March 05

Q3

(a)Rule 10 (edited) states;

(a) This Rule applies to traffic separation schemes adopted by the Organization and does not relieve any vessel of her obligation under any other Rule.

(b) A vessel using a traffic separation scheme shall:

(i)

proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of traffic flow for that lane;

(ii) so far as practicable keep clear of a traffic separation line or separation zone; (iii) normally join or leave a traffic lane at the termination of the lane, but when joining or leaving from either side shall do so at as small an angle to the general direction of traffic flow as practicable.

(c) A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing traffic lanes but if obliged to do so shall cross on a heading as nearly as practicable at right angles to the general direction of traffic flow.

(d)

(i) A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone when she can safely use the appropriate traffic lane within the adjacent traffic separation scheme. However, vessels of less than 20 metres in length, sailing vessels and vessels engaged in fishing may use the inshore traffic zone. (ii) Notwithstanding sub-paragraph (d) (i), a vessel may use an inshore traffic zone when en route to or from a port, offshore installation or structure, pilot station or any other place situated within the inshore traffic zone, or to avoid immediate danger.

(f) A vessel navigating in areas near the terminations of traffic separation schemes shall do so with particular caution.

(g) A vessel shall so far as practicable avoid anchoring in a traffic separation scheme or in areas near its terminations.

(h) A vessel not using a traffic separation scheme shall avoid it by as wide a margin as is practicable.

(b)

The route North of Coningbeg Lt is possible – especially with the use of good parallel indexing.

This route would NOT be used however for the following reasons:

The route passes unnecessarily close to the light vessel and the buoy when passing between them. This would put the vessel in unnecessary danger if there was: (i) Failure or degraded performance of Electronic Navigational Aids such as radar, GPS etc combined with a poor visibility during showers could put the ship in danger (ii) Machinery failure would put the vessel in unnecessary danger from lee shore (iii)Manoeuvres to avoid Fishing vessels for instance would prove difficult due to the lack of sea room

  

The route would be crossing the exiting traffic from the WSW traffic lane unnecessarily close to the exit point from the TSS causing conflict. Merging with other traffic entering the ENE Traffic lane could prove difficult if traffic conditions are busy SOLAS Chapter V (Annex 24. 4.) clearly states that under the planning process “The planned track should be plotted to clear navigational hazards at as safe a distance as circumstances allow. A longer route should always be accepted in preference to a shorter more hazardous route. The possibility of main engine or steering gear breakdown at a critical moment must not be overlooked.”

It would be better to plan a route passing to the South of the Coningbeg Light Vessel which would avoid these problems.

(c)

(i)

Tuskar Rock Lighthouse Coningbeg lightvessel Hook Head Lighthouse Towers Brownstown Head Ballynacourty Point Lighthouse

(ii)

Tuskar Rock Lighthouse (identified by Racon T) Coningbeg lightvessel (identified by Racon M) Hook Head (identified by distinctive shape) Brownstown Head (identified by distinctive shape) Helvick Head (identified by distinctive shape)

Q5

(a)

    

Detection by radar - especially in a calm sea (cannot be relied upon for bergy bits and growlers). Visually – appears as a white mass when shone on by the sun, with not sun a dark mass. First signs may be the wash of the sea breaking on its base Ice blink - sighted as a yellowish haze usually well before the ice itself is detected. If overcast an ice blink will tend to have a white layer reflecting with the cloud formation. Sea surface temperature – If carefully watched in the North Atlantic may indicate entry into a cold ice bearing current. If the recoded temp is 1°C then ice can be assumed to be within 150 nautical miles. If below -1°C then ice is within 50 nautical miles. Fog bank - Ice edge is often accompanied by a thick bank of fog.

  

Wildlife – prior to sighting ice or fog banks, it is more likely that observation of wildlife will provide indication of ice e.g walrus, seals, and different species of birds far from land. Sea state – a distinct change in sea state, where an abrupt smoothing of the sea and a reduction in swell indicates that ice could well be to windward Noise – a thunderous roar is heard when a growler is calved.

(b)

Ice accumulation may occur from three causes:    Fog, combined with freezing conditions; Freezing rain or wet snow; Spray or sea water breaking over a ship, when the air temperature is below the freezing point of sea water (about -2° C).

If these conditions are expected, the prudent course is to:   steer towards warmer conditions, or seek shelter, as soon as possible.

If unable to reach shelter or warmer conditions, it has been found best to:     (c) reduce spray to a minimum by heading into the wind and sea at the slowest speed possible, or run before the wind at the least speed that will maintain steerage.

Additionally: manual removal / clearance may be considered. Use of de-icing agents

Under SOLAS Chapter V, 2004, the Master of every ship encountering dangerous ice or conditions that will cause ice accumulation on ships, is required to report these conditions, format of the report can be found in The Mariners Handbook ( NP 100 ).

(d)

(i)

The message should contain:    The type of ice The position of the ice GMT and date of the observation

(ii)

The message should contain:     The date and GMT The position of the ship The air and sea temperatures The force & direction of the wind

June 05

Q2

(a) The main factors causing tides are the combined effect of the gravitational forces exerted on the earth by the moon and also, by the sun and are combined with the centrifugal forces produced by the revolution of the earth and moons orbit around the earth to cause tides.

The difference in the gravitational and centrifugal forces exerted on the earth's surface by the moon causes water to pile up towards the moon and also, in the hemisphere opposite to the moon.

Figure 1

Point A LW

HW

P

*

Moon HW

LW

2. Spring tides

The tides with maximum range are known as Spring tides - they occur at fortnightly intervals. ' "

Figure 2 represents the relative positions of the sun and moon at spring tides, when the tidal generating forces of the sun and moon act together producing the highest high tide and the lowest low waters.

The moon is at conjunction (New Moon) or opposition (Full Moon).

Figure 2

Full Moon Earth Opposition

New Moon Sun Conjunction

3. Neap tides

The tides with minimum ranges are known as Neap tides - they also occur at fortnightly intervals.

Figure 3 represents the relative positions of sun and moon at neap tides when the tidal generating forces are acting at right angles to each other, so that effectively a lower high water and a higher low water is produced. . These forces of the Sun relative to the moon are in the approximate ratio 7: 3.

The moon is said to be at quadrature.

Figure 3

1st Quarter

Earth

Sun

Last Quarter

(b)(i)

Height of Tide

The difference in height between the chart Datum line and the water level.

(ii)

Spring Range (Mean Spring Range)

The difference in height between MHWS and MLWS.

(iii)

Drying Height

This is height of a rock or shoal above Chart Datum, and is indicated on a chart as an underlined figure e.g 04 shows a drying height of 0.4 m above Chart Datum.

Q3

(a)

Factors to consider when making a landfall are: 1. 2. there should be clear obstruction free water, free of strong currents/tides around the area of approach; position fixing methods should have a good mix, and appropriate to the climatic conditions expected/forecast. The landfall position, once selected should be checked for daylight/night-time and poor visibility approach suitability; the coastline should have prominent features. Low lying land/islands should be avoided where possible, especially approaching them from windward; traffic density should be minimal where possible; Lee shores with strong onshore winds to be avoided where possible; abort points and contingency plans should be planned for.

3.

4. 5. 6.

Publications to be consulted are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Charts, including large scale charts (Corrected and up to date), Admiralty Sailing Directions (Pilot Books), Admiralty Lists of Lights and Fog Signals, Admiralty Lists of Radio Aids to navigation; Mariners' routeing guides, Passage Planning Charts, Current and tidal atlases Admiralty Tide Tables; IMO Routing Guide

(b)

Nominal Range Met. Vis.

24 miles 5 miles

From Luminous Range Diagram

Luminous Range is 12 miles

Elevation HoE.

31 m 12 m

From Geographical Range Table

Geographical Range is > 18.2 miles

The distance the light would be first sighted would be 12 miles

(c)(i)    The error of the standard (magnetic) compass would be affected giving rise to problems maintaining a course if steering by standard compass; Any equipment reliant on earths magnetism (such as off course alarms) could be rendered unreliable; If the vessel remains in the area for some time, the semi permanent magnetism of the vessel may be affected.

(ii)

It highlights the area inside the 10m contour i.e. an area with a depth of less than 10m. Iso is the abbreviation for Isophase – meaning the period of light is equal to the period of darkness.

(iii)

Q4b. b) The chart is 'ORTHOMORPHIC' i.e .the shape depicted on the chart is the same as the shape of the land on the Earth.

All meridians lie vertical, are equidistant and parallel straight lines.

All parallels of Latitude are horizontal, parallel straight lines and lie at right angles to the meridians

All RHUMB lines appear as straight lines crossing meridians at equal angles.

Every Latitude has a different scale of distance

Oct 05

Q3

(a)

There are 10 parts to chart 5500, which would be used as follows:

         

Passage Planning Using this Guide – This give advice on the application of Appraisal, Planning, Execution and Monitoring in passage planning; Routing: General Rules and Recommendations – Covers the application of IRPCS Rule 10 and the use of the Deep Water routes; Routing: Special Rules and Recommendations – informs of the IMO adoption of the TSS schemes, and advises that vesasels over 300 GT should have electronic position fixing systems; Passage Planning: Special Classes of Vessel – gives advice for deep draught vessels eg underkeel clearances and routes to use, recommended routes for vessels carrying dangerous goods and the use of ITZ for sailing vessels under 20m; Oil and Dangerous Cargoes: Marine Pollution – Gives advice on the MARPOL and reporting requirements for different classes of cargo; Radio Reporting Systems applying to through Traffic – gives advice on where reporting information can be found in ALRS, and the reporting requirements and contents of the reports for different types of vessel carrying different types of cargo in the various areas; Reporting to a Port of Destination in the Area – gives the reporting requirements for ports to be used in the area (e.g. notice of arrival) and where information can be found on the requirements (ALRS Vol 6); Maritime Radio Services – details on Navigation warnings and weather bulletins, NAVTEX stations and Traffic surveillance in the area; Pilot Services – Details on both Deep Sea Pilot and Harbour Pilots Tidal Information and Services – Co-Range and C-Tidal information in the area.

(b) 1.1 The purpose of ships’ routeing is to improve the safety of navigation in converging areas and in areas where the density of traffic is great or where freedom of movement of shipping is inhibited by restricted searoom, the existence of obstructions to navigation, limited depths or unfavourable meteorological conditions. Ships’ routeing may also be used for the purpose of preventing or reducing the risk of pollution or other damage to the marine environment caused by ships colliding or grounding or anchoring in or near environmentally sensitive areas.

1.2 The precise objectives of any routeing system will depend upon the particular hazardous circumstances which it is intended to alleviate, but may include some or all of the following:

.1 the separation of opposing streams of traffic so as to reduce the incidence of head-on encounters;

.2 the reduction of dangers of collision between crossing traffic and shipping in established traffic lanes;

.3 the simplification of the patterns of traffic flow in converging areas;

.4 the organization of safe traffic flow in areas of concentrated offshore exploration or exploitation;

.5 the organization of traffic flow in or around areas where navigation by all ships or by certain classes of ship is dangerous or undesirable;

.6 the organization of safe traffic flow in or around or at a safe distance from environmentally sensitive areas;

.7 the reduction of risk of grounding by providing special guidance to vessels in areas where water depths are uncertain or critical; and

.8 the guidance of traffic clear of fishing grounds or the organization of traffic through fishing grounds.

(c)(i)

Traffic lane* An area within defined limits in which one-way traffic is established. Natural obstacles, including those forming separation zones, may constitute a boundary.

(ii)

Separation zone A zone separating the traffic lanes in which ships are proceeding in opposite or nearly opposite directions; or separating a traffic lane from the adjacent sea area; or separating traffic lanes designated for particular classes of ship proceeding in the same direction. Shaded Magenta on the chart and usually to be avoided.

(iii)

Separation Line A line separating the traffic lanes in which ships are proceeding in opposite or nearly opposite directions; or separating a traffic lane from the adjacent sea area; or separating traffic lanes designated for particular classes of ship proceeding in the same direction. Shaded Magenta on the chart and usually to be kept clear of

(iv)

Inshore traffic zone

A routeing measure comprising a designated area between the landward boundary of a traffic separation scheme and the adjacent coast, to be used in accordance with the provisions of rule 10(d), as amended, of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (Collision Regulations).

(v)

Precautionary area A routeing measure comprising an area within defined limits where ships must navigate with particular caution and within which the direction of traffic flow may be recommended.

Q5b.

(b)(i)

The “Guidance to Masters and Navigating Officers” section contains: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Bridge Organisation Passage Planning Duties of the Officer of the Watch Operation and Maintenance of Bridge Equipment Dynamic Positioning Maritime Pilotage

(ii)

Checklists from part C are:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

C1 Main Engine or Steering Gear Failure; C2 Collision; C3 Standing or Grounding; C4 Man Overboard C5 Fire C6 Flooding C7 Search and Rescue C8 Abandoning Ship

(Students are only required to state 6 out of the 8 listed above – if more are stated then only the first 6 would be marked)

Nov 05

Q3

(a)

(a) This Rule applies to traffic separation schemes adopted by the Organization and does not relieve any vessel of her obligation under any other Rule.

(b) A vessel using a traffic separation scheme shall:

(i) proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of traffic flow for that lane; (ii) so far as practicable keep clear of a traffic separation line or separation zone; (iii) normally join or leave a traffic lane at the termination of the lane, but when joining or leaving from either side shall do so at as small an angle to the general direction of traffic flow as practicable.

(c) A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing traffic lanes but if obliged to do so shall cross on a heading as nearly as practicable at right angles to the general direction of traffic flow.

(d) (i) A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone when she can safely use the appropriate traffic lane within the adjacent traffic separation scheme. However, vessels of less than 20 metres in length, sailing vessels and vessels engaged in fishing may use the inshore traffic zone. (ii) Notwithstanding sub-paragraph (d) (i), a vessel may use an inshore traffic zone when en route to or from a port, offshore installation or structure, pilot station or any other place situated within the inshore traffic zone, or to avoid immediate danger.

(e) A vessel other than a crossing vessel or a vessel joining or leaving a lane shall not normally enter a separation zone or cross a separation line except:

(i) in cases of emergency to avoid immediate danger;

(f) A vessel navigating in areas near the terminations of traffic separation schemes shall do so with particular caution.

(g) A vessel shall so far as practicable avoid anchoring in a traffic separation scheme or in areas near its terminations.

(h) A vessel not using a traffic separation scheme shall avoid it by as wide a margin as is practicable. (i) A vessel engaged in fishing shall not impede the passage of any vessel following a traffic lane.

(b)(i)

A white light that flashes 3 times in succession during a period of 10 seconds. It has an elevation of 47 metres measured between Mean High Water Springs and the focal plane of the white light. It has a nominal range (in met visibility of 10 miles) of 25 nautical miles.

Also – A Red sectored light , Fixed (i.e. shines constantly – no eclipse) The elevation (described above) is 41 mtres and Nominal Range is 12 nautical miles.

The fog signal is a Diaphone which is sounded in restricted visibility.

(ii)

Flood tide sets at approximately 065°T with a Mean Spring Rate between 2 and 3 knots.

Ebb tide sets at approximately 245°T with a Mean Spring Rate between 2 and 3 knots.

(iii)

These are intertidal areas which cover and uncover depending upon the Height of Tide. Heights are measured above Chart Datum.

(iv)

A Port Hand Lateral Mark, unlit, painted red.

(v)

This is a North Cardinal Mark. The course must be altered to pass to the North of the buoy.

Q5

(a)

The Bridge Procedures Guide Edition 4 (2007) paragraph 1.2.5 “The Bridge Team” states:

“The bridge team is established so that the most effective use can be made of available manpower in order that established work procedures are followed, risk is minimised and ships are navigated safely. All ship’s personnel who have bridge navigational watch duties will be part of the bridge team. The master and pilot(s), as necessary, will need the support of the team, which will comprise the 00W, a helmsman and look-out(s) as required.

The 00W is in charge of the bridge and the bridge team for that watch, until relieved.

It is important that the bridge team works together closely, both within a particular watch and across watches, since decisions made on one watch may have an impact on another watch.

The bridge team also has an important role in maintaining communications with the engine room and other operating areas on the ship”

(b)

The Bridge Procedures Guide Edition 3 (1998) paragraph 1.2. “Composition of the navigational watch under the STCW

Code” states:

In determining whether the composition of the navigational watch is adequate to ensure that a proper look-out can he maintained continuously, the master should take into account all relevant factors including the following:

o

visibility, state of weather and sea;

o

traffic density, and other activities occurring in the area in which the ship is navigating;

o

the attention necessary when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes or other routeing measures, or within industrially controlled work zones;

o

the additional workload caused by the nature of the ship’s functions, immediate operating requirements and anticipated manoeuvres;

o

the fitness for duty of any crew members on call who are assigned as members of the watch, including compliance with applicable work hour regulations;

o

knowledge of and confidence in the professional competence of the ship’s officers and crew;

o

the experience of each 00W, arid the familiarity of that 00W with the ship’s equipment, procedures and manoeuvring capability;

o

activities taking place on board the ship at any particular time, including radio communication activities, and the availability of assistance to be summoned immediately to the bridge where necessary;

o

the operational status of bridge instrumentation and controls, including alarm systems;

o

rudder and propeller control and ship manoeuvring characteristics;

o

the size of the ship and the field of vision available from the conning position;

o

the configuration of the bridge, to the extent that such configuration might inhibit a member of the watch from detecting by sight or hearing any external development;

o

any other relevant standard, procedure or guidance relating to watchkeeping arrangements and fitness for duty.

(Note to Students – only 10 of the above bullet points need to be stated in the SQA exam)

(c)

STCW states that “In certain circumstances of clear daylight conditions the Master may consider that the OOW may be the sole look-out.”

(d)

The additional factors to be considered on each occasion are that:

the OOW has had sufficient rest prior to commencing the watch;

in the judgement of the OOW, the anticipated workload is well within his capacity to maintain a proper lookout and remain in full control of the prevailing circumstances;

 

back up to the OOW has been clearly designated; the OOW knows who will provide that back-up assistance, in what circumstances back-up must be called, and how to call it quickly;

designated back-up personnel are aware of response times, any limitation on their movements, and are able to hear alarm or communication calls from the bridge;

all essential equipment and alarms on the bridge are fully functional

march 06

Q3

(a)

Ten factors to consider when passage planning are:

           

currents ( directions and rate of set ) ; tides ( times, height, direction and rate); draft of vessel during the various stages of the intended passages including under keel allowances for areas where squat may be experienced: advice and recommendations given in the sailing directions; navigational lights ( characteristics, range, arc of visibility and anticipated luminous range); navigational marks (anticipating both their radar and visual detection ranges); traffic separation, and mandatory and voluntary routeing and reporting schemes; radio aids to navigation, availability of coverage and degree of accuracy at each stage of the passage and availability of DGPS if used; navigational warnings affecting the area; location of ferry routes, especially where high speed craft may be encountered ; climatological data affecting the area; and vessel’s manoeuvring data.

(Note to Students – 10 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 10 will only result in the first 10 of your answers being marked by SQA!)

(b)

Five factors influencing the margin of safety are:

    

The manoeuvrability of the vessel in the expected load and weather conditions The condition of the vessel and her equipment The quantity, availability and experience of the navigating officers/watchkeepers The availability, reliability, quality and quantity of position fixing methods, and the ability to cross check different methods Company/Masters Standing Orders and SMS requirements

(c)

Five factors to be considered during the execution stage are:

   

The reliability and condition of the ship’s navigational equipment – the better and more reliably the vessel’s position can be fixed allows greater flexibility in how it is navigated about dangers. Estimated times of arrival at critical points for tide heights and flow – there may be times when the direction and/or speed of the tide makes navigation hazardous, therefore it must be planned to avoid these times. Meteorological conditions, particularly areas known to be affected by fog – this will influence the safe speed at which the vessel can be navigated. Daytime versus night-time passing of danger points – availability of different navigation aids that are best used during the day or night will influence whether a day or night passage is required e.g good leading lights may influence a night passage through traffic conditions, especially at navigational focal points that hazardous area.

Traffic conditions, especially at navigational focal points – heavy traffic and Traffic Separation Systems may require the vessel to come to Stand-by, and slow the vessel to manoeuvring speed or less. This will affect speed, ETA’s and manning requirements where a helmsman/extra lookouts are required.

(c) Five factors to be considered during the monitoring stage are:  The vessels progress along the planned track must be monitored all times – this ensures that the vessel is in a safe position, is heading in a safe direction, and is making good the required speeds so that she will meet the required ETA’s for critical parts of the voyage. If the position cannot be fixed then the Master is to be informed immediately.  The performance of navigational equipment should be checked prior to sailing, prior to entering restricted or hazardous waters and at regular intervals at other times throughout the voyage – this ensures that the availability accuracy and reliability of each piece of equipment is known, and therefore the reliance that can be placed on it.  Advantage should be taken of all navigational equipment with which the vessel is fitted for position monitoring – using all available means of fixing allows the navigator to cross check the different methods which gives an idea of how much reliance can be placed on the various methods at that time. It will also give an indication of the quality of the position fixing.

Each time the vessel is fixed and marked on the chart in use, the estimated position at a convenient interval of time in advance should be projected and plotted – this allows the navigator to estimate when he will arrive at different points, e.g what time the vessel will arrive at the next alteration of course.

Radar can be to advantage in monitoring the position of the vessel by the use of parallel indexing – this is another method that can be used to guage whether the vessel is on track, how far it is off track, and whether it is heading into danger if “Not More Than”/”Not Less Than” lines are also used as a form of clearing ranges.

5b.

(b)

On discovering a 15° gyro error the following would be carried out:

Call the Master Confirm the safety of the vessel with reference to position/heading Change to Hand Steering using the Magnetic Compass Change Radar to Ships Head up display Compare the repeater used for the observation with the Master Gyro Compare the two gyro compasses Check the Latitude/Speed inputs for Sperry type Gyros Compare the Gyro to Magnetic Compass course difference to the one first found on altering to that course to see if it has changed  Re-check calculations and hat the correct body has been used (e.g. mis-identification of a star)  Take a new observation and perform a new calculation Check previous errors in the Compass Error Book.

       

July 06
Q3

(a)

Six publications to consult when planning this passage are:         appropriate scale, accurate and up-to-date charts to be used for the intended voyage or passage corrected using relevant permanent or temporary notices to mariners; existing radio navigational warnings; accurate and up-to-date sailing directions; accurate and up-to-date lists of lights; accurate and up-to-date lists of radio aids to navigation; current and tidal atlases; current tide tables; IMO Routing Guide;

(Note to Students – 6 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 6 will only result in the first 6 of your answers being marked by SQA!) (b) The methods of position monitoring are:

(i)

From Waterford Harbour to Conningbeg Lightvessel: Transit astern using the directional light

Visual bearings of: Dunsmore East Church Dunsmore East lighthouse Hook Head Lighthouse Conningbeg Lightvessel Radar Ranges off: Hook Head (Racon) Conningbeg Lightvessel (Racon)

(ii)

Passing Conningbeg Lightvessel (After it’s position is confirmed by the previous fixing): Parallel indexing off Conningbeg Lightvessel Visual bearings of: Hook Head Lighthouse Tuskar Rock Lighthouse Radar Ranges of: Hook Head Lighthouse Tuskar Rock Lighthouse

(iii)

From Conningberg Lightvessel to the TSS: Visual bearings of: Conningbeg Lightvessel Tuskar Rock Lighthouse Radar Ranges off: Conningbeg Lightvessel Great Saltee Carnsore Point Tuskar Rock Lighthouse

(c)

Rule 10 if the IRPCS states: (d) (i) A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone when she can safely use the appropriate traffic lane within the adjacent traffic separation scheme. However, vessels of less than 20 metres in length, sailing vessels and vessels engaged in fishing may use the inshore traffic zone.

(ii) Notwithstanding sub-paragraph (d) (i), a vessel may use an inshore traffic zone when en route to or from a port, offshore installation or structure, pilot station or any other place situated within the inshore traffic zone, or to avoid immediate danger.

Since neither the vessel nor the passage planned conform to the exceptions to the rule, then the vessel MUST use the appropriate traffic lane unless the vessel has to avoid immediate danger.

(d)

The adoption of a TSS can be found in:

IMO Routing Guide Sailing Directions Annual Summary of Notices to Mariners The appropriate BA chart

(Note to Students – 2 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 2 will only result in the first 2 of your answers being marked by SQA!)

(e)

To Calculate Luminous Range

Met Visibility Nominal Range 24 miles

5 miles

From Luminous Range Diagram The Luminous Range is 13.7 miles To Calculate Geographical Range

Height of Eye Elevation

4.5 metres 33.0 metres

From Geographical Range Table

Geographical Range is ˃15.2 miles

The earliest the light would be seen would be at 13.7 miles

Q5 Q5

Since the casualty is still visible, then the Single Turn can be performed which is preferable to the Williamson Turn. This manoeuvre returns the vessel to the casualty much more quickly and creates an excellent lee in which to launch the rescue craft, but relies on the casualty remaining visible.

Immediate actions are:

       

Wheel put in Hand steering (Man on the wheel) and hard over to Port ordered (towards the casualty) Release MoB Lifebuoy ensuring the smoke float is activated Lookouts posted Call Master Sound 3 long blasts on the ships whistle and alarm systems Engines to Standby and reduce speed Position (and Time) recorded (MoB activated on ECDIS/GPS) Hoist “O” Flag

Subsequent actions are:

          

Complete single turn to a course of approximately 233°T Prepare the rescue craft, Muster and brief the boat crew Slow the vessel to a safe speed to launch the rescue craft Guide Rescue craft towards the casualty using VHF/Flags Rig searchlights at night st Have blankets and 1 Aid Kits to hand to receive the casualty Prepare the hospital to receive the casualty Once the rescue craft is away, manoeuvre the vessel to create a lee to recover the rescue craft Send Pan Pan message to vessels in the vicinity if the casualty visible, Mayday message if casualty is lost and assistance is required If casualty is lost commence expanding square/sector search

Oct 06

Q3

(a)

The following could be extracted from the Sailing Directions which could be used in the appraisal stage of Voyage Planning:     Meteorological/Climatic information Current and Tidal Information Navigational Hazards Navigational aids/marks

    (b)

Navigational advice for entering/leaving harbours Sketches/photographs of the ports/coastal features Berth information/directions Facilities available within the port e.g. Pilotage, repair yards, anchorages etc

Six publications to consult when planning this passage are:        appropriate scale, accurate and up-to-date charts to be used for the intended voyage or passage corrected using relevant permanent or temporary notices to mariners; existing radio navigational warnings; accurate and up-to-date lists of lights; accurate and up-to-date lists of radio aids to navigation; current and tidal atlases; current tide tables; IMO Routing Guide;

(Note to Students – 6 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 6 will only result in the first 6 of your answers being marked by SQA!)

(c)

Poor visibility is generally between 1 to 3 miles.

(i)

Advantages:      Shorter more economical route Good parallel indexing off Portland and Portland Bill Powerful light at Portland Bill able to pierce restricted visibility – Dangers of the Shambles highlighted by the Fixed Red light Shambles well marked by the West Cardinal Buoy Water in the channel deep – over 20m

Disadvantages    Narrow Passage between the Shambles and Portland – not much room in case of engine breakdown/steering gear failure etc or navigational error Radar image of the buoy/Portland may be obscured during heavy showers making monitoring difficult Rapid tidal rate/tide rips may be problematic for slow or small vessels

(ii)

Advantages:  Places the vessel further away from the allowing for the leeway problems caused by the SEly wind

Disadvantages   The shambles is very shallow – very high risk of grounding in even shallow draughted vessels In contravention of the buoyage system in place

(iii)

Advantages:     Takes the vessel well way from the navigational dangers described above Safer Can fix by radar Eastern edge of the Shambles well marked by the East Cardinal Mark

Disadvantages   (d) Longer Outside the probable luminous range of Portland Bill Light making visual fixing difficult

The preferred option is to take the longer safer route East of the Shambles

Q5.

(b)

Six items from the BPG Heavy Weather Checklist are:

       

Have the Master, Engine Room and Crew been informed of the conditions? Have all moveable objects been secured above and below decks, particularly in the Engine Room, Galley and in Storerooms? Has she ship’s accommodation been secured and all ports and deadlights closed? Have all weather deck openings been closed? Has the Speed and Course been adjusted as necessary? Have the crew been warned to avoid the upper deck areas made dangerous by the weather? Have safety lines/hand ropes been rigged where necessary? Have instructions been issued on monitoring weather reports?

(Note to Students – 6 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 6 will only result in the first 6 of your answers being marked by SQA!)

(c)

Five items to be considered are:

      

Have the engines on Standby, the helm in hand steering and the vessel ready for immediate manoeuvre Keep at least 500m from any installations Be vigilant of day signals/ lights for vessels that might be Restricted in their Ability to Manoeuvre e.g. whilst anchor handling and Supply Vessels making an approach on the rigs Underkeel clearance may be reduced by wellheads and underwater pipelines Do not anchor in areas where there are pipelines – they may not be on the chart yet due to having just been layed Possible magnetic anomalies around the pipelines Rigs may not be where charted – not yet recorded on Riglists

(Note to Students – 5 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 5 will only result in the first 5 of your answers being marked by SQA!)

Dec 06

Q3

(a)

There are 10 parts to chart 5500, which would be used as follows:

         

Passage Planning Using this Guide – This give advice on the application of Appraisal, Planning, Execution and Monitoring in passage planning; Routing: General Rules and Recommendations – Covers the application of IRPCS Rule 10 and the use of the Deep Water routes; Routing: Special Rules and Recommendations – informs of the IMO adoption of the TSS schemes, and advises that vesasels over 300 GT should have electronic position fixing systems; Passage Planning: Special Classes of Vessel – gives advice for deep draught vessels eg underkeel clearances and routes to use, recommended routes for vessels carrying dangerous goods and the use of ITZ for sailing vessels under 20m; Oil and Dangerous Cargoes: Marine Pollution – Gives advice on the MARPOL and reporting requirements for different classes of cargo; Radio Reporting Systems applying to through Traffic – gives advice on where reporting information can be found in ALRS, and the reporting requirements and contents of the reports for different types of vessel carrying different types of cargo in the various areas; Reporting to a Port of Destination in the Area – gives the reporting requirements for ports to be used in the area (e.g. notice of arrival) and where information can be found on the requirements (ALRS Vol 6); Maritime Radio Services – details on Navigation warnings and weather bulletins, NAVTEX stations and Traffic surveillance in the area; Pilot Services – Details on both Deep Sea Pilot and Harbour Pilots Tidal Information and Services – Co-Range and Co-Tidal information in the area.

(b)

(i)

Tidal Stream Atlas This contains the directions and the strengths (Neaps and Springs) of the tidal streams to be expected in a sea area (e.g the English Channel). Used with the tide tables for the nominated port, the directions and rates for the predicted range can be calculated more accurately using the computation table at the front. This information is given at hourly intervals for High Water and the six preceding and six successive hours. More precise information can be obtained using the chartlets provided in some volumes, and the Co- Range and Co-Tidal diagrams can be used to calculate underkeel clearances.

(ii)

Admiralty Sailing Directions The following could be extracted from the Sailing Directions which could be used in the appraisal stage of Voyage Planning:         Meteorological/Climatic information Current and Tidal Information Navigational Hazards Navigational aids/marks Navigational advice for entering/leaving harbours Sketches/photographs of the ports/coastal features Berth information/directions Facilities available within the port e.g. Pilotage, repair yards, anchorages etc

(iii)

Admiralty List of Light and Fog Signals This contains the name, position, characteristics, elevation, appearance, height, and details of any Fog Signals that may be sounded. This would be used to help with recognition of the light in daylight, and gives the details of arcs of visibility. These are updated by the Weekly Notices to Mariners, so if a light was Temporarily destroyed for instance, this would be noted.

(c)

It is used to calculate the and compare the Mean Spring Range (MSR) and the Mean High Water Interval (MHWI) for the location and the Standard Port so that the differences can be calculated and used to calculate the times and heights for the position required. This would be used in shallow waters so that deep draught vessels can have their underkeel clearances can be calculated. Since the HW moves with the movement of the moon, the movement of the HW can also be calculated and plotted so that the vessel can, in some instances chase the HW along the English Channel to maximize underkeel clearance.

Q5.

(b)

The compass deviation is in error the OOW must:          

Call the Master Ensure that the vessel is in a safe position/on a safe heading Put the steering in hand If having difficulty maintaining a course vessels in the vicinity to be informed Check previous observations in Compass Record Book Check the chart for magnetic anomalies Does the cargo have magnetic properties? Check the calculations Check that the correct celestial body was identified Perform a fresh calculation

Mar 07.

Q3

(a)

(a)

Ten factors to consider when passage planning are:

currents ( directions and rate of set ) ;

          

tides ( times, height, direction and rate); draft of vessel during the various stages of the intended passages including under keel allowances for areas where squat may be experienced: advice and recommendations given in the sailing directions; navigational lights ( characteristics, range, arc of visibility and anticipated luminous range); navigational marks (anticipating both their radar and visual detection ranges); traffic separation, and mandatory and voluntary routeing and reporting schemes; radio aids to navigation, availability of coverage and degree of accuracy at each stage of the passage and availability of DGPS if used; navigational warnings affecting the area; location of ferry routes, especially where high speed craft may be encountered ; climatological data affecting the area; and vessel’s manoeuvring data.

(Note to Students – 10 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 10 will only result in the first 10 of your answers being marked by SQA!)

(b)

Four factors influencing the margin of safety off a headland are:

    

The manoeuvrability of the vessel in the expected load and weather conditions The condition of the vessel and her equipment The quantity, availability and experience of the navigating officers/watchkeepers The availability, reliability, quality and quantity of position fixing methods, and the ability to cross check different methods Company/Masters Standing Orders and SMS requirements

(Note to Students – 4 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 4 will only result in the first 4 of your answers being marked by SQA!)

(c)

Four factors to consider when deciding what to use for primary and Secondary Means of Fixing when Coasting are:

   

The expected met visibility for visual fixing The rainfall which could affect both visual fixing but also radar detection in heavy showers, The topography of the coast and its suitability for using Radar to measure ranges, The availability of GPS/DGPS and other means of electronic navigation in that area to back up the above

(d)

Four factors to consider fixing intervals are:

   

The speed of the vessel; The proximity of navigational dangers, The prevailing weather conditions The effects of the tides and currents The accuracy and reliability of the means of fixing available

(Note to Students – 4 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 4 will only result in the first 4 of your answers being marked by SQA!)

Q5.

Q5

(a)

       

Detection by radar - especially in a calm sea (cannot be relied upon for bergy bits and growlers). Visually – appears as a white mass when shone on by the sun, with not sun a dark mass. First signs may be the wash of the sea breaking on its base Ice blink - sighted as a yellowish haze usually well before the ice itself is detected. If overcast an ice blink will tend to have a white layer reflecting with the cloud formation. Sea surface temperature – If carefully watched in the North Atlantic may indicate entry into a cold ice bearing current. If the recoded temp is 1°C then ice can be assumed to be within 150 nautical miles. If below -1°C then ice is within 50 nautical miles. Fog bank - Ice edge is often accompanied by a thick bank of fog. Wildlife – prior to sighting ice or fog banks, it is more likely that observation of wildlife will provide indication of ice e.g walrus, seals, and different species of birds far from land. Sea state – a distinct change in sea state, where an abrupt smoothing of the sea and a reduction in swell indicates that ice could well be to windward Noise – a thunderous roar is heard when a growler is calved.

(b)

Ice accumulation may occur from three causes:    Fog, combined with freezing conditions; Freezing rain or wet snow; Spray or sea water breaking over a ship, when the air temperature is below the freezing point of sea water (about -2° C).

If these conditions are expected, the prudent course is to:   steer towards warmer conditions, or seek shelter, as soon as possible.

If unable to reach shelter or warmer conditions, it has been found best to:   reduce spray to a minimum by heading into the wind and sea at the slowest speed possible, or run before the wind at the least speed that will maintain steerage.

Additionally:

  (c)

manual removal / clearance may be considered. Use of de-icing agents

Under SOLAS Chapter V, 2004, the Master of every ship encountering dangerous ice or conditions that will cause ice accumulation on ships, is required to report these conditions, format of the report can be found in The Mariners Handbook ( NP 100 ).

(d)

(i)

The message should contain:    The type of ice The position of the ice GMT and date of the observation

(ii)

The message should contain:     The date and GMT The position of the ship The air and sea temperatures The force & direction of the wind

July 07.

Q3

(a)

1.1

The purpose of ships’ routeing is to improve the safety of navigation in converging areas and in areas where the density of traffic is great or where freedom of movement of shipping is inhibited by restricted searoom, the existence of obstructions to navigation, limited depths or unfavourable meteorological conditions. Ships’ routeing may also be used for the purpose of preventing or reducing the risk of pollution or other damage to the marine environment caused by ships colliding or grounding or anchoring in or near environmentally sensitive areas.

1.2 The precise objectives of any routeing system will depend upon the particular hazardous circumstances which it is intended to alleviate, but may include some or all of the following:

.1 the separation of opposing streams of traffic so as to reduce the incidence of head-on encounters;

.2 the reduction of dangers of collision between crossing traffic and shipping in established traffic lanes;

.3 the simplification of the patterns of traffic flow in converging areas;

.4 the organization of safe traffic flow in areas of concentrated offshore exploration or exploitation;

.5 the organization of traffic flow in or around areas where navigation by all ships or by certain classes of ship is dangerous or undesirable;

.6 the organization of safe traffic flow in or around or at a safe distance from environmentally sensitive areas;

.7 the reduction of risk of grounding by providing special guidance to vessels in areas where water depths are uncertain or critical; and

.8 the guidance of traffic clear of fishing grounds or the organization of traffic through fishing grounds.

(b)    BA Charts Sailing Directions Annual Summary of Notices to Mariners

(Note to Students – 1 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 1 will only result in the first 1 of your answers being marked by SQA!)

(c)

(i)

Traffic lane An area within defined limits in which one-way traffic is established. Natural obstacles, including those forming separation zones, may constitute a boundary.

(ii)

Separation zone A zone separating the traffic lanes in which ships are proceeding in opposite or nearly opposite directions; or separating a traffic lane from the adjacent sea area; or separating traffic lanes designated for particular classes of ship proceeding in the same direction. Shaded Magenta on the chart and usually to be avoided.

(iii)

Separation Line A line separating the traffic lanes in which ships are proceeding in opposite or nearly opposite directions; or separating a traffic lane from the adjacent sea area; or separating traffic lanes designated for particular classes of ship proceeding in the same direction. Shaded Magenta on the chart and usually to be kept clear of

(iv)

Inshore traffic zone

A routeing measure comprising a designated area between the landward boundary of a traffic separation scheme and the adjacent coast, to be used in accordance with the provisions of rule 10(d), as amended, of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (Collision Regulations).

(v)

Precautionary area A routeing measure comprising an area within defined limits where ships must navigate with particular caution and within which the direction of traffic flow may be recommended.

Q4. (c) The properties of a Mercator Chart are:

The chart is 'ORTHOMORPHIC' i.e .the shape depicted on the chart is the same as the shape of the land on the Earth.

All meridians lie vertical, are equidistant and parallel straight lines.

All parallels of Latitude are horizontal, parallel straight lines and lie at right angles to the meridians

All RHUMB lines appear as straight lines crossing meridians at equal angles.

Every Latitude has a different scale of distance

Q5. (ii) Items of other Bridge equipment to be checked during an Ocean Passage include:

          

Gyro Repeaters synchronisation Magnetic Compass Error/Deviation Steering in Hand function Radar Performance AIS function VHF Function GMDSS equipment function GPS/Electronic Fixing aids cross check & function Nav lights function Whistle function Met equipment function (Wet & Dry thermometers, Precision Aneroid Barometer, Barograph)

(Note to Students – 6 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 6 will only result in the first 6 of your answers being marked by SQA!)

(b)(i)

Backscatter can make it difficult to see lights and other objects at night. The speed of the vessel needs to be adjusted so that lights and other objects can be seen in reasonable time to allow the appropriate actions required by the IRPCS to take place.

(ii)

S band and X band radars are have different abilities to detect objects in different conditions at different ranges. A vessel may have blind and/or shadow sectors which makes detection difficult. Due to age/ condition, a radar set may lose performance. All these may affect the range at which objects are detected, therefore the speed needs to be adjusted to take these into account.

(iii)

When an object is first observed visually, its range can be found using radar. This gives the Navigator a more exact assessment of the visibility than by estimation. The vessels speed needs to be adjusted according to the range at which objects/vessels are detected. This can therefore be done with greater accuracy.

Oct 07.

Q3

(a)

When appraising and planning for a landfall, the following should be considered:

           

The Landfall approaches should be clear of navigational hazards e.g. shoals, dangerous wrecks; Large scale charts of the area must be available A sea bed with a distinct shoaling features that assists navigation using the echo sounder; The predicted meteorological conditions of the area for visibility and wind force and direction, rainfall, low lying cloud etc; The anticipated ranges of the first sighting of lights, and their identification e.g. by the use of distinct characteristics and Racons; The direction and rate of tidal streams especially when the tide is strong; The mix of fixing methods available including visual, radar, electronic navigational aids and echo sounder Consider that low lying land may only be visible at close range – distinctive mountainous areas can be identified using the sketches in the Sailing Directions Prominent coastlines with distinct features are useful for identification especially by radar; Fog signals to assist in recognition and proximity to land in poor visibility Suitable anchorage areas; Traffic density

(Note to Students – 10 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 10 will only result in the first 10 of your answers being marked by SQA!)

(c)(i)

Rock (R)

Sand (S) Stones (St)

(ii)

The direction and mean spring rate of the flood tide i.e 055°T at 1 knot.

(iii)

Overfalls, Tide Rips and Races.

(iv)

Rock, which covers and uncovers – height above chart datum 2.5m.

(v)

The direction of buoyage is normally clockwise around a continent. This direction is split around the UK and Ireland. The direction is given so that the mariner knows which side to pass lateral buoys.

(vi)

BA 1777

Q4. (c) The D’Long between two points can only be used as a unit of linear measure if both points are at the equator, since 1 minute of longitude is equal to one nautical mile.

At latitudes other than the equator the distance between the meridians passing through the points decreases by the cos of the latitude and so is not constant. It cannot therefore be used as a linear measure.

Q5. Q5

(a)

Checklist B13 of Edn 4 (2007) of the Bridge Procedures Guide States:

The OOW should notify the Master immediately:

  

if restricted visibility is encountered or expected

if traffic conditions or the movements of other ships are causing concern

if difficulties are experienced in maintaining course, on failure to sight land, a navigation mark or obtain soundings by the expected time

if, unexpectedly, land or a navigation mark is sighted or a change in soundings occurs

of breakdown of the engines, propulsion machinery remote control, steering gear or any essential navigational equipment, alarm or indicator

    

if the radio equipment malfunctions

in heavy weather if in any doubt about the possibility of weather damage

if the ship meets any hazard to navigation, such as ice or a derelict

if any vessel security concerns arise

in any other emergency or if in any doubt

(b)

Ten checklists from section B include:

B1

Familiarisation with bridge equipment

B2

Preparation for sea

B3

Preparation for arrival in port

B4

Pilotage

B5

Passage plan appraisal

B6

Navigation in coastal waters

B7

Navigation in ocean waters

B8

Anchoring and anchor watch

B9

Navigation in restricted visibility

B10

Navigation in heavy weather or in tropical storm areas

B11

Navigation in ice

B12

Changing over the watch

B14

Pre-operational DP checklist

(Note to Students – 10 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 10 will only result in the first 10 of your answers being marked by SQA!)

(c)

The BPG requires that a “proper formal record of navigational activities and incidents which are of importance to the safety of navigation, is kept in appropriate log books”

Paper records should have the times and dates of the start and stop marked on them, and be kept at least to the end of the voyage. This will act as evidence should any claims be made against the vessel.

Enough information should be kept in logbooks and charts to allow the actual track of the vessel to be reconstructed and the charts should not be cleaned off until the end of the voyage for the same reasons as above.

(d)

One hours notice is given:

 

To allow for the manning and machinery status of the Engine Room to be adjusted as required for standby To allow the testing of steering gear, engines and communications to take place.

Nov 07.

Q2. (b) The four instances when intermediate heights cannot be calculated are:

   

If the tide tables instruct to use harmonic constants If there is shallow water effect If the duration exceeds 7 hours If the duration is less than 5 hours

Q3

(a)(i)

The following could be extracted from the Sailing Directions which could be used in the appraisal stage of Voyage Planning:         Meteorological/Climatic information Current and Tidal Information Navigational Hazards Navigational aids/marks Navigational advice for entering/leaving harbours Sketches/photographs of the ports/coastal features Berth information/directions Facilities available within the port e.g. Pilotage, repair yards, anchorages etc

(ii)

The two charts that could be used are:

 

NZ 5322 NZ 5321

(iii)

Six other publications which could be used are:       existing radio navigational warnings; accurate and up-to-date lists of lights; accurate and up-to-date lists of radio aids to navigation; current and tidal atlases; current tide tables Admiralty List of Radio Signals

(b)

A moderate sized, reliable vessel could pass through the South Passage, if at slack water by using good parallel indexing techniques. There are however tide rips and overfalls that would be encountered if the vessel passes to the South when the tide is running which could endanger smaller vessels. Slow vessels may suffer from the 2 – 3 knot currents. The vessel will also be passing through a reasonably narrow gap at the centre of which is a shallow patch. This could prove dangerous in the case of wave action causing a grounding danger, of machinery breakdown e.g. main engine or steering gear. It would therefore be more prudent to take the route to the North of the Island – SOLAS Chapter V does state that that the longer safer route should be taken in preference to a shorter more dangerous route. This would also avoid a shallow patch and give a greater safety margin from the dangers.

(c)

The methods of position monitoring would be:

Parallel indexing off:

Billy Goat Point

Closest edge of land of Rangitoto Island

Headmark: F. Al WRG 23m21/17M Lighthoue on the NE side

of the Devonport Peninsula Visual Fixing Daylight: Rakito Island Peak Motutapu Island Peak Rangitoto Island Peak Lighthouse W of Rangitoto Island Night: Rakito Island Light (when visible) Motutapu Island Light (when visible) Lighthouse W of Rangitoto Island

Radar Ranges off: Billy Goat Point Tatarata Point Closest parts of Rangitoto Island

MotuhoropapaIsland

Q5. (b)(i) In restricted waters the workload for the OOW increases dramatically to a point where it would be hard to cope. This would place the vessel in danger. Forming a Bridge Team allows the workload to be divided so that individuals can cope, and allows the team members to monitor each other to spot mistakes.

(ii)

The Bridge Procedures Guide Edn 4 (2007) states:

1.2.1 Composition of the navigational watch under the STCW Code In determining whether the composition of the navigational watch is adequate to ensure that a proper look-out can be maintained continuously, the master should take into account all relevant factors including the following:

o

visibility, state of weather and sea;

o

traffic density, and other activities occurring in the area in which the ship is navigating;

o

the attention necessary when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes or other routeing measures, or within industrially controlled work zones; the additional workload caused by the nature of the ship’s functions, immediate operating requirements and anticipated manoeuvres;

o

o

the fitness for duty of any crew members on call who are assigned as members of the watch, including compliance with applicable work hour regulations; knowledge of and confidence in the professional competence of the ship’s officers and crew; the experience of each 00W, and the familiarity of that 00W with the ship’s equipment, procedures and manoeuvring capability;

o

o

o

activities taking place on board the ship at any particular time, including radio communication activities, and the availability of assistance to be summoned immediately to the bridge when necessary;

o

the operational status of bridge instrumentation and controls, including alarm systems;

o

rudder and propeller control and ship manoeuvring characteristics;

o

the size of the ship and the field of vision available from the conning position;

o o

the configuration of the bridge, to the extent that such configuration might inhibit a member of the watch from detecting by sight or hearing any external development; if working in an active DP mode, the need for a dedicated, competent DPO to be in charge of the positioning of the ship and the operation of the DP system;

o

any other relevant standard, procedure or guidance relating to watchkeeping arrangements and fitness for duty.

March 08.

Q3 (a) (Note to students - Your answer should include any five from these)

Sailing Directions Admiralty List of Lights & Fog Signals Admiralty List of Radio Signals Current Atlas Tidal Stream Atlas Tide Tables

(b)

Chart Symbols warning of: Overfalls, Tide Rips or Races;

Eddies;

Rocks. Chart Notes warning of: Karori Rip – fast currents; Crossing Traffic in the way of ferries; Magnetic disturbance causing deviation changes in the magnetic compass in areas of power cables;

Weather conditions may considerably change the predicted currents.

(c)

Visual Transits of the Light-houses in transit (Q and Iso WRG) - visual bearing and compass error on departure;

Pencorow Hd Light-house – Visual bearings;

Boring Hd Light-house – Visual Bearings

Sinclair Head – Radar ranges

Tongue Point Light-house – Visual Bearings

Oleranga Bay Light-house – Visual bearings and Radar ranges

Ohau Point Light –house – Visual bearings and Radar ranges

Run Under Point Light-house – Visual bearings

Brothers Light-house – Visual bearings and Radar ranges

Mana Island South point – Radar ranges and bearings.

Q5

(a) (i)

When handing over the watch the OOW shall:

  

ensure that the members of the relieving watch are fully capable of performing their duty ensure that the vision of the relieving watch is fully adjusted to the light conditions ensure that all standing orders and the Master’s night orders are fully understood

(MGN 315 Paragraph 6.1)

(ii)

The OOW shall not hand over the watch:  

if there is reason to believe that the relieving officer is not capable of carrying out the watch-keeping duties effectively – in which case the Master should be notified; when a manoeuvre is in progress until such action has been completed.

(MGN 315 Paragraph 6.2)

(iii)

The minimum rest period in any 24 hour period is 10 hours. This shall not be split into more than 2 periods.

(MSN 1767 Paragraph 3.2) (MGN 315 Paragraph 4.1)

(iv)

One of the periods should be at least 6 hours long, with an interval between not exceeding 14 hours.

(MSN 1767 Paragraph 3.2) (MGN 315 Paragraph 4.1)

(c)

Actions of the OOW should be:   

Call the Master Ensure that the vessel is safe in and continuing from either position. Perform another sight and/or use another form of fixing to cross-check the original sight eg GPS

(d)

One hours notice is given:  

To allow for the manning and machinery status of the Engine Room to be adjusted as required for standby To allow the testing of steering gear, engines and communications to take place.

(e)

The compass error should be obtained if:     

Once a watch when no major alterations of course take place After any major alteration of course When entering or leaving restricted waters When entering or leaving an area of magnetic anomaly If the OOW has any doubts as to its reliability

(f)

The following could be used:    

Sound powered telephone Talk back system VHF/UHF portable radio Messenger if applicable to that ship

July 08.

Q3

(a)(i)

Tactical advance

Distance travelled by the centre of gravity in the direction of the original course until a point where the vessel has altered her course by 90°.

Total advance

The total distance travelled by the centre of gravity in the direction of the original course.

(ii)

Transfer

The distance travelled by the centre of gravity measured perpendicular to the direction of the original course.

(iii)

Wheel Over Position
Original Course

alteration

The position at which the course is initiated

(b)

Wheel Over Transfer

Advance

(c)

(Note to Students - any 4 of the answers listed below are acceptable answers)

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Approach Speed Rudder Angle Draughts, or Load/Ballast Condition Weather (wind speed & direction) Underkeel Clearance

(d) (i)

Clearing Bearing

A minimum or maximum bearing of a given object which must not be crossed if the vessel is to remain on a safe track. This is mainly used for coastal navigation visual, but can also be used for blind pilotage ie radar.

(ii)

Leading Lights

Two lights at different ranges which have to be kept in a vertical line to keep the vessel on a safe track. This is frequently used for entering and leaving port.

(iii)

Cross Track Limit

The maximum perpendicular distance that a vessel may safely be from the planned track. This is mainly used in conjunction with GPS

(iv)

Abort Position The “Point of No Return”. The position along a given track which is the last chance for the vessel to abort the manoeuvre passing between two breakwaters. Once passed the abort position is passed the distance to the hazard is less than the turning circle and stopping distance, so the vessel is committed to the required manoeuvre.

Q5. (b)     The compass error should be obtained if:

Once a watch when no major alterations of course take place After any major alteration of course When entering or leaving restricted waters When entering or leaving an area of magnetic anomaly  If the OOW has any doubts as to its reliability

Oct 08 Q3. (b) Rule 10 (c) states”

“A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing traffic lanes but if obliged to do so shall cross on a heading as nearly as practicable at right angles to the general direction of traffic flow.”

From the Chart

The direction of flow is 015° T

The course at right angles to the direction of flow for that section would therefore be 285° T

(c)

Rule 10 (e) states “A vessel other than a crossing vessel or a vessel joining or leaving a lane shall not normally enter a separation zone or cross a separation line except:

(i) in cases of emergency to avoid immediate danger;

(ii) to engage in fishing within a separation zone.”

(d)

if a TSS has been IMO adopted it would be:

(i) (ii)

stated on the BA Chart used published in the “IMO Routing Guide”

(e)

Rule 10 (d) states:

“(i) A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone when she can safely use the appropriate traffic lane within the adjacent traffic separation scheme. However, vessels of less than 20 metres in length, sailing vessels and vessels engaged in fishing may use the inshore traffic zone.

(ii) Notwithstanding sub-paragraph (d) (i), a vessel may use an inshore traffic zone when en route to or from a port, offshore installation or structure, pilot station or any other place situated within the inshore traffic zone, or to avoid immediate danger.”

The vessels that can use an inshore zone are

(i)

Vessels less than 20m

(ii)

Sailing Vessels

(iii)

Vessels engaged in Fishing

(iv)

Vessels en route to and from a port, offshore installation or structure, pilot station or any other place situa within the inshore traffic zone

(v)

Vessels avoiding Immediate Danger

(f)

Rule 10 (k) states: “A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre when engaged in an operation for the maintenance of safety of navigation in a traffic separation scheme is exempted from complying with this Rule to the extent necessary to carry out the operation.”

Rule 10 (l) states:

“A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre when engaged in an operation for the laying, servicing or picking up of a submarine cable, within a traffic separation scheme, is exempted from complying with this Rule to the extent necessary to carry out the operation.”

Q5

(a)

Note to Students - Any 10 of the following:

 

visibility, state of weather and sea;

traffic density, and. other activities occurring in the area in which the ship is navigating; •

the attention necessary when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes or other routeing measures;

the additional workload caused by the nature of the ship's functions immediate operating requirements and anticipated manoeuvres;

  

the fitness for duty of any crew members on call who are assigned as members of the watch;

the knowledge and confidence in the professional competence of the ship's officers and crew;

the experience of each OOW, and the familiarity of that OOW with the ship's equipment, procedures and manoeuvring capability;

activities taking place on board the ship at any particular time including radio communication activities, and the availability of assistance to be summoned immediately to the bridge when necessary;

   

the operational status of bridge instrumentation and controls, including alarm systems;

rudder and propeller control and ship manoeuvring characteristics;

the size of the ship and the field of vision available from the conning position;

the configuration of the bridge, to the extent such configuration might inhibit a member of the watch from detecting by sight and hearing any external development;

any other relevant standard procedure or guidance relating to watch-keeping arrangements and fitness for duty.

(b)

The following items of bridge equipment would be checked prior to entering restricted waters:

Note to Students - Any 10 of the following:

    

echo sounders;

elecronic navigational position fixing systems;

gyro/magnetic compass & repeaters

radar(s);

bridge and engine-room telegraphs, including:

rpm indicators;

controllable pitch propeller controls and indicators, if fitted;

bridge to engine-room communications facilities;

    

VHF radio communications;

navigation and signal lights, including searchlights, signalling lamp, morse light;

sound signalling apparatus, including whistles;

steering gear, including manual, auto-pilot and emergency changeover arrangements and rudder indicators;

window wiper/clear-view screen arrangements

(c)     

The following shall be used to determine the fixing interval in restricted waters:

the proximity of navigational hazards;

speed;

prevailing visibility;

range of fixing methods available for cross checking to take place;

reliability of fixing methods available.

Nov 08 Q2 (a)

The main factors causing tides are the combined effect of the gravitational forces exerted on the earth by the moon and also, by the sun and are combined with the centrifugal forces produced by the revolution of the earth and moons orbit around the earth to cause tides.

The difference in the gravitational and centrifugal forces exerted on the earth's surface by the moon causes water to pile up towards the moon and also, in the hemisphere opposite to the moon.

Figure 1

Point A LW

HW

P

*

Moon HW

LW

. 2. Spring tides

The tides with maximum range are known as Spring tides - they occur at fortnightly intervals. ' "

Figure 2 represents the relative positions of the sun and moon at spring tides, when the tidal generating forces of the sun and moon act together producing the highest high tide and the lowest low waters.

The moon is at conjunction (New Moon) or opposition (Full Moon).

Figure 2

Full Moon Earth Opposition

New Moon Sun Conjunction
3. Neap tides

The tides with minimum ranges are known as Neap tides - they also occur at fortnightly intervals.

Figure 3 represents the relative positions of sun and moon at neap tides when the tidal generating forces are acting at right angles to each other, so that effectively a lower high water and a higher low water is produced. . These forces of the Sun relative to the moon are in the approximate ratio 7: 3.

The moon is said to be at quadrature.

Figure 3

1st Quarter

Earth

Sun

3rd/Last Quarter

(b)

The reliability of tidal predictions is dependant upon:

(i)

The methods of prediction that were used in the calculation – the longer the period over which the observations were made, the more accurate the data will be for the seasonal changes in meteorological conditions for instance.

(ii)

How recent the tidal observations were made. For example, over the years mean sea level changes. The more recent the observations the more accurate the tidal prediction information will be.

(d)

The discrepancies between predicted and observed heights and times can be caused by:

(i)

Meteorological Conditions:     Changes in barometric pressure Effects of Wind Seiches Storm Surges

(ii)

Shallow Water Effects

(iii)

Seasonal Variations:   in Mean Level Harmonic Constants

(d)

The Standard Port from which the Secondary Port Data is based should have:

(i)

Tidal Characteristics similar to that of a local standard port.

(ii)

If (i) is not possible then another standard port distant from the secondary port which has similar tidal characteristic

Q3.

(a)

This route is possible – especially with the use of good parallel indexing.

This route would NOT be used however for the following reasons:

The route passes unnecessarily close to the light vessel and the buoy when passing between them. This would put the vessel in unnecessary danger if there was: (i) Failure of Electronic Navigational Aids such as radar, GPS etc combined with a poor visibility could put the ship in danger (ii) Machinery failure would put the vessel in unnecessary danger (iii)Manoeuvres to avoid Fishing vessels for instance would prove difficult

  

The route would be crossing the exiting traffic from the WSW traffic lane unnecessarily close to the exit point from the TSS causing conflict. Merging with other traffic entering the ENE Traffic lane could prove difficult if traffic conditions are busy SOLAS Chapter V (Annex 24. 4.) clearly states that under the planning process “The planned track should be plotted to clear navigational hazards at as safe a distance as circumstances allow. A longer route should always be accepted in preference to a shorter more hazardous route. The possibility of main engine or steering gear breakdown at a critical moment must not be overlooked.”

It would be better to plan a route passing to the South of the Coningbeg Light Vessel.

(b)

(i)

The light flashes (i.e. the period light is shorter than the period of darkness):     1 Flash (fl) (the period lit) for 0.5 seconds then; Eclipses (ec) (the period of darkness) for 1 second then; 1 Flash (fl) (the period lit) for 1.5 seconds then; Eclipses (ec) (the period of darkness) for 8 seconds.

(ii)

The Light is Sectored. The Green sector is visible between the True Bearings of 245°T and 274°T. A total arc of visibility of 29°.

(iii)

This is a description of the structure and its height in metres. The Lighthouse is a white coloured tower with a height of 13 metres. This is measured from the top of the structure to the ground.

(iv)

These remarks refer to the Fog Signal. It sounds as follows:     1 Blast (bl) (the period the fog signal is sounded) for 1.5 seconds then; Silence (si) (the period of silence) for 3 seconds then; 1 Blast (bl) for 1.5 seconds then; Silence (si) for 39 seconds.

(v)

Racon – A Radar Transponder Beacon. This searches through radar band widths to detect radar transmissions. Once detected the Racon will transmit a signal which can be seen by the navigator on the radar screen and thus assist with the identification of Hook Head on Radar. It does not state whether the Racon operated on 3cm, 10cm or both radar wavelengths. The chart however does state that it operates on both and transmits the morse letter K (-.-)

(vi)

Names shown in bold type have a range greater than 15 miles. The ranges shown for the British Isles are the Nominal Ranges.

(c)

To Calculate the Visible Range

Using the

Luminous Range Diagram – Luminous Range is 8.2 miles

Using the Geographical Range Table

From the Chart – The elevation of the light is 46m above MHWS

For 45m height

Geographical Range is 18.6 miles

For 50m height

Geographical Range is 19.3 miles

It can clearly be seen that the Luminous Range is the least range and this would be taken at 8.2 miles

The Earliest Hook Head Light would be seen under the given conditions is 8.2 miles

(e)

The Sailing Directions contains the following information for appraisal:

              

Advised routes (Directions) to take between various points Areas to be avoided Anchorages Tidal Streams Limits of territorial waters Quality of Charting Fishing Areas Radio Navigation Facilities Radio Stations Buoyage systems Military areas to be avoided or treated with caution Pilotage Facilities available Regulations – eg legal requirements of the coastal state with reference to Traffic Separation schemes Coastguard / Rescue Services and signals used Sketches on the appearance of the coastline/lighthouses and other prominent features

March 09. Q3

(a)

The factors involved in determining the safe distance to pass off Portland Bill are:

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Expected weather conditions and the associated prevailing visibility; Variety, availability and working condition of navigational equipment including radars; Number and experience of available navigating officers; Manoeuvrability of the vessel including the anticipated set and rate of the current compared to the available ship speed; Traffic density anticipated to be encountered, including fishing vessels.

(b)

(i)

This is a Trinity house maintained light.

(ii)

It would be seen as a white tower with a red band pained across it, the top of which is 41 metres from the ground.

(iii)

The Red sector is to highlight and therefore warn mariners that they may be entering the shallow waters associated with the Shambles Bank at night.

(c)

Yes, due to the steep sided nature and cliff edges Portland Bill is Radar Conspicuous.

The Bill has a shape that is easily identifiable by radar.

Eastwards of the Bill 3 point fixing would be available using the bulge off the Varne which could be used for 2 ranges and a bearing.

South and West of the Bill only 2 point fixing would be available off the Bill itself, since there are no really easily identifiable shapes to make up the second range or bearing on the Western side. Q5

(a)

Rule 6 states:

“In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be among those taken into account:

(a)

By all vessels:

(i)

the state of visibility;

(ii)

the traffic density including concentrations of fishing vessels or any other vessels;

(iii)

the manoeuvrability of the vessel with special reference to stopping distance and turning ability in the prevailing conditions;

(iv)

at night the presence of background light such as from shore lights or from back scatter of her own lights;

(v)

the state of wind, sea and current, and the proximity of navigational hazards;

(vi)

the draught in relation to the available depth of water.

(b) Additionally, by vessels with operational radar:

(i)

the characteristics, efficiency and limitations of the radar equipment;

(ii)

any constraints imposed by the radar range scale in use;

(iii)

the effect on radar detection of the sea state, weather and other sources of interference;

(iv)

the possibility that small vessels, ice and other floating objects may not be detected by radar at an adequate range;

(v)

the number, location and movement of vessels detected by radar;

(vi)

the more exact assessment of the visibility that may be possible when radar is used to determine the range of vessels or other objects in the vicinity.

(b)

BPG A7 states

“Shortly before departure, check and test the steering gear including, as applicable, the operation of the following:          the main steering gear; the auxiliary steering gear; the remote steering control systems; the main steering position on the bridge; the emergency power supply; the rudder angle indicators in relation to actual rudder position; the remote steering gear control system power failure alarms; the steering gear power unit failure alarms; and automatic isolating arrangements and other automatic equipment.

Checks and tests should include:     the full rudder movement according to the required capabilities of the steering gear; the timing of rudder movement from hardover-to-hardover, using each steering gear power unit singly and together, to ensure consistency with previous tests; a visual inspection of the steering gear and its connecting linkage; and the operation of the means of communication between the bridge and the steering gear compartment.

(c)

Emergency steering drills must be carried out at least once every 3 months

July 09. Q2

(a)

Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT) This is the lowest level of tide when considering only the effect of the sun and moon.

(b)

The reasons for differences between published heights/times and actual tides is:

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)

The effect of wind; The effect of extremely high or low pressure; Storm surges; Negative surges; Exceptionally heavy rainfall; Errors in seasonal correction due to them being an average.

(c)

(i) (ii)

The black circle indicates that a New Moon has been predicted for that date. Referring to the curve indicates that Spring Tides will occur 2 days later.

(d)

(i) (ii)

The “Tidal Set” is the direction of the flow of the tide measured in degrees true. The “Tidal Drift” is the distance a body of water will have moved during a period of time measured in nautical miles. The “Tidal Rate” is the speed that a body of water has moves during a period of time measured in knots.

(iii)

(3)

(a)   The charted Note “Satellite Derived Positions” informs the navigator that the datum for the celestial sphere is that of the “World Geodetic System 1984 Datum” (WGS 84). The navigator would have to ensure that the GPS set in use is set to this datum. The positions, when used on the chart would have to be adjusted as follows: Latitude adjusted by 0.02’ Southwards Longitude adjusted by 0.05’ Eastwards.

Both these are so small that they are of no practical use to the ships navigator using this chart, due to the scale, and would therefore be discarded.

(b)

Luminous Range is 8.0 miles

Geographical Range is approx 20.7 miles

The light would first be seen at 8.0 miles

(c) (d)

_._ Hook Head would be a suitable for a landfall for the following reasons:

    

Hook Head has a shape readily identifiable by radar, and Racon K to assist with confirmation of this. Hook Head and the surrounding area is suitable for radar fixing. Hook Head Light has a long nominal range, and would therefore “pierce” fog well The area surrounding Hook Head does not have any underwater dangers such as rocks, wrecks, shallows etc. The Tidal Diamonds and Tidal Arrows on the approach to Hook Head are plentiful giving assistance in the calculation of the tidal streams to be anticipated.

(e)

The water shallows very gradually on the approach to Waterford so it would be difficult to identify a particular point or contour, but it could be used to assist in confirmation by cross referencing using other means of fixing or to confirm an anticipated under-keel clearance.

(f)

The symbol indicates overfalls, tide rips or races. These could cause the vessel to be difficult to steer when the tides are running fast, possibly causing the vessel to sheer. Extreme caution advised!

(g)

(i)

From Chart

MHWS in the area of Great Saltee is 3.9m

Keeragh Isl

Gt Saltee

L. Saltee

Ht above MHWS MHWS

6.0m 4.0m

57.0m 3.9m 60.9m

35.0m 3.9m 38.9m

Ht above Chart Datum 10.0m

(i)

Nature of the bottom –

cS is course bsand R is Rock

Q5. (b) From Deviation Curve

Expected deviation is 7.8°E (8°E)

The subsequent actions on discovering the discrepancy are:

Inform the Master

     

Compare gyro with magnetic compass Ensure the safety of the position of the vessel by fixing using other means Check the chart for magnetic anomalies Re-work another calculation Verify that the magnetic compass has not been interfered with – i.e. correct magnets correctly positioned, spheres correctly positioned etc Ensure that no new sources of magnetic interference have been introduced

Oct 09. Q3

(a) “(e)

Rule 10 (Traffic Separation Schemes) of the IRPCS (MSN1781) states:

A vessel other than a crossing vessel or a vessel joining or leaving a lane shall not normally enter a separation zone or cross a separation line except:

(i)

in cases of emergency to avoid immediate danger;

Since the vessel has suffered a breakdown, and remaining drifting in the traffic lane would put the ship in danger, then the Master is justified in putting the vessel in a place of safety i.e. in the Separation Zone.

Rule 10 (Traffic Separation Schemes) of the IRPCS (MSN1781) states:

(b) A vessel using a traffic separation scheme shall:

(i)

proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of traffic flow for that lane;

(ii)

so far as practicable keep clear of a traffic separation line or separation zone;

(iii)

normally join or leave a traffic lane at the termination of the lane, but when joining or leaving from either side shall do so at as small an angle to the general direction of traffic flow as practicable.

(c)

A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing traffic lanes but if obliged to do so shall cross on a heading as nearly as practicable at right angles to the general direction of traffic flow.

(d)

(i)

A vessel shall not use an inshore traffic zone when she can safely use the appropriate traffic lane within the adjacent traffic separation scheme. However, vessels of less than 20 metres in length, sailing vessels and vessels engaged in fishing may use the inshore traffic zone.

(ii)

Notwithstanding sub-paragraph (d) (i), a vessel may use an inshore traffic zone when en route to or from a port, offshore installation or structure, pilot station or any other place situated within the inshore traffic zone, or to avoid immediate danger.

(e)

A vessel other than a crossing vessel or a vessel joining or leaving a lane shall not normally enter a separation zone or cross a separation line except:

(i)

in cases of emergency to avoid immediate danger;

(ii)

to engage in fishing within a separation zone.

(f)

A vessel navigating in areas near the terminations of traffic separation schemes shall do so with particular caution.

(g)

A vessel shall so far as practicable avoid anchoring in a traffic separation scheme or in areas near its terminations.

(h)

A vessel not using a traffic separation scheme shall avoid it by as wide a margin as is practicable.

(c)

Rule 3 (General definitions) of the IRPCS (MSN1781) states:

For the purpose of these Rules, except where the context otherwise requires:

(f)

The term “vessel not under command” means a vessel which through some exceptional circumstance is unable to manoeuvre as required by these Rules and is therefore unable to keep out of the way of another vessel.

Rule 2 (Responsibility) of the IRPCS (MSN1781) states:

(b)

In construing and complying with these Rules due regard shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision and to any special circumstances, including the limitations of the vessels involved, which may make a departure from these Rules necessary to avoid immediate danger.

Rule 10 (Traffic Separation Schemes) of the IRPCS (MSN1781) states:

(b)

A vessel using a traffic separation scheme shall:

(iii)

normally join or leave a traffic lane at the termination of the lane, but when joining or leaving from either side shall do so at as small an angle to the general direction of traffic flow as practicable.

Rule 27 (Vessels not under command or restricted in their ability to manoeuvre) of the IRPCS (MSN1781) states:

(a)

A vessel not under command shall exhibit:

(i)

two all-round red lights in a vertical line where they can best be seen;

(ii)

two balls or similar shapes in a vertical line where they can best be seen;

(iii)

when making way through the water, in addition to the lights prescribed in this paragraph, sidelights and a stern light.

The engine breakdown makes the vessel “Not Under Command” by definition in the IRPCS Rule 3 (f), and therefore exempted from compliance with the rules with respect to part (b)(iii) Rule 10, since she is unable to “manoeuvre as required by these rules”.

She cannot anchor in the TSS (as stated earlier) and would present a danger to other vessels if she remained drifting within the traffic lane. She therefore needs to leave the traffic lane as quickly as possible whilst the vessel is still moving and can be manoeuvred. This departure from the rules is allowable under Rule 2 (b).

Given that the vessel has suffered an engine breakdown and can only maintain momentum for a certain distance, she is complying with Rule 10 (b) (iii) in that she is leaving at “as small angle” as is practicable given the circumstances.

Other vessels would be aware that she unable manoeuvre as per the rules due to the lights and/or shapes show described in Rule 27(a) (d) Under “General Provisions on Ships’ Routing” The IMO Routing Guide states under paragraph 1.2:

The precise objectives of any routeing system will depend upon the particular hazardous circumstances which it is intended to alleviate, but may include some or all of the following:

.1

the separation of opposing streams of traffic so as to reduce the incidence of head-on encounters;

.2

the reduction of dangers of collision between crossing traffic and shipping in established traffic lanes;

.3

the simplification of the patterns of traffic flow in converging areas;

.4

the organization of safe traffic flow in areas of concentrated offshore exploration or exploitation;

.5

the organization of traffic flow in or around areas where navigation by all ships or by certain classes of ship is dangerous or undesirable;

.6

the organization of safe traffic flow in or around or at a safe distance from environmentally sensitive areas;

.7

the reduction of risk of grounding by providing special guidance to vessels in areas where water depths are uncertain or critical; and

.8

the guidance of traffic clear of fishing grounds or the organization of traffic through fishing grounds.

Q5

(a)(i)

MGN 315 paragraph 8.3 states:

“In certain circumstances of clear daylight conditions the Master may consider that the OOW may be the sole look-out.”

(ii)

MGN 315 paragraph 8.3 states:

Full account has been taken of all relevant factors including but not limited to:      

state of the weather visibility

traffic density proximity of dangers to navigation

the attention necessary when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes design and layout of the bridge

arcs of visibility

 

radar equipment fitted and their limitations with respect to navigation other duties that the officer may have to engage in and which could be a distraction from the keeping of a proper look-out such as:  operation of GMDSS and other communications equipment such as cell phones and email systems

 

navigational maintenance such as completion of logs and other record keeping and correction of charts and publications routine testing and maintenance of bridge equipment

In any event, an OOW acting as sole look-out should always be able to fully perform both the duties of a look-out and those of keeping a safe navigational watch. Assistance must be immediately available to be summoned to the bridge when any change in the situation so requires.”

(iii)

MGN 315 paragraph 9.2 states:

“As a way of fully engaging the look-out’s attention consideration should be given to keeping the look-out appraised of the current navigational situation with regard to expected traffic, buoyage, weather, landfall, pilotage and any other circumstance relevant to good watchkeeping.”

(b)(i)

The Bridge Procedures Guide Edition 4 (2007) paragraph 1.2.5 “The Bridge Team” states:

“The bridge team is established so that the most effective use can be made of available manpower in order that established work procedures are followed, risk is minimised and ships are navigated safely. All ship’s personnel who have bridge navigational watch duties will be part of the bridge team. The master and pilot(s), as necessary, will need the support of the team, which will comprise the 00W, a helmsman and look-out(s) as required.

The 00W is in charge of the bridge and the bridge team for that watch, until relieved.

It is important that the bridge team works together closely, both within a particular watch and across watches, since decisions made on one watch may have an impact on another watch.

The bridge team also has an important role in maintaining communications with the engine room and other operating areas on the ship”

(ii)

The Bridge Procedures Guide Edition 4 (2007) paragraph 1.2. “Composition of the navigational watch under the STCW

Code” states:

In determining whether the composition of the navigational watch is adequate to ensure that a proper look-out can he maintained continuously, the master should take into account all relevant factors including the following:

o

visibility, state of weather and sea;

o

traffic density, and other activities occurring in the area in which the ship is navigating;

o

the attention necessary when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes or other routeing measures, or within industrially controlled work zones;

o

the additional workload caused by the nature of the ship’s functions, immediate operating requirements and anticipated manoeuvres;

o

the fitness for duty of any crew members on call who are assigned as members of the watch, including compliance with applicable work hour regulations;

o

knowledge of and confidence in the professional competence of the ship’s officers and crew;

o

the experience of each 00W, arid the familiarity of that 00W with the ship’s equipment, procedures and manoeuvring capability;

o

activities taking place on board the ship at any particular time, including radio communication activities, and the availability of assistance to be summoned immediately to the bridge where necessary;

o

the operational status of bridge instrumentation and controls, including alarm systems;

o

rudder and propeller control and ship manoeuvring characteristics;

o

the size of the ship and the field of vision available from the conning position;

o

the configuration of the bridge, to the extent that such configuration might inhibit a member of the watch from detecting by sight or hearing any external development;

o

if working in an active DP mode, the need for a dedicated, competent DPO to be in charge of the positioning of the ship and the operation of the DP system;

o

any other relevant standard, procedure or guidance relating to watchkeeping arrangements and fitness for duty.

(Note to Students – only 10 of the above bullet points need to be stated in the SQA exam)

Dec 09

Q3

(a)

The Sailing Directions give information on the following:

(i) (ii)

The Topography of the Land Hazards – Exercise Area Ferry Traffic

(iii) Wind – local influences and effects (iv) Seas – how affected locally by the weather (v) Current & Tidal Streams

(vi) Local Magnetic Anomoly (vii) Reporting System (viii) Routes – Inshore – Principal marks Aids to Navigation Directions

(See annex 1 for the actual contents for the Cook Strait)

(b)

The following could be used for parallel indexing: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) NE Point of Stephens Island N Point of Cape Koamanu Brothers Light Sinclair Head (possible) Baring Head Turakirae Head SE Point of Aorangi Peninsula

(c)

Parallel Indexing indicates only whether a vessel is on or off track. It can also be used to indicate whether a vessel is in safe water or not – if the NMT/NLT lines are also used. PI do however only give one position line, so cannot be used as a fix since a fix requires at least two position lines.

(d)

The primary means of fixing at night would be by visual bearings of the lights, backed up by radar ranges to give at least three position lines per fix.

(e)

(i)

Clearing Bearings

(ii) Clearing Ranges (iii) Echo Sounder (iv) GPS

(f)

If the GPS set is programmed to use the Datum of WGS 84, then it will tie in with the same Datum used in the creation of the chart. No corrections will need to be applied to the positions acquired from the GPS – they can be plotted directly on the chart.

Q5

(a)    Detection by radar - especially in a calm sea (cannot be relied upon for bergy bits and growlers).

Visually – appears as a white mass when shone on by the sun, with not sun a dark mass. First signs may be the wash of the sea breaking on its base Ice blink - sighted as a yellowish haze usually well before the ice itself is detected. If overcast an ice blink will tend to have a white layer reflecting with the cloud formation.

Sea surface temperature – If carefully watched in the North Atlantic may indicate entry into a cold ice bearing current. If the recoded temp is 1°C then ice can be assumed to be within 150 nautical miles. If below -1°C then ice is within 50 nautical miles. Fog bank - Ice edge is often accompanied by a thick bank of fog.

  

Wildlife – prior to sighting ice or fog banks, it is more likely that observation of wildlife will provide indication of ice e.g walrus, seals, and different species of birds far from land. Sea state – a distinct change in sea state, where an abrupt smoothing of the sea and a reduction in swell indicates that ice could well be to windward

Noise – a thunderous roar is heard when a growler is calved.

(b)   steer towards warmer conditions, or seek shelter, as soon as possible.

If unable to reach shelter or warmer conditions, it has been found best to:   reduce spray to a minimum by heading into the wind and sea at the slowest speed possible, or run before the wind at the least speed that will maintain steerage.

Additionally:

 

manual removal / clearance may be considered. Use of de-icing agents

(c) 100).

Under SOLAS Chapter V, 2004, the Master of every ship encountering dangerous ice or conditions that will cause ice

accumulation on ships, is required to report these conditions, format of the report can be found in The Mariners Handbook (NP

(d)

(i)

The message should contain:    The type of ice The position of the ice GMT and date of the observation

(ii)

The message should contain:     The date and GMT The position of the ship The air and sea temperatures The force & direction of the wind

Annex 1 (Additional Information) The following is from the New Zealand Pilot (NP51) (16 Edn 2004):
th

March 10

(c)(i)

Mean Sea Level

The average height of the surface of the water measured over a long period of time.

(ii)

Charted Depth

The depth of water between the bottom of the sea and the Chart Datum line. These are the sounding depths that are found on charts. As Chart Datum is a point below which the water level seldom falls the mariner can consider this to be the minimum depth of water available at any time. In addition to this depth he will have some height of tide to add.

Q3

(a)

There are 10 parts to chart 5500, which would be used as follows:

         

Passage Planning Using this Guide – This give advice on the application of Appraisal, Planning, Execution and Monitoring in passage planning; Routing: General Rules and Recommendations – Covers the application of IRPCS Rule 10 and the use of the Deep Water routes; Routing: Special Rules and Recommendations – informs of the IMO adoption of the TSS schemes, and advises that vesasels over 300 GT should have electronic position fixing systems; Passage Planning: Special Classes of Vessel – gives advice for deep draught vessels eg underkeel clearances and routes to use, recommended routes for vessels carrying dangerous goods and the use of ITZ for sailing vessels under 20m; Oil and Dangerous Cargoes: Marine Pollution – Gives advice on the MARPOL and reporting requirements for different classes of cargo; Radio Reporting Systems applying to through Traffic – gives advice on where reporting information can be found in ALRS, and the reporting requirements and contents of the reports for different types of vessel carrying different types of cargo in the various areas; Reporting to a Port of Destination in the Area – gives the reporting requirements for ports to be used in the area (e.g. notice of arrival) and where information can be found on the requirements (ALRS Vol 6); Maritime Radio Services – details on Navigation warnings and weather bulletins, NAVTEX stations and Traffic surveillance in the area; Pilot Services – Details on both Deep Sea Pilot and Harbour Pilots Tidal Information and Services – Co-Range and Co-Tidal information in the area.

(b)

Tidal Stream Atlas This contains the directions and the strengths (Neaps and Springs) of the tidal streams to be expected in a sea area (e.g the English Channel). The strength of the tide is indicated by the thickness of the lines in the pages. Used with the tide tables for the nominated port, the directions and rates for the predicted range can be calculated more accurately using the computation table at the front. This information is given at hourly intervals for High Water, the six preceding and six successive hours. More precise information can be obtained using the chartlets provided in some volumes, and the CoRange and Co-Tidal diagrams can be used to calculate underkeel clearances.

July 10

Q3 (a) When appraising and planning for a landfall, the following should be considered:

           

The Landfall approaches should be clear of navigational hazards e.g. shoals, dangerous wrecks; Large scale charts of the area must be available A sea bed with a distinct shoaling features that assists navigation using the echo sounder; The predicted meteorological conditions of the area for visibility and wind force and direction, rainfall, low lying cloud etc; The anticipated ranges of the first sighting of lights, and their identification e.g. by the use of distinct characteristics and Racons; The direction and rate of tidal streams especially when the tide is strong; The mix of fixing methods available including visual, radar, electronic navigational aids and echo sounder Consider that low lying land may only be visible at close range – distinctive mountainous areas can be identified using the sketches in the Sailing Directions Prominent coastlines with distinct features are useful for identification especially by radar; Fog signals to assist in recognition and proximity to land in poor visibility Suitable anchorage areas; Traffic density

(b)

Publications that should be consulted when planning to make a landfall are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Admiralty Sailing Directions (Pilot Books), Admiralty Lists of Lights and Fog Signals, Admiralty Tide Tables; Current and tidal atlases Admiralty Lists of Radio Aids to navigation; IMO Routing Guide.

7.

Notices to Mariners

8.

Nautical Almanac

(Note to Students – 4 of the above list should be selected – stating more than 4 will only result in the first 4 of your answers being marked by SQA! The first 4 on the above list are considered the best fit for this question)

(c)(i)

To Calculate at what range the vessel would first be seen

From the Chart

Charted Elevation 183 m Nominal Range 18 miles

From Luminous Range Diagram

The Luminous Range is 16.7 miles

From the Geographical Range Diagram

The Geographical Range is > 32.6 (actually 32.8 miles)

Taking the least of the two,

The Light would first be seen at an estimated range of 16.7 miles

(c)(ii)

The arrow indicates the approximate direction of a current in restricted waters.

The figure indicates the strength of the current i.e. a rate of 0.4 knots.

Q5

(a)

10 circumstances when the Master should be called are:

         

if restricted visibility is encountered or expected; if traffic conditions or the movements of other ships are causing concern; if difficulties are experienced in maintaining course; on failure to sight land, a navigation mark or obtain soundings by the expected time; if, unexpectedly, land or a navigation mark is sighted or a change in soundings occurs of breakdown of the engines, propulsion machinery remote control, steering gear or any essential navigational equipment, alarm or indicator; if the radio equipment malfunctions; in heavy weather, if in any doubt about the possibility of weather damage; if the ship meets any hazard to navigation, such as ice or a derelict; if any vessel security concerns arise; in any other emergency or if in any doubt (Checklist B13 BPG Edn 4 2007)

(b)

Six items of equipment to be checked prior to entering fog are:

radar, ARPA or other plotting facilities

    

VHF fog signalling apparatus navigation lights echo sounder; if in shallow waters watertight doors, if fitted (Checklist B9 BPG Edn 4 2007)

(c)

(Note to Students – The question uses the words”when in the presence of a pilot”. The question is to be interpreted as meaning during the pilotage rather than when the pilot arrives on the bridge)

The obligations of the OOW when in the presence of a pilot:

The presence of a Pilot does not relieve the Master or the OOW of their duties and obligations for the safety of the ship. Both should be prepared to exercise their right not to proceed to a point where the ship would not be able to manoeuvre or would be in danger; (Para 3.3.3.1 BPG Edn 4 2007)

 

If the Master leaves the Bridge, the OOW should always seek clarification from a Pilot when in any doubt as to the Pilot’s actions or intentions; If a satisfactory explanation is not given, the OOW should notify the master immediately, taking whatever action is necessary before the Master arrives. (Para 3.3.3.4 BPG Edn 4 2007)

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