 3] is enabled. Alternate Parameter Sets Note: Redundant Tracking Remote Parameter Switching must be enabled in both Parameter Sets 1 and 2 in order to alternate between them by asserting and clearing D7. they can be assigned to additional relays wired in series with CR1.

including: • its functional name and a description of that function.#).Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 107 Appendix A Configuration Parameters This appendix describes each Antisurge Controller configuration parameter. and • cross-references to the sections of this manual in which the associated controller features are discussed. • any restrictions on the order in which it must be entered. Keyboard Entry Pressing the indicated keys will produce the listed confirming display. OFF/ON or OFF/HIGH/LOW choices are shown as such and are selected by pressing the corresponding key (0. but are entered and displayed as the equivalent percentages.0 is entered as HIGH 0 0 and displays as A0. HIGH. A hexadecimal ten leading digit is entered by pressing HIGH and displays as “A” (100. The space before a negative value is replaced by a “–”.0). which consists of a prompt followed by the current value. Alternate Parameters The Antisurge Controller can store three alternate sets of parameter values (in addition to the set it is using) and supports Alternate Parameter Sets (see page 106) via discrete input D7. Values that are selected from a list by pressing the decimal key are shown as “Value” or “Valu”. that prompt will include a “#” representing the digit corresponding to the array element. Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual Normalized and Percentage Values Note: Detailed information on Engineering Panel configuration and alternate parameter procedures can be found in Chapter 3 of IM300/H. 1. possibly including an automatically-placed decimal point. • its confirming display prompt. Values that are entered by pressing one or more numeric keys are shown as a series of “#” symbols representing digits. or LOW). Although this distinction is usually academic. the value you give it should be 100 times that calculated from the formula. Most numeric parameters are stored and used in a normalized format. September 2005 IM301 (6. • the range of values it can be given.1. For array parameters. If a parameter's defining equation calls for a normalized value but this listing indicates it is a percentage (##.3) . • the sequence of keys you must press to view or change it from the Engineering Panel (often used as an alternate name). failing to take it into consideration can cause scaling problems.

.0 to 99. .9 Display: ∫5 ##. .## Reference: Primary Capacity Control . 92 COND:A β 5 Mass Flow Coefficient This parameter defines the scaling coefficient for the squared mass flow rate (W2) used to compute proximity to surge. .# Reference: Reported Flow . . Range: Display: Enter After: Reference: 00. .1. this parameter defines the compression ratio used to calculate proximity to surge when the discharge pressure input fails. . Range: 00. . Range: 0. . . . . . . . this parameter defines the minimum value at which it will initially hold the control signal (it selects the higher of this parameter or a filtered historical control signal). 67 COND:A CONST 2 Default Minimum Flow This parameter defines the set point for the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Range: 00. . . . 69 September 2005 IM301 (6. .0 to 99. . .00 to 1. 86 COND:A CONST 1 Fallback Minimum Recycle If the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is enabled. . . this parameter defines the proximity to the surge control line (S) above which this antisurge controller can increase its recycle rate when the station controller determines less header flow is needed (see Figure 7-4). .0 to 99. . . . . .108 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters COND:A β 3 Recycling Threshold In a load-sharing application.3) . . . . . . . Range: 0.9 percent CO1 ##.99 Display: ∫3 #. . . . . . . . . .99 Display: CO3 #. .# Reference: Minimum Flow Fallback . . . . . .9 percent Display: CO2 ##. .## Reference: Compression Ratio Fallback . . .00 to 9. . . . 68 COND:A CONST 3 Default Compression Ratio If the Compression Ratio Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 3] is enabled. . . .# MODE:A REV Default Output Fallback . . . . . . .

### Reference: Valve-Sharing Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Range: 00.### Reference: Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 COND:A CONST 8 Alternate K If the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] is enabled. . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 109 COND:A CONST 4 Default Sigma If the selected Application Function [MODE:A fA] calculates a polytropic head exponent. . . . . . .0 to 99. . . . . . . . . suction temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . this parameter defines the surge limit line slope coefficient that a primary Antisurge Controller would use if communication with any valvesharing companion fails. . . . . .000 to . . . . . . this parameter defines the exponent value that is used during startups. 70 Startup Configuration . . . . .0 to 99. . . . . . . . . . . . . Range: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# Reference: Adjacent Section Flow Fallback . . . 52 Discharge Flow Measurement . .9 percent Display: CO5 ##. this parameter defines the rotational speed used when the speed input signal fails. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .000 to . .1. . . Range: 00. . . Range: 00. . . 104 COND:A CONST 5 Default Speed If the Speed Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 5] is enabled.3) . . .# Reference: Function 5 Fallback . 70 COND:A CONST 7 Default Adjacent Section Flow If the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is disabled and the Adjacent Section Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 7] is enabled. . . . . . . . . this parameter defines the default value used for that characterizer’s argument if the selected f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9] input fails. . . . .9 percent Display: CO7 ##. 57 Sigma Fallback . . or discharge temperature input fails. .0 to 99. this value is also used if the discharge pressure. .9 percent Display: CO6 ##.999 Display: CO4 . . . If the Sigma Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 4] is enabled. 70 September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . 69 COND:A CONST 6 Default f5 Argument If the Function 5 Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 6] is enabled.999 Display: CO8 . . . . . . . this parameter defines the default value used for the adjacent section flow rate if communication with that section’s Antisurge Controller fails or that controller’s flow input fails. . 69 Polytropic Head Fallback . .# Reference: Speed Fallback . . . . . Range: . . .

. . . . . . .110 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 # Y Coordinate Characterizer These parameters characterize the surge limit in the primary coordinate system (that is. . . . .99 [X] 0. . . . Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . .99 [X] 0. . . . . . . 64 These parameters characterize the reported flow measurement in multisection compressor applications. Minimum Flow Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Range: . . . Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COND:A f(X) 2 # and X 2 # Reported Flow Characterizer 62 64 68 86 87 89 93 COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 # X Coordinate Characterizer These parameters usually characterize the X primary coordinate as a function of the rotational speed.00 to 9. . 64 Control Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .00 to 9. . . . 95 September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . 52 53 64 69 COND:A f(X) 4 # and X 4 # Control Line Characterizer These parameters characterize the shape of the regions between the various control lines. . . . . .1. . . . . . Characterizing Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . Upstream Section Flow Known . . . . . . . . .### [X] Y3# #. . .### [X] Y4# #. . . . .00 to 9. . . . . the minimum value of X as a function of Y). . . . . . 71 Cold-Recycle Control .00 to 9. . . .99 [f(X)] Display: X3# . . . . .99 [f(X)] Display: X4# . . . . . . . . . . . . Range: . . . . . . . . . . . . . .## [f(X)] Reference: Displayed Net Flow . . . .000 to . . . . . .## [f(X)] Reference: Speed . . . .999 [X] 0. . . . . . . . . .## [f(X)] Reference: Characterizing Functions . . . . . .## [X] Y2# #.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Fallback . . . . . . Range: 0. . . . . . . . . .00 to 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .## [X] Y1# #. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Characterizing Functions . .00 to 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Range: 0. .99 [f(X)] Display: X2# #. .## [f(X)] Reference: Characterizing Functions . Downstream Section Flow Known . . . . Reported Flow . . .999 [X] 0.99 [f(X)] Display: X1# #. .000 to . . . .

1. Range: 00. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Range: 0.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 111 COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 # General Characterizer These parameters characterize the surge limit as a function of the secondary coordinate variable (V) specified by the f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9]. . . . . . . . 64 Function 5 Fallback . .## Reference: Shutdown Configuration . . .00 to 9. . . . . . . . . . Range: 00. . . . .00 to 9. .3) . . . . . . 103 COND:A f(X) 6 # and X 6 # Balancing Variable Characterizer COND:A LVL 1 Minimum Flow and Pressure COND:A LVL 2 Minimum Speed This parameter defines the minimum rotational speed below which the compressor is assumed to be shut down and the recycle valve is held fully open. .# Reference: Operating State Request Signals . . .0 to 99. . 104 September 2005 IM301 (6. Range: . . . . .99 [f(X)] Display: X5# . . . . . . . . . . .# Reference: Operating State Request Signals . . . . . . . . 93 This parameter defines the minimum values of SV1 and SV2 below which the compressor is assumed to be shut down and the recycle valve is held fully open.000 to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting it to zero causes the output to jump to the Recycle High Clamp [COND:A OUT HIGH]. . .0 to 99. . Range: . .### [X] Y5# #.### [X] Y6# #. . . . . 64 Load Balancing . . . .999 [X] 0. . . . . .99 repeats per minute Display: LV3 #. . . .## [f(X)] Reference: Power . . . . . . . . . 70 These parameters characterize the series load-balancing variable (L) as a function of the Load Balancing Variable [MODE:A fD 9]. . .9 percent Display: LV1 ##. . . . . . 53 Characterizing Functions .9 percent Display: LV2 ##. .00 to 9. 103 COND:A LVL 3 Stopping Ramp Rate This parameter defines the rate at which the recycle valve is opened during a normal shutdown. . . . .000 to . . . .999 [X] 0. . . . . .99 [f(X)] Display: X6# . . .## [f(X)] Reference: Characterizing Functions .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .## Reference: Loop Decoupling . .9 percent Display: OU1 ##. . . . 100 COND:A OUT 1 Valve Dead-Band Bias This parameter sets the bias used to compensate for a control valve dead band. . this parameter sets the gain applied to station control signal when calculating the primary capacity control component of the antisurge control response. . .99 Display: M# #. . . . .99 Display: M0 #.9 percent OUH ##. . . . . . . each of these parameters sets the gain applied to its control response. . . . . . . Range: -9. . 92 COND:A M # Decoupling Gain If the corresponding Decoupling Controller [MODE:A SS 0 #] is enabled. . otherwise this parameter should be set to zero. . . . . . . . .99 to 9. . . . . 104 COND:A OUT LOW Recycle Low Clamp This parameter defines the lower limit of the displayed actuator control signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3) . . .99 to 9. . . 100 Shutdown Configuration . . . . . . . .1. .0 percent to Recycle High Clamp OUL ##. . . . . .# MODE:A REV Output Clamps . . . . . . .# Reference: Valve Dead Band Compensation . . . . 100 Remote Low Output Clamp . . . . . 83 COND:A OUT HIGH Recycle High Clamp This parameter defines the upper limit of the displayed actuator control signal. .0 to 99. . this bias should be set to one-half the valve’s dead band (in percent of span). . . . . . Range: 00. . . . . . Range: -9. . . . . 32 September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . If desired. . Range: Display: Enter After: Reference: Recycle Low Clamp to 99. . . 99 Manual Operation . . . . .## Reference: Primary Capacity Control . .# MODE:A REV Output Clamps . . Range: Display: Enter After: Reference: 00. .112 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters COND:A M 0 Recycling Gain In a load-sharing application. . .

. . . . . . . . 40 COND:D CONST 0 Surge Event Threshold This parameter defines the minimum number of surges that must be detected to trigger a Surg discrete output.1. . . . . . . . . . . .0 to 99. . 76 COND:D CONST 1 Surge Event Duration This parameter defines the maximum duration of a surge event time period during which the surge event count must reach the Surge Event Threshold to trigger a Surg discrete output. 82 This parameter is the scaling coefficient for the second analog output when the Displayed or Net Mass Flow (Flow or UsrQ) is selected as the Second Output Assigned Variable [COND:D OUT 2]. Range: 00. 82 If Suction Pressure Limiting [MODE:A MVAR 3] is enabled.3) . . . Range: 00. . . . . 62 COND:A SP 3 Minimum Suction Pressure COND:D β 0 OUT2 Mass Flow Coefficient COND:D BIAS # Process Variable Bias These parameters set the biases used to convert signal variables into the process variables used by the control algorithms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 to 99. . . . Range: 000 to 999 seconds Display: CO1 ### Reference: Surge Counters . .# Reference: Process Variables . 61 Displayed Net Flow . . . . . . Range: 00 to 99 surges Display: CO0 ## Reference: Surge Counters . . .# Reference: Displayed Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 September 2005 IM301 (6. . .9 percent Display: SP2 ##. . . .# Reference: Pressure Limiting . . . .0 to 99. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 percent Display: SP3 ##. . . .9 Display: ∫0 ##. . . . Range: 00. .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 113 COND:A SP 2 Maximum Discharge Pressure If Discharge Pressure Limiting [MODE:A MVAR 2] is enabled. this parameter sets its low-limiting control threshold. . . . Range: 00. . . . . this parameter sets its high-limiting control threshold. . . .9 percent Display: BI# ##. . .0 to 99.# Reference: Pressure Limiting . . . .

. . . .## Reference: Valve Position Test . . . . . . . . . 40 Each of these parameters defines the value the Auxiliary readout would display for the corresponding measured variable if the value of its signal variable was 100. . . Range: 000 to 999 Display: CO3 ### Reference: Compensating Temperature . . . Off variable cannot be displayed On variable can be displayed Display: D0# OFF/ON Reference: Measured Variables . . .# Reference: Compensating Pressure . . . . . . . . . 59 COND:D CONST 2 Compensating Pressure Offset COND:D CONST 3 Compensating Temperature Offset Mass flow rate computations add this offset to the Compensating Temperature Input [MODE:D fD 3] measured variable to obtain the absolute compensating temperature. . . . .0 to 99. . . . . . . .1. 40 Each of these parameters defines the label shown when the corresponding measured variable is displayed in the Auxiliary readout. . . . . . . 41 IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .00 to 9.114 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters Mass flow rate computations add this offset to the Compensating Pressure Input [MODE:D fD 2] measured variable to obtain the absolute compensating pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Range: 0. . Range: any eight symbols from Table 3-1 Display: AAAAAAAA (selected symbol flashes) Reference: Measured Variables . Range: 00. . .99 seconds Display: CO5 #. . .3) Range: COND:D DISPLAY 0#– Measured Variable Label COND:D DISPLAY 0 # HIGH Measured Variable Maximum September 2005 . . . . . . .0 percent. 43 COND:D DISPLAY 0# Measured Variable Display Each of these parameters determines whether or not the corresponding measured variable can be viewed in the Auxiliary readout. . . . . .9 Display: CO2 ##. . . . Range: –9999 to 9999 Display: 0#H #### Reference: Measured Variables . 59 COND:D CONST 5 Position Failure Delay Position failure (PosF) relays are tripped when the position input (CH7) deviates from the control signal by more than the Position Failure Threshold [COND:D LVL 5] for at least the number of seconds specified by this parameter. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . Range: –9999 to 9999 Display: 0#L #### Reference: Measured Variables . . . . . . . . . .### (leading decimal) Display: 0#. . . . 0 #### (no decimal) 1 ###. . 41 This parameter determines whether the calculated polytropic head (Hpr) and its exponent (σ) can be displayed by the AUX readout. .1. .# 3 #. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Each of these parameters defines the position of the decimal point in the corresponding measured variable display. . . Off variable cannot be displayed On variable can be displayed Display: D11 OFF/ON Reference: Calculated Variable Displays . . . . . . 4321 (selected digit is replaced by •) Reference: Measured Variables . . Off variable cannot be displayed On variable can be displayed Display: D12 OFF/ON Reference: Calculated Variable Displays . . .## 4 . 60 This parameter determines whether or not the compression ratio (Rc) calculated variable can be displayed by the AUX readout. . Off variable cannot be displayed On variable can be displayed Display: D13 OFF/ON Reference: Calculated Variable Displays . . (trailing decimal) 2 ##. . . . . . 60 This parameter determines whether or not the temperature ratio (Rt) calculated variable can be displayed by the AUX readout. . 60 Range: Range: Range: Range: COND:D DISPLAY 0#• Measured Variable Decimal COND:D DISPLAY 11 Polytropic Exponent Display COND:D DISPLAY 12 Compression Ratio Display COND:D DISPLAY 13 Temperature Ratio Display September 2005 IM301 (6. . .3) .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 115 COND:D DISPLAY 0 # LOW Measured Variable Minimum Each of these parameters defines the value the Auxiliary readout would display for the corresponding measured variable if the value of its signal variable was zero. . . .

. . . . . . . . .## 4 . . . . . .1. 0 #### (no decimal) 1 ###. . . 61 This parameter is used to scale the Flow readout. . (trailing decimal) 2 ##. . . .# 3 #. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Off variable cannot be displayed On variable can be displayed Display: D15 OFF/ON Reference: Calculated Variable Displays . . 61 This parameter is used to scale the Speed readout. . . . 61 This parameter determines whether or not the displayed mass flow (Flow) calculated variable can be displayed by the AUX readout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Displayed Flow . . . . . Range: 00000 to 99999 Display: 14H##### Reference: Displayed Speed . . . 61 This parameter defines the position of the decimal point in the AUX readout’s Flow and UsrQ calculated variable displays. . . . . . . .3) . . . . . . . . . . Range: 00000 to 99999 Display: 15H##### Reference: Displayed Flow . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters This parameter determines whether or not the rotational speed (Speed) calculated variable can be displayed by the AUX readout. . . . . . . . . . . 60 Displayed Flow . . . . . . . . . 60 Displayed Speed . . . . 61 Displayed Net Flow . . 4321 (selected digit is replaced by •) Reference: Calculated Variable Displays . . . Off variable cannot be displayed On variable can be displayed Display: D14 OFF/ON Reference: Calculated Variable Displays .### (leading decimal) Display: 15. . . . 62 Range: Range: Range: COND:D DISPLAY 14 Rotational Speed Display COND:D DISPLAY 1 4 HIGH Rotational Speed Coefficient COND:D DISPLAY 15 Mass Flow Display COND:D DISPLAY 1 5 HIGH Displayed Flow Coefficient COND:D DISPLAY 15• Flow Variables Decimal September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . . . .

99 [f(X)] Display: X2# . . . 93 These parameters set the gains used to convert signal variables into the process variables used by the control algorithms. .00 to 9. . . . Range: . . . . .1. 62 These parameters characterize the recycle flow rate as a function of the control response. . . . . . . . . . . . . Range: 00000 to 99999 Display: 17H##### Reference: Displayed Net Flow . .9 percent Display: LV5 ##. .3) .### Reference: Process Variables . . .## [f(X)] Reference: Displayed Net Flow .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 117 COND:D DISPLAY 17 Net Flow Display This parameter determines whether or not the UsrQ (net mass flow) calculated variable can be displayed by the AUX readout. .000 to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 This parameter is used to scale the UsrQ readout. . . . . . . . .000 Display: GA# . .999 [X] 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 September 2005 IM301 (6. . . Off variable cannot be displayed On variable can be displayed Display: D17 OFF/ON Reference: Calculated Variable Displays . . .### [X] Y2# #. . 40 Range: COND:D DISPLAY 1 7 HIGH Net Flow Coefficient COND:D f(X) 2 # and X 2 # Recycle Flow Characterizer COND:D GAIN # Process Variable Gain COND:D LVL 5 Position Failure Threshold This parameter sets the minimum deviation of the valve position input (SV7) from the control signal that will trigger any Position Failure (PosF) relays. . . . . . .0 to 99. . Range: 00. . . . . . 60 Displayed Net Flow . . . . . Range: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .000 to 1.# Reference: Valve Position Test .

. . . . . If it is disabled. . . . . . . Range: see Appendix F Display: fA ## Reference: Application Function . ramped shutdown would be initiated only if the pressure or flow fell below the Minimum Flow and Pressure [COND:A LVL 1] or the rotational speed dropped below the Minimum Speed [COND:A LVL 2]. 63 MODE:A fB 1 Stop Requests This parameter enables the discrete and serial stop requests.3) . . . . .118 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters COND:D OUT 2 Second Output Assigned Variable This parameter identifies the internal variable from which the value of the OUT2 analog output signal is calculated. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . there is no way to initiate an ESD and a normal. . Off CH4 used by default 1 to 8 get speed from companion # Display: AN4 OFF/# Reference: Speed . . . . Out actuator control signal Flow displayed mass flow S proximity to surge UsrQ net mass flow Display: OU2 Valu Reference: Analog Outputs . . . . . . in which the recycle valve is held fully closed so purge gas can be forced through the compressor. . . . . . . . . 103 Range: September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . . Off use analog inputs only On also use discrete and serial requests Display: fB1 OFF/ON Reference: Operating State Request Signals . . . . 103 Range: MODE:A fB 2 Purge State This parameter enables or disables the purge state. . . . . 52 Range: Range: MODE:A ANIN 4 Rotational Speed Source MODE:A fA Application Function This parameter selects the specific method used to calculate the Ss proximity-to-surge variable. . . 42 This parameter selects either analog input CH4 or a companion Speed. or Performance Controller (identified by Controller ID Number) as the source of the rotational speed signal. . Fuel. . . . . . . . . . . . Off Purge state disabled On Purge state enabled Display: fB2 OFF/ON Reference: Operating State Request Signals . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 95 Range: MODE:A fC 2 Constant Sigma This parameter determines whether or not Application Function [MODE:A fA] 65 through 69 use any temperature inputs to calculate proximity to surge. . .3) . . . . 71 Cold-Recycle Control . . . 52 Discharge Flow Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Off use local inputs only 1 to 8 get status from companion # Display: fBOFF/# Reference: Operating State Request Signals . . . . . . 105 Range: MODE:A fB – Stop/Purge Companion If the Stop Requests [MODE:A fB 1] are enabled. . . Off manual cannot be selected in stop On manual can be selected in stop Display: fB4 OFF/ON Reference: Manual Override . . . . . this parameter identifies the companion controller (by Controller ID Number) from which stop and purge requests are obtained.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 119 MODE:A fB 3 Safety On AutoReset If this parameter is enabled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Off surge count is not zeroed by shutdown On surge count is zeroed by shutdown Display: fB3 OFF/ON Reference: Surge Counters . . 104 Range: MODE:A fB 4 Manual While Stopped If Manual Override [MODE:A MOR] is disabled. . . . . .c ) 1 to 8 signal variable SV# Display: fC1 OFF/# Reference: Control Lines . 57 Range: September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . Off temperature inputs used On temperature inputs not used Display: fC2 OFF/ON Reference: Head . . . . . . . . . 57 Aftercooler Flow Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the Safety On surge count is automatically reset to zero when the compressor is shut down and held there until it is restarted. . . 76 Shutdown Configuration . . . . . . . . . this parameter determines whether or not the controller can be manually operated while the compressor is shut down. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Range: MODE:A fC 1 Control Line Argument This parameter selects the analog input used as the argument for the Control Line Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 4 # and X 4 #]: Off calculated flow measurement (∆Po. .

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Appendix A: Configuration Parameters

MODE:A fC 3
Derivative Response

This parameter determines whether the margin of safety varies with the rate of the operating point’s approach to its surge limit. Off margin does not vary with dS/dt On margin does vary with dS/dt Display: fC3 OFF/ON Reference: Derivative Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Range:

MODE:A fC 4
Derivative Recycle Trip

This parameter determines whether the Recycle Trip step size varies with the rate of the operating point’s approach to its surge limit. Off step size does not vary with dS/dt On step size does vary with dS/dt Display: fC4 OFF/ON Reference: Recycle Trip Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Range:

MODE:A fC 8
Valve Flow Characterizer

This parameter selects the valve characterizer used to calculate the control signal (intended valve position) from the control response (intended flow rate). Off linear flow valve High quick-opening valve Low equal-percentage valve Display: fC8 OFF/HIGH/LOW Reference: Valve Flow Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Range:

MODE:A fC 9
Series Load Variable

In a load-sharing application, this parameter selects the loadbalancing method. If series load balancing is enabled, the controller will report its series load balancing parameter (L) to its companion controllers. If it is disabled, the controller will report a flow measurement (∆Po,r) or squared mass flow rate (W2). Off parallel load sharing On series load sharing Display: fC9 OFF/ON Reference: Reported Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Range:

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MODE:A fD 2
Surge Detection Method

This parameter defines the process variables that must exhibit rapid changes to be interpreted as a surge. Regardless of which method is selected, a surge is always assumed if the operating point moves to the left of the Safety On control line. Off Safety On Line only 1 both flow (SV1) and pressure (SV2) 2 either flow (SV1) or pressure (SV2) 3 flow (SV1) only 4 pressure (SV2) only Display: fD2 OFF/# Reference: Surge Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Range:

MODE:A fD 3 1
Default Output Fallback

Enabling this parameter configures the controller to hold the control response constant (unless manually changed) if it is unable to calculate the proximity to surge. The initial value of the control signal will depend on the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. Off antisurge loop continues to operate On automatic output changes suspended Display: fD31 OFF/ON Reference: Default Output Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Output Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Range:

MODE:A fD 3 2
Minimum Flow Fallback

Enabling this parameter configures the controller to calculate Ss as the ratio of the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] and the calculated flow measurement (∆Po,c ) when it is unable to calculate the numerator defined by the chosen fA mode.

Default Output Fallback is used Off Default Minimum Flow is used On Display: fD32 OFF/ON Reference: Minimum Flow Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Range:

MODE:A fD 3 3
Compression Ratio Fallback

Enabling this parameter configures the controller to calculate Ss using the Default Compression Ratio [COND:A CONST 3] when the discharge pressure input fails.

Default Output Fallback is used Off Default Compression Ratio is used On Display: fD33 OFF/ON Reference: Compression Ratio Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Range:

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Appendix A: Configuration Parameters

MODE:A fD 3 4
Sigma Fallback

Enabling this parameter configures the controller to calculate Ss using the Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4] when either temperature or the discharge pressure input fails.

Default Output Fallback is used Off Default Sigma is used On Display: fD34 OFF/ON Reference: Sigma Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Range:

MODE:A fD 3 5
Speed Fallback

Enabling this parameter configures the controller to calculate Ss using the Default Speed [COND:A CONST 5] when the specified Rotational Speed Source [MODE:A ANIN 4] fails.

Minimum Flow Fallback is used Off Default Speed is used On Display: fD35 OFF/ON Reference: Speed Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Range:

MODE:A fD 3 6
Function 5 Fallback

Enabling this parameter configures the controller to calculate Ss using the Default f5 Argument [COND:A CONST 6] when it is unable to measure or calculate the specified f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9].

Minimum Flow Fallback is used Off Default f5 Argument is used On Display: fD36 OFF/ON Reference: Function 5 Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Range:

MODE:A fD 3 7
Adjacent Section Flow Fallback

Enabling this parameter configures the controller to calculate its flow rates using the Default Adjacent Section Flow [COND:A CONST 7] when communication with the designated Adjacent Section Controller [MODE:A SS 5] or that controller’s flow input fails. However, it will calculate the control response from the resulting flow and proximity to surge only if this fallback is enabled and the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is disabled.

Default Output Fallback is used Off Default Adjacent Section Flow is used On Display: fD37 OFF/ON Reference: Adjacent Section Flow Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Range:

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MODE:A fD 3 8
Valve Sharing Fallback

Enabling this parameter configures a valve-sharing controller to calculate Ss using the Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] if communication with any valve-sharing companion fails.

Default Output Fallback is used Off Alternate K is used On Display: fD38 OFF/ON Reference: Valve-Sharing Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Range:

MODE:A fD 3 9
Polytropic Head Fallback

Enabling this parameter configures the controller to calculate reduced head from the suction and discharge temperature and the Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4] when either pressure input fails.

Compression Ratio Fallback is used Off On temperature calculation is used Display: fD39 OFF/ON Reference: Polytropic Head Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Range:

MODE:A fD 9
Load Balancing Variable

If Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is enabled, this parameter selects the variable that is balanced when operating far from the surge control line. selects the compression ratio (Rc) selects analog input PV#, except selects the rotational speed (N) from specified Rotational Speed Source Display: fD9 OFF/# Reference: Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Range: Off 1 to 8 4

MODE:A fE 4
Remote Low Output Clamp

This parameter selects the analog input, if any, that an Antisurge Controller will use as a remote low clamp for its control signal. Off disables this feature 1 to 8 uses analog input SV# Display: fE4 OFF/# Reference: Remote Low Output Clamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 This parameter determines which analog input, if any, the control signal will track when discrete input D4 is asserted. Off disables this feature 1 to 8 tracks analog input SV# Display: fE5 OFF/# Reference: Output Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Range: Range:

MODE:A fE 5
Output Tracking

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Appendix A: Configuration Parameters

MODE:A MOR
Manual Override

This parameter determines whether manual control is suspended if the operating point moves to the left of the Recycle Trip control line. No automatic surge protection is provided when MOR is ON and the controller is in manual. Accidental equipment damage could then result from inappropriate manual adjustments of the output signal. Off protection when in manual On no protection in manual Display: MOR OFF/ON Reference: Manual Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Range:

Caution:

MODE:A MVAR 2
Discharge Pressure Limiting

If this parameter is enabled (On), the controller will increase the recycle rate to reduce the discharge pressure when it exceeds the Maximum Discharge Pressure [COND:A SP 2]. Off disables Pd limiting On enables limiting of maximum Pd Display: MV2 OFF/ON Reference: Pressure Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Range:

Note:
MODE:A MVAR 3
Suction Pressure Limiting

Prior to software revision 752-001, PV2 limiting was not available in controllers using Application Function 01 or 02. If this parameter is enabled (On), the controller will increase the recycle rate to raise the suction pressure when it is below the Minimum Suction Pressure [COND:A SP 3]. Off disables Ps limiting On enables limiting of maximum Ps Display: MV3 OFF/ON Reference: Pressure Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Range:

Note:
MODE:A REV
Recycle Valve Direction

Prior to software revision 756-002, PV3 limiting was not available in controllers using Application Function 01 or 02. This parameter adapts the control signal to the recycle control valve’s direction of action. Off signal-to-open recycle valve On signal-to-close recycle valve Display: REV OFF/ON Enter After: COND:A CONST 1, COND:A OUT HIGH, and COND:A OUT LOW Reference: Antisurge Control Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Output Reverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
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Range:

September 2005

. . . . . . . Entering MODE:A SS 0 0 sets all of these parameters to Off. . disable this parameter in the master controller and set it equal to the master’s Controller ID Number in all of its companion controllers. 83 Range: September 2005 IM301 (6. 83 Port 1 Balancing . . . You cannot enable the SS 0 parameter corresponding to this controller’s own ID. . . 95 Range: Note: MODE:A SS 2 Valve-Sharing Master ID This parameter configures the Antisurge Controller to send its control response to the corresponding Antisurge Controller (identified by Controller ID Number) for inclusion in its PI signal selection. . . . . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 125 MODE:A SS 0 # Decoupling Controller Each of these parameters enables or disables loop decoupling from the corresponding controller (identified by its Controller ID Number [MODE:D COMM 0]). . . Enabling this feature sets all Decoupling Controller [MODE:A SS 0 #] to Off. . . . . . . Entering MODE:A SS 1 0 sets all of these parameters to Off. . . . . You cannot enable the SS 1 parameter corresponding to this controller’s own ID. . . . Note: You cannot select this controller’s own ID. . . . . . .1. . . . This controller’s OUT readout will then be blank. . . . . . . . . . . . Off response of controller # is not used On response of controller # is used Display: SS1# OFF/ON Reference: Auxiliary Limiting . . . . . . . . Off decoupling from controller # disabled On decoupling from controller # enabled Display: SS0# OFF/ON Reference: Loop Decoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3) . Off disables secondary valve-sharing 1 to 8 output sent to companion # Display: SS2 OFF/# Reference: Loop Decoupling . In a valve-sharing application. . . . . you must also set the corresponding Decoupling Gain [COND:A M #]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If enabled. 83 Range: Note: MODE:A SS 1 # Valve Sharing Companion Enabling one of these parameters configures an Antisurge Controller to include the control response of the corresponding companion controller (identified by Controller ID Number [MODE:D COMM 0]) in its PI and RT signal selection algorithm. . . . 94 Cold-Recycle Control . . .

. .3) . . . . . . 92 Range: Off 1 to 8 MODE:A SS 5 Adjacent Section Controller If the Application Function [MODE:A fA] uses an adjacent section flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Range: MODE:A SS 4 Load-Sharing Controller In load-sharing applications. . PV3 = Ps . . . . . It should select either this controller or the Performance Controller for the compressor it is protecting. . . . . . . . . . . 82 Range: September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . PV3 = ∆Pc . . . . . . Off disables performance override On enables performance override Display: SS3 OFF/ON Reference: Performance Override . 51 Pressure Limiting . . disables primary capacity control S for primary capacity control selected by companion # Display: SS4 OFF/# Reference: Primary Capacity Control . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Downstream Section Flow Known . Off no adjacent section flow 1 to 8 adjacent flow from companion # Display: SS5 OFF/# Reference: Default Output Fallback . . Off PV2 = Pd . . 67 Upstream Section Flow Known . this parameter identifies the Antisurge Controller (by its Controller ID Number [MODE:D COMM 0]) for that compressor section. . . . . You cannot select this controller’s own ID. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Range: Note: MODE:A SS 6 1 ∆Pc Substitution This parameter determines how the suction and discharge pressures are calculated from the process variables for analog inputs CH2 and CH3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . this parameter selects the controller (identified by Controller ID Number) from which the primary capacity control response will obtain its S variable (proximity to the surge control line). .1. .126 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters MODE:A SS 3 Performance Override Control This parameter determines whether or not the Antisurge Controller will include the Performance Controller’s performance override response (received via Port 2) in its PI signal selection pool. . . PV3 = Ps High PV2 = ∆Pc . . . Pd = PV2 + PV3 Low PV2 = Pd . . . . . . . Ps = PV2 – PV3 Display: SS61 OFF/HIGH/LOW Reference: Pressures . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ts = PV5 – PV6 Display: SS62 OFF/HIGH/LOW Reference: Temperatures . 56 Range: MODE:A SS 9 f5 Argument This parameter specifies the analog input used as the argument for the General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #]. . . . . . . Off controller # is not monitored On controller # is monitored Display: SS7# OFF/ON Reference: Port 1 Balancing . . . . . . . 51 Range: MODE:A SS 7 # Recycle Balancing Controller If Port 2 Recycle Balancing [MODE:A SS HIGH] is Off. . PV6 = Ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PV6 = ∆Pc . . . . . . . f5 is a function of the polytropic head exponent (σ) 1 to 8 f5 is a function of analog input PV# Display: SS9 OFF/# Reference: Power . . . . .3) . . . . . . . PV6 = Ts High PV5 = ∆Tc . 53 Characterizing Functions . .1.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 127 MODE:A SS 6 2 ∆Tc Substitution This parameter determines how the suction and discharge temperatures are calculated from the process variables for analog inputs CH5 and CH6: Off PV5 = Td . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Function 5 Fallback . . . . You cannot enable the SS 7 parameter corresponding to this controller’s own ID. . . . . 70 Range: Off September 2005 IM301 (6. Td = PV5 + PV6 Low PV5 = Td . . . . . . . 94 Range: Note: MODE:A SS 8 Flow Element Pressure Input This parameter selects the pressure input used to compensate the flow measurement (∆Po) for pressure drops between the flow measuring element and compressor inlet. . . . . . . . . enabling any of these eight parameters (and the corresponding Valve Sharing Companion [MODE:A SS 1 #]) configures the Antisurge Controller to balance its recycle rate with that of a Port 1 companion controller assigned the specified Controller ID Number (#). . . Off disables this feature 1 to 8 analog input PV# is used Display: SS8 OFF/# Reference: Control Valve Compensation . . . . .

94 Range: MODE:D ANIN # Offset Zero Input Each of these parameters identifies the zero level of the corresponding analog input signal (relative to its hardware configuration). . . . . 39 MODE:D ANIN # LOW Analog Input Low Alarm Limit September 2005 IM301 (6. . 39 Range: MODE:D ANIN # HIGH Analog Input High Alarm Limit Each of these parameters defines the maximum value for the corresponding analog input’s analog-to-digital variable. Range: 00. Off Port 1 Balancing used if enabled On Port 2 Balancing is used Display: SSH OFF/ON Reference: Port 2 Balancing . . . . . . . .3) . . . . . 0 to 5 Vdc) On 20 percent offset zero (e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recycle balancing is disabled by setting this and every Recycle Balancing Controller [MODE:A SS 7 #] parameter to Off. . . . . . . . Range: 00. .# Reference: Transmitter Testing . . . . 39 Each of these parameters defines the minimum value for the corresponding analog input’s analog-to-digital variable. 4 to 20 mA) Display: A# OFF/ON Reference: Signal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . below which that input is considered to have failed. . . . above which that input is considered to have failed. . . . . . .0 to 102.# Reference: Transmitter Testing . . . . . . Range: Off or 1 flow measurement is always PV1 2 to 8 PV# is low flow measurement Display: SSOFF/# Reference: Dual Flow Transmitters .128 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters MODE:A SS – Low Flow Input This parameter selects the analog input for the ∆Po transmitter used for low flow measurements. . .4 percent Display: A#H ##. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .g.0 to 102. .. . . .1. . .4 percent Display: A#L ##. 55 MODE:A SS HIGH Port 2 Recycle Balancing Enabling this parameter configures a load-sharing Antisurge Controller to balance its recycle flow rate with a target value received from the Station Controller via Port 2 serial communication. . . . . . Off actual zero (for example.

9600. . . . 49 These parameters define the data transmission rate and parity setting for the Port 4 serial communication channel. 49 Note: MODE:D COMM 2 Port 2 Baud Rate This parameter defines the data transmission rate for the Port 2 serial communication channel. . this ID must be unique within that network. Range: 2400. . 106 ID Numbers . . . . . . 106 ID Numbers . . . . None Display: PT4 Valu (press • to select. . . and 4. . . . . . . 4800. 9600. . . . . . . then ENTER) Reference: Serial Communication Formats . . . . . . . . . . Odd. . . Range: 01 to 64 Display: Comp# ## Reference: Redundant Tracking . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 129 MODE:D COMM 0 Controller ID Number This parameter identifies the controller in the network connected to its serial Port 1. . . . . This parameter can only be changed via the Engineering Panel. . . 3. . . . . Odd. . This parameter can only be changed via the Engineering Panel. 9600 Display: PT2 Valu (press • to select. . Range: 4800. . None Display: PT3 Valu (press • to select. . . .1. . . 49 Note: MODE:D COMM 0 • Computer ID Number This parameter identifies the controller in the networks connected to its serial Ports 2. . . 19k2 (19200) Even. . . . 19k2 (19200) Even. . . Range: 4800. . then ENTER) PT3 Valu (press • to select. . . then ENTER) PT4 Valu (press • to select. . this ID must be unique within each of those networks. . . . . . then ENTER) Reference: Serial Communication Formats . . . . then ENTER) Reference: Serial Communication Formats . . 49 MODE:D COMM 3 Port 3 Baud Rate Port 3 Parity These parameters define the data transmission rate and parity setting for the Port 3 serial communication channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . With the exception of redundant controllers. . . . . . . . . . .3) . . . . . With the possible exception of redundant controllers. . . . 49 MODE:D COMM 4 Port 4 Baud Rate Port 4 Parity September 2005 IM301 (6. . . Range: 1 to 8 Display: Ctrl# # Reference: Redundant Tracking . . .

. . . . . . . . . this parameter must be disabled so that only one of them will respond to Modbus data requests to that address. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 This parameter determines whether the controller will operate in its redundant mode when its D1 discrete input is asserted. . . . . .3) . . . . . .130 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters MODE:D fD 1 Mass Flow Input This parameter selects the analog input for the flow signal (∆Po) used to compute the mass flow rate (Flow) calculated variable. . . Range: 1 to 8 selects analog input MV# Display: fD2 # Reference: Compensating Pressure . 106 Range: MODE:D fD 3 Compensating Temperature Input MODE:D fE 1 Redundant Tracking MODE:D LOCK 0 Modbus While Tracking If redundant controllers are given the same Controller ID Number [MODE:D COMM 0]. 106 Range: September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . Off host cannot monitor tracking controller On host can monitor tracking controller Display: LOC0 OFF/ON Reference: Redundant Tracking . . . . 59 This parameter selects the measured variable for the compensating temperature used to calculate mass flow rates. . Range: 1 to 8 selects analog input MV# Display: fD3 # Reference: Compensating Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 61 Range: MODE:D fD 2 Compensating Pressure Input This parameter selects the measured variable for the compensating pressure used to calculate mass flow rates. Off redundant tracking disabled On redundant tracking enabled Display: fE1 OFF/ON Reference: Redundant Tracking . . . . enabling this parameter allows the Modbus host to monitor both controllers. . . . . If they are given different ID numbers. . . . . . . . Off selects calculated flow measurement 1 to 8 selects analog input SV# Display: fD1 OFF/# Reference: Displayed Flow . . .

. . . . you can alternate between the first and second alternate parameter sets by asserting and clearing the D7 discrete input. . 50 Range: MODE:D LOCK 3 Remote Parameter Switching If this parameter is On. . . LOCK 3 must be enabled in both of them. and demonstrating the controller and should never be enabled in an installed. This feature is included only as an aid to developing. . . . . . . . 37 Range: Caution: September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . . . .3) . . . . . An installed controller should never be operated with any LOCK 6 parameter enabled. . . . 50 Range: MODE:D LOCK 2 Write Inhibit Only If Read and Write Inhibit [MODE:D LOCK 1] is disabled. . . .1. . . . . testing. Off access defined by Write Inhibit Only On no Modbus access Display: LOC1 OFF/ON Reference: Modbus Configuration . . . . . . read-only. . . . operating unit. . . Off read and write access On read access only Display: LOC2 OFF/ON Reference: Modbus Configuration . . Off parameter switching disabled On D7 selects first or second parameter set Display: LOC3 OFF/ON Reference: Alternate Parameter Sets . . . In order to alternate between these two parameter sets. . . Off I/O functions enabled On I/O functions disabled Display: LOC6 OFF/ON Reference: Disabling Input Signals . as that would prevent it from receiving needed input signals. this parameter defines the level of access (read/write or read-only) that a host device has to the controller’s Modbus data. . . 106 Range: Note: MODE:D LOCK 6 CPU Inputs Lockout This parameter disables the I/O functions of the CPU and Analog PCB Assemblies. . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 131 MODE:D LOCK 1 Read and Write Inhibit This parameter and Write Inhibit Only [MODE:D LOCK 2] define the level of access (read/write. . . . or none) that a host device has to the controller’s Modbus data.

Off the controller uses the maximum range On the controller uses the reduced range Display: LOC7 OFF/ON Reference: Modbus Configuration . 94 September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . . 50 Range: MODE:D LOCK 7 Modbus Register Scaling MODE:D LOCK 9 Auxiliary Display Reset If you use the Front Panel MENU and SCROLL keys to change the variable displayed in the AUX readout. . . . . .## Reference: Derivative Response . . . rounded-off range (minimum to maximum / 1. . . 41 Calculated Variable Displays . . . . . 79 Output Tracking . . . .3) . thus providing compatibility with distributed control systems using either scaling convention. . . . . . . . . . . . . maximum range or to a slightly smaller. 61 Range: MODE:D RA # Relay Assigned Function Each of these parameters selects the conditions under which the corresponding discrete output is triggered. . . . . . .1. . .99 repeats/minute Display: G #. . . . . 94 Port 2 Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 PI and RT Signal Selection . . this parameter determines whether it will automatically revert to displaying the controller status: Off selected display remains until changed On status display restored after one minute Display: LOC9 OFF/ON Reference: Measured Variables . . . . . .024). . Range: see Table 3-4 Display: RA#±Valu (press HIGH or LOW to select sign. . . . . . . . . 77 Antisurge PI Response . . . . . . If the value is negative. . . . . 102 Port 1 Balancing . . . .132 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters This parameter determines whether Modbus holding register values transmitted through Port 3 are scaled to their full. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .00 to 9. the relay will de-energize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 PID:A G General Ramp Rate This parameter sets the ramp rate for bumpless transfers and the decay rate for the derivative response. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . If the assigned function is positive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the relay will be energized when the associated condition exists. Range: 0. . . . . . then press • to select function) Reference: Discrete Outputs . . . . . . .

. .1. 82 PID:A PB 3 Ps Proportional Band This parameter sets the proportional band coefficient for the suction pressure limiting loop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Pressure Limiting . . . 78 Pressure Limiting . .0 to 99. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 This parameter sets the reset rate for the discharge pressure limiting loop. 78 Antisurge PI Response . . . Range: 00. 82 PID:A PB 1 DEV Proportional Band This parameter sets the proportional band coefficient for the antisurge control loop. . . . . . . . .9 repeats/minute Display: Kr3 ##. . .# Reference: General PI Algorithm . . Range: 00.0 to 99. . . . . . . . . . . .9 repeats/minute Display: Kr1 ##. Range: 006 to 999 Display: PB2 ### Reference: General PI Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Pressure Limiting . . . . . . . . . 79 PID:A PB 2 Pd Proportional Band This parameter sets the proportional band coefficient for the discharge pressure limiting loop. Range: 006 to 999 Display: PB1 ### Reference: General PI Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 PID:A Kr 2 Pd Reset Rate PID:A Kr 3 Ps Reset Rate This parameter sets the reset rate for the suction pressure limiting loop. . . .# Reference: General PI Algorithm . . . . 78 Pressure Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 to 99. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Range: 00. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# Reference: General PI Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . 82 September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . 78 Antisurge PI Response . . . . . . . . . . Range: 006 to 999 Display: PB3 ### Reference: General PI Algorithm . . .9 repeats/minute Display: Kr2 ##.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 133 PID:A Kr 1 DEV Reset Rate This parameter sets the reset rate for the antisurge control loop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .# Reference: Derivative Response . . . . . .# Reference: Recycle Trip Response . . . .0 to 99. . 79 PID:A r 3 CRD Dead-Zone Bias This parameter sets the width of the derivative control response’s dead zone. . . . . . . . .1. . . . .9 seconds Display: Tf1 ##. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# Reference: Derivative Response . . . . . . . .0 to 99. 80 This parameter defines the time constant for the first-order-lag software filter applied to the numerator and denominator of Ss . 64 PID:A Tf 1 DEV Filter Constant PID:A Tf 2 Sigma Filter Constant If the selected Application Function [MODE:A fA] calculates the polytropic head exponent (σ). Range: 00. . . . . .0 to 99. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Range: 00. .0 to 99. . . Range: 00.# Reference: Filtering . . . . . . . . . . .9 percent Display: r1 ##. . . . . . .3) . Range: 000 to 999 seconds Display: Tf2 ### Reference: Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters PID:A r 1 DEV Dead-Zone Bias This parameter sets the half-width of the antisurge control loop’s dead zone. . . . . 104 September 2005 IM301 (6. . . Range: 00. . this parameter defines the time constant for its first-order-lag software filter. . .9 seconds Display: Td1 ##. . . . . 74 PID:A Td 0 CRD Time Constant This parameter sets the time constant for the derivative control response. . . . 74 PID:A Td 1 Recycle Trip Time Constant This parameter sets the time constant for the derivative recycle trip response.9 percent / 160 milliseconds Display: r3 ##. . . .9 seconds Display: Td0 ##. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .# Reference: Dead Zone . . . . . . . . 78 Antisurge PI Response . 52 Startup Configuration . . . . . . . .0 to 99. . Range: 00. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . this parameter defines the time interval during which the controller will look for a rapid change in pressure following a rapid change in flow. . Range: 0. . . . .9 to 99. . . . . . .9 percent/160 milliseconds Display: A1 ##. . . . . . . . . 72 Recycle Trip Line . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 135 SPEC:A A 1 Flow Rate-of-Change Threshold If Surge Detection Method [MODE:A fD 2] 1. . . . . . . .9 to 99. . . .0 to 99. . . . . . . . . . . . .9 percent/160 milliseconds Display: A3 ##. . . . .# Reference: Surge Control Line . .04) Display: A5 #.96 seconds (multiples of . . . . . .1. . . 75 This parameter defines the initial value of the surge control line bias. . . . .04) Display: A4 #. . . . Range: 00. . . 75 SPEC:A A 4 Pressure After Flow Time Lag SPEC:A A 5 Safety On Repeat Interval This parameter defines how long the controller will wait after detecting a surge before looking for another.96 seconds (multiples of . .3) . . . or 3 is selected. this parameter defines its pressure rate-of-change limit. . . . this parameter defines the time interval during which the controller will look for a rapid change in flow following a rapid change in pressure. .04) Display: A2 #. . . . . . . . . . . . or 4 is selected. . . 73 Cold-Recycle Control .## Reference: Surge Detection . 75 SPEC:A A 2 Flow After Pressure Time Lag SPEC:A A 3 Pressure Rate-ofChange Threshold If Surge Detection Method [MODE:A fD 2] 1. . . . 2. .00 to 9. . . . . Range: –99. . . .00 to 9. 75 If Surge Detection Method [MODE:A fD 2] 1 is selected. 95 SPEC:A b 1 Initial Surge Control Bias September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . .# Reference: Surge Detection . . . 2. . . . . . .# Reference: Surge Detection . Range: –99. . . .9 percent Display: b1 ##. . . . Range: 0. . . . . . . . . . . .96 seconds (multiples of . . . . . . . . . Range: 0. . . . this parameter defines its flow rate-of-change limit. . . .## Reference: Surge Detection . 75 If Surge Detection Method [MODE:A fD 2] 1 is selected. . . . . .00 to 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .## Reference: Surge Detection . . prior to adding the Safety On and derivative responses. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .# Reference: Derivative Response . . . . . . . . . . .## Reference: Recycle Trip Response . .0 to 99. . Range: 0.00 to 9. .0 to 99. . the combined flow calculation multiplies this controller’s sidestream flow by this coefficient. .3) . Range: 00. . .# Reference: Recycle Trip Response .9 Display: C0 ##. . . . . .# Reference: Recycle Trip Response . or 64 is selected.0 to 99. . . . .# Reference: Safety On Response . . . . . . . . . . . 89 SPEC:A C 2 Recycle Trip Repeat Interval SPEC:A C 3 Sidestream Flow Coefficient September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . 80 This parameter defines the time interval between Recycle Trip step responses. . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 to 99. . . . . . . Range: 0.9 percent Display: b3 ##. . 81 If Application Function [MODE:A fA] 34.## Reference: Upstream Section Flow Known . . . 95 This parameter defines the maximum amount by which the derivative control response will increase the surge control margin. . 95 This parameter defines the gain for the proportional portion of the Recycle Trip step response. . . . . . 74 Cold-Recycle Control . . . . . . . . . . Range: 00. . . . . . .9 percent Display: b2 ##. . Range: 00.99 Display: C3 #. . . 75 Cold-Recycle Control . . . . . 80 SPEC:A b 3 Maximum Derivative Response SPEC:A C 0 Recycle Trip Gain SPEC:A C 1 Maximum Recycle Trip Step Size This parameter defines the maximum size of the Recycle Trip step response. . . . . .9 percent Display: C1 ##. . . . . Range: 00. . . . .04 to 9. . . .04) Display: C2 #. . . . . . . .136 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters SPEC:A b 2 Safety On Incremental Bias This parameter defines the distance added to the surge control margin every time a surge is detected. . 35. . .1. . 87 Downstream Section Flow Known .96 seconds (multiples of 0. . . . . . . . . .

. . .3) .9 percent Display: d1 ##. . . . . .99 Display: C4 #.## Reference: Upstream Section Flow Known . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 137 SPEC:A C 4 Main Flow Coefficient If Application Function [MODE:A fA] 34. . . . 78 SPEC:A K Surge Limit Line Coefficient SPEC:A RT Recycle Trip Line Distance September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . the combined flow calculation multiplies the square root of the component flows’ product by this coefficient. Range: –9. . . . .000 to . . . .99 to 9. . 35. . . . . . . . . . . .00 to 9. . . . the combined flow calculation multiplies the reported flow of the Adjacent Section Controller [MODE:A SS 5] by this coefficient. . . Range: . . .## Reference: Upstream Section Flow Known . . . 70 This parameter defines the initial bias used to calculate the margin between the Recycle Trip and surge limit lines when the surge count is zero. . . or 64 is selected. Range: 0. . . 89 SPEC:A d 1 Tight Shut-Off Line Distance This parameter defines the offset between the tight shut-off line and the surge control line.999 Display: K . 74 Tight Shut Off Response . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .99 Display: C5 #. . . . . . Range: 00. . . . . . 63 Valve-Sharing Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Range: 00. . . . 101 This parameter defines the constant that the controller uses to normalize the Ss proximity-to-surge variable. . . 87 Downstream Section Flow Known . . . . . . 87 Downstream Section Flow Known . .# Reference: Tight Shut-Off Line . . . . 35. . . . . . . . . . .0 to 99. .# Reference: Recycle Trip Line . . . . . An additional bias is added each time a surge is detected. 89 SPEC:A C 5 Combined Flow Coefficient If Application Function [MODE:A fA] 34. . . . . . . . . 57 Application Function .0 to 99. . . . . 73 Dead Zone . . . . or 64 is selected.9 percent Display: RT ##. . . . . . .### Reference: Discharge Flow Measurement . . . . . . .

. . .9 percent Display: SO ##. . Range: 00. . . . . .3) . .0 to 99. . .# Reference: Safety On Line . . . . . . . . 73 This parameter defines the time constant for the exponential decay of the Recycle Trip response. . . .1. . . . . . . . . Range: 000 to 999 seconds Display: TL ### Reference: Recycle Trip Response . 81 SPEC:A TL Recycle Trip Decay Rate September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . .138 Appendix A: Configuration Parameters SPEC:A SO Safety On Line Distance This parameter defines the bias used to calculate the margin between the Safety On and surge limit lines. . . .

You can determine the status of each consecutive input signal by pressing the • key: • AN2 GOOD AN2 HIGH AN2 LOW or or This allows you to repetitively cycle through all the inputs. or GOOD indicates it is between those limits. To initiate it. The status of the displayed input is updated continuously. Each such key sequence begins with a data group key that selects the function of the second key. so a data page letter (for example. Pressing the CLEAR key will terminate any of these procedures and clear the display. they time out and automatically clear the display after 45 seconds of keyboard inactivity. LOW indicates it is below its Analog Input Low Alarm Limit. MODE:D ANIN –) is indicated only if you must press the data group key as many times as needed to display that letter at the end of the first step confirming display. press the following keys: repeat MODE until you see – MODE: D AN IN AN1 GOOD AN1 HIGH AN1 LOW or or The digit in this display is the analog input channel number (AN1).3) .1.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 139 Appendix B Controller Test Sequences This appendix describes the controller test procedures that can be executed from the Engineering Panel. HIGH indicates that signal is above its Analog Input High Alarm Limit. Unlike configuration sequences. most of these procedures are not assigned to specific data pages. Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual MODE:D ANIN – Transmitter Status Test This procedure can be used to identify which analog input signal(s) triggered a transmitter alarm. September 2005 IM301 (6. Otherwise.

Subsequently pressing the decimal key displays the same information for the next possible companion controller. press the following keys: – MODE COMM 3 Note: MODE COMM – 3 Serial Port 1 Test -1 -1 GOOD BAD or where the digit is a controller ID number. This port is used primarily for load-sharing and performance override control. a BAD result for this test usually indicates a serious problem. If either of these features is being used. IM301 (6.140 Appendix B: Controller Test Sequences MODE COMM Reset Controller To restart the control program (see MODE TEST 6 on page 146). press the following keys: MODE COMM ENTER Reset MODE COMM – 2 Serial Port 2 Test To determine if the controller has detected any Port 2 serial communications activity within the past second. To identify the companion controllers from which Port 1 transmissions are being received. If they are not being used. Port 2 is usually not even connected to any other controllers and a BAD result is of no consequence. The status of controller 1 will be displayed if you press that key while viewing the status of controller 8: • -8 -1 BAD GOOD • Note: September 2005 Although transmissions are normally received from all controllers connected to Port 1 (including this one). only those from specified companion controllers are normally of any concern. You can cycle through all eight possible IDs (including this controller’s own) by repeatedly pressing that key. press the following keys: – MODE COMM 2 -2 -2 GOOD BAD or where the confirming display will be GOOD if a serial transmission has been received during the previous second. GOOD indicates data is being received from that controller.1.3) . BAD indicates it is not.

If the selected set is invalid (which probably means it was never defined). it is copied into the current set and the controller executes a soft reset.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 141 MODE LOCK 3 • Store Alternate Parameters This procedure copies the controller’s current parameters into any of its three alternate sets. To initiate this procedure. If it is valid. To select a different set. press the following keys: 3 MODE LOCK • ENTER Store1? This display indicates which alternate set the current parameters will be copied into. press the following keys: 3 MODE LOCK • • ENTER Recall1? This display indicates which alternate set will be copied into the working memory. press the decimal (•) key: • Recall2? Pressing ENTER will then initiate a recall of the selected alternate parameter set.3) . which you can abort at any time by pressing CLEAR.1. To select a different set. “No Match” is displayed to inform you that the recall has been aborted: ENTER Reset No Match or September 2005 IM301 (6. To initiate this procedure. press the decimal (•) key: • Store2? Pressing ENTER will then copy the current parameters to the indicated alternate set and briefly display that set’s new checksum: ENTER CS= F882 MODE LOCK 3 • • Recall Alternate Parameters This procedure copies any of the three alternate parameter sets into the controller’s current set. which you can abort at any time by pressing CLEAR.

142 Appendix B: Controller Test Sequences MODE LOCK 4 Parameter Checksum This procedure displays the checksum values of the controller’s various parameter sets. The controller will then correct any errors that occur in the present parameter set. If that display begins with P.1. You can also tell if any of these parameter sets agree with those recorded on a parameter worksheet by comparing these checksums to those recorded on that worksheet. you should use the Disable Reconfiguration [MODE LOCK 5 0] procedure to disable reconfiguration. you can display the long-term parameter checksum by pressing the decimal key: • L = A3C2 If the two parameter sets are different. To view the parameter checksums. continue to press the decimal (•) key: • CS1=B94A CS2=632E CS3=44FC • • You can cycle through the displays of all four (or five) checksums by continuing to press the decimal (•) key as many times as you want. You can determine which (if any) of the alternate parameter sets is currently in use by comparing the checksum of the Present and Long-Term sets to those for the alternate sets. To display the Alternate Parameter Set checksums. the two sets differ and the checksum shown is for the present set. In that case.3) . press the following keys: 4 MODE LOCK CS= F882 P = A76F or If the confirming display beings with CS. the present parameter set is the same as that stored in long-term memory. September 2005 IM301 (6.

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 143 MODE LOCK 5 1 Enable Reconfiguration To enable alteration of the controller’s configuration and tuning parameters from the Engineering Panel. press the following keys: 5 MODE LOCK 0 LOC5 OFF ENTER If you make a mistake entering this sequence. MODE TEST Force Recycle Trip To initiate a Recycle Trip Response (see page 80). September 2005 IM301 (6. enter the Disable Reconfiguration [MODE LOCK 5 0] sequence to disable further changes (otherwise. the controller will beep and display an Error! message on the confirming display. you can determine if that control response is optimally tuned for your application. It merely triggers a Recycle Trip response so you can observe how your process responds.1. press the following keys: MODE TEST TEST ENTER By analyzing the resulting behavior of your process. Note: This test is not a self-test of the controller. This test can only be performed while the controller is in automatic. press the following keys: 5 MODE LOCK 1 LOC5 ON ENTER If you make a mistake entering this sequence.3) . When you finish reconfiguring your controller. reconfiguration will be automatically disabled after thirty minutes of keyboard inactivity): MODE LOCK 5 0 Disable Reconfiguration To disable alteration of the controller’s configuration and tuning parameters from the Engineering Panel. the controller will beep and display an Error! message on the confirming display.

you can determine if an input is being read accurately by disabling its Offset Zero Input [MODE:D ANIN #] parameter and comparing the resulting TEST 4 value to a volt or ammeter measurement of the corresponding input signal. press the following keys: 2 MODE TEST 756-001 which displays the controller’s software version number. Similarly. To initiate it. press the following keys: 4 MODE TEST Inputs‡‡ To display the measured value of any analog input.1. For example. the bar after the T will be high only when that port is transmitting.0). press 4 to view Port 4’s activity): 4 PT4 R-T_ MODE TEST 4 Signal Values Test This procedure displays the values of the analog and discrete input signals and the positions of the front-panel Control Keys. pressing 1 displays the current value of the CH1 input: 1 CH1 45. The port in the above example is receiving but not transmitting. The bar after the R will be in the high position if that port is currently receiving a transmission. press the corresponding numeric key. you can display the value of each consecutive analog input by pressing the decimal key (•). You can then check for communications activity on any other port by pressing the corresponding numeric key (for example.8 where the number in the display is the corresponding signal variable (values above 99. press the following keys: 3 MODE TEST # PT# R-T_ where # is the numeric key corresponding to the port number.9 percent display as A0. Thus.3) . MODE TEST 3 Serial Port Activity Test To view a dynamic display of a specified serial port’s communications activity.144 Appendix B: Controller Test Sequences MODE TEST 2 Program Version To determine which revision of the control program is installed in your controller. otherwise it will be low. Alternately. September 2005 IM301 (6.

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller To determine the status of the discrete inputs. or the key number if it is: 4 3 2 1 COMPRESSOR 8 7 6 5 As shown above. press zero (0): 0 145 _2__5___ Each character will be the input number if that input is asserted or an underscore if it is not. press nine (9): 9 1__4____ where each character will be either the relay number (if that relay is energized) or an underscore or (if it is not). only relays CR1 and CR4 are energized. This feature is used mostly to determine whether any of these keys are stuck down. only inputs D2 and D5 are asserted. In the above example. To determine which front-panel keys are being pressed.3) . To determine which discrete outputs are energized. only keys 2 (DISPLAY SURGE COUNT) and 5 (SCROLL) are being pressed. press the minus (–) key: – _2__5___ where each character in the confirming display is an underscore if the corresponding key is not pressed. In the above example. September 2005 IM301 (6.1.

September 2005 IM301 (6. which can then be reset by pressing the zero key: 0 Mot 0000 MODE TEST 8 Program Checksum This procedure initiates the calculation and display of a four-digit. resets its serial ports and analog inputs. press the following keys: 7 MODE TEST Mot #### where #### is its current value. To initiate this test. the controller is reconfigured from a workstation. It does not change the operating state or outputs. press the following keys: 6 MODE TEST Z80 #### where #### is the reset count. a fault causes a watchdog time out. and begins a new scan cycle. To display the number of times the control program has restarted since this count was last zeroed. The Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Revision History [DS301/V] provides the correct CRCs for various software revisions. which can then be reset by pressing the zero key: 0 Z80 0000 MODE TEST 7 Front-Panel Reset Count To display the number of times the front-panel microprocessor has reset since this count was last zeroed. This occurs when the controller is powered up. The checksum will be displayed after a brief pause: 8 MODE TEST CRC BusY CRC #### where #### is the checksum for the installed software.1. The resulting procedure checks the controller’s parameters to make sure they are reasonable.3) .146 Appendix B: Controller Test Sequences MODE TEST 6 CPU Reset Count Resetting the main CPU restarts its control program. hexadecimal checksum for the controller’s internal binary operating instructions. critical parameters are changed or alternate parameter sets are recalled. or the Reset Controller [MODE COMM] procedure is executed. press the following keys. It is used primarily to verify the successful downloading of a new control program.

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 147 PID:A Td 0 • Maximum Ss Derivative This procedure displays and can clear the maximum rate-of-change of the Ss proximity-to-surge variable (that is. it will then increase from zero as soon as the operating point moves toward the surge limit. Entering a new CRD Time Constant (by pressing the corresponding numeric keys and ENTER while it is displayed) will terminate this procedure. as will pressing CLEAR at any time. Thus. and will be valid only if the Derivative Response [MODE:A fC 3] or Derivative Recycle Trip [MODE:A fC 4] is enabled.# is the highest recorded derivative. first display the CRD Time Constant. You can then alternate between displaying that parameter and the maximum derivative of Ss by pressing the decimal key: repeat Td PID until you see 0 PID: A Td0 ##.3) . Pressing the zero key while the derivative is displayed resets it to zero: Sdt ##.0 Because the displayed derivative is immediately updated whenever a faster approach to surge is detected.# • • where Td0 ##. the fastest approach to surge) that has been detected since this value was last reset. September 2005 IM301 (6. To view this derivative.# is the parameter value and Sdt ##.# Td0 ##. It is an extension of the sequence for viewing and changing the CRD Time Constant [PID:A Td 0].1.# 0 Sdt 00.# Sdt ##. you can determine the current rate-of-approach to surge by clearing this value and observing the resulting new maximum. is scaled to the same units (percent of span per 160 milliseconds) as that parameter.

# is the parameter value. they are not affected by its process variable gain and bias. first display the Flow Rate-of-Change Threshold.# is the most positive derivative.1. September 2005 IM301 (6. To view these derivatives. Pressing the zero key while either derivative is displayed resets it to zero: 0 A1H 00. and will be valid only if a Surge Detection Method [MODE:A fD 2] that monitors SV1 has been selected [fD 2 = 1. You can then cycle between displaying that parameter and the derivatives of SV1 by pressing the decimal key: repeat A SPEC RESP Note: until you see 1 SPEC: A1 A ##.# • • where A1 ##. A1H ##.# • A1H ##. 2.3) .0 A1L 00. or 3].# is the most negative. It is an extension of the sequence for viewing and changing the Flow Rate-of-Change Threshold [SPEC:A A 1].148 Appendix B: Controller Test Sequences SPEC:A A 1 • Maximum Flow Derivatives This procedure displays and can clear the highest positive and lowest negative derivatives of SV1 (which is generally the unscaled flow measurement) that have been detected since they were last reset. is scaled to the same units (percent of span per 160 milliseconds). Because these are derivatives of the CH1 signal variable.0 0 or Entering a new Flow Rate-of-Change Threshold (by pressing the corresponding numeric keys and ENTER while it is displayed) will terminate this procedure.# A1L-##. as will pressing CLEAR at any time. and A1L–##. The derivatives are immediately updated if faster rates-of-change are detected.# A1 ##.

and A3L–##.3) . September 2005 IM301 (6.# • A3H ##. as will pressing CLEAR at any time. or 4]. A3H ##. 2.# A3L-##.# is the most negative. It is an extension of the sequence for viewing and changing the Pressure Rate-of-Change Threshold [SPEC:A A 3].# A3 ##. The derivatives are immediately updated if faster rates-of-change are detected.0 0 or Entering a new Pressure Rate-of-Change Threshold (by pressing the corresponding numeric keys and ENTER while it is displayed) will terminate this procedure.0 A3L 00. is scaled to the same units (percent of span per 160 milliseconds). first display the Pressure Rate-of-Change Threshold. they are not affected by its process variable gain and bias. Pressing the zero key while either derivative is displayed resets it to zero: 0 A3H 00.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 149 SPEC:A A 3 • Maximum Pressure Derivatives This procedure displays and can clear the highest positive and lowest negative derivatives of SV2 (which is generally the unscaled discharge pressure measurement) that have been detected since they were last reset. You can then cycle between displaying that parameter and the derivatives of SV2 by pressing the decimal key: repeat A SPEC RESP Note: until you see 3 SPEC: A3 A ##. and is valid only if a Surge Detection Method [MODE:A fD 2] that monitors SV2 has been selected [fD 2 = 1.1. Because these are derivatives of the CH2 signal variable. To view these derivatives.# is the parameter value.# is the most positive derivative.# • • where A3 ##.

150 Appendix B: Controller Test Sequences September 2005 IM301 (6.3) .1.

1. and • a discussion of applicable fallback strategies. 5 5 4 Suggested input for an assignable signal.5 68 3. 5 Temperature inputs are not required if the Constant Sigma [MODE:A fC 2] option is enabled. • the process variables it requires and the inputs it usually obtains them from. Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual Table F-1 Analog inputs required by each fA Mode fA 01 02 3 31 33 3 34 35 51 61 3 63 3.ss J4 ∆Po.3) .s ∆Po.ac CH2 ∆Pc ∆Pc Pd Pd Pd Pss Pd Pd Pd Pd Pd Pd CH3 CH4 1 CH5 CH6 CH7 2 Ps Ps Pss Ps Ps Ps Ps Ps Ps Ps Td Td Td Td Ts Ts Ts Ts Tac N N N Ps– is normally a speed input but can be assigned another function if an analog speed signal is not required.d ∆Po. 2 CH7 is the low flow or valve position input and CH8 is the output loopback input.s ∆Po. although either can be given other functions.5 1 CH4 CH1 ∆P o ∆Po ∆Po ∆Po ∆Po.ss ∆Po. 3 Optional f argument (U ) can be assigned any input. • a simplified process and instrumentation drawing (P&ID) of the interface between the controller and compressor (a question mark indicates a variable can be assigned to any appropriate or otherwise unused channel).5 65 3. September 2005 IM301 (6.5 67 3.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 151 Appendix F Application Functions This appendix describes each fA mode of the standard Antisurge Controller that is currently recommended for general use.d ∆Po. including: • the coordinate system and algorithm it uses to compute proximity-to-surge (Ss ).

It then holds the actuator control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. or if one or more of those controllers has fallen back to fD 31.1. the only applicable fallback is fD 31. September 2005 IM301 (6.152 Appendix F: Application Functions FY FT ∆Po 1 PT Ps 3 2 PT Pd FY FT ∆Po 1 PT Ps 3 2 PT Pd FY UIC 3 UIC 1 Ss.2 Mode fA 00 Cold Recycle Control As described on page 95.1 UIC 2 Ss. the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered when the controller fails to receive a valid proximity to the surge control line variable (S) from one or more companion controllers. If enabled.3) . this mode calculates proximity to surge as the highest S (lowest DEViation) reported by any specified Valve Sharing Companion [MODE:A SS 1 #]: S s = max ( S i ) Fallback Strategies: If fA 00 is selected.

= -----------------------------------------.c = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) K = Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] It is intended for low compression ratio applications.c to its companion controllers.1. c = PV1 ⋅ ( PVn ⁄ PV3 ) where n is the value of SS 8. a controller using this mode will report its ∆Po.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 153 FT ∆Po 1 2 DPT ∆Pc UIC FY Note: Flow can be measured in discharge Mode fA 01 Pressure Rise / Orifice Pressure Drop This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ ∆P c S s = ----------------∆P o. It can be compensated for the presence of a valve between the orifice and compressor by connecting an orifice pressure signal to the Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A SS 8] and a pressure signal from the compressor side of the valve to analog input CH3: ∆P o. in which the non-characterized ratio of the compression ratio to the squared reduced flow sometimes provides adequate surge protection: K ⋅ ( Pd – Ps ) ⁄ Ps K ⋅ ( Rc – 1 ) K ⋅ ∆P c S s = ---------------------------.= ----------------2 qs ∆P o ⁄ P s ∆P o The flow measurement can be the pressure drop across an orifice in either suction or discharge.3) . September 2005 IM301 (6. c where: ∆Pc = differential pressure rise (PV2) ∆Po. If Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is disabled.

s) or suction pressure versus a discharge or suction flow measurement (Ps / ∆Po.d or Ps / ∆Po. c If fD 32 is disabled. The controller then falls back to minimum flow control. c Alternate Applications: September 2005 IM301 (6. using the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] as its set point: Const 2 S s = ------------------∆P o. the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is triggered when the flow input is good but the pressure input is not. the applicable fallbacks are fD 31. any condition that would otherwise trigger it will instead trigger the Default Output Fallback. For example.1. and 38. If the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] is enabled for a primary Valve Sharing controller. this algorithm characterizes the surge limit as a proportional relationship between the scaled values of two analog inputs: K ⋅ PV2 S s = ------------------PV1 It can thus be used to implement a variety of proximity to surge approximations that have this general form. discharge pressure versus a discharge or suction flow measurement (Pd / ∆Po. the controller will use the Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] if it fails to receive Port 1 transmissions from any designated companion controller: Const 8 ⋅ ∆P c S s = ----------------------------------∆P o. If enabled.154 Appendix F: Application Functions In essence.s) Fallback Strategies: If fA 01 is selected. It then holds the actuator control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered when the controller detects the failure of its flow input (CH1). If enabled.d or Pd / ∆Po.3) . 32.

c where: ∆Pc = ∆Po. It can be compensated for the presence of a valve between the orifice and compressor by connecting an orifice pressure signal to the Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A September 2005 IM301 (6.1.3) .= -----------------------------------------. as shown in the accompanying P&ID.c = f3(N) = f5(U5) = K= differential pressure rise (PV2) Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] It is intended for low compression ratio applications.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 155 FT ZT α DPT ∆Po 1 ? 2 ∆Pc FY UIC Note: Flow can be measured in discharge Mode fA 02 Pressure Rise / Orifice Pressure Drop.= ----------------2 qs ∆P o ⁄ P s ∆P o The General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] can then further define that limit as a function of a secondary coordinate specified as the f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9]. Guide vane angle is perhaps the most common secondary coordinate. with General Characterizer This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ ∆P c ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ [ f 3(N) ] S s = ----------------------------------------------------------∆P o. The flow measurement can be the pressure drop across an orifice in either suction or discharge. in which the non-characterized ratio of the compression ratio to the squared reduced flow can sometimes provide adequate surge protection: K ⋅ ( Pd – Ps ) ⁄ Ps K ⋅ ( Rc – 1 ) K ⋅ ∆P c S s = ---------------------------.

35. the Speed Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 5] causes the controller to use the Default Speed [COND:A CONST 5] when it detects the loss of the speed signal: S s = K ⋅ ∆P c ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ f 3(Const 5) ⁄ ∆P o.3) . The controller then falls back to minimum flow control. the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is triggered when the flow input is good but the pressure or secondary coordinate input (CH2) is not. If enabled. the applicable fallbacks are fD 31.156 Appendix F: Application Functions SS 8] and a pressure signal from the compressor side of the valve to analog input CH3: ∆P o. c September 2005 IM301 (6. It then holds the actuator control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. Alternately. For example. 32. Although the X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] should be defined as a constant.c to its companions.s) or suction pressure versus a discharge or suction flow measurement (Ps / ∆Po. a controller using this mode will report its ∆Po. Alternate Applications: In essence. If calculation of the Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is disabled. and 38. c = PV1 ⋅ ( PVn ⁄ PV3 ) where n is the value of SS 8.d or Pd / ∆Po. c If fD 32 is disabled.1. you can obtain that variable from a companion Speed or Fuel Controller by setting that parameter equal to its Controller ID Number.s) Fallback Strategies: If fA 01 is selected. If enabled. 36. this algorithm characterizes the surge limit as a proportional relationship between the scaled values of two analog inputs: K ⋅ PV2 S s = ------------------PV1 It can thus be used to implement a variety of proximity to surge approximations that have this general form. conditions that would otherwise trigger it will invoke the Default Output Fallback instead. set the Rotational Speed Source [MODE:A ANIN 4] to Off. the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered when the controller detects the failure of its flow input (CH1). discharge pressure versus a discharge or suction flow measurement (Pd / ∆Po. using the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] as its set point: Const 2 S s = ------------------∆P o.d or Ps / ∆Po. If enabled. it is none-the-less advisable to define a speed source. To use analog input CH4 (as indicated).

If enabled. failure of the f5 Argument input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback.4). If you define f5 as a constant. failure of the speed input would unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. Note: September 2005 IM301 (6. Note: If f3 is defined as a constant (so rotational speed has no effect on S). the Function 5 Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 6] causes the controller to use the Default f5 Argument [COND:A CONST 6] when it detects the failure of the analog input specified as the f5 Argument: S s = K ⋅ ∆P c ⋅ f 5(Const 6) ⋅ f 3(N) ⁄ ∆P o.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 157 If fD 35 is disabled. c If fD 36 is disabled. Otherwise. If that is not possible.3) . the f5 Argument should be an input that can be configured to always be valid (by setting the alarm limits to 00. enable fD 36 so a failure of the f5 input would not unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. fD 35 should be enabled. failure of the speed signal will instead trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback.1. so that its argument has no effect on the value of S.0 and 102.

It can be obtained from a specified Adjacent Section Controller [MODE:A SS 5]. but is usually the CH1 analog input [SS 5 Off]. Suction flow measurements can be compensated for the presence of a valve between the orifice and compressor inlet by designating a Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A SS 8]: ∆P o. c = PV1 ⋅ ( PVn ⁄ P s ) where n is the value of SS 8.c = f1(Rc) = K= Pd = Ps = Rc = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) The Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] defines the surge limit (minimum reduced flow) as a function of the compression ratio. September 2005 IM301 (6.1. The flow measurement can be the differential pressure drop across an orifice in either suction or discharge. If flow is measured in discharge. c where: ∆Po.3) . that parameter should be disabled.158 Appendix F: Application Functions FT ∆Po PT Ps 3 1 2 PT Pd UIC FY Note: Flow can be measured in discharge Mode fA 31 Compression Ratio / (Reduced Flow = ∆Po /Ps )2 This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ Ps S s = -------------------------------∆P o.

If fD 32 is disabled. f2 should be configured as: ∆P o.d. using the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] as its set point: S s = Const 2 ⁄ ∆P o. f2 should be configured as: ∆P o. and 38. r = ∆Po. d ⋅ f 2(R c) Fallback Strategies: f 2(X) = x 1–σ f 2(X) = x σ–1 If fA 31 is selected. s = ∆P o. the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is triggered when the flow input is good but the suction pressure input (CH3) is not.1. When this controller uses a ∆Po. If enabled. s ⋅ f 2 (R c ) where: σ = polytropic head exponent When this controller uses ∆Po. c ⋅ f 2 (R c ) When this controller uses the flow measurement the other controller needs.s and the other controller needs ∆Po. c September 2005 IM301 (6. a controller using this mode will use its Reported Flow Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] to compute the ∆Po.3) . the potentially applicable fallbacks are fD 31. f2 should be set so that it always returns a value of one.s. any condition that would otherwise trigger it will instead trigger the Default Output Fallback. 32.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 159 If Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is disabled. It then holds the actuator control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. the Compression Ratio Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 3] causes the controller to use the Default Compression Ratio [COND:A CONST 3] if the discharge pressure input (CH2) fails: S s = K ⋅ f 1(Const 3) ⋅ P s ⁄ ∆P o.d and the other controller needs ∆Po. c If ∆Pc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 1] has been set to LOW.r it reports to its companion controllers from its calculated flow measurement: ∆P o. thus enabling calculation of Ps from Pd and ∆Pc. the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered when the controller detects the failure of its flow input (SS 5 Off) or fails to receive a reported flow measurement for the adjacent compressor section (1 ≤ SS 5 ≤ 8). the failure of either pressure input would prevent the calculation of Ps and would therefore trigger this fallback. If enabled. The controller then falls back to minimum flow control. If enabled. 33. d = ∆Po.

3) .1. If the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] is enabled for a primary Valve Sharing controller. c September 2005 IM301 (6.160 Appendix F: Application Functions If fD 33 is disabled. the failure of either pressure input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. the controller will use the Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] if it fails to receive Port 1 transmissions from any designated companion controller: S s = Const 8 ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ P s ⁄ ∆P o.

1. as shown in the accompanying P&ID. which does not assume constant molecular weight. c where: ∆Po.c = f1(Rc) = f3(N) = f5(U5) = K= N= Pd = Ps = Rc = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) The Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] defines the surge limit (minimum reduced flow) as a function of the compression ratio. calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ Ps ⋅ [ f 3(N) ] S s = --------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o.3) . Guide vane angle is perhaps the most common secondary coordinate. The flow measurement can be the differential pressure drop across an orifice in either suction or discharge. with General Characterizer This mode. The General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] can then further define that limit as a function of a secondary coordinate specified as the f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9]. It can be obtained from a September 2005 IM301 (6.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 161 ST N FT ∆Po PT Ps ZT α 3 ? 1 4 2 PT Pd UIC FY Note: Flow can be measured in discharge Mode fA 33 Compression Ratio/(Reduced Flow = ∆Po /Ps )2.

but is usually the CH1 analog input [SS 5 Off].162 Appendix F: Application Functions specified Adjacent Section Controller [MODE:A SS 5]. If Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is disabled.r it reports to its companion controllers from its calculated flow measurement: ∆P o. To use analog input CH4 (as indicated). that parameter should be disabled.s and the other controller needs ∆Po. d ⋅ f 2(R c) f 2(X) = x 1–σ f 2(X) = x σ–1 September 2005 IM301 (6.1. c = PV1 ⋅ ( PVn ⁄ P s ) where n is the value of SS 8. s = ∆P o. When this controller uses a ∆Po. f2 should be configured as: ∆P o.s.3) .d . f2 should be configured as: ∆P o. If flow is measured in discharge. f2 should be set so that it always returns a value of one.d and the other controller needs ∆Po. set the Rotational Speed Source [MODE:A ANIN 4] to Off. Although the X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] should be defined as a constant. a controller using this mode will use its Reported Flow Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] to compute the ∆Po. you can obtain that variable from a companion Speed or Fuel Controller by setting that parameter equal to its Controller ID Number. and connecting an appropriate pressure signal to that input: ∆P o. Suction flow measurements can be compensated for the presence of a valve between the orifice and compressor inlet by designating a Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A SS 8]. it is none-the-less advisable to define a speed source. d = ∆Po. c ⋅ f 2 (R c ) When this controller uses the flow measurement the other controller needs. s ⋅ f 2 (R c ) where: σ = polytropic head exponent When this controller uses ∆Po. r = ∆Po. Alternately.

35.1. using the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] as its set point: S s = Const 2 ⁄ ∆P o. 33. the failure of either pressure input would prevent the calculation of Ps and would therefore trigger this fallback. the Function 5 Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 6] causes the controller to use the Default f5 Argument [COND:A CONST 6] when it detects the failure of the analog input specified as the f5 Argument: S s = K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ f 5(Const 6) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 3(N) ⁄ ∆P o. If enabled. thus enabling calculation of Ps from Pd and ∆Pc. the failure of either pressure input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. If enabled. the potentially applicable fallbacks are fD 31. If enabled. 32. failure of the speed input would unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. any condition that would otherwise trigger it will instead trigger the Default Output Fallback. c If ∆Pc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 1] has been set to LOW. fD 35 should be enabled. If fD 32 is disabled. 36. failure of the speed signal will instead trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. Otherwise. The controller then falls back to minimum flow control. Note: If f3 is defined as a constant (so rotational speed has no effect on S). the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is triggered when the flow input is good but the suction pressure input (CH3) is not. If enabled. the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered when the controller detects the failure of its flow input (SS 5 Off) or fails to receive a reported flow measurement for the adjacent compressor section (1 ≤ SS 5 ≤ 8). It then holds the actuator control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. c If fD 35 is disabled. the Compression Ratio Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 3] causes the controller to use the Default Compression Ratio [COND:A CONST 3] if the discharge pressure input (CH2) fails: S s = K ⋅ f 1(Const 3) ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 3(N) ⁄ ∆P o. and 38. c If fD 33 is disabled.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Fallback Strategies: 163 If fA 33 is selected. c September 2005 IM301 (6. If enabled. the Speed Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 5] causes the controller to use the Default Speed [COND:A CONST 5] when it detects the loss of the speed signal: S s = K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 3(Const 5) ⁄ ∆P o.3) .

164 Appendix F: Application Functions If fD 36 is disabled.1.4). so that its argument has no effect on the value of S. If you define f5 as a constant. c Note: September 2005 IM301 (6. If that is not possible.3) . the f5 Argument should be an input that can be configured to always be valid (by setting the alarm limits to 00. enable fD 36 so a failure of the f5 input would not unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. the controller will use the Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] if it fails to receive Port 1 transmissions from any designated companion controller: S s = Const 8 ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⁄ ∆P o. failure of the f5 Argument input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. If the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] is enabled for a primary Valve Sharing controller.0 and 102.

assumes all streams have the same molecular weight. s PT – Ps FT ∆Po.c = f1(Rc) = f3(N) = K= N= Pd = Pss = Rc = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer X Coordinate Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Discharge Pressure (PV2) sidestream pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Pss ) The Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] defines the surge limit (minimum reduced flow) as a function of the compression ratio. c where: ∆Po.1. r – UIC 2 N 4 FY Speed signal can be analog or serial Note: Drawing shows only the transmitters and control elements required by UIC 2 Recycle or Sidestream Mode fA 34 Compression Ratio/(Reduced Flow)2. for combined upstream and sidestream flows This mode is for compressor sections with no total flow measurement. and calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ P ss ⋅ [ f 3(N) ] S s = ---------------------------------------------------------∆P o. September 2005 IM301 (6.ss PT Pss 3 1 5 2 PT Pd SIC N UIC 1 ∆P o.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 165 Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 ST FT – ∆P o.3) .

ss + C 4 ⋅ ∆P o. – – – – – – – – – f 2(X) = x σ –1 – Note: September 2005 The Adjacent Section Controller must be configured to report a flow measurement (∆Po) rather than a mass flow (W2). usually by selecting an fA mode between 31 and 34.3) . this controller’s f2 should be defined as: ∆P o. a controller using this mode will report its ∆Po. ss = PV1 ⋅ ( PVn ⁄ P ss ) where n is the value of SS 8. If Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is disabled. d + C 5 ∆P o. r = reported upstream section flow measurement ∆P o. d = equiv. this controller’s f2 should be defined as a – constant and the P s (PV5) input is not needed. r ⋅ f 2 ( P ss ⁄ P s ) where: C3 = Sidestream Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 3] C4 = Main Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 4] C5 = Combined Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 5] – ∆P o. ss ⋅ ∆P o. upstream section discharge flow measurement – ∆P o. ss = suction sidestream flow measurement (PV1) f2 () = Reported Flow Characterizer – P s = suction pressure of preceding section (PV5) ∆P o. s ⋅ f 2(R c ) where: σ– = upstream section polytropic head exponent The sidestream flow measurement can be compensated for the presence of a valve between the orifice and compressor by designating a Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A SS 8]: ∆P o.1. d = ∆P o.c to its companion controllers.166 Appendix F: Application Functions The flow measurement (∆Po. d = ∆P o. IM301 (6.c) is calculated as an equivalent differential pressure drop across an orifice in suction (∆Po. • If that controller is configured to report its suction flow measurement. d ∆P o. The Reported Flow Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] is then used to calculate an equivalent differential pressure drop across an orifice in that section’s discharge: • If that section’s controller is configured to report its discharge flow measurement. c = C 3 ⋅ ∆P o.s): ∆P o. r is received via Port 1 serial communications from the Antisurge Controller identified as the Adjacent Section Controller [MODE:A SS 5].

s ⋅ f 2 ( 0 ) Thus. Assuming this input would fail low. s = C 3 ⋅ ∆P o. Alternately. 37. d ⁄ ∆P o. you can obtain that variable from a companion Speed or Fuel Controller by setting that parameter equal to its Controller ID Number. d + C 5 ∆P o. 35. it is none-the-less advisable to define a speed source.3) . any condition that would otherwise trigger it will instead trigger the Default Output Fallback. To use analog input CH4 (as indicated). The controller then falls back to minimum flow control. ss + C 4 ⋅ ∆P o. If fD 32 is disabled. 32. ss ⋅ ∆P o. the Compression Ratio Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 3] causes the controller to use the Default Compression Ratio [COND:A CONST 3] if the discharge pressure input (CH2) fails: S s = K ⋅ f 1(Const 3) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 3(N) ⁄ ∆P o. – – – – – – September 2005 IM301 (6. s ) min If ∆Pc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 1] has been set to LOW. the failure of either pressure input would prevent the calculation of Pss and would therefore trigger this fallback. and 38. s ∆P o. If enabled. d ∆P o. or fails to receive a valid reported flow measurement for the adjacent compressor section (if serial communication fails or that controller has fallen back to fD 31). 33. the potentially applicable fallbacks are fD 31.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 167 Although the X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] should be defined as a constant. thus enabling calculation of Pss from Pd and ∆Pc. COND:A f(X) 2 0 should be given a worst-case value that can be calculated as: f 2 ( 0 ) = ( ∆P o. It then holds the actuator control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. its loss would also drive the argument of the Reported Flow Characterizer to zero: S s = Const 2 ⁄ ∆P o. using the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] as its set point.1. the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is triggered when the flow input is good but the sidestream pressure input (CH3) is not. d = ∆P o. s If fD 33 is disabled. set the Rotational Speed Source [MODE:A ANIN 4] to Off. the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered when the controller detects the failure of its sidestream flow (CH1) or previous section suction pressure (CH5) input. Fallback Strategies If fA 34 is selected. the failure of either pressure input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. If enabled. If enabled.

Note: If f3 is defined as a constant (so rotational speed has no effect on S). If the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] is enabled for a primary Valve Sharing controller. the Speed Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 5] causes the controller to use the Default Speed [COND:A CONST 5] when it detects the loss of the speed signal: S s = K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 3(Const 5) ⁄ ∆P o. the controller will use the Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] if it fails to receive Port 1 transmissions from any designated companion controller: S s = Const 8 ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 3(N) ⁄ ∆P o. s – – September 2005 IM301 (6. the resulting flow measurement will be used for control purposes only if fD 31 is disabled. the flow measurement will be calculated from a Default Adjacent Section Flow [COND:A CONST 7] if the controller fails to receive a flow measurement for the adjacent compressor section: ∆P o. failure of the speed signal will instead trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback.1. Otherwise.3) . If the Adjacent Section Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 7] is enabled. failure of the speed input would unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. s If fD 35 is disabled.168 Appendix F: Application Functions If enabled. d = CONST 7 ⋅ f 2(P s ⁄ P s ) However. fD 35 should be enabled.

September 2005 IM301 (6.d). It calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ P s ⋅ [ f 3(N) ] S s = -------------------------------------------------------∆P o. r = ∆P o.r) is calculated by applying this controller’s Reported Flow Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] to its equivalent discharge flow measurement (∆Po. s + + SIC Speed signal can be analog or serial Note: Drawing shows only the transmitters and control elements required by UIC N–1 4 UIC N–1 FY Recycle or Sidestream Mode fA 35 Compression Ratio/(Reduced Flow)2. assumes the molecular weight of all streams are equal.3) .ss FT ∆Po. This section’s reported flow measurement (∆Po.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 169 Section N-1 Section N ST PT Ps PT Pss 2 3 1 FT ∆Po.d UIC N ∆P o.r = f1(Rc) = f3(N) = K= N= Ps = Pss = Rc = Reported Flow measurement Y Coordinate Characterizer X Coordinate Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Suction Pressure (PV3) sidestream pressure (PV2) Compression Ratio (Pss /Ps ) The Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] defines the surge limit (minimum reduced flow) as a function of the compression ratio. for combined downstream and sidestream flows This mode. which is for compressor sections that have no total flow measurement.1. r where: ∆Po.

s is received via Port 1 communications from the Adjacent Section Controller [MODE:A SS 5]. Alternately. If no other controller needs this controller to report the suction flow for its section. a controller using this fA mode will report its ∆Po. set the Rotational Speed Source [MODE:A ANIN 4] to Off. r = ∆P o. s = ∆P o. d ⋅ f 2 ( R c ) ∆P o. f1 can define the minimum discharge flow measurement and f2 can be defined as a constant. s + C 5 ∆P o. If another controller does need this controller to report its section’s suction flow measurement.d and f1 should define the minimum suction flow measurement: ∆P o. s where: + + Sidestream Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 3] Main Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 4] Combined Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 5] reported suction flow measurement from the Antisurge Controller for the downstream section ∆P o. ss = PV1 ⋅ ( PVn ⁄ P ss ) where n is the value of SS 8. ss ⋅ ∆P o. you can obtain that variable from a companion Speed or Fuel Controller by setting that parameter equal to its Controller ID Number. s = ∆P o. d ⋅ f 2(R c) where: σ = polytropic head exponent for this compressor section The sidestream flow measurement can be compensated for the presence of a valve between the orifice and compressor by designating a Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A SS 8]: ∆P o. ss + C 4 ⋅ ∆P o. ss = discharge sidestream flow measurement (PV1) f 2 ( R c ) = Reported Flow Characterizer C3 = C4 = C5 = + ∆P o. To use analog input CH4 (as indicated). f 2(X) = x 1–σ + September 2005 IM301 (6. f2 must be set up to calculate that flow from the calculated ∆Po. If Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is disabled. it is none-the-less advisable to define a speed source.3) . Although the X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] should be defined as a constant.r to its companion controllers.1.170 Appendix F: Application Functions That measurement is in turn calculated from a mass balance over the flows entering the next compressor section: ∆P o. d = C 3 ⋅ ∆P o.

s . d ) min September 2005 IM301 (6. the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered when the controller detects the failure of its sidestream flow (CH1) or fails to receive a valid reported flow for the adjacent compressor section (if serial communication fails or that controller has fallen back to fD 31).Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Fallback Strategies 171 If fA 35 is selected. Assuming this input failed low. 33. If enabled. if another controller needs this section’s ∆Po. Low failure of the discharge pressure would drive the Reported Flow Characterizer’s argument to zero: Const 2 S s = ------------------------------∆P o. s ⁄ ∆P o. if another controller needs this section’s ∆Po. d ⋅ f 2 ( 0 ) Thus.3) . The controller then falls back to minimum flow control. If enabled. COND:A f(X) 2 9 should be given a worst-case value that can be calculated as: f 2 ( 10 ) = ( ∆P o. 35. using the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] as its set point. s ⁄ ∆P o.1. the potentially applicable fallbacks are fD 31. and 38. the failure of either pressure input would prevent the calculation of Ps and would therefore trigger this fallback. d ⋅ f 2 ( Const 3 ) If fD 33 is disabled. the failure of either pressure input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. any condition that would otherwise trigger it will instead trigger the Default Output Fallback. If fD 32 is disabled. If enabled. It then holds the actuator control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. d ⋅ f 2 ( 10 ) Thus. thus enabling calculation of Ps from Pss and ∆Pc. the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is triggered when the flow input is good but the suction pressure input (CH3) is not. 32. COND:A f(X) 2 0 should be given the same worst-case value as f(X) 2 9: f 2 ( 10 ) = ( ∆P o. its loss would also drive the Reported Flow Characterizer’s argument (Rc ) to its highest possible value (10): Const 2 S s = ----------------------------------∆P o. 37. the Compression Ratio Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 3] causes the controller to use the Default Compression Ratio [COND:A CONST 3] if the discharge pressure input (CH2) fails: K ⋅ f 1(Const 3) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 3(N) S s = ----------------------------------------------------------------∆P o.s . d ) min If ∆Pc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 1] has been set to LOW.

the resulting flow measurement will be used for control purposes only if fD 31 is disabled. failure of the speed signal will instead trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback.d = C 3 ⋅ ∆Po + C 4 ⋅ CONST 7 + C 5 ∆Po ⋅ CONST 7 However. If the Adjacent Section Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 7] is enabled. fD 35 should be enabled.1. If the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] is enabled for a primary Valve Sharing controller.3) .172 Appendix F: Application Functions If enabled. failure of the speed input would unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. the controller will use the Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] if it fails to receive Port 1 transmissions from any designated companion controller: S s = Const 8 ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ f 3(N) ⋅ P s ⁄ ∆P o. r If fD 35 is disabled. Otherwise. the Speed Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 5] causes the controller to use the Default Speed [COND:A CONST 5] when it detects the loss of the speed signal: S s = K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 3(Const 5) ⁄ ∆P o. r + + September 2005 IM301 (6. the flow measurement will be calculated from a Default Adjacent Section Flow [COND:A CONST 7] if the controller fails to receive a flow measurement for the adjacent compressor section: ∆Po. Note: If f3 is defined as a constant (so rotational speed has no effect on S).

calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ f 3(N) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 5(U 5) S s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------J where: f1(Rc) = f3(N) = f5(U5) = J= K= N= Pd = Ps = Rc = Y Coordinate Characterizer X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Drive Power (PV1) Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) The Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] defines the surge limit (minimum reduced power) as a function of the compression ratio. Because reduced power is defined as: jr = J ⁄ ( N ⋅ Ps ) .1. September 2005 IM301 (6. The General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] can then further define the surge limit as a function of a secondary coordinate specified as the f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9]. Guide vane angle is perhaps the most common secondary coordinate. which does not assume constant molecular weight.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 173 SIC N J PT Ps 3 4 1 2 PT Pd UIC FY Mode fA 51 Compression Ratio / Reduced Power This mode.3) . as shown in the accompanying P&ID.

that signal can be connected to an analog input other than CH1. which should then be specified as the f5 Argument. surge can be detected by monitoring its rate of change (that is. If there are significant power losses. You can also use PV1 to implement a variable gain that can be manipulated via analog input CH1.1. –1 September 2005 IM301 (6.174 Appendix F: Application Functions the X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] should be proportional to its argument: f 3(N) ∝ N To use analog input CH4 as the speed input (as indicated). Alternately. the f5 function can be used to define net power consumption as a function of the drive power input: f 5(J) = J ⁄ J net In this case. disable the Rotational Speed Source [MODE:A ANIN 4].3) . If an appropriate signal is connected to CH1. which is not affected by the CH1 Process Variable Gain and Bias). the f5 Argument should be the drive power input (CH1). you can obtain that variable from a companion Speed or Fuel Controller by setting that parameter equal to its Controller ID Number. the derivative of SV1. If you do not plan to detect surge by monitoring drive power. The General Characterizer should then define net power as a function of that input: f 5(J) = J net The algorithm for Ss will then be equivalent to: K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ N ⋅ Ps ⁄ J net S s = ------------------------------------------------------PV1 PV1 should then be given a constant value by setting its Process Variable Gain [COND:A GAIN 1] to zero and its Process Variable Bias [BIAS 1] equal to the desired value of PV1.

35. If enabled. 32. the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered when the controller detects the failure of its drive power input (CH1). If that is not possible. If you define f5 as a constant.0 and 102.3) .1. failure of the f5 Argument input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. It then holds the actuator control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. fD 35 should be enabled. If enabled.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Fallback Strategies: 175 If fA 51 is selected. the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is triggered when the power input is good but either pressure input is not. the potentially applicable fallbacks are fD 31. so that its argument has no effect on the value of S. If the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] is enabled for a primary Valve Sharing controller. the controller will use the Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] if it fails to receive Port 1 transmissions from any designated companion controller: S s = Const 8 ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ f 3(N) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⁄ J Note: September 2005 IM301 (6. 36. the f5 Argument should be an input that can be configured to always be valid (by setting the alarm limits to 00. Otherwise. and 38. the Speed Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 5] causes the controller to use the Default Speed [COND:A CONST 5] when it detects the loss of the speed signal: S s = K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ f 3(Const 5) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⁄ J If fD 35 is disabled. failure of the speed signal will instead trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. with the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] as its set point: S s = Const 2 ⁄ J If enabled. Note: If f3 is defined as a constant (so rotational speed has no effect on S).4). The controller then falls back to minimum power control. If enabled. enable fD 36 so a failure of the f5 input would not unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. failure of the speed input would unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. the Function 5 Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 6] causes the controller to use the Default f5 Argument [COND:A CONST 6] when it detects the failure of the analog input specified as the f5 Argument: S s = K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ f 3(N) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 5(Const 6) ⁄ J If fD 36 is disabled.

Guide vane angle is perhaps the most common secondary coordinate. as shown in the accompanying P&ID. which does not assume constant molecular weight.1.176 Appendix F: Application Functions FT ∆Po PT Ps ZT α ? 3 1 2 PT Pd UIC FY Note: Flow can be measured in discharge Mode fA 61 Compression Ratio / (Reduced Flow = ∆Po /Ps )2. c where: ∆Po. calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ Ps ⋅ f 5(U 5) S s = ---------------------------------------------------∆P o. with General Characterizer This mode.c = f1(Rc) = f5(U5) = K= Pd = Ps = Rc = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) The Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] defines the surge limit (minimum reduced flow) as a function of the compression ratio. Suction flow measurements can be compensated for the presence of a valve between the orifice and September 2005 IM301 (6. The General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] can then further define the surge limit as a function of a secondary coordinate specified as the f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9]. Flow can be measured as the pressure drop across an orifice in either suction or discharge.3) .

thus enabling calculation of Ps from Pd and ∆Pc. 33. This mode is not usually used for the first or last section of a compressor if 34 or 35 is used to protect the other sections (31 or 33 is preferable). the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered whenever the controller detects the failure of its flow input. Fallback Strategies: If fA 61 is selected. If flow is measured in discharge. If Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is disabled. If fD 32 is disabled. If enabled. a controller using this mode will report a squared mass flow to its companions. set fD 2 to 2 to select Pd . The controller then falls back to minimum flow control. the failure of either pressure input would prevent the calculation of Ps and would therefore trigger this fallback.c. using the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] as its set point: S s = Const 2 ⁄ ∆P o. If the flow is measured in suction. If enabled.3) . that parameter should be disabled. However. c = PV1 ⋅ ( PVn ⁄ P s ) 177 where n is the value of SS 8. 36. the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is triggered when the flow input is good but the suction pressure input (CH3) is not. and 38.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller compressor inlet by designating a Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A SS 8]: ∆P o. fD 2 should be set to 3 to use Ps as the compensating pressure. 32. the potentially applicable fallbacks are fD 31. any condition that would otherwise trigger it will instead trigger the Default Output Fallback. 2 = β 5 ⋅ ∆P o. it can be if fD 2 and fD 3 have the same value.1. the calculation of which normally requires an orifice temperature: W where: β5 = Mass Flow Coefficient [COND:A β 5] Pc = Compensating Pressure Input [MODE:D fD 2] Tc = Compensating Temperature Input [MODE:D fD 3] These compensating inputs are scaled as described on page 58. c If ∆Pc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 1] has been set to LOW. If flow is measured in discharge. c ⋅ P c ⁄ T c September 2005 IM301 (6. so that W2 is proportional to ∆Po. It then holds the control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1].

the f5 Argument should be an input that can be configured to always be valid (by setting the alarm limits to 00. c If fD 36 is disabled. the Function 5 Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 6] causes the controller to use the Default f5 Argument [COND:A CONST 6] when it detects the failure of the analog input specified as the f5 Argument: S s = K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 5(Const 6) ⁄ ∆P o. the failure of either pressure input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. If you define f5 as a constant. the Compression Ratio Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 3] causes the controller to use the Default Compression Ratio [COND:A CONST 3] if the discharge pressure input (CH2) fails: S s = K ⋅ f 1(Const 3) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⁄ ∆P o. If the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] is enabled for a primary Valve Sharing controller.3) .1. failure of the f5 Argument input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. so that its argument has no effect on the value of S.4).178 Appendix F: Application Functions If enabled. the controller will use the Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] if it fails to receive Port 1 transmissions from any designated companion controller: S s = Const 8 ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ P s ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⁄ ∆P o. If enabled. If that is not possible. enable fD 36 so a failure of the f5 input would not unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. c If fD 33 is disabled.0 and 102. c Note: September 2005 IM301 (6.

1. with General Characterizer.3) . for flow measured in discharge This mode. calculates proximity to surge as: Ps ⋅ Td K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ ---------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ----------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. Guide vane angle is perhaps the most common secondary coordinate.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 179 TT Ts PT Ps ZT α PT Pd ? 2 5 3 6 1 TT Td FT ∆Po. d where: ∆Po. which does not assume constant molecular weight.d UIC FY Mode fA 63 Compression Ratio / (Reduced Flow in Suction)2. as shown in the accompanying P&ID. September 2005 IM301 (6. The General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] can then further define the surge limit as a function of a secondary coordinate specified as the f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9].d = f1(Rc) = f5(U5) = K= Pd = Ps = Rc = Td = Ts = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) Discharge Temperature (PV5) Suction Temperature (PV6) 2 The Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] defines the surge limit (minimum reduced flow in suction) as a function of the compression ratio.

34. the failure of either pressure input would prevent the calculation of Ps and would therefore trigger this fallback. the controller will calculate reduced flow in suction from the Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4]: K ⋅ f 1 ( R c ) ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ P s ⋅ R c S s = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. In addition to connecting ∆Po. d A similar approach is used if only the discharge pressure input fails and both the Compression Ratio Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 3] and September 2005 IM301 (6. If fD 32 is disabled. thus enabling calculation of Ps from Pd and ∆Pc. The controller then falls back to minimum flow control. Aftercooler Flow Measurements This mode can also be used when the flow is measured downstream from an aftercooler. s Ts ⋅ Pd W ⋅ Ts ⁄ Ps ∆P o. If either temperature input fails and the Sigma Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 4] is enabled. using the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] as its set point: S s = Const 2 ⁄ ∆P o. that parameter should be disabled. 33. the potentially applicable fallbacks are fD 31. the Compensating Pressure Input and Compensating Temperature Input should also select discharge measurements [MODE:D fD 2 = 2 and fD 3 = 5]. d ⋅ ---------------2 Ps Ps P ⋅T s d 2 Because this mode should be used only if flow is measured in discharge and the Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A SS 8] can only compensate for the presence of a suction control valve. If enabled. d If ∆Pc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 1] has been set to LOW. It then holds the control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. s = -------------. provided the pressure drop across that cooler is negligible. 32. any condition that would otherwise trigger it will instead trigger the Default Output Fallback. If enabled.= ∆P o.180 Appendix F: Application Functions Reduced flow in suction is represented as: 2 q r.= ---------------------------. the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered whenever the controller detects the failure of its flow input. If Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is disabled.3) Const 4 – 1 Fallback Strategies .1. a controller using this mode will report its squared mass flow to its companions. the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is triggered when the flow input is good but the suction pressure input (CH3) is not. and 38.ac to CH1. Because flow is measured in discharge. CH5 should be connected to an aftercooler temperature (Tac ) rather than the discharge temperature (Td ). If fA 63 is selected. 36.

0 and 102. failure of the f5 Argument input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. so that its argument has no effect on the value of S. the f5 Argument should be an input that can be configured to always be valid (by setting the alarm limits to 00. a discharge pressure failure will again trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback.3) .1. If enabled. d If either fD 33 or fD 34 is disabled. If that is not possible. If you define f5 as a constant. Proximity to surge is then calculated from the Default Compression Ratio [COND:A CONST 3] and Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4]: K ⋅ f 1 ( Const 3 ) ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ P s ⋅ Const 3 S s = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. enable fD 36 so a failure of the f5 input would not unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. d 2 2 Const 4 – 1 Note: September 2005 IM301 (6. d If fD 36 is disabled. the Function 5 Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 6] causes the controller to use the Default f5 Argument [COND:A CONST 6] when it detects the failure of the analog input specified as the f5 Argument: Ps ⋅ Td K ⋅ f 1 ( R c ) ⋅ f 5(Const 6) ⋅ ---------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. the controller will use the Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] if it fails to receive Port 1 transmissions from any designated companion controller: Ps ⋅ Td Const 8 ⋅ f 1 ( R c ) ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ ---------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 181 Sigma Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 4] are enabled.4). If the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] is enabled for a primary Valve Sharing controller.

The first point of the X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] is used as a scaling constant that allows the Y Coordinate Characterizer to be more precisely defined when the maximum value of hr is considerably less than ten. September 2005 IM301 (6. c Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po.182 Appendix F: Application Functions FT TT Ts PT Ps 6 1 ZT α 5 PT Pd TT Td ∆Po. calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ P s S s = --------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o.1.s 3 ? 2 UIC FY Mode fA 65 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow = ∆Po /Ps )2.3) . with General Characterizer This mode.c = f1(hr) = f3(0) = f5(U5) = K= Pd = Ps = Rc = Td = Ts = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer first point of X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) Discharge Temperature (PV5) Suction Temperature (PV6) σ log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) The Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] defines the surge limit (minimum reduced flow) as a function of reduced polytropic head. which does not assume constant molecular weight.

reduced head is calculated without any temperature measurements: h r = ( Rc where: Const 4 = Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4] Fallback Strategies If fA 65 is selected. If the suction flow is measured. the Compensating Pressure Input and Compensating Temperature Input should also select suction measurements [MODE:D fD 2 = 3 and fD 3 = 6]. If fD 32 is disabled. thus enabling calculation of Ps from Pd and ∆Pc. a controller using this mode will report its squared mass flow to its companions. using the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] as its set point: S s = Const 2 ⁄ ∆P o. 32. Flow can be measured as the pressure drop across an orifice in either suction or discharge. the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered whenever the controller detects the failure of its flow input. any condition that would otherwise trigger it will instead trigger the Default Output Fallback. If flow is measured in discharge.3) Const 4 – 1 ) ⁄ Const 4 . The controller then falls back to minimum flow control. those parameters should also select discharge measurements [MODE:D fD 2 = 2 and fD 3 = 5]. September 2005 IM301 (6. and connecting an appropriate pressure signal: ∆P o. c If ∆Pc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 1] has been set to LOW. and 38. the failure of either pressure input would prevent the calculation of Ps and would therefore trigger this fallback. that parameter should be disabled. Constant Sigma Implementation If you enable the Constant Sigma [MODE:A fC 2] implementation. the potentially applicable fallbacks are fD 31. as shown in the accompanying P&ID. 34. If Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is disabled. If flow is measured in discharge. Guide vane angle is perhaps the most common secondary coordinate.1.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 183 The General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] can then further define the surge limit as a function of a secondary coordinate specified as the f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9]. 33. 36. It then holds the control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. If enabled. If enabled. the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is triggered when the flow input is good but the suction pressure input (CH3) is not. Suction flow measurements can be compensated for the presence of a valve between the orifice and compressor inlet by designating a Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A SS 8]. c = PV1 ⋅ ( PVn ⁄ P s ) where n is the value of SS 8.

0 and 102. c Note: September 2005 IM301 (6. If both the Compression Ratio Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 3] and Sigma Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 4] are enabled. so that its argument has no effect on the value of S. If that is not possible.184 Appendix F: Application Functions If only the discharge and/or suction temperature fails and the Sigma Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 4] is enabled. If the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] is enabled for a primary Valve Sharing controller. Reduced head is then calculated from the Default Compression Ratio [COND:A CONST 3] and Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4]: h r = ( Const 3 Const 4 – 1 ) ⁄ Const 4 If fD 33 is disabled. the f5 Argument should be an input that can be configured to always be valid (by setting the alarm limits to 00. If you define f5 as a constant. If enabled. enable fD 36 so a failure of the f5 input would not unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. the controller will calculate reduced head from the Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4]: h r = ( Rc Const 4 – 1 ) ⁄ Const 4 If fD 34 is disabled. the Function 5 Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 6] causes the controller to use the Default f5 Argument [COND:A CONST 6] when it detects the failure of the analog input specified as the f5 Argument: S s = K ⋅ f 1 [ ( h r ) ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ P s ⋅ f 5(Const 6) ⁄ ∆P o.1.4). they are triggered if the discharge pressure fails. c If fD 36 is disabled. failure of the f5 Argument input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. a discharge pressure failure will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback.3) . the failure of the discharge pressure or either temperature input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. the controller will use the Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] if it fails to receive Port 1 transmissions from any designated companion controller: S s = Const 8 ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ P s ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⁄ ∆P o.

3) . d Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po.d 6 UIC FY Mode fA 67 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow in Suction)2. calculates proximity to surge as: Ps ⋅ Td K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ ---------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. which does not assume constant molecular weight. with General Characterizer.1. for flow measured in discharge This mode. The first point of the X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] is used as a scaling constant September 2005 IM301 (6.d = f1(hr) = f3(0) = f5(U5) = K= Pd = Ps = Rc = Td = Ts = discharge Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer first point of X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) Discharge Temperature (PV5) Suction Temperature (PV6) σ 2 log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) The Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] defines the surge limit (minimum reduced flow) as a function of reduced polytropic head.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 185 TT Ts PT Ps ZT α PT Pd ? 2 5 3 1 TT Td FT ∆Po.

= ---------------------------. so that: Rc Td ⁄ Ts Ps ⋅ Td σ–1 ---------------. s . 36. that parameter should be disabled. the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is triggered when the flow input is good but the suction pressure input (CH3) is σ Const 4 Const 4 – 1 ⁄ ∆P o. It then holds the control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. Constant Sigma Implementation If you enable the Constant Sigma [MODE:A fC 2] implementation. the potentially applicable fallbacks are fD 31. Reduced flow in suction is represented as: 2 q r.= -----.186 Appendix F: Application Functions that allows the Y Coordinate Characterizer to be more precisely defined when the maximum value of hr is considerably less than ten. Because flow is measured in discharge.= ---------------. the Compensating Pressure Input and Compensating Temperature Input should also select discharge measurements [MODE:D fD 2 = 2 and fD 3 = 5]. 33. 32.2 = -------------. Guide vane angle is perhaps the most common secondary coordinate.= R c Pd ⁄ Ps Rc Ts ⋅ Pd Fallback Strategies If fA 67 is selected. and 38. 34. the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered whenever the controller detects the failure of its flow input. reduced head is calculated without any temperature measurements: S s = K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ P s ⋅ R c h r = ( Rc where: Const 4 = Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4] and polytropic compression is assumed. If enabled.1. d ⋅ P d T s W ⋅ Ts ⁄ Ps ∆P o.= ------------------------. d – 1 ) ⁄ Const 4 September 2005 IM301 (6. s ∆P o. a controller using this mode will report its squared mass flow to its companions. as shown in the accompanying P&ID. The General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] can then further define the surge limit as a function of a secondary coordinate specified as the f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9]. If enabled.⋅ ----Td Ps Ps P s 2 Because this mode should be used only if flow is measured in discharge and the Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A SS 8] can only compensate for the presence of a suction control valve.3) . If Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is disabled.

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 187 not. If enabled. the Function 5 Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 6] causes the controller to use the Default f5 Argument [COND:A CONST 6] when it detects the failure of the analog input specified as the f5 Argument: Ps ⋅ Td K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(Const 6) ⋅ ---------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. d hr = ( Rc Const 4 Const 4 – 1 – 1 ) ⁄ Const 4 If fD 34 is disabled. using the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] as its set point: S s = Const 2 ⁄ ∆P o. If both the Compression Ratio Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 3] and Sigma Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 4] are enabled. The controller then falls back to minimum flow control. a discharge pressure failure will trigger the Default Output Fallback. d 2 September 2005 IM301 (6. they are triggered if the discharge pressure fails. If only the discharge and/or suction temperature fails and the Sigma Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 4] is enabled. d h r = ( Const 3 Const 4 Const 4 – 1 – 1 ) ⁄ Const 4 If either fD 33 or fD 34 is disabled. the controller will calculate reduced head from the Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4]: K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ P s ⋅ R c S s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. any condition that would otherwise trigger it will instead trigger the Default Output Fallback.3) . d If ∆Pc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 1] has been set to LOW. If fD 32 is disabled. the failure of either pressure input would prevent the calculation of Ps and would therefore trigger this fallback. the failure of either temperature input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. Reduced head is then calculated from the Default Compression Ratio [COND:A CONST 3] and Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4]: K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ P s ⋅ Const 3 S s = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. thus enabling calculation of Ps from Pd and ∆Pc.1.

If that is not possible. the f5 Argument should be an input that can be configured to always be valid (by setting the alarm limits to 00. the controller will use the Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] if it fails to receive Port 1 transmissions from any designated companion controller: Ps ⋅ Td Const 8 ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ ---------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. If you define f5 as a constant. If the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] is enabled for a primary Valve Sharing controller. so that its argument has no effect on the value of S.4).0 and 102. failure of the f5 Argument input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. enable fD 36 so a failure of the f5 input would not unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. d 2 Note: September 2005 IM301 (6.188 Appendix F: Application Functions If fD 36 is disabled.1.3) .

which does not assume constant molecular weight.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 189 TT Ts PT Ps ZT α PT Pd ? 3 6 TT Td 1 TT Tac FT ∆Po.ac = f1(hr) = f3(0) = f5(U5) = K= Pd = Ps = Rc = Tac = Td = Ts = aftercooler Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer first point of X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) aftercooler discharge temperature (PV7) Discharge Temperature (PV5) Suction Temperature (PV6) σ 2 log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) The Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] defines the surge limit (minimum reduced flow) as a function of September 2005 IM301 (6.ac 2 5 7 UIC FY Mode fA 68 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow in Suction)2. for flow measured downstream from aftercooler This mode.1. calculates proximity to surge as: P s ⋅ T ac K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ ------------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. with General Characterizer. ac Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po.3) .

33. a controller using this mode will report its squared mass flow to its companions. 34. ac Ts ⋅ Pd September 2005 IM301 (6. 36. ac h r = ( Rc Const 4 2 – 1 ) ⁄ Const 4 where it is assumed that Tac and Ts are controlled (so that their ratio is a constant) and: Const 4 = Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4] Fallback Strategies If fA 68 is selected. s Ts ⋅ Pd W ⋅ Ts ⁄ Ps ∆P o. 32. so that Pac = Pd. reduced head is calculated without any temperature measurements: K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ ( P s ⁄ P d ) S s = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. The General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] can then further define the surge limit as a function of a secondary coordinate specified as the f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9].⁄ ∆P o. ac ⋅ ------------------2 Ps Ps P ⋅T s ac 2 where the pressure drop across the aftercooler is assumed to be negligible. The Compensating Temperature Input should select the aftercooler temperature [MODE:D fD 3 = 7]. the potentially applicable fallbacks are fD 31. that parameter should be disabled. as shown in the accompanying P&ID.3) 2 .1. If the aftercooler temperature input fails. If Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] is disabled.= ∆P o. s = -------------. The first point of the X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] is used as a scaling constant that allows the Y Coordinate Characterizer to be more precisely defined when the maximum value of hr is considerably less than ten. Reduced flow in suction is represented as: 2 q r. Constant Sigma Implementation If you enable the Constant Sigma [MODE:A fC 2] implementation. Because the aftercooler pressure drop is assumed to be negligible. the controller will calculate proximity to surge by substituting the discharge temperature: Ps ⋅ Td S s = K ⋅ f 1 ( h r ) ⋅ f 3(0) ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ ---------------. and 38.= ---------------------------. Guide vane angle is perhaps the most common secondary coordinate. Because this mode should be used only if flow is measured downstream from an aftercooler and the Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A SS 8] can only compensate for the presence of a suction control valve.190 Appendix F: Application Functions reduced polytropic head. the Compensating Pressure Input should select the discharge pressure [MODE:D fD 2 = 2].

3) . this produces a more aggressive but less efficient control action. this approach produces a more aggressive (though less efficient) control action. If enabled. the controller will calculate reduced head from the Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4]: P s ⋅ T ac K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ ------------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. the Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] is triggered whenever the controller detects the failure of its flow input. ac hr = ( Rc Const 4 2 – 1 ) ⁄ Const 4 A similar approach is taken if only the suction temperature input fails. If fD 34 is disabled. If enabled. In that case. If fD 32 is disabled.< ---------------.1.= R c Ts ⋅ Pd Ts ⋅ Pd Proximity to surge can thus be calculated as: K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ P s ⋅ R c S s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. the Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] is triggered when the flow input is good but the suction pressure input (CH3) is not. September 2005 IM301 (6. ac If ∆Pc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 1] has been set to LOW. however. any condition that would otherwise trigger it will instead trigger the Default Output Fallback. using the Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] as its set point: S s = Const 2 ⁄ ∆P o. the failure of either Ts or Td will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. ac hr = ( Rc Const 4 Const 4 – 1 – 1 ) ⁄ Const 4 Again. It then holds the control signal at a constant value specified by the Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1]. the failure of either pressure input would prevent the calculation of Ps and would therefore trigger this fallback. so that: P s ⋅ T ac P s ⋅ T d σ–1 ------------------. the controller must also assume the discharge temperature equals the presumably lower aftercooler temperature (as it does when Tac fails). The controller then falls back to minimum flow control. If only the discharge temperature input fails and the Sigma Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 4] is enabled.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 191 Because Pd is presumably higher than Pac . thus enabling calculation of Ps from Pd and ∆Pc.

0 and 102. ac 2 2 Note: September 2005 IM301 (6. failure of the f5 Argument input will trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback.4).192 Appendix F: Application Functions If both the Compression Ratio Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 3] and Sigma Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 4] are enabled.3) . If that is not possible. they are triggered if the discharge pressure fails. If you define f5 as a constant. the controller will use the Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] if it fails to receive Port 1 transmissions from any designated companion controller: P s ⋅ T ac Const 8 ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ ------------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. ac h r = ( Const 3 Const 4 Const 4 – 1 – 1 ) ⁄ Const 4 If either fD 33 or fD 34 is disabled. If the Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] is enabled for a primary Valve Sharing controller. Reduced head is then calculated from the Default Compression Ratio [COND:A CONST 3] and Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4]: K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ P s ⋅ Const 3 S s = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. so that its argument has no effect on the value of S. ac If fD 36 is disabled. enable fD 36 so a failure of the f5 input would not unnecessarily trigger the minimum flow fallback. the f5 Argument should be an input that can be configured to always be valid (by setting the alarm limits to 00. a discharge pressure failure will again trigger the Minimum Flow Fallback. the Function 5 Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 6] causes the controller to use the Default f5 Argument [COND:A CONST 6] when it detects the failure of the analog input specified as the f5 Argument: P s ⋅ T ac K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(Const 6) ⋅ ------------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. If enabled.1.

none of these fA modes should be employed unless recommended by our engineering staff. This manual addendum is included to: • provide basic documentation of these fA Modes. • identify recommended alternatives from among the modes described in Appendix F.1. Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual September 2005 IM301 (6. Although they have been retained within the control program to support legacy systems. while • Others have proven impractical or ineffective.3) .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 193 Appendix FS fA Mode Supplement This appendix provides basic documentation of application functions that are not recommended for general use: • Some have been superseded by improved algorithms based on the same coordinate system.

c where: ∆Po. this mode could be used to calculate proximity to surge as described for fA 33. we see that they are identical. Thus. with X Coordinate Characterizer This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ Ps ⋅ [ f 3(N) ] S s = ------------------------------------------------------∆P o. Proximity-to-surge would then be calculated as: K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ Ps S s ∝ -------------------------------∆P o. Conversely. we see that they are identical except that fA 32 does not include the General Characterizer. September 2005 IM301 (6. but it would be easier to use fA 31 (which does not require you to set the eighteen parameters that define f3 ). a controller using fA 61 or fA 33 will calculate the same proximity to surge as one using fA 32.1. if f5 is not needed. If we compare it to fA 31 (see page 158). if f5 is defined as a constant.c = f1() = f3() = K= N= Pd = Ps = Rc = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer X Coordinate Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) The X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] should be defined as a constant rather than to define the surge limit as a function of speed.3) .194 Appendix FS : fA Mode Supplement Mode fA 32 Compression Ratio / (Reduced Flow2 = ∆Po /Ps ). c If we compare this defining equation to those for fA 33 (see page 161) and 61 (see page 176). fA 33 can be used to calculate Ss in the same fashion as fA 61. Note: The speed input of a revision 754-001 or later Antisurge Controller can be monitored and recorded even if the selected fA Mode does not require that input. If f5 is needed.

this fA Mode has been and should be rarely used. In applications for which this mode would be appropriate. reduced flow) coordinate system.c = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) hr = Reduced Head K = Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Pd = Discharge Pressure (PV2) Ps = Suction Pressure (PV3) Rc = Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) Td = Discharge Temperature (PV5) Ts = Suction Temperature (PV6) σ = Polytropic Head Exponent This mode assumes that the ratio of reduced head to reduced flow at the surge limit is a constant. Equally-good protection can usually be obtained using fA 61 (see page 176). In such cases. c Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po. σ log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) September 2005 IM301 (6.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 195 Mode fA 36 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow2 = ∆Po /Ps ) This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ h r ⋅ Ps S s = ---------------------∆P o. and the first point of the X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] is defined as unity [f(X) 3 0 = 1. Thus.3) . and gas composition are all constant.1.00]. the added complexity of and additional inputs required by this mode usually provide no improvement in surge protection compared to modes based on the (compression ratio. fA 65 (see page 182) will calculate the same proximity-to-surge if the Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] is defined as an identity [f1(hr ) = hr ]. This will be generally be true only in low compression ratio applications or when the speed. suction temperature. the General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] is defined as a constant.

00]. c Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po. reduced head) coordinate system remains invariant even if reduced flow is calculated as ∆Po.c = hr = K= Pd = Ps = Rc = Td = Ts = σ= Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Reduced Head Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) Discharge Temperature (PV5) Suction Temperature (PV6) Polytropic Head Exponent σ 2 log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) This mode assumes that the ratio of reduced head to reduced flow at the surge limit is a constant. suction temperature.d /Ps or ∆Po. However. fA 67 (see page 185) will calculate the same proximity-to-surge if the Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] is defined as an identity [f1(hr ) = hr ]. This will be generally be true only in low compression ratio applications or when the speed. reduced flow) coordinate system.d /Pd . In applications for which this mode would be appropriate. because the (reduced flow.196 Appendix FS : fA Mode Supplement Mode fA 37 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow in Suction)2. September 2005 IM301 (6. for flow measured in discharge This mode calculates proximity to surge as: Ps ⋅ Td K ⋅ h r ⋅ ---------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ----------------------------------∆P o. the General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] is defined as a constant. Thus. Equally-good protection can usually be obtained using fA 61 (see page 176). the added complexity of and additional inputs required by this mode usually provide little if any improvement in surge protection compared to modes based on the (compression ratio. this fA Mode has been and should be rarely used. and the first point of the X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] is defined as unity [f(X) 3 0 = 1.3) . it would be equally valid and simpler to use fA 65. In such cases.1. and gas composition are all constant.

the General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] is defined as a constant. In applications for which this mode would be appropriate.00]. Thus. September 2005 IM301 (6. for flow measured downstream from aftercooler This mode calculates proximity to surge as: P s ⋅ T ac K ⋅ h r ⋅ ------------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ------------------------------------∆P o.c = hr = K= Pd = Ps = Rc = Tac = Td = Ts = σ= Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Reduced Head Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) aftercooler temperature (PV7) Discharge Temperature (PV5) Suction Temperature (PV6) Polytropic Head Exponent σ 2 log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) This mode assumes that the ratio of reduced head to reduced flow at the surge limit is a constant. suction temperature.3) . c Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po.1. fA 68 (see page 189) will calculate the same proximity-to-surge if the Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] is defined as an identity [f1(hr ) = hr ]. and gas composition are all constant. and the first point of the X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] is defined as unity [f(X) 3 0 = 1.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 197 Mode fA 38 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow in Suction)2. this fA Mode has been and should be rarely used. This will be generally be true only in low compression ratio applications or when the speed.

one of that mode’s preferred alternates should always be used in situations to which fA 39 might otherwise seem applicable. c Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po. σ log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) September 2005 IM301 (6.198 Appendix FS : fA Mode Supplement Mode fA 39 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow2 = ∆Po /Ps ). c Because this is identical to the defining equation for 36 (see page 195). Proximity-to-surge would then be calculated as: K ⋅ h r ⋅ Ps S s = ---------------------∆P o.c = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) f3() = X Coordinate Characterizer hr = Reduced Head K = Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] N = Rotational Speed (PV4) Pd = Discharge Pressure (PV2) Ps = Suction Pressure (PV3) Rc = Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) Td = Discharge Temperature (PV5) Ts = Suction Temperature (PV6) σ = Polytropic Head Exponent The X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] should be defined as a constant rather than to define the surge limit as a function of speed. with X Coordinate Characterizer This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ h r ⋅ Ps ⋅ [ f 3(N) ] S s = -------------------------------------------∆P o.1.3) .

one of that mode’s preferred alternates should always be used in situations to which fA 40 might otherwise seem applicable.1.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 199 Mode fA 40 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow in Suction)2. with X Coordinate Characterizer.c = f3() = hr = K= N= Pd = Ps = Rc = Td = Ts = σ= Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) X Coordinate Characterizer Reduced Head Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) Discharge Temperature (PV5) Suction Temperature (PV6) Polytropic Head Exponent σ 2 log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) The X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] should be defined as a constant rather than to define the surge limit as a function of speed. 2 September 2005 IM301 (6.3) . c Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po. for flow measured in discharge This mode calculates proximity to surge as: Ps ⋅ Td K ⋅ h r ⋅ ---------------. Proximity-to-surge would then be calculated as: Ps ⋅ Td K ⋅ h r ⋅ ---------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ----------------------------------∆P o. c Because this is identical to the defining equation for 37 (see page 196).⋅ [ f 3(N) ] Ts ⋅ Pd S s = --------------------------------------------------------∆P o.

Proximity-to-surge would then be calculated as: P s ⋅ T ac K ⋅ h r ⋅ ------------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ------------------------------------∆P o. c Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po. 2 September 2005 IM301 (6.1. one of that mode’s preferred alternates should always be used in situations to which fA 41 might otherwise seem applicable. c Because this is identical to the defining equation for 38 (see page 197). with X Coordinate Characterizer.⋅ [ f 3(N) ] Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ----------------------------------------------------------∆P o.200 Appendix FS : fA Mode Supplement Mode fA 41 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow in Suction)2.c = f3() = hr = K= N= Pd = Ps = Rc = Tac = Td = Ts = σ= Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) X Coordinate Characterizer Reduced Head Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) aftercooler temperature (PV7) Discharge Temperature (PV5) Suction Temperature (PV6) Polytropic Head Exponent σ 2 log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) The X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] should be defined as a constant rather than to define the surge limit as a function of speed. for flow measured downstream from aftercooler This mode calculates proximity to surge as: P s ⋅ T ac K ⋅ h r ⋅ ------------------.3) .

c Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po.3) . σ log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) September 2005 IM301 (6.c = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) f1() = Y Coordinate Characterizer f3() = X Coordinate Characterizer f5(U5) = General Characterizer hr = Reduced Head K = Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] N = Rotational Speed (PV4) Pd = Discharge Pressure (PV2) Ps = Suction Pressure (PV3) Rc = Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) Td = Discharge Temperature (PV5) Ts = Suction Temperature (PV6) σ = Polytropic Head Exponent The X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] should be defined as a constant rather than to define the surge limit as a function of speed.1. with X Coordinate and General Characterizers This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ ( f 3(N) ) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ Ps S s = -------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. but fA 65 only requires you to set one of the eighteen parameters needed to define the f3 characterizer as a constant. The above defining equation would then be the same as that for fA 65 (see page 182).Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 201 Mode fA 42 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow in Suction)2.

September 2005 IM301 (6. with X Coordinate and General Characterizers.d /Pd .d /Ps or ∆Po. because the (reduced head.3) . The above defining equation would then be the same as that for fA 67 (see page 185).202 Appendix FS : fA Mode Supplement Mode fA 43 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow in Suction)2. However. but fA 67 only requires you to set one of the eighteen parameters needed to define the f3 characterizer as a constant. reduced flow) coordinate system remains invariant even if reduced flow is calculated as ∆Po.c = f1() = f3() = f5(U5) = hr = K= N= Pd = Ps = Rc = Td = Ts = σ= Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Reduced Head Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) Discharge Temperature (PV5) Suction Temperature (PV6) Polytropic Head Exponent σ 2 log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) The X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] should be defined as a constant rather than to define the surge limit as a function of speed. for flow measured in discharge This mode calculates proximity to surge as: Ps ⋅ Td K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ ( f 3(N) ) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ ---------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o. c Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po.1. it would be equally valid and simpler to use fA 65.

c = f1() = f3() = f5(U5) = hr = K= N= Pd = Ps = Rc = Tac = Td = Ts = σ= Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Reduced Head Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) aftercooler temperature (PV7) Discharge Temperature (PV5) Suction Temperature (PV6) Polytropic Head Exponent σ 2 log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) The X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] should be defined as a constant rather than to define the surge limit as a function of speed. with X Coordinate and General Characterizers. but fA 68 only requires you to set one of the eighteen parameters needed to define the f3 characterizer as a constant.3) . c Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po.1. flow measured downstream of aftercooler This mode calculates proximity to surge as: P s ⋅ T ac K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ ( f 3(N) ) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ ------------------Ts ⋅ Pd S s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 203 Mode fA 44 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow in Suction)2. September 2005 IM301 (6. The above defining equation would then be the same as that for fA 68 (see page 189).

204 Appendix FS : fA Mode Supplement Mode fA 46 Compression Ratio / (Equivalent Speed)2 This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ f 3(N) ⋅ Ts S s = ------------------------------------------------PV1 where: f1(Rc) = f3(N) = K= N= Pd = Ps = Rc = Ts = Y Coordinate Characterizer X Coordinate Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps ) Suction Temperature (PV6) It is not invariant to changes in gas composition and is usually insufficiently sensitive to provide effective antisurge control. September 2005 IM301 (6.3) .1.

1. September 2005 IM301 (6.3) .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 205 Mode fA 47 Reduced ∆Tc-Based Head / (Equivalent Speed)2 This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ [ ∆T c ⁄ σ ] ⋅ f 3(N) S s = ----------------------------------------------PV1 where: f3(N) = f5(Ts ) = K= N= Pd = Ps = Rc = Rt = ∆Tc = Td = Ts = ∆V = ∆T c = ∆V ⋅ f 5(T s) log R t σ = ---------------log R c X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps ) Temperature Ratio (Td /Ts ) temperature rise across compressor Discharge Temperature (∆Tc + Ts) Suction Temperature (PV6) voltage differential between transposed Td and Ts thermocouples (PV5) σ = Polytropic Head Exponent It is not invariant to changes in gas composition and is usually insufficiently sensitive to provide effective antisurge control.

206 Appendix FS : fA Mode Supplement Mode fA 48 Reduced ∆Tc-Based Head / (Equivalent Speed)2.1. with General Characterizer. does not allow for characterization of the surge limit. and is usually insufficiently sensitive to provide effective antisurge control.3) . September 2005 IM301 (6. for constant σ This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ ∆T c ⋅ f 3(N) S s = ----------------------------------PV1 where: f3(N) = f5(Ts ) = K= N= ∆Tc = Ts = ∆V = ∆T c = ∆V ⋅ f 5(T s) X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) temperature rise across compressor Suction Temperature (PV6) voltage differential between transposed Td and Ts thermocouples (PV5) It is not invariant to changes in gas composition.

and is usually insufficiently sensitive to provide effective antisurge control. with General Characterizer This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ h r ⋅ f 3(N) ⋅ T s ⋅ f 5(U 5) S s = ------------------------------------------------------------PV1 where: f3(N) = f5(U5) = K= N= Pd = Ps = Rc = Rt = Td = Ts = σ= Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ σ log R t σ = --------------log R c X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) Temperature Ratio (Td /Ts ) Discharge Temperature (PV5) Suction Temperature (PV6) Polytropic Head Exponent It is not invariant to changes in gas composition. September 2005 IM301 (6.3) .1.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 207 Mode fA 50 Reduced Head / (Equivalent Speed)2. does not allow for characterization of the surge limit.

c = f1(Rc) = f5(U5) = K= Pd = Ps = Rc = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) Except for using Pd (rather than Ps ) to calculate reduced flow. which should be used if flow is measured in suction. c where: ∆Po. Applications using a discharge flow measurement can use either fA 61 or 63 (see page 179).208 Appendix FS : fA Mode Supplement Mode fA 62 Compression Ratio / (Reduced Flow = ∆Po /Pd )2. with General Characterizer This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ P d ⋅ f 5(U 5) S s = -----------------------------------------------------∆P o.1.3) . this is identical to the defining equation for fA 61 (see page 176). September 2005 IM301 (6.

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 209 Mode fA 64 Compression Ratio / (Reduced Flow · Equiv. with General Characterizer This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1(R c) ⋅ f 3(N) ⋅ P ss ⋅ f 5(U 5) S s = ------------------------------------------------------------------------2 W where: f1(Rc) = f3(N) = f5(U5) = K= N= Pd = Pss = Rc = W= 2 Y Coordinate Characterizer X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Rotational Speed (PV4) Discharge Pressure (PV2) of this section Suction Pressure (PV3) of this section Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) mass flow through this section This mode was developed for compressor sections with no flow measurement. Such applications should use either fA 34 (see page 165) or 35 (see page 169). but proved impractical to tune.1. Speed)2.3) . September 2005 IM301 (6.

3) . Applications using a discharge flow measurement can use either fA 65 or 67 (see page 185). c Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po.c = Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) f1(hr) = Y Coordinate Characterizer f3(0) = first point of X Coordinate Characterizer f5(U5) = General Characterizer K = Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Pd = Discharge Pressure (PV2) Ps = Suction Pressure (PV3) Rc = Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) Td = Discharge Temperature (PV5) Ts = Suction Temperature (PV6) Except for using Pd (rather than Ps ) to calculate reduced flow. this is identical to the defining equation for fA 65 (see page 182). σ log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) September 2005 IM301 (6. with General Characterizer This mode calculates proximity to surge as: K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ P d S s = --------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o.1.210 Appendix FS : fA Mode Supplement Mode fA 66 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow = ∆Po /Pd )2. which should be used if flow is measured in suction. Those measuring flow downstream from an aftercooler should use fA 68 (see page 189).

which is usually a more practical solution for such aftercooler applications. September 2005 IM301 (6. this is identical to the defining equation for fA 68 (see page 189).Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller 211 Mode fA 69 Reduced Head / (Reduced Flow in Discharge)2. with General Characterizer.1. for flow measured downstream from aftercooler This mode calculates proximity to surge as: P d ⋅ T ac K ⋅ f 1 [ h r ⋅ f 3(0) ] ⋅ f 5(U 5) ⋅ ------------------Td S s = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------∆P o.3) . ac Rc – 1 h r = --------------σ where: ∆Po.ac = f1(hr) = f3(0) = f5(U5) = K= Pd = Ps = Rc = Tac = Td = Ts = aftercooler Calculated Flow Measurement (PV1) Y Coordinate Characterizer first point of X Coordinate Characterizer General Characterizer Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] Discharge Pressure (PV2) Suction Pressure (PV3) Compression Ratio (Pd /Ps) aftercooler discharge temperature (PV7) Discharge Temperature (PV5) Suction Temperature (PV6) σ log ( Td ⁄ T s ) σ = -----------------------------log ( Pd ⁄ P s ) Except for correcting the flow measurement to discharge rather than suction conditions.

3) .1.212 Appendix FS : fA Mode Supplement September 2005 IM301 (6.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 see also: Calculated Flow Measurement see: Valve-Sharing Fallback are three sets of configuration and tuning parameters that the controller can store in addition to its primary (working) set. . . . . . . 106 Checksums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Output Reverse features to the Intended Valve Position. . . . . . . . . . Reference: Adjacent Section Flow Fallback . Output Clamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and is displayed by the front-panel Output Readout (OUT). loop-decoupling. . . Recalling an alternate set causes a Controller Reset. Tight Shut-Off Response.1. . . . . . . If enabled. . . . . . . Reference: Alternate Parameter Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Analog Outputs . . . . . . . . Reference: Antisurge Control Response. It is calculated by applying the Valve Dead Band Compensation. adjusted to keep the Intended Valve Position between its Output Clamps. . . . . . . . see: page 2 of DS301/O Actuator Control Signal Adjacent Section Flow Adjacent Section Flow Fallback Aftercooler Compensation Alternate K Alternate Parameter Sets Alternate Readout September 2005 IM301 (6. Reference: Aftercooler Flow Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and primary capacity control response changes. . . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller IM301 213 Glossary/Index Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controlleruser manual This combined glossary and index defines and references various topics discussed in this manual. . . Accumulated Integral Response is the sum of the integral. . . . . . . . 77 Output Clamps .3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 is the intended value of the analog signal used to manipulate the Antisurge Valve. . . 70 adjusts a flow measured downstream from an aftercooler to suction or discharge conditions. . . 42 is the Reported Flow received from the Antisurge Controller for the adjacent section of a multisection compressor. . . . . . . discrete input D7 loads either the first or second alternate set. . . . . . Reference: Actuator Control Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Storing and Recalling . . 141 is a front-panel Readout (ALT) that displays the Surge Count or a Pressure Limiting threshold when the corresponding key is pressed. . . . 85 substitutes a default value if a valid Reported Flow is not received from that section’s controller. . Reference: Equivalent Flow Measurements .

. . . Reference: Continuous Operation . . . . .27 Surge Control Line . . . . . Process Variable. . . PI and RT Signal Selection IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 see also: Actuator Control Signal. . . Recycle Trip Response is a control variable representing the distance between the operating point and the Surge Control Line. Reference: Description . . . percent-of-maximum representation of an Analog Input signal. . Signal Variable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmitter Testing is a circuit that generates a continuously-variable signal usually used to manipulate a control element. . . . . . . .79 PI and RT Signal Selection . . . which is calculated by adding Loop Decoupling and Primary Capacity Control responses to selected proportional.37 Signal Values Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Antisurge PI Response . . . . . . .1. . . . .72 is a proportional-integral response to the deviation of the operating point from the Surge Control Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Limiting. . . . . . Series 3 Plus Controllers have eight such inputs that are referred to as channels 1 through 8 (CH1 through CH8). . . . .3) Analog Output Analog PCB Analog-to-Digital Variable Antisurge Control Antisurge Control Response Antisurge Deviation Antisurge PI Response September 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 see also: PI Algorithm. . . . . . . . . Reference: Analog Inputs . . . . . . . . . . and Recycle Trip responses Reference: Antisurge Control Response . . . .151 Disabling Input Signals. . . . . . . . . . It is the complement of the Proximity to Surge variable calculated by the Application Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 is the intended recycle or blowoff flow rate.144 see also: Analog-to-Digital Variable. . . . . . . . . . . .77 see also: Antisurge PI Response. . . . . . . . .39 is the manipulation of an Antisurge Valve to prevent surge while minimizing recycling or blowoff. . . . . . or the value of such a signal. . . . . PI and RT Signal Selection. . .214 Index Analog Input is a circuit that measures the signal from a process variable transmitter. . . . . . . . . .77 Surge Control Line . . . . . . . . Output Loopback Test is a printed circuit board that provides a Series 3 Plus Controller’s Analog Inputs and Analog Outputs. . . Reference: Analog Inputs .27 Major Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . integral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Application Function Table. Reference: Description . Measured Variable. . . . Reference: Continuous Operation . . .38 see also: Analog PCB Assembly section in Chapter 1 of IM300/H is an internal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or the value of such a signal.

. see: page 1 of DS301/O Application Function Automatic Operation Automatic Sequence Auxiliary Limiting Control Auxiliary Readout Baud Rates Beep Frequency September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Antisurge Valve 215 is a control valve that can be opened to increase the total flow through a compressor by recycling or blowing-off some of that flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stop. . . . . . . . . . load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Continuous Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Shutdown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Continuous Operation. . . . . . . . 26 see also: page 2 of DS301/O see: Serial Port is the frequency of the beep sound. . . . . . . . . . . 100 Output Reverse. . . . . . . . . . 102 Remote Low Output Clamp . 30 see also: Emergency Shutdown. . . . .3) . . . . . which can be varied by pressing the Raise or Lower Key while holding down the Scroll Key.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Auxiliary Limiting. . . . . Reference: Proximity to Surge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Valve Flow Characterization . . . . . . 30 is a series of actions that start. . 32 Pressure Limiting . 100 Tight Shut Off Response . . . . . 77 is a twelve-character front-panel Readout (AUX) that displays various internal and process variables. . . . 101 Valve Dead Band Compensation . Startup is the use of a Performance Controller to implement limiting control of a variable other than the suction and discharge pressure. . . . . . . 26 Output Clamps . . 29 Surge Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operating State. . . Reference: Applications . . 83 PI and RT Signal Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Sequencing Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Valve Position Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Continuous Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Operating States. . 103 Sequencing Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Manual Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 is a mode of operation in which the Intended Recycle Flow is calculated by the automatic control responses. . . . . . . . . or unload a compressor. . . . . 101 Output Tracking . . . . . . . . 43 see also: Actuator Control Signal is the method used to calculate Proximity to Surge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Multisection Compressors are computed or specially-scaled variables representing process conditions.64 Equivalent Flow Measurements . Reference: Configuring. . . . . . . . . . . . .216 Index is a control valve used to release compressed air to the atmosphere in order to raise a compressor’s gross flow rate above its surge limit. . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 fA 00. . . . . . . . .54 Characterizing Functions . Most are calculated only if required by the Application Function. . . . .33 is a measurement of the total flow through the compressor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Valve Compensation. . An Antisurge Controller is configured for this application by selecting Application Function 00. Reference: Calculated Variable Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see: Cyclic Redundancy Checksum is a Modbus bit that a host can write to in order to change some aspect of the controller’s operation (similar to a discrete input). . . . . . . . .85 see also: Aftercooler Compensation. . . . .79 Output Tracking . .3) Blow-Off Valve Brighter Displays Bumpless Transfer Calculated Flow Measurement Calculated Variables Central Processing Unit Characterizing Functions Check Valve Checksum Coil Bit Cold-Recycle Control September 2005 . . . . . . . Reference: Antisurge PI Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Cold-Recycle Control . . . .60 is the computer chip that executes the Control Program. . . . . . . . . . see: Antisurge Valve see: Display Brightness is a transition between automatic and manual operation or surge protection and pressure limiting that is achieved without a sudden antisurge valve movement. . and some can be displayed by the Auxiliary Readout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One is generally used to prevent reverse flow into the compressor from the discharge header. . . . . . . . . . . . .65 allows flow in only one direction. see: Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Modbus Data Sheet [DS301/M] is the use of an Antisurge or Performance Controller to regulate the flow of process gas through a recycle heat exchanger common to several compressors operating in parallel. . . .102 Restoring Automatic. which can be calculated from a single analog input or as a function of several inputs and signals obtained from other controllers. . . . .152 IM301 (6. . Reference: Calculated Flow Measurement. see: CPU PCB Assembly section in Chapter 1 of IM300/H are user-defined functions used to calculate Proximity to Surge and the control line margins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discharge Flow Measurement. . .

. Reference: Compression Ratio Fallback. . usually a plot of head as a function of flow. . Reference: Continuous Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and 4 communication networks. . . . is the monitoring and control of a Series 3 Plus Controller via serial communication from a host device using the Modbus protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Serial Ports . 26 Modbus Configuration. . . . . . . . . . 60 Pressures . . . . . . . . . low flow conditions. . . . . 48 see also: Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Modbus Data Sheet [DS301/M] is a number between 1 and 64 that identifies a Series 3 Plus Controller on its Serial Port 2. . . . . 50 Operator Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see: Serial Port see: Mass Flow Rates see: Mass Flow Rates is the ratio of discharge to suction pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 is a graphical depiction of compressor performance. . . . is a potentially damaging reversal of flow that occurs under high compression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Calculated Variable Displays . Reference: Enabling and Disabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 see also: Chapter 3 of IM300/H Computer ID Number Computer Inhibit Computer Workstation Configuration September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . 3. . . . Reference: ID Numbers. . . . . 49 Redundant Tracking . . . . . . . . Reference: Modbus Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 106 is the limitation of a Modbus host’s ability to read or change a Series 3 Plus Controller’s registers and coils. . . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller COMMAND Communication Errors Compensating Pressure Compensating Temperature Compression Ratio Compression Ratio Fallback Compressor Map Compressor Surge Computer Control 217 is our Compressor Monitoring and Display software for IBM-PC compatible Operator Workstations. . . 51 calculates proximity to surge from a default compression ratio if the discharge pressure input fails. . 50 see: Operator Workstation is the adaptation of a controller to a specific application by setting its Configuration Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . .

. .106 Constant Sigma Control Element Control Key Control Line Control Program Control Relay Control Response Control Signal Control Valve Control Valve Compensation Control Variable Control Variable Filters Controller Fault Controller ID Number September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . see: Download. . . . . . . . Reference: Control Lines . . . . Reference: Control Valve Compensation . .218 Index Configuration Parameters Configurator are a set of numeric and other values that enable. . . . . . . . . Pressure Limiting are software filters that can be applied to the calculated Proximity to Surge and Polytropic Head Exponent. . . . . .56 Fallback Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Filtering . . Proximity to Surge.71 see also: Recycle Trip Line. . . . . . . . . . Safety On Line.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 see: Fault is a number between 1 and 8 that identifies a Series 3 Plus Controller on a Serial Port 1 communication network. . . . . Reference: Signal Values Test . . . . . . . . .145 see also: page 8 of DS301/O is a line on a compressor map indicating the area in which a specific control action is taken. disable. . . Reference: ID Numbers . . . . . .49 Redundant Tracking. . . . Program Checksum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . which is stored in its EEPROM and can be downloaded from an Operator Workstation. or otherwise control the features of the controller. . . Surge Control Line. . . . . . . . . . . . .67 see also: Calculated Flow Measurement see: Antisurge Deviation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Program Version see: Discrete Output see: Antisurge Control Response see: Actuator Control Signal see: Antisurge Valve is a flow measurement adjustment that compensates for a pressure drop across a valve between the flow-measuring element and compressor. . . . . . . . . . . .3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tight Shut-Off Line is the Signal Variable that defines the controller’s features and control actions. see: Alternate Parameter Sets see: Toolbox see: Polytropic Head Exponent see: Antisurge Valve is one of the eight push-buttons molded into the Front Panel that alter various aspects of the controller’s operation when pressed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Head. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . Program Checksum see: Derivative Response. Reference: CPU Reset Count . see: Parameter Checksum. 147 Surge Control Line . . . . . . Deviation Deviation Dead Zone September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . or entering the Reset Controller [MODE COMM] key sequence. 146 Reset Controller . . . . . 67 see: Adjacent Section Flow Fallback see: Compression Ratio Fallback CPU PCB Cyclic Redundancy Checksum Dead Zone Default Output Fallback Default Adjacent Section Flow Default Compression Ratio Default f5 Argument Default Minimum Flow Default Sigma Default Speed Default Vane Angle Derivative Response see: Function 5 Fallback see: Minimum Flow Fallback see: Sigma Fallback. . . Reference: Derivative Response. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It can also be initiated by recalling Alternate Parameter Sets. . . . . . . . . 140 is a circuit board that provides the controller’s Central Processing Unit. . . . . . see: CPU PCB Assembly section in Chapter 1 of IM300/H is a four-digit hexadecimal number calculated by applying a standard mathematical function to a group of numbers. .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . reconfiguring the controller from an Operator Workstation. . . . . . . . Discrete Inputs. . . . . . . . . . 74 Maximum Derivative . . . Deviation Dead Zone holds the output constant when inputs required by the selected Application Function and any less drastic fallbacks fail. . . . which occurs when the controller is powered up or certain faults occur.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Controller Reset 219 is a restart of the Control Program. . . . . . . . . . . . and Serial Ports. .3) . . Pressure Limiting is a region about the Surge Control Line in which the deviation from that line is considered to be zero. Startup see: Speed Fallback see: Function 5 Fallback is a feature that increases the Surge Control Margin as a function of the rate at which the operating point is approaching its surge limit. . . . . . . . . . . 72 see: Antisurge Deviation. Discrete Outputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Default Output Fallback . .

. . . . . . . . . which can be net or total mass flow. . . . . . . . . . see: page 2 of DS301/O is the Flow calculated variable.220 Index DEViation Readout is a front-panel Readout (DEV) that shows the Antisurge Deviation. . . . . . . . . . Reference: Disabling Input Signals. . . . . . . . .27 see also: page 2 of DS301/O see: Display Brightness can be accomplished by enabling the input lockout parameter. . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Surge Protection . . . . . . . . . Pressure Measurements see: Temperature Measurements is a Modbus bit that a host can read to monitor some aspect of the controller’s operation (functionally similar to a discrete output). . . . .61 is our Control Program updating Software for IBM-PC compatible Operator Workstations. . . . . . Dimmer Displays Disabling Inputs Discharge Flow Measurement Discharge Pressure Discharge Temperature Discrete Bit Discrete Input Discrete Output Display Brightness Displayed Mass Flow Download September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . Reference: Displayed Mass Flow . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .37 is a flow that is measured downstream from the compressor. . . . . . . . . . . . . see: Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Modbus Data Sheet [DS301/M] is a signal from another device that can have one of two values. or a circuit that reads such a signal. .145 is the brightness of the front-panel Readouts. . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Signal Values Test . . . . . . . Reference: Disabling Input Signals. . . . . .145 is a relay that can be included in an external circuit and energizes or deenergizes to indicate the state of an internal variable or condition that can have one of two values. . . . . The functions of the Antisurge Controller’s inputs are listed and cross-referenced in Table 3-3. . . . . . . . . . . which can be toggled between their bright and dim levels by simultaneously pressing the Raise and Display Limit keys. . . . . . . . . . . .45 Signal Values Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see: Calculated Flow Measurement see: Pressure Limiting. . .3) . . . . . so that the analog and discrete input signals can be controlled via serial communication when testing or demonstrating the controller. . . . The Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller can calculate Proximity to Surge directly from such a measurement or adjust it to suction conditions. . . . . . . . . . Each of the Antisurge Controller’s outputs can be independently assigned any of the functions listed and cross-referenced in Table 3-4. Reference: Discrete Outputs . .37 Discrete Inputs . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 60 Fallback Strategies . . . Reference: Speed . . . horns. . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Calculated Variable Displays . . . . . . . . . Default Output Fallback. . . . 45 see: Application Function is a method of specifying Valve Direction by the position it takes if its control signal fails (falls to zero). . . . . Function 5 Fallback. . . . . . . . . . 35 see also: Adjacent Section Flow Fallback. . . . . . . . . . . Compression Ratio Fallback. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 see also: Chapter 8 of IM300/H Engineering Panel Equivalent Flow Measurement Equivalent Speed External Alarms fA Mode Fails-Closed Fails-Open Fallback Strategy Fault September 2005 IM301 (6. . 67 Fault Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and other devices connected to Discrete Outputs and set up to indicate undesirable controller or process conditions. . . . . 52 are lights. . . . . . . . Minimum Flow Fallback. . . Polytropic Head Fallback. . . . . . . . 30 Shutdown Configuration . . . . 49 see also: Front Panel Assembly section in Chapter 1 of IM300/H see: Calculated Flow Measurement is an invariant coordinate variable that is a function of speed. . . . and gas composition.1. . . . . . . . . . temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Sequencing Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . specifying the direction its moves when that signal increases (Signal-to-Close or Signal-to-Open) is preferred. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Drive Power Emergency Shutdown see: Reduced Power 221 is an Automatic Sequence that immediately opens the Antisurge Valve. see: Output Reverse is a method used to provide continued control or protection when an otherwise required input signal fails. . . Reference: External Alarms . Reference: Fault Indicators . 107 Serial Communication Errors . . . . . 34 Fault Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Keyboard Configuration . . . . Because some valves fail in place. Sigma Fallback. . . . . which is indicated by the Fault LED or Fault Relays. . . .3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Valve-Sharing Fallback is an internal malfunction that prevents the controller from functioning as intended. . . . . Speed Fallback. . . . 45 Switching Conditions . . . . . . 104 see also: Normal Shutdown is a keyboard and alphanumeric readout located behind the Front Panel from which Configuration and Test Procedures can be run. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . Reference: Front Panel Reset Count . . . . . . . . . . . and LED Indicators). . .222 Index is a Field Termination Assembly that provides all of the I/O terminals for a compressor controller. . .25 see also: Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Operator Interface Description [DS301/O] is a Series 3 Plus Controller that can be combined with Antisurge and Performance Controllers to provide Total Train Control for a gas-turbinedriven compressor. . Surge Limit Characterization must then be used to calculate an invariant Proximity to Surge. .37 is an external module that provides terminals for I/O signal wires. . . .52 substitutes a default value if the input designated as the argument for the General Characterizer (f5 ) fails. . . . . . . . . . If their angle can be varied relative to the approaching flow. . . they can be used to manipulate the compressor’s performance (throughput). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3) . . . Reference: Hardware Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see: Field Termination Assemblies section in Chapter 1 of IM300/H see: Control Variable Filters see: Output Clamp are analog input signals that are proportional to the square of the compressor’s total or sidestream flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . two of which are suitable to Antisurge Controllers.146 Operator Interfaces . see: Calculated Flow Measurement provides the controller’s primary operator interface (Control Keys. . . . . Reference: Hardware Options . Reference: Function 5 Fallback . . Reference: Speed. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .37 see also: Components and Configurations section in Chapter 1 of IM300/H connects a Field Input/Output Module to the controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Readouts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Field Input/Output Module Field Termination Assembly Filters Flow Limits Flow Measurements Front Panel Fuel Controller Function 5 Fallback Gas Composition Compensation General PI Algorithm Guide Vanes Hardware Configuration High-Density Interconnect Cable September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . .70 see: Surge Limit Characterization see: PI Algorithm direct the flow of gas toward a compressor rotor. . . . . . . Reference: Hardware Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . is one of four possible combinations of internal PCBs and Back Panels. .

Valve Dead Band Compensation are numbers that identify the controller to other devices on a serial communications network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Performance Override distributes the total load on a group of compressors by configuring their Performance Controllers to equalize an appropriate variable calculated by the Antisurge Controllers. . . see: page 6 of DS301/O see: Auxiliary Limiting Control. . . . Load Balancing. . . . . . . . 17 Continuous Operation. . . . . . . . . Reference: Intended Valve Position .1. . . . . . . 49 see: Application Function is a Modbus number a host can read in order to monitor some aspect of the controller’s operation (similar to an analog output). . Reference: Characterizing Functions . . . . . . . . . 29 Networked Compressors . . . . . . . . Recycle Balancing IM301 (6. . Reference: ID Numbers. . 64 Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . is one of the fourteen solid-state lamps mounted in the lower left portion of the Front Panel that light to indicate various conditions. . . . . . which is calculated by applying Valve Flow Characterization to the intended recycle flow rate (Antisurge Control Response). . . . . . . . . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Holding Register 223 is a Modbus number a host can write to in order to change some aspect of the controller’s operation (similar to an analog input). . Pressure Limiting. . Primary Capacity Control. . . . . . . . see: Dead Zone. Reference: Applications . . . . . . . . . . see: Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Modbus Data Sheet [DS301/M] see: Antisurge Control Response is the intended position of the Antisurge Valve (in percent open). . . Performance Override. . . . 98 see also: Actuator Control Signal is a set of compressor performance measurements that yields the same Proximity to Surge value under all possible conditions. . . . . see: Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Modbus Data Sheet [DS301/M] is a directional variation of a control response that is often confused with but is not the same as a dead zone. . . . . . . . . . 93 is a division of the required total load or capacity among two or more compressors. . . . . .3) Hysteresis ID Numbers Initial Computation Input Register Intended Recycle Flow Intended Valve Position Invariant Coordinate System LED Indicator Limiting Control Load Balancing Load Sharing September 2005 . 92 see also: Cold-Recycle Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 see also: Displayed Mass Flow. . . . .93 is a Performance Controller that is used to regulate the capacity of one of several compressors operating in parallel or in series. . . . .50 Load-Sharing Controller Loop Decoupling Manual Operation Manual Override Margin of Safety Mass Flow Rates Measured Variable Minimum Flow Fallback Modbus Modbus Register Scaling September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . .32 Shutdown Configuration. . . . . . . . .68 Communication channel and protocol used for Computer Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Mass Flow Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Configuration . . . and pressure measurements. . . . . . .83 PI and RT Signal Selection . . . . . .105 Manual Operation. . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Manual Operation. . . . . .104 is a group of features that can limit the circumstances under which manual operation can be initiated or might be automatically suspended or terminated.17 Load Balancing . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Minimum Flow Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 is the maintenance of a minimum flow rate when an input required to compute the Application Function’s head coordinate fails and no less drastic fallback is appropriate or available. . . . . . Net Mass Flow is a scaled representation of an Analog Input signal that can be displayed via the Auxiliary Readout’s Analog In Menu. . see: Modbus Reference [IM300/M] is applied to Modbus register values reported via Serial Port 3. . . . . . . . . . . . Load Balancing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224 Index Load Variable is the load-balancing variable (L) calculated by the Antisurge Controllers in a series load-sharing application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 is a mode in which the Intended Recycle Flow is varied by the raise and lower keys or computer control interface. Reference: Loop Decoupling . . . .3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 percent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 see: Surge Control Margin are flow rates calculated from flow. . . . Reference: Modbus Configuration .93 Port 2 Balancing. . . . . . . Reference: Applications . . . . . . Reference: Load Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Measured Variables . . .94 is the adjustment of the control responses of the various controllers regulating a given process to minimize adverse interactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . which can range from zero to either 100 or 102. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . temperature. . . . .

.3) . . . . . . . . . thus triggering an Automatic Sequence. . . . . . and serial input signals that can be used to select an Operating State. . . . This nomenclature applies even if the coil is usually energized. Reference: Sequencing Operation . . . . . . . 50 Operator Interfaces. . . . . 30 Shutdown Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . analog. . . . . . held closed (Purge State). 103 are discrete. . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Modbus Configuration. . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Multisection Compressors 225 are multiple rotor compressors that have intercoolers or sidestreams between their suction and discharge ports. . . . held open (Shutdown State). . . . Reference: Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a 4 to 20 mA signal). . . . . 173 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . see: Signal Variable is a basic mode of operation in which the control valve is modulated to prevent surge (Run State). . . . . . . . . . although some functions can be implemented by Remote Control or Computer Control. . . . . . 103 is provided primarily by the Front Panel. . Reference: Operating States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . or held in a position dictated by another controller (Tracking State). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: fA 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 are Application Functions for compressors that have no flow measuring element. . . . . . . 16 Multisection Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . in which case the normally-closed contacts would usually be open and the normallyopen contacts would usually be closed! is a transmitter signal that has a minimum value that is typically 20 percent of the maximum value (for example. . . . . 104 see also: Emergency Shutdown refers to the position of a relay’s contacts when it is de-energized. . . Reference: Operating States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Displayed Net Mass Flow . . . . 53 see: Valve Flow Characterization is an Automatic Sequence that ramps open the Antisurge Valve. . . 85 is a mass flow rate calculated by subtracting the estimated recycle flow from the total flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 see also: Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Operator Interface Description [DS301/O] Net Mass Flow No-Flow Modes Non-Linear Valve Characterization Normal Shutdown Normally-Closed Normally-Open Offset Zero Input Operating State Operating State Request Signals Operator Interface September 2005 IM301 (6. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Output Clamp Output Loopback Test Output Readout Output Reverse Output Tracking Parameter Checksum Parity Settings Performance Controller Performance Curve September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . or discharge pressure at various flow rates. . .102 Tracking States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Cold-Recycle Control . . as measured by analog input CH8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . power. Reference: Fault Indicators.101 is a feature that keeps the Actuator Control Signal equal to a designated analog input. . . . Reference: Output Reverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reconfiguring a controller from a workstation causes a Controller Reset.95 Loop Decoupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Auxiliary Limiting . . . .226 Index Operator Workstation is an IBM-PC compatible computer running controller monitoring or support software (such as COMMAND or Toolbox). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Applications . .142 see: Serial Port is a Series 3 Plus Controller that regulates a dynamic compressor’s throughput (capacity). . . . . . . . . . . .83 Networked Compressors . .48 Speed. . . . . . . . . see: page 2 of DS301/O adapts the Actuator Control Signal to the Valve Direction. .92 Operating States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Output Tracking . . . . .52 see also: Performance Controller [IM302] is a curve on a Compressor Map plotting the head. . . . . . .42 is a front-panel Readout (OUT) that displays the Actuator Control Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Parameter Checksum . . 83 Serial Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 is a limitation placed on the Actuator Control Signal.36 see also: Remote Low Output Clamp is a Cyclic Redundancy Checksum calculated for the controller’s Configuration Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Serial Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3) . . . . to its intended value. . .103 Performance Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Output Clamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .35 Output Loopback Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 see also: Remote Low Output Clamp is a comparison of the analog Actuator Control Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . usually by manipulating its throttling element to maintain a desired flow rate or pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Manual Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 67 Manual Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: General PI Algorithm .1. . . . . Reference: Configuration . . . . 77 Pressure Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . designated by the Greek letter sigma and often referred to as such. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 PI and RT Signal Selection. . . Reference: fA 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Performance Override are usually scaled directly from assigned analog inputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 PI Algorithm PI and RT Signal Selection Polytropic Head Polytropic Head Exponent Polytropic Head Fallback Position Failure Power Algorithm Pressure Limiting Pressure Measurements September 2005 IM301 (6. Reference: Continuous Operation. . . . Reference: PI and RT Signal Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Performance Override 227 is a cooperative feature that can raise the compressor’s recycle rate if a companion Performance Controller’s performance override variable exceeds its control threshold. . . . . . . . . . . although either the discharge or suction pressure can be calculated from the other and the pressure rise across the compressor. 77 is an implementation of the Proportional-Integral method of calculating a control response from the deviation between a control variable and its set point. . . . . . . . Reference: Pressures . . . . . . . 173 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Operation . . . . . 82 see also: Auxiliary Limiting Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . PI and RT Signal Selection keeps the recycle or blowoff rate high enough to satisfy several control objectives by selecting the highest of the proportional. . . . . Reference: Calculated Variable Displays . . . . . . . . . . 77 see: Reduced Head is a variable used in calculating reduced polytropic head. . . . . . . . integral. . . . . . . . . . . . 104 calculates polytropic head from temperature measurements and a default exponent if the discharge pressure measurement fails. . . . . . 52 Startup Configuration . .3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Fallback Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Recycle Trip control responses from the corresponding loops and controllers. . 53 raises the recycle rate as needed to limit the minimum suction or maximum discharge pressure. . . . . . . 78 see also: Antisurge PI Response. . . . see: Valve Position Test is an Application Function based on head and power consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 PI and RT Signal Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .3) . . DEViation Readout. . . . . Signal Variable Program Checksum is a Cyclic Redundancy Checksum calculated from the controller’s Control Program. . . . . Reference: Program Checksum . . Reference: Program Version . . . . . .77 Primary Capacity Control . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 is one of four displays (Alternate Readout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . PI Algorithm. . . . . . . . . . Application Function is an Operating State that holds the recycle valve closed so purge gas can be forced through the compressor. .63 see also: Antisurge Deviation. . . . . . Ideally. . . . . . . . . . The Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller can calculate either of those measurements from the other and their difference. . . . . . Reference: Recycle Balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 see: Antisurge PI Response. . . . . . .40 see also: Measured Variable. . . . . . . .1.51 is the regulation of the throughput of a group of compressors by basing the control actions of each compressor’s Performance and Antisurge Controllers on that of a Station Controller. . . . . . . . . PI and RT Signal Selection is a variable that indicates how close the compressor is to surging. and Output Readout) in the upper portion of the Front Panel. . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Process Variables . . . . . . Primary Capacity Control Process Variable Program Version ProportionalIntegral Response Proximity to Surge Purge State Readout Recycle Balancing Recycle Trip Line September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . Reference: Proximity to Surge . 756-004). . . . . . . . . see: page 2 of DS301/O is the deliberate equalization of the recycle rates of compressors operating in parallel. . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 is the revision level of the software installed in a Series 3 Plus Controller (for example. . . . . . Reference: Operating States . . . . . .94 is a Control Line representing the minimum distance from the Surge Control Line below which the Recycle Trip Response will open the Antisurge Valve. . . . . . . . Reference: PI and RT Signal Selection . . . . . . . . . Auxiliary Readout. . . . . . . . .103 Sequencing Operation . . . . . . Reference: Application Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 is a process condition measured by an assigned Analog Input. . . . . . . .228 Index Pressure Rise is the difference between the suction and discharge pressures. . . . its value should always be one when the compressor is operating at its surge limit (on the verge of surging). . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . see: Antisurge Valve is an invariant coordinate variable calculated by dividing a flow measurement by a pressure. . . . . . . . . . . 53 is a Series 3 Plus Controller installed so that it serves as an on-line backup to another. . . . . . . . Reference: Configuration . . . . . Recycle Valve Reduced Flow Reduced Head Reduced Power Redundant Controller Remote Control Remote Low Output Clamp Remote Operator Panel September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . indicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Continuous Operation. . . . Reference: Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 PI and RT Signal Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Remote Low Output Clamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Power . . . . . . . . . 77 Recycle Trip Line . . . . . . . . 45 Operator Interfaces. . 36 see also: Redundant Controllers section in Chapter 8 of IM300/H is the use of analog and discrete inputs and outputs to monitor and manipulate the controller and compressor. . . 25 is a variable Actuator Control Signal limit that is set via a designated analog input. . . . . . . . . . . 80 is a control valve used to return compressed gas to the compressor intake in order to raise the total flow rate above its surge limit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3) . . . . . . . 143 Maximum Derivative . 229 is an open-loop control response that ratchets open the Antisurge Valve when the compressor gets too close to its surge limit. . . . . . . . . . . calculated from the compression and temperature ratios. . . . . . . Reference: Manual Operation . . Reference: Reduced Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 42 Discrete Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . and analog displays used for Remote Control of the compressor and its controllers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Analog Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 is an invariant coordinate variable calculated from power. . . 54 is an invariant coordinate variable representing the head developed by the compressor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Force Recycle Trip Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and pressure measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Recycle Trip Response. . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Recycle Trip Margin Recycle Trip Response is the distance between the Recycle Trip and Surge Limit Lines. . . . . . . . . . . 106 Tracking States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Discrete Outputs . . . . . 100 see also: Output Tracking is a group of push buttons. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . or discharge pressure needed to achieve various flow rates. . . . . . . . . . . . .3) Resetting Controller Resistance Curve Rotational Speed Run State Safety Margin Safety On Line Safety On Margin Safety On Response Serial Port September 2005 .140 Serial Port Activity Text . . . . . . . is the distance between the Safety On and Surge Limit Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 Serial Ports. .75 Surge Control Line . . . . . . . . .86 see: Controller Reset is a curve on a Compressor Map plotting the head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuel. . . . . . . .73 Safety On Line . . Redundant Controller IM301 (6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Speed. . . increases the Surge Control Margin if operating conditions indicate a surge has occurred.103 is the distance between the operating point and Surge Limit Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Fault Indicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 Recycle Trip Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . is a Control Line representing the distance from the Surge Limit Line at which the Safety On Response will assume a surge has occurred and increase the Surge Control Margin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Displayed Speed . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . can be measured by an analog input or obtained from a Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . power. . . . . . .48 see also: Computer Control. . .34 ID Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Serial Port 2 Test . . . . . .26 Operating States . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Reported Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Serial Communication Formats .49 Serial Port 1 Test . . .49 Serial Communication Errors . . . . .73 Safety On Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Continuous Operation . . . . . . . . .72 is a circuit used to exchange data with other electronic devices. . . . . . . .148 Maximum Pressure Derivatives . . . . Surge Limit Characterization is an Operating State that varies the recycle rate of a running compressor as needed to efficiently prevent surge. . . . . . . .27 Maximum Flow Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Continuous Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A properly-selected Application Function will be invariant to speed changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . or Performance Controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 Index Reported Flow is an Equivalent Flow Measurement or mass flow rate reported to companion controllers. . . . Operator Workstation. .52 see also: Speed Fallback. . .

. 104 Signal Variable Signal-to-Close Signal-to-Open Software Sound Speed Speed Controller Speed Fallback Startup September 2005 IM301 (6. . . . . Program Checksum. . . . . . 39 see also: Measured Variable. . . . . . . . . that starts or loads a compressor. . . . 31 Startup Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 is a series of actions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Signal Values Test . . . . . . . . . . sequenced primarily by the Performance Controller. . . . . . . . . see: Output Reverse is a set of instructions that define the functionality of a computerized device (such as an electronic controller) that are usually stored in a device that allows them to be easily updated. . . . . . . . . . . Normal Shutdown see: Stop State are flows entering or leaving a multisection compressor at a point between two impellers. . . . . . Surge Limit Characterization is a Series 3 Plus Controller that can be combined with Antisurge and Performance Controllers to provide Total Train Control for a steam-turbine-driven compressor. . . . . . . .3) . 69 is an internal variable representing the percent-of-range value of an Analog Input signal. . . . . see: Multisection Compressors see: Polytropic Head Exponent 231 Sigma Sigma Fallback substitutes a default polytropic head exponent if any input required to calculate that variable fails. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Shutdown Sequences Shutdown State Sidestreams see: Emergency Shutdown. . . . . . . . 52 see also: Speed Controller [IM307] substitutes a default speed if the Rotational Speed source fails. . . 144 Signal Variables . . . . . . . . . . . see: Control Program. . . . . Reference: Speed Fallback . . . . . Reference: Sigma Fallback . . . Process Variable is a method of specifying Valve Direction as the direction it moves as its control signal increases. . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Sequencing Operation . . . . Reference: Speed . . . . . . . . . Program Version see: Beep Frequency see: Rotational Speed. .

Reference: Surge Detection . . is the number of surges detected since the Safety On Response was last reset. Antisurge Control Response IM301 (6. . . . . . . Reference: Surge Control Line . . . . . . . Reference: Fixed-Geometry Compressors . .232 Index is a Series 3 Plus Performance Controller configured as a Load Sharing master. . . . . . . Reference: Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 see also: Proximity to Surge is the manipulation of an Antisurge Valve to prevent surge while minimizing recycling or blowoff. . . . . . . . . . Reference: Surge Control Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . is an area on the compressor map that lies to the right of the surge control line. . . . . . .72 see also: Deviation Dead Zone is the distance between the surge control and surge limit lines. . . . . .103 Sequencing Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Configuration . . .66 is a line on compressor map representing the minimum flow below which the compressor will surge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Cold-Recycle Control . . . . see: Application Function. . . . .3) Station Controller Status Variable Stop State Suction Pressure Suction Temperature Surge Surge Control Line Surge Control Margin Surge Control Zone Surge Count Surge Limit Characterization Surge Limit Line Surge Protection September 2005 . . . .65 Variable-Geometry Compressors. especially when one of the otherwise required coordinate variables cannot be measured or calculated.75 is a method used to reduce the number of coordinates needed to calculated Proximity to Surge. . Pressure Measurements see: Temperature Measurements see: Compressor Surge is a Control Line representing the set point for the Antisurge PI Response. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 see: Pressure Limiting. . . . . . . . .95 Port 2 Balancing. . . . . . . . . . . .92 see also: Chapter 7 of IM302 see: Operating State is an Operating State that holds the Antisurge Valve open while the compressor is shut down. .94 Primary Capacity Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Operating States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 36 is a comparison of each Analog-to-Digital Variable to its user-specified high and low limits. . . . . . . . . . . is a device (speed controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 is the difference between the suction and discharge temperatures. . Reference: Temperatures . . . . . or guide vanes) used to regulate the compressor’s throughput. . . . . . . . . . . 139 Transmitter Testing. . . . . . Reference: Temperatures . The Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller can calculate either of those measurements from the other and their difference. . . . 39 IM301 (6. . . . . Reference: Calculated Variable Displays . Reference: Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 is the ratio of the discharge and suction temperatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Temperature Measurements 233 are usually scaled directly from assigned analog inputs. . . . is the distance between the tight shut-off and Surge Control Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Tracking States. . 101 see: Beep Frequency is a Series 3 Plus Controller configuration and testing program that can be run on an IBM-PC compatible Operator Workstation. . . . . . . . . . 15 is a Control Line representing the minimum deviation for the Tight ShutOff Response. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fully closes the Antisurge Valve if the control response is at its low clamp and the operating point is to the right of the tight shut-off line. . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Transmitter Status Test . although either the discharge or suction temperature can be calculated from the other and the temperature rise across the compressor. Reference: Tight Shut-Off Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3) Tight Shut-Off Line Tight Shut-Off Margin Tight Shut-Off Response Tone Toolbox Tracking State Transmitter Testing September 2005 . . . . . 51 see: Polytropic Head Fallback Temperature Ratio Temperature Rise TemperatureBased Head Fallback Test Procedures Throttling Element are controller and process tests that can be executed from the Engineering Panel. . throttle valve. . Using it to reconfigure a controller causes a soft Controller Reset. . . . is an Operating State in which a Redundant Controller tracks the operation of its active companion or the Output Tracking feature monitors and duplicates the output signal of another device. . . . . . . . . . 74 Tight Shut-Off Response . . . . . Reference: Fault Indicators . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 compares a valve position measurement (analog input CH7) to the Intended Valve Position. . . .26 Loop Decoupling . . . . . . . . . .3) . . . . . . . . .83 PI and RT Signal Selection . . Reference: Valve Flow Characterization . . . . . .99 is the relationship between the position of a control valve and the value of its control signal. . . . . . . . . .35 Valve Position Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Valve Sharing. .234 Index adjusts the Intended Valve Position to counter the effects of worn valve linkages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see: Output Reverse adapts the Actuator Control Signal to a quick-opening. . . or equalproportion. . . . . .43 is the protection of a two or more compressor sections by Antisurge Controllers that cooperatively modulate a single Antisurge Valve. . . . . . . . . . .70 see: Output Clamp see: Guide Vanes requires that you either select an Application Function that is invariant to that variable or use worst-case tuning. . . . see: Invariant Coordinate System. .1. . . . . . Reference: Valve-Sharing Fallback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Valve Sharing Shutdowns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surge Limit Characterization is a feature that forces a Controller Reset if a power interruption or certain internal errors are detected. . . . . . or linear Antisurge Valve.16 Continuous Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 substitutes an alternate value for the surge limit line slope coefficient if communication with a valve-sharing controller fails. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference: Fault Indicators. . . . . . Reference: Valve Dead Band Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see: Fault Indicators section in Chapter 8 of IM300/H see: Operator Workstation Valve Dead Band Compensation Valve Direction Valve Flow Characterization Valve Position Test Valve Sharing Valve-Sharing Fallback Valve Travel Limits Vane Angle Variable Gas Composition Watchdog Time Out Workstation September 2005 IM301 (6. Reference: Applications . . . . . . . . . . . .

S3p_OPC. Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller OPC Data Sheet U Variable Name ANO2 Automatic Bias# b1 b2 CH# CH#_fail CH#_scaled COMM_Status CRC DEV Displayed_OUT DI# DO# Fallback fA_mode f_arg Flow Native Type Float Boolean Float Float Float Float Short Float Long Short Float Float Boolean Boolean Boolean Float Float Float Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller OPC Data Sheet OPC Server Revision: 2. Cross-references in the following descriptions are to the Antisurge Controller [IM301] instruction manual.6. COM1:5.1. October 2004 Page 1 of 4 DS301/D (1.8.1 server and prepending the item names with the COM port number. a colon. and a period (for example.CH1).DS301/D.1) . the controller’s Computer ID.2 This data sheet lists and describes the default data items that the Series 3 Plus OPC Server provides for this controller. Read-Only Data Items Variable Name FX1_# FX3_# FY1_# FY3_# Gain# High_Clamp K_W Limit Low_Clamp Manual_Override Port1Fail Port2Fail PV# PV#hi PV#lo PV#max PV#min PV#pos Native Type Float Float Float Float Float Boolean Float Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean Boolean Float Float Float Float Float Float Variable Name Rc Received_Flow Recycle_Trip Reported_Flow Reset Rev Run Safety_On Sigma Speed Ss_Den Ss_Num Surge_Count Tc Total_b Tracking Tran_Fail Version Native Type Float Float Boolean Float Boolean Float Boolean Boolean Float Float Float Float Short Float Float Boolean Boolean String Read-Write Data Items Variable Name AutomaticW b1W Native Type Boolean Float Variable Name Manual_OverrideW Manual_TargetW Native Type Boolean Float Variable Name Safety_OnW SP2W SP3W Native Type Boolean Float Float Clients can access this data by connecting to the TrainTools.

Off when it is supposed to be cleared. Setting AutomaticW forces the controller into automatic. DO#: On when the corresponding control relay (1≤#≤5) is supposed to be energized. See: Process Variables in Chapter 3. See: Fallback Strategies in Chapter 5. See: Surge Control Line in Chapter 6.Data Item Descriptions ANO2: Intended value of analog OUT2. otherwise 0. calculated by scaling analog input CH# between PV#lo and PV#hi. CH#: Percent-of-span value of the corresponding analog input signal variable (each 4 to 20 mA input signal is compensated for a twenty percent offset). Off when it is cleared. Automatic and AutomaticW: On when the controller is operating automatically and Off during manual operation. CH#_fail: 1 if corresponding raw analog input signal is below its low alarm threshold. It will be either the same as or the complement of the Manual_TargetW. See: Application Function in Chapter 5. DEV: Deviation of the compressor operating point from the surge control line. See: Measured Variables in Chapter 3. See: Discrete Inputs in Chapter 3. See: Parameter Checksum in Appendix B. fA_mode: Application Function [MODE:A fA] configuration parameter (read-only). Fallback: On when any fallback strategy is being used.1) . See: Surge Control Line in Chapter 6. clearing it forces the controller into manual. Bias#: Process Variable Bias [COND:D BIAS #] configuration parameter (read-only) used to calculate PV#. DI#: On when the corresponding discrete input (1≤#≤7) is asserted. Bits corresponding to fault relays reflect only the assigned functions and cannot indicate hardware faults. b1W: Initial Surge Control Bias [SPEC:A b 1] configuration parameter (read-write). The minimum number of requests that must time out (n) is set by the server’s “Timeouts Before COMM Failure” preference (1 by default). CRC: 16-bit checksum for the controller’s present set of configuration and tuning parameters. See: Manual Operation in Chapter 2. 2 if it is above its high alarm threshold. See: Actuator Control Signal in Chapter 8. See: Surge Control Line in Chapter 6. See: Transmitter Testing in Chapter 3. Tran_Fail is set if any of these variables have non-zero values. See: Surge Control Line in Chapter 6. CH#_scaled: Value of the corresponding measured variable. See: Appendix F. See: Signal Variables in Chapter 3. b2 : Safety On Incremental Bias [SPEC:A b 2] configuration parameter (read-only). f_arg: Same as fY3_0. usually because a required analog or serial input has failed. depending on the Rev setting. COMM_Status: 0 unless the n most recent Modbus requests timed out. in percent. October 2004 Page 2 of 4 DS301/D (1.1. in which case it will be 1. See: Discrete Outputs in Chapter 3. b1 : Initial Surge Control Bias [SPEC:A b 1] configuration parameter (read-only). See: Analog Outputs in Chapter 3. which some fA modes use instead of evaluating that characterizer. Displayed_OUT: Percent-open value displayed by the OUT readout.

in percent). See: Measured Variables in Chapter 3. PV#max: Measured Variable Maximum [COND:D DISPLAY 0 # HIGH] configuration parameter (read-only) for CH#_scaled. calculated by applying PV#pos to PV#max and PV#min. Manual_TargetW: Actuator control signal (ACS. See: Process Variables in Chapter 3. If Automatic is cleared. Recycle_Trip: On when the compressor operating point is to the left of the Recycle Trip control line. See: Measured Variables in Chapter 3. Flow: Displayed mass flow. See: Compression Ratio in Chapter 4. See: Manual Override in Chapter 2. See: Application Function in Chapter 5. October 2004 Page 3 of 4 DS301/D (1. PV#pos: Measured Variable Decimal [COND:D DISPLAY 0 # •] configuration parameter (readonly) for CH#_scaled. Limit: On when the recycle or blow-off flow is being increased to restore CV2 or CV3 to an acceptable level. K_W: Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] configuration parameter (read-only). See: Output Clamps in Chapter 8. See: Serial Communication Errors in Chapter 3. Port2Fail: On if the controller fails to detect expected load-sharing communications on the Port 2 network. See: Reported Flow in Chapter 7. Rc : Ratio of the discharge and suction pressures. Setting Manual_OverrideW to On disables automatic surge protection when the recycle valve is being manually positioned. Port1Fail: On if the controller fails to receive Port 1 data it has been configured to expect. See: Displayed Flow in Chapter 4. Gain#: Process Variable Gain [COND:D GAIN #] configuration parameter (read-only) used to calculate PV#.1) . See: Serial Communication Errors in Chapter 3. PV#: Value of the corresponding analog input process variable calculated by applying Gain# and Bias# to CH#. See: Measured Variables in Chapter 3.FX1_# and FY1_#: X and Y values of the corresponding data point for the Y Coordinate Characterizer. PV#min: Measured Variable Minimum [COND:D DISPLAY 0 # LOW] configuration parameter (read-only) for CH#_scaled. you can control the ACS via this data item. See: Output Clamps in Chapter 8. See: Recycle Trip Line in Chapter 6. 0. Received_Flow: Reported flow of the Adjacent Section Controller [MODE:A SS 5]. PV#hi and PV#lo: Scaling range for corresponding CH#_scaled. See: Characterizing Functions in Chapter 5. See: Pressure Limiting in Chapter 6. See: Process Variables in Chapter 3. Manual_Override and Manual_OverrideW: Manual Override [MODE:A MOR] parameter value.1. which is usually the intended value of analog OUT1. FX3_# and FY3_#: X and Y values of the corresponding data point for the X Coordinate Characterizer. High_Clamp: Off unless the actuator control signal is at or beyond the maximum recycle or blow-off flow limit. prior to inserting decimal point. Low_Clamp: Off unless the actuator control signal is at or beyond the minimum recycle or blowoff flow limit. See: Measured Variables in Chapter 3. See: Characterizing Functions in Chapter 5.01 if parameter value is 2). See: Actuator Control Signal in Chapter 8. presented as 0001 with a decimal in the specified position (for example.

A. Total_b: Total margin of safety between the surge limit and surge control lines. Limit is set if CH3 is below this limit. which resets the surge count and response to zero. See: Output Reverse in Chapter 8. Safety_On and Safety_OnW: On when the cumulative surge count is not zero. Tran_Fail: On when any analog input signal falls outside of its transmitter testing limits (in which case the corresponding CH#_fail will have a non-zero value). See: Operating State in Chapter 9. See: Program Version in Appendix B. Sigma: Polytropic head exponent.g. after which it automatically reverts to Off.com . See: Pressure Limiting in Chapter 6. Tc : Temperature Ratio calculated variable.g.r / 2 or W2 / 2) or series load balancing parameter (L) this controller is sending to its companions. ∆Po. which jointly indicate how closely the compressor is operating to its surge limit. See: Surge Control Line in Chapter 6. Tracking: On only when this controller is operating as an on-line backup to another (not affected by the output tracking feature). See: Speed in Chapter 4. See: Transmitter Testing in Chapter 3. See: Pressure Limiting in Chapter 6.s /2) and numerator (e. See: Redundant Control in Chapter 2. IA 50323. K • Ps • hr / 2) of the selected fA mode. and is cleared when that count is reset. Run: Set when a startup is initiated and cleared when the compressor is shut down. obtained by summing the Initial Surge Control Bias. SP2W: Maximum Discharge Pressure [COND:A SP 2] configuration parameter (read-write).Reported_Flow: Flow measurement (∆Po.. See: CPU Reset Count in Appendix B. Limit is set if CH2 is above this limit. Speed: Normalized rotational speed. thus indicating the Safety On response has increased the margin of safety. See: Temperature Ratio in Chapter 4. See: Reported Flow in Chapter 7.cccglobal. See: Surge Counters in Chapter 6. Ss_Den and Ss_Num: Denominator (e. USA Phone: (515) 270-0857 • Fax: (515) 270-1331 • Web: www. Version: Revision of installed control program.1. Des Moines. the compressor will not surge unless the numerator exceeds the denominator (that is. If the controller is properly tuned. See: Polytropic Head Exponent in Chapter 4. See: Application Function in Chapter 5. when Ss > 1).S.1) L Printed in U. Safety_OnW can only be cleared. the derivative response. Off when all such signals are within their acceptable ranges. See: Surge Counters in Chapter 6. October 2004 Page 4 of 4 DS301/D (1. in percent. SP3W: Minimum Suction Pressure [COND:A SP 3] configuration parameter (read-write). COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION 4725 121st Street. and the accumulated Safety On response. Rev: Recycle Valve Direction [MODE:A REV] configuration parameter (read-only). provided the chosen fA Mode calculates that variable.. Reset: Set for thirty seconds when the controller is reset. Surge_Count: Number of surges detected since the cumulative surge count was last cleared. provided the Stop Requests [MODE:A fB 1] are not disabled.

4% 30020 0 to 102.4% 0 to 102.1) .DS301/MSeries 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Modbus Data Sheet U Address 00001-10 00011 Coil Undefined (1) Automatic Address 10001 10002 10003 10004 10005 10006 10007 Discrete Automatic Manual Override Safety On Low Clamp High Clamp Recycle Trip Tran Fail Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Modbus Data Sheet Product Revision: 756-002 Coil Bits Address 00012 00013 Coil Manual Override Safety On Address 00014 00015-18 Coil 0 1000 (2) Discrete Inputs Address 10008 10009 10010 10011-13 10014 10015 10016 Discrete Reset Tracking Limit DI Condition 1-3 Port 1 Fail Port 2 Fail Fallback Address 10017-20 10021 10022 10023 10024 10025-29 Discrete DI Condition 4-7 Run POC Active 0 0 DO State 1-5 Input Registers Address 30001-08 30009 30010 30011 30012 30013 30014 30015 Register Channel # Received Flow DEViation Ss Denominator Ss Numerator Displayed OUT Total b Sigma Range Address 0 to 102.00 to 1.4% see above October 2004 Page 1 of 4 DS301/M (6.4% 30021 0 to 102.4% 0 to 102.048 30018 0 to 102.4% 0 to 102400 0 to 102.999 30023 Register Surge Count Param CRC Pressure Ratio Temperature Ratio Speed Analog Output 2 Flow Reported Flow Range integer integer 0 to 64 0 to 64 0 to 102.4% 0 to 102.4% 30016 0 to 102.4% 30017 -1.4% 30019 0 to 102.1.4% Holding Registers Address 40001 40002 40003 Register SLL Coefficient Initial b Actuator CS Range 0 to 102.4% Address 40004 40005 40006-28 Register Pd Limit Ps Limit Input Registers (3) Range 0 to 102.4% 0 to 102.4% 30022 0 to 0.

POC Active: This discrete is set when the recycle flow rate has been elevated to help restore a Performance Controller’s performance override control variable to an acceptable value. Note 3: Each input register can also be read (but not changed) at an address calculated by adding its offset (its address minus 30001) to the address of the first undefined holding register. DI Condition: These discretes reflect the discrete input states. bits 00015 through 00018 jointly constitute a readonly.1. clearing it forces the controller into manual. The offsets of the first three bits are 10 greater than the input number (discrete 10011 is for D1). four-bit integer identifying the controller type. including descriptions of data types. See: Serial Communication Errors in Chapter 3. See: Serial Communication Errors in Chapter 3. See: Discrete Inputs in Chapter 3. See: Performance Override in Chapter 6. discrete bits. Note 2: Although they have coil addresses. See: Output Clamps in Chapter 8. See: Discrete Outputs in Chapter 3. register scaling. See: Manual Operation in Chapter 2. those for D4 to D7 are 13 greater (discrete 10017 is for D4). Bits corresponding to fault relays reflect only the assigned functions and cannot indicate hardware faults. DO State: These discretes indicate the intended states of the control relays — each is set when the corresponding output is energized. Port 2 Fail: This discrete is set if the controller fails to detect expected communications on the Port 2 load-sharing network. The Series 3 Plus Modbus implementation. Limit: This discrete is set when the recycle or blow-off flow is being increased to restore CV2 or CV3 to an acceptable level. See: Pressure Limiting in Chapter 6. See: Recycle Trip Line in Chapter 6. Recycle Trip: This discrete is set whenever the operating point is to the left of the Recycle Trip control line. Port 1 Fail: This discrete is set when the controller fails to receive Port 1 data it has been configured to expect. clearing it disables it. and available functions. Low Clamp: see High Clamp Manual Override: This coil and discrete are set when the Manual Override [MODE:A MOR] parameter is On and cleared when it is Off. The offset of each such bit is 24 greater than the output number (discrete 10025 is for CR1 and discrete 10029 is for CR5). High Clamp: Either this or the Low Clamp discrete is set whenever the actuator control signal is at one of its range limits. usually because a required analog or serial input has failed. October 2004 Page 2 of 4 DS301/M (6.1) . See: Fallback Strategies in Chapter 5. Setting this coil forces the controller into automatic. is described in Chapter 2 of IM300/M. and registers. Automatic surge protection is active during manual control only if these bits are cleared! See: Manual Override in Chapter 2. The High Clamp corresponds to the maximum and the Low Clamp corresponds to the minimum recycle or blow-off. Fallback: This discrete is set when any fallback strategy is being used.This data sheet lists this controller’s Modbus coils. Cross-references in the following descriptions are to the Antisurge Controller [IM301] instruction manual. Setting this coil enables that parameter. Note 1: An attempt to read coils 00001 through 00010 will return zeroes. Coil and Input Bit Descriptions Automatic: This coil and discrete will be set when the controller is operating automatically and cleared when manual is selected.

See: Transmitter Testing in Chapter 3. and writing to it changes the value of that parameter. Displayed OUT: This input register reports the value displayed by the OUT readout. In contrast to the Displayed OUT input register. See: Operating State in Chapter 9. See: Pressure Limiting in Chapter 6. Initial b: This holding register reports the Initial Surge Control Bias [SPEC:A b 1]. Tran Fail: This discrete is set when any analog input signal falls outside of its transmitter testing limits. The Limit bit is set if that variable (CH3) is below this limit. and writing to it changes the value of that parameter. See: Actuator Control Signal in Chapter 8. This coil can only be cleared. See: Pressure Limiting in Chapter 6. See: Redundant Control in Chapter 2.Reset: This discrete is set whenever the controller is reset and is cleared thirty seconds later. It will be either the same as or the complement of the Actuator CS holding register. See: Actuator Control Signal in Chapter 8. which is the intended value of analog OUT1 when that signal is used to manipulate the recycle valve. See Displayed Flow in Chapter 4.1) . Ps Limit: This holding register reports the Minimum Suction Pressure [COND:A SP 3]. See: Analog Outputs in Chapter 3. which resets that count and response to zero. it is unaffected by the Recycle Valve Direction.1. Channel #: These input registers report the values of the corresponding analog input signals. See: Surge Control Line in Chapter 6. and is cleared when that count is reset. prior to inserting the decimal point. and writing to it changes the value of that parameter. Any channel configured as an Offset Zero Input is compensated for a twenty percent offset. See: CPU Reset Count in Appendix B. Safety On: This coil and discrete are set when the cumulative surge count is greater than zero. See: Signal Variables in Chapter 3. Pd Limit: This holding register reports the Maximum Discharge Pressure [COND:A SP 2]. you can directly control the ACS by writing to this register. Run: Provided the Stop Requests [MODE:A fB 1] is not disabled. Param CRC: This input register reports the 16-bit checksum for the controller’s present set of configuration and tuning parameters. See: Parameter Checksum in Appendix B. Flow: This input register reports the digits of the Displayed Mass Flow calculated variable. Analog Output 2: This input register reports the intended value of analog OUT2. The Limit bit is set if that variable (CH2) is above this limit. See: Surge Control Line in Chapter 6. depending on the Recycle Valve Direction [MODE:A REV]. October 2004 Page 3 of 4 DS301/M (6. Input and Holding Register Descriptions Actuator CS: This holding register reports the actuator control signal. this discrete is set when a startup is initiated and remains set as long as the compressor is running. DEViation: This input register reports the deviation of the operating point from the surge control line. If the Automatic coil is cleared. thus indicating the Safety On response has increased the margin of safety. See: Surge Counters in Chapter 6. Tracking: This discrete is set only when this controller is operating as a backup to another and is not affected by the output tracking feature.

Sigma: This input register reports the polytropic head exponent. If the controller is properly tuned. and the accumulated Safety On response. See: Compression Ratio in Chapter 4. obtained by summing the Initial Surge Control Bias. when Ss > 1). Reported Flow: In a multisection compressor application. K • Ps • hr / 2) and denominator (generally. See: Reported Flow in Chapter 7. See: Surge Control Line in Chapter 6. USA Phone: (515) 270-0857 • Fax: (515) 270-1331 • Web: www. IA 50323.s /2) of the selected fA mode. See: Surge Counters in Chapter 6.r / 2 or W2 / 2) or series load balancing parameter (L) this controller is sending to its companions and the Received Flow register reports the reported flow of the Adjacent Section Controller [MODE:A SS 5]. Speed: This input register reports the normalized rotational speed of the compressor. See Temperature Ratio in Chapter 4. See: Application Function in Chapter 5.Pressure Ratio: This input register reports the ratio of the discharge and suction pressures. See: Polytropic Head Exponent in Chapter 4.cccglobal.1. which jointly indicate how closely the compressor is operating to its surge limit.1) L Printed in U. this input register reports the flow measurement (∆Po. Received Flow: see Reported Flow.S. COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION 4725 121st Street.A. October 2004 Page 4 of 4 DS301/M (6. Temperature Ratio: This input register reports the Temperature Ratio calculated variable. provided the chosen fA Mode calculates that variable. Ss Numerator: This and the Ss Denominator input registers report the numerator (for example. the derivative response. See: Rotational Speed in Chapter 4. Ss Denominator: see Ss Numerator. See: Application Function in Chapter 5. SLL Coefficient: This holding register reports but cannot change the Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] parameter. Total b: This input register reports the total margin of safety between the surge limit and surge control lines. the compressor will not surge unless the numerator exceeds the denominator (that is. ∆Po. Surge Count: This input register reports the number of surges detected since the cumulative surge count was last cleared. Des Moines.com .

.000 ALT DEV OUT 9. and eight Control Keys.DS301/O Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Operator Interface Specification U Description Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Operator Interface Description Product Revision: 756-004 The Antisurge Controller’s Front Panel features four Alphanumeric Readouts. each element in the above illustration is linked to the corresponding description. In pdf versions of this document.3 ∆ ∇ Status AUX Auto Manual RUN Antisurge Controller AUTO MAN RT SO Limit Tracking TranFail Fallback ComErr RESET SAFETY ON DISPLAY SURGE COUNT DISPLAY LIMIT MENU Fault SCROLL COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION Note: September 2005 Cross-references are to the Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller user manual [IM301].1) .1. the pitch of which can be changed by holding down the SCROLL key and pressing the Raise or Lower key. It also includes a beeper. ten active LED Indicators. Page 1 of 8 DS301/O (6.

This readout can also display the numerator of the Application Function or the set points of any Limiting Control Loops. which can be alternately brightened and dimmed by simultaneously pressing the Raise and DISPLAY LIMIT keys. the displayed value will jump if the control action reverses. This readout can also display the denominator of the Application Function or the process variables of any Limiting Control Loops. If Auxiliary Display Reset [MODE:D LOCK 9] is enabled. Positive values indicate an acceptable margin of safety. If the DISPLAY LIMIT key is held down. it displays the Status (operating state) of the controller. Provided they are enabled. By default. this readout will indicate which of the Limiting Control Loops’ variables are being displayed.1. this readout will display the antisurge control response. the position of the recycle valve is displayed by the primary Antisurge Controller and the OUT readouts of all secondary controllers are blank.1) . September 2005 Page 2 of 8 DS301/O (6. ALT The three-character Alternate readout is normally blank. OUT The three-digit Output readout normally displays the Actuator Control Signal. AUX The 12-character AUXiliary readout displays a variety of controller and process information.Alphanumeric Readouts DEV The alphanumeric readouts. • When using Valve Dead Band Compensation (see Chapter 8). this readout will revert to displaying the operating state 60 seconds after the MENU or SCROLL key was last pressed. • In a Valve Sharing (see Chapter 7) application. negative values indicate unsafe operation. However. which reflects both the actual output signal and control valve position. it will display “POC” whenever the recycle flow rate is elevated by the Performance Override (see Chapter 6) feature and will display the number of surges the Safety On algorithm has detected whenever the DISPLAY SURGE COUNT key is held down. If the RESET key is held down. That signal represents the intended recycle or blow-off flow. You can cycle through the enabled variables in any of these groups by pressing the SCROLL key. pressing the MENU key once selects the Measured Variables menu. have the following functions: The three-digit Deviation readout normally displays the deviation of the operating point from the Surge Control Line (see Chapter 6). while pressing it a second time selects the Calculated Variables menu. prior to any output transformations. but is not a measurement of either: • When using Output Reverse (see Chapter 8). OUT will display 100 minus the actuator control signal.

its result will display as “–. • Total B=##. • DGO= 12345. Pressing the SCROLL key while any of the above is being displayed cycles through the following variables: • DGI= 1234567. where ##. • Status OFF indicates this controller is modulating its valve to satisfy the recycle requirements of a companion valve-sharing controller.##.1.– –”. where each digit appears if that discrete output is energized or is replaced by an underscore if it is not.Status The Operating State (see Chapter 9) of the controller displays as one of the following: • Status RUN indicates the antisurge valve is being modulated to protect a running compressor from surge.# is the distance between the surge limit and control lines.#. f2(X)= #. • Status ESD indicates an emergency shutdown has opened the antisurge valve as fast as possible.##.1) . Whenever a particular characterizer is not being calculated. • Status PURGE indicates the valve is being held fully closed to allow residual process gas to be flushed from the compressor. • Status STOP indicates a normal shutdown has ramped the antisurge valve open. where the displayed numbers (#. f3(X)= #. • Status TRACK indicates this controller is operating as a redundant backup for another Antisurge Controller or is tracking a designated analog input.##) are the results of the corresponding proximity-to-surge Characterizing Functions (see page 64) when they are being calculated. where each digit appears if that discrete input is asserted or is replaced by an underscore if it is not.##.##. September 2005 Page 3 of 8 DS301/O (6. • f1(X)= #. even though its own compressor is shut down. or f5(X)= #.

while the DEV readout will display one-half of its denominator. if only discharge pressure limiting is enabled. if fA Mode 31 is selected. For example. If this ALT readout is greater than this DEV readout.1.Application Function When the RESET key is held down. For example. the readouts will alternate between them each time you press the DISPLAY LIMIT key. its limiting control threshold on the ALT readout. ALT would display K· f1 (Rc )·Ps /2 and DEV would display ∆Po.1) . If both limiting loops have been enabled. and “Discharge” in the AUXiliary readout. September 2005 Page 4 of 8 DS301/O (6. Provided these pressures are directly measured (via CH2 and CH3). its limiting readouts are scaled as percentages. If either is calculated from the other and the pressure rise across the compressor.c /2. the compressor is either in surge or the controller is incorrectly tuned. This provides an alternate indication of how closely the compressor is operating to its surge limit. its status can be determined by holding down the DISPLAY LIMIT key. The DEV readout will then display that pressure. the ALT readout will display one-half of the numerator of the chosen proximity-to-surge Application Function (see Chapter 5). their limiting readouts use the same scaling as the corresponding Measured Variables. Limiting Control Loops If you have enabled one of the Pressure Limiting (see Chapter 6) control loops. the ALT readout will show its set point. pressing DISPLAY LIMIT would always display that pressure on the DEV readout. and the AUX readout will identify the displayed pressure (discharge or suction).

1. Flow is the Displayed Flow. each of these readouts can also be independently enabled or disabled.1) . Rt is the Temperature Ratio. UsrQ is the Displayed Net Flow. Their default labels are listed in the following table: Input CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 Label ∆Po D Press S Press Speed Input CH5 CH6 CH7 CH8 Label D Temp S Temp Chan 7 Chan 8 If one of these variables is currently displayed. September 2005 Page 5 of 8 DS301/O (6. pressing SCROLL repeatedly will cycle through all of the enabled measured variables. The last one selected will be the first one displayed the next time you press MENU while the controller STATUS is displayed.Measured Variables The ability to display each of the Measured Variables (see Chapter 3). this menu can be configured to display any of the following calculated variables: • • • • • • • Rc is the Compression Ratio. As with measured variables. and its numeric format are independently configured. displaying one calculated variable allows you to SCROLL to the others. Sigma is the Polytropic Head Exponent. its label. In the event that one or more of the inputs used to calculate these variables fail. Speed is the Displayed Speed. Calculated Variables As described on page 60. Hpr is the Reduced Head. the controller can substitute default values for either those inputs or the calculated variable (see Fallback Strategies on page 67). The resulting fallback value would then be displayed. and the last one displayed is the first shown the next time you invoke this MENU.

This will increase the recycle rate above the level needed for surge protection alone. • The yellow Manual LED lights to indicate manual operation. Automatic or manual operation can also be selected via serial communications. When redundant controllers have been installed. even if the control signal is above both clamps. You can toggle between these modes by pressing the AUTO/MAN key. the Safety On response has detected one or more surges and increased the surge control margin to prevent additional surging. the yellow RT LED will be lit when the margin of safety is below the threshold for the Recycle Trip response and will stay on only until an adequate margin of safety is restored. usually because a required analog or serial input has failed (some insight can be gained by examining the TranFail and ComErr LEDs).1. even if an adequate margin of safety has been restored. It flashes if the default output fallback strategy is active. It flashes when operating in manual with Manual Override enabled (no automatic protection). If the controller is operating automatically. the RT LED remains lit until the Recycle Trip response decays to zero. The red TranFail LED is lit when any analog input signal is beyond its Transmitter Testing (see Chapter 3) range (the Transmitter Status Test [MODE:D ANIN –] will identify the offending inputs). You can determine how many surges were detected by pressing the DISPLAY SURGE COUNT key.LED Indicators Auto Manual The ten active LED indicators have the following functions: One of these LEDs will always be lit: • The green Auto LED lights to indicate automatic operation. The SO LED will remain on until the RESET key is pressed. RT If the controller is being manually operated. If the red SO LED is lit.1) . The yellow Fallback LED is lit when one of the controller’s Fallback Strategies (see Chapter 5) is being used. The DISPLAY LIMIT key can be used to display the value and set point of each limiting variable. SO Limit Tracking TranFail Fallback September 2005 Page 6 of 8 DS301/O (6. the green Tracking LED of the active controller (the one actually controlling the compressor) will be off and that of the tracking controller will be lit. It will flash if Output Tracking (see Chapter 8) is active or if the Remote Low Output Clamp (see Chapter 8) is above the internal Low Output Clamp. The yellow Limit LED is lit when either the discharge pressure is above its threshold or the suction pressure is below its limit.

The exact meaning of this condition depends on which features are enabled (for example. The controller’s output signal is totally unpredictable when the Fault LED is lit. performance override control. The offending port can be identified and additional diagnostic information obtained by using the Serial Port 1 Test [MODE COMM – 3] and Serial Port 2 Test [MODE COMM – 2].1) . as described in the Fault Indicators section in Chapter 8 of IM300/H.1. load-sharing. If this LED is lit but the Fault relay is not de-energized. check the cable connecting the Front Panel to the CPU PCB for loose connections. The red Fault LED is lit when an internal fault has been detected. or speed tracking).ComErr The red ComErr LED is lit when the controller fails to detect an expected transmission on its Port 1 or Port 2 serial communication network. Fault Caution: September 2005 Page 7 of 8 DS301/O (6. Process disruptions or damage can result if it is not immediately disconnected from your process.

IA 50323. the DEV and ALT readouts will display the value and set point for one of the limiting variables.A. USA Phone: (515) 270-0857 • Fax: (515) 270-1331 • Web: www. while holding it down increases the output in steadily larger increments (it takes about 20 seconds to change the control signal by a full 100 percent). Des Moines. the ALT and DEV readouts will display the numerator and denominator of the Ss proximity-to-surge variable. Because this key also resets the Safety On response. the displays will alternate between them each time DISPLAY LIMIT is pressed.com . Each time a surge is detected.1 percent. do not press RESET SAFETY ON while the SO LED is lit unless the causes of the surging have been identified and corrected.Control Keys AUTO MAN The momentary-contact pushbuttons have the following functions: The AUTO/MAN key toggles the controller between automatic and manual operation (the green Auto or yellow Manual LED will light to indicate which mode is selected).1. ∆ ∇ RESET SAFETY ON DISPLAY SURGE COUNT Warning! DISPLAY LIMIT MENU SCROLL The MENU and SCROLL keys select the information displayed by the AUX readout. and the OUT readout will display the control response prior to any control valve compensations. The Lower key reduces the output in a similar fashion. If both limiting loops are enabled. Pressing the DISPLAY SURGE COUNT key temporarily displays that surge count in the ALT readout. To avoid repeated surging. while pressing Scroll advances it to the next item in the currently selected menu.1) L Printed in U. If the DISPLAY LIMIT key is held down. COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION 4725 121st Street. the controller increases the surge control margin by adding the Safety On Incremental Bias. however. while pressing the RESET SAFETY ON key resets it to zero and restores the original surge control margin. Pressing Menu advances that display through the available menus. If RESET SAFETY ON is held down.S. September 2005 Page 8 of 8 DS301/O (6. Momentarily pressing the Raise key will increment that signal by 0.cccglobal. you should avoid viewing these variables while the SO indicator is lit. Pressing this key does not affect the operation of the control algorithms — you can examine these variables at any time without disturbing your process. while the AUX readout displays “Discharge” or “Suction” to indicate which of those pressures is being displayed. The Raise and Lower keys vary the actuator control signal when manual operation is selected.

controllers equipped with this revision or later will identify and display the value and set point of the out-of-range pressure when the DISPLAY LIMIT key is pressed while the Limit LED is lit. Relay Assigned Functions have signed values. In prior versions. Released: November 11. a relay with a positive function will energize while one with a negative function will de-energize. ID Code: 1.2) . 750-003 CRC: 684B. the second analog output’s function is defined by the Second Output Assigned Variable. In the initial release. 1992 Beginning with this revision. the Limit LED will light and any Limt relays will trip only if the recycle rate has been increased by one of the pressure limiting control loops. both analog outputs always had the same function. Released: October 10. those indicators were set whenever either pressure was beyond its limiting control threshold. the assigned condition always energized the relay. 751-001 Analog Output CRC: AFF5. Released: November 5. CRC: 085A. this revision added the Surge Event (Surg) and Valve Open (Open) relay functions. that function was not implemented. 1991 This software revision fixed two minor parameter entry problems. even if the resulting control action did not increase the recycle rate above that calculated by the surge protection loop. Beginning with this revision. ID Code: 9. ID Code: 2. Discrete Outputs September 2005 Page 1 of 10 DS301/V (6. CRC: A9C5. When the associated condition is detected. In the initial release. Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Revision History U 750-001 750-002 Pressure Limiting Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Revision History This data sheet describes the changes to each standard release of this controller. In prior versions. Released: July 31. ID Code: 0. 1991 Beginning with this revision.DS301/V. Crossreferences are to the Antisurge Controller [IM301] instruction manual.1. In addition. 1991 This was the initial Series 3 Plus version of the Antisurge Controller. In addition.

Pressure Ratio. Beginning with this revision. In addition. depending in part on whether S is above the β 3 threshold. Fallback.Fallback Strategies Beginning with this revision. the gain for an Antisurge Controller’s primary capacity control response varied as a function of S and two range parameters [β 3 and β 4]. In addition. Temperature Ratio.## value could not exceed ten). only active controllers could respond to host requests. Load Sharing In prior versions. and there is no β 4 parameter. Analog Output 2. A controller that has selected the performance override response of a Performance Controller will report no change in its PI response. Surge Count.# (in prior versions. Loop Decoupling Beginning with this revision. Front-Panel Readouts Beginning with this revision. This version also added the Displayed Mass Flow (Flow) calculated variable and the parameters for enabling and scaling its readout. Modbus Multisection Flow Rates Beginning with this revision. Param CRC. Modbus While Tracking can be enabled to allow a host to communicate with tracking controllers. fA Mode 34 or 35 had to be used for such applications even if there was no sidestream.2) . In prior versions. Run. When this fallback is triggered. and DO State discrete bits. controllers using fA Modes 31 and 32 can receive their flow measurements from an Adjacent Section Controller. that gain is always either zero or the Recycling Gain. In prior versions. the Engineering Panel sequence for defining measured variable labels was modified to allow reverse scrolling by pressing the minus key.1. the actuator control signal is then initialized to that filtered value. load-balancing equalized proximity to surge in both series and parallel compressor networks. This revision also introduced series load-balancing based on an R variable calculated as the product of S (proximity to surge) and W2 (mass flow). In addition. Flow. the AUXiliary readout displays the operating state as “Status TRACK” when redundant tracking is active and the compression ratio is displayed as ##. Beginning with this revision. September 2005 Page 2 of 10 DS301/V (6. fA modes using discharge flow measurements were modified to respond to Pd failures the same way as modes using suction flow measurements respond to Ps failures. and Pd Limit and Ps Limit holding registers. this revision added the Limit. In prior versions. the displayed #. loop-decoupling will only increase the recycle flow rate in response to increases in the companion controller Antisurge PI and RT responses. Speed. the controller will continuously calculate a filtered control signal value if the Fallback Minimum Recycle is set to zero. and Reported Flow input registers.

Front-Panel Readouts Load Balancing This revision modified the series load-balancing algorithm so the Antisurge Controller calculates only W2 (mass flow). CRC: 8194. this function could only be performed by a Performance Controller. Released: December 21. measured variables could only be positive and Rc was displayed using only three digits (#. an Antisurge Controller can be configured for this application by selecting fA Mode 00. Beginning with this revision. input failures trigger the default output fallback only if the controller is operating in its Run state. rather than the product of that variable and S (proximity to surge) calculated by revision 751 controllers. Beginning with this revision.2) . Beginning with this revision. ID Code: 26.##) format.000. measured variables can have negative values and the compression ratio is displayed using a four-digit (##. Manual Operation Mass Flow Rates Output Tracking September 2005 Page 3 of 10 DS301/V (6.751-002 Configuration CRC: A0FF. 1993 Beginning with this revision. In prior versions. the Enable Reconfiguration [MODE LOCK 5 1] procedure is automatically terminated after 30 minutes of keyboard inactivity. Also beginning with this revision. In prior versions.## in 750 versions. the Control Line Argument can be any analog input or the calculated flow measurement. you could manually reduce the recycle rate below that level. automatic operation is restored if the controller detects any condition that would trigger a shutdown.1. the actuator control signal can be configured to track an analog input when the D4 discrete input is set. Released: July 9. Beginning with this revision. ##. Beginning with this revision. that upper limit was 1. the compensating pressure and temperature could have values as high as 10. Fallback Strategies Manual Operation 752-001 Cold-Recycle Control Configuration Control Lines Beginning with this revision. discrete input D7 can be set up to recall the first or second alternate parameter set as it is set and cleared. the AUXiliary readout of a primary valve-sharing controller displays “Status OFF” when its own compressor stage is shut down but it is operating in the Run state to protect another section that is running. Also. ID Code: 14. it could only be ∆Po. In prior versions. three alternate sets of parameter values can be stored and recalled. In prior versions. Prior versions did not support any alternate sets.# in 751 versions). the actuator control signal cannot be less that the remote low output clamp while the controller is being manually operated. Beginning with this revision. Beginning with this revision.c .000. 1992 Beginning with this revision. Previously.

Proximity-to-Surge Recycle Balancing Beginning with this revision. that argument had to be an analog input signal. the detection of a shutdown condition will restore automatic operation only if Manual Override is disabled. only the Port 1 method was available.Pressure Limiting Beginning with this revision. this function can be implemented via either Port 1 or Port 2 communication. CRC: 4AC5. Released: December 23. this revision extended the default compression ratio (fD 33) and sigma (fD 34) fallbacks to fA 43 and 44 (which were introduced in revision 752-001).2) . Beginning with this revision. 1993 Beginning with this revision. Released: August 8. In addition. Prior versions timed out after about 45 seconds. Also beginning with this revision. each input register can also be read (but not changed) at an address calculated by adding its offset to the address of the last defined holding register. 1994 This revision added the Run State (Run) relay assignment. thus increasing both the safety margin and recycle flow rate. controllers using fA Mode 01 or 02 can be configured to limit their ∆Pc (PV2) input signal. Beginning with this revision. the default output fallback (fD 31) will be triggered if a controller using fA Mode 31 or 32 is configured to use but fails to receive a valid adjacent section flow measurement. This revision introduced fA Modes 43 and 44 and the constantsigma option that can be enabled for either of those Application Functions or fA Mode 42. In prior versions. In prior revisions. limiting control was not available with those Application Functions.1. the detection of a surge will also trigger a Recycle Trip response. ID Code: 38. In prior versions. In addition. ID Code: 48. this revision added the Maximum Ss Derivative [PID:A Td 0 •] procedure as a tuning aid for the Derivative and derivative Recycle Trip responses. Surge Protection 753-001 Discrete Outputs Input Signal Values CRC: DB2F. sigma can be used as the argument for the general characterizer by disabling the f5 Argument. Beginning with this revision. Remote Low Output Clamp 752-002 Fallback Strategies Manual Operation Modbus Beginning with this revision. September 2005 Page 4 of 10 DS301/V (6. the variable low clamp is ignored if its analog input has failed. a surge that did not move the operating point to the left of an incorrectly defined RTL would not increase the recycle flow. Beginning with this revision. this test will time out and clear the display after five minutes of inactivity. In prior versions.

Released: March 31. that count was incremented once each time the operating point crossed to the left of the SOL. Beginning with this revision. For all prior releases. In prior versions. In prior versions.1. such reads return zeroes. Coils 00001 to 00010 are undefined in all Series 3 Plus Controllers. the default output fallback (fD 31) does not select manual operation (instead of lighting the Manual LED.2) . Changes were also made to improve communication over two-wire RS-485 connections. Warning! September 2005 Page 5 of 10 DS301/V (6. the Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] can no longer be changed by writing to the SLL Coefficient holding register. which ramps the recycle valve open and displays the resulting shut-down state as “Status STOP”.Mass Flow Rates Beginning with this revision. Surge Detection Beginning with this revision. Also. 1995 Beginning with this revision. CRC: F4C2. Conditions that would otherwise trigger the minimum flow fallback (fD 32) will now trigger fD 31 if fD 32 is disabled. Modbus Program Downloading Recycle Trip Indicators Shutdown Valve Sharing 753-002 Fallback Strategies Modbus Beginning with this revision. Prior versions always executed an emergency shutdown and displayed the shutdown state as “Status STOP”. operating to the left of the Safety On control line will repeatedly increment the surge count at the Safety On Repeat Interval. Following an emergency shutdown. the RT LED can light and any RT relays can be tripped only if the controller is operating in its Run state. controllers using these fA modes would calculate proximity to surge from the Default Adjacent Section Flow unless that fallback was disabled. Beginning with this revision. the operating state will now display as “Status ESD”. the result of the square root function can be as high as four. ID Code: 59. This revision introduced the normal shutdown sequence. it now flashes the Auto indicator). software cannot be downloaded to a redundant tracking controller with Modbus While Tracking disabled. which allows its argument to be as high as 16. Beginning with this revision. A version 753 (or earlier) controller will respond to a purge request unless it is operating in the Tracking state. any attempt to read those coils would return an error. Beginning with this revision. the primary controller can select its Purge state only if all secondary controllers are operating in their Shutdown states. fD 31 will now be triggered if a controller using fA Mode 34 or 35 fails to receive a valid adjacent section flow measurement. In prior versions. both values could be no greater than one.

controllers using fA Mode 33 can receive their flow measurements from an Adjacent Section Controller and will use the Reported Flow Characterizer to calculate the flow transmitted to companion controllers. This revision added the Manual Override (MOR) and Position Failure (PosF) relay assignments. this was true of controllers using fA 31 and 32 but not fA 33. it calculates Flow from ∆Po. in which case the filtered value was used. if fA 00 is selected. Beginning with this revision. Beginning with this revision. it is now triggered by loss of communication with any companion. the Limit LED will light and any Limt relays will trip if either the suction or discharge pressure is beyond its limiting control threshold during manual operation. there was no indication that automatic surge protection had been overridden. In prior versions. this fallback is triggered by a flow failure in any companion controller. Multisection Flow Rates Proximity-to-Surge September 2005 Page 6 of 10 DS301/V (6. In prior versions. the Constant Output Fallback sets the actuator control signal to the higher of the filtered control signal value or the Fallback Minimum Recycle. Beginning with this revision. 62. it was a function of proximity-tosurge and mass flow only. Also beginning with this revision.c when the Mass Flow Input is disabled (Off). This revision introduced fA Modes 61. Beginning with this revision. loop-decoupling can never decrease the recycle flow rate. the Manual LED flashes and any MOR relays are set if the controller is manually operated with Manual Override enabled.2) . In addition. in a valve-sharing master with the Valve-Sharing Fallback disabled. this fallback initialized that signal to its default value unless it that default was zero. ID Code: 91. it is also triggered by a failure of the preceding section pressure (CH5).754-001 Analog Outputs Calculated Variables CRC: 04CD. and a user-specified load variable. Constant Output Fallback Derivative Response This revision added the CRD Dead-Zone Bias [PID:A r 3]. if fA 34 is selected. In addition. In prior versions. mass flow. Beginning with this revision. the derivative response was strictly proportional to the proximity-to-surge derivative.1. the series load-balancing parameter is a function of proximity-to-surge. Discrete Outputs Load Sharing Loop Decoupling Manual Override Minimum Flow Fallback Beginning with this revision. This revision added the Flow Variables Decimal parameter and Available Flow (UsrQ) variable. 1996 This revision added the Flow and UsrQ analog OUT2 functions. In prior versions. Released: October 11. and 64 through 69. the Minimum Flow Fallback is triggered by a Speed or f5 Argument failure if that variable is required by the selected fA Mode and the Speed or Function 5 Fallback is disabled. In prior versions.

In prior versions. new software can be downloaded into a secondary valve-sharing controller while it is operating automatically. that value always selected analog input CH4. It can also base its operating state on the rotational speed (and that input can be monitored and recorded) even if that signal is not used by the selected Application Function. the Signal Values Test [MODE TEST 4] read all of the controller’s analog inputs just once. the speed could be received serially only from a Speed or Fuel Controller and the specified speed source was ignored unless required by the selected fA Mode. In prior versions. a new control program can be downloaded to an Antisurge Controller only while it is being manually operated. Beginning with this revision. In general. Released: May 15. this response could be triggered in the Run state. Beginning with this revision. The displayed values would not subsequently change no matter how long or how many times they were displayed (unless the test was terminated and restarted). “POC” is displayed by the ALTernate readout whenever the recycle flow rate is elevated by the performance override feature. Rotational Speed Safety On Response Surge Control Line Valve Sharing 754-002 ALT Display Input Signal Values Program Downloading 755-001 September 2005 Page 7 of 10 DS301/V (6. however. Beginning with this revision. In prior versions. CRC: FDE1.1. even if it is received from another controller via serial communications. the value 4 selects the rotational speed as the Control Line Argument. the currently-displayed input’s value is updated continually. Beginning with this revision. the controller can receive its speed signal from a version 954-001 (or higher) Performance Controller. downloading could be initiated only while such controllers were being manually operated. In previous versions. the actuator control signal of a secondary valve-sharing controller will track that of the designated primary controller.Purge State Beginning with this revision. In prior versions. 1997 Beginning with this revision. Beginning with this revision.2) . the surge count can be reset to zero by asserting discrete input D5. the purge response is triggered only if the purge input is asserted while the Stop state is selected. In prior versions. Beginning with this revision. ID Code: 99. This major revision was skipped in order to bring the numbering for this product into synchronization with that for the Speed Controller. the value of the OUT1 signal was not defined in such applications.

designating a Stop/Purge Companion disabled this controller’s operating state discrete inputs. Beginning with this revision. a controller using fA Mode 01 or 02 can limit its CH3 process variable (PV3) even though it is not used by those Application Functions. Total B. such writes will not affect the controller’s operation. Released: August 29. CRC: BCBB. which is based on the compression ration and an aftercooler flow measurement. Limiting Variable Displays Modbus Operating State Requests Beginning with this revision.756-001 Dual Flow Transmitters CRC: 60E5. In prior versions. the front-panel readouts of the limiting variables and control thresholds use the same scaling as their measured variable readouts. Beginning with this revision. ID Code: 132. a shutdown will be initiated if requested by either a discrete input or a designated Stop/Purge Companion controller.1. This revision added the POC Active discrete bit. In prior versions. 1999 Beginning with this revision. 2003 This revision fixed two minor Auxiliary readout problems. However. writing to such coils would return an error. Prior versions maintained only a cumulative surge count. ID Code: 179. even if none was expected. 2002 This revision added the discrete I/O status. Beginning with this revision. In prior versions. and characterizer result variables to the AUXiliary readout Status menu. Proximity-to-Surge Surge Counters 756-002 Front-Panel Readouts Modbus Pressure Limiting 756-003 September 2005 Page 8 of 10 DS301/V (6. This revision introduced fA Mode 63. Released: February 5. In addition. these variables were always displayed as percentages.2) . an application that requires frequent or sustained operation at low orifice pressure drops can automatically select either of two differently-spanned flow inputs. the Port 2 Fail discrete is now set only if the controller expects to receive transmissions from a Station Controller and does not. CRC: 0B54. In prior versions. This revision will return a normal response if a host attempts to write to an undefined coil or to set the Safety On coil (which can only be cleared). ID Code: 168. the controller can maintain both event and cumulative surge counters. it was set if the controller failed to detect Port 2 activity. Released: December 24.

Beginning with this revision. Front-Panel Readouts Load Sharing Modbus This revision added reduced head (Hpr) to the AUXiliary readout Calculated Variables menu. ID Code: 196. it triggered a step change).2) . 2005 Beginning with this revision. Remote Low Output Clamp September 2005 Page 9 of 10 DS301/V (6. In addition: • Failure of the Output Tracking input now ramps the output to an averaged (rather than the last good) value of that input. the default output fallback strategy ramps the output to the configured target (previously. Released: July 1. a NAK exception response is no longer returned when a host tries to change the output signal while the controller is operating automatically. Speed. the remote low clamp input is ignored during manual operation if the Manual Override parameter is On. Beginning with this revision.756-004 Fallback Strategies CRC: 4DF8. • The Minimum Flow. Beginning with this revision.1. and Function 5 fallback strategies are now supported when fA mode 51 is selected. the primary capacity control response will ignore station control signal step changes above 10 percent.

A.com . COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION 4725 121st Street.S. USA Phone: (515) 270-0857 • Fax: (515) 270-1331 • Web: www.cccglobal. IA 50323.2) L Printed in U.September 2005 Page 10 of 10 DS301/V (6.1. Des Moines.

0.000 1.: Serial No.: Checksum: Computer ID: COND:A GROUP CONST 4 CONST 5 CONST 6 CONST 7 CONST 8 0.: 756-001 Service: Controller ID: CCC No.000 0.000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 February 1999 Page 1 of 4 FM301/C (6.00 10.0) .000 1.: Tag No.00 1.FM301/C.000 1. Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Worksheet U β3 β5 CONST 1 CONST 2 CONST 3 X1# f(X) 1 # X2# f(X) 2 # X3# f(X) 3 # X4# f(X) 4 # X5# f(X) 5 # X6# f(X) 6 # M# Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Worksheet Customer: Completed By: Date: Software Rev.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 LVL 1 LVL 2 LVL 3 OUT 1 OUT HIGH OUT LOW SP 2 SP 3 10.000 .

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Worksheet Configuration Worksheet MODE:A GROUP ANIN 4 fA fB 1 fB 2 fB 3 fB 4 fB – fD 3 # SS 0 # SS 1 # SS 7 # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 fC 1 fC 2 fC 3 fC 4 fC 8 fC 9 fD 2 fD 9 fE 4 fE 5 MOR MVAR 2 MVAR 3 REV SS 2 SS 3 SS 4 SS 5 SS 6 1 SS 6 2 SS 8 SS 9 SS – SS HIGH PID:A GROUP G Kr 1 Kr 2 Kr 3 PB 1 PB 2 PB 3 r1 r3 Td 0 Td 1 Tf 1 Tf 2 SPEC:A GROUP A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 b1 b2 b3 C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 d1 K RT SO TL February 1999 Page 2 of 4 FM301/C (6.0.0) .

000 1.000 MODE:D GROUP COMM 2 COMM 3 baud COMM 3 parity COMM 4 baud COMM 4 parity AN IN # AN IN # HIGH AN IN # LOW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 fD 1 fD 2 fD 3 fE 1 LOCK 0 LOCK 1 LOCK 2 LOCK 3 LOCK 6 LOCK 7 LOCK 9 RA # jumper # CR1 JP5 CR2 JP6 CR3 JP7 CR4 JP8 CR5 JP9 February 1999 Page 3 of 4 FM301/C (6.0.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Worksheet Configuration Worksheet COND:D GROUP β0 CONST 0 BIAS # GAIN # DISPLAY 0 # DISPLAY 0 # – DISPLAY 0 # • DISPLAY 0 # HIGH DISPLAY 0 # LOW DISPLAY 1 # DISPLAY 1 # • DISPLAY 1 # HIGH X2# f(X) 2 # 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CONST 1 CONST 2 CONST 3 CONST 5 LVL 5 OUT 2 0.0) .

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Worksheet Configuration Worksheet

February 1999

Page 4 of 4

FM301/C (6.0.0)

L
Printed in U.S.A.

COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION
4725 121st Street, Des Moines, IA 50323, USA Phone: (515) 270-0857 • Fax: (515) 270-1331 • Web: www.cccglobal.com

FM301/L. Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Planner

U
f1 (Rc ):
0 0

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Planner
Customer: Completed By: Date: Software Rev.: 756-001 Service: Controller ID: CCC No.: Tag No.: Serial No.: Checksum: Computer ID:

Application Function (see Chapter 5 of IM301)
Application Function [MODE:A fA] Surge Limit Line Coefficient [SPEC:A K] DEV Filter Constant [PID:A Tf 1] Y Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 1 # and X 1 #] Rc : 0.00
1 2 3 4 5

see Appendix F of IM301 .000 to .999 ≤ 99.9 sec 0.00 to 9.99 10.00
6 7 8 9

in

X Coordinate Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 3 # and X 3 #] N: .000 f3 (N):
1 2 3 4

y

0.00 to 9.99 1.000
6 7 8 9

pm
5

ar
3: 01
Off for σ / 1 to 8 (Channel #) 0.00 to 9.99

el

Pr

Fallback Strategies (see Chapter 5 of IM301)
Default Output Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 1] Fallback Minimum Recycle [COND:A CONST 1] Minimum Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 2] Default Minimum Flow [COND:A CONST 2] Compression Ratio Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 3] Default Compression Ratio [COND:A CONST 3] Sigma Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 4] Default Sigma [COND:A CONST 4] Speed Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 5] Default Speed [COND:A CONST 5] Function 5 Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 6] Default f5 Argument [COND:A CONST 6] Adjacent Section Flow Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 7] Default Adjacent Section Flow [COND:A CONST 7] Valve Sharing Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 8] Alternate K [COND:A CONST 8] Polytropic Head Fallback [MODE:A fD 3 9]
Off / On ≤ 99.9 % Off / On ≤ 99.9 % Off / On ≤ 9.99 % Off / On ≤ .999 % Off / On ≤ 99.9 % Off / On ≤ 99.9 % Off / On ≤ 99.9 % Off / On ≤ .999 % Off / On

January 2001

Ju n

e

0

1

2

3

21

f5 Argument [MODE:A SS 9] General Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 5 # and X 5 #] X: .000 f5 (X):

im

7

,2

00

1.000
5 6 7 8 9

4

Page 1 of 8

FM301/L (6.0.1)

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Planner Configuration Planner
Calculated Variables (see Chapter 4 of IM301)
∆Pc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 1] ∆Tc Substitution [MODE:A SS 6 2] Constant Sigma [MODE:A fC 2] Sigma Filter Constant [PID:A Tf 2] Rotational Speed Source [MODE:A ANIN 4] Flow Element Pressure Input [MODE:A SS 8] Low Flow Input [MODE:A SS –] Mass Flow Coefficient [COND:A β 5] Compensating Pressure Input [MODE:D fD 2] Compensating Pressure Offset [COND:D CONST 2] Compensating Temperature Input [MODE:D fD 3] Compensating Temperature Offset [COND:D CONST 3]
Off / High / Low Off / High / Low Off / On ≤ 999 sec Off / 1 to 8 (Controller ID) Off / 1 to 8 (Channel #) Off / 1 to 8 (Channel #) ≤ 99.9 1 to 8 (Channel #) ≤ 99.9 1 to 8 (Channel #) ≤ 999

Mass Flow Rates (see Chapter 4 and Chapter 7 of IM301)

im

Pr

Polytropic Exponent Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 1] Compression Ratio Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 2] Temperature Ratio Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 3] Rotational Speed Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 4] Rotational Speed Coefficient [COND:D DISPLAY 1 4 HIGH] Flow Variables Decimal [COND:D DISPLAY 1 5 •] Mass Flow Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 5] Mass Flow Input [MODE:D fD 1] Displayed Flow Coefficient [COND:D DISPLAY 1 5 HIGH] Net Flow Display [COND:D DISPLAY 1 7] Net Flow Coefficient [COND:D DISPLAY 1 7 HIGH]

Ju n

Calculated Variable Displays (see Chapter 4 of IM301)

e

21

0

1

2

el

3

4

,2

f2 (Rc ):

00

Adjacent Section Controller [MODE:A SS 5] Sidestream Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 3] Main Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 4] Combined Flow Coefficient [SPEC:A C 5] Reported Flow Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] Rc : 0.00

in

01

3:

pm

ar

y

Equivalent Flow Measurements (see Chapter 7 of IM301)
Off / 1 to 8 (Controller ID) ≤ 9.99 ≤ 9.99 ≤ ±9.99 0.00 to 9.99 10.00
6 7 8 9

7
5

Off / On Off / On Off / On Off / On ≤ 99999 0 to 4 (1 = ###., 4 = .###) Off / On Off / 1 to 8 (Channel #) ≤ 99999 Off / On ≤ 99999

January 2001

Page 2 of 8

FM301/L (6.0.1)

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Planner Configuration Planner
Control Lines (see Chapter 6 of IM301)
Initial Surge Control Bias [SPEC:A b 1] Control Line Argument [MODE:A fC 1] Control Line Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 4 # and X 4 #] X: .000 f4 (X):
0 1 2 3 4 5

≤ 99.9 % Off / 1 to 8 (Channel #) 0.00 to 9.99 1.000
6 7 8 9

Derivative Response (see Chapter 6 of IM301)
Derivative Response [MODE:A fC 3] Maximum Derivative Response [SPEC:A b 3] CRD Dead-Zone Bias [PID:A r 3] CRD Time Constant [PID:A Td 0] Safety On Incremental Bias [SPEC:A b 2] Safety On Line Distance [SPEC:A SO] Surge Detection Method [MODE:A fD 2] Flow Rate-of-Change Threshold [SPEC:A A 1] Flow After Pressure Time Lag [SPEC:A A 2] Pressure Rate-of-Change Threshold [SPEC:A A 3] Pressure After Flow Time Lag [SPEC:A A 4] Safety On Repeat Interval [SPEC:A A 5] Surge Event Threshold [COND:D CONST 0] Surge Event Duration [COND:D CONST 1]
Off / On ≤ 99.9 % ≤ 99.9 %/160 msec ≤ 99.9 sec ≤ 99.9 % ≤ 99.9 % Off / 1 /2 / 3 / 4 ≤ ±99.9 %/160 msec ≤ 9.96 sec ≤ ±99.9 %/160 msec ≤ 9.96 sec ≤ 9.96 sec ≤ 99 surges ≤ 999 sec

Safety On Response (see Chapter 6 of IM301)

in
21 ,2 00 7

im
Ju n e

January 2001

Pr

el

Page 3 of 8

3:

01

pm

ar

y

FM301/L (6.0.1)

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Planner Configuration Planner
Antisurge Control Response (see Chapter 6 of IM301)
General Ramp Rate [PID:A G]
≤ 9.99 rpts/min

Antisurge PI Response (see Chapter 6 of IM301)
DEV Proportional Band [PID:A PB 1] DEV Reset Rate [PID:A Kr 1] DEV Dead-Zone Bias [PID:A r 1]
006 to 999 ≤ 99.9 rpts/min ≤ 99.9 % ≤ 99.9 % Off / On ≤ 99.9 ≤ 99.9 % ≤ 9.96 sec ≤ 9.99 sec ≤ 999 sec

Recycle Trip Response (see Chapter 6 of IM301)
Recycle Trip Line Distance [SPEC:A RT] Derivative Recycle Trip [MODE:A fC 4] Recycle Trip Gain [SPEC:A C 0] Maximum Recycle Trip Step Size [SPEC:A C 1] Recycle Trip Repeat Interval [SPEC:A C 2] Recycle Trip Time Constant [PID:A Td 1] Recycle Trip Decay Rate [SPEC:A TL]

el
3

Pr

Performance Override (see Chapter 6 of IM301)
Performance Override Control [MODE:A SS 3]
Off / On

Loop Decoupling (see Chapter 6 of IM301)
Decoupling Controller [MODE:A SS 0 #] Decoupling Gain [COND:A M #] Enable: Gain:
1 2 4 5

Ju n

e

Discharge Pressure Limiting [MODE:A MVAR 2] Maximum Discharge Pressure [COND:A SP 2] Pd Proportional Band [PID:A PB 2] Pd Reset Rate [PID:A Kr 2] Suction Pressure Limiting [MODE:A MVAR 3] Minimum Suction Pressure [COND:A SP 3] Ps Proportional Band [PID:A PB 3] Ps Reset Rate [PID:A Kr 3]

in
21 ,2 00 7

im

3:

01

pm

ar

y

Pressure Limiting (see Chapter 6 of IM301)
Off / On ≤ 99.9 % 006 to 999 ≤ 99.9 rpts/min Off / On ≤ 99.9 % 006 to 999 ≤ 99.9 rpts/min

Off / On –9.99 to 9.99

6

7

8

Valve Sharing (see Chapter 7 of IM301)
Valve-Sharing Master ID [MODE:A SS 2] Valve Sharing Companion [MODE:A SS 1 #] Enable:
1 2 3 4 5

Off / 1 to 8 (Controller ID) Off / On
6 7 8

January 2001

Page 4 of 8

FM301/L (6.0.1)

00 to 9.0.000 6 7 8 9 Recycle Balancing (see Chapter 7 of IM301) Port 2 Recycle Balancing [MODE:A SS HIGH] Recycle Balancing Controller [MODE:A SS 7 #] Enable: ar 0 1 2 3 4 y Balancing Variable Characterizer [COND:A f(X) 6 # and X 6 #] X: . 00 1 2 7 3: FM301/L (6.99 ≤ 1.1) .Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Planner Configuration Planner Networked Compressors Primary Capacity Control (see Chapter 7 of IM301) Load-Sharing Controller [MODE:A SS 4] Recycling Gain [COND:A M 0] Recycling Threshold [COND:A β 3] Off / 1 to 8 (Controller ID) ≤ ±9.000 5 6 7 8 9 in 4 pm 01 5 Off / On Off / On 6 7 8 im 3 el Pr January 2001 Ju n e Page 5 of 8 21 .000 f2 (CR): 0 1 2 3 4 5 Off / On Off / 1 to 8 (Channel #) 0.99 Load Balancing (see Chapter 7 of IM301) Series Load Variable [MODE:A fC 9] Load Balancing Variable [MODE:A fD 9] Recycle Flow Characterizer [COND:D f(X) 2 # and X 2 #] CR: .99 1.99 1. you must also enable the corresponding Valve Sharing Companion parameters.000 f6 (X): 0.2 For Port 1 balancing.00 to 9.

0.2 im Ju n e Alphanumeric Readouts (see Alphanumeric Readouts in DS301/O) Auxiliary Display Reset [MODE:D LOCK 9] Off / On January 2001 Pr el Page 6 of 8 3: 01 Remote Parameter Switching [MODE:D LOCK 3] pm Alternate Parameter Sets (see Chapter 9 of IM301) Off / On ar Redundant Tracking [MODE:D fE 1] Modbus While Tracking [MODE:D LOCK 0] y Redundant Tracking (see Chapter 9 of IM301) Off / On enables tracking Off / On requires different IDs FM301/L (6.99 rpts/min Off / On Shutdown Configuration (see Chapter 9 of IM301) Stopping Ramp Rate [COND:A LVL 3] Safety On AutoReset [MODE:A fB 3] Manual Override (see Chapter 9 of IM301) Manual Override [MODE:A MOR] Manual While Stopped [MODE:A fB 4] Off / On disables automatic protection Off / On to permit manual in 00 7 21 .1) .9 % ≤ 99.9 % ≤ 9.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Planner Configuration Planner States and Transitions Operating State Request Signals (see Chapter 9 of IM301) Stop/Purge Companion [MODE:A fB –] Stop Requests [MODE:A fB 1] Purge State [MODE:A fB 2] Minimum Flow and Pressure [COND:A LVL 1] Minimum Speed [COND:A LVL 2] Off / 1 to 8 (Controller ID) Off / On Off / On ≤ 99.

### 6 7 8 January 2001 Page 7 of 8 FM301/L (6.2 00 4 pm 5 Process Variables (see Chapter 3 of IM301) Process Variable Gain [COND:D GAIN #] Process Variable Bias [COND:D BIAS #] High: Low: im 3 Pr Measured Variable Display [COND:D DISPLAY 0 #] Measured Variable Label [COND:D DISPLAY 0 # –] Measured Variable Maximum [COND:D DISPLAY 0 # HIGH] Measured Variable Minimum [COND:D DISPLAY 0 # LOW] Measured Variable Decimal [COND:D DISPLAY 0 # •] Enable: Label: High: Low: Decimal: 1 2 3 4 5 Ju n Measured Variables (see Chapter 3 of IM301) e 21 1 2 el 7 3: ≤1..0.1) . 4 = .9 % 01 6 7 8 Off / On 8 Characters –9999 to 9999 –9999 to 9999 0 to 4 1 = ###.4 % ≤102.4 % Must be OFF Transmitter Testing (see Chapter 3 of IM301) Analog Input High Alarm Limit [MODE:D ANIN # HIGH] Analog Input Low Alarm Limit [MODE:D ANIN # LOW] High: Low: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Signal Variables (see Chapter 3 of IM301) Enable: 1 2 3 4 ar 5 y Offset Zero Input [MODE:D ANIN #] Off / On 6 7 8 in .000 ≤ 99.Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Planner Configuration Planner Analog Inputs (see Chapter 3 of IM301) Variable: CH1 CH5 CH2 CH6 CH3 CH7 CH4 CH8 Disabling Input Signals (see Chapter 3 of IM301) CPU Inputs Lockout [MODE:D LOCK 6] Off / On ≤102.

Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Configuration Planner Configuration Planner Output Variables (see Chapter 8 of IM301) Valve Flow Characterizer [MODE:A fC 8] Recycle Valve Direction [MODE:A REV] Valve Dead-Band Bias [COND:A OUT 1] Recycle High Clamp [COND:A OUT HIGH] Recycle Low Clamp [COND:A OUT LOW] Remote Low Output Clamp [MODE:A fE 4] Output Tracking [MODE:A fE 5] Tight Shut-Off Line Distance [SPEC:A d 1] Off / High / Low Off / On if signal-to-close valve ≤ 99.2 00 JP5 JP6 JP7 JP8 7 3: DO1 DO2 DO3 im DO5 JP9 01 NO/ NC: pm Relay Assigned Function [MODE:D RA #] function: ar Discrete Outputs (see Chapter 3 of IM301) ± function from Table 3-4 y FM301/L (6.A.9 % ≤ 99. IA 50323.2k Odd / Even / None 4800 / 9600 / 19.1) L Printed in U. USA Phone: (515) 270-0857 • Fax: (515) 270-1331 • Web: www. 3.9 % Off / 1 to 8 (Channel #) Off / 1 to 8 (Channel #) ≤ 99. & 4 Serial Communication Formats (see Chapter 3 of IM301) Port 2 Baud Rate [MODE:D COMM 2] Port 3 Baud Rate [MODE:D COMM 3] Port 3 Parity [MODE:D COMM 3] Port 4 Baud Rate [MODE:D COMM 4] Port 4 Parity [MODE:D COMM 4] 2400 / 4800 / (9600 recommended) 4800 / 9600 / 19.0.9 % Analog Outputs (see Chapter 3 of IM301) Second Output Assigned Variable [COND:D OUT 2] Out / Flow / S / UsrQ ≤ 99. Des Moines.9 % Valve Position Test (see Chapter 3 of IM301) Position Failure Threshold [COND:D LVL 5] Position Failure Delay [COND:D CONST 5] in DO4 Pr Controller ID Number [MODE:D COMM 0] Computer ID Number [MODE:D COMM 0 •] Ju n ID Numbers (see Chapter 3 of IM301) 1 to 8 1 to 64 for Port 1 for Ports 2.S. COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION 4725 121st Street.9 % ≤ 99.com .2k Odd / Even / None Modbus Configuration (see Chapter 3 of IM301) Read and Write Inhibit [MODE:D LOCK 1] Write Inhibit Only [MODE:D LOCK 2] Modbus Register Scaling [MODE:D LOCK 7] Off / On for no Modbus Off / On for read-only Off / On for 0-to-100 % (Port 3) January 2001 Page 8 of 8 e 21 Serial Ports el .9 % ≤ 99.cccglobal.

Do you require system configuration information? 6.: IM301 (6. Do you require system maintenance information? 5. Technical Documentation Comments: Ì Ì Ì Ì Ì May 2006 FM73 (3.com Which Series of Controllers do you have. and are you using our TrainTools software? Series 4 Ì Series 5 Ì TrainTools Ì Guardian Ì Vantage Ì Air Miser Ì Some additional information we would like to know: 1. Did you find what you were looking for? 3.0) .FM73 U Series 3+/3++ Ì Documentation Feedback Form Publication Title: Series 3 Plus Antisurge Controller Manual Publication No. Do you require system installation information? 4. Do you require system operation information? Please provide the following information if you wish to be contacted: Company: Name: Email: You may also fax your questions or comments to: Fax: (515) 334-2500 ATTN: Manager.3) Publication Date: September 2005 If you have questions or comments concerning the information provided in this user manual or in any of our technical documents please contact CCC’s Technical Documentation Department: E-mail: TechDocsMgr@cccglobal.1. How do you prefer to access our documentation? Printed Online Ì Yes Ì No Ì Ì Ì Ì Ì 2.

Iowa 50323-9906 Fold Along Dotted Line Please Fasten Here With Tape — Do Not Staple . 7515 DES MOINES. IOWA POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE NO POSTAGE NECESSARY IF MAILED IN THE UNITED STATES COMPRESSOR CONTROLS CORPORATION Technical Documentation Department 4725 121st Street Des Moines.a BUSINESS REPLY MAIL FIRST CLASS MAIL PERMIT NO.

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