THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

DIOSCORIDES

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COPYRIGHT NOTICE As this version essentially constitutes a new work, the editor/translator hereby asserts copyright. Permission of the publisher is required for any excerpts or copies made from the text. The illustrations are deemed in good faith to be in the public domain. © Tess Anne Osbaldeston First published in 2000 ISBN 0-620-23435-0 Printed in 12/14 Zapf Calligraphic [Palatino]

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Bursera gummifera after FAGUET— 1888 [opposite]

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DIOSCORIDES
DE

MATERIA MEDICA

WRITTEN IN GREEK IN THE FIRST CENTURY OF THE COMMON ERA
A NEW INDEXED VERSION IN MODERN ENGLISH BY TA OSBALDESTON AND RPA WOOD

MEDICINAL MATERIALS

BEING AN WITH MANY OTHER

HERBAL
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CONTENTS
EDITORIAL PREFACE — vii ORIGINAL DEDICATION — viii BIBLIOGRAPHY — xiii INTRODUCTION — xx ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS — xl THE BOTANICAL ILLUSTRATIONS — xlii PRINTED BOOKS — il GAZETTEER OF DIOSCORIDES’ WORLD — lxviii BOOK ONE: AROMATICS — 1 OILS — 34 OINTMENTS — 48 GUMS from TREES — 78 FRUIT from TREES — 149 FRUIT TREES — 153 BOOK TWO — 183 LIVING CREATURES — 184 FATS — 212 FRUMENTACEA: CEREALS — 229 LACHANA: VEGETABLES — 243 HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY — 304 BOOK THREE: ROOTS — 363 ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS — 377 BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS — 541 BOOK FIVE: VINES & WINES — 741 WINES — 747 OTHER WINES — 759 METALLIC STONES — 781 INDEXES ALTERNATE NAMES — 832 ILLUSTRATIONS — 847 LATINISED GREEK NAMES — 851 MEDICINAL USES etc. — 860 PLANT MATERIALS etc. — 885 POISONOUS MATERIALS — 926

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for Laura

Narthecium ossifragum after FAGUET — 1888

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

edanius Dioscorides the Greek wrote this De Materia Medica approximately two thousand years ago. In 1655 John Goodyer made an English translation from a manuscript copy, and in 1933 Robert T Gunther edited this, Hafner Publishing Co, London & New York, printing it. This was probably not corrected against the Greek, and this version of Goodyer's Dioscorides makes no such attempt either. The purpose of this new edition is to offer a more accessible text to today’s readers, as the ‘english-ed’ copy by Goodyer is generously endowed with post-medieval terminology and is presently out of print. The reader may wish to refer to Greek, Latin, or other versions — including these lies beyond the scope of the present effort. I have not attempted to make the text uniform, and though I have included some sixteenth-century and Linnaean names, many do not indicate current usage. While it is not my intention to contribute to the controversy surrounding the true identities of the plants, minerals, and creatures in De Materia Medica, where available I have suggested possible plant names, with an indication of other plants using the same name today. I will appreciate any pertinent information that has been overlooked, and wish to acknowledge the errors that remain. Thus the proposed herbs provide some possibilities, and the reader is invited to place a personal interpretation upon the material. The illustrations suggest further options in some instances. Dioscorides’ treatise is not offered as a primary resource for medical treatment. Readers should in the first instance obtain medical advice from qualified, registered health professionals. Many treatments considered acceptable two thousand years ago are useless or harmful. This particularly applies to the abortifacients mentioned in the manuscript, most of which contain toxins considered dangerous in the required doses. With all this in mind, I believe the information in this document is still of interest and benefit to us, after all this time. Tess Anne Osbaldeston Johannesburg, South Africa, June 2000

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EDITORIAL PREFACE

Bursera gummifera after FAGUET— 1888

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ORIGINAL DEDICATION
Dearest Areius, Although many of the writers nowadays, as well as those in ancient times, wrote discourses on the preparations, strengths and dosage of drugs, I will attempt to prove to you that I did not choose to undertake this through vanity or impulsiveness. Some of those authors did not complete their attempts, while others copied previous historical documents. Iolas from Bithynia and Hexaclides from Tarentum briefly considered the subject but they completely omitted any systematic discussion of herbs and ignored metals and spices. Crateuas the rhizotomist and Andreas the physician seem to have had greater knowledge of this particular area than most, but have ignored many extremely useful roots and gave meagre descriptions of many herbs. Still I must admit that although they told us little, the ancients applied great effort in their work. I am not completely in agreement with most modern writers, among them Julius Bassus, Niceratus and Petronius, Niger and Diodotus, who are all asclepiads [poets]. In a way they have condescended to describe commonplace information familiar to all but they have explained the strengths of medicines and their properties briefly, not considering their value by personal experience, but by worthless discussion created needless controversy regarding each medicine, and in addition they have mistakenly recorded one thing for another. So Niger, who it seems is a man of importance among them, declares euphorbion to be the juice of a chamelaia that grows in Italy; androsaimon is considered the same as hypericon; and aloe is a mineral found in Judea; and in the face of contradictory evidence he reports an abundance of untruths, which proves that he obtained his information from erroneous gossip, not from personal experience. Additionally they have erred in the categorisation of medicines: some associate those of quite different powers, others establish an alphabetical system in their discussions and thus separate types and activities of materials that are similar, so that they become harder to remember. From my youth I have had an unceasing inquisitiveness regarding knowledge of this subject, and I have travelled widely (as you know, I was a soldier), so I

Cupressus sempervirens after FAGUET— 1888

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have taken your advice and assembled all that I have discussed and have written it down in five books. I dedicate this collection to you, as a token of my grateful appreciation for the friendship you have shown me. You are always a ready friend to anyone obsessed by knowledge, particularly in this profession, and even more especially to myself. It is clear from the love that wonderful man Licinius Bassus has for you, that you express a loving benevolence that I experienced (I noticed when I stayed with you, the unsurpassing generosity that you shared). I ask that you and all who may read these discussions will not consider so much the value of my words as the effort and practical work that I have based the work on. With careful investigation — since I know many plants personally, and others from previous writings that are generally approved of — and patiently inquiring (by questioning the local inhabitants) about each type of plant, I will attempt a different classification, and also try to explain the varieties and uses of each one of them. Obviously we can agree that a systematic discourse on medicines is necessary, as this is the basis of the entire profession of healing and gives considerable aid to every discipline. So that the scope may fully cover methods of preparation, compounds, and tests on illnesses, and because information about each individual drug is necessary for this, I intend to assimilate things that are common knowledge and those that are somehow related so that the information will be exhaustive. First it is necessary to pay attention to storing and gathering plants, and only at the proper harvest time, for unless care is taken drugs can either be potent or become useless. Herbs should be collected on a sunny day, as it matters considerably if it is raining when the harvest is gathered. The places they grow also matter; specific medicinal herbs are stronger or weaker if found on hills and mountains; if exposed to winds; if their position is cool and arid — their strength can rest entirely on such conditions. Healing herbs located in the open or in bogs and dark places that do not permit the circulation of air are generally of poorer strength, particularly if they are collected at the wrong time, or are rotten and of inferior quality. We must remember that plants often mature sooner or are delayed depending on the peculiarities of the locale and the variability of the seasons, and although certain herbs by their very nature
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are winter-growing and -flowering, some may flower more than once a year. It is essential that someone wanting to be an accomplished herbalist should observe the first new growths of the herbs as well as their mature expression and their eventual decline. Otherwise a person seeing only a new shoot will be unable to identify the same flourishing plant, and having seen only its full growth will not know the seedling. Due to varieties in the forms of leaves, the proportions of stems, and the appearances of flowers and fruits and certain other familiar features, those who have neglected careful examination in the right manner have committed serious errors. This is why certain writers have erred grievously in their discussions of certain herbs — saying that they have no stalks, fruit or flowers — mentioning gramen, tussilago, and quinquefolium. So the individual who continually examines plants growing in different localities will learn the most about them. Furthermore, it is important to note that among medicinal herbs only black and white hellebore keep their potency for a long time. Most other plants are viable for up to three years. Branching plants such as stoechas, chamaidrus, potion, abrotanum, seriphium, absinthium and hyssopum etc., must be harvested when they are full of seed; flowers must be collected while still on the plant; fruits must be allowed to ripen; and seeds should be starting to dry, but still on the plant. To express the plant liquids, use stems and leaves that are new. To harvest saps and resins make incisions in the mature stalks. To collect roots for storage or to press out their liquids or to remove their coverings, wait until the leaves start to fall off the plant. Clean roots can be stored right away in places that are not damp, however any soil adhering to the roots should be rinsed off with water. Blossoms and perfumed materials must be kept in dry limewood boxes but certain plants are adequately stored in paper or leaf wrappings to protect the seeds. Preparations that contain moisture require substantial containers from materials such as silver, glass or horn. Even thick ceramic containers are acceptable, and even wood, especially boxwood. Brass receptacles are ideal for eye medicines, liquids, and preparations including vinegar, liquid pitch or cedria [oil of cedar]; but fats and marrow should be stored in tin boxes. ΠΕ∆ΑΚΙΟΥ ∆ΙΟΣΚΟΡΙ∆ΟΥ

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
A list of books and monographs dealing with, or related to the writings of Pedanios Dioscorides, including those consulted in preparing this volume Albertus Magnus, Albert of Bollstaedt, De vegetabilibus libri vii, translators Meyer, EHF and Jessen, KFW, Georgii Reimeri, Berolini 1867 [manuscript written before 1256]. Anderson, Frank J. An illustrated history of the herbals, Columbia University Press, New York 1912. Reprint 1977, paperback 1997. Anderson, Frank J. Illustrated Bartsch: Herbals before 1500: commentary, 1984. Arber, Agnes. Herbals, their origin and evolution, a chapter in the history of botany 1470-1670, Cambridge at the University Press, new edition rewritten and enlarged 1938. Baillon, Henri Ernest. Histoire des plantes, L Hachette & Cie, Paris, London, Leipzig, 13 vols, 1867-1895. Baillon, Henri Ernest. The natural history of plants, translated by MM Hartog, 8 vols, 1871-1888. Basmadjian KJ. 'L’identification des noms des plantes du codex Constantinopal de Dioscoride', in Journal Asiatique, vol 230, 1938, pp577-621. Bedevian, A K. Illustrated polyglottic dictionary of plant names, 1936. Berendes, Julius. Die pharmacie bei den alten Kulturvolkern, in Historischkritische Studien, 2 vols, Tausch & Grasse, Halle 1891. Facsimile edition, Olms, Hildesheim 1965. Blunt, Wilfrid with the assistance of William T Stearn. The art of botanical illustration, number 14, The New Naturalist, A survey of British natural history, Collins, London. 1971 reprint of 1950 edition. Blunt, Wilfrid & Raphael, Sandra. The illustrated herbal, Francis Lincoln and Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London 1979. Bologa, Valeriu L. 'I sinonimi, “dau” delle piante descritte da Dioscoride possono servire alla riconstruzione della lingua daca?', Archeion archivio di storia della scienza, vol 12, Rome 1930, pp166-170. Bonnet, Edmond. 'Essai d’identification des plantes medicinales mentionnees par Dioscoride, d’apres les peintures d’un manscrit de la Bibliotheque Nationale de Paris (Ms Grec No 2179)', Janus, 1903, Huitieme Annee 4-6: 1-21, vol 8, pp169-177, 225-232, 281-285. Bonnet, Edmond. 'Etude sur les figures de plantes et d’animaux peintes dans une version arabe, manuscrit de la matiere medicinale de Dioscoride, conservee a la Bibliotheque Nationale de Paris', in Janus, vol 14, 1909, pp294-303. Bridson, Gavin DR & White, James J, compilers. Plant, animal & anatomical illustration in art & science, a bibliographical guide from the 16th century to the present day, St Paul’s Bibliographies, Winchester in association with Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Omnigraphics Inc, Detroit 1990. Brunfels, Otto. Herbarum vivae eicones ad naturae imitationem summa cum diligentia et arteficio effigiatae, una cum effectibus earundem in gratiam veteris illius et jamjam renascentis herbariae medicinae, Joannem Schottum, Argentorati 1530. Buberl, Paul. 'Beschreibendes verzeichnis der illuminierten handschriften und inkunabeln der Nationalbibliothek', in Wien, vol 4.1, Leipzig 1937. Buberl, Paul. ‘Die antikengrundlagen der miniaturen des Wiener Dioskurideskodex’, in Jahrb. Deutsch archaol. Inst., vol 51, p114, 1936.
Cassia floribunda after FAGUET — 1888

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Buberl, P. Die byzantinischen Handschriften. 1. Der Wiener Dioskurides und die Wiener Genesis, Vienna 1937. Chambers Biographical Dictionary, Centenary edition, Edinburgh 1997. Church, AH. 'Brunfels and Fuchs', in The Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, vol 57, September 1919. Clarkson, Rosetta E. The golden age of herbs and herbalists, Dover, New York 1940. Reprint 1972. Collier’s Encyclopaedia with Bibliography and Index. William D Halsey, editorial director. Crowell-Collier Publishing Co., USA 1963. Crockett, Edith A. 'Matthioli’s commentaries and the De Materia Medica of Dioskorides', in Bulletin of the Horticultural Society of New York, vol 19, New York 1969, pp9-21. D’Andrea, Jeanne. Ancient Herbs, The J Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California 1982. Daubeny, Charles Giles. Essay on the trees and shrubs of the ancients, JH Parker, London 1865. Daubeny, Charles Giles. Lectures on Roman husbandry, Oxford 1857. Davis, Ainsworth. The natural history of animals, Gresham, London 1907. Day, Florence E. 'Mesopotamian manuscripts of Dioscorides', in Metropolitan Museum of Art, bulletin 8, 1950, pp274-280. Diels, H. Die handschriften der antiken artze, Berlin 1906. Desmond, Ray. Wonders of creation, natural history drawings in the British Museum, The British Library, London 1986. De Wit, HCD. Ontwikkelingsgeschiedenis van de Biologie, Wageningen 1982-1989. Di Toni Giovanni Battista. I placiti di Luca Ghini … intorno a piante descritte nei Commentarii al Dioscoride di P A Mattioli, Venezia 1907. Dont, H. 'Dioskurides Pedanios aus Anazarbos in Kilikien', in Lex Gesch Naturwiss, vol 1, 1970, pp836-838. Dowden, Anne Ophelia. This noble harvest, a chronicle of herbs, Collins, New York 1979. Dubler, Cesar E. 'Die materia medica unter den Muslimen des Mittelalters', in Sudhoffs Archiv fur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften, Leipzig, vol 43, 1959, pp320-350. Dubler, Cesar E. 'Diyuskuridis', in The Encyclopaedia of Islam, 5 vols, Brill, Leiden and Luzac, London 1978, vol 2, pp349-350. Dubler, Cesar E. La Materia medica de Dioscorides: Transmision medieval y renacentista, 6 vols, Tipografia Emporium, Barcelona 1953-1959. Emboden, William A. Leonardo da Vinci on plants and gardens, Christopher Helm, London 1987. Emmanuel, E. 'Etude comparative sur les plantes dessinees dans le Codex Constantino-politanus de Dioscoride', in Schweizerische Wochenschrift fur Chemie und Pharmazie, Journal Suisse de Chimie et Pharmacie, vol LXI (Jahrg 50), 1912, pp45-50, 64-72. Engler, Heinrich Gustav Adolf & Prantl, Karl. Die naturlichen pflanzenfamilien, 32 volumes in 23, Leipzig 1887-1909; Nachtrage 1897-1914. Fabiani Guiseppe. La vita di Pierto Andrea Mattioli, ed by L Banchi, Siena 1872. Fuchs, Leonhard. De stirpium historia commentatorium tomi vivae imagines, in exiguam angustioremque formam cotractae, Basileae 1545. Gerarde, John. The Herball or Generall historie of plantes, very much enlarged and amended by Thomas Johnson, the essence thereof distilled by Marcus Woodward, Studio Editions, London 1990. Gerstinger, H. Dioscurides. Codex Vindobonensis Med Gr I der Osterreichischen Nationalbibliothek. Kommentarband zu der Facsimileausgabe, Graz 1970. Gilmour, J S L, editor. Thomas Johnson, botanical journeys in Kent & Hampstead, The Hunt Botanical Library, Pittsburgh 1972. Greene, Edward Lee, edited by Frank N Egerton. Landmarks of botanical history, 2 volumes, Stanford University Press, Stanford 1983.
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Gunther, Robert Theodore. The herbal of Apuleis Barbarus, from the early twelfth-century manuscript formerly in the Abbey of Bury St Edmunds (MS Bodley 130), The Roxburghe Club, Oxford 1917. Hall, Elizabeth Cornelia. Printed books 1481-1900 in The Horticultural Society of New York, The Horticultural Society of New York, New York 1970. Hedrick, Ulysses Prentiss, editor. Sturtevant’s notes on edible plants, JB Lyon Co, Albany 1919. Henrey, Blanche. British botanical and horticultural literature before 1800, 3 volumes, Oxford University Press, London 1975. Hill, Arthur William. Preface by Sir Arthur Hill to: Turrill, WB, ‘Contribution to the botany of Athos Peninsula’, in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew, pp197-8, 1937. Hofman, K, Auracher, T M and Stadler, H. 'Der Longobardische Dioskorides des Marcellus Virgilius', in Romanische Forschungen (Erlangen), vols 1, 10 and 11, 1882-1897. Hunt Botanical Library. Catalogue of botanical books in the collection of Rachel McMasters Miller Hunt, vol I, Printed Books 1477-1700, compiled by Jane Quinby 1958. Huxley, Anthony, editor-in-chief. The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening, The Macmillan Press Limited, London 1992. Jackson, Benjamin Daydon. Guide to the literature of botany, Hafner Publishing Company, New York, 1964 facsimile of 1881 edition. Janson, H Frederic. Pomona’s harvest, an illustrated chronicle of antiquarian fruit literature, Timber Press, Portland, Oregon 1996. Johnson, J de M. ‘A botanical papyrus with illustrations’, in Archiv fur geschichte der naturwissenschaften und der technik, vol IV, p403, Leipzig 1912. Kaestner, HF. ‘Pseudo-Dioscoridis de herbis femininis’, in Hermes, vol XXXI, pp578-636, Berlin 1896. Karabacek J von, editor. Dioscurides. Codex Aniciae Julianae picturis illustratus, nunc Vindobonensis, 2 vols, Med Gr I Phototypice editus, Lugduni Batavorum, Leyden 1906. Kerner von Marilaun, Anton Joseph. Pflanzenleben, 2 vols, Leipzig 1887-1891. Kerner von Marilaun, Anton Joseph. The natural history of plants, translated by F W Oliver with the assistance of Marian Busk and Mary F Ewart, 2 vols, London 1894-1895. Killermann, S. ‘Die in den illuminierten Dioskurides-Handschriften dargestellten Pflanzen’, in Denkschriften der Regensburgischen botanischen Gesellschaft, vol 24, 1955, pages 3-64. Kriticos, PG and Papadaki, SP. 'Contribution a l’histoire de la pharmacie chez les Byzantins', in Veroffentlichunzen Int Ges Gesch Pharm (n.f.), vol 32, 1967 (1969), pp13-78. Langkavel, Bernhard A. Botanik der spaeteren Griechen vom dritten bis dreizehnten Jahrhunterte, Berggold, Berlin 1866. Facsimile ed Hakkert, Amsterdam 1964. Legre, Ludovic. La botanique en Provence au XVIe siecle. Pierre Pena et Mathias de Lobel, Aubertin & Rolle, Marseille 1899. Lenz, Harald Othmar. Botanik der alten Griechen und Romer, comp transl, Thienemann, Gotha 1859. Facsimile ed Sandig, Wiesbaden 1966. Lewis and Short. A Latin dictionary, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1879. Loudon, John Claudius. Encyclopaedia of plants, ed by Jane Wells Loudon assisted by G Don and D Wooster, Longmans Green, London 1880. Mabberley, DJ. The Plant-Book, second edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1998. Meyer, Ernst Heinrich Friedrich. Geschichte der Botanik, 4 vols, Borntrager, Konigsberg 1854-1857. Facsimile ed Asher, Amsterdam 1965. Meyerhof, Max. ‘Die materia medica des Dioskurides bei den Arabern’ in Quellen stud. geschichte der naturwissenschaften Med. vol 3, part IV, pp72-84, 1933.
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Minelli, Alessandro, editor. The Botanical Garden of Padua 1545-1995, Marsilio Editori, Universita degli studi di Padova, Venice 1995. Mioni, Elpidio. Un ignoto Dioscoride miniato (Il Codice Greco 194 del Seminario dei Padova), Studio Bibliografico Intenore, Padova 1959. Mock, Rudolf. Pflanzenliche Arzneimittel bei Dioskurides, die schon im Corpus Hippocraticum vorkomen, Inaugural dissertation, Laupp, Tubingen 1919. Murray, James AH, editor. A new English dictionary, edited on classical principles, Oxford 1888. Napjus, JW. ‘De Codex Constantinopolitanus van Dioskurides’, in Bijd. Gesch. Geneesk., Vol 21, 1941. Nissen, Claus. Die botanische buchillustration, ihre geschichte und bibliographie, A Hiersemann, Stuttgart, 2 vols, 1951, Supplement, 1966. Nissen, Claus. Herbals of five centuries, L’Art Ancien, Zurich, Robert Wolfe, Munich and Weiss-Hesse, Olten, 1958. Novak, FA, Barton, JG and Rickett, HW. The pictorial encyclopaedia of plants and flowers, 1965. Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1996. Paulys Real-Encyclopadie der classischen altertumswissenschaft, Wissowa, George et al, editors, Metzler, Wien 1894-(supplement in progress). Penzig, Otto AJ. Contribuzioni alla storia della botanica, I Illustrazione degli erbarii di Gherardo Cibo, II Sopra un codice miniato della materia medica di Dioscoride, conservato a Roma, Ciminago, Genova 1904, Milan 1905. Peset, V. 'A note on the Spanish version of Dioscorides’ "Materia Medica"', in Journal of Hist Med Allied Science, vol 9, 1954, pp49-58. Piccinini, Guido M. 'La rinomanza di Dioscoride e la denominazione materia medica', in Rivista Storia Sci, vol 11, 1920, pp68-82, 101-116. Prest, John. The Garden of Eden, the botanic garden and the re-creation of Paradise, Yale University Press, New Haven 1981. Princeton Encyclopaedia of Classical Sites, The. Richard Stillwell, editor. Princeton University Press, Princeton New Jersey 1976. Pritzel, GA. Thesaurus Literaturae Botanicae, reprint of edition of Brockhaus, Leipzig 1872. Richter, Hermann Friedrich Eberhard and Petermann, Wilhelm Ludwig, editors. Caroli Linnaei systema, genera, species, plantarum ... seu Codex Botanicus Linnaeanus, Lipsiae 1835, and Index alphabeticus, Lipsiae 1840. Riddle, John M. 'Dioscorides, known as Pedanius Dioscorides of Anazarbus (fl AD50-70)', in CC Gillespie, ed., Dictionary of scientific biography, 16 vols, Scribner’s, New York 1970-1980, vol 4, pp119-123. Riddle, John M. 'The latin alphabetical Dioscorides', in Proceedings of XIIIth international congress of the history of science, Moscow, August 18-24 1971, Nauka, Moscow 1974, sec 4, pp204-209. Riddle, John M. 'Dioscorides', in Kristeller, Paul Oskar and Cranz, F Edward, editors, Catalogus translationum et commentatorium, 4 vols, Catholic University of America Press, Washington DC 1960-1980, vol 4, pp1-143. Riddle, John M. 'Pseudo-Dioscorides’ ex herbis femininis and early medieval medical botany', in Journal of History Biology, vol 14, 1981, pp43-81. Rix, Martyn. The art of the plant world, The Overlook Press, Woodstock, New York 1981. Rohde, Eleanour Sinclair. The Old English Herbals, Minerva, London 1974. Royal Horticultural Society, Lindley Library, catalogue of books, pamphlets, manuscripts and drawings. The Trustees of The Royal Horticultural Society, London 1927. Rytz, Walther. ‘Das herbarium Felix Platters. Ein beitrag zur geschichte der botanik des XVI jahrhunderts’, in Verhandl. d. naturforsch. gesellsch., vol 44, pp1-222, Basel 1933. Sachs, Julius von. History of Botany 1530-1860, translated by Henry EF Garnsey, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1890.
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Sarton, George. Introduction to the history of science, 3 vols in 5, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore 1927-1948. Reprint 1962. Sarton, George. A history of science, vol 1 Ancient science through the golden age of Greece; vol 2 Hellenistic science and culture in the last 3 centuries BC, Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1952-1959. Sarton, George. ‘Scientific incunabula’, in Osiris, vol 5, Bruges 1938. Saunders, Gill. Picturing Plants, an analytical history of botanical illusillustration, Zwemmer in association with The Victoria and Albert Museum, London 1995. Schafer, Walter. 'Von Dioskurides bis Messegue: alte und neue Heilpflanzen-bucher', Catalogue of an exhibition, Bibliographie zur Ausstelling, 2 vols, Hessische Landes- und Hochschul Bibliothek Emfuhrung, Darmstadt 1981. Schmidt, R. Die nog gebrauchlichen Arzneimittel bei Dioskurides, Inaugural Dissertation, Tubingen 1919. Schreiber, Wilhelm Ludwig. Die krauterbucher des XV und XVI jahrhunderts, Drucke, Munchen 1924. Sibthorp, John. Flora graeca Prodromus, editor JE Smith, Taylor, London 1806-1813. Sibthorp, John. Flora graeca, 10 vols, editors JE Smith & J Lindley, Richard Taylor, London 1806-1840. Sigerist, Henry E. 'Materia medica in the middle ages, a review', in Bulletin of the history of medicine, vol 7, 1939, pp417-423. Singer, Charles Joseph. 'The herbal in antiquity and its transmission to later ages', in Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol 47, 1927, pp1-52 & 10 col plates. Singer, Charles Joseph. 'Greek biology and its relation to the rise of modern biology', in Studies in the history and method of science, vol 2, 2 vols, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1921, pp1-101. Singer, Charles Joseph with Henry E Sigerist. Essays on the history of medicine presented to Karl Sudhoff on the occasion of his 70th birthday, vol 26, Ayer Company Publishers 1977. Singer, Charles Joseph. Greek biology and Greek medicine, AMS Press 1985. Singer, Charles Joseph with Edgar Ashworth Underwood. Science, medicine and history, Ayer Company Publishers 1975. Smit, Pieter. History of the life sciences: an annotated bibliography, Hafner, New York 1974. Also published as Bibliography of life science, Asher, Amsterdam 1974. Sprague, Thomas Archibald. 'The herbal of Otto Brunfels', in The journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) vol XLVIII, 1928, pp79-124. Sprague, Thomas Archibald and Nelmes, E. 'The herbal of Leonhart Fuchs', in The journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) vol XLVIII, 1931, pp545-642. Sprague, Thomas Archibald. 'Technical terms in Ruellius’ Dioscorides', in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, No 2, 1936, pp145-185. Sprague, Thomas Archibald and Sprague, M S. 'The herbal of Valerius Cordus', in The journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) vol LII, 1939, pp1-113. Sprengel, Kurt Polycarp Joachim. Historia rei herbariae, 2 vols, Sumtibus Tabernae Librariae et Artium, Amsteldami 1807-1808. Sprengel, Kurt Polycarp Joachim. Geschichte der botanik, neu bearbeitet, 2 vols, Brockhaus, Altenburg 1817-1818. Stadler, H. ‘Lateinische Pflanzennamen im Dioskorides’, in Arch. Latein. Lexikogr., vol 10, 1898, pages 85-115. Stadler, H. ‘Pflanzennamen im Dioskorides’, in Arch. Latein. Lexikogr. Vol 11, 1900, pages 105-114. Stadler, Hermann. Theophrast und Dioscorides, in Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiet der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Beck, Munchen 1891, pp176-187. Stafleu, Frans A. Linnaeus and the Linnaeans, IAPT, Utrecht 1971.
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Stannard, Jerry. 'Dioscorides and Renaissance materia medica', in Analecta medico-historica materia medica in the XVI century (Proc. Sympos. Int. Acad. Hist. Med., Basel, 1964) Pergamon, Oxford 1966, pp1-21. Stannard, Jerry. 'PA Matthioli and some Renaissance editions of Dioscorides', in Books, Library of the University of Kansas, vol 4, 1966, pp1-5. Stannard, Jerry. 'The Graeco-Roman background of the Renaissance herbal', in Organon, vol 4, 1967, pp141-145. Stannard, Jerry. 'PA Mattioli: Sixteenth-century commentator on Dioscorides', in University of Kansas Library Bibliographic Contributions, vol 1, 1969, pp59-81. Stannard, Jerry. 'Byzantine botanical lexicography', in Episteme, vol 5, 1971, pp168-187. Stannard, Jerry. 'Greco-Roman materia medica in medieval Germany', in Bulletin of the history of medicine, vol 46, Baltimore, Maryland, 1972, pp455-468. Stearn, WT. ‘Codex Aniciae Julianae: the earliest illustrated herbal’, in Graphis, vol 10 (54), 1954, pages 322-329. Stearn, William Thomas. 'From Theophrastus and Dioscorides to Sibthorp and Smith: the background and origin of the Flora Graeca', in Journal of the Linnean Society Biology, vol 8, 1976, pp285-298. Stearn, WT. ‘Sibthorp, Smith the "Flora Graeca" and the "Florae Graecae Prodromus"', in Taxon, vol 16, 1967, pages 168-178. Steinschneider, Moritz. Die arabischen Ubersetzungen aus dem Griechischen, 2 vols, Harrassowitz, Leipzig 1889-1891. Facsimile ed Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz 1960. Steinschneider, Moritz. 'Die griechischen Aertze in arabischen Uebersetzunge, #30, Dioskorides', in Virchow’s Archiv fur pathologische Anatomie und klinische Medizin, vol CXXIV (ser 12, vol IV), Berlin, 1891, pp480-483. Sternberg K K. Catalogus plantarum ad septem varias editiones commentariorum Matthioli in Dioscoridem, Pragae 1821. Stromberg, Reinhold. ‘Griechische pflanzennamen’, in Goteborgs Hogskolas Arsskrift Universitatis Gotoburgensis, vol 46, 1940, pp1-190. Sudhoff, Karl. Archiv fur geschichte der medezin, Leipzig 1917. Taylor, Norman. Plant Drugs that changed the World, George Allen & Unwin, London 1966. Temkin, Owsei. The double face of Janus and other essays in the history of medicine, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1977. Thomson, Margaret H. Textes grecs inedits relatifs aux plantes, Societe d’Edition “Les Belles Lettres”, Paris 1955. Trew, Christoph Jakob. The Herbal of the Count Palatine, an eighteenthcentury herbal with over one hundred full colour illustrations by Elizabeth Blackwell and Georg Dionysius Ehret, translated by Lucia Woodward, Harrap, London 1985. Turner, William. Libellus de re herbaria, 1538; and The names of herbes, 1548, facsimiles, Ray Society, London 1965. Vaczy, C. ‘Nomenclatura dacica a plantelor la Dioscorides si Pseudo-Apuleius’, in Acta Musei Napocensis (Cluj.), vol 5, 1968, pp59-74; vol 6, 1969, pp15-29; vol 8, 1971, pp109-133; vol 9, 1972, pp7-17. Vogel, Kurt. 'Byzantine Science', in Hussey, Joan M, ed with Nicol, DM and Cowan, G, The Cambridge Medieval History, vol 4, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1967, esp. pp287-294, 457-462. Waechter, O. ‘The ‘Vienna Dioskurides’ and its restoration’, in Libri, vol 13, 1963, pp107-111. Warburg, Otto. Die pflanzenwelt, 3 vols, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Wien, 1913-22. Watson, Gilbert. Theriac and mithridatium, a study in therapeutics, Wellcome Institute, London 1966. Wellmann, Max. 'Sextius Niger, eine Quellenunterschung zu Dioskurides', in Hermes, vol 24, 1889, pp530-69.
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Wellmann, Max. 'Das alteste Krauterbuch der Griechen', in Festgabe fur Franz Susemihl zur Geschichte griechscher Wissenschaft und Dichtung, Teubner, Leipzig 1898, pp1-31. Wellmann, Max. 'Die Pflanzennamen des Dioskurides', in Hermes, vol 33, 1898, pp360-422. Wellmann, Max. 'Krateuas', in Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften Gottingen, Philol Hist Klasse (neue folge) vol 2, 1899, pp 3-32 & 2 pls. Wellmann, Max. 'Dioskurides aus Anazarbos in Kilikien', in Paulys Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, vol 5, 1903, cols1131-42. Wessely, C. ‘De herbarum nominibus graecis in Dioscoridis codice Constantinopolitano Vindobonensis arabicis litteris expressis’, in Actes XIV Congres Internat. Oriental. Alger., section 6, 1905, pp1-18. Whittle, Tyler. The plant hunters, 3450 years of searching for green treasure, Heinemann, London 1970. Willkomm, Heinrich Moritz. Icones et descriptiones plantarum novarum criticarum et rariorum europae austro-occidentalis praecipue hispaniae, 2 vols, AH Payne, Lipsiae 1852-56.
See also the List of Printed Books based on manuscripts of Dioscorides, particularly: Agricola 1539 Alphabetum empiricum 1581 Amatus Lusitanus 1536, 1553 Anguillara 1561, 1563 Barbaro 1516, 1530 Bauhin 1623, 1671 Berendes 1902 Bock/Tragus 1539, 1546, 1551, 1552 Brunfels 1530, 1543 Cesalpino 1583, 1603 Contant 1628 Cordus, Erich 1551 Cordus, Valerius 1561 Dodoens 1553-1619 Dubler 1953-1959 Fabius Columna /Colonna 1616 Fuchs 1542, 1543, 1544 Gesner 1541, 1542, 1577 Guillandinus 1557, 1558 Gunther / Goodyer 1934, 1959 Holtzachius 1556 Jacquin 1811 Jarava 1557 Karabacek 1906 Laguna 1554, 1555 Lobel 1576, 1581, 1591, 1655 Lonitzer 1543 Maranta 1559 Marcello Virgilio 1518, 1523, 1529 Marogna 1608 Mattioli 1544, 1548, 1554, 1555, 1561, 1598 Pasini 1591, 1592 Pena & L’Obel 1570, 1576, 1605 Pierpont Morgan Bibliothecae / Codex Constantinopolitanus 1935 Pona 1623 Ruellius / de la Ruelle 1516, 1526, 1529, 1545, 1549 Ryff 1543, 1544, 1549 Serapion 1473, 1479, 1531, 1552 Sibthorp 1806-1813, 1806-1840 Sprengel 1829-1830 Sternberg 1566, 1821 Textor 1534 Zorn 1714, 1779, 1794 Vries 1906 Wellman 1906-1914

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INTRODUCTION
PEDIANOS DIOSCORIDES
Valeriana officinalis after THIEBAULT — 1881

THE MAN edianos Dioscorides, also known as Pedanius Dioskourides, probably lived between 40CE and 90CE in the time of the Roman Emperors Nero and Vespasian. A Cilician Greek, he was born in Anazarbos (now Nazarba, near Tarsus) within the Roman Empire of the day, and today in Turkey. A learned physician, he practiced medicine as an army doctor, and saw service with the Roman legions in Greece, Italy, Asia Minor, and Provence in modern-day France. His military years provided opportunities for studying diseases, collecting and identifying medicinal plants, and discovering other healing materials. Dioscorides compiled his medical treatise at the suggestion of a fellow-physician, Areius. He had access to the library at Alexandria, and may have studied at Tarsus. He recorded many plants previously unknown to Greek and Roman physicians, and made an effort to describe not only their qualities and remedial effects, but also something of their botany and living morphology — including roots, foliage, and sometimes flowers. Although not as naïve as many other herbal writers, he showed little scientific interest — concentrating rather on the practical uses of plants — and sometimes giving only brief descriptions, perhaps from other primary souces. In all he described some one thousand remedies using approximately six hundred plants and plant products. Dioscorides probably wrote his great herbal in about 64CE (according to Pritzel 77CE). These medicinal and alimentary plants number about a hundred more plants than all those (medicinal or not) known to the great botanist Theophrastus, and described in his fine botanical work, the Enquiry into Plants, some two centuries before. Theophrastus of Eresos (a village on the Greek island of Lesbos) lived from about 372 to 286BCE. A pupil of Plato and close friend of Aristotle, he is the earliest known systematic botanical author in Europe. He

P

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discussed about 500 plants (or plant products) familiar at that time, including almost forty plants still used in medicine today, and mentioned plants from all regions of the known world, including India, Egypt and Cyrenaica, possibly discovered during the military campaigns of Alexander the Great. Theophrastus drew on the work of Diokles of Karystos (about 300BCE), a fellow-student of Aristotle. Dioscorides added extensively to the range of plants used in medicine. He was a contemporary of the Roman, Pliny, whose monumental work on natural history (the history of the world) mentions about 1000 different plants. There is no evidence that they met, and Pliny may not have read Dioscorides' work. Gaius Plinius Secundus, known as Pliny the Elder, was born in Como in 23CE and died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79CE. A busy Roman official, Pliny was also a prolific author, though only the thirty-seven books of his Historia Naturalis survived. He transcribed the knowledge of his time in accurate and precise detail, uncritically adding myths, legends, superstitions, personal observations, and opinions in a discursive, entertaining, encyclopaedic work. Pliny is less systematic and more credulous than Dioscorides. Pliny's remedies while no more effective are generally more unpleasant. For almost two millenia Dioscorides was regarded as the ultimate authority on plants and medicine. The plant descriptions in his Περι υληζ ιατρικη1 or De Materia Medica were often adequate for identification, including methods of preparation, medicinal uses, and dosages. There is also a minor work bearing the name of Dioscorides, Περι απλων φαρµακων2, but this may not be authentic. Recognising the usefulness of his medical botany and phytography, his readers probably overestimated their worth. In truth, Theophrastus was the scientific botanist; Pliny produced the systematic encyclopaedia of knowledge; and Dioscorides was merely a medical botanist. However Dioscorides

1 2

Singer, Charles. 'The Herbal in Antiquity', in The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol XLVII, 1927, p19. ibid. p19 and note 45.

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achieved overwhelming commendation and approval because his writings addressed the many ills of mankind most usefully. THE TEACHINGS Dioscorides was one of the first writers to emphasize observing plants in their native habitats, and at all stages of growth. De Materia Medica also instructs on collecting, using, and storing drugs from vegetable, animal and mineral sources. There are about seventy animal-product remedies, including two using vipers' flesh, a famous poison antidote. This snake meat (pickled in oil, wine, salt and dill) was also recommended for sharpening eyesight, and for nerves. A popular remedial delicacy mentions viper roasted with salt, honey, figs and nardostachys (spikenard), and made into a soup. Dioscorides' plant descriptions use an elementary classification, though he cannot be said to have used botanical taxonomy. Book One discusses aromatic plants; growths that provide oily, gummy or resinous products for use in salves and ointments; then the fleshy fruits, even if not aromatic. Book Two begins with animal products of dietetic and medicinal use, continuing with cereals and leguminous, malvaceous, cruciferous and other garden herbs. Book Three covers roots, juices, herbs and seeds used for food or medicine; and Book Four includes narcotic and poisonous medicinal plants. Book Five mentions vines, wines and metallic ores. Dioscorides does not adopt Theophrastus' philosophic treatment of plants, nor his classification using botanical characteristics. Dioscorides' qualitative classification (properties and uses) suits his medicinal purposes. Nevertheless, when necessary, he classifies separately; such as Sambucus where he distinguishes one species as a herb and the other as woody, almost a tree. He also recognises the familiar natural families of plants such as the labiate genera, the leguminous, the umbelliferous, the composites and the solanaceous plants. Together with Pliny's encyclopaedic writings, Dioscorides' De Materia Medica provides important documentation about drugs in the early Roman Empire, as well as offering interesting insights into daily life. For example, the Romans used green twigs of Pistacia
xxii

oak galls. mastic oil. other yellow hair-dyes came from Rhamnus. and black hair-dyes from gum arabica. Pliny the Elder confirms that physicians of his day knew little about compounding medications. The ordinary name for a druggist's shop was seplasia. oil of bitter almonds. Rhus. oil of fenugreek. ladanum. and juice from a gourd or vegetable marrow. and frankincense was frequently adulterated with pine resin and gum. they made henna shampoo by pounding henna leaves soaked in the juice of soapwort. almond oil. and made hair tonic from a mixture of myrrh. lizard dung. and they used a creamy extract of fenugreek flour for cleaning hair. fats of geese and poultry. ivy. Cleansing and beautifying lotions for the complexion included Sicyonian oil. Dioscorides also discusses adulteration. Sardinian honey. the foolish and old peasant women. Much as we do today. lupin flour. cosmetics and medicines were prepared side by side in Roman times. and sold in the same shop. frequently mentioning methods of falsification or substitution. and keep it from turning grey. They used oil from wild olives to stop falling hair.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK lentiscus for brushing teeth. In time the two designations became interchangeable. We learn from Fuchs that even in the sixteenth century hardly any contemporary physicians in Germany valued accurate knowledge of medicinal plants. entrusting these matters to seplasiarii. and means of detection. Bear grease was said to make hair grow again. within the shop the seplasiarii were ointment-makers. De Materia Medica xxiii . Zizyphus and Xanthium. This information did not concern them and was beneath their dignity — they left the study of medicinal plants to the superstitious. who frequently supplied spoiled or adulterated drugs. For example. Latex from Euphorbia characias was mixed with oil for a depilatory. often confusing one plant with another. In his original introduction Dioscorides states that many physicians provided superficial accounts of the properties and diagnostic uses of drugs. myrtle oil and wine. and lacked a pleasant smell. difficult to break. and the pigmentarii sold dyes and colours. which might be noticed because it became hard. They blackened eyebrows and eyelashes with vegetable soot from the burnt resin of coniferae. oak. Salvia species and Sambucus ebulus. bitter vetch flour. root of valeriana was adulterated with butcher's broom. myrtle.

aromata). In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries this practice was renewed with drinking-cups made from Lignum nephriticum. ibid. deafening human gatherers. An eclegma (electuary or looch) was a thick syrup to be swallowed slowly. 4-76. Medicinal drinking-cups were made from the wood of Tamarix gallica. Dioscorides used the Greek word anaesthesia for insensitivity. xxiv . edited and first printed AD1934. and make it retain desired perfumes from odoramenta (aromatic herbs. an anaesthetic used until the introduction of ether in 1846. p75. Catapotia were pills coated with wax or honey. and liquid left standing in them was considered beneficial for disorders of the spleen. Various forms of medication included acopa. Cataplasmata were plasters or poultices. Dogs were used to extract this. Painkillers have always dominated healing texts. cataplasmata. as it allegedly screamed when pulled from the ground. We find several amusing anecdotes about plants in De Materia Medica. were used to treat numerous ailments including hayfever.INTRODUCTION discusses the preparation of oils and unguents at length. It contains hyoscyamine. employed by eminent poisoners through the centuries. The mandrake was associated with various myths. Dioscorides wrote of the willow — itea. In due course this knowledge led German 3 4 5 The Greek herbal of Dioscorides. p474. Englished by John Goodyer AD1655. highly regarded as a specific for diseases of the kidneys. 1-136. Spissamenta (astringents) were added to preserve and thicken oil. illustrated by a Byzantine AD512. eclegmata and catapotia. An acopum was a soothing or stimulatory liniment. which gave a brilliant blue fluorescence to water. 4-76. The nightshades (circaea and solanum species). ibid. a term reintroduced in the nineteenth century. Malagmata were emollient poultices. probably salix species — ‘a decoction of them is an excellent fomentation for ye gout’5. 1959 reprint edition. Dioscorides mentions mandragora (mandrake). used as an anaesthetic for amputation or surgery — the patient became ‘overborn with dead sleep’3 so that the surgeon could painlessly ‘cut or cauterise’4. p473. malagmata. presumably because the thick tuberous roots resemble the human form. No doubt this tale intimidated casual collectors and protected the wild species.

olive oil. ginger. Dioscorides warned ‘a little of it. oak galls. anise. galbanum. poppy. henbane.. and a digester .THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK scientists to aspirin. rosemary. saffron. psyllium. diluents. pennyroyal. and it kills’6. stramonium. Chinese and Indian physicians continue to use liquorice. rhubarb. p458. storax. is a pain-easer. hyoscyamus. Dioscorides. xxv . The gummy exudate was called opium by the Greeks. white horehound. lavender. 4-65. colocynth. hemlock. cinnamon. as well as treatments for infections of the urinogenital tract. also known to the ancient Egyptians. another painkiller. cherry syrup and calamine. sesame. pepper. Dioscorides describes harvesting opium — the same method is still used today for collecting the coagulated juice of the poppy heads. catechu. stavesacre (delphinium). Although a wonderful painkiller. A decoction of pomegranate root bark is prescribed to expel tapeworm. taken as much as a grain of ervum (probably seed of ervil. as well as by Theophrastus. almond oil. The world's best-known painkiller is undoubtedly opium. linseed. rue. Dioscorides describes many valuable drugs including aconite. orris (iris). and mentioned in De Materia Medica. and emollients still in some modern pharmacopoeia include ammoniacum. a vetch). Dioscorides also mentions autumn crocus. dill. juniper. Other medicines still in use include wormwood. flavouring agents. myrrh. no doubt familiar with the prevalence of skin and eyes diseases in the Near East. colchicum. and palliatives for stomach ache and intestinal pains. male fern. gentian. starch. making men lethargicall. coriander. pine bark. peppermint. fennel. but being drank too much it hurts. Minor drugs. squirting cucumber (elaterium).. cardamoms. white hellebore. and a sleep-causer. and couch grass — the last still used as a demulcent diuretic. bitter apple. warning of its dangers. marjoram. opium is a dangerous narcotic. aloes. and squill. terebinth. crocus. this merely being a word for juice. sugar. mastic. thyme. marshmallow. 6 ibid. mustard. mentioned in the Ebers Papyrus (an Egyptian medical book dating from about 1550BCE). mezereon. Specifics for women include several to procure abortions.

The Egyptians prepared a kind of beer called zythum or zythus from barley. the roots of Rumex (the weed. medical prescriptions are listed on a 5000 year-old Sumerian tablet.INTRODUCTION included many remedies for these. as this would cause death. may justify the many medications to reduce the spleen. possibly a factor in the decline of the Roman Empire. oak-galls. and Dioscorides tells us ivory soaked in this becomes easily workable. and Chinese — Emperor Shen Nung composed the Pen T'sao Ching about 2700BCE. Krateuas and his contemporary the Roman xxvi . the resin of Commiphora species. the bark of Platanus soaked in vinegar. who instructed men in their proper use. The third joint from the ground of the stem of Verbena (vervain) was used for tertian fevers. Chronic malaria. that of Euphorbia characias mixed with oil. The earliest herbal writers we can name are Greek — Theophrastus. Sediment of olive oil mixed with juice from unripe grapes and cooked to the consistency of honey. dock) in vinegar. The earliest fragmentary herbal records are Egyptian. and a decoction of the roots of asparagus and Plantago (plantain). Amulets and mascots were valued. a decoction of the leaves and bark of mulberry. with his Enquiry into Plants of 350BCE. and the fourth joint for quartian fevers. a decoction of tamarisk leaves mixed with wine. the latex of the fig. THE WRITINGS — MANUSCRIPTS Ancient herbal traditions claimed plants were the flesh of the gods. and Polemonia against the bite of scorpions. was smeared on decayed teeth to loosen them. daughters of the King of Argos. Black hellebore was dug up with great care lest an eagle observe the act. Large slabs of ivory were carved by ancient artists — the secret of their softening method is now lost. the resin of Rhus. who recovered from madness. Hippocrates. and the earliest surviving herbal is the Papyrus Ebers from about 1550BCE. A few superstitious practices are recorded in De Materia Medica. noting they were healed with black hellebore. containing material gathered five to twenty centuries before. such as Anchusa alia (Echium species) used as an amulet against snakes. Sumerian. Palliatives for toothache included colocynth. Diokles of Caryustus. Dioscorides also recounts the myth of Lysippe and lphianassa.

Its 150 illustrations include some of Greek provenance. De Materia Medica may be partially based on the lost work of Diokles (called Hippocrates II by his contemporaries). the creative period of Greek science having passed. The great paradigm for botany is that the history of botany before 1700 was really the history of pharmacy. As it was. Arabic and Greek. magnificently illustrated. ibid. The oldest survival is a fragment. and uses for each plant. just as he had drawn from authorities before him. mainly from manuscripts based on De Materia Medica. which dealt with hygiene and prophylaxis. The physician Galen. Galen's De Simplicibus. Herbarium Apulei Platonici. The earliest surviving records of illustrated Greek Herbals indicate De Materia Medica was widely read and reproduced during the Middle Ages in Latin. and Nicolaus of Damascenus with his De Plantis of about 30BCE. Had printing existed then. The Greek Oribasios [325-403CE] produced the popular manuscripts Synagoge and Euporista. and drugs. cited Dioscorides. locality. p2. the Michigan Papyrus. dealt with medicine. The finest surviving comprehensive manuscript copy. assuming considerable significance in the development of western and Islamic cultures. and being translated into Latin. Krateuas is the first noted instance of both author and artist. Nicander of Colophon (second century BCE). and gave detailed instructions for sound living7. The earliest copies of Dioscorides' manuscript were not illustrated. giving the name. pharmacy. was well-regarded in late Roman times. A concise manuscript of western Roman origin. In the Dark Ages these herbal manuscripts lost some influence to simpler herbals. an influential Greek writer in the development of the herbal. prepared around the year 180CE. it is possible Dioscorides' overwhelming influence would have confined later writings on the subject to glossaries on De Materia Medica. drawing freely from both Dioscorides and Galen. xxvii . most herbalists were heavily indebted to him.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Sextius Niger (first century BCE). was made in the sixth 7 Singer. For fifteen hundred years it was the standard authority both in botany and materia medica.

delphinium. Some paintings are quite skilful. The first pages of Codex Vindobonensis have smaller paintings. fine-leaved plants such as fennel are well drawn. Many plants discussed are indigenous to Greece and the eastern Mediterranean. Eleven items are clearly derived from the writings and drawings of Krateuas (Cratevas). The manuscript is on vellum. or cultivated as edible crops. Armenian. Codex Vindobonensis is a large book. The coloured paintings of plants date from the second century CE. Alternate plant names in many languages were probably added to the manuscript from the work of Alexandrian lexicographer Pamphilos in the first century CE. and asphodel. Marsum. Democriti. a martyr. Emperor of the West briefly in 472CE. other beautiful illustrations include cyclamen. These synonyms are provided in African. Osthanis. Boeotian. Prophetae. the level of botanical observation frequently inadequate. Ethiopian. including one showing Dioscorides at work while Intelligence holds up a mandrake for Krateuas to draw. Lucanica. Roman. Egyptian. The citizens of Honoratae. Dacian. Cappadocian. Spanish. wormwood. Pythagorean. presented it as a birthday gift to their Christian patroness Patricia Juliana Anicia. This was in appreciation for Juliana Anicia having arranged the construction and decoration of a church dedicated to Polyeuktos. of four hundred and ninety one parchment sheets. pharmacologist and physician to Mithridates VI Eupator. In this Codex an alphabetic extract of the original text is given. written in Greek uncials in the tradition of early sixth-century calligraphy. a monk and physician in xxviii . Bessicum. Nearly nine centuries pass before we next hear of the manuscript. Dardana. some are remarkably life-like with accurate colour. Andreae medici.INTRODUCTION century in Constantinople [about 512CE] and is known as Codex Vindobonensis. Gaulish. daughter of Flavius Anicius Olybrius. roughly thirty centimeters square. and Zoroastrian. and some smaller ones of birds. scarlet pimpernel. They are splendid and reveal a naturalism alien to Byzantine art of the time. King of Pontus from 120 to 63BCE. but others vary in quality. with nearly four hundred full-page paintings of plants. In 1406 it was rebound by John Chortasmenos for Nathanael. a suburb of Byzantium in Turkey. handling awkward details such as how the leaf-bases clasp the stem. Istrici. Tuscan.

but are smaller and grouped together on fewer pages. a sum too large for his pocket. A century later a Jew named Hamon. owned it. and reported its existence. ambassador from the Emperor Ferdinand of Habsburg to the Sublime Porte saw and coveted it. and a seventeenth century descendant at Bologna — these four forming the primary alphabetic group. Codex Vindobonensis is probably the earliest. body physician to Suleiman the Magnificent. the Vatican. the best example the Paris Grec 2179 in the Bibliotheque Nationale. After the Muslim conquest in 1453 the manuscript fell to the Turks. Seven years later the manuscript found its way through the good offices of Ferdinand's successor. de Busbecq lent it to Mattioli who drew heavily on it for commentaries on De Materia Medica. The drawings in Codex Neapolitanus are from the same source as Codex Vindobonensis. and most important illustrated herbal manuscript of classical times. Next is the non-alphabetic Greek group. its naturalistic illustrations dating the draughtsmanship to the second or third century CE.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK the Prodromos Monastery in Constantinople. Clusius. and Lyte. Paris GR 2091. The secondary alphabetic group includes eleventh. Florence. There are many surviving manuscripts of De Materia Medica after Codex Vindobonensis — an important example being the seventh-century Greek alphabetic Codex Neapolitanus. written in ninth-century Egypt. Master printer Christoffel Plantin used illustrations from Codex Vindobonensis for herbals published in the late sixteenth century for Dodoens. A good copy of the Codex Vindobonensis from the fifteenth century is in the Cambridge University library. Before conveying it to the Imperial Library.and twelfth-century manuscripts at Pierpoint Morgan. and Vienna. and then presented to Emperor Charles VI in 1717. It was taken to Vienna and subsequently to the Bibliotheca Nazionale in Naples. there is a line of descent to a fourteenth century manuscript. in the possession of a Neapolitan monastery for many years. Mount Atlas and the Vatican (GR 284). Later manuscripts of the same group reside at Venice (St Marks 273 of the eleventh century). In 1562 Augier Ghislain de Busbecq. Lobelius. most splendid. Maximillian II. He wrote that he could not buy it because he had been asked one hundred ducats. xxix . into the Imperial Library in Vienna (now the Bibliothek Nationale).

this was published as Liber Serapionis aggregatus in medicinis simplicibus. a Christian living in Baghdad under the Khalif Motawakki) made an Arabic translation xxx . making it the most important of the Latin manuscripts. Dioscorides Lombardus was one of the source documents (with 22 others) for the celebrated botanical poem Macer floridus of 1161 by Odo of Meune. 1473. one with Anglo-Saxon glossaries. Arabic/Muslim medical scholars rose to prominence during the fifth to twelfth centuries. such as the Benedictine at Monte Cassino and St Gallen on Lake Constance. a ninth-century manuscript herbal from the late Roman period (about 400CE) preserved at the Abbey of Monte Cassino in Italy. with Arabic the new language of learning. Codex Longobard.INTRODUCTION The Ostrogoths and Lombards encouraged Latin translations. in about 1292. Milan. a contemporary and friend of Ovid. more than twice as many as the 387 in Codex Vindobonensis. It is illustrated with approximately 900 lovely miniatures. Munich 337) has an excellent text. translated by Simon Januensis and Abraham ben Shemtob. The Greek text was translated into Syriac when pagan Greek scholars fled east after Constantine’s conquest of Byzantium. and many Greek works translated into Arabic from Syriac. a South Italian manuscript in Beneventan script. is the second primary Latin translation. Stephanos (son of Basilios. Dioscorides Vulgaris (Palimpsest Lat 16). The ninth-century Dioscorides Lombardus in the Munchener Staatsbibliothek (with its direct descendant. Herbarium Apulei (Codex Cassinensis 97). Arabic and monastic writings drew heavily on Dioscorides and Pliny. Dioscorides Vulgaris led to a number of further versions. In the ninth century monasteries. Arabic works were also translated into Latin. a sixth-century manuscript now in Vienna. is based partly on Dioscorides Lombardus. Quoting extensively from Dioscorides and Galen. He recounts the virtues of 77 plants in verse dedicated to Aemilius Macer. such as the twelfth-century herbal of Johannes Serapion the younger (Ibn Sarabiyun). became centres of herbalism in Europe. In the Dark and Middle Ages Nestorian Christians banished for heretical views carried the works of Dioscorides and others to Asia Minor. Up to the seventeenth century we find many commentaries and inferior later manuscripts such as Liber Dioscuridis de herbis feminis by Sextus Placitus Papyriensis.

In 948CE the Byzantine Emperor Romanus II. The accessibility and standardisation of these works perpetuated the influence of these venerable authors. were compiled from works by Matthaeus Sylvaticus. and the Ortus Sanitatus of 1491. Abd-Arrahman III. Avicenna. Iran. and an Arabic Dioscorides is in the Bodleian Library. 4947) shows how faithfully the Arabs reproduced the Greek illustrations. achieving naturalistic fidelity. A number of other illustrated Arabic manuscripts of De Materia Medica are known. THE WRITINGS — PRINTED BOOKS The first printed herbals appearing in the fifteenth century relied on ancient authors for texts. Nicolas and his Arabic-speaking pupils then prepared a new corrected edition. A richly-illustrated Arabic Dioscorides manuscript of 1224 (Codex 2148) in the Top Kapu Saray Museum has exquisitely detailed figurative scenes. Galen. all printed in Mainz. and 570 times in the Ortus. sent a beautifully illustrated Greek manuscript of De Materia Medica to the Spanish Khalif. Three herbal incunabulae (books printed before 1500) have a particularly interesting derivation. Tuscany. A Persian translation from the thirteenth century is preserved in the Shrine at Meshed. by Johannem Allemanum de Medemblik in 1478. near Siena. In 1499 Aldus xxxi . which was translated into Arabic. The Herbarius of 1484. The teachings of Dioscorides have been used in the practice of medicine in the Middle East from their first writing to the present day. arrived in Spain so that physicians in Cordoba might be taught Greek. An Arabic translation from the eleventh century in the Bibliotheque Nationale. 242 times in the Gart. Nicolas. so in 951CE a learned monk. son and co-regent of Constantine Porphyrogenitos. Dioscorides was mentioned sixteen times in the Herbarius. Dioscorides. Spaniards were unfamiliar with Greek. Arabic modifications rendered the figures more symmetrical. Serapio. The first printed book of Dioscorides’ De Materia Medica is a rare and obscure Latin translation of the Dioscoridis Vulgaris printed at Colle. Platearius. the Gart der Gesundheit of 1485. and others. Paris (Codex arab. The Syriac scholar Bar Hebraeus prepared an illustrated Syriac version in 1250.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK of De Materia Medica from the Greek in 854CE.

with a loss of faithfulness to the earlier text. Mattioli wrote other books but his commentaries on Dioscorides (said to run to forty editions) are considered his most important work. Mattioli. Between 1555 and 1752 there were at least twelve Spanish editions.INTRODUCTION Manutius printed the first Greek version in Venice. Numerous herbals published from 1473 onwards were directly or indirectly based on Dioscoridean manuscripts. Mattioli. Bohemian. including the works of Fuchs. He wielded xxxii . In this imposing plant encyclopaedia Mattioli identified Dioscorides’ plants and added 562 woodcut illustrations. French. In the following century the most voluminous and useful books of botany were supplemented commentaries on Dioscorides. Nonetheless it seems that a considerable part of all new botanical matter published in the sixteenth and part of the seventeenth centuries consisted largely of annotations on the texts of Dioscorides. Some copies of the work appear decadent. a renowned botanist and physician. 1523 and 1529. notably the illustrated volume by Mattioli in 1544. Latin editions were numerous. Dodoens. Venice 1544. translated De Materia Medica into vernacular Italian as Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo libri cinque … . Mattioli experimented on prisoners to determine the lethal thresholds of various poisonous plants. An illustrated edition in Latin followed: Commentarii in sex libros Pedacii Dioscoridis de medica materia. set out to be the supreme authority on his idol. and later to the Emperor Maximilian II. and German. Cesalpino. and as many in Italian from 1542. obsessed with Dioscorides. Fabio Colonna. and German editions from 1546. Pier Andrea Mattioli (1500 to 1577). leading to his appointment to the Imperial Court as physician to Archduke Ferdinand I. From 1478 there were many Latin editions. Maranta. In several the annotations and comments exceed the Dioscoridean text and have much new botany. Besides the Italian editions the work appeared in Latin. French editions appeared from 1553. Venice 1554. particularly the excellent translation by the Frenchman Jean de la Ruelle. Latin being the new language of scholarship. tolerating neither rivals nor corrections. and the Bauhins. certain later editions exhibit the freshness and accuracy of the Codex Vindobonensis. A Greek version was published at Venice in 1499. Anguillara. ensuring the medical popularity of his books. and reprinted in 1518.

John Goodyer (1592 to 1644) thought it worthwhile to make the first English translation of the whole work. Even in the middle of the seventeenth century. 1934. He met the talented Austrian artist Ferdinand Bauer through the von Jacquins. The Greek herbal of Dioscorides. Graeciam verso navigans. uncompleted for fifty two years. apart from the present version in contemporary English by Tess Anne Osbaldeston. James E . Marant and Wieland were rebuked. John and Smith. and then only with the help of Sir John Edward Smith. it venerit.. quas in provinciis aut insulis Graeciae legit.. John Sibthorp (1758 to 1796) used Goodyer's English Codex for his Flora Graeca (1806-1840)8. This is the only English edition. Constantinople. filled four and a half thousand pages. Florae graecae Prodromus: sive plantarum omnium enumeratio. RT Gunther editors. Robert 8 Sibthorp. investigavit et depingi curavit Johannes Sibthorp. illustrated by a Byzantine AD512. In the time of Queen Elizabeth I the pharmacopoeia rested on the unquestioned authority of the ancient physician Dioscorides. London. taking three years to complete. [10 volumes]. written out in Goodyer's small and careful handwriting. the former being hounded by the Inquisition. re-edited and enlarged Mattioli’s work as De plantis epitome . Frankfurt 1586. Konrad Gesner. Englished by John Goodyer AD1655. Their efforts resulted in the magnificent Flora Graeca. Both Amatus Lusitanus and Luigi Anguillara lost their posts. Over the years Mattioli's commentaries overwhelmed De Materia Medica — for example on acorus (Iris pseudacorus) Dioscorides wrote seven lines. through the Aegean to Smyrna (Izmur). and together they made a Grand Tour of the Levant — including Crete. Characteres et synonyma omnium cum annotationibus elaboravit Jacobus Edvardus Smith.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK immense influence throughout Europe.. and reprinted in 1959.. Also Flora graeca: sive plantarum rariorum historia. in itinere praesertim apud ltaliam et Siciliam. 9 xxxiii . Any physician or naturalist daring to disagree with him was abused. as well as Cyprus and Greece — to find Dioscorides' medicinal plants. inland to Belgrade. In the late eighteenth century John Sibthorp came to Vienna with John Hawkins to study the Codex Vindobonensis. Hic illic etiam insertae supauculae species. Oxford. and Gunther's edition of Goodyer's translation was printed in 19349. 1806-1840. replacing the illustrations with superior woodcuts. John Goodyer.. and Mattioli 140 lines. This translation. Forty years later a physician at Nuremberg. quas in provinciis aut insulis Graeciae invenit Johannes Sibthorp . Johann Camerarius II (1534 to 1598). quas vir idem clarissimus.

A fairly comprehensive list of printed versions of De Materia Medica is given elsewhere in this volume. and paraphrases in Arabic. For fifteen hundred years De Materia Medica was widely read and reproduced as copies. indication. Claus Nissen in Herbals of five centuries. In the wide-ranging Guide to the Literature of Botany Benjamin Daydon Jackson accuses Dioscorides of causing endless discussion and confusion among his followers. ibid. The art of the plant world. Jackson. Jackson does not mention Dioscorides' profound historical influence. their preparation. Hafner Publishing Company.INTRODUCTION Brown. xxxiv . according to Martyn Rix in The Art of the Plant World10. from the three kingdoms of nature. 1964 facsimile of 1881 edition. Guide to the literature of botany. John Lindley and the Sowerbys. New York 1981.pxxvii. Greek and Latin.. and to persuade others that he had fitted. ‘perhaps one of the most magnificent floras ever produced’. Woodstock. Thus eighteen hundred years after compiling De Materia Medica. translations. New York. Martyn.. contending his meagre plant descriptions cannot be dignified by that term — ‘his various treatises formed the staple of the discourses and wranglings of the early botanists of the Renaissance’11 until the appearance of Sibthorp's Flora of Greece. and dosage have been collected and discussed. preservation. Zurich 1958 is more generous: ‘It owes its universal acceptance to the exemplary accuracy and scientific scrupulousness with which all available data concerning the appearance and occurrence of drugs. The Overlook Press. as well as to its comprehensiveness which takes account of all remedies. Benjamin Daydon. This ‘contention was probably caused by the extreme meagreness of the original descriptions . pxxviii. THE ASSESSMENTS Julius von Sachs virtually ignored Dioscorides' contribution to botany in his authoritative History of Botany 1530-1860. that 10 11 12 Rix. L’Art Ancien. p97. plants of Northern Europe to accounts written in the Mediterranean region’12. excerpts. so that the fancy of each succeeding writer had abundant scope in endeavouring to fit. Dioscorides' medical work led to the publication of one of England's most sumptuous works on botany. or derived from it. together with works based on.

We may regard him as a founder of botanical science. His work is a compendium of known medicinal plants of the Roman Empire. ‘There is no doubt that. ibid. ibid. paperback 1997. and applications of drugs. An illustrated history of the herbals. p10. besides chemistry. Thomas Johnson. It was particularly Dioskorides’ Materia Medica which enjoyed such high esteem that it was likened to the Koran in a manner almost blasphemous to Muslim eyes’14. De Materia Medica impeded botanical thought. Olten. containing the appearance. New York 1912.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK were then known thoughout the Mediterranean region’13. 13 14 15 16 Nissen. It was the final authority on pharmacy in Turkey and Spain until the nineteenth century. pharmacobotanics constitute a glorious chapter in the history of Islamic learning. nor did he engage in primary research. or Rennaissance. p18-19. In the first half of the twelfth century Matthaeus Platearius of the medical school at Salerno wrote Circa Instans. pharmacognosy and. and certain misidentifications. p49. friend and close collaborator of John Goodyer. Munich and Weiss-Hesse. It achieved wide recognition. for the ancient legacy in this field was not only preserved but independently augmented and developed. Zurich. Ernst Meyer15 placed it on a par with Pliny and Dioscorides. Robert Wolfe. manufacture. The Rinascimento. Frank J. including distribution and other information. an alphabetic listing and textbook of simples based on Dioscorides Vulgaris. as we show in this new volume. Claus. while George Sarton16 saw it as a great improvement over De Materia Medica and other herbal writings. Herbals of five centuries. especially. Dioscorides cannot be considered an original thinker. His descriptions were sometimes brief. Reprint 1977. although not for its contents — doctrinaire usage stifled continuing investigation. Many of his plant names are still in use. with some new introductions. Furthermore he says. although not necessarily for the same plants. L’Art Ancien. xxxv . considered De Materia Medica the foundation and basis of all that followed in the field. an outstanding figure among British herbalist/botanists of the sixteenth century. often accurate. being among the first herbals printed in 1488. Anderson. 1958. Columbia University Press.

Amadryandum Cloridisque Triumphus of 1685. who used the Greek term botane. and Giorgio Dalla Torre’s Dryandum. Valerius Cordus (1515 to 1544) travelled through Italy and Germany seeking plants in their natural habitat that the Classical authors. travelled to the East to find the plants of Dioscorides and other masters. as well as the document dated 1 July 1737 in which the Royal College of Surgeons commended Elizabeth Blackwell’s A curious herbal. 1597. establishing the link between botany and medicine. It was the medieval physician's duty to fear God and know his Dioscorides. one of the earliest printed herbals. Cordus lectured on plants at the University of Wittenberg. Two and a half centuries before Sibthorp. John. Gerard’s The Herball or generall historie of plantes. a German physician. had described. Many botanists and herbalists of the sixteenth century based their texts on those of the ancient Greeks. The most influential English herbal. often referring to Pedanios Dioscorides. spreading northwards some five decades later. Adnotationes ad Dioscorides was published 17 Gerarde. We even owe the term 'botany' to Dioscorides. The Herball or Generall historie of plantes. The illustrated title page of the Herball’s second edition in 1633 shows Dioscorides and Theophrastus as the pillars of healing knowledge. In 1485 he published Hortus Sanitatus. frequently mentions Dioscorides. Dr Johann von Cube. and latterly. and his Curae posteriores of 1611. … but also such fruit as learned Dioscorides long travelled for’17. to ethnobotany. Jean Bauhin and Jean Henri Cherlier’s Historia Plantarum Universalis of 1650-1651. His medicinal plants formed the basis of modern botany. Rembert Dodoens’ Stirpium Historiae Pemptades Sex of 1616. to physic gardens. London. p4. particularly Dioscorides. first in Italy in the mid-fifteenth century. and the introduction ‘To the … Readers’ states ‘From whence there spring floures not onely to adorne the garlands of the Muses. and modern pharmacology stems from his attempts to systematize medicinal knowledge. This iconic tradition continues on the title pages of Charles de L’Ecluse’s Rariorum Plantarum Historia of 1601.INTRODUCTION revived interest in knowledge and learning. meaning herb. xxxvi . and giving rise to the herbal as we know it. to the careers of men such as Linnaeus.

identified many of Dioscorides’ plants during travels in Asia Minor.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK from student notes some years after his early death. The famous Dutch botanist Johannes Burman (1707 to 1779) was internationally so highly regarded he received the cognomen Dioscorides III from the Leopoldina. Avicenna et al. ‘Lucas Gynus the reader of Dioscorides in bonomy. Leonhardt Rauwolf. Adriaan. Linnaeus and the Linnaeans. 1740. BD. Stafleu. p35. by viewing them in their proper and native places and to encourage the apothecaries to procure the right sorts for their shops’18.. J. In 1703 Charles Plumier dedicated the edible yam genus with its six hundred species to Dioscorides. the first in the world. and Central Europe on a similar quest. was the object of an hero-worship previously unknown in botany. Ghini lectured on Dioscorides for twenty-eight years. William Turner. Similarly. p7. The Ray Society. Jackson. Bibliotheca botanica22. In Linnaeus' concise history of botany. an influential English theologian and physician. he became director of its botanic garden. Stearn. Alice M. 1969. London. published his herbals in 1538 and 1548. naming it dioscorea.. van Royen. with no others until the fifteenth century. valuable for modern drugs such as oral contraceptives and cortisone. The Quest for Plants. the Balkans. Before Gerard's time. p3. described a visit to Mount Athos in 1934: ‘The 18 19 20 21 22 Coats. A fitting tribute. the German academy of sciences. and one of the earliest systematic (classification) botanists. Frans A Stafleu20 commented that Carl Linnaeus. a Frenchman. ‘the Prince of botanists’21. Stafleu. William Turner. who died in 1596. The scientist Luigi Anguillara (1512 to 1570) travelled through Italy. Sir Arthur Hill. a precursor of progesterone. and wrote of his famous botany teacher Luca Ghini of Bologna. Florae Leydensis Prodromus. Britten. xxxvii . Cordus' careful observations provided accurate plant descriptions. travelled from Augsburg to the Levant ‘chiefly to gain a clear and distinct knowledge of those delicate herbs described by Theophrastus. he names Theophrastus. ibid. Pliny and Dioscorides among outstanding phytologists of all ages. Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. Greece. A professor at the University of Padua. Dioscorides. WT. my maister’19. 1965. Utrecht 1971. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656 to 1708). with the possible exception of Dioscorides. Preface p16. since a number of dioscorea species yield diosgenin. p13. Frans A. Frans A.

which apparently he himself had copied out. and sometimes on a mule. 2 volumes. 2 vols. Sumtibus Tabernae Librariae et Artium. The great American botanical historian Edward Lee Greene in Landmarks of Botanical History offers a fitting tribute to Dioscorides: ‘If to have written the most practically serviceable book of botany that the world of learning knew of during sixteen centuries were the best title to botanical greatness. so that everything botanical began with him. Stanford 1983. 1807-1808. usually on foot. volume 1. ‘Contribution to the botany of Athos Peninsula’.. Kew. Landmarks of botanical history. 23 24 25 Hill.. not only of antiquity but of all time’24. Even as late as the beginning of the seventeenth century both the academic and the private study of botany may almost be said to have begun and ended with the text of Dioscorides’25. Kurt Polycarp Joachim. he was looked up to as the sole authority. in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information. his flora was nothing less than four manuscript volumes of Dioscorides. Stanford University Press. carrying his flora with him in a large black bulky bag .. WB. Preface by Sir Arthur Hill to: Turrill. Arthur William. Greene. This flora he invariably used for determining any plant which he could not name at sight. and he could find his way in his books — and identify his plants to his own satisfaction — with remarkable rapidity’23. Historia rei herbariae. was a remarkable old man with an extensive knowledge of plants and their properties .. Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel wrote: ‘During more than sixteen centuries. This indicates the powerful influence of De Materia Medica up to the twentieth century. xxxviii . pp149-151. Edward Lee.INTRODUCTION official botanist monk . to Dioscorides would readily be conceded the absolute supremacy over all other botanists. Amsteldami 1807-1808. he travelled very quickly.. Sprengel. 1937. In Historia rei herbariae. pp218-219. pp197-8. Everyone who undertook the study of botany or the identification of medicines swore by his words. History remains the arbiter of the duration and value of Dioscorides' work. edited by Frank N Egerton..

INTRODUCTION Brassica from FUCHS — 1542 xxxix .

Geum urbanum from BRUNFELS — 1540 xl .INTRODUCTION Caryophyllata .

The Art of Botanical Illustration. xli . And thank you to Ian Murdoch. Henri Baillon. 2000. University of the Witwatersrand. The herbal in antiquity. as well as to the staff at the Johannesburg Public Library. Copyright Attorney. Lactuca virosa [seed head] after FAGUET — 1880 Tess Anne Osbaldeston and Robert P Wood Johannesburg. The plant book. especially to Reneé Reddy and Donald McCallum. Plant and Environmental Sciences. beyond our reach. and Herbals of five centuries.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our sincere appreciation is accorded firstly to the scholars who shared a fascination with Dioscorides through the centuries. are mentioned in the Bibliography for their interest to other ‘seekers’. DJ Mabberley. and on Ruellius’ translation of Dioscorides. Encyclopaedia of plants. Wilfred Blunt. The Illustrated Herbal. Klaus Nissen. journal articles on the herbals of Brunfels and Fuchs. Thesaurus literaturae botanicae. South Africa. We were able to access many of these works but many others. Johannesburg. Charles Singer. Georg Pritzel. Thomas Sprague. especially Lolly Brower. we make note of the following: AK Bedevian. Die botanische buchillustration. Wilfred Blunt and Sandra Raphael. Of special value to our explorations. We would also like to express our appreciation to the staff at the Herbarium Library of the Department of Animal. Loudon. Histoire des plantes. John Claudius. Illustrated polyglottic dictionary of plant names.

For example. Other printing techniques traditionally used for botanical illustrations include intaglio printing xlii . a relief process. primarily woodcuts from the 16th and 19th centuries. usually a black line drawing of the original picture on a wood block. We know very little of the artists who made the illustrations reproduced here. The design is in relief. Some information about the artists represented herein. The image is drawn in reverse as with most forms of printing. In wood engraving. The drawing is made with greasy ink or chalk on a particular kind of limestone. and copper engravings or lithographs from the 19th century. obtaining a multitude of fine lines to give subtle gradations simulating grey tones. with the context in which they worked. the engraver uses a burin. MATERIALS & METHODS Multiple images for early printed books were woodcuts.THE BOTANICAL ILLUSTRATIONS THE BOTANICAL ILLUSTRATIONS T Acacia catechu after THIEBAULT — 1872 his version of Dioscorides is richly illustrated with pictures of plants and natural history objects. porous to both grease and water. Paper is now passed over the stone through a scraper press. Lithography is a planographic or surface process utilising drawing upon stone. is given below. in Engler's voluminous writings most paintings by Joseph Pohl are unsigned. the stone is damped with water and an ink roller passed over it. Lithography permits subtle gradations of tone. This ‘inks’ the stone wherever the drawing has been made and leaves no mark on the rest of the stone. speedily and economically. a fine steel cutting tool. the unwanted background between the drawn lines was cut away with a sharp knife to prevent contact with the ink roller. Once the drawing is ‘fixed’. the printer’s ink is deposited on the raised surface. thus preventing accurate attribution. The crafter usually cuts on the end grain of hard woods to permit a predominance of white lines. and transferred by pressure onto paper. a refinement of the woodcut.

London. aquatint. 1971 reprint of 1950 edition. with illustrations by Hans Weiditz (1488 to 1534) a pupil of Albrecht Durer — the drawings transferred to woodcuts by excellent engravers. and not exceeded for nearly a millenium. deep strokes. The art of botanical illustration. Wilfrid with the assistance of William T Stearn. mezzotint. According to Wilfred Blunt ‘His work must ever remain the high-water mark of woodcutting employed in the service of botanical illustration’27. Modern printing methods using photographic. Knoblauch. During this 'dreary' millenium most manuscripts were not illustrated. xliii . Realistic plant drawings appeared towards the end of the fourteenth century. Brunfels paid tribute to the artist at the beginning of the first volume. 3 volumes 1530-1536. p47. These early scientific drawings of plants assisted the searcher after simples ie. but dismissed the illustrations as dead lines inferior to his own truthful text descriptions. Early printed herbals copied these indifferent plant outlines. with fine. and a variety of technique modifications. number 14. The New Naturalist. chromolithography. stipple engraving. and digital processes offer further possibilities. The figures seem drawn in pen. and soft ground etching — full or partial colour printing. Albrecht Durer and Leonardo da Vinci being the best-known artists. Kopfel and Beck used professional 26 27 In the Imperial Library in Vienna (now the Bibliothek Nationale). species of herbs. Illustrations in the magnificent sixth-century manuscript herbal Codex Vindobonensis26 exhibit a standard of excellence unusual in its day. including blemishes and deformities in great detail. Collins. THE ILLUSTRATORS Botanical illustrators originally documented plants for medicinal purposes. Next in significance is Otto Brunfels' Herbarum vivae eicones (living portraits of plants). Herbarius zu Teutsch (the German Herbarius) 1485 was the first printed herbal with plant drawings showing greater freedom and realism. Weiditz drew actual plants with scientific correctness. From 1522 Strassburg publishers Schott. or included pen drawings copied repeatedly by scribes with no artistic skills.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK — such as copper engraving. Blunt. A survey of British natural history. electronic.

quoted by Gill Saunders in 'Picturing Plants. 1995. Soon thereafter Leonhart Fuchs (1501 to 1566) published De historia stirpium 1542. a splendid folio volume. the illustrations of far greater value than the text. Weiditz' skills were in great demand. The plates dazzle with crisp. leaves. were discovered in the herbarium of Felix Platter in Berne. and that the engraver of the woodblocks had taken some liberties in copying. white paper. Plantarum arborum fruticum et herbarum effigies. London. and elegant designs. These plates were pirated by Frankfurt publisher Christian Egenolph for herbals edited by Eucharius d J Rossllin (and later Theodoric Dorsten). and Veit Rudolf Speckle who cut the wood blocks. including Weiditz. and published as Kreutterbuch 1533 with later editions. It was noted that the woodcuts' variable lines reflected the nervous energy of Weiditz’s artistry. Leohard. titles and translations. flowers. stalks. Some four hundred years after they were drawn. De Historia Stirpium 1542. Wunderbar naturliche wirckungen 1531. From 1562 copies of these woodcuts appeared in the journal published by Egenolph. xliv . about seventy original pen drawings by Weiditz. preface. an analytical history of botanical illustration'. ‘by far the best engraver of 28 Fuchs. … and we have not allowed the craftsmen so to indulge their whims as to cause the drawings not to correspond accurately to the truth’28. each of which is positively delineated according to the features and likeness of the living plants. and Konrad von Megenberg’s Puch der Natur 1536. credit is given to the artists — Albrecht Meyer who drew the plants according to Fuchs' rigorous instructions. moreover. fine printing and layout. and deleting details of flowers and seeds. Heinrich Fullmaurer who transferred the drawings to wood blocks. Zwemmer in association with the Victoria and Albert Museum. painted in watercolours. mainly for botanical and zoological works. seeds and fruits. we have devoted the greatest diligence to secure that every plant should be depicted with its own roots. Speckle. With hundreds of full-page illustrations of plants. In the preface Fuchs writes about the illustrations: ‘As far as concerns the pictures themselves.THE BOTANICAL ILLUSTRATIONS illustrators. mainly to fit larger drawings on to the printed page. and. we have taken peculiar care that they should be most perfect. it is the earliest monumental flower-book. illustrating numerous books including Albertus Magnus. Unusually.

Although not new. Dodoens. Turner. Perfecting this technique enabled the use of wood engraving for detailed illustrations. Auguste Faguet (1841 to 1886). Thomas Bewick (1753 to 1828) led this revival. The technical brilliance of these later wood engravings restored the technique to the status of an art. p51 xlv . copperplate etching was only employed for botanical illustration towards the end of the sixteenth century. However. using skills learnt as a copper engraver. The Frenchman. Meyer had a clinical perception. He substituted hard boxwood for soft wood. The plates were copied or adapted by many later herbal writers including John Gerard. Blunt. Tabernaemontanus. Lyte and Schinz. often made from photographs. but with less detail. and mostly as inferior copies. Pflanzenleben contained some of the last of the fine woodcuts in botanical illustration. Bock. wood-engraving flourished again for a while in the nineteenth century. Continental engravers were as skilful as the British. a prolific illustrator of the late nineteenth century. engraving on the end grain of the wood. Eventually this and other techniques replaced the use of woodblocks. Perhaps that is why his illustrations were used for more than 200 years. to the chagrin of Fuchs who saw his fine work used without acknowledgement. Examples are found in Baillon’s Histoire des plantes 1866-1895. produced delicate botanical wood engravings of great accuracy. though some prefer the sharp figures of Weiditz. These drawings indicate true perspective. had a line often rigid and wiry. showing flowering and fruiting stages simultaneously. Many scholars consider these the finest botanical woodcuts. achieving unmatched clarity of line reproduction. Weiditz' are bold. and Anton Kerner von Marilaun’s Pflanzenleben 1887-1891. Meyer's flowers are delicate.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Strasbourg’29. Weiditz approached individual plants with appreciation. with life-sized plants including roots when possible. the 29 ibid. suitable for subsequent watercolour wash. thus it avoided competing with photographic tone reproduction. Meyer was limited by Fuchs' insistence on precision without artistic expression and feeling. Fuchs’ artists idealized the plants.

and Olof Winkler (1843 to 1895). Ignaz Seelos (1827 to 1902). including translations into English. Among other artists Faguet also worked on a periodical. journal des amateurs et des interets horticoles 1851-1872. Thiebault assisted Faguet in illustrating Henri Baillon’s Histoire des plantes 1866-1895. Italian and Dutch. and his drawings appeared in The Floral Register. Olof Winkler and Ernst Heyn assisted with the preparation of lithographs from illustrations (and chromolithographs from paintings) by Joseph Selleny and others. He also contributed engraved text figures to Dujardin-Beaumetz & Egasse’s Les plantes medicinales indigenes ex exotique 1889. We know little of these artists. Anton Kerner von Marilaun illustrated his own Monographia Pulmoniarum 1878. and Bignoniacees 1864. This important two-volume work spawned several editions. F Tegetmeyer. Joseph Selleny (1824 to 1875). including its many editions. Alfred Grandidier's monumental Histoire physique. Hermann von Konigsbrunn illustrated Franz Xaver Unger’s Wissenschaftliche ergebnisse einer reise in Griechenland 1862. 1186 woodcuts in Traite de botanique medicale phanerogamique 1883-1884. S Teuchmann. 370 woodcuts in Traite de botanique medicale cryptogamique 1889. He illustrated the extensive set of Henri Ernest Baillon’s Histoire des plantes 1866-1895. Dictionnaire de botanique 1876-1892. Ignaz Seelos made the lithographs and Joseph Selleny the frontispiece for Johann Joseph Peyritsch’s Aroideae xlvi . naturelle et politique de Madagascar 1875. Loganiacees 1856. These fine woodcuts were superseded by renewed general use of metal printing plates for botanical illustrations. Hermann von Konigsbrunn (1823 to 1907). In Pflanzenleben 1887-1891 Anton Joseph Ritter Kerner von Marilaun (1831 to 1898) used a number of Austrian and German artists. Ernst Heyn illustrated Emil Adolf Rossmassler’s Der Wald 1863. and Histoire naturelle des plantes 1886-1903. Faguet's other work for Baillon included Recherches … des coniferes 1860. their work interpreted as wood-engravings. K Springer. a periodical published from 1825 to 1851. among whom are Adele von Kerner.THE BOTANICAL ILLUSTRATIONS careful craftsmanship making distant elements recede. Eugen von Ransonnet (1838 to ? ). L’Horticulteur Francais. producing 117 copper engravings. Henri Faguet’s talent also benefited Edouard Bureau's Monographie des bignoniacee 1864. Ernst Heyn (1841 to 1894). Russian.

specialised in the botany of south-western Europe. an artist with apprenticeship as a wood-engraver. This work is of particular value because many new plants were described for the first time. including some coloured plates. Pohl illustrated other major works by Engler. Monographien afrikanischer pflanzenfamilien 1898-1904.000 items in 6. The well-travelled Otto Warburg (1859 to 1938). His plants are finely and accurately executed. Warburg's extensive work emerged from his travels in south-eastern Asia. and most of the illustrations for the periodical Engler’s Botanische jahrbucher 1881 et seq. Assisted by Gottfried Keller (1873 to 1945) and Karoly Rezso Soo von Bere (1903 to 1980). but without flair. starting a collaboration of almost forty years. U Grimme amongst others. including Joseph Pohl. using a number of artists to illustrate his works. produced the richly illustrated Die pflanzenwelt 1913-1922. and his coloured drawings are mainly of unusual plants from Spain.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Maximilianae 1879. German professor Heinrich Moritz Willkomm (1821 to 1895). He published ambitiously and enthusiastically. Die pflanzenwelt Afrikas 1908-1910.000 figures for Engler’s Die naturlichen pflanzenfamilien 1887-1914. were destroyed in the bombing of the Berlin Herbarium. as well as Illustrationes florae Hispaniae 1881-1892 with coloured lithograph plates. Amongst his prodigious output Josef Pohl (1864 to 1939) drew over 33. Heinrich Gustaf Adolf Engler (1844 to 1930) was the most prolific German botanical taxonomist. M Gurke. including Das pflanzenreich 1900-1953. Australia and southern Africa. delineated so carefully. Portugal. Oceania. The drawings are plain but complement the lengthy Latin descriptions in this monumental production. botanist and political activist. Pohl illustrated Friedrich Richard Rudolf Schlechter’s Monographie und iconographie der orchideen 1928-1942. and the Balearic Islands. and Karl Moritz Schumann’s Bluhende kakteen (Iconographia cactacearum) xlvii . with figures by H Buffe. He often illustrated his own works. Icones et descriptiones plantarum novarum 1852-1862. His many publications include Recherches sur … Globulariees 1850. H Eichhorn. AH Payne and A Eckstein occasionally provided him with illustrations. The illustrations take on particular significance because many of the actual plants. Engler noticed Pohl's talent very early.

Statice thouini after FAGUET — 1892 xlviii . Jean Emmanuel Maurice le Maout illustrated his Atlas elementaire de botanique 1846. and was one of many artists contributing (i. and a working knowledge of current printing technology. the orchid illustrations) to Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius' magnificent Flora Brasiliensis 1840-1906. Maout's first book was published as Le jardin des plantes 1842-1843. while incorporating a decidedly decorative quality. With Joseph Decaisne he wrote Flore elementaire des jardins et des champs 1855. including later editions. Botanical art highlights two opposing needs — revealing the true physical character of a plant. demanding speed as well as accuracy. and the illustrator's response to the beauty of the subject. Most botanical publications require large numbers of illustrations. With P Bernard and L Couilhac.e. Each artist balances the conflict of art versus science.THE BOTANICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 1900-1921. They also had to survive the transition to digital format. as well as Lecons elementaire de botanique 1844. translated by Mrs Hooker as General system of botany 1876. Vogelmeyer and Henri Bocquillon also contributed some drawings to Engler’s publications. The illustrations selected for this volume appeal both scientifically and descriptively.

223 ordo numerorum turbatus est.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK PRINTED BOOKS A chronological list of printed books copying. Authors. 3 il .0407. Pedacii Dioscoridae Anazarbei de medica materia libri sex. ∆ΙΟΣΚΟΡΙ∆ΗΖ. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. 3 1518 Greek A foll. Cccccccxvij continens capitula: cum nonullis additionibus Petri paduanesis in margine libri notatis. cum Johannis Baptistae Egnatii in Dioscoridem annotamentis. amplifying. ideoque folium ultimum 235 falso numeratum est. ideoque folium ultimum 235 falso numeratum est.2305. 4. nuperque diligentissime excusi. Impr. textus et 1. latinitate donati.28 1516 Latin 1. near Siena] Joannes Serapion 2nd ed [Venetijs] Aldus Manutius [Venetiis] Petrus Paduanensis [Lugduni] Hermolao Barbaro. Corollarii in Dioscoridem libri quinque non ante impressi.2300 1516 Latin Dyoscoridis exactissimi indagatoris fidelissimiq: scriptoris virtutu simpliciu medicinaru Liber. Explic dyascorides que petrus paduanesis legendo corexit et exponendo q vtiliora sut I luce. Textus Dioscoridis.2292. ΠΕ∆ΑΚΙΟΥ ∆ΙΟΣΚΟΡΙ∆ΟΥ. cum ejusdem commentationibus. discussing. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete.2303. Liber Serapionis aggregatus in medicinis simplicibus. 2. or extending the manuscripts of the De Materia Medica of Pedanios Dioscorides Contributors. et eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. interprete Marcello Vergilio. nuper quam diligentissime ex secunda interpretis recognitione excusi. secretario Florentino. Joannis Baptitae Egnatii Veneti in Dioscoridem ab Hermolao Barbaro tralatum annotamenta. Pritzel and other Refer -ences 1. cum ejutdem annotationibus. ∆ΙΟΣΚΟΡΙ∆ΗΖ. based upon. Publishers [Place of Publication] Serapion [Mediolani] Petrus Paduenesis [Colle. 1. (Folium 1a:) Notadum q. Asulanus. Illustrators. 3 1523 Greek A foll.2299 1479 Latin 4. J B Egnatii [Venetiis] Marcello Vergilio [Florentiae] Saracenus. 223 ordo numerorum turbatus est. secretario Florentino. 1. libri diascorides dicti duplex rperit ordinatio cum eodum tamen ephemio omnio. deduxit.1 1499 1514 Greek Latin scholia Nicandri.2301.2302 1516 Latin 1. Editors. 3 1518 Latin 1. J Egnatii [Venetiis] Joanne Ruellio [Parrhisiorm] Ermolao Baptista. Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. annotating. Asulanus. 1. Roscio [Venetiis] Marcello Virgilio [Florentiae] Date of publication and language/s 1473 Latin (1475) 1478 Latin Title Liber Serapionis aggregatus in medicinis simplicibus.8616 1. Roscio [Venetiis] Saracenus. quibus morborum et remediorum vocabula obscuriora in usum etiam mediocriter eruditorum explicantur.2291 1.2292 1523/8 Latin Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medica materia libri sex a & Greek Marcello Virgilio (Vergilio). 1.

1283. editorem Janum Cornarium codicibus usum fuisse.0407.2294. una cum effectibus earundem [Strassburg] in gratiam veteris illius et jamjam renascentis herbariae medicinae.PRINTED BOOKS 1526 Latin Editiones Ruellianae in minori forma. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. P. Ejusdem historiales campi cum expositione Lusitanus (JR de Joannis Roderici Castelli albi Lusitani (Amati Lusitani). 4. 1536 Latin Index Dioscoridis. 3 1. Rasis filii Zachariae de eisdem opusculum perutile. der massen nye gesehen noch in truck ausgangen. vormals in 2nd ed Teutscher sprach.43 1. brauch. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. brauch.1283 l . 3. Secretario Florentino. Erkantnuss. 4. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. diligentia et arteficio effigiatae.123. und Otto Brunfels beschreibungen der alten bestberumpten artzt. et eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. Paucis emendatis ex editione anni 1518 repetita est.2306.7091 1. et eorum notis ac remediis [Parisiis] libri quatuor. Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. per Oth. Greek 1. una cum effectibus earundem Schottum. [Coloniae] 1530 Latin Corollarii in Dioscoridem libri quinque non ante impressi. Ruellio interprete. Jo. interprete Marcello Vergilio. Erkantnuss. de viruletis 3rd ed animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. 3 1.43 1. eorumque precautione et curatione liber Vergilio unus. lob und herrlichhgeit. 1537 German Contrafyt kreuterbuch nach rechter volkommener art. J B Egnatii [Coloniae] 1530-6 Latin Herbarum vivae eicones ad naturae imitationem summa cum Otto Brunfels. Brunf.2304. Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq.9174 1. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. 3 1527 Latin 3 1529 1529 Latin Latin 1.8616 1. [Antwerpiae] 1534 Latin Stirpium differentiae ex Dioscoride secundum locos Benedict Textor communes. Sampt einer gemeynen inleytung der kreuter urhab. 5.1283.2306. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. 4. 1532 German Contrafyt kreuterbuch nach rechter volkommener art. Averrois Arabis de [Argentorati] eiodem liber eximius. 3. Largi in gratiam veteris illius et jamjam renascentis herbariae [Argentorati] medicinae. lob und herrlichhgeit. 1531 Latin Insignium medicorum Joan. et eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. cum Johannis Baptistae Egnatii in Dioscoridem Barbaro. 2. annotamentis. der massen nye gesehen noch in truck [Strassburg] ausgangen.2306 1. Pedacii Dioscorides Joanne Ruellio Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. Nullum vestigium est. Dioscoridae Pharmacorum simplicium reique medicae libri VIII. vormals in [Strassburg] Teutscher sprach. 1533 Latin Annotatiunculae aliquot Cornelii Petri Leydensis in quatuor Cornelis Petri libros Dioscoridis Anazarbei. ∆ Ι Ο Σ Κ Ο Ρ Ι ∆ Η Ζ . 1532 German Herbarum vivae eicones ad naturae imitationem summa cum Otto Brunfels diligentia et arteficio effigiatae.30 1. per Oth. et eorum notis ac remediis [Basiliae] libri quatuor. 3 1. de viruletis 2nd ed animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. Serapionis Arabis de simplicibus Serapion medicinis opus praeclarum et ingens.1283. 3. 3 1. und Otto Brunfels beschreibungen der alten bestberumpten artzt. et eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor.42. 1532 Latin Editiones Ruellianae in minori forma. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. 2 1. opus ad ipsarum plantarum cognitionem [Parisiis] admodum conducibile. Brunf. Sampt einer gemeynen inleytung der kreuter urhab. Castelbranco) [Antwerpiae] 1537 Latin Editiones Ruellianae in minori forma.2293. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. Pedacii Dioscorides Joanne Ruellio Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete.2302 1529 Janum Cornarium [Basileae] 1529 Greek Pedacii Dioscoridae Anazarbei de medica materia libri V de Marcello letalibus venenis. 2 1. Ermolao Impr. Joanne Ruellio [Bononiae] Joanne Ruellio 2nd ed [Venetiis] Joanne Ruellio [Argentorata] Joanne Ruellio 2nd ed [Argentorati] 1.

et 5th ed eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. 3 Georg Paurle [Basileae] Hieronymous Bock (Tragus) [Strassburg] Konrad Gesner [Basileae] Konrad Gesner [Parisiis] Konrad Gesner [Venetiis] Joanne Ruellio 4th ed [Basileae] 1. et 6th ed eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. graece. Latin De historia stirpium commentarii insignes.48 1. Longiano. griechisch. Paulo Aegneta.3297 1. 2.3138. AI cui fine sono apposte le sue tavole ordinate. Latin Historia plantarum et vires ex Dioscoride. e trattati necessarj. Per Curtio Trojano di Navo. Latin Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. per fa materia medesima. Una cum vulgaribus pharmacopolarum French nominibus. Theophrasto. Plinio et recentioribus Graecis juxta elementorum ordinem. Adjectae sunt etiam herbarum nomenclaturae variarum gentium. so in teutschen landen wachsen. lateinisch. Konrad Gesner Greek. Theophrasto.2302.50 li . de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. lateinisch. gemanice et gallice. Pedacii Dioscorides Joanne Ruellio Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. Latin. 3. 3 1. dboeck van den cruyden int Leonhard Fuchs welcke bescreven is niet alleen die gantse historie van de [Basel] cruyden. Italian Dioscorides. Joanne Ruellio [Francofurti] Suessionensi interprete. Flemish Den nieuwen herbarius.52 1539 1541 1541 1541 1542 1.2302. nunquam antea ad naturae imitationem arteficiosius effictiset expressi. 7 1. Oribasio. Latin Benedict Textor 1. maer oock gefigureert ende geconterfeyt. Plinio et horum similibus. 3. teutsch [Francofurti] German. Joanne Ruellio [Lugduni] Suessionensi interprete. Paulo Aegneta.59. opus ad ipsarum plantarum cognitionem admodum conducibile. griechisch. Catalogus plantarum latine. vorab gemeynem verstand. 5.3298. Latin Historia plantarum et vires ex Dioscoride.2302. Catalogus plantarum latine. dat is. gemanice et gallice. Paulo Aegneta. quorum primus habet herbas hujus saeculi medicis communes cum veteribus. Theophrasto. 4. Dioscoride fatto di greco italiano. 3 1. maximis impensis Leonhard Fuchs et vigiliis elaborati. 6 1. con certe avertenze. Latin Historia plantarum et vires ex Dioscoride. 4. 3 1539 Johann Agricola.2315. 1. Una cum vulgaribus pharmacopolarum French nominibus. 4. 3 1542 1542 1542 1542 1543 1543 1543 1543 C T di Navo.864. et eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. Paulo. Latin Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri Joanne Ruellio quinq. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. Galeno. Dioscoridi adscriptae secundum literarum ordinem expositae. Egineta [Venetia] Latin Editiones Ruelianae in minori forma. Anazarbeus.3298. Latin Medicinae herbariae libri duo. Plinio et recentioribus Graecis juxta elementorum ordinem. Auch derselbigen eygentlichem und wolgegrundetem Gebrauch in der Arznei zu behalten und zu furdern leibs gesuntheyt fast nutz und trostlichem.2306 1. de viruletis 4th ed animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. teutsch [Tiguri] German. Namenbuch aller erdgewachsen. Adjectae sunt etiam herbarum nomenclaturae variarum gentium. German New Kreutterbuch von underscheydt. Namenbuch aller erdgewachsen. 1. 3.3297 3 1.2302. Konrad Gesner Greek. Pedanios. Latin Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. Plinio et recentioribus Graecis juxta elementorum ordinem. und franzosisch.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1537 1538 Stirpium differentiae ex Dioscoride secundum locos communes.9174 [Venetiis] Joanne Ruellio 3rd ed [Venetiis] 1. 2. et eorum notis ac remediis [Basileae] libri quatuor. 5. wurckung und namen der kreutter. und franzosisch. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. Aetio.61. 7 1. Cum Dioscoride Ryffi.3139. adjectis earundem vivis plusquam [Basileae] quingentis imaginibus.71. graece. Dioscoridi adscriptae secundum literarum ordinem expositae. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. Dioscoride videlicet. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. Latin Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri Joanne Ruellio quinq. et eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. Latin.

2307 Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. studio atque diligentia singulari ex diversis regionibus conquisitis.62. reprehensiones. et commenti. samen. das dessgleichen vormals nie gesehen noch an tag kommen.3139. 2 hochgelert Herr Leonhart Fuchs in dem ersten theyl seins [Basell] neuwen Kreuterbuchs hat begriffen. in Leonhard Fuchs 1. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete.3140. ad naturae [Francofurti] aemulationem expressis imaginibus. cum nomenclaturis graecis. adjectis earundem vivis plusquam [Parisiis] quingentis imaginibus. 1. Joanne Ruellio 5th ed [Lugduni] Otto Brunfels [Argentorati] 1. 1. erkanntnuss und namen. hebraicis et germanicis. tum animantium historiis. Per Gualtherum H Ryff. cum earundem iconum nomenclaturis graecis.2317.2316. lateinisch und deutsch. Tradotto in Marcantonio M 1. latinis. non sine multiplici peregrinatione. sumptu maximo. nunquam antea ad naturae imitationem arteficiosius effictiset expressi. [Basileae] Latin Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri Joanne Ruellio 1. German Labliche Abbildung und Contrafaytung aller kreuter.1285. maximis impensis Leonhard Fuchs 3 et vigiliis elaborati. 4. qua refellit maltiosas Gualtheri Ryffi. ultra millenarium numerum adjectis.69 Gimignano.5986. Italian Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo libri cincqe della historia et Pietro Andrea 1. namen. 3 materia medicinale tradotta in lingua volgare italiana da M Mattioli Pietro Andrea Matthiolo Sanese medico. 4.2302. Latin In Dioscoridae Anazarbei de re medica libros e Marcello Virgilio versos scholia nova.3141 pessimi. veteratoris Leonhard Fuchs. Joanne Ruellio [Lugduni] Suessionensi interprete. Der kreuter rechte wahrhafftige contrafactur. Latin De stirpium historia commentariorum tomi vivae imagines. et 7th ed eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. ostendit. statt und zeit der wachsung natur. 3 quinq. kraft und wurckung des meysten theyls der kreuter so in teutschen und andern landen wachsen. Italian Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo libri cique della historia et Pierandrea 1.60 1543 Leonhard Fuchs 1. in welchem nit allein die gantz histori das ist. medico. Joanne Ruellio. Argentinum. frucht und in summa die gantze gestalt allso artlich und kunstlich abgebildet und kontrafayt ist. damit sie fuglich von allen mogen hin und wider zur noturfft getragen und gefurt werden. Accessere in eundem autorem Scholia nova. Singulis cum Lonicero stirpium.PRINTED BOOKS 1543 Latin Editiones Ruelianae in minori forma. rhit dem besten vleiss beschriben. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. autore.5600 (Lonicerus) [Marpurgi] Latin De historia stirpium commentarii insignes. et Dottissime annotationi et censure del medesimo interprete. 3 materia medicinale tradotti in lingua volgare italiana da M Mattioli Pietro Andrea Mattioli Sanese Medico. Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. nach der Beschreibung Dioscoridis. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. so der Leonhard Fuchs 1.2306 1543 1. Joanne Lonicero. Italian Dioscoride Anazarbeo della materia medicinale. gestalt. German In Dioscoridis historiam plantarum certissima adaptatio. 6 [Basell] 1543 1543 1544 1544 1544 1545 1545 1545 1546 1546 J Lonitzer 1. kryechisch.3140 exiguam angustioremque formam contractae. 2. blumen. sonder auch aller derselben wurtzel stengel bletter. quae ille Dioscoridi nuper ex Ryffi Egenolphi officina prodeunti attexuit: obiterque quam multas. [Genaio] lii . lingua florentina da M Marcantonio Montigiano da S da S Gimignano 4. seu vivis picturis. Latin Apologia. [Venetia] Latin Pedanii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri sex. [Basileae] imo propemodum omnes herbarum imagines e suis de stirpium historia inscriptis commentariis idem suffuratus sit. German New Kreuterbuch. 3. in ein kleinere form auf das allerartlichest gezogen. Con amplissimi [Venetia] Discorsi. et eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. latinis et germanicis.

3 Matthioli da Siena: co i suoi discorsi. 3 1547 1547 1547 Latin 1548 Italian 1548 Italian 1549 Latin 1549 1549 Greek & Latin Latin MM da S 1. Joanne Ruellio. 4. Wurckung und Namen der Kreuter.3138 [Parisiis] Hieronymous Bock (Tragus) [Strasburg] 1. et eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor.2302 1547 1. und zum ersten mal aus der Griechsen und Lateinischen Sprachen grundlich verteutscht durch Johan Dantzen von Ast. 3.1283. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1546 German Des hochberumpten Pedanii Dioscoridis Anazarbei Grundliche und gewisse Beschreibung alter materien und gezeugs der Artzney.2321.2306. Accesserunt priori editioni Valerii Cordi Simesusii Annotationes doctissimae in Dioscoridis de medica materia libros. [Parisiis] Pedanii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri sex. da esso la seconda volta Matthioli illustrati et diligentemente ampliati: con l’aggiunta del sesto [Vinegia] libro de i rimedi di tutti i veleni da lui nuovamente tradotto. non sine multiplici peregrinatione.3138. Per Gualtherum Rivium. 3 et vigiliis elaborati. seu vivis picturis.2302.2308 Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. una cum effectibus earundem in gratiam veteris illius et jamjam renascentis herbariae medicinae. 3 Gimignano 2nd ed [Firenze] Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo libri cique della historia et Pierandrea 1.2318. Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo libri cique della historia et Pierandrea 1. materia medicinale tradotta in lingua volgare italiana da M Mattioli 5. German Herbarum vivae eicones ad naturae imitationem summa cum diligentia et arteficio effigiatae. auch derselbigen eigentlicher und wohlgegrundeter Gebrauch in der Artznei fleissig dargeben. 3 libros (auctore Jacobo Goupylo). Brunf. liii . 6 1546 Leonhard Fuchs 1. ultra millenarium numerum adjectis. Latin Editiones Ruellianae in minori forma. Vorab dem gemeine einfaltigen Man. ad naturae aemulationem [Francofurti] expressis imaginibus.2317. Latin Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. maximis impensis Leonhard Fuchs 1. et 9th ed eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. Castigationes in eosdem Jacobo Goupylo 1. 2nd ed [Firenze] De historia stirpium commentarii insignes. 4. 3. 3rd ed [Vinegia] Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri Joanne Ruellio 1.865. studio atque diligentia singulari. Darin Underscheid. Tradotto in lingua florentina da M Marcantonio Montigiano da S Gimignano. Latin De historia stirpium commentarii insignes. Leibs Gesundheit zu behaltenund zu furdern sehr nutlich und trostlich. 3. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. Argentinum. per Oth. 3 quinq. adjectis earundem vivis plusquam quingentis imaginibus. medico. Singulis cum G Rivium stirpium. Italian Johan Dantzen von Ast [Frankfurt am Mayn] Otto Brunfels [Frankfurt am Mayn] 1. et con dottissimi discorsi per tutto commentato.59 Pietro Andrea Matthiolo Sanese medico. et eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. ex diversis regionibus conquisitis. adjectis earundem vivis plusquam [Lugduni] quingentis imaginibus.67 1546 1.2295. Il Dioscoride dell’ eccelente Dottor Medico M P Andrea P Andrea 1. Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. nunquam antea ad naturae imitationem arteficiosius effictiset expressi. German Kreuterbuch. Medicum. Joanne Ruellio [Francofurti] Suessionensi interprete. Italian Dioscoride Anazarbeo della materia medicinale. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. nunquam antea ad naturae imitationem arteficiosius effictiset expressi. tum animatium historiis.66 1546 1547 Joanne Ruellio 8th ed [Lugduni] Joanne Ruellio 6th ed [Lugduni] 1. in sechs Bucher verfast. sumptu maximo. maximis impensis et vigiliis elaborati.5986. Dioscoridis libri octo graece et latine. so in Deutschen Landen wachsen. 1.5986 materia medicinale tradotta in lingua volgare italiana da M Mattioli Pietro Andrea Matthiolo Sanese medico.

Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo libri cique della historia et materia medicinale tradotta in lingua volgare italiana da M Pietro Andrea Matthiolo Sanese medico.2302. Latin De stirpium historia commentariorum tomi vivae imagines. et istesso naturale.2302.3140 exiguam angustioremque formam contractae.2319 1549 French Leonhard Fuchs 1. [Parisiis] Latin De historia stirpium commentarii insignes. Pedacii Dioscorides Joanne Ruellio 1. nunquam antea ad naturae imitationem arteficiosius effictiset expressi.3138. Latin Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri Joanne Ruellio 1. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. inedecin très renommè.5986 Mattioli 3rd ed [Mantova] Latin De historia stirpium commentarii insignes. 3 et vigiliis elaborati. latinum. Latin Editiones Ruelianae in minori forma. et eorum notis ac remediis [Lugduni] libri quatuor. 3 quinq. sammt ihre Bock (Tragus) Fruchten. dazu mit hupschen artigen und lablichen Figuren der Kreutter allenthalben gezieret.. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete.3139. Pierandrea Matthioli [Mantova] 1. delle pietre e de gi animali tratte dal vero. Stirpium [Lugduni] imagines. Italian Il Dioscoride dell’ eccelente Dottor Medico M P Andrea P Andrea 1. in Leonhard Fuchs 1. Latin Botanologicon. et eorum notis ac remediis [Venetiis] libri quatuor. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. Valerii Cordi Adnotationes in Dioscoridis de Eurich Cordus 1. Namen und Wurckung Hieronymous 1. durch [Strassburg] Hieronymum Bock aus langwiriger und gewisser erfarung beschriben. adjectis earundem vivis plusquam [Lugduni] quingentis imaginibus. nunquam antea ad naturae imitationem arteficiosius effictiset expressi. Pedacii Dioscorides Joanne Ruellio 1. so in deutschen Landen wachsen . delle herbe. Latin Editiones Ruellianae in minori forma.60 [Paris] 1549 Italian 1549 1549 1549 1550 1550 1550 1550 1551 1551 1551 1552 1552 Pierandrea 1.866 der Kreuter. maximis impensis Leonhard Fuchs 1. maximis impensis Leonhard Fuchs 1.1883 medica materi libros.3140 exiguam angustioremque formam contractae cum totidem [Basileae] figuris ligno incisis absque textu praeter graecum. Commentaires très excellens de l’hystoire des plantes.2306. Stauden Hecken und Beumen. germanicum. de viruletis 8th ed animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. gallicum. et non piu stampate. German Kreuterbuch. Con l'aggiunta di tutte le figure delle piante. 5. darinn Underscheidt. quinq. adjectis earundem vivis plusquam [Lugduni] quingentis imaginibus.72 11th ed eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. Joanne Ruellio Suessionensi interprete. et con dottissimi discorsi per tutto commentato. et con dottissimi discorsi per tutto commentato.3138. 3. in enchiridi formam. Pedacii Dioscorides Joanne Ruellio 1. 3 Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. Latin Editiones Ruellianae in minori forma. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. in Leonhard Fuchs 1. 3 et vigiliis elaborati. und jetzund von newwm fleissig ubersehen. et depuis en françois par un homme savant et bien expert en la matière. et 4. composéz premièrementen latin par Leonhart Fousch. de viruletis 7th ed animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. da esso la seconda volta Matthioli 2nd ed illustrati et diligentemente ampliati: con l’aggiunta del sesto [Vinegia] libro de i rimedi di tutti i veleni da lui nuovamente tradotto.PRINTED BOOKS 1549 Italian Il Dioscoride dell’ eccelente Dottor Medico M P Andrea Matthioli da Siena: co i suoi discorsi. Latin Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri Joanne Ruellio 1. liv . et 10th ed eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. gebessert und gemehret. Joanne Ruellio [Lugduni] Suessionensi interprete. Latin De stirpium historia commentariorum tomi vivae imagines.. de viruletis 9th ed animalibus et venenis cane rabioso.2306 Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. Joanne Ruellio [Lugduni] Suessionensi interprete.2318 Matthioli da Siena: co i suoi discorsi.2306 Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri quinq. da esso la seconda volta illustrati et diligentemente ampliati: con l’aggiunta del sesto libro de i rimedi di tutti i veleni da lui nuovamente tradotto. et eorum notis ac remediis [Lugduni] libri quatuor.

71. 2. Castelbranco) [Argentini] Annotationes in Dioscoridem Anazarbeum juxta Andres Laguna 1. Pedanios. niet alleen hier te lande wassende. Vincenzo Valgrisi [Vinegia] 1. tfatsoen. quinque diversis. [Lugduni] Pedacii Dioscoridis de materia medica libri sex.5985 Petro Andrea Matthiolo.3140 [Lugduni] 1553 French 1553 Latin 15531554 1554 Latin Latin 1554 Latin 1554 Latin 1554 Latin 1554 1554 Latin Latin 1554 Dutch Serapion. 3 enarrationes eruditissimae Amati Lusitani (ie. opus ad ipsarum plantarum cognitionem admodum conducibile. germanica. che in tutto il volume si contiene. ab Andrea Matthiolo emendati ac restituti. cracht ende werckingghe Dodoens van den cruyden. H Tragi [Argentinae] Bock. Commentatiorum libri tres.5986 1. imagines ad vivum expressae. Pietro Andrea 1. Mattioli [Venetiis] Cruydeboeck in den welcken die gheheele historie.2314 médicale translatez de latin en françois. Kyber [Argentorati] 1. Posteriorum. nell’una delle quali con somma facilita si puo ritrovare cio.4992 vetustissimorum tidem elaboratae. 5. nell’ altra poi tutti i Semplici medicamenti.68 latina. neque non temperaturis ac facultatibus. Dioscorides. et 12th ed eorum notis ac remediis libri quatuor. maer oock [Antwerpen] van den anderen vremden in der medecijnen oorboorlijck. gallicaque nomina [Antwerpiae] complectentibus. 2.2310. Mutono. Joanne Ruellio [Lugduni] Suessionensi interprete. naem natuere. dat es Rembert 1.. per qual si voglia morbo adunati insieme.2343.867. de viruletis animalibus et venenis cane rabioso. Pedacii Dioscorides Anazarbei de medicinali materia libri Joanne Ruellio 1. De stirpium historia commentariorum tomi vivae imagines. interprete Pierandrea 1. officinarum.2309. Aggiuntevi due amplissime tavole. Dodoens 3. brabantica. 1. Textoris. Matthiolo. Juan Lusitanus (de Rodriguez de Castelbranco). Andr.0124. Gesner.66 1552 1552 Latin Latin Leonhard Fuchs 1.ghesfelt. lv . cum ejusdem commentariis. De simplicium medicamentorum historiae libri VII. usitatis nomenclaturis.124. Anazarbeus interprete Pet. et copiosamente ampliati: co’l sesto libro de gli Antidoti contra a tutti i veleni da lui tradotto et con dottissimi discorsi per tutto commentato. nunc in latinam conversi. interprete Davide Kybero.2320 1552 Italian 1552 Latin 1552 Latin Pierandrea Mattioli 5th ed [Vinegia] Benedict Textor. Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo libri cique della historia et materia medicinale tradotta in lingua volgare italiana da M Pietro Andrea Matthiolo Sanese medico.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1552 Italian Il Dioscoride dell’ eccelente Dottor Medico M P Andrea Matthioli da Siena: Co i suoi discorsi per la terza volta illustrati. 3 1. Matthiolo 4. De stirpium maxime earum quae in Germania nostra nascuntur.74 [Lugduni] In Dioscoridis Anazarbei de materia medica libros Amatus 1. A chacun chapitre [Lyon] sont adjoutées certaines annotations fort doctes (par D Martin Matthee). Plantarum effigies. 2 enarrationes eruditissimae Amati Lusitani (ie.2302 quinq. germanica primum lingua conscripti. in exiguam angustioremque formam contractae. Juan Lusitanus (de Rodriguez de Castelbranco). Mattioli 3 [Venetii] Pedacii Dioscoridis de materia medica libri VI innumeris locis Andrea 1. In Dioscoridis Anazarbei de materia medica libros Amatus 1. Castelbranco) [Venetiis] Trium priorum de stirpium historia commentariorum Rembert 1.8616 Mutono [Venetiis] Les six livres de Pedacion Dioscoride d’Anazarbe de la matière Martin Matthee 1. propriisque differentiis.2344 tgheslacht. 3. Stirpium differentiae ex Dioscoride secundum locos communes.9174. interprete Nic. 5. cum ejusdem commentariis. 4. Una cum indicibus graeca. Argentinensi.

Mattioli 2nd ed [Venetiis] Latin In Dioscoridis Anazarbei de medica materia libros quinque Amatus 1. Fuchsio.77 [Vinegia] Latin De historia stirpium commentarii insignes. Jano Cornario 1. Stauden Hecken und Beumen. so in deutschen Landen wachsen . Lusitanum [Venetiis] French L’histoire des plantes mis en commentaires par Leonart Fuchs Leonhard Fuchs. maximis impensis Leonhard Fuchs 3 et vigiliis elaborati. Accedunt praeter Lusitanus.2318 1555 1555 1556 1556 1557 1557 1557 1557 1557 1558 1558 1558 1558 Pierandrea 1.2313. et con dottissimi discorsi per tutto commentato. Andres de Laguna [Anvers] 1. 3 enarrationes eruditissimae Amati Lusitani. Pietro Andrea 1. Pedanios. Traducido de lengua griega en la vulgar castellana y illustrado con claras y substantiales annotationes y con las figuras de innumeras plantas exquisitas y raras por el Doctor Andres de Laguna. 1. 3. Ejusdem Jani [Basileae] Comarii Emblemata singulis capitibus adjecta. Medico de Julio III Pont Max. [Basileae] Bulbocastanum. Amati Lusitani enarrationes eruditae. et nouvellement traduict de latin en G Rouille françois avec vraye observation de l’auteur en telle diligence 2nd ed [Lion] que pourra tesmoigner ceste oevre presente... Latin Pedacii Dioscoridae Anazarbensis de materia medica libri V.4188 Holtzachius [Lugduni] German Kreuterbuch. Latin De stirpium aliquot nominibus vetustis ac novis. Gramen Azelin vel Habbaziz et alia complura. quae multis Melchior 1. Latin In Dioscoridis Anazarbei de materia medica libros Amatus 1. 4.2309. Latin Annotationes in Dioscoridem. und jetzund von newwm fleissig ubersehen. durch [Strassburg] Hieronymum Bock aus langwiriger und gewisser erfarung beschriben.5977. dazu mit hupschen artigen und lablichen Figuren der Kreutter allenthalben gezieret. sacada de Dioscoride Juan Jarava 1. Italian Il Dioscoride dell’ eccelente Dottor Medico M P Andrea Matthioli da Siena: co i suoi discorsi. [Anvers] French Histoire des plantes. epistolae duae…altera C Gesneri. 1. darinn Underscheidt. Dodoens temperament. vertus et operations non seulement de celles qui [Anvers] 4. Andr. entiere des herbes. Physico interprete.PRINTED BOOKS 1555 Spanish Pedacio Dioscorides Anazarbeo Acerca de la materia medicinal y de los venenos mortiferos. Namen und Wurckung Hieronymous 1. adjectis earundem vivis plusquam [Lugduni] quingentis imaginibus. 3 Jano Comario Medico. Italian I discorsi di M Pietro Andrea Matthiolo ne i sei libri della materia medicinale di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo. noms. 7 Anazarbeo.124. Mattioli 4. c’est a dire leurs especes. Dalechamp [Lugduni] Latin Apologia adversus Amatum Lusitanum cum censura in Mattioli.866 der Kreuter. 3 Matthiolo. lvi . Moly. Lusitanus (JR de Castelbranco) [Venetiis] Spanish Historia de las yervas y plantas. sammt ihre Bock (Tragus) Fruchten. gebessert und gemehret. Doronicum. da esso la seconda volta illustrati et diligentemente ampliati: con l’aggiunta del sesto libro de i rimedi di tutti i veleni da lui nuovamente tradotto.78 croissent…usage de medecine. Jacobo Dalechampioatque aliis. vel de eis dubitarunt: ut Guilandinus sunt Mamiras.2311. en laquelle est contenue la description Rembert 1.79 correctiones lemmatum etiam adnotationes Roberti Constantini.3139 médecin tres-renommé. nec non simplicium picturae ex Leonhardo Fuchs.2313 1555 P Andrea Matthioli 3rd ed [Vinegia] 1.124.3636 jam saeculis vel ignorarunt medici. Constantini.5987. Joannes Cosma 1. nunquam antea ad naturae imitationem arteficiosius effictiset expressi. Latin Dioscorides. Anazarbeus interprete Pet. forme.2345. Oloconitis. cum ejusdem commentariis. 3 ejusdem enarrationes.

4th ed [Venetiis] Italian I discorsi di M. Latin Annotationes in Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de medica Valerius Cordus. Lusitanum [Venetiis] Latin De stirpium historia commentariorum imagines. A chacun chapitre 2nd ed sont adjoutées certaines annotations fort doctes (par D Martin [Lyon] Matthee). Namen und Wurckung Hieronymous der Kreuter. Schreiberi. ejusdem enarrationes.5985 1560 3 1560 1. Mattioli 3rd ed [Venetiis] Spanish Pedacio Dioscorides Anazarbeo Acerca de la materia medicinal Andres de y de los venenos mortiferos. qui inscribitur Theon.86 lvii . 4. supra priorem editionem multarum novarum Dodoens figurarum accessione locupletatae. Pietro Andrea Matthiolo ne I sei libri della Pierandrea materia medicinale di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo. Latin Stirpium descriptionis liber quintus.3637 1. dazu mit hupschen artigen und lablichen Figuren der Kreutter allenthalben gezieret. 7 1560 1. Stauden Hecken und Beumen. [Argentina] Latin Pedacii Dioscoridis de materia medica libri sex. interprete P Mattioli.2313 1561 1. describit in praecedentibus vel omnino intatas vel non poluit. Mattioli [Venetia] German Kreuterbuch. gebessert und gemehret. 3.2314. cum ejusdem commentariis. Gesneri [Argentorati] Latin 1. Petro. Spanish Pedacio Dioscorides Anazarbeo Acerca de la materia medicinal Andres de y de los venenos mortiferos. Adjectis Lusitanum plurimis plantarem et animalium imaginibus.. Pedanios. Petro Andrea Matthiolo.5796 1.866. 3 1.79 1.3638 1. so in deutschen Landen wachsen .2343. 4. Andr. Guilandinus [Patavii] French Les six livres de Pedacion Dioscoride d’Anazarbe de la matière Martin Matthee médicale translatez de latin en françois. Latin Pedacii Dioscoridis de materia medica libri sex. darinn Underscheidt.5985.80 1558 1558 1559 1. Anazarbeus interprete Pet.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1558 Pedacii Dioscoridis de materia medica libri sex. Petro Andrea Matthiolo. Cum indice Bartolommeo copioso. 5. Guilandinus [Patavii] Latin Apologiae adversus Petrum Andream Matthiolum liber Melchior primus. Melchioris Guilandini R IV. Medico de Julio III Pont Max. in duos Rembert tomos digestae. Medico de Julio III Pont Max. Adjectis Lusitanum plurimis plantarem et animalium imaginibus. Melchior Conradi Gesneri Tigurini I. [Antverpiae] Latin Methodi cognoscendorum simplicium libri III. Andrea Matthiolo.1885 1560 1. 4. interprete P Mattioli. 2. cum ejusdem commentariis.2309. Maranta [Venetiis] Latin Dioscorides. Pietro Andrea Matthiolo. 4. Traducido de lengua griega en la Laguna vulgar castellana y illustrado con claras y substantiales 2nd ed annotationes y con las figuras de innumeras plantas [Madrid] exquisitas y raras por el Doctor Andres de Laguna. sammt ihre Bock (Tragus) Fruchten. cum ejusdem commentariis.5985. Traducido de lengua griega en la Laguna vulgar castellana y illustrado con claras y substantiales 3rd ed annotationes y con las figuras de innumeras plantas [Valencia] exquisitas y raras por el Doctor Andres de Laguna. Aretii.82 1561 1. und jetzund von newwm fleissig ubersehen.5977 1559 1559 1560 1560 1. cum ejusdem commentariis. 3 1559 1559 1. Adjectis Lusitanum plurimis plantarem et animalium imaginibus. materia libros V. Cum ejusdem Historia stirpium et Sylva etc. De morbo et obitu Valerii Cordi epistola Hieronymi Schreiberi Crucigeri Norimbergensis.2313.1884. interprete P Mattioli.. 3rd ed [Venetiis] Latin Apologia adversus Amatum Lusitanum cum censura in Mattioli. qua in Italia sibi visas Cordus. durch [Strassburg] Hieronymum Bock aus langwiriger und gewisser erfarung beschriben.81 1. 2nd ed [Venetiis] Latin De stirpibus aliquot epistolae V.

5994 1561 1561 1561 1562 1562 1563 1563 1563 1563 1563 1565 1565 1565 1565 Les Commentaires de M P Andre Matthiolus sur les six livres P Mattioli.5987 1. Dioscoridis Anazarbei ad Andromachum. Anazarbeus interprete Pet. Pietro Andrea Matthiolo.91 1. cum ejusdem commentariis.5985. durch [Strassburg] Hieronymum Bock aus langwiriger und gewisser erfarung beschriben.. Mattioli 2nd ed [Vinegia] German New Krauterbuch mit den allerschonsten und artlichsten Pierandrea Figuren aller Gewechss.84 3 1..89. Per Thaddeum Hagek. Dutch Cruydeboeck in den welcken die gheheele historie dat es Rembert tgheslacht. naem natuere.87. Antoine du Traduits de latin en françois par M. de Pedacius Dioscoride Anazarbeen de la matière medicinale. Nunc primum et graece editi et partim a Joanne Moibano. Medico de Julio III Pont Max. dazu mit hupschen artigen und lablichen Figuren der Kreutter allenthalben gezieret.866 lviii . 4. Mattioli [Venetiis] Latin Pedacii Dioscoridis de materia medica libri sex. Schreiberi. Quibus accessere simplicium medicamentorum facultates secundum locos et genera ex Dioscoride. cum ejusdem commentariis. Pedanios.. (First German edition and [Prag. 6 1.ghesfelt Greek Ped..2298. 3.. Nuovamente de M Giovanni Marinello mandati in [Vinegia] luce. und jetzund von newwm fleissig ubersehen. Hagek [Praha] Spanish Pedacio Dioscorides Anazarbeo Acerca de la materia medicinal Andres de y de los venenos mortiferos. nomenclatura. qualitates et natale solum. darinn Underscheidt.. dergleichen vormals in keiner Mattioli. 3 1.86 1. [Argentorati] medico Augustano. Mattioli.2313 1.85 1.. [Lugduni] Italian Semplici.94 1.. hoc est de Moibano. Latin Dioscorides. 4.5989. libri Gesnero. 3 1. Folgends durch Georgium G Handsch Handsch der Arzney Doctorem. 4.1885.93 1. liquali in piu Pareri a diversi nobili huomini scritti Luigi Anguillara a paiono.. [L Anguillara was born as L Squalermo. (large woodcuts). adjectis ab utroque interprete symphoniis Galeni aliorumque graecorum medicorum. sammt ihre Bock (Tragus) Fruchten. Latin Stirpium descriptionis liber quintus.187. Traducido de lengua griega en la Laguna vulgar castellana y illustrado con claras y substantiales 4th ed annotationes y con las figuras de innumeras plantas [Salamanca] exquisitas y raras por el Doctor Andres de Laguna. French 1. describit in praecedentibus vel omnino intatas vel non poluit. 2. 5. Mattioli 3rd ed [Lugduni] Czech Herbarz: ginak Bylinarz .2309.. Andr. Earum imagines. Antoine du Pinet. Pierandrea Mattioli [Lugduni] 1. cum ejusdem commentariis.PRINTED BOOKS 1561 Latin Historia plantarum.5991.2345. Petro Andrea Matthiolo. Namen und Wurckung Hieronymous der Kreuter.2539 4. though known to his contemporaries as Aloysius Romanus]. niet alleen hier te lande wassende. 3. qua in Italia sibi visas Cordus. gebessert und gemehret.. cracht ende werckingghe Dodoens van den cruyden. [Argentorati] Italian I discorsi di M Pietro Andrea Matthiolo ne I sei libri della Pierandrea materia medicinale di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo.. partim vero post hujus mortem a Corado Gesnero in linguam latinam conversi. Gasser II. 5th ed [Venetiis] German Kreuterbuch. 4. Quibus accessere simplicium Antoine du medicamentorum facultates secundum locos et genera ex Pinet Dioscoride.91. & Latin curationibus morborum per medicamenta paratu facilia.. Pinet [Lyon] Latin Historia plantarum. 5.5992 1. Adjectis Lusitanum plurimis plantarem et animalium imaginibus. so in deutschen Landen wachsen . interprete P Mattioli. Latin Pedacii Dioscoridis de materia medica libri sex. maer oock [Antwerpen] van den anderen vremden in der medecijnen oorboorlijck. interprete Pietro Andrea Petro Andrea Matthiolo. 5. Stauden Hecken und Beumen. 2. Sprache nie an den tag kommen. 4. Venedig] omits Dioscorides text). tfatsoen.. De morbo et obitu Valerii Cordi epistola Hieronymi Schreiberi Crucigeri Norimbergensis.

M. Pedanios. Adjectis Lusitanum 3. 1571 Latin Compendium de plantis omnibus. Traducido de lengua griega en la Laguna 5th ed 5. perfacilis vestigatio. Traduits de latin en françois per M. Mattioli [Venetia] Herbarz: ginak Bylinarz . sive methodus cognoscendorum omnium Bartolommeo 1.5985. sammt ihre Bock (Tragus) Fruchten. 4.5994 qualitates et natale solum. una cum earum iconbus de Pierandrea 1. materia medicinale di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo.2313.. docteur en [Lyon] medecine. durch [Strassburg] Hieronymum Bock aus langwiriger und gewisser erfarung beschriben. 3 y de los venenos mortiferos. per Adam Huber et Dan Adam. [Lyon] 1572 German Kreuterbuch.103. Petro Andrea Matthiolo. Pinet Antoine du Pinet. 4. Pierandrea 1. 4. Mattioli 2nd ed [Venetiis] 1569 Latin Pedacii Dioscoridis de materia medica libri sex. so in deutschen Landen wachsen . 1.. cum ejusdem commentariis.105. Andr. Maranta [Venetiis] 1572 French Les Commentaires de M P Andre Matthiolus medecin senois. [Lugduni] 1568 Italian I discorsi di M Pietro Andrea Matthiolo ne I sei libri della Pierandrea 1. 3. 3 sur les six livres de Pedacius Dioscoride Anazarbeen de la Antoine du matiere medicinale. [Londini] Conjectaneorum de plantis.2309 1569 Latin Dioscorides. 1572 French Les Commentaires de M P Andre Matthiolus medicin senois P Mattioli. 3. P Mattioli. dazu mit hupschen artigen und lablichen Figuren der Kreutter allenthalben gezieret. Mattioli. Stauden Hecken und Beumen. 7 materiam medicam. darinn Underscheidt. Earum imagines.866 der Kreuter. (1571) accessio ad priscorum. 1573 Italian I discorsi di M Pietro Andrea Matthiolo ne I sei libri della Pierandrea 3 materia medicinale di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo.5991. Namen und Wurckung Hieronymous 1.2539. luculentaque Pierre Pena..2313. lix 1566 Czech . y de los venenos mortiferos. Quibus accessere simplicium Antoine du 1. 1567 Latin Historia plantarum. Quibus accessere simplicium Mattioli medicamentorum facultates secundum locos et genera ex [Lugduni] Dioscoride.102 plurimis plantarem et animalium imaginibus. Traducido de lengua griega en la Laguna vulgar castellana y illustrado con claras y substantiales 6th ed annotationes y con las figuras de innumeras plantas [Salamanca] exquisitas y raras por el Doctor Andres de Laguna.5985 Petro Andrea Matthiolo. interprete P Mattioli. nomenclatura. 1.95 vulgar castellana y illustrado con claras y substantiales [Salamanca] annotationes y con las figuras de innumeras plantas exquisitas y raras por el Doctor Andres de Laguna. Medico de Julio III Pont Max.100 Dioscoride. quibus scripsit suis in Commentariis in Dioscoridem editis. 7th ed [Venetiis] 1570 Latin Stirpium adversaria nova.. Anazarbeus interprete Pet. 2. Quibus praediem accedit altera pars.5982. Medico de Julio III Pont Max.5987.5993 Adam [Prag] 1566 Spanish Pedacio Dioscorides Anazarbeo Acerca de la materia medicinal Andres de 1. 1. cum ejusdem commentariis.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Mattioli. praesertim Dioscoridis et recentiorum Mathias L’Obel 3. 1567 Latin Historia plantarum. Huber. 6th ed [Venetiis] 1570 Spanish Pedacio Dioscorides Anazarbeo Acerca de la materia medicinal Andres de 1. medicamentorum facultates secundum locos et genera ex Pinet 5. Mis en françois sur la dernier édition Moulins latine de l’autheur par M. 6 Calceolarii [Venetiis] 1571 Latin Novum herbarium. Pietro Andrea Matthiolo. 1. 1.5796 simplicium. cum ejusdem commentariis. und jetzund von newwm fleissig ubersehen. gebessert und gemehret. 3 sur les six livres de Pedacius Dioscoride Anazarbeen de la Jean des matière medicinale etc. interprete P Mattioli. 1570 Latin Pedacii Dioscoridis de materia medica libri sex. Jean des Moulins. Mattioli 6 3rd ed [Vinegia] 1.7029. Adjectis Lusitanum plurimis plantarem et animalium imaginibus.

10679.2345 1581 1.145 lx . 8th ed [Venetiis] 1. so in deutschen Landen wachsen . Lobelius [Antwerpiae] Latin Dioscorides. 3. and now first translated out of french into Dodoens english by Henry Lyte Esq.. Anazarbeus interprete Pet. 5. Jean des Moulins Moulins. Latin Epistolarum medicinalium libri III. 4.132. [London] French Les Commentaires de M. 3 1581 3 1581 1. 3 1581 1.7029. 2. first set forth in the Rembert doutche tongue. cracht ende werckingghe Dodoens van den cruyden. Andr. 2. Mattioli [Venetia] Dutch Cruydeboeck in den welcken die gheheele historie dat es Rembert tgheslacht. niet alleen hier te lande wassende. 3 1580 1. sammt ihre Bock (Tragus) Fruchten. Namen und Wurckung Hieronymous der Kreuter. so in deutschen Landen wachsen . medicin tres-savant. German Kreuterbuch. livres de Pedacius Dioscoride Anazarbeen de la matiere Jean des medicinale. Lobelius [Antwerpen] Latin Plantarum seu stirpium icones. 4.5548. Pedanios. Mattioli 3rd ed [Venetiis] Latin Pedacii Dioscoridis de materia medica libri sex. 4.118 3 1580 1. praesertim Dioscoridis et recentiorum Mathias L’Obel materiam medicam.138.5985. 6 1. Traduits de latin en francois par M. et de oxymellitis elleborati [Tiguri] utriusque dsecriptione et usu libellus. 3. 3 1583 1583 1. maer oock [Antwerpen] van den anderen vremden in der medecijnen oorboorlijck. [Lyon] Latin Plantarum seu stirpium historia.. dazu mit hupschen artigen und lablichen Figuren der Kreutter allenthalben gezieret. naem natuere. P Andre Matthiolus sur les six P Mattioli.5549.. darinn Underscheidt. Cui adnexum est Matthias Adversariorum volumen.ghesfelt. 7 1577 1577 1. Omnia edita per Casparum Wolphium. 5. Lobelius [Antwerpiae] Latin Nova stirpium adversaria. Pietro Andrea Matthiolo.115.866 1578 1579 1.. hesteren.866 1581 1.3139.124. 3. perfacilis vestigatio. 5.127 1. Adjectis Lusitanum magnis ac novis plantarum iconibus.2309. und jetzund von newwm fleissig ubersehen. luculentaque Pierre Pena. His accesserunt Aconiti Konrad Gesner primi Dioscoridis asseveratio. cum ejusdem commentariis. gebessert und gemehret.5548. ende gheboomten.2314. 5.126. Namen und Wurckung Hieronymous der Kreuter.112 1576 1576 1. interprete P Mattioli. darinn Underscheidt. or histori of plants. 4. gebessert und gemehret. Icones ligno incisae Matthias plerumque binae in unaquaque pagina. und jetzund von newwm fleissig ubersehen. Atheniensis [Tiguri] Italian I discorsi di M Pietro Andrea Matthiolo ne I sei libri della Pierandrea materia medicinale di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo.3302. A chacun chapitre 3rd ed sont adjoutées certaines annotations fort doctes (par D Martin [Lyon] Matthee). English A niewe herball.PRINTED BOOKS 1575 French L’histoire des plantes reduicte en tres bon ordre. 3rd ed faicts premierement en latin et puis traduit en français. durch [Strassburg] Hieronymum Bock aus langwiriger und gewisser erfarung beschriben.114. Quibus accessit appendixcum indice [Antverpiae] variarum linguarum locupl. augmentee de Leonhard Fuchs.. cum ejusdem commentariis. 5. 6 1. sammt ihre Bock (Tragus) Fruchten.2345. accessio ad priscorum. dazu mit hupschen artigen und lablichen Figuren der Kreutter allenthalben gezieret. tfatsoen. Stauden Hecken und Beumen. durch [Strassburg] Hieronymum Bock aus langwiriger und gewisser erfarung beschriben. 2. 2. German Kreuterbuch. Latin Alphabetum empiricum sive Dioscoridis et Stephani Casparo Atheniensis philosophorum et medicorum de remediis expertis Wolphio. 4. Stauden Hecken und Beumen. plusiers simples avec leurs figures et pourtraicts: et illustree Charles Pesnot par les commentaires de Leonarth Fusch. Petro Andrea Matthiolo. liber. [Lyon] French Les six livres de Pedacion Dioscoride d’Anazarbe de la matière Martin Matthee médicale translatez de latin en françois. juxta alphabeti ordinem digestus. Flemish Kruydtboeck oft beschryvinghe van allerlye ghewassen Matthias kruyderen.

5983. Icones stirpium seu plantarum tam exoticarum quam Matthias indigenarum in gratiam rei herbariae studiosorum in duas Lobelius partes digestae. Magnum Aetruriae Ducem. Cum septem linguarum Indici.2350. 2. jetzt wiederumb mit vielen schonen Camerarium newen Figuren.2345. durch [Strassburg] Hieronymum Bock aus langwiriger und gewisser erfarung beschriben. auch nutzlichen Artzneyen und andern guten [Frankfurt am Stucken zun andern Mal aus sondrem Fleiss gemehrtund Mayn] gefertig durch Joachimum Camararium. [Antwerpiae] Annotationi et emendationi nella tradottione dell' eccell. De stirpium historia commentariorum tomi vivae imagines. Namen und Wurckung Hieronymous der Kreuter. cum ejusdem commentariis. Kreuterbuch des hochgelehrten und weitberuhmten Hr D Mattioli.2345 1591 1591 1592 1593 1595 Latin Latin Italian Latin German 3 1.1640.187 1. Petro. 3.866. PA Antonio Pasini Mattioli de’ cinque libri della materia medicinale di [Bergamo] Dioscoride. and now first translated out of french into Dodoens english by Henry Lyte Esq. or histori of plants.122 1.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1583 Latin Andrea Cesalpini [Florentiae] Stirpium historiae pemptades sex sive libri XXX. Andrea Matthiolo. sammt ihre Bock (Tragus) Fruchten.. 5.171 1. 2. 1. 4. 9th ed [Venetiis] De planti libri XVI.ghesfelt Annotationi et emendationi nella tradottione dell' eccell. darinn Underscheidt. gebessert und gemehret. iconibus descriptionibusque longe et pluribus et D J Camerario accuratioribus. 3. gebessert und gemehret.. 3. sammt ihre Bock (Tragus) Fruchten. 3. [Bergamo] Semplici …. und jetzund von newwm fleissig ubersehen. Ad serenissimum Franciscum Medicem. nunc primum diligenter aucta et locupletata a [Francofurti] D Joachimo Camerario. darinn Underscheidt.6964 1. dazu mit hupschen artigen und lablichen Figuren der Kreutter allenthalben gezieret. jetzt wiederumb mit vielen schonen Camerarium newen Figuren.3140 1. Kreuterbuch des hochgelehrten und weitberuhmten Hr D Mattioli. in Leonhard Fuchs exiguam angustioremque formam contractae. 4.6. or histori of plants.. Rembert Dodoens [Antwerpiae] De plantis epitome utilissima novis plane ad vivum expressis Mattioli. durch [Strassburg] Hieronymum Bock aus langwiriger und gewisser erfarung beschriben. first set forth in the Rembert doutche tongue. dazu mit hupschen artigen und lablichen Figuren der Kreutter allenthalben gezieret. tfatsoen. and now first translated out of french into Dodoens english by Henry Lyte Esq.. 2 1. [Lugduni] minimae. der loblichen Reichsstatt Nurnberg Medicum. maer oock [Antwerpen] van den anderen vremden in der medecijnen oorboorlijck.128 3 1583 Latin 1586 Latin 1586 German 1586 1587 English German 1.5990. Adjectis Lusitanum magnis ac novis plantarum iconibus. der loblichen Reichsstatt Nurnberg Medicum.138 1595 1595 1596 Latin English Latin 1. cracht ende werckingghe Dodoens van den cruyden. und jetzund von newwm fleissig ubersehen. first set forth in the Rembert doutche tongue.5985 lxi .2345. PA Antonio Pasini. 4. naem natuere.5549. A niewe herball. Cruydeboeck in den welcken die gheheele historie dat es Rembert tgheslacht. A niewe herball. ic. 3. niet alleen hier te lande wassende. 5.. Ligno inc. Stauden Hecken und Beumen. auch nutzlichen Artzneyen und andern guten [Frankfurt am Stucken zun andern Mal aus sondrem Fleiss gemehrtund Mayn] gefertig durch Joachimum Camararium. 4.135 1. 2. [London] Pedacii Dioscoridis de materia medica libri sex. Namen und Wurckung Hieronymous der Kreuter. so in deutschen Landen wachsen . so in deutschen Landen wachsen . Mattioli de’ cinque libri della materia medicinale di Mattioli Dioscoride. 3. Luigi Anguillara [Basileae] 2nd ed Kreuterbuch. 4. Stauden Hecken und Beumen.123 5. Petri Andreae Matthioli.143 1. [London] Kreuterbuch. cum notis Casparis Bauhni. 2. Petri Andreae Matthioli. interprete P Mattioli.866 1590 German 1.160 1590 Dutch 1.

per Adam Huber et Dan Adam.1641. 3 1603 1.2296. qui Dioscoridis depravatam [Basileae. Petri Andreae Matthioli. nunc a [Basileae] Casparo Bauhino post diversarum editionum collationem infinitis locis aucti. quae exstant. stirpium adversaria. gentleman: otherwise called Ram’s little Dodeon.2312 1598 1. Andr. under [London] their names and operations. [Frankfurt am Mayn] Latin Opera. 4.5984. Petri Andreae Matthioli.5990 1600 1. adjectis in margine variis graeci textus 10th ed lectionibus ex antiquissimus codicibus desumtis. jetzt wiederumb mit vielen schonen Camerarium newen Figuren. Ex nova interpretatione Jani Saraceni Antonii Saracenii Lugdunaei. 3 1605 1. der loblichen Mayn] Reichsstatt Nurnberg Medicum. 2. Camerar. der loblichen Mayn] Reichsstatt Nurnberg Medicum. Latin Dilucidae simplicium medicamentorum explicationes et Pierre Pena. translated by Henry Lyte. Traduits de latin en françois par M.PRINTED BOOKS 1596 1598 1598 Mattioli. Interprete Jano Sarraceno Antonio Sarraceno. [Romae] Italian I discorsi di M Pietro Andrea Matthiolo ne I sei libri della Pierandrea materia medicinale di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo. auch nutzlichen Artzneyen und andern guten 3rd ed Stucken zun andern Mal aus sondrem Fleiss gemehrtund [Frankfurt am gefertig durch Joachimum Camararium.144 1598 1.139 1.2309 1. cum ejusdem commentariis. Impr cum Lobelii [Londini] in G Rondelletii methodicam Pharmaceuticam officinam animadversiones. de Pedacius Dioscoride Anazarbeen de la matière medicinale. 7 1. [Basileae] Greek & Π Ε ∆ Α Κ Ι Ο Υ ∆ Ι Ο Σ Κ Ι ∆ Ο Υ . adjectis in margine variis graeci textus lectionibus ex Bauhino antiquissimis codicibus desumtis. 4. auctuariis. jetzt wiederumb mit vielen schonen Camerarium newen Figuren. Mattioli [Venetia] French Les Commentaires de M P Andre Matthiolus sur les six livres P Mattioli. Mattioli. omnia. 5. Mayn] Latin Petri Andrea Matthioli opera. Antoine du Pinet: et Antoine du illustrez de nouveau d’un bon nombre de figures. praeter appendicem ad Andrea peripateticas quaestiones. Pierre Rigaud. collected out of the most exquisite new herball. castigationibus.5985 1598 1. Czech 1. Adam [Prag] Latin Dioscorides. 4. [Lugduni & Frankfurt am Mayn] Latin Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de materia medica libri Jano Antonio quinque. Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbaei Jani Antonii Latin Opera quae exstant.5991.. 3. German Kreuterbuch des hochgelehrten und weitberuhmten Hr D Mattioli.5990. Bauhin Matthiolo. Anazarbeus interprete Pet. Latin Appendix ad libros de plantis. lectionem restituunt: nunc a Casparo Bauhino post Frankfurt am diversarum editionum collationeminfinitis locis aucti. hoc 58 est: Pierandrea commentarii in sex libros Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de Mattioli medica materia. German Kreuterbuch des hochgelehrten und weitberuhmten Hr D Mattioli. Herbarz: ginak Bylinarz . Pedanios. 2. Huber. first set forth in the Dutch or Almayne tongue. 6 1605 1.183.7029. quibus accessit altera pars cum prioris Mathias L’Obel illustrationibus.2345 1606 lxii . auch nutzlichen Artzneyen und andern guten 2nd ed Stucken zun andern Mal aus sondrem Fleiss gemehrtund [Frankfurt am gefertig durch Joachimum Camararium. Mattioli. medici. 3. Ejusdem de venenis libri duo. tant de plusiers remedes à diverses sortes de maladies. 2 1604 3. English Dodeon’s brief epitome of the new herbal or history of plants. hoc est: Commentarii in sex Pierandrea libros Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de medica materia. omnia.115.. quae exstant omnia. esquire. que aussi des distillations: comme paraillement de la connaissance des simples.5993. et Pinet augmentez en plus de mille lieux à la derniere édition de [Lyon] l’auteur. 6. redit in Museo di piante rare di Cesalpini Boccone. 3 1598 1. Apologia in Amatum Lusitanum. and by William Ram. Rembert wherein is contained the disposition and true declaration of Dodoens the physicke helpes of all sorts of herbes and plants.

scharpffschmackenden Krautern. Von Braunsschweig allerley wolriechenden Krautern. und derselbigin heylsamen und nutzbaren Stuck. paullo ante mortem. Nun mehr aber von Petro Uffenbach. Wolerfahren Wundartztes Hieronymi Braunsschweig zweyen Buchern. Nicolo Marogna. viel und mancherley Thieren.2322 Griechischen Skribenten Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei. 1. Gewurtzen. scharpffschmackenden Krautern. Nun mehr aber von Petro Uffenbach. 2. Metalle. Uffenbach. Krauterwein. In siben sonderbare Bucher unterschieden. [London] by that learned D Rembert Dodoens. und andern so allein zur Artzney gehorig.1823. or historie of plants. 3 de Pedacius Dioscoride Anazarbeen de la matiere medicinale. 2.2322 Griechischen Skribenten Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei. wherein is contained the Rembert 1. naem natuere. Metalle. German Krauterbuch des uralten und in aller Welt beruhmtesten Ast. kostlichen Oelen [Frankfurt am und Salben. Plinio. 3 de Pedacius Dioscoride Anazarbeen de la matiere medicinale. Getrayt. der Artzney Doctorem. Baumen. Pinet [Lyon] Commentarius in tractasus Dioscoridis et Plinii de Amomo.201. Baumen. French Les Commentaires de M P Andre Matthiolus sur les six livres P Mattioli. volgens seine laeste verheteringe. Corrected and amended.ghesfelt. Galeno aliisque descriptae. aucti & emendati. und derselbigin heylsamen und nutzbaren Stuck. Mayn] Kochkrautern. Varie ab Rembert 1. verteutscht. tfatsoen.2350.5818 Giovanni Pona [Venezia] Dutch Cruydeboeck in den welcken die gheheele historie dat es Rembert 1. First set forth in the Dutch or Almaigne tongue. affern und jedem Gifft. Dodoens 3. jetzt wiederumb mit vielen schonen Camerarium newen Figuren. allerley Erden. [Antwerpiae] 5. 1.. Latin 1610 1611 1614 1616 1616 1617 1618 1619 1619 1620 lxiii . Steinen. 3 Ponae [Basileae] German Krauterbuch des uralten und in aller Welt beruhmtesten Ast. der loblichen Mayn] Reichsstatt Nurnberg Medicum. niet alleen hier te lande wassende. auctore.5818. Mayn] Kochkrautern. 7 stirpium in qua non paucae ab antiquioribus Theophrasto. Gummi. 3 tgheslacht. Petri Andreae Matthioli. now first translated out of French into English by Henry Lyte Esquire.5990. Latin Minus cognitarum rariorumque nostro coelo orientium Fabio Colonna 1. whole discourse and perfect description of all sorts of herbes Dodoens 3.2345. Antoine du Traduits de latin en francois par M Antoine du Pinet. verteutscht. Erslich durch Joannem Danzium vo Ast. allerley Erden. 4. Hartzen. 3 German Kreuterbuch des hochgelehrten und weitberuhmten Hr D Mattioli. Von Braunsschweig allerley wolriechenden Krautern. French Les Commentaires de M P Andre Matthiolus sur les six livres P Mattioli. maer oock [Leyden] van den anderen vremden in der medecijnen oorboorlijck.2345. 4. Omnia fideliter ad vivum delineata atque aeneis typis expressa. viel und mancherley Thieren. Pinet [Lyon] English A new herbal. praeter illas etiam editas disquiruntur. [Romae] Dioscoride.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1608 Nicolo Marogna. Erslich durch Joannem Danzium vo Ast. Wolerfahren Wundartztes Hieronymi Braunsschweig zweyen Buchern. Steinen.163.167. 6 Italian Commentarius in tractasus Dioscoridis et Plinii de Amomo. Gummi. 1. Gewurtzen. Uffenbach. Getrayt. In siben sonderbare Bucher unterschieden. auch nutzlichen Artzneyen und andern guten 4th ed Stucken zun andern Mal aus sondrem Fleiss gemehrtund [Frankfurt am gefertig durch Joachimum Camararium. kostlichen Oelen [Frankfurt am und Salben. Latin Stirpium historiae pemptades sex sive libri XXX. 1. Krauterwein. Antoine du Traduits de latin en francois par M Antoine du Pinet. cracht ende werckingghe Dodoens van den cruyden. der Artzney Doctorem. und andern so allein zur Artzney gehorig. 6 and plants. 1. affern und jedem Gifft. Hartzen.

receus. Antoine du Pinet [Lyon] French Les oeuvres divisees en cinq traictez. Kaspar Bauhin Plinii et botanicorumqui a saeculo scripserunt. subreptiliis Joannis Parkinsoni rhapsodiis e codice Lobelius manuscripto insalutato sparsim gravatae. Traduits de latin en francois par M Antoine du Pinet. 6 lxiv .1850.PRINTED BOOKS 1623 Italian Del vero balsamo de gli antichi. Latin Opera. 3 1. Mattioli [Venetia] French Les Commentaires de M P Andre Matthiolus sur les six livres P Mattioli. sive index in Theophrasti. Opus XL annorum hactenus non editum summopere expetitum et ad auctores intelligendos plurimum. Dutch Cruydeboeck in den welcken die gheheele historie dat es Rembert tgheslacht. maer oock [Antwerpen] van den anderen vremden in der medecijnen oorboorlijck … ghesfelt. Medico de Julio III Pont Max. Latin Pinax theatri botanici. 4. 7 1. Commentario sopra l’historia di Dioscoride. French Les Commentaires de M P Andre Matthiolus sur les six livres de Pedacius Dioscoride Anazarbeen de la matiere medicinale. omnia. 5.509. 3 3 3 1. volgens seine laeste verheteringe. opera: plantarum circiter sex millium ab ipsis exhibitarum nomina cum earundem synonymiis et differentiis methodice secundum earum et genera et species proponens. German Kreuterbuch des hochgelehrten und weitberuhmten Hr D Petri Andreae Matthioli. Giovanni Pona [Venetia] Kaspar Bauhin [Basiliae] 1. e s’esclude ogn’altro licore abbacciato sotto il nome di balsamo. tfatsoen.509. nei quale si prova. auch nutzlichen Artzneyen und andern guten Stucken zun andern Mal aus sondrem Fleiss gemehrtund gefertig durch Joachimum Camararium. Les commentaires sur Jacques & Dioscoride. Plurimas elaborantes inauditas Matthias plantas. Plinii et botanicorumqui a saeculo scripserunt. quae exstant. 1.5984.210 1627 1628 1628 1636 1644 1645 1655 1655 1671 1674 P Mattioli. 5. naem natuere. 3.1851 1. Paul Contant [Poictiers] French Les divers exercices de Jacques et Paul Contant pere et fils.5550 1. Paul Contant maistres apoticaires de la ville de Poictiers.2345. Traducido de lengua griega en la Laguna vulgar castellana y illustrado con claras y substantiales 7th ed annotationes y con las figuras de innumeras plantas [Valencia] exquisitas y raras por el Doctor Andres de Laguna. opera: [Basiliae] plantarum circiter sex millium ab ipsis exhibitarum nomina cum earundem synonymiis et differentiis methodice secundum earum et genera et species proponens. 7 1626 Mattioli. Spanish Pedacio Dioscorides Anazarbeo Acerca de la materia medicinal Andres de y de los venenos mortiferos. pour servir de commentaire aus simples ascriptz dans son poesme intitule: le second Eden. Dioscoridis. jetzt wiederumb mit vielen schonen newen Figuren.5990. [Londini] Latin Pinax theatri botanici. sive index in Theophrasti. Opus XL annorum hactenus non editum summopere expetitum et ad auctores intelligendos plurimum.7261 1623 1. Camerarium 5th ed [Frankfurt am Mayn] 1. niet alleen hier te lande wassende. de Pedacius Dioscoride Anazarbeen de la matiere medicinale. augmentez et mis en bon ordre par le dit Paul. Italian I discorsi di M Pietro Andrea Matthiolo ne I sei libri della Pierandrea materia medicinale di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo. 3 1. adjectis in margine variis graeci textus lectionibus ex Bauhino antiquissimis codicibus desumtis. Dioscoridis. Pinet [Lyon] Latin Stirpium illustrationes. cracht ende werckingghe Dodoens van den cruyden. Antoine du Traduits de latin en francois par M Antoine du Pinet.2313. 3. der loblichen Reichsstatt Nurnberg Medicum. qui Dioscoridis depravatam [Basileae] lectionem restituunt: nunc a Casparo Bauhino post diversarum editionum collationeminfinitis locis aucti. che solo l’opobalsamo arabico e il legitimo.177 1. hoc est: Commentarii in sex Pierandrea libros Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de medica materia. Mattioli.332. ou sont esclaircis [Poictiers] et resouldz plusiers doudtes qui se rencontrent en quelques chapitres de Diosocride et qui ont travaille plusiers interpretes composez par le dit Jacques et recuillies.

jetzt wiederumb mit vielen schonen newen Figuren. Latin & Botanologia medica. Spanish Pedacio Dioscorides Anazarbeo Acerca de la materia medicinal y de los venenos mortiferos. 3 1. 1. Kurse anweisung. Latin Petri Andrea Matthioli opera. Traducido de lengua griega en la vulgar castellana y illustrado con claras y substantiales annotationes y con las figuras de innumeras plantas exquisitas y raras por el Doctor Andres de Laguna. Traducido de lengua griega en la Laguna 11th ed vulgar castellana y illustrado con claras y substantiales [Madrid] annotationes y con las figuras de innumeras plantas exquisitas y raras por el Doctor Andres de Laguna. 2 1. com aussi d’un traité de chymie en abregé pour l’analyse tant des vegetaux que de quelques animaux et mineraux.2313 1. revuë. medecin seinois. French Les Commentaires de M.Lusitan 1. Bauhin 11th ed [Basileae] Mattioli. Traducido de lengua griega en la vulgar castellana y illustrado con claras y substantiales annotationes y con las figuras de innumeras plantas exquisitas y raras por el Doctor Andres de Laguna.5990.5991. Medico de Julio III Pont Max. par en Docteur en medecine. nutzen. De morbo et obitu Valerii Cordi epistola Hieronymi Schreiberi Norimbergensis.2313 1. Matthioli 10th ed [Madrid] Pierandrea Mattioli 12th ed [Basileae] 1. P. wie diejenigen krauter und gewachse. quae exstant omnia. nunc a Casparo Bauhino post diversarum editionum collationem infinitis locis aucti. 3 Andres de Laguna 9th ed [Madrid] 1. Traduits de latin en françois par Antoine du Pinet: et enriches de nouveau d’un nombre considerable de figures. Camerarium 6th ed [Frankfurt am Mayn] Pierandrea Mattioli. Apologia in Amatum Lusitanum. German Kreuterbuch des hochgelehrten und weitberuhmten Hr D Petri Andreae Matthioli. Medico de Julio III Pont Max. Acerca de la materia medicinal y de los venenos mortiferos. auch nutzlichen Artzneyen und andern guten Stucken zun andern Mal aus sondrem Fleiss gemehrtund gefertig durch Joachimum Camararium. Spanish Pedacio Dioscorides Anazarbeo Acerca de la materia medicinal y de los venenos mortiferos. 1.2313 Bartholomaeus Zorn [Berlin] Laguna. Schreiberi. André Matthiole. Apologia adversus Amatum Lusitanum cum censura in ejusdem enarrationes. hoc 58 est: commentarii in sex libros Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de medica materia.. et augmentez tant de plusiers remedes à diverses sortes de maladies. adjectis in margine variis graeci textus lectionibus ex antiquissimus codicibus desumtis. Traducido de lengua griega en la vulgar castellana y illustrado con claras y substantiales annotationes y con las figuras de innumeras plantas exquisitas y raras por el Doctor Andres de Laguna. Latin Stirpium descriptionis liber quintus.. hoc 58 est: commentarii in sex libros Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de medica materia. seu dilucida et brevis manuductio ad German plantarum et stirpium . quae exstant omnia.5985 1752 Cordus. sur les six livres de la matière medicinale de Pedacius Dioscoride Anazarbeen.angewend. Crucigeri [Norimbergae] Spanish Pedacio Dioscorides Anazarbeo Acerca de la materia medicinal Andres de y de los venenos mortiferos. Apologia in Amatum Lusitanum. in officinis pharmaceutis usitatarum. Mattioli.10506 1. der loblichen Reichsstatt Nurnberg Medicum.5985 um.. Medico de Julio III Pont Max. Lusitanum [Basileae] Andres de Laguna 8th ed [Valencia] Mattioli. corrigée et mise dans un meilleur language avec deux tables latine et françoise.1885. adjectis in margine variis graeci textus lectionibus ex antiquissimus codicibus desumtis.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1674 Latin Petri Andrea Matthioli opera. Antoine du Pinet [Lyon] 3 1674 Latin 1677 1678 1680 1695 1714 1733 1744 1751 Spanish Pedacio Dioscorides Anazarbeo. welze in der artzney gebrauchlich und in den apotheken befindlich. Medico de Julio III Pont Max. qua in Italia sibi visas describit in praecedentibus vel omnino intatas vel non poluit.2313 lxv . Derniere edition. nunc a Casparo Bauhino post diversarum editionum collationem infinitis locis aucti.

D L Oskamp. 6 volumes]. Abbildungen von German arzneigewachsen. 3 1. Abbildungen von German arzneigewachsen. 3 vols [the critical Greek text]. quas in provinciis aut insulis Graeciae invenit Johannes Sibthorp . quas vir idem clarissimus.45 8.. J C Krauss [Amsterdam] John Sibthorp. 1. Leiden] Max Wellmann [Berlin] Max Wellmann [Berlin] Scatone de Vries [Leiden] John Goodyer. 2nd ed [Barcelona] 7 lxvi . ed M Wellmann. Batavorum. Spanish La version arabe de la ‘Materia medica’ de Dioscorides (texto. Latin cur. James E Smith [Londini] John Sibthorp. Hic illic etiam insertae supauculae species. 2 vols. J C Krauss [Nurnberg] Johann Zorn. 5.2297.2316 8.1830 Latin quinque. 4.PRINTED BOOKS 1779 -1784 Latin & Icones plantarum medicinalium.5993.13. 2. Scatone de Vries.968. nunc Vindobonensis.10507. 8. [10 volumes] Catalogus plantarum ad septem varias editiones commentariorum Mathioli in Dioscoridem ad Linnaeani systematis regulas elaboravit. Latin Pedanii Dioscuridis Anazarbei de materia medica libri VII accedunt Nicandri et Eutecni opuscula medica.1813 1806 Latin . Characteres et synonyma omnium cum annotationibus elaboravit Jacobus Edvardus Smith.8660. K M v Sternberg [Pragae] Curtius Sprengel [Lipsiae] 1. 1906 -1914 1906 -1907 1906 1934 Greek Greek Pedanii Dioscuridis Anazarbei de materia medica libri quinque. quas in provinciis aut insulis Graeciae legit. Estudio de la transcripcion de los nombres griegos al arabe y comparacion de las versiones griega. R T Gunther [Oxford] Pierpont Morgan [Paris] 1. varias addidit lectiones.10507 1794 Latin & . 3 1. 1935 1957 Cesar E Dubler and Elias Teres. Photographic edition. CE.8957. interpretationem emendavit. 1. volume 2 of 6 volumes.27 Greek & Codex Vindobonensis in codices graeci et latini: Facsimile. et interpretum priscorum textum recensuit. arabe y castellana. Johann Zorn. 6 Mattioli. Flora graeca: sive plantarum rariorum historia. 1906 Latin Dioskurides. 1844 Italian Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo libri cincqe della historia et materia medicinale tradotti in lingua volgare italiana da M Pietro Andrea Mattioli (Matthiolo?) Sanese Medico. in itinere praesertim apud ltaliam et Siciliam. Ad fidem codicum manuscriptorum.19 9.639 1806 Latin . Gr. variantes e indices). Thomae Phillipps Angli nunc inter Thesauros PM Bibliothecae asservatus. it venerit. D L Oskamp. J C Krauss [Nurnberg] Johann Zorn. La materia medica de Dioscorides Transmision medieval y renacentista (1953-1959). 4.1840 1821 Czech Florae graecae Prodromus: sive plantarum omnium enumeratio. et Dottissime annotationi et censure del medesimo interprete.1801 Dutch Afbeeldingen der artseny-gewassen met derzelver Nederduitscher en Latynsche beschryvingen. 1.14 3. In Dubler. Codex Aniciae Julianae picturis illustratus.8659.App12 7. Iphototypice editus. Die schrift des Dioskurides: Π ε ρ ι α π λ ω ν φ α ρ µ α κ ω ν … Mattioli. James E Smith [Londini] 1. commentario illustravit Curtius Sprengel. investigavit et depingi curavit Johannes Sibthorp. D L Oskamp.. 3 1784 -1790 Latin & Icones plantarum medicinalium. Med. [5 volumes]. Codex Constantinopolitanus saeculo X exaratus et Picturis olim Manuelis Eugenici Caroli Rinuccini Florentini. Zweite auflage [enlarged. Giuseppe Moretti [Milano] Julius Berendes [Stuttgart] Josef von Karabacek [Lugduni. 2 1829 Greek & Pedanii Dioscoridis Anazarbei de materia medica libri . Prefaces by A de Premerstein. Englished by John Goodyer AD1655. 2. volume 10. 2. 2 volumes. English The Greek herbal of Dioscorides. 8.13 9. et commenti. illustrated by a Byzantine AD512. Karl Wessely and Josef Mantuani. Con amplissimi Discorsi. 7 7 7. Graeciam verso navigans. editionis Aldinae principis usquequaque neglectae. [6 volumes]. 1902 German Des Pedianos Dioskurides aus Anazarbos arzneimittellehre in funf buchern…ubersetzt…von J Berendes [plant identifications annot].

Jackson. Singer. 5. L’Art Ancien. Englished by John Goodyer AD1655. 3 Dioskurides Facsimile [Graz] [Barcelona] 10 TA Osbaldeston. Pittsburgh 1958. Stanford University Press. 5 vols. Hafner Publishing Company. An indexed version in modern English. Stanford 1983. Robert Wolfe. colour facsimile. 7 1965 -1970 1968 Greek Latin 1970 2000 Spanish El Dioscorides Renovado English Dioscorides de materia medica. Herbals of five centuries. New York 1970. The list of printed books uses the spelling found in the first reference consulted for each entry. reprint [New York] Codex Vindobonensis medicus Graecus I der Osterreichischen Hans Gerstinger Nationalbibliothek. Volume I. J. The Horticultural Society of New York. (complete facsimile edition of the Vienna Dioskurides). I vol commentary. Pamphlets. 3. in Journal of Hellenic Studies. RPA Wood [Johannesburg] NOTE: SPELLING At the time most of the abovementioned books were written spelling tended to be variable. 'The herbal in antiquity and its transmission to later ages'. facsimile of 1881 edition. pp1-52 & 10 col plates. translated by Werner Bodenheimer and A Rosenthal. Anderson. Guide to the Literature of Botany. Kent. Claus. vol 47. Quinby.App12.. London 1927. The Lindley Library. New York 1912. SH. Nissen. EC. (Graz) Codex Aniciae Julianae picturis illustratis 512 . Olten. The Hunt Botanical Library. Catalogue of Botanical Books in The Collection of Rachel McMasters Miller Hunt. Munich. Printed Books 1481-1900. Thesaurus Literaturae Botanicae. Johnston. Greene. 1958. The Cleveland Herbal. Manuscripts and Drawings. Zurich. Charles Joseph. being a herbal with many other materials written in Greek in the first century of the common era. An illustrated history of the herbals. Printed Books 1477-1700. edited and first RT Gunther printed AD1933. The Horticultural Society of New York. Hall. 7 3. Columbia University Press. The Kent State University Press.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1959 English The Greek herbal of Dioscorides. Catalogue of Books. Spelling of proper names depended upon the language used. The Royal Horticultural Society. 2 volumes. 1927. Ohio 1992.. GA. lxvii . pre-1830 works. illustrated by a Byzantine John Goodyer. Edward Lee. Leipzig 1872. BD. New York 1964. Frank J. Botanical. Parts I-III. References for printed books 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Pritzel. Brockhaus. Weiss-Hesse. Landmarks of Botanical History. AD512. and Horticultural Collections.

Malis Doris and Ozolian Locris to the east. ADRIATIC COAST — the sea between Italy. The people are descended from Illyrians and Thracians. ADRIA — a town in Italy between Ravenna and Venice. the Copaic Basin is in the north. Africa was regarded as all of the African continent bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Turkey. a large bay on the south Levant coast and main port for Galilee. and Aenis. one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. west of the Canopic mouth of the Nile River. Sometimes indicating Aethiopia (Abyssinia). named after the Egyptian town. on the shore of the Palus Maeotis (Sea of Azov). Yugoslavia and Albania. AEGIS AETOLIA — Aegae (Vergina) is a town in north Pieria overlooking the coastal plain of Macedonia. AFRICAN — originally this was the coastal plain of today’s Tunisia. the Ismenian Plain in the south. a portion of the Mediterranean. Thebes. a part of the Seleucid Empire. Yugoslavia is to the north and northeast. in the SARMATIAN (country) — the Agari were a Scythian people of Sarmatia Europaea. In Dioscorides’ time Scythia was the country south of the Danube delta in modern Romania now called the Dobruja. with the city of Andros on its west coast and the port of Gaurion for a harbour. AMINAEAN — Aminios was the name of a rivulet near the hill city of Thonika. Aetolia (Aitolia). Attica is to the south. Boeotia. to the Carpathians and the Dinarics. Italy. ALEXANDRIA — an Egyptian seaport on the Mediterranean. They were skilled in medicine. Pontus was on the southern shore of the Black Sea. It was first occupied by the Ionians. At the height of the Roman Empire. ANDROS ISLAND — a large island of the Cyclades group in the Aegean Sea. at the mouths of the river Po. is a city in Umbria. AFRICA. in Parassia. where it connects to the Ionian Sea. and the Adriatic Sea is on the west. and in 1832 became a Greek territory. northwest of Cairo. lay north of the Gulf of Corinth. ADRIATIC. the Hauran and Damascus. near Iskenderun. with Arcarnania to the west. is its main city. AMELUM — Amelia. a hill in Cilicia — the Amanus-Lebanon Mountains. Valeriana rigida from ENGLER-PRANTL — 1897 lxviii . with Palermo to the northwest. Sarmatia. in southern Russia between the Caucasus and the Danube. is now called Scythia. its original site protected by Pharos Island and the Pharos lighthouse. seat of the Roman prefecture of Egypt. AMANUS. known as Ptolemais to the Romans. AGRIGENTO — a city and province of southern Sicily. is a district of Greece to the northeast of Corinth. Dolopians in the north. or Ameria. ALPS — a mountain range in Europe from the Apennines of the Italian Peninsula. in BOEOTIA — Haliartus was an ancient town in Boeotia on the South of Lake Copais. ALBANIA — the smallest country of the Balkan Peninsula in southeast Europe. Numidia being inland.GAZETTEER OF DIOSCORIDES’ WORLD GAZETTEER OF DIOSCORIDES’ WORLD ACREAS — Acre in Israel. divided from Euboea by the Doro Channel. AGARIA. Used to indicate habitat rather than position at times. in the northeast Mediterranean Levant. After 395CE the northern province of the diocese of Thrace in Greece was called Scythia. a federation of rural cantons in west-central Greece. from the Gulfs of Trieste and Venice in the northwest to the Strait of Otranto in the southeast. Greece to the south and southeast. ALIARTUS. Its inhabitants were the Scythae or Scythians.

ARGURITIDI — Argura in Thessaly. now a ruin near the coast of the Adriatic Sea in Albania. a former Corinthian colony. ATTIC — the area around Athens in central Greece. from south of the Sea of Marmara to the Bithynian Mount Olympus (Ulu Dag). near EPIDAMNUS — Apollonia. then the border goes southwest through Palmyra to Damascus. ARMENIA — an area including the centre of Russian Transcaucasia and Turkish Armenia. reputedly the ‘magic isles’ of the Hesperides. ASTYPALAEA — Astypalaea or Astipalaia (Astipalea) is one of the fifty Greek islands of the Dodecanese in the Aegean Sea off the coast of southwest Asia Minor. ATHENIAN — the most important city of ancient Greece. BITHYNIA — a territory in northwest Asia Minor. ASCALON — a city in Philistia. the peninsula between the Gulf of Euboea and the Saronic Gulf. a town in Phocis. lxix . was a city of Pelasgiotis. southeast to the tip of the Salentine Peninsula. west to Mysia. Also a town in Thessaly. and Parnis to the north. ATHINAI. and the Megarid to the southwest. Babylon. Turkey and Syria. ASIA MINOR — the westernmost peninsula of Asia. called Arabia Petraea. APULIA — an Italian district on the lower Adriatic coast from the Monte Gargano Promontory. Tunis and Tripoli. Iraq north of the Euphrates includes most of Babylonia and Assyria. an archipelago of fifteen islands. belonging to Spain. BARBARIAN — primitive alien. south of Baghdad. with Boeotia to the northwest. SUMER — Babylonia occupied the Tigris-Euphrates plain from modern Baghdad in the northwest to the Persian Gulf in the southeast. Akkad. including the modern states of Morocco. means Rocky Arabia. not Greek or Aryan. BABYLONIA. the surrounding mountains are Hymettus to the east. ARABIA PETRAEA — Arabia is the peninsula of the southwest portion of Asia. and that to the northwest. BESSIAN — the Bessians were a fierce and powerful Thracian people living on Mount Halmus as far as Euxene. The northwest. Its old semitic name was Bab-ilu. its modern neighbours would be Iran. ATTICA. BALEARES — the Balearic islands in the western Mediterranean. To the north flows the Euphrates to Dar az-Zur. now part of Israel. to the south and west the plain opens on the Saronic Gulf. ARCADIA — an elevated plateau surrounded by mountains in the Peloponnesos to the south of Greece. APOLLONIA. ASIA — the largest continent. and the west is part of India. ARABIA. north of this was Epidamnus. BENGAL — a flat area drained by the extensive Ganges-Brahmaputra river systems from the foothills of the Himalayas to the coast of the Bay of Bengal. Roman poets considered Arcadian shepherds an ideal of virtue and innocence. ‘gate of God’. the ancient capital of Babylonia.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK ANTICYRA — more anciently Anticirra. also known as Anatolia. BABYLON. which became Babel in Hebrew. ATHENS. In ancient times Armenia included eight Turkish districts (vilayets). foreigner. Assyria was north of Babylon along the upper Tigris and the Great and Little Zab rivers. on the Spercheus River. ASSYRIA. was on the banks of the Euphrates River. its harbour on the Crissaean gulf was called Cyparissus. Today the east is Bangladesh. and south to the Gulf of Aqaba. Phrygians and Cimmerians. Previously the area to the southeast was Sumer. The populace were Khaldians. and east to Herakleia Pontica and Paphlagonia. Greece. Babylon had entered its long decline well before the time of Dioscorides. another Corinthian colony. and possibly Homer’s Argissa. part of modern Turkey. Algiers. on the Plain of Attica. Pentelikon to the northeast. Barbary is the region of north Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic coast.

The mainland now belongs to Turkey. CANOPUS — Canobus. CELTIC — Celtae. BUNI – The Buni were the race of the Liburni. CENTURIPINUM — an ancient town of the Siculi in Sicily at the foot of Mount Aetna. five small islands off the promontory Heira or Chelidonia on the south coast of Lycia. later called Illyrians. Used for people of northern and western Europe who were not Iberian. meaning ‘new town’. Moschic. BOEOTICAN — a district of Greece to the northeast of Corinth. still spoken in areas of Wales and Ireland. Mount Vesuvius is on the coastal plain.GAZETTEER OF DIOSCORIDES’ WORLD BOEOTIA. Canopus. In the time of Dioscorides it was part of the Roman province of Syria-Cilicia-Phoenice. the most remarkable at the mouth of the Tigris River. Bruttius. called Qart hahasht in Semitic. CILICIA (near Gentias in Cilicia) — a region of southeast Asia Minor between Pamphylia and Syria. and Lycia and Phrygia to the east. BRUTIA — Bruttium. CARTHAGO NOVA. BOSPORUS — a strait connecting the northeast Black Sea with the southwest Sea of Marmara. was named after the goddess Io. home to Celtic tribes. with the Garigliano River to the north and the Gulf of Policastro to the south. Thebes. with the Aegean Sea to the south and southwest. The great highway of Asia Minor passed through the coastal province of Cilicia Trachea and the inland plain Cilicia Pedias. Tunis is situated almost on the city of ancient Carthage. and Nola is a city on the plain. the greatest Carthaginian stronghold in Spain. It is twenty miles long. Celtic is an Indo-European language. with turbulent water and strong conflicting currents. Attica forms the southern border. Also known as Little Armenia. or Caucasus. CHIOS (Isle of). is the southern extremity of Italy. It separates European Turkey and Istanbul from Asiatic Turkey and Uskudar. Coraxic. on the northeast coast of the Adriatic. originally the Phoenician colony of Tyre. the Copaic Basin is to the north. on the east coast of modern Tunisia. later the Germans were considered distinct. Cartagena. the peninsula between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. Khios on the east coast is the capital. The Taurus and Antitaurus mountain ranges are in the southeast. CAMPANIA around NOLA — this is an area on the west coast of the Italian peninsula along the Tyrrhenian Sea. NEW CARTHAGE. CARTAGENA — city and nation. the Ismenian Plain to the south. named after the Egyptian town. Galli. CHIAN [from Scios in the Aegean sea] — a Greek island in the Aegean Sea near the central west coast of Asia Minor. It is now known as Voiotia. CHALCIS — a town on the Greek island of Euboea. It extends inland to the Apennines. is its primary city. Ager Campanus was the plain behind Naples. CELTS. on the road from Catana to Panormus. The northern part became Pontus (qv). Bruttiorum ager. CAPPADOCIA — a region in Asia Minor between Lake Tatta and the Euphrates. Ionia and Lydia to the north. CHELIDONIA — Chelidonia insulae. Bosporus meaning ‘ox ford’. Amazonian. This port has a beautiful natural harbour. and including the islands of Rhodes and Cos. It was settled by Ionians. and Tunisia is essentially the territory of Carthage. CHALCEDON — a town in northwest Asia Minor on Bithynia. CHARACIAN — Charax was the name given to several small cities. it is lxx . an important city on the coast of lower Egypt near the western mouth of the Nile. originally military stations. Galatae. dwelling between the Arsa and the Tityus River. CARIA — an ancient country in southwest Asia Minor. BRITTANY — the Armorican peninsula of northwest France on the Atlantic coast. also Brutii. is southeast of Madrid in Spain. CARTHAGE. from the coast to Mount Taurus. CERAUNIAN MOUNTAINS — also known as the Taurus. Caspian.

Asia Minor. and the Mediterranean Sea. partly Turkish. hosted the most famous oracle of ancient Greece. COMAGENO — Commagene is the northeast district of Syria. CORINTH — a Greek town on the Isthmus of Corinth which separates Peloponnesos from the rest of Greece. with nocturnal dancing and wild bacchanalean orgies. one of the Sporades Islands. a Greek island in the Aegean Sea off the southwest coast of Caria in Asia Minor. DAMASCUS — capital of Syria and of the province of Damascus (Esh Sham or Dimashq in Arabic) in southwest Syria. COLCHIDICEN. Tinos. the centre for the school of medicine founded by Hippocrates.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK now part of Turkey. CYRENE — chief population centre of Cyrenaica. south of the Turkish province of Cilicia. south of the Caucasus Mountains. Italy. Mykonos and Santorini (Thera). between Siphnos and Melos. EGYPT — a country at the northeast part of Africa. Kos. COLCHOS — Colchis. The Corycean cave was dedicated to Pan and the Nymphs. southeast of Beirut. CYZICUM. the Sudan. CO — possibly Cos. DACIA — the Transylvanian plateau with the Danube River and the Carpathian mountains to the east and south. who spoke a Latin dialect eventuating in Romanian. on the Barada River and the eastern side of the Anti-Lebanon Mountains. is on the Black Sea in Georgia. a small town in Phocis on Parnassus near Delphi. one of the Cyclades. the Red Sea. CYPRIAN — a large island in the eastern Mediterranean. CYCLADEAN ISLANDS — a large group of islands in the Aegean sea off the southeast coast of Greece. mostly Greek. on the southern shore of Propontis (Sea of Marmara). Today it is Pozzuoli. Scythians from south Russia. Lebanon. CRETE. DICAEARCHIA — founded by Greeks from Samos as Dikaiarchia. Larger islands include Naxos. settled by Dorians from the Argolid northwest of the Peloponnesus Peninsula. CYPRUS. The Cilician Gates (Kulak Bughaz in Turkish). on a promontory in the Gulf of Pozzuoli. COLCHIS. lxxi . or Argentiere. to gather gold particles. Celts. Siros. in the delta of the Phasis River (Rioni). KIKLADHES. Kimolos. a pass through the Taurus Mountains. south of Athens and the Dardanelles Straits (see Mount Ida). Cos. and named Puteoli by the Romans. Occupied by Thracians. CRETAN — the largest Greek island in the Aegean Sea. CUMAE — city in Campania. an island in the Agean Sea. Dacia is today the northwest portion of Bulgaria. CYPRIOTE. surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. Up to the 1930’s. now named Vaniis. with a circular distribution around Delos. one of the first permanent cities in the Middle East. and Libya. CYZICENIAN — Cyzicus was a Greek city in Phrygia. Gentias is otherwise unknown. CORYCIA — on the slopes of Mount Parnassus. Paros. now central Romania. Italy. CIMOLIA — Cimolis. Campania. one of the Sporades Islands. CYPARISSIAN — Cyparissus. COLOPHON — a town in Ionia. CYCLADES. near the Corinthian Gulf. west of Naples. CYRENAICA — the northeast province of Libya. Israel. CRETA. fleece were gilded by pegging out sheepskins in the rivers originating in the Caucasus. Asia Minor. Andros. Jason and the Argonauts undertook the voyage from Iolcus in Thessaly (Volos) in 1280BCE to search for the Golden Fleece at Colchis. inland from the port of Apollonia. connects Konya in the Anatolian Plateau with Tarsus and Adana in the Cilician Plain. a city in Naples province. COON — possibly Coos. north of Ephesus and south of Smyrna. and others. Cimolos. and part of the Greek kingdom of Syria.

and even earlier Umbilicus Siciliae. on the river ANIGRUS — Anigrus was a small river in the Triphylian Elis. and the source of gagate. five small islands in the Mediterranean off the coast of Gallia Narbonensis and east of Massilia. the STOECHADES — Stoechades Insulae. a territory in northwest Italy. Elis was not in Achaea. including most of northern and western Europe and the British Isles. To the north are Albania. from the Dead Sea to the Sea of Galilee. noted for its foul smell and healing powers. HELICON — the Helicon (Elikon Oros) is a mountain in Boeotia. a city in the province of the same name. and the Netherlands. THUSCANS. was here. lxxii . an empire in northeast Africa founded by Semitic immigrants from southern Arabia. Pontus on the east and the remainder of Phrygia to the west. south of Achaea and north of Messenia. a portion of Phrygia with Bithynia and Paphlagonia to the north. GAUL. in the northeast the Maritsa River separates western Greek Thrace and eastern Turkish Thrace. HELIS. parts of Germany. At one time their influence extended across the Apennines to the foothills of the Alps. They were possibly Lydian settlers who merged with local Umbrians. and Bulgaria. and Hypaea. TYRRHENIA. GALATIA. EPHESIAN — a city in Asia Minor settled by Ionians. Mese. See Elis. with its coastline along the Sicilian Sea. GALLIA near the Alps. The Temple of Artemis and its successor the Temple of Diana. GALLICA — Gallia was used before the time of Julius Caesar to indicate all the land inhabited by the Galli or Celtae. Transalpine or Farther Gaul included modern France. at the mouth of the Cayster River. The Tyrrhenian Sea is part of the Mediterranean. and Tusci or Etrusci to the Romans. in Sicily — Enna. Mediterranean. river mouth — Gagae. then flowing over the Hindustan Plain to the Bay of Bengal. Cisalpine or Hither Gaul was the Po valley area in Italy GANGES RIVER. and Etruria’s western boundary. ETHIOPIA — also known as Abyssinia or Aethiopia. south of the Himalayas. The Etruscans were Tyrrhenians to the Greeks. GALLIA. in classical Greece. GAGAS. near Mount Parnassus and the Parnes Mountains (Pateras Oros). and Ionian Seas surround the rest of the mainland. stone. Achaea is a province south of the Gulf of Corinth. Balearic Islands. one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Belgium. and south to Naples and Rome. and the islands of the Ionian Sea. now Evvoi. GREEK — the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula (except for some Turkish islands). The Aegean. It has the highest elevation of any Sicilian city. the great holy river of India. the Aegean archipelago. GALATIA. south of Palermo and west of Catania. The second largest Aegean island. near Messalia. is a province and capital city in central Sicily. a town on the coast of Lycia. EPHESUS. ERETRIA — a city in the Greek province of Euboea. ETRURIA. Old names included Prote. had Cispadane Gaul to the north. EUBOEA — an island on the east central coast of the Greek peninsula. with Boeotia and Attica to the south on the Gulf. east of the Jordan River. formerly called Castrogiovanni. Spain. GREECE. north of the Gulf of Corinth. in ACHAIA — Elis. east of Myra. TUSCANY — Etruria. India — rising in Uttar Pradesh. islands of. ENNA. and Latium to the south.GAZETTEER OF DIOSCORIDES’ WORLD ELIS. Lycaonia and Cappadocia to the south. Macedonia. was west of Arcadia. Umbria to the east. Switzerland. HETRURIA. It was settled by Gallic or Gallo-Graeci tribes. GYMNESIAN ISLES. GILEAD — a mountainous region of Transjordan. called BALEARES — see Baleares. The Etruscans were incorporated into Rome. in Asia — region of Asia Minor. south of Smyrna (now Izmir). north of the Euboean Gulf. or jet.

INDIA – separated from the rest of Asia by the Himalayan Mountains. ILLYRIA — an ancient country to the east of the Adriatic Sea. IONIA — on the west coast of Asia Minor along the Aegean Sea between Mysia and Caria. China. LATINS. south of the Mediterranean. and Caystrus the central valley. LIMNOS — an island of the Greek Archipelago in the Aegean Sea. and Greeks settled in the south. Lesbian means from Lesbos. Chad. spoken in Spain and southern Gaul as far north as the Garonne River. To the north are Iran. east of Uskudar and northwest of Ankara. By the time of Dioscorides the Romans had conquered all of Italy. with Lydia to the east. the — the Jewish people. JUDEA — a division of Palestine under the Romans who later integrated it with Syria. Its two coastal provinces are the ancient Cyrenaica (qv) and Tripolitania. Afghanistan. or PSILORITI – the highest mountain in Crete. The plains south of the Tiber River (Latium) were settled by Latins. a town on the Black Sea coast of northwest Turkey. Ancient Italy was south of this. with Scodra (Shkoder in Albania) its principal city. both part of the Roman Empire. to the north it is edged by the Alps of France. KISSAS — Cissus. Etruscans from Asia Minor or the Orient arrived on the Tuscan coast. Montenegro. Switzerland. near the Maeander river. LACEDAEMONIA — Lacedaemon was the Eurotas Valley. may be related to modern Basque. Libya. modern Eregli is built on the site. eventually making Judaea and Samaria the unified province of Palestina Prima. a town in Macedonia on the mountain of the same name. ISTRIA. ITALIA — a peninsula extending from the European continent southward into the Mediterranean. ISTRUS — a peninsula at the northern end of the Adriatic Sea. LIBYA (AFRICA) — Libya is a state in north Africa. The Iberian language. JUDAEA. Algeria and Tunisia as neighbours. Also the name of the city formerly called Bambyce. and the Arabian Sea. from the Adriatic to the Mediterranean. in due course becoming Rome. ISIACI. The original Illyrian people were called Histri because the region was drained by the Hister (Danube) River. Africa was sometimes used to indicate Cyrenaica. Theophrastus was born at Eresus on this island. or the lands beyond. Uzbekistan. also called Mitilini after its main town. the Indian Ocean. occupied by the Lacedaemonians. and Tripolitania by the Phoenicians. the Indian subcontinent includes Pakistan and Bangladesh. Cyrenaica was settled by the Greeks. Only Trieste is still Italian. IDA. now mainly part of Croatia. of Pontus (Heracleotia) — properly called Heraclea Pontica. and the Maeander valley in the south. To the south lie the Bay of Bengal. LATINI — the Italici tribe who settled Latium. and north of Sicilian Italy. the highest peak being Monte Maggiore. was the chief city of Laconia. Illyria was known as Dalmatia in Roman times. ITALY. situated on the Acropolis hill on the west bank of the Eurotas River. lxxiii . HIERAPOLIS — a city of Great Phrygia. Ancient Sparta. in the southeast Peloponnesos. Herzegovina. and Yugoslavia. the area includes areas of modern Albania. Bhutan and Myanmar. It was founded by Ionians. Niger. the territory south of the Tiber River among the Alban Hills where the city of Rome developed. Nepal. between the Chalcidice (Khalkidike) peninsula in northern Greece and Turkey. in the northeast of Syria. The earliest settlers may have been Italici Aryans from the north. Austria and Slovenia. the valley of Hermus in the north. the Sudan. a Greek island in the Aegean Sea near the west coast of Asia Minor. IBERIA — the Iberian Peninsula is today occupied by Spain and Portugal. destroyed by the Romans in the Mithridatic wars (88-66BCE). LEMNOS. with the Adriatic Sea on the east. divided from the mainland by the Monti della Vena. with Egypt. LESBOS — now Lesvos.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK HERACLEA.

and Pamphylia on the east. in the HELLESPONT. MELOS — an island in the Cyclades group in the Aegean Sea. The Apennine mountain range extends along the Italian peninsula. and magic. LIGURIAN ALPS. LUCANIAN — an area of southern Italy. and the main river and city are Xanthus. MEDIA — a kingdom in northwest Persia ruled by the Medes or Madai tribes originally from southern Russia. MEGARA — capital of Megaris. astrology. or Aiguptos in Greek. Aeolus was the mythical king of the winds. France. now Messinia. MEMPHIS. Median territory lay from Susiana in southern Persia to the Halys River in central Asia Minor. MASSALEOTICA — possibly Massalia. a hill bordering the Alps – Liguria is a region of Italy along the north shore of the Gulf of Genoa (Ligurian Sea) up to the Maritime Alps and the Ligurian Apennines. now Milos or Milo. east of Jidda. south of Arcadia and Sciritis. its port on the Red Sea. forming the watershed for the entire peninsula. LIPARA — the Lipari (Aeolian) islands are an archipelago of seven islands and ten islets off the northeast coast of Sicily. By the time of Dioscorides it included the area of Macedonia within today’s Greece. In Dioscorides’ time the name was used for those claiming occult powers of Babylonian or Oriental origin. Bulgaria and Macedonia. its main city is Genova. the Taurus mountain range is prominent. on the west bank of the Tigris River. Massilae. northward to the Ofanto River. MAGNESIA. MESSENIA — an area in the Peloponnesus. south of Cairo across the River Nile. west of Laconiia. LYCIA — a district on the south Mediterranean coast of Asia Minor with Caria on the west. Memphis cannot be traced in Arcadia. opposite the island of Salamis. MACEDONIA. near Smyrna (Izmir) on the Aegean Sea coast. northwest of Baghdad in the region formerly called Assyria. to the west are the Lucanian Apennines. Phrygia and Pisidia on the north. LUCANIA. is the capital of a vilayet in west central Turkey. See Magi. and gently on the north to the Po Valley. Massilia. The Egyptian name was Men-nefer. lxxiv .GAZETTEER OF DIOSCORIDES’ WORLD LIGURIA. on the APENNINE. north of the Sea of Crete and the island of Crete. on the Caicus River. Macedonia was originally only the area between Lake Kastoria and the Haliocmon (Aliakmon) River. Asia — Mysia was the northwest province of Asia Minor with Pergamum the capital city. and by the river HALIOCMON — the south of the Balkan peninsula includes Greece. with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Hellespont (Dardanelles) on the northwest. in Arcadia — Memphis was the capital of ancient Egypt. with the Gulf of Taranto in the Ionian Sea and the Gulf of Policastro on the Tyrrhenian Sea. or Memphis in Greek. MAGI — the Magi tribe of MEDIA. near Athens. in the Hermus (Gediz) River Valley. forming the Gulf of Messinia in the Mediterranean. The Hellespont is the narrow strait from the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. LIPARIS. now called Basilicata. MOSUL — the second largest city of Iraq. a class of Zoroastrian (qv) priests in ancient Media and Persia reputed to possess supernatural powers. ancient Nineveh is east of Mosul on the east of the Tigris River. its great God. MECCA — one of the twin capitals of Saudi Arabia. now Marseille. See Media. on the west coast of the Arabian Peninsula. MELIA — Meliani was an inland Chaonian town in southern Albania. The department Arcadia (qv) lies in the the Peloponnesus in southern Greece. being specialists in divination from dreams. north of La Spezia (Magra River) sloping steeply to the Ligurian Sea. The Ligurian Apennines stretch from Bocchetta dell’ Altare west of Savona (Bormida River) to La Cisa Pass. its Aramaic name was Hesna ‘Ebraya. MYSIA. Its sacred name Hikuptah indicated house of the ka (genius) of Ptah. See Caria. in Caria — Magnesia ad Sipylum now called Manisa.

OSTHANES — Ostha was a city of the Indian people. east of Palestine (Israel). in Judaea — a city in Jordan. in LYDIA — Philadelphia was ‘the city of the open door’ in Lydia on the great trade route from Susa. OSTRACEAN — Ostra.e. Lydia was an area in central Asia Minor with Sardis as its capital. its provinces Arcadia and Argolis included the towns of Sparta and Olympia. OLYMPUS. east of Carcassonne near the Mediterranean. and now Iran. now Peloponnesos. the edge of the Abyssinian Plateau. then into the extensive Nile Delta below Cairo. PERGA — important ancient city of Pamphylia between the rivers Catarrhactes and Cestrus. the first Roman colony in Gaul. now Cartagena. it is a city in southern France in the department of Aude. NAXOS. the Siramnai (Rhamnai). on a little island northeast of Attalia. PERSIA — the southwest Asian country. and the Gulf of Aqaba. the Sudanese plain. NISYRUS — a small island in the Carpathian Sea near the Triopium promontory of Caria. called Carthago Nova by the Romans. the Nubian Desert. in the Mediterranean Sea. with the narrow Isthmus of Corinth joining it to Attica. site of the Olympic games. Asia Minor. in Syria — Palmyra i. and Gaza on the Mediterranean Sea. Babylonia and Assyria preceded it. promontory near Syracuse — the cape on the southeast tip of Sicily. PAMPHYLIA — a narrow strip of the south coast of Asia Minor between Lycia and Cilicia. NILE RIVER — the world’s longest river. PARIAN — one of the larger islands of the Cyclades group south of the Greek mainland in the Aegean Sea. a town in Umbria in the territory of the Senones. PARNASSUS — a mountain in the Pindus range in Greece north of the Gulf of Corinth. and into the Mediterrannean Sea. the Red Sea hills. original home of the Aryan race. surrounded by Syria. in Spain — a port on the Mediterranean Sea in the province of Murcia in southeast Spain southeast of Madrid. capital of the Nabataeans. its Arabic name Tadmor. its farthest source being the Kagera River near Lake Tanganyika. NEW CARTHAGE.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK NABATAEA (in Arabia) — a kingdom in the Middle East in the northwest of the Arabian Peninsula. is the site of the Corycian Grotto. PETRA. The Persian Empire of ancient times extended from Egypt to the Indus River. NARBONA. named Narbona in the time of Dioscorides. a Libyan limestone trough in Egypt. the most famous being the Greek Olympus Thessalus in north Thessaly. mountain in Lycia — a number of mountains in Greece. now called Jordan. Saudi Arabia. NAXIAN — the largest island of the Cyclades group. in the territory of Phocis. palm city. a magnificent natural harbour. PACHYNUM. Olympus Bithynus at Uludag near Bursa in northwest Turkey. east through Sardis and Philadelphia to Ephesus on the Aegean Sea. See Carthage. a people of Arabic background. a Greek archipelago in the south Aegean Sea. Ostranes. See Lycia. capital of Persia. Asia Minor and Cyprus were named Olympus. and for a period the Greek states lxxv . PELOPONNESUS — the mainland peninsula of Greece south of the Gulfs of Corinth and Patrai. Iraq. the town and Temple of Delphi were on its southern side. PALMYRA. is an oasis northeast of Damascus. It flows along the Rift Valley. PAROS. and Olympus in Lycia. The Mesopotamian civilizations of Sumeria. Mount Lycorea. situated halfway between the port of Ezion-geber in the Gulf of Aqaba. bordering on Pisidia. now Narbonne. PHILADELPHIA. near Spain — first called Narbo Martius. Gallia Narbonensis indicated all of southern France in Roman times. one of its twin peaks. south of Syracuse.

Beirut and Byblos. and later the Romans. SARDINIA — Sardi is Sardinia. SARDONIS. an ancient province of Asia Minor. northeast of Florence near the Adriatic Sea. PITYUSA. the Viminal. The seven hills of Rome are the Capitoline. PROPONTIS. ROME. an island near Spain — two islands off the south coast of Spain and west of the Baleares. the Caelian. SARACENIAN. lxxvi . northeast of Smyrna (Izmir). Pamphylia occupied the coastal area to the southeast of Pisidia. SALAMINE. lay east of Caria. SAMIA — a town of Elis in the district Triphylia. PUTEOLI — see Dicaearchia. west of Cilicia and north of Lycia and Pamphylia. SAMPHARITICI — Sampha was a town in Phonecia. a small Pelasgian colony at the foot of Mount Olympus in Greece. in PAMPHYLIA — Pisidia. PHOLOE — a mountain forming the boundary between Arcadia and Elis. SARACEN — Saracen was a Graeco-Roman name for the nomadic peoples of the Syrian and Arabian deserts. See Galatia. Sidon. and Ophiussa (Formentera). but its political power had waned long before the time of Dioscorides. PSOPHIS. initially a ford across the Tiber between Etruria and Latium. RAVENNA. the Arabs. See Sardis. SANTONICUM in Sardonis — the Santoni or Santones were a celtic people. was physician to Mithridates VI of Pontus. RHODES – the largest island in the Greek Dodecanese or Sporades archipelago. south of Olympia. a large island in the Mediterranean. south of Phrygia. Trading posts established by the Phoenicians included Carthage in north Africa and Cadiz in Spain. in the Aegean Sea close to Turkey. part of the Mediterranean on the west and south of Sardinia. its capital city of Rhodes was the site of the Colossus of Rhodes. the Quirinal. PLAGIOPOLIS — possibly Placia. its capital Gordion on the Sangarios River was taken by the Cimmerians in the seventh century BCE. RED SEA — a narrow sea separating Africa and Arabia. in Galatia — Sardoum or Sardonicum mare. Asia Minor. PONTUS. Italy — a province and the capital in Emilia-Romagna in northeastern Italy. the main independent city-states were Tyre. west of the Italian peninsula and south of Corsica. and divides Europe from Asia. between Lepreum and the Alpheus. the Esquiline. See Sardonis. The herbalist Crateaus. originally called Phegia. ROMAN — capital of the Roman Empire and now of Italy. SAMOTHRACIA — a Greek island in the north Aegean Sea. SARDIA.GAZETTEER OF DIOSCORIDES’ WORLD on the coast of Asia Minor and much of the interior of Phrygia came under Lydian control. whose beautiful drawings illustrate the Codex Vindobonensis of Dioscorides. first colonized by Phoenicians. Phoenicia had been added to the Roman province of Syria. in the valley of the Hermus (Gediz) River. PISIDIA. near the Gulf of Saros in Thrace. one of the seven wonders of antiquity. in Cyprus — a Cyprian city in the middle of the east coast. PHRYGIA — the western Anatolian Plateau of central Asia Minor. the Aventine and the Palatine. in Arcadia — a town in the northwest of Arcadia on the river Erymanthus. See Philadelphia. PHOENICIA — a district on the Syrian coast inhabited by Semitic traders called Phoenicians. then Carthaginians. now called Samothraki. PONTIC — an ancient kingdom in northeast Asia Minor on the south shore of the Black Sea as far as the Halys River. north of the river Pediaeus. By the time of Dioscorides. PNIGITIS — Ecclesia (Pnyx) means place of assembly. Rome is surrounded by the plains of the Campagna. SARDIS — capital city of Lydia. called Ebusus (Ivisa). around the island Besbicum — a small sea which unites the Euxine and Aegean Seas. at the north base of Mount Tmolus. between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba. in central Italy on the Tiber River. SAMOTHRACE.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK
SCIOS, in the Aegean Sea — see Chios. SCYTHIA, near the river PONTUS — In

Dioscorides’ time Scythia was the country south of the Danube delta in modern Romania now called the Dobruja. Its inhabitants were the Scythae or Scythians. After 395CE the northern province of the diocese of Thrace in Greece was called Scythia. Pontus was on the southern shore of the Black Sea. SELEUCIA, near Syria — Seleucia-on-Tigris in Mesopotamia was the capital of the Syrian Seleucid Empire, at one time stretching from Asia Minor to north India; the Romans divided Seleucid Syria into three kingdoms, and established several Roman provinces including Seleucid Mesopotamia. SELINUS, SELINUSIAN — a Greek city, now in ruins, near Castelvetrano on the southwest coast of Sicily. SICILIA, SICILY, AGRIGENTINES — a Mediterranean island near the southwest tip of the Italian peninsula, with the Straits of Messina separating it from Italy, and Tunisia in the southwest. Sicily was Rome’s first colony. Agrigento is a province of Sicily. SICYONIA — a small district in the northeast of Peloponnesus, surrounded by Corinth, Achaia, Phlius, Cleonae, and the Corinthian gulf. SIDON — a port on the Mediterranean in southwest Lebanon, south of Beirut and north of Tyre. SINOPE — now the city of Sinop in Turkey, on the southern shore of the Euxine Sea (Black Sea). SMYRNA — a major port in Turkey now called Izmir, on the Aegean coast of Ionia, Asia Minor. SOLIS, a hill — Solois, Mons Solis, a promontory on the southwest coast of Mauretania. SPAIN – a country in southwest Europe occupying most of the Iberian Peninsula, surrounded by the Bay of Biscay, the Pyrenees Mountains, France, the Mediterranean, the Straits of Gibraltar, Portugal, and the Atlantic Ocean; called Hispaniae by the Romans. STOECHADES — see Galatia, Islands of. SYRIA — Greater Syria stretched from the Taurus Mountains to the Sinai Desert, including modern Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and parts of Turkey and Iraq. TAPHOSIRIS, in Egypt — a city of lower Egypt, on the northwest frontier, in the Lybia Nomos, near Alexandria. TARENTUM, TARANTO — founded by Spartans as Taras, a city and province in Apulia, southeast Italy, in the Gulf of Taranto. TAURUS MOUNTAINS, in Cappadocia — part of the Alpine mountain system of Eurasia stretching from the Greek Pindus Mountains to the Iranian Zagros Mountains. See Cappadocia. THABANA, GALILEE — Thabor, Tabor, or Atabyrium, an isolated mountain east of the plain of Esdraelon in Galilee. Galilee in Palestine (Israel), west of the River Jordan, stretches from Haifa and the Plain of Esdraelon, to Lebanon. It was a Roman tetrarchate ruled by the Herods. THAPSUS, an island — a city on the east coast of Sicily on a peninsula of the same name. Also a city on the east coast of Byzacena, in Africa Propria. THASSOS, THASIAN — an island in the north Aegean Sea off the coast of Thrace (Greek Macedonia), across the Thassos Straits from Neapolis (Kavala) on the mainland, now called Thasos. THEBES, in Egypt (THEBAN, THEBAICAN) – the Egyptian city of Waset, later called Thebes by the Greeks, after their own Thebes in Boeotia, it lies on the banks of the Nile River south of Cairo. THESSALY, THESSALIA, near the river Peneus — Thessaly was part of ancient Greece on the east coast, surrounded by Macedonia, Epirus, Doris, Locris and the Aegean Sea. The Peneus River (Pineios), rising in the Pindus Mountains to the west, flows through Larissa and Tempe into the Thermaic Gulf in the Aegean Sea. THRACE, by the river Strimon, THRACIAN — Thrace (now Macedonian Greece) is the ancient name of the Balkan area south of the Danube River,
lxxvii

GAZETTEER OF DIOSCORIDES’ WORLD

west of the Black Sea, east of the Strimon River and north of the Aegean Sea. The Strimon River (also called Strymon, and now Strum), rising in the mountains of western Bulgaria, flows south through Thrace to the Gulf of Strimon in the Aegean Sea. THUSCAN — see Etruria. TMOLUS, a hill in Libya near MAURETANIA — Tmolus is a mountain near Sardis, capital city of Lydia in Asia Minor, northeast of Smyrna (now Izmur). Mauretania, the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana, named after Tingis (Tangier), included northwest modern Morocco and west Algeria (Numidia). It was later extended to the Bou Regreg River at Sale, with its capital the city of Volubilis. See Sardis. TRALLES — flourishing merchant city in Asia Minor on the south foot of Mount Messogis, on the River Eudon. Also called Anthea, Seleucia, and Antiochia. There was also a city called Tralles in Phrygia. TROY, TROJAN — a settlement in Asia Minor three miles inland on the northwest Aegean coast, near the mouth of the Hellespont. Also called Ilios, Ilion, or Ilium, it was the site of the Trojan War. Nine settlements were built in turn upon the ruins of former settlements, but it lost imprtance with the growth of Constantinople. TYRRHENIA — see Etruria. VESTINUM, VESTIN MOUNTAINS — the Vestini were a Sabellian people living in central Italy between the Appenines and the Adriatic Sea, near the rivers Matrius and Aternus. ZACYNTHUS — the most southerly Greek island in the Ionian Sea, ten miles west of Elis in the Peloponnesos, also called Zante or Zakinthos, and settled in ancient times by Arcadians. ZOROASTRIAN, ZOROASTRES — also called Mazdaism, a religion founded in the eighth or seventh century BCE by a reformer of the Iranian religion. He was known as Zarathushtra (in Greek, Zoroaster).

Arum maculatum from BRUNFELS — 1530

lxxviii

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

BOOK ONE: AROMATICS
1-1. IRIS
SUGGESTED: Iris

germanica [Fuchs, Brunfels, Linnaeus] Iris vulgaris Germanica sive sylvestris [Bauhin] — German Iris, Blue Flower de Luce, Flowering Ring
PROFESSIONAL USE ONLY

I

ris is named because of its resemblance to the rainbow in heaven. It bears leaves like little daggers but bigger, broader and fatter [or thicker]: the flowers on the stalk are bent in one over against another and have varied colours for they are white, pale, black, purple or azure [blue]. It is because of the variety of colours that it is compared to the heavenly rainbow. The roots underneath are knotty and strong [or sound] with a sweet taste. These when cut should be dried in the shade and stored with a linen thread put through them. The best is from Illyria and Macedonia and the best of these has a thick stumpy root, hard to break, of a faint yellow colour with an especially good scent and very bitter to the taste. It has a sound smell and does not incline to nastiness or cause sneezing when pounded. The second is from Libya. It is white in colour, bitter to the taste, next in strength (to the former), and when these grow old they are worm-eaten yet then they smell even sweeter. They are all warming and reduce the intensity of symptoms. They are suitable against coughs and reduce the intensity of thick mucus that is hard to get up. Seven teaspoonfuls of a decoction (taken as a drink in honey water) purge thick mucus and bile. They also cause sleep, provoke tears, and heal suffering in the bowels. Taken as a drink with vinegar they help those bitten by venomous creatures, the splenetic, those troubled with convulsive fits or chilled and stiff with cold, and those who drop their food. Taken in a drink with wine they bring out the menstrual flow. A decoction of them is suitable for women’s warm packs that soften and open their private places; for sciatica (taken as an infusion); for fistulas, and all sores and wounds that it fills up with flesh. Applied as an eye salve with honey they draw out particles. Chewed
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BOOK ONE: AROMATICS

and applied as a poultice they soften swellings and old hard swellings, and dried they fill up ulcers and clean them. With honey they fill up bare bones with flesh. They are good for headaches applied as a poultice with vinegar and rosaceum [1-53]. Daubed on with white hellebore and twice as much honey they clean off freckles and sunburn. They are also mixed with suppositories, warm compresses and fatigue removers, and in general they are of considerable use. This is also called iris illyrica, thelpida, urania, catharon, or thaumastos; the Romans call it radix marica, some, gladiolus, others, opertritis or consecratrix, and the Egyptians call it nar.

1-2. AKORON
SUGGESTED: Acorum

officinarum, Gladiolus luteus [Fuchs, Brunfels], Acorus adulterinus [Bauhin], Iris pseudacorus [Linnaeus] — Yellow Flag, Water Flag

[other usage] Acorus calamus, Acorus aromaticus, Acorus odoratus — Sweet Flag, Sweet Sedge, Myrtle Sedge
see 1-17, 1-114 — calamus

A

corum has leaves which resemble those of iris very much only narrower, and the roots are similar only one wrapped in the other, not growing downward but sidelong in the upper part of the earth. They are sharp to the taste, distinguished by pale white knots, and not unpleasant to smell. The best is thick and white, not worm-eaten, full and fragrant. Root such as this comes from Colchis and from Galatia and is called asplenium. The root is heating and a decoction of it (taken as a drink) causes an urge to urinate. It is good for pain of the rectum, chest and liver; and for griping, hernia and convulsions. It reduces the spleen, and it helps those sick with dripping mucus, and those poisoned by animal bites. It is effective in a hip bath like iris for female problems. The juice of the root cleans off things that darken the pupils of the eyes. The root of it is also effective mixed with antidotes. It is also called chorus, aphrodisia or the mariner’s root; the Romans call it venerea, and the Gauls call it the pepper of bees, piper apum.

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THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Iris germanica after FAGUET — 1891

3

BOOK ONE: AROMATICS

Gladiolus luteus, Acorus vulgaris after FUCHS — 1545

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THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

1-3. MEON
SUGGESTED: Daucus

creticus, Tordylon, Seseli creticum [Fuchs], Athemanta meum [Linnaeus], Aethusa meum, Meum athemanticum [in Sprague], Athemanticum meum, Seseli meum — Bald-money, Meu, Spignel, Bear Root
see 3-63

he meum which is called athamanticum grows abundantly in Macedonia and Spain, and is similar in the stalk and leaves to anethum [3-67], but thicker than anethum, sometimes rising up to two feet, scattered underneath with thin, winding, straight, long roots, smelling sweet and warming the tongue. The roots (boiled with water or pounded smooth [or fine] without boiling and taken in a drink) lessen pains caused by obstructions around the bladder and kidneys. They are good for urinary difficulties, a gas-filled stomach, griping, diseases of the womb and pain in the joints. Pounded into small pieces with honey and taken as syrup they help a rheumatic chest; boiled for a hip bath they draw out the blood of the menstrual flow. Applied as a plaster to the lower part of children’s bellies they induce the movement of urine. If more of a decoction than is suitable is taken as a drink it causes a headache.

T

1-4. KUPEIROS
SUGGESTED: Cyperus [Fuchs], Cyperus

odoratus radice longa, Cyperus officinarum [Bauhin], Cyperus longus [Linnaeus] Cyperus esculentis, Cyperus officinalis, Cyperus olivaris, Cyperus radicosus, Cyperus hydra — Yellow Nutsedge, Earth Almond, Edible Cyperus, Rush Nut

yperus has leaves like porrum [2-179] but longer and more slender; and a stalk of a foot high or higher with corners like juncus odoratus [4-52, 1-16] on the top of which there emerge little leaves and seed. Use has been made of the roots of this for as long as the use of the olive. They lie underneath, adhering together — round, black, smelling good, bitter. It grows in clay or shale places as well as marshy. The best is heaviest — thick, full, hard to break, rough with a particular sharpness, such as the Silician and Syrian, and that from the Cycladean Islands.
5

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BOOK ONE: AROMATICS

It is warming, dilates the narrow openings of blood vessels and is diuretic. A decoction (taken as a drink) helps those troubled with stones [urinary, kidney] and dropsy and also those bitten by scorpions. Applied as a warm pack it is good for chills of the vulva and its obstruction, drawing down the menstrual flow. Dried and pounded to powder it is good for an ulcerous mouth, even though the ulcers are erosive. It is mixed with warm compresses for heating, and is effective for thickening ointments. Some speak also of another kind of cyperus, like ginger, which grows in India, which when chewed is found to taste bitter like saffron. Applied as an ointment it presently removes hair [depilatory]. The Romans call it the root of the bulrush, others the bulrush. Some call cyperus, as well as aspalathus [1-19], by the name of erysisceptrum.

1-5. KARDAMOMON
SUGGESTED: Amomum cardamom —
see 1-14

Cardamom

T

he best cardamomum is brought out of Comagene, Armenia and Bosporus. It grows too in India and Arabia. Choose that which is hard to break, full, tightly shut (for that which is not is out of date), and which also has an offensive smell, and is sharp to the taste and somewhat bitter. A decoction (taken as a drink with water) is able to heat. It is good for those who have illness comitralis [possibly from comites — veins, arteries adjacent to nerves — mitralism — lesions on the heart], coughs, sciatica, paralysis, hernias, convulsions and griping, and it expels rectal worms. Taken as a drink with wine it is good for those who have defective kidneys and difficulty meiendi [urination]. It is also good for one who has been stricken by a scorpion and for all those hurt by the venom of other creatures. A teaspoonful (taken as a drink with bark from the roots of bay) breaks stones [kidney, urinary]. Taken as inhalations of smoke or fumes it is an abortifacient, and daubed on with vinegar it takes away parasitic skin diseases. It is also mixed in thick ointments and other antidotes.
6

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Cyperus after FUCHS — 1545

7

BOOK ONE: AROMATICS

Phu vulgare after FUCHS — 1545

8

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

1-6. NARDOS
Phu vulgare [Fuchs], Valeriana sylvestris major [Bauhin], Valeriana officinalis [Linnaeus] — Valerian [Mabberley] Jatamansi, Nardostachys jatamansi, Valeriana spica, Valeriana jatamansi — Nardus, Spikenard, Indian Valerian, Nard
Valeriana officinalis after THIEBAULT — 1881

SUGGESTED: Phu germanicum, Valeriana vulgaris,

here are two kinds of nardus. The one is called Indian, the other Syrian. Not that it is found in Syria, but because one part of the mountain where it grows turns towards Syria and the other towards India. Of that which is called Syrian the best is new, smooth, full of filaments, a yellow colour, very fragrant, and resembles cyprus [1-124] in the smell. It has a short ear, a bitter taste, and is very drying to the tongue, its sweet smell lasting a long time. Of the Indian, one kind is called Gangetic from a certain river named Ganges running by the hill where it grows. It is somewhat weaker in strength because it comes out of watery places. It is higher and has more ears coming out of the same root, both full of filaments, and one wrapped in the other, with a poisonous smell. That which grows more on the hill is a great deal sweeter, short-eared, resembling cyprus [1-124] in the sweetness of its smell, and having other qualities in it, like that which is surnamed the Syrian nardus. There is also another kind of nardus called Sampharitic from the name of the place — very little, yet great-eared, with a white stalk sometimes growing in the middle, very much like the smell of a goat in scent. This ought utterly to be refused. It is also sold infused which fault is found out as follows: that the ear of it is white, withered, and with down on it. They adulterate it by blowing stibium [trisulphide of antimony or black antimony] with water or date wine into it to make it denser, and so that it may be heavier. When you are to use it, if any dirt sticks to the roots of it you are to take it off and sift it, separating the dust, which is good to make washing water for the hands. The roots are warming, drying and uretic, as a result (taken as a drink) they stop the bowels. Applied they stop discharges of the womb and the whites [leucorrhoea, a mucosal vaginal discharge]. A decoction (taken as a drink with cold water) helps nausea and stomach rosiones
9

T

BOOK ONE: AROMATICS

[gnawing corrosion], those troubled with wind, sickness of the liver or head, and painful kidneys. Boiled in water and given either as a warm pack or hip bath they heal inflammation of the vulva. They are good for superfluous fluids of the eyelids, drying and thickening them. For moist bodies a sprinkling is effective to take away the smell of sweat. They are mixed with antidotes. Ground smooth and made into balls with wine, they are stored for eye medicines in a new jar, which has not been smeared with pitch.

1-7. NARDOS KELTIKE
SUGGESTED: Valeriana

celticus, Nardus celticus — Celtic Spikenard, Celtic Valerian

he Celtic nard grows on the Alps of Liguria in that country called Gallica. It also grows in Istria. It is a little short shrub that is gathered together with the roots and made up into hand bundles. It has somewhat long leaves of a pale yellow with a yellow flower. Use is only made of the stalks and roots and the sweet smell is only from them. As a result (having the day before sprinkled the bindings with water and taken off the earthy stuff), you ought to lay them in a more moist ground (having first laid paper under them), and the next day you ought to make them clean again, together with the chaff and strange stuff, for that which is good in it is not taken away by the strength of the moisture. This herb is often counterfeited by another herb like it gathered together with it which because of the poisonous smell that it has they call the goat, but the difference is easily known for this herb is without a stalk, whiter, and with shorter leaves, neither has it a bitter or sweet-smelling root as in the true nardus. Choose the little stalks and the roots but throw away the leaves. If you will put them in storage you must first have them ground smooth and mixed with wine. Then make them into little balls and keep them in new ceramic bottles, corking them carefully. The best is new, fragrant, full of roots, plump and not easily broken. It is good for the same things as the Syrian but it is more diuretic and better for stomach disorders. Taken as a drink with a decoction of wormwood [3-26] it helps inflammation of
10

T

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Sena after FUCHS — 1545

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BOOK ONE: AROMATICS

Valeriana officinalis after THIEBAULT — 1881

12

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

the liver, jaundice, and gas-filled intestines. In the same way it is good for the spleen, bladder and kidneys, as well as mixed with wine for bites of venomous creatures. It is used in warm compresses, liquid medicines and warming ointments.

1-8. NARDOS OREINE
SUGGESTED: Valeriana

dioica — Marsh Valerian

ountain nardus (which is called thylacitis and nevis by some) grows in Cilicia and Syria. It has stalks and leaves like eryngium but smaller, yet not sharp and prickly. The two or more roots that lie underneath are black and fragrant like asphodelus, but thinner and a great deal smaller. It does not have a stalk, fruit or flower for any long time. The root is good for the same things as the Celtic nardus [1-7].

M

1-9. ASARON
SUGGESTED: Asarum

europaeum — Asarabacca, Cabaret, Wild Nard, Hazelwort
POISONOUS

sarum has leaves like cissus but much thicker and rounder, with a flower between the leaves near the root that is an azure [blue] colour like cytinus [1-127] or hyoscyamus [4-69], in which lies seed like the kernels of grapes. The many roots underneath smell like cinnamon. It loves rough, dry ground. The root of this helps hernia, convulsions, old coughs, difficulty in breathing, and difficulty in urinating. It expels the menstrual flow, and taken as a drink with wine it is good for those poisoned by animal bites. The leaves are astringent, and are applied to help inflammation, pains in the head, new ulcers of the eyes, breasts inflamed after childbearing and erysipela [inflammatory skin disease]. The smell induces sleep. Crateuas the herbalist concurs. Many roots lie underneath — knotty, slender and crooked like grasses, yet a great deal slenderer and smelling good, heating, and biting the tongue considerably. They are diuretic and warming. They cause vomiting and are good for dropsy
13

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BOOK ONE: AROMATICS

and obstinate ischuria [hip pains? — urine retention?], and they bring down the menstrual flow. Six teaspoonfuls of the roots (taken as a drink with honey and water) purge like white hellebore. They are mixed with ointments. It grows on shady mountains and is common in Pontus, Phrygia, Illyricum and Vestinum, Italy. It is also called nardus sylvestris, the Magi call it sanguis martis, the Osthenes, thesa, the Egyptians, cereera, the Romans, perpensa. It is also called baccharis, the Thuscans (or Etruscans) call it succinum, some call it nardus rustica, and the Gauls call it baccar.

1-10. PHOU
SUGGESTED: Phu magnum, Valeriana

maior, Phu verum [Fuchs] Valeriana hortensis [Bauhin] Valeriana phu [Linnaeus], Valeriana dioscorides — Phu, Cretan Spikenard, Garden Valerian

P

hu (which some also call sylvestris nardus [garden nard]) grows in Pontus, and it has leaves much like elaphoboscon [2-182] or hipposelinon [3-78], with a stalk of a foot high or more — smooth, soft, inclining to a purple colour, hollow in the middle and distinguished by knots. The lower parts are somewhat like those of narcissus but bigger, more tender and purple in a pale white. The root in its upper part is about the thickness of the little finger, and it has filaments like juncus odoratus [4-52, 1-16] or veratrum nigrum [4-151] that grow within one another — a pale yellow, pleasantly-scented and resembling nardus in its smell, with a certain poisonous kind of heaviness. Dried and given in drinks it is warming and encourages urine, and a decoction of it may do the same. It is good for a painful rectum, encourages the menstrual flow, and is mixed with antidotes. It is adulterated mixed with the roots of ruscus [4-146] but the knowledge of this is easy — for these are hard, not easily broken and without any good smell.

14

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Phu verum after FUCHS — 1545

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BOOK ONE: AROMATICS

Cinnamomum zeylanicum after FAGUET — 1894

16

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

1-11. MALABATHRON
bicornis — Ling Nut Trapa bispinosa — Singhara Nut Trapa quadrispinosa — Water Chestnut sp Limnantheum indicum, Nymphoides indica — Water Snowflake
SUGGESTED: Trapa

ome imagine malabathrum to be the leaf of the Indian nardus [1-6] (deceived by the similarity of the smell) for there are many things like nardus in smell, such as phu [1-10], asarum and neris [?4-82]. But this is not so for it is a particular herb that grows in the Indian marshes with the leaves swimming on the water like the palustris lens [4-88] in the marshes, with no root. Having gathered it they immediately pierce it through with a linen thread, drying it like this, and preserve it. They say that when the summer heat dries up the water, the earth is burnt along with the shoots of it, and unless this happens it will spring up no more. The best is new and a pale white inclining to blackness, hard to break, sound, biting the nose with its smell, and the sweetness of its smell is longlasting. It is like nardus [1-6] in taste without any taste of salt. That which is weak with a mouldy scent and breaks into small pieces is worthless. It has the same properties as nardus but does everything more forcibly. Malabathrum is more diuretic and better for the stomach. It helps inflammation of the eyes pounded into small pieces, boiled in wine, and rubbed on. It is put under the tongue for sweetness of the breath, and it is put among cloths for it keeps them from moths and scents them sweetly.

S

1-12. KASSIA
acutifolia — True Senna, Alexandrian Senna Cassia fistula — Purging Cassia, Golden Shower, Indian Laburnum Cassia angustifolia — Indian Senna
SUGGESTED: Cassia

here are many kinds of cassia growing around Arabia with stores of aromatic things. It has a twig with a thick bark and leaves like pepper. Choose that which is reddish-yellow, with a good colour, resembling coral — very slender, long and thick, full of tubes, with a biting
17

T

is called achy. and encourages the menstrual flow. drying and gently astringent. and as inhalations of fumes or smoke for dilation of the uterus. It is diuretic. It takes away freckles applied with honey. and for warm compresses. Taken as a drink it helps those bitten by snakes. It is fit for eye medicines that are made for clearing the sight. There is also a certain bastard cassia. and has not a thick reed but is coarse and thin. Reject that which is a pale white. especially fragrant. with slender smooth shoots. aromatic.barked or having it full of chinks — as well as that which is called kitto and dacar. and that formerly spoken of is next to this. Of this choose that which is new. The rest are of no account such as that which is called aphysemon — black and unsightly and thinly. There is also found a broad reed — tender. the most suitable of any for bodily uses. and resembling wine in its smell. but the best is that which they call mosulum because in a way it bears a similarity to that cassia which they call mosulitis. It is very effective for many things. It is good too taken as a drink for all internal inflammation. with a smell like a rose. and the kidneys. The third kind is called mosyleticus blastos. light. If there is no cinnamon at hand then twice as much of this mixed with medicines will do the same things. inclining to a purple and thick. which is found out by its taste that is neither sharp nor aromatic. 1-13. Such. Laurus cinnamomum. and it has bark adhering to the soft internal tissue. For most commonly to discern which is best depends on 18 . by the inhabitants of the country. amazingly similar. and astringent with considerable heat.BOOK ONE: AROMATICS taste. smells like a goat. Persea cinnamomum — Cinnamon Canella alba — Wild Cinnamon T here are many kinds of cinnamon with several names proper to the countries where they grow. inclining to an ash colour like that of wine. black in colour. for women too as hip baths. warming. coarse. and the merchants in Alexandria call it daphnitis Above this is preferred the black kind which is called gizir. full of branches — which is better than the others. full of lasting knots. KINAMOMON SUGGESTED: Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

It is prepared for storage by being pounded into small pieces. dropsy. fungal. not very thin. 4-98] or cardamom. somewhat salty with heat. and its bark is very like red cassia — but it is solid to the touch. with smoothness between the knots. and when broken downy. The fifth sort bites the nose with its smell. but avoid that which is smooth and woody around the root as useless. It is mixed with precious ointments and in general it is effective for many things. 4-116] or else applied. Rubbed on with honey it takes away freckles and sunburn. For that which is the best and the most special has a smell resembling rue [3-52. and with a very sweet taste. There is also woody cinnamon that has long and strong shoots but is much inferior in sweetness of smell. It draws out the menstrual flow and is an abortifacient. shrubby and without many knots. Now all cinnamon is warming. 1-77. heats and thins pus that darkens the pupils. dwarfish. 3-53. And there is a third from Mosul — black. for there are some fragments mixed in. The fourth kind is white. with a faint smell and weak strength. and vile and brittle. softening and digestive. and with a coarse bark. rough.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK the sweetness of its smell. diseases of the kidneys. Test it as follows by taking a shoot from one root (for this trial is easy). cassia or amomum [1-14] is the worst in smell. and furthermore it is sharp and biting to the taste. when rubbed not easily made rough. pushed up to sight. of a very glittering colour. and at the first trial the best gives off a sweet taste and fills the nose with the scent of it and hinders discerning the worst. It is also good against beasts that put out their poison and against deadly poisons [antidote]. There is also a mountain variety — thick. There is another somewhat like it that is called bastard cinnamon — vile. It cleans away. and is diuretic. It is said by some that this xylocinnamomum differs in kind from cinnamon having another nature. and difficult urination. Choose that which is white. put into wine. is reddish-yellow. Of these that which has a smell like frankincense. diuretic. It is good for coughs and mucosal discharges. It is called ginger xylocinnamomum [xylo — wood]. and dried in the shade. 19 . with a great root. with a thick root. having some similarity to cinnamon. taken as a drink with myrrh [1-73. smelling like cassia.

biting to the taste. and those with haemorrhoids in their bowels. It is warming. and it has a little flower like that of the leucoion [3-138] but leaves like bryonia [4-184]. a pale green. That which comes from Pontus is a pale red. It is large. It ripens and dissolves inflammation and scalded sores of the head. It is also good for those stricken by scorpions applied as a poultice with basil. full of fruit. a single and not many colours. Some adulterate amomum with amomis [Amomis pimenta] that is like amomum yet without smell and without fruit. Choose that which is new and white or a faint red. and it is effective for female problems or damage both as suppositories and baths. soft to touch. and sharp. Alpina cardamom — Bastard Cardamom. a pale reddish wood and a very fragrant smell. very fragrant. The liquid medicine (taken as a drink) is good for liver disorders. and full of veins in the wood. resembling origanum in its smell. It grows in Armenia and has a flower like origanum. Elettaria A momum is a little shrub winding out of the wood within itself the same way as racemus [1-49]. Lesser Cardamom Amomum aromaticum [Mabberley] — Bengal Cardamom see 1-5 SUGGESTED: Amomum repens. and it is mixed with antidotes and the most precious ointments. It helps gout. full of seeds like the kernels of grapes. heavy. 20 .BOOK ONE: AROMATICS 1-14. defective kidneys and gout. It causes sleep and relieves pain applied as a poultice to the forehead. not that which is close and adhering together. As a rule to prevent deception avoid the fragments and choose those that have perfect branches out of one root. The best is brought out of Armenia with a good colour. astringent and drying. but that which is loose and diffused. without rottenness or mould. AMOMON cardamomum. and it helps and soothes inflammation of the eyes. clustered. and biting to smell. Because it grows in plain and watery places that from Media is weaker. neither long nor hard to break.

chest conditions and convulsions. but that from Libya is useless. Costus speciosus. next is the Indian — full. It is warming and diuretic. not with a stinking smell but with a biting hot taste. thick. Choose that which is new. KOSTOS arabicus. taken with mead [honey wine] it draws out venom. It is given for gas in the stomach with wine and wormwood [3-26]. It is also mixed in warm compresses and antidotes. Saussurea costus [Mabberley] — Arabian Costus. Kust-root [Bedevian]. white. expels the menstrual flow. smells sweet like a rose when it is rubbed between the hands. full throughout. and full of flowers. and taken in water it draws out worms through the rectum. or as warm packs. not worm-eaten. with a biting smell. light and black like ferula. The best is new. SUGGESTED: Costus he Arabic costus is best — white and light. Costus Root Modern costus is not the same as that known by the ancients — Jaquin. SCHOINOS Rush Juncus conglomeratus. strong. the colour of box. and similarly helps the paralysed. The Arabic is next. and bites the 21 . as irrigations [douches]. and is good for diseases of the uterus applied in suppositories. Juncus effusus — Rushes. T 1-16. with a noticeable pleasant smell. and this is the best. An ointment of it made with oil helps those who have chills from fever before an expected fit. Two ounces (taken in a drink) helps someone bitten by a viper. The difference is easily discerned. Amomum hirsutum. dry. The third is the Syrian — heavy. red. Sweet Rushes Juncus arabicus — Rush. Sea Rush see schoenus 4-52 SUGGESTED: Schoenus incanus — Bog J uncus odoratus grows in Libya and Arabia and in that part of Arabia called Nabataea. Rubbed on with water or honey it takes away sunburn. Some adulterate it by mixing in the strongest roots of commagene [1-27]. is thin. in Loudon. For this helenium neither burns the tongue nor yields a pleasant. biting smell. which when cut or cleft inclines to a purple colour.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-15.

The reed is fibrous. slow and painful urination and hernias.BOOK ONE: AROMATICS tongue with considerable burning. astringent and somewhat sharp. the smoke taken in at the mouth through a funnel. It is mixed with antidotes. As a result it is good for dropsy. thick with knots. liver and kidneys. and mixed with warm compresses and perfumes to make them smell sweeter. boiled either with grapes or seeds of apium [3-77] and taken as a drink. It causes catarrh in the head. It is also called Babylonian [juncus] or teuchitis. but the root is more astringent and therefore is given for a squeamish stomach. defective kidneys. It is boiled for women's baths and infusions. Myrtle Sedge Calamus ciliaris — Indian Palm see 1-2. the reeds and the root. Use the flower. 22 . It has a breaking. The flowers of it used in drink are good for bloody vomiting and a painful stomach. and when broken it falls into many pieces. It helps coughs inhaled either alone or with resin termininthos [1-91]. A decoction of it as a hip bath is most convenient for inflammation around the vulva. Taken as a drink it is able to induce the movement of urine. It is diuretic. somewhat white. Sweet Sedge. 1-17. and dissolving gaseousness. It draws out the menstrual flow taken as a drink and applied. It is mildly astringent. One teaspoonful is good for dropsy and convulsions. digesting and opening strength. Acorus odoratus — Sweet Flag. and slimy to chew. as well as the lungs. KALAMOS EUODES calamus. 1-114 SUGGESTED: Acorus C alamus aromaticus grows in India and the best is reddish-yellow. Acorus aromaticus. and is given for some days with the same amount of pepper. bringing down the menstrual flow.

which may be because it is easily mowed because of its slenderness. similar in size to lycium [1-132] or pyracantha [1-169. The best juice is new. It is prepared in various ways for there are some who mix ointments with it such as termininthos [1-91]. rises up again. Balsamodendron opalobalsamum. heavy. tallness and slenderness. Opobalsamum is the juice exuded by the tree when it is cut with iron nails in the heat of the hottest days. astringent. sweet smelling. 1-170]. goes down to the bottom first. 3-53. But it drops so little that every year they can get no more than six or seven congii [three litre units approximately] of it. or very liquid cyprinum [1-65]. cyprinum [1-65]. easily diffusible. These are easily discerned for if the unmixed is dropped on a woollen cloth and afterwards washed out it makes no stain or spot on it. BALSAMON Balsamodendron gileadense. but that which is counterfeited sticks. Choose that which is yellow. he tree balsamum is noted. Suitable use is made of the fruit too. But in time the pure will also turn thick and test worse than any. somewhat similar in taste to opobalsamum. Amyris gileadensis — Balm of Gilead. with leaves like rue [3-52. full. The pure when put into water or milk is easily diffused and turns like milk. balaninum [1-40. susinum [1-62] or liliaceum [1-62]. with a smell somewhat resembling opobalsamum. pure and not inclining to sweetness. Balm of Mecca Amyris kataf. turning round or diffusing itself like a star. Commiphora opalobalsamum.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-18. smooth. Commiphora kataf. It grows only in Judaea in a certain valley and in Egypt. with filaments. 4-98] but a great deal paler and much more flourishing. dissolving easily. Balsamodendron kataf — Balsam of Kataf SUGGESTED: Opalobalsamum. Varying considerably in ruggedness. the part of the shrub that is thin. From the town Petra a T Balsamodendron opalobalsamum after FAGUET — 1888 23 . and a little biting to the tongue. and a weight of it is sold in that place for double its weight in silver. waxy ointments. 4-160] and metopium [1-71]. Those are deceived who think that it is pure when it is dropped into water. The wood is called xylobalsamum and the best liked is new with slender stalks — red. honey. but that which is counterfeited swims on the top like oil. is called theriston. schininum [1-90]. and afterwards. biting in taste and hot in the mouth. great. with a strong smell. myrsinum [1-48].

and after it has been harvested inclining to a red or a purple colour. With dry iris it is good for wounds in the head. also for those bitten by snakes. woody. and boiled for hip baths it opens the vulva and extracts moisture.BOOK ONE: AROMATICS seed like hypericum [3-171] is brought with which they counterfeit this fruit. and curing abrasions around the vulva applied with waxy ointments and rosaceum [1-53]. It is suitable for women's inhalations in fumes. griping. boiled in wine and gargled. next to that the fruit. Generally the juice of the balsamum has the most strength. is an abortifacient. 4-78]. difficulty in conception. It is mixed for the thickening of ointments. It expels the menstrual flow and the afterbirth. The juice has the most strength as it heats the most. sciatica. and put 24 A . Taken in a drink the fruit is good for pleurisy. Taken as a drink it is a concoction for rejuvenation and moving urine. and rubbed on dissolves chills and the filthy matter of boils. and empty with no strength. thick. epilepsy. vertigo. fragrant. and bitter to the taste. ASPALATHOS SUGGESTED: Aspalathus indica — Indian Aspalathus spalathus is a woody kind of shrub with many prickly thorns — growing in Istrus. asthma. coughs. Syria and Rhodes — which the ointment makers use for thickening their ointments. It is mixed with fatigue removers. and tastes of pepper. it is good for an ulcerated mouth and gangrenous ulceration in the genitals. and it expels urine. It is infused for unclean discharges and fetid nasal discharges. griping. pneumonia. Given with milk it is also good for difficult breathers and those who have taken a drink of aconitum [4-77. It has a heating and astringent quality. You may discover this because it is bigger. It also extracts scaly bones. Boiled in water and taken as a drink it helps in digestion. As a result. There is also another kind of it with scattered bristles or thorns — white. but the wood has the least strength of all. Nisyrus. warm compresses and antidotes. without any smell — which is considered the worst. those bitten by snakes. 1-19. cleaning away things that darken the pupils. The wood has the same virtues the fruit has but to a lesser degree. The best is heavy. and convulsions. and for those bitten by snakes.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Lupus salictarius after FUCHS — 1545 25 .

Crociflores after FUCHS — 1545 26 .BOOK ONE: AROMATICS Crocifolia.

It is found on trees such as cedars. A decoction stops bowels. white poplars or oaks: the best grows on cedar. Indian Aloe Tree. One teaspoonful of the roots (taken in a drink) lessens moist A Aquilaria malaccensis after FAGUET — 1888 27 . and dissolves painful urination and gaseousness. with other ointments for the astringent quality in it. When it is chewed and a decoction of it is gargled up and down in the mouth it causes sweet breath. It is mixed with ointments made for suppositories. Brunfels]. Cynometra agallocha. That which smells sweetest and is white is the best. Calambac Tree Aquilaria malaccensis — Eagle-wood — Agallochum fragrant resinous heartwood gallochum is a kind of wood like thyine wood that is brought out of India and Arabia distinguished by spots of a sweet scent. Humulus lupulus [Linnaeus] — Hops Splachnum and Bryum have been used to name various mosses in modern times [Loudon]. for the preparation of perfumes. and taken as a drink it stops bloody vomiting. next is that which grows on white poplar. or phasganon. somewhat astringent to the taste. The powder sprinkled on the whole body serves to deodorise it. Lupulus mas [Bauhin]. B ryum is sometimes called splanchnon. It is used in perfumes instead of frankincense. 1-21. Bryum is astringent. Aloëxylon agallochum — Agallochum. Lupulus. and bark like soft skin somewhat over-coloured. Used either hot or cold it is good in decoctions made for all those disorders requiring bathing around the vulva. erysisceptron. and some.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK into a pessary it is an abortifacient. the Syrians call it diaxylon. and is put into medicines called acopi [to remove fatigue]. It is also called sphagnon. with some bitterness. BRUON SUGGESTED: Lupus salictarius. 1-20. but that which is black is the worst. AGALLOCHON SUGGESTED: Aquilaria agallocha. Humulus [Fuchs.

There are many ways that the manufacture of it is carried out. Taken as inhalations of fumes or smoke it is good for constriction of the vulva. Icica icicarabica — Gum Elemi Tree ancamum is the oozing of an Arabic tree resembling myrrh [1-77. It is reported to be able to make fat bodies lean — a half teaspoonful taken as a drink with water or vinegar and honey for many consecutive days. 1-22. dysentery and griping. NASKAPHTHON UNKNOWN nasceus — nascor — plants used by women ascaphthum some call narcaphthon and this is also brought out of India. It is good taken as a drink with water for those who have pains of the rectum. Protium icicaraba. which they use as a perfume. for the liver. the same amount of ripe juniper berries. and it quickly takes off scars in the eyes and heals their moisture diluted in wine. They make a perfume with it for their cloths with myrrh and styrax. 4-116]. It is also mixed with antidotes and it is given to the asthmatic in drinks. 1-73. KUPHI Cyphi — a perfume C 28 yphi is the composition of a perfume welcome to the Gods. The priests in Egypt use it abundantly. its weakness and heat. For gums rotten from moisture and toothache it helps as nothing else can do. poisonous to the taste. C 1-24. and put into artificial perfumes. used for a perfume for the sweet smell it has. It is given to the splenetic. KANKAMON SUGGESTED: Amyris ambroisiaca. N 1-23. Take one litre of cyprus [1-124]. . Taken with honey and water it brings down the menstrual flow. epileptic and asthmatic. including the following. It is a bark like the rind of the mulberry tree.BOOK ONE: AROMATICS disorders of the stomach.

Crocus sativus var officinalis [Linnaeus] — Saffron Crocus orycian crocum is the best for bodily use — new and well-coloured. five litres of old wine and one kilo of honey.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK six kilos of stoned plump raisins of the sun. Nevertheless. mix them with these. Crocus sativus [Bauhin]. It causes a good colour. But the Cyrenaican and that from Centuripinum are the weakest in strength of all in Sicily. and it is good taken as a drink with passum [raisin wine] against overindulgence. and let them drink up the liquid for one day. because it is full of juice and well coloured. 1-17. full. alluring in scent and a little sharper. a half kilo each of calamus aromaticus [1-2. aspalathus [1-19] and juncus odoratus [4-52. they in Italy (dying thyine wood with it) do use this. somewhat astringent and diuretic. and for this it is sold at a high rate. for that which is not such is either old or steeped. having somewhat white tendrils. and that from Olympus [a mountain] in Lycia. 29 C . KROKOS SUGGESTED: Croci flores et folia [Fuchs]. somewhat long. For medicine. 4-116]. mix the melted resin carefully with it. The next best after the Corycian comes from that tract of land near Lycia. lithargyrum [5-102] or plumbago [5-100] pounded together with it to make it weigh more. and by the smell of the boiled down new wine it has. It is digestive. softening. It is adulterated with a mixture of crogomagma [1-26] pounded or daubed with sapa [syrup of new wine]. 1-73. colouring the hands. 1-16]. all of them being cultivated like vegetables. having all its parts hard to break. then that from Aegis Aetolia. that which was previously described is more effective. without fat. not decayed or moist. twelve teaspoonfuls of myrrh [1-77. All this is discerned by the dustiness that is found amongst it. and then having pounded all the other things diligently together. Having removed the stones from the raisins pound them and work them together with the wine and myrrh. put them into a clay jar. Afterwards boil the honey until it comes to a glutinous consistency. two and a half kilos of resin (cleaned again). 1-114]. 1-25. Pound and sift the other things.

Inula helenium [Linnaeus]. The root of it (taken in a drink with passum [raisin wine]) causes an urge to urinate. Elecampane SUGGESTED: Elenium. It works against venereal diseases. Inula. They say also that it will kill one if three teaspoonfuls are taken as a drink with water. It has the ability to clean and cleans away things which darken the pupils. with no woodiness in it. and rubbed on it soothes inflammation that accompanies erysipelas [a skin inflammation]. heavy and black. It is effective mixed with drinks that are taken internally. It is diuretic. and the Magi call it sanguis Herculis. The root below is fragrant. like that from Syria. It grows in hilly. somewhat sharp. from which for planting (as in lilies or arum) the most pleasant shoots are taken. Aster helenium. 1-26. KROKOMAGMA SUGGESTED: Crocus sativus var officinalis [Linnaeus] — Saffron Oil Dregs rocomagma is made from oil of saffron. ELENION Enula campania [Fuchs]. Helenium vulgare [Bauhin].BOOK ONE: AROMATICS It stops excessive discharges of the eyes applied with woman’s milk. Inula campana. great. The root is dug up in the 30 H . or cynomorphos. strongly colouring the teeth and tongue and lasting many hours together. Aster officinalis — Common Inula. only sharper and somewhat long. the aromatic part squeezed out and made into lozenges. and it must often be quickly turned. softening. and with suppositories and poultices for the uterus and the perineum. It somewhat resembles the strength of saffron for it is made from this. In some places it puts out no stalks at all. In order to pound it smaller it must be dried in the sun in a hot ceramic jar. yellow underneath. Horse Elder. C 1-27. elenium has narrow leaves like verbascum [4-104]. 4-116]. and which sufficiently diluted is the colour of saffron — smooth. It is also called castor. somewhat resembling the taste of myrrh [1-77. digestive and warming. The best is sweet-smelling. shady and moist places. 1-73. and it is good for inflammations of the ears.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Asarum europaeum after FAGUET — 1888 31 .

BOOK ONE: AROMATICS Cassia fistula after FAGUET — 1888 32 .

One root of it (taken in a drink with wine) is able to help those bitten by snakes. convulsions. medica. being generally warming. hernias. others. The root itself (taken in a syrup with honey) helps coughs. rubus idaeus or verbascum idaeum. It is also called symphyton. A decoction (taken as a drink) induces the movement of urine and the menstrual flow. orestion. the thickness of the little finger. It grows in places bordering on the sea and on hillocks and rocks. asthma. cut and dried. its many leaves around the branches like those of lenticule [?lentil] but longer. It is a herb with branches a foot long spreading on the ground like serpyllum [3-46]. gaseousness. the roots a pale colour. persica. inula campana. The leaves boiled in wine are effectively applied to those who have sciatica.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK summer. and the Egyptians call it lone. cleonia. 1-28. nectarion. The root is good for the stomach preserved in passum [raisin wine]. then steep it in cold water and put it into a decoction they keep in jars for use. ELENION AIGUPTION UNKNOWN C rateuas mentions another helenium that grows in Egypt. Pounded and taken in a drink it is good for bloody excretions. drying it a little and afterwards boiling it. thin below but thicker above. The confectioners. the Romans call it terminalium. with a black rind. Inula helenium after THIEBAULT — 1888 33 . and the bites of venomous creatures.

ELAION KOINON SUGGESTED: Olea europaea — Old Olive Oil hat which is the oldest and most fat is the most fit for bodily uses. A half-pint purges. If there is no old oil at hand.OILS OILS 1-29. Olea lancifola — New Oil from Unripe Olives il from unripe olives is the best to use for health. taken as a drink with the same amount of barley water or with water. Commonly all oil is warming and softens flesh. It is also good for the stomach because it is therapeutic for the bowels. ELAION OMOTRIBES SUGGESTED: Olea europaea. and has a softening strength. T 34 . and boil it until it is the thickness of honey. 4-98] and taken as a drink) are given effectively to those troubled with griping. new oil must be mixed as follows. keeping the body from being easily chilled with cold. Six glassfuls (boiled with rue [3-52. with a sweet smell. This is administered especially for obstruction of the intestines. dulling the strength of ulcerating medicines in mixtures. and it expels worms. Olea sativa. for it is has an equal strength. O 1-30. This is also effective for the preparation of ointments. The best is considered that which is new. not biting. Pour it out into the best jar at hand. but the older oil is more heating and violently dispersing. and when held in the mouth it contracts loose gums. It is good for the digestive system. Then use it. It is given against poisons. making it more ready to perform actions. 3-53. strengthens the teeth and represses sweating. taken immediately and vomited up again. It is a good ointment to sharpen the eyesight.

If it is not (yet white) it must be set out again in the sun and treated until it becomes white. Pour out four and a half litres of new unripe olive oil 35 . ulcers that penetrate the head. and let eight more days pass. having first scattered in eleven teaspoonfuls of the corolla of melilot flowers [3-48] and the same amount of iris. pour it back again with a spoon every day around noon. It is convenient instead of rosaceum [1-53] for headaches. 1-33. ELAION AGRIAS ELAIAS SUGGESTED: Olea sylvestris. It cleans off dandruff. Afterwards. and foam. Olea sylvestris var oleaster — Wild Olive Oil il from the wild olive is more astringent and the second choice for good health. Then on the eighth day steep fifty teaspoonfuls of clean fenugreek in warm water. Olea sativa. Olea lancifola. letting it fall down from on high. ELAION SIKUONION SUGGESTED: Olea europaea. if it is white. pour it out into a new broad-mouthed ceramic jar. Sicyonium — Sicyonian Oil W e may prepare Sicyonian olive oil as follows. so that it may be altered by frequent rolling and beating. Finally. Also add the same weight of pinewood now (as fat as may be and cut into small pieces). Taking oil which is a clear colour and not over a year old. and psoriasis. put it thus softened into the former oil without straining out the water. pour it out into a new jar (first rinsed around with old wine) and store it. Let there be an amount of fifty pints.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-31. O 1-32. ELAION LEUKON To Whiten Oil O il is made white as follows. and it keeps grey hair away for a long time from those who are rubbed with it daily. After this time stir the oil up and down again with a spoon. and stops sweating and hair falling out [alopecia]. parasitic skin diseases. placing it in the sun.

and boil it over a gentle fire stirring softly. 1-35.OILS and the white oil [above] into a broad-mouthed kettle covered with tin. It is somewhat warming. the removal of scaliness. 36 . and are good for splits in the perineum. soften. and for rubbing on joints. Women use it to have a clean skin. and having cooled it. RUPOS GYMNASION Grime from the gymnasium walls he filth on the walls of the gymnasium (or that which is scraped off from statues) warms and dissolves tubercles [growths] that ripen only with difficulty. suitable for fevers and affected nerves. Afterwards add other water. and disperse fluids. 1-34. skim off the oil with a spoon. and old ulcers. and it is helpful for abrasions. add two and a quarter litres of water. applied as a warm compress. This oil is mostly made in Sicyonia and is therefore called sicyonium. 1-36. boil it again. and repeat the procedure. RUPOS PALAISTRA Grime from the wrestling school he dirt or filth from the wrestling school helps the joints. RUPOS Grime from the baths T T T he scrapings which are taken up in public baths are able to heat. When it has boiled up twice take it away from the fire. and then store it.

It warms. Olea sylvestris var oleaster — Wild Olive Oil Elaeagnus angustifolia — Oleaster. ELAIOMELI SUGGESTED: Olea sylvestris. the old oil being best — thick. Ricinis communis [Linnaeus] — Castor Oil Plant. Croton acutus. Take ripe cicinum seeds (as much as you think suitable) and dry them in the sun. Tiglium — Croton tiglium. but this should not disturb us. more thick than honey and sweet in taste. Tiglium officinalis see 4-164 Ricinis communis after FAGUET — 1888 C icinum is prepared as follows. Croton jamalgota. Stearoptene the solid part of a volatile oil. Oil Tree. KIKINON ELAION SUGGESTED: Ricinus [Fuchs]. Oil is also prepared from the fat of the young olive shoots. a region of Syria. and is effective rubbed on for those things that darken the pupils. a camphor. then gathering the flesh or pulp together put it into a mortar. Purging Croton. which (taken as a drink of two cups to one half-pint of water) drives dyspepsia and bilious fluids out through the bowels. Ricinus vulgaris [Bauhin]. and having pounded it carefully put it into a kettle with a tin cover that has water in it. Zakkoum Oil Plant Elaeis guineensis — Oil Palm Elaeomeli [Pliny] — Olea europaea — Manna exuded from the branches of the Olive tree Elaeoptene is the liquid part of a volatile oil. and daubed on is good for leprosy and painful nerves. not cloudy.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-37. Pavana. E 1-38. and 37 . Palma Christi [other usage] Croton Oil Plant. fat. scattering them along as they used to do grapes until the bark that closes them in when broken apart falls off. They are to be kept awake and not allowed to be overcome by too deep a sleep. Those who take it become sluggish and deficient in virility. laeomeli flows out of a certain stem and root of a plant growing in Palmyra.

resonance. The seeds are in season or ripe when they are rid of the small bladders that enfold them. parasitical skin diseases. sunburn. It is effective against womb pains. Afterwards pour a half-pint of water into that which was squeezed out. and obstructions and damage to the uterus. and it also draws out worms. then throwing the grinds into baskets they squeeze it out with a press. Furthermore it removes spots from the face.OILS placing fire underneath. from which time beat it strongly again. After they have picked them they place the seeds into a mill and grind them carefully. asthma and splenitis. This oil of cicinum is good for ulcers that penetrate the head. kidney]. ear problems. and earache. Then press it on a board. and take that which sticks to your fingers into a spoon. stones [urinary. magdalinum oil or metopium is made as follows. When you have removed all the moisture. and tinnitus. make it boil. as well as headaches. Having picked and dried four quarts of bitter almonds beat them gently with a wooden pestle in a mortar until they are pulped. Because the Egyptians use it in great abundance they prepare it differently. Four quarts of seeds make one half-pint of oil. as well as scars faedas [from goring by horned animals]. It helps inflammation of the kidneys. the root of lily and Cyprian rosewax. 38 A . the womb turning around. and allow it to be absorbed. and removes penetrative ulcers and dandruff. squeeze it out. Pour on them one pint of hot water and let them absorb it for half an hour. Mixed with plasters it makes them more effective. inflammation of the perineum. Taken as a drink it draws out watery matter through the bowels. take the kettle from the fire and collect the oil that swims on top with a spoon and bottle it. constriction. and wrinkles on the skin mixed with honey. illness meientes [urination]. and things that darken the same places. With wine it mends moisture of the pupils of the eye. 1-39. ELAION AMYGDALINON SUGGESTED: Amagdalinum — Metopium — Almond Oil — Prunus amygdalus var amara — Bitter Almond RAW SEED OF BITTER ALMOND IS POISONOUS. and repeat as before.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Ricinis communis after FAGUET — 1888 39 .

OILS Raphanus sativus after FUCHS — 1545 40 .

Sesamum orientale. Corylus avellana [Linnaeus] — Hazelnuts B oth sesaminum and caryinum oil which is made from carya kernels are prepared in the same way as those mentioned above. Poured in with goose fat it is good for earache. Dyer’s Oak. Zachum Oil Tree see 4-143.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-40. They have the same strength as balaninum [1-40]. 4-160 Balanites aegyptica after FAGUET — 1875 n the same way oil balaninum is prepared. I 1-41. It is bad for the stomach. Gingili Carya — Juglans regia — Walnuts Nux pontica. Egyptian Balsam. Quercus lusitanica — Acorns from Quercus species — Gall Oak. ELAION SESAMINON KAI KARUINON SUGGESTED: Sesamum indicum. Sesame [seeds]. down on the face. Sesamum oleiferum — Sesame Oil. freckles. and darkening cataracts and it purges the intestines. Terminalia citrina — Hara Nut Tree Quercus infectoria. Gingelly. 41 . BALANINON ELAION SUGGESTED: Myrobalan citrina. Nux avellana. ear resonance and tinnitus. Xymenia aegyptica — Thorn Tree. It has strength to clean spots. Nut Gall Oak Balanites aegyptica.

Then place it in the sun and mix it until it turns black and has a strong smell. . KNIDELAION SUGGESTED: Gnidium. Thymelaea hirsuta — Oil from Grains. 1-44. Carthamus tinctorius [Linnaeus] — Safflower. Crocus hortensis [Fuchs]. Hyoscyamus Hyoscyamus albus — White Henbane. Oil of Henbane POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Hyoscyamus flavus [Fuchs]. having a softening quality. 1-43. and having pounded it steep it in hot water as was previously described in amagdalinum [1-39]. Taken as a drink it is able to loosen the bowels. I 42 n the same way cnicinum is made which has the same uses as the oil from rubbed grain [above] but is somewhat weaker. Saffron Thistle [Mabberley] see 4-119.OILS 1-42. 4-190 SUGGESTED: Cartamus. and is mixed with suppositories. Then. It is good for earaches. Cnicus sativus [Bauhin]. H yosciaminum is prepared as follows. Daphne gnidium. Take dry new white seed. Cnidium. Spurge Flax see 4-173 G nidium is prepared in the same way from rubbings of grains [seeds] that have been pounded and pilled. Seeds of Gnidium. Hen Bell. KNIKELAION Carthamum officinarum. store it. having strained it through a linen cloth and having squeezed it. UOSKUAMINON ELAION Hyoscyamus niger [Linnaeus] — Henbane.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Elenium after FUCHS — 1545 43 .

OILS Castanea vulgaris — Chestnut after FAGUET — 1880 44 .

Nigella arvensis [Linnaeus] POISONOUS M elanthium has the same uses. RAPHANELAION SUGGESTED: Radix. then mixing the oil with it and straining it out together. Leucosinapis officinalis. MELANTHELAION SUGGESTED: Melanthium hortense primum. Nigella angustifolia [Bauhin]. SINAPELAION primum genus [Fuchs]. Sinapis inapinum is prepared by grinding the mustard seed small and steeping it in warm water. Black Cumin Melanthium alterum Damascenum vocatum. 1-46. It is good for diseases of a long duration. Common Cultivated Radish R aphaninum is made from its own seed. drawing out faulty fluids from far within. Radicula [Fuchs. Nigella sativa [Linnaeus] — Common Fennel Flower. 45 S . Raphanus sativus — Radish Seed Oil. as are the rest. Sinapis nigra — Black Mustard Sinapis alba [Linnaeus]. 1-47. Those in Egypt use it. Salad Mustard. boiling it with their sauce. Devil in a Bush Melanthium sylvestre. Cultivated Mustard. and it cleans away rough skin around the face. It is good for those who by some sickness have got psoriasis. Linnaeus]. Nigella hortensis altera [Fuchs].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-45. Brunfels. and is prepared like raphaninum [1-45]. Cuminum sylvestre alterum [Fuchs]. Sinapis sinapioides. Sinapi hortense [Brunfels]. Nigella damascena [Linnaeus] — Love in a Mist. Schwartz Kommich [Fuchs]. Brassica nigra. Brassica alba — White Mustard. Mustard Oil SUGGESTED: Napy.

4-165b yrsinum oil is prepared as follows. Uvularia. joints. then mixing the same amount of unripe olive oil with the juice warm it over coals until it is boiled together. and after this (throwing in the tender leaves of bay) boil them together. green and transparent. and is good for all things that need an astringent or thickening. Daphne-Alexandrina [Brunfels]. 1-16]. Some first thicken oil of unripe olives with cypress. Baslingua — Laurel of Caesar [Mabberley]. pressing out the juice. Laurel. and is oily. and smells of myrtle. Another way is (having laid the leaves in the sun) to steep them in oil. beat them. There are some who add bay berries to 46 L . It is good for burns. Ruscus hypoglossum [Linnaeus]. It represses sweats. There are some thicken the oil first with malicoria (?). cupressus [1-102] and juncus odoratus [4-52. as a result it is effective mixed with medications for hardening. because they send up a certain kind of fat from the husk enclosing them. An easier method of preparation is to boil the tenderest leaves (after they have been pounded) in water and oil. galls (?). which is squeezed out by hand and scooped up in spoons.OILS 1-48. Double Tongue Laurus nobilis — Sweet Bay. spooning up that which floats on top. pimple eruptions. 1-16] and calamus [1-17]. DAPHNELAION SUGGESTED: Laurel Oil — Laurus-Alexandrina [Fuchs]. chapped skin. juncus odoratus [4-52. Ruscus hippoglossum. The most effective oil inclines towards bitterness in its taste. M 1-49. Take the tender leaves of black myrtle (whether wild or planted). dandruff. Horse Tongue. MURSINELAION SUGGESTED: Myrtus communis var romana — Broad-leaved Myrtle see 1-155. and to skim off the oil that swims on the top. and joints loosening. penetrative ulcers in the head. 4-146. Roman Laurel aurinum is made from overripe bay berries (which are ready to fall from the tree) boiled in water. It is astringent and hardening.

The best oil of bay is new and greenish in colour — very bitter and sharp.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK this until it smells enough of bay. softening. earaches. 47 M . and for those troubled with dripping mucus. It is effective mixed with suppositories. opening blood vessels that were shut. some also mix in styrax [1-79] and myrrh [1-77. and for cleaning away spots on the face. Pepper Tree. remedies to remove fatigue. 4-116]. and overcoming exhaustion. and thickened before use. Herb Mastic. Terminthinus — [old English] Termenteyne — Turpentine Tree — Pistacia terebinthus chininum [lentiscinum] is made from ripe berries the same as oil of bay. Oil of Mastic astichinum is made from mastic pounded into small pieces. Pistacia lentiscus. It cools and binds. astringent. Oil of Mastic Schinus molle is now an American genus. Sideroxylon mastichodendron — Mastic Tree. It also stops sweating. The best is compounded in the isle of Chios. Pistacia lentiscus. The best bay for the manufacture of oil is mountainous and broad-leaved. Terminthinos [1-91] is also made the same way. It is good for all infirmities around the tendons. Herb Mastic. Bursera gummifera is now a West Indian tree [Loudon]. It is also good laid on the stomach for hardened swellings. as good as anything else for those with kidneys inflamed because of cold. It is good for disorders in the womb — gently warming. Bursera gummifera. Pepper Tree. and medications for leprosy. for the abdominal cavity and dysentery. 1-50. Taken as a drink it is nauseating. and causing a good colour. Bursera gummifera. 1-73. S Bursera gummifolia after FAGUET — 1878 1-51. It is warming and softening. SCHINELAION SUGGESTED: Schinus molle. Sideroxylon mastichodendron Mastic Tree. It is an excellent ointment. It heals parasitic skin diseases on beasts of burden and dogs [veterinary]. MASTICHELAION SUGGESTED: Schinus molle.

Yet this is not observed in some ointments because of the prevalence of stronger ingredients. Rosa rubra [Bauhin]. Then throwing the strained roses in a small washing jar pour on them eight pounds and five ounces of the thickened oil and strain them out again. Take five pounds eight ounces of juncus odoratus [4-52. This method of judgement is the best. put a thousand counted dry rose petals into it. 1-53. crocinum [1-64] and telinum [1-57]. 1-16] and twenty pounds five ounces of oil. and this will be the second pressing. If you mean to make a second insertion put the same number of new dry rose 48 R . press them out. third and fourth oil are made. Rosa hortensis et sylvestris [Fuchs]. either mixed with other medicines. we thought it logical to make this suggestion: that those who test them must determine whether the ointments smell exactly of those herbs from which the mixture is made. dropped on. Rosa gallica [Linnaeus] — Common Rose.OINTMENTS OINTMENTS 1-52. Strain it out into the twenty pounds five ounces of oil. RHODINON SUGGESTED: Rosa. for a third or fourth time pour oil in again on the roses. bruise the juncus and steep it in water. as well as some others. poured on. which are tested by sampling them often. then after leaving them for a night. and if you will. and store it in large bowls wiped with honey. then boil it. MURON SUNTHESIS MEDICINAL OINTMENTS S eeing that ointments also are effective for some diseases. and having rubbed your hands with honey stir the mixture up and down (every now and then squeezing the petals gently). as in amaracinum [1-68]. French Rose — Oil of Roses osaceum oil is made as follows. or smelled. second. When the dregs have sunk down. change the receiving jar. Each time rub the inside of the jars with honey. and strain them out again. A first. stirring it up and down.

It has the same uses as the rosaceum [1-53] but it does not soothe the bowels. having stored it in a clean jar. It is astringent and cooling. Momordica elaterium. Ecballium agreste. and leaving them in the sun for forty days. It fills up hollow boils. then. 51 . and a lotion for headache as well as a mouth rinse for the start of a toothache. use it. and salt so that it does not spoil. changing the petals every eight days. and repeat in the same way the second. third and fourth time. and heated eruptions. press it out. Elaterium officinale — Oil of Cucumber. The oil can take this addition of roses seven times. but by no means any farther. Squirting Cucumber H aving broken and bruised the elaterium. having the amount of half a pound of petals to one pint of oil. 1-54. Ecballium elaterium. and it is good given as a suppository for rosiones [gnawing corrosion] or irritations of the intestines and the vulva. Some first thicken the oil by adding calamus [1-17] and aspalathus [1-19]. and pour on it oil of unripe olives. good for cleaning and mixing with poultices. cut off their stems or whites. It is a rub for penetrative ulcers. It is good rubbed on for eyelids that have grown hard. and makes soothing medications for malignancies.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK petals into the oil that was first pressed out. Some include anchusa [4-23 to 4-26] to give it a pleasant colour. Some use the roses alone. catarrh in the head. You ought to carefully separate the oil from the juice for if even a little of it is left in there it will corrupt the oil. and infuse them by placing them in the sun. ELATINON SUGGESTED: Elatinum. pressing it out again. and stirring it up and down with hands smeared with honey. Use the same weight of each ingredient. put it into a washing jar. Let it remain for three days. and then storing it. and then take it up into a basket and press it out. Taken as a drink it loosens the bowels and cools a heated stomach. Also rub the press with honey. and as often as you do this put in fresh roses (paring off their stems) for this way it becomes stronger.

lay over it a mat of reeds or some thin covering and place the fruit of cydonia on top of it. Cydonia vulgaris — Quince SUGGESTED: Cotonea il of melinum is prepared as follows. chilblains and shingles [herpes]. bupressedes [2-66] and pinorum [1-86]. and represses sweating. put it into oil of unripe olives and stir it around. and after letting them lie together for a day. add three ounces of bruised spatha [1-150] or elaterium [4-155] and one ounce of juncus odoratus [4-52. Allow them (to stand thus) for many days until the oil has extracted the strength from the quinces. Afterwards. and then press it out and bottle it. churn it upside down and leave it so for two days. The best is considered to smell like the fruit of cydonia. Used as drops it is good for open disorders in the vulva. Some cover the fruit with cloths for ten days so that the sweet smell may be kept in and not breathe out. O 52 . covering them with cloths. Having mixed together six pints of oil and ten pints of water. OINANTHINON SUGGESTED: Cissus digitata — Wild Grape. 1-16]. Sorrel Vine Vitis labrusca — Wild Grapes enanthemum. (having strained out the oil) put it into a broad-mouthed jar. dandruff. Cydonia [Fuchs]. boil them. MELINON malus. ulcers. It is taken as a drink against vomiting from ingesting dried beetles [2-65]. Pyrus cydonia [Linnaeus]. except it neither loosens nor softens the bowels. Afterwards strain it out and store it. That which carries the smell of the shoots or buds is the most approved of. Cydonia oblonga. Having dried the sweet-smelling shoots or buds of the wild grape. It is astringent and cooling — effective for scabies [itchy parasitical disease]. equivalent to rosaceum [1-53]. Mala cotonea minora [Bauhin]. O 1-56. and given as a suppository it stops urinary urgency. It is astringent.OINTMENTS 1-55. afterwards they steep them in oil two days and two nights.

Origanum majoranoides. the moist fluids having been formerly evacuated. scours the hands. Foenumgraecum sativum [Bauhin]. Origanum majorana [Linneaus]. SAMPSUCHINON SUGGESTED: Amaracus. and for the unproductive urge to evacuate. and it is good for burns and chilblains. Administer it for inflammation in the perineum. Beat all these together. cassia. Foenumgraecum [Fuchs]. Sampsuchum. and so leave it alone for four days.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-57. nine pounds of oil. having respect for the strength of each. is bittersweet in taste and does not smell too much like fenugreek. Sampsucum. for that is the best. Knotted Marjoram ake an amount each of serpyllum [3-46]. Choose that which is new. Majorana vulgaris [Bauhin]. and is especially good for hard lumps around the uterus. and for obstinate body cavities. abrotanum [3-29]. one pound of calamus [1-17] and two pounds of cyprus [1-124]. and steep them together. flowers of sisymbrium [2-155]. and it is mixed with medicines made to clean the face. steep the herbs in the oil for seven days stirring it up and down three times a day. and opobalsamum [1-18] instead of cyprus. Others first thicken the oil with these. Maiorana [Fuchs]. and afterwards press it out and store it. It is able to soften mature abscesses. Telinum — Oil of Fenugreek ake five pounds of fenugreek. and pour on them unripe olive oil but not enough to overwhelm the strength of those things which are steeped in it. and afterwards steep the fenugreek in there and strain it out. Origanum majorum [Pliny]. It gets off spots of sunburn with wax. 4-146] and sampsuchum that by guess you shall think suitable. It cleans dandruff and penetrative ulcers in the head. There are some who use cardamomum [1-5] instead of calamus [1-17]. Majorana hortensis — Sweet Marjoram. T 1-58. Trigonella foenum-graecum [Linnaeus]. Afterwards strain it and take the same 55 T . TELINON SUGGESTED: Foenograecum. dripped in when it becomes dry around those places. leaves of myrtle [1-55.

ABROTONINON SUGGESTED: Abrotonum foemina [Fuchs]. Basilicum — Oil of Basil — Basil. It is best used with honey since it hardens places with excessive astringency. Ocimum minutum. Then take the leaves out of the basket. and rubbed on it disperses exhaustion. Then pour in the oil from the first steeping. T ake twenty pounds of oil and eleven pounds eight ounces of basil in weight. reducing the intensity of symptoms.OINTMENTS amount of the same fresh herbs again and steep them for another four days to make it stronger. Abrotoninum — Southernwood — Oil of Southernwood A 56 brotoninum is made as follows. Choose sampsuchum that is a black. Ocimum basilicum. extracts the menstrual flow and afterbirth. It lessens pains of the abdomen and groin. take off the leaves. then press it out and bottle it. Sweet Basil SUGGESTED: Ocimum exiguum. for it does not allow a third steeping. and refreshes constriction of the vulva. Then take the same amount of new basil and steep it again as described in instructions about rosaceum [1-53]. This is called that which follows. Artemisia pontica [Linnaeus]. greenish colour. This oil is warming and sharp. strongly scented and quite sharp. OKIMINON Ocimum mediocre. 1-60. It is good for the closing up and distortions of the vulva. Take eight pounds of the leaves of abrotanum [3-29] and eleven pounds . let the leaves lie and soak in there an equal time. and afterwards strain it out and bottle it. steep them in the oil for a night and a day. It is effectively mixed with poultices for tetanus and for other kinds of convulsions. If you wish to steep it three or four times always put in new basil. Absinthium ponticum [Bauhin]. It does the same things as sampsuchinum [above] but not as effectively. It may also be made from unripe olives but the other way is best. Ocimum magnum [Fuchs]. Abrotanum mas [Linnaeus]. 1-59. is an abortifacient. pour in the same amount of oil on them again and press it out. Artemisia abrotanum.

Lilium candidum [Linnaeus] — Madonna Lily [other usage] Crinum toxicarium. 4-116] in fragrant wine. Crinum asiaticum — White Lily. and add three pounds six ounces of cardamom (bruised and steeped in rain water). let the oil run through a strainer.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK five ounces of the oil aromatized with the ingredients that go into cyprinum [see 1-65]. Peucedanum graveolens. Allow it to be sufficiently steeped together. After you have mixed together nine pounds five ounces of oil. Lily Asphodel. ANETHINON SUGGESTED: Anethum hortense [Bauhin]. and having stripped off their leaves. and is good for sores of the joints. stir it around with your hands (that have been 59 . Pour in the oil. then strain it out. Oil of Dill teep eleven pounds and eight ounces of the flowers of anethum for one day in eight pounds nine ounces of oil. Take three and a half pounds of this thickened oil and a thousand (counted) lilies. and expelling the menstrual flow and afterbirth. SUSINON SUGGESTED: Lilium. 1-73. steep them too. Lilium album [Fuchs]. Anethinum — Dill. Poison Bulb see 3-116 POISONOUS S usinum is also called lilinum or liliaceum and is made as follows. strain it out. Anethum graveolens [Linnaeus]. put in other leaves. If you wish to make it last a long time throw away the first leaves. and having steeped them in oil a day and a night. Selinum athenum. boil it. If you wish to make a second steeping add new flowers of anethum. five pounds three ounces of calamus [1-17] and five ounces of myrrh [1-77. It is warming and good for closing up or hardness in the vulva. warming and dissolving weariness. and strain it out. S 1-62. 1-61. Pastinaca athenum. put them in a broad but not deep jar. then squeeze it out by hand and store it. It can soothe distress around the vulva and open it and is effective for hard lumps on the gums. pour it out again.

The next morning pour it into a cupped strainer and presently (when it is strained) separate the oil on top from the water that is strained out with it. but when heated together it grows hot again and is spoiled. and placing it into a broad jar pour in on it again the same amount of the aromatised oil as at first. mix with every preparation seventy-two teaspoons of the best myrrh [1-77. lay them in order and pour on them the oil that was first strained out. That which was the first strained out will be the best. and pour on it the ointment from the first pressing: afterwards (leaving it alone a little while) they put it into little dry jars (first smeared around with gum or myrrh and saffron and honey diluted with water). Put in ten teaspoons of bruised cardamom.OINTMENTS previously rubbed with honey) and let it stand for a day and a night. 4-116]. and the third the least. ten teaspoons of crocus and seventy-five teaspoons of cinnamon. Pour it out again into other jars smeared with honey. stir it well with your hands. and press it out (first smearing your hands with honey). repeat [the procedure] throwing in the cardamom and the salt with it. 4-160] or some other oil and lilies. and after waiting a little strain it out. Finally when it seems to you that you have enough. Work methodically. Some make it with nothing else but oil balaninum [1-40. the second the next after that. 1-73. Do the very same things to the second and third pressings. mingling cardamom [as before and afterwards straining it out]. afterwards straining it out and repeating the procedure. Take the strained aromatic stuff out of the basket. Pour on the oil again a third time. first sprinkling a little salt in there and taking away the filth carefully as it gathers together. The oil which is made in Phoenicia and in Egypt is thought to excel most. removing the filth off from that which runs out. placing into it the cardamom. As often as you steep fresh lilies in there. Some take the same amount of crocus and cinnamon (having pounded and sifted it). because it will not permit the water with it. like rosaceum [1-53]. Do the same the second and the third time. the best being that which smells [most] of lilies. doing the same things over again as you did at first. (by so much) you shall have the ointment stronger. put it into a jar with water. It is warming and softening — opening closures and inflammation around the vulva — and in general it is the 60 . Then take another thousand lilies and strip off their leaves.

varicose veins. as it is also quickly spoiled. NARCISSINON SUGGESTED: Narcissus odorus. It quickly alters vibices [marks from blood under the skin during a fever] and makes them the same colour as the rest of the skin. softening hardness and closures around it. then take the oil and pour it out into a jar and add a large amount of narcissus flowers. Mix it and boil it and when it has boiled with these ingredients take it off. Narcissinum — Poet’s Narcissus. and feruidae [from fever] eruptions.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK most effective of all for female ailments. Take therefore three 63 I . It is good for damage in the vulva. It causes headaches. 1-73. stirring it up and down for two days. Take thirty pounds five ounces of washed oil and six pounds of aspalathum [1-19] (pounded and steeped in water). Narcissus calathinus. Mix it with a third of the oil and boil it. It is also good for scaly scalp. Taken as a drink it expels bile through the bowels. strain it out and repeatedly pour it out from one jar to another. 4-116] (steeped in old fragrant wine). Then as we said in susinum [1-62]. Lent Rose Narcissus poeticus. Daffodil. 1-63. Crocinum — Saffron Crocus — Oil of Crocus POISONOUS ntending to prepare crocinum you must first of all thicken the oil as was explained in susinum [1-62] with the very same weight and amount. Take out the aspalathum and put in five pounds eight ounces of calamus [1-17] and pounded sifted grains of myrrh [1-77. but it hurts the stomach and causes nausea. however. Pheasant’s Eye — Oil of Narcissus O leum narcissinum is thickened as follows. and induces the passage of urine. dandruff. When it is cold strain out the oil. Lent Lily. Narcissus sylvestris — Wild Narcissus. KROCINON SUGGESTED: Croci flores et folia [Fuchs]. Generally it is very purifying. 1-64. Crocus sativus [Bauhin]. Crocus sativus var officinalis [Linnaeus]. Narcissus campernelli — Campernelle Jonquil Narcissus pseudo-narcissus.

4-116] (pounded and sifted). It is also good for glaucoma of the eyes rubbed on with water. one pound of myrrh [1-77. and stir it 64 T . and taking out the aspalathus. separate it from the crocus. It induces movement of pus. and is good for hardness in the uterus (and closure) and other ill afflictions there. Egyptian Privet — Oil of Cyprus ake one part washed oil of unripe olives and a part and a half of rainwater. On the sixth day pour out the oil. This is the same as butyrinum. thus it is often good for an unsound mind when [the head is] moistened with it (or if it is merely smelled) or if the nostrils are rubbed with it. steep the bruised calamus together with the myrrh. doing this continuously for five days together. six and and half pounds of calamus. softens. mix with it forty teaspoons of myrrh [1-77. onychinum and styracinum — differing only in name but having the same preparation and effect. with wax. pour in again on the same crocus the same amount of new oil and stir it up and down for thirteen days. stir it around well in a mortar. and double the oil. cleans boils. and boil it with the oil until it boils together. Pour out some of this into the oil and mix the other with the aromata [fragrant herbs] that are to be put in. crocus. Then having poured it all back again. It digests. Having bruised and steeped the aspalathus throw it in the water. put in this mixture of calamus. put in there eight teaspoons of crocus and stir it up and down often each day. 1-65. Afterwards take five and a half pounds of aspalathus [1-19].OINTMENTS and a half pounds of the thickened oil of susinum [1-62]. When it has boiled together take down the kettle. and bottle it. It is warming and sleep-inducing. 1-73. Then steep the myrrh in old fragrant wine. The best smells abundantly of crocus and this is fit for medicinal use. KUPRINON SUGGESTED: Lawsonia alba. and the next best smells of myrrh. Henna Shrub. Some use as much aromatised oil for crocinum as they do for cyprinum [1-65]. moistens and lessens. strain out the oil and pour it on the bruised cardamom and that which was steeped in the rest of the water. three pounds nine ounces of cardamom and nine pounds five ounces of oil. 1-73. 4-116]. marrow. Lawsonia inermis Cyprinum — Cyprus.

and having pounded them as above. Linnaeus]. place it into a brass jar and boil it until it absorbs the smell of spatha. the iris being steeped in the thickened oil as described below. Iris vulgaris Germanica sive sylvestris [Bauhin]. It is also put into medicines against weariness. Take five pounds two ounces of xylobalsamum [1-18] and seventy pounds five ounces of oil. IRINON SUGGESTED: Iris germanica [Fuchs. softening quality. 4-116] steeped in old fragrant wine. and for inflammation of the groin. It is also put into softening medicines made to help those troubled with stiff convulsions of the neck.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK around with a continuous splashing — not stopping until it is cold. If you would have more of it place in again the same amount of new flowers. strain it out in same way again. opening the mouths [of the blood vessels]. Irinum — German Iris. Afterwards take out the xylobalsamum. steep the same weight of bruised iris in 67 T . Some also mingle cinnamon with it. and strain them through a wicker basket. put in nine pounds ten ounces of bruised calamus [1-17] [as well as an equal weight of] grains of myrrh [1-77. good for disorders of the vulva and nerves and for pleurisy and fractures. Choose that which is good and which strongly impresses [the nostrils] with its sweet smell. Or else do the following. as well as those troubled with angina. 1-73. From this aromatised oil the first irinum is prepared. boil them together. afterwards strain it out into a basin smeared with honey. Flowering Ring — Iris Oil POISONOUS ake six pounds eight ounces of spatha or elata [1-150] (pounded as small as possible) and seventy three pounds five ounces of oil. Mix it with five pints of water. Brunfels. both alone as well as mixed with a stiff ointment. It has a warming. and if you will you may steep it a third and a fourth time for in this way it is made more effective. Blue Flower de Luce. Afterwards take fourteen pounds of this thickened and aromatised oil. Afterwards strain out the oil and put forty-six pounds eight ounces of cyprus [1-65] flowers into twenty-eight pounds of oil. allow them to be steeped. 1-66.

softening and relaxing. and it cleans crusted ulcers. It is given as an antidote to those who have taken a drink of hemlock. GLEUCINON SUGGESTED: Gleucinum — Syruped Pulp of Grapes in Oil. schoinos [rushes]. It is good rubbed on for angina or gargled with honey and water.OINTMENTS there. good for chills. is good for suffering of the stomach. then strain it out. and it is good for conditions around the vulva. and also for fetid nasal polyps. 3-53. and for inflammation and closures of it. costus [1-15] and must. Achaia. It is good for noises in the ears applied with vinegar. melilot [3-48]. 4-98] and bitter almonds. Pamphylia and that made in Elis. fungi or coriander. and is good for those who have difficulty vomiting. rue [3-52. spatha [1-150]. sinewy diseases and disorders of the vulva. calamus [1-17]. their fingers being rubbed with it [to put down the throat] or given with other things that cause vomiting. such as that made in Perga. The best by far smells of nothing else but only of iris. Celtic nard [1-7]. Oil of Must leucinum simplex is prepared from oil of unripe olives. It is stirred up and down twice every day for thirty days and then strained out and stored. leave it undisturbed for two days and two nights. It is more effective than acopon [medicines to remove fatigue] being softening. decaying flesh and filth. A drink of a wine cupful purges the bowels. and afterwards strain it out lustily and forcibly. It is softening and warming. encourages urine. The vinandea [must] is laid in the jar that contains the aromata [fragrant herbs] with the wine and oil. For dripping mucus that has endured long the nostrils are rubbed with it. steeping similarly the same amount a second and third time. It expels a birth and opens haemorrhoids. and also for roughness of the arteries. If you would have it stronger add the same amount [of iris]. It is warming. aspalathus [1-19]. G 68 . 1-67.

schoenus [4-52] and calamus [sweet flag] but sweetened with amaracus and costus [1-15]. moistened and applied in thin pads of wool. 1-73. There is also a kind of oil which naturally and of its own accord drops out of the rock. and it is good for difficult urination (the perineum or buttocks and anus rubbed with it). open. 1-18] and myrrh [1-77. 4-160]. Anthemis cotula [Linnaeus] — Mayweed [Mabberley] [other usage] Origanum amaracus — Amaracus Origanum dictamnus. Dictamnus creticus. sleep-inducing. T he best amaracinum is made in Cyzicum. nard [1-6. heating and diuretic — effective for decaying flesh. thickened with xylobalsamum [1-18].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-68. It is good for scabs and ulcers. AMARAKINON Cotula foetida [Fuchs]. Chamaemelum foetidum [Bauhin]. 71 . and it also lessens and subdues wind. It is able to dry. opening the blood vessels. 1-7. Honey and wine are used both for rubbing the jars and steeping the aromata [fragrant herbs] that have been pounded. It is good for hurt tendons and muscles. carpobalsam [fruit of opalobalsamum. Those who make it expensively include cinnamon. 1-8. with a sweet smell and a certain heaviness. and dissolves hardness and oedema [water retention] in the vulva. fistulas. 4-116]. 1-10]. It breaks cradle cap on all sides and efferata [growing outwards] ulcers. and glue tendons together. and for opening haemorrhoids. It is warming. It is made from the oils of unripe olives and balaninum [1-40. and watery ruptures occuring after the help of surgery. It is found in Arabia and Italy and is very effective for many uses. amomum [1-14]. and it is also good rubbed on for inflammation of the same places. softening. Applied to the uterus it induces passage of the menstrual flow. Amaracus dictamnus — Dittany of Crete SUGGESTED: Amaracinum — Parthenium.

oil of unripe olives and cardamom. A mixture is made of bitter almonds. galbanum and resin.OINTMENTS 1-69. Metopium — Galbanum n ointment is prepared in Egypt which they call metopium because they mix galbanum with it. Turpentine is also mixed with it and boiled until it stops smelling. resembling cardamom and myrrh rather than galbanum. It is good for 72 A . Cotula foetida hat which is called megalium used to be made but is no longer. It is effective applied with antiseptic plasters for strength. Cotula foetida [Fuchs]. for the wood out of which galbanum is made they call metopium. schoenus [4-52]. Chamaemelum foetidum [Bauhin]. The method of boiling it is explained in the section on resin. It heats and burns considerably and it also opens the mouths of blood vessels. MEGALEION [Fuchs]. myrrh [1-77. It draws and purges ulcers. It is mixed with warm compresses and stiff ointments. 4-116]. muscles that have been cut. honey. seeds of balsam [1-18]. The mixture of this is the same as amaracinum [1-68] but there is resin added to it so that it differs only in that. calamus [1-17]. wine. HEDYCHROON SUGGESTED: Hedychroon — Parthenium. The best smells strongly and is fat. Resin is mixed with the oils neither for preservation nor delight’s sake but only to colour and thicken them. 1-71. Chamaemelum foetidum [Bauhin]. It is gently softening. yet for the completeness of the history it will not be out of place to speak something of it. METOPION SUGGESTED: Ferula galbaniflua. and watery lungs. Anthemis cotula [Linnaeus] — Mayweed [Mabberley] SUGGESTED: Megalium — Parthenium. T 1-70. Anthemis cotula [Linnaeus] — Mayweed [Mabberley] T hat which is called hedychroon and which is made in Co has the same strength and the same method of preparation as amaracinum [1-68] but it smells sweeter. 1-73.

M 1-73. MENDESION SUGGESTED: Mendesium — Resin Compound endesium is made from balanine oil [1-40. 4-116 S tacte is the fat of new myrrh bruised with a little water and pressed out with an instrument. It has a very sweet smell. calamus [1-17]. 1-73. but this is unneccessary because the things that are not pounded together do not yield their strength. with a mild smell and with myrrh predominating. STACTE SUGGESTED: Commiphora abyssinica — Coarse Myrrha Commiphora myrrha — Myrrh Tree. 4-160]. Myrrha Stacte — Oil of new Myrrh see 1-77. The approved stacte is not mixed with oil and has a great deal of strength in a little amount. is precious. It encourages sweat. opens closed blood vessels of the uterus and loosens hardness around it. 4-160] and thickened with xylobalsamum [1-18]. additionally put in a little cinnamon. myrrh [1-77. and by itself makes an ointment called stacte. KINNAMOMINON SUGGESTED: Cinnamominum. 4-116] as cinnamon. Cinnamomum zeylanicum — Oil of Cinnamon C innamominum is made from oil of balanine [1-40.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK chills and reversed curved bodies in convulsions. 1-73. and honey is mixed in to incorporate them. Some. 75 . 1-72. with a warming quality similar to myrrh and hot oils. after they have put in everything by weight. four times the quantity of myrrh [1-77. 1-74. 4-116]. cassia and resin. carpo balsamum [1-18]. the sweetness of cinnamon. The best approved is not sharp. and in general it has a softening quality. It has similar properties to metopium [1-71] yet to a lower degree. schoenus [4-52].

Therefore it opens the mouths of blood vessels by warming. It reduces the intensity of symptoms and purifies fluids with a sharp. This has its thickness not from resin but from myrrh. It is good for diseases around the vulva with twice as much oil and wax and bone marrow. cleansing. It is sharp. juncus odoratus. For the most part it is mixed with oil balanine [1-40. N 76 . Phu vulgare [Fuchs]. 1-75. 1-10] myrrh [1-77. carbuncles [infected boils] and gangrene. Valeriana vulgaris. 1-16] is added. Valeriana sylvestris major [Bauhin]. nardus [1-6. The best is thin. It is moist and not thick like a stalk or stem. 1-73. amomum [1-14]. not sharp.OINTMENTS thick and sweet-smelling. dissipates. and with a very bitter taste. tremors. It is to be applied with bruised green figs to those touched by scorpions or phalangii [harvest spiders]. NARDINON MURON Phu germanicum. and rubbed on for chills which recur. for this way it reduces much of its sharpness and becomes softening. and draws forth all fluids and windiness. Nardinum — Valerian [Mabberley] — Spikenard Ointment SUGGESTED: ardinum ointment is prepared various ways — either with the leaf of malabathrum [1-11] or without it. and those bitten by virulent beasts. with the sweet smell in it of dried nardus or amomum. Some with less value is made from unripe olive oil. costus and nardus. 1-7. warming and bitter. For resin neither gives it bitterness nor a sweet smell. but it offends the head. and to give it a sweet smell costus [1-15]. calamus [1-17]. Otherwise it burns and hardens more violently than all other thickened ointments. 4-160] or unripe olive oil. 4-116] and balsamum [1-18] are added. warming strength. watery lungs. unless it has resin in it. 1-8. and to thicken the oil juncus odoratus [4-52. Valeriana officinalis [Linnaeus]. and it dissolves. decaying flesh. It is effective with cardamom for fistulas.

IASMELAION SUGGESTED: Jasminum sambac. then changed and softened again as described in the manufacture of liliaceum [1-62].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-76. thus it is warming and equal to crocinum [1-64] or amaracinum [1-68]. The use of this is entertained among the Persians at their banquets for the sweet scent that it yields. It is good for the whole body after bathing. Nyctanthes arbor tristus [Bedevian] — Arabian Jasmine Jasme — Oil of Jasmine hat which is called jasme is made among the Persians from the white flowers of jasmine — two ounces of which are placed into an Italian pint of sesame oil. so that many do not willingly use it. T Bursera gummifolia after FAGUET — 1878 77 . 1-77. MALABATHRINON bicornis — Ling Nut Trapa bispinosa — Singhara Nut Trapa quadrispinosa — Water Chestnut species Limnantheum indicum. Callitriche platycarpa — Water Starwort see 1-11 SUGGESTED: Trapa M alabathrinum or foliatum that is thickened like nardinum [1-75] has more myrrh. Callitriche verna. Nymphoides indica — Water Snowflake Callitriche palustris. for those who want warmth and relaxation. It has a heavy sweet smell.

It soothes and opens the closed vulva. 2-13] or juice from rue [3-52. The amount of a bean is taken like a catapotium [pill]. There is another kind called caucalis which is smelly. campestris) from which when pressed stacte [oil of new myrrh] is taken. of the same colour throughout. Priority is given to that called troglodytica from the place that breeds it — a pale green. against a long-enduring cough. The worst of all is that which is called ergasima which is rough. 4-98]. sleep-inducing. but some congeals around the stock of the tree. Choose that which is new. That which is ponderous. light. Fragrant and fat pressings are made from the fat gum. That called aminea is also not allowed. a dilution of lupins [2-132. pains of the side and 78 S . an incision being made in the thorns. soft like bdellium. growing in sunny places. 3-53. retaining. brittle. sharp. biting and transparent. weaker because they did not take in oil in their manufacture or forming. Another called gabirea is more thick and grows in fruitful and fertile places. It is warming. It is counterfeited by gum steeped in the water in which myrrh was infused and mixed. with a poisonous smell as it were. rheum-closing. Some is also gathered which is thinner. Myrrha Commiphora abyssinica — Coarse Myrrha see 1-73 myrna [myrrh] is the oozing of a tree (like the Egyptian [tree]) which grows in Arabia. drying and astringent. pressings neither fat nor good-smelling from the dry gum. next in esteem to the primitive. Some of this is called pediasimos (as we should say. and which when broken is smooth like a nail and in small pieces — bitter. fragrant and warming. asthma. black and dried. and it expels the menstrual flow and birth speedily applied with wormwood [3-26]. It also yields much stacte.GUMS from TREES GUMS from TREES 1-77. weighs heavy and is the colour of pitch is useless. SMURNA SUGGESTED: Commiphora myrrha — Myrrh Tree. from which the gum drips down onto the mats spread underneath. and sharp — resembling gum both in sight and strength.with little fat.

Rubbed on the ear externally it alleviates long-enduring discharges. Lithocarpus benzoin — Gum Benjamin Tree. Put under the tongue and melted it helps both sharpness of the arteries and hoarseness of the voice. B 1-79. 1-78. Rubbed on with the flesh of a snail it cures broken ears and exposed bones. Choose that which resembles myrrh [1-77. especially recurrent paroxysmic ones) the amount of a bean taken in a drink with pepper and water two hours before the fit. It is rubbed on varicose veins with cassia and honey.Smyrnium oeotican myrrh comes out of the cut root of a certain plant growing in Boeotia. Benzoe S tyrax is the oozing of a certain tree like a quince tree. 1-73. Black Lovage. and it stops hair falling out [alopecia] rubbed on with ladanum [1-128]. 3-100]. having white 81 . as we will show. It kills worms and is chewed for stinking breath. It fills up ulcers in the eyes. wine and oil myrsinum [1-48]. Boeotin Myrrh see 1-77. Petroselinum alexandrinum — Alexanders. Benzoin officinale. 4-116] in the sweet smell. The best is yellow. STURAX SUGGESTED: Styrax officinale — Styrax Tree Styrax benzoin. Used as a mouthwash with wine and oil it strengthens teeth and gums. 3-78. It cleans away impetigo [skin infection] with vinegar. A soot is also made of it (like soot of frankincense) effective for the same purposes. and it wears off white spots on the cornea and things which darken the pupils. as well as pus in the ears and their inflammation with meconium [4-65]. 1-73. fat. It is also effective mixed in inhalations of smoke or fumes.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK chest. 4-116 SUGGESTED: Hipposelinum. BOIOTIKE SMURNA olusatrum. It is softening. Horse Parsley. It dissolves chills (in acute fevers. It also smooths rough skin. looseness of the bowels and dysentery. full of resin. For sores on the armpits it is rubbed on with liquid alum [5-123]. castorium [2-26] and glaucium [2-212. warming and dissolving.

and which when it is softened releases a certain honeyish kind of moisture. 1-16]. An oozing like the gum is also found (transparent like myrrh [1-77.GUMS from TREES under the clots. 1-80. brittle and like bran (or encrusted) is worthless. Some also aromatise wax or tallow in the sharpest sun. It is good for closures and hardness in the vulva. It gently softens the bowels if a little of it is swallowed down with resin terminthos [1-91]. scorched and made into a soot like thus [1-81] and this soot is good for the same things as thus. It is also effective mixed with dispersing ointments or plasters and acopon [fatigue removers]. BDELLION SUGGESTED: Bdellium africanum. It cures coughs and dripping mucus. They counterfeit it with powder from the same tree (made by the boring of worms) by mixing honey with it and the thick matter of iris and certain other things. not noticing the weak intensity of the smell. That which is black. 1-73. It is burned. fat in the inside of it and easily growing soft. 4-116]) but there is only a little that grows of this. But the ointment styracinum [also refered to as oil of crocus] which is made from it in Syria warms and powerfully softens. with a very sweet smell when burnt. work it together with styrax. and press it out into cold water through a colander with broad holes (making as it were little worms of it). There is another sort — filthy and black. fat like bull’s glue. in bigger pieces. and taken as a drink and applied it dries out the menstrual flow. but it causes pain. rolled up into lumps — 82 B . Those who are unskilful approve of it as authentic. softening and digestive. and they sell it. It is warming. calling it vermiculatum [now a name for gum of acacia thorns]. which remains a long time in its sweet sauce. for that which is without deceit is very sharp. pissiadicus and the cilicius are like this. transparent. roasted. like juncus odoratus [4-52. heaviness of the head and sleep. Balsamodendrum africanum. The best-approved is bitter in taste. Heudelotia africanum — Bdellium Tree. runny noses. hoarseness and loss of the voice. without wood or other filth. Balsamodendron kua dellium (which some call madelcum or bolchum) is the oozing of a Sarandenian tree. The gabalites.

It opens the entrance to the vulva when applied and the smoke inhaled. Boswellia floribunda. naturally round. For cutting it into cubes and throwing them into jars of clay they roll them up and down so long in there until they take a round form. It is also brought from a town called Petra. It is also called copiscum [abundant] and it is smaller and more yellow. It is counterfeited by mixing gum with it. Olibanum Tree Ferula rubricaulis — also used in incense hus (which is also called thurifera) grows in Arabia. the best of which is the masculum called stagonias. and diluted with the spittle of one fasting it dissolves hardness and swellings of the throat and watery ruptures. urinary] and it expels urine.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK brought out of India. but the thus is kindled and by its scent proves 85 T . Put on fire it burns straight. and next in strength to the first. being artificially handled. It is an abortifacient and draws out moisture. The Indian is both yellow-brown underneath and a pale yellow in colour. This when not cut is white. Taken as a drink it breaks up stones [kidney. and for the accumulated wind in those who have run. Such thus as this grows yellow in time and is called atomum or syagrium. Discerning this is easy. and this is dry. Bruised. It is put into warm compresses which are good for hardness and the knots in the nerves. Boswellia serrata — Gum from Frankincense. and the resin evaporates into smoke. Boswellia papyrifera. It is made round by art and industry. it is worked together with wine or hot water is poured on it. 1-81. LIBANON THUS SUGGESTED: Boswellia carterii. and when broken fat within. convulsions and pain of the side. It is warming and softening. All thus is adulterated with resin of pine and gum. resinous. but this is not as bitter to the taste. It is effective given for coughs and poisonous creatures' bites. black and blue underneath. and when burnt and smoked it does not smell as sweet. The gum when put into a fire does not flame out. It is good for hernia. Next to this is that from Arabia and that which grows in Amelum. There is some called amomites which is otherwise white but when softened is yielding like mastic [1-51].

new. It takes away new warts and impetigo [skin infection] smeared on with vinegar and pitch. PHLOIOS LIBANOU SUGGESTED: Boswellia carterii. and it is able to suppress all excessive discharges of blood including that of the neural membrane. it kills. Some place it into unfired jars. Boswellia floribunda. for so it will not be turned into ashes. and to glue together bloody wounds. Olibanum Tree he best bark of thuris [thus] is thick.GUMS from TREES itself. wrap it around with clay. Fire will also betray these. and taken as a drink it helps those who spit blood. It is effective mixed with medicines made for the arteries and the bowels. fat. fragrant. and taken as a drink in any great amount with wine. Rubbed on with fuller's earth [ammonium silicate] and rosaceum [1-53] it is good for women’s breasts inflamed from the time of their giving birth. 1-82. Boswellia papyrifera. It is counterfeited by mixing it with the bark of strobilinum [fir cones. fill up the hollowness of ulcers and draw them to a scar. as we will show in the description of the soot of thus. It is able to warm and is an astringent to clean away things which darken the pupils. smooth. and poured in with sweet wine for other sores of the ears. Pounded into small pieces and applied with linen dipped in milk it lessens malignant ulcers around the perineum and other parts. Some also put a hollow brass jar around the pot with holes in the middle for receiving the soot. It is also burnt in a new ceramic jar with hot burning coals until it no longer bubbles nor sends out any more fat or vapour. For the 86 T . Boswellia serrata — Bark of Frankincense. and burn it in a furnace. and that which is thoroughly burnt is easily broken. It is used with honey for hangnails and with pitch for bruises of the ears. pine cones]. Thus is burnt in a clean ceramic jar and set on fire by a piece of it lighted by a candle until it is burnt. You must (after it is fully burnt) stop it with something until it is quenched. Taken as a drink by those who are healthy it brings madness. It cures ulcerous burns from fire and chilblains rubbed on with fat from a pig or goose. With saltpetre [potassium nitrate] it cures ulcers that penetrate the head. and neither coarse nor thin.

Firs. put it into a new hollow ceramic jar then cover it with a brass jar (hollow within. Do this until you think that you have gathered enough soot.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK others when put into the fire do not kindle. But always keep the outside of the brass cover moist with a sponge dipped in 87 M . 1-83. But fire tests all these for they do not burn the same way. It has the same strength as frankincense but is somewhat grainy. it is better (taken in a drink) for those who spit blood or are troubled with an excessive discharge from stomach or uterus. sieved. Boswellia floribunda. Boswellia serrata — Exudation of Frankincense. neither with the same strength nor with the same clear airy smoke (as the other) but with a sooty and impure one. Then put over on one side of it (or on both) little stones of four fingers in height to see whether the pieces burn or not. and applied it is effective for scabby inflammation of the eyes. clean and grainy. full of holes in the middle and carefully wiped very clean). Holding a grain of thus [frankincense] with a little pair of tongs to a lamp to set it alight. Olibanum Tree Manna — an exudation SUGGESTED: Boswellia he approved manna of frankincense is white. But the bark of thus kindles and incense is made of it. Pines Frankincense. and that there may be a place where to put other grains under also before the first grain is quite out. It has the same properties as frankincense but is more effective and astringent. and the flour used. It is also good for scars on the eye. ake soot of thuris as follows. As a result. but smoke without any sweet smell and are extinguished. Thus — Soot of Spruce. Boswellia papyrifera. and as an astringent it is alternately a substitute. and the sweet smell has a certain kind of sour one mixed with it. T 1-84. LIBANOU AITHALIE SUGGESTED: Boswellia serrata. or else bark of thus pounded. intestinal worms and filth. LIBANOU MANNA carterii. Some adulterate it by mixing with it resin from the pine tree.

Pines. Their leaves pounded into small pieces and made into a poultice lessen inflammation and keep wounds from being inflamed. PITUS. The bark from the cones and the split 88 P . Pinus. LIGNUOS SKEUASIA SUGGESTED: Soot of Myrrh — Commiphora myrrha Resin — Spruce. 1-85. which otherwise because of the lightness of it falls off and is mixed with the ashes of frankincense. and pounded into small pieces with blacking from a shoemaker it represses serpentia [?snakebite]. It has the ability to soothe inflammation of the eyes. PEUKE SUGGESTED: Pinus rigida. 1-86. Therefore. Firs. 1-73. or honey and water) is good for liver disorders. One teaspoon of the leaves (taken as a drink with water. Taken with myrica wax ointment it brings boils to a scar in those with tender skin. 4-116]. and repress diseases of the cornea. Pounded into small pieces and a poultice then made of it. Pinus sativa — Italian Stone Pine itys is a well-known tree. The bark of both of them is astringent. it is good with sediment [of wine] and manna [exudation of trees] for chafing dermatitis. fumes). repress discharges. There is another similar tree called peuce which differs in shape. and taken as a drink it stops discharges of the intestines and encourages urine. having scraped off the first soot do so again as often as you shall think suitable. You can produce soot in the same way from other resins. For all the soot adheres faster to it when it is not too hot. Pounded into small pieces and boiled in vinegar they lessen toothache when [the teeth are] washed with the warm liquid. superficial ulcers and for burns. clean ulcers. Peuce [Pliny] — Pitch Pine Pin. fill hollow sores. rosin and styrax [1-79] and these are good for the same purposes [as the above].GUMS from TREES cold water. Benzoin — Styrax I n the same way soot is made from myrrh [1-77. Pinus pinea. It expels the birth and afterbirth out of the uterus taken as inhalations (smoke. and also take away the ashes separately from the thus that has been burnt.

Pinus maritima. A toeda [a piece of the heart of the tree] cut in small pieces in a decoction boiled with vinegar and held in to a tooth that suffers.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK leaves (taken in a drink) are good for the same purposes. Pinus rigida — Pine Cones F ir cones cleaned and eaten or taken in a drink with passum [raisin wine] and cucumber seed are diuretic. They help coughs and disorders of the chest taken either by themselves or with honey. Taken with juice of purslane [4-169] they strengthen infirmity of the body. They are astringent and somewhat warming. and boiled in passum [raisin wine] are good for old coughs and consumptive wasting if three cups of this liquid is taken every day. pounded while they are fresh. lessens toothache. 1-87. Pinus maritima — Pineseeds. It is also good for erosions at the corners of the eyes. Pinus nigra. 89 . PITUIDES SUGGESTED: Pinus rigida. Fir cones gathered whole from the trees. STROBILOI SUGGESTED: Pinus mughus. and good also to be put in medicines for the eyelids. Peuce — Pitch Pine Pinus mughus. and dull irritations of the bladder and kidneys. They also lessen rosiones [gnawing corrosion] of the stomach. Pinus nigra. weeping eyes and bald eyelids. good to make writing ink. When they are burning a soot is taken. Pine P ityides are the fruit of the pines [and of the pinus picea] found in the cones. 1-88. A paste is made from them suitable for preparations for enemas and suppositories. Pinus pinea. and dull the infection of fluids.

Herb Mastic Schinus molle is now an American genus. Pistacia lentiscus.GUMS from TREES 1-89. root and leaves sufficiently boiled in water. Pepper Tree. causing belching. The bark of the branches and root are of equal strength. Bursera gummifera is now a West Indian tree [Loudon]. Pistacia lentiscus. It is a remedy against gangrenous sores and is diuretic. It prevents the eyelashes from falling out and thickens them. Sideroxylon mastichodendron. and dysentery. Bursera gummifera is now a West Indian tree [Loudon]. S Bursera obtusifolia after FAGUET — 1878 chinus is a well-known tree that is wholly astringent in its fruit and leaves. Sideroxylon mastichodendron. Schinus — Mastic Tree. Then (after they are boiled) the plant material is removed and the water boiled again to the consistency of honey. Bursera gummifera. SCHINOS molle. Pepper Tree. and stops discharge of fluids from the uterus. It is good for the stomach. A 90 resin called lentiscina comes from lentiscum. and for prolapse of the uterus and perineum. The juice strained out of the leaves performs the same functions. and when chewed it causes sweet breath and . Bursera gummifera. and it settles unstable teeth that are washed with it. as well as for bloody eruptions from the uterus. and a decoction of the leaves applied with hot cloths fills hollow cavities. discharges from the stomach. Generally it may be used instead of acacia and hypocistis [1-127]. 1-90. It is mixed with tooth powders and ointments for the face making it clearer. A juice is made of the bark. Schinus — Mastic Tree. consolidates broken bones. Taken as a drink it is good for vomiting of blood and for an old cough. and also some called mastic. The green sprigs are rubbed on the teeth (instead of reed toothpicks) to clean them. An astringent oil is made from the fruit which is suitable for things which need an astringent. Being of an astringent nature it is good taken as a drink for throwingup blood. SCHININE RETINE SUGGESTED: Schinus molle. Herb Mastic Schinus molle after FAGUET — 1878 SUGGESTED: Schinus Schinus molle is now an American genus.

crumbly and sweet-smelling — but that which is green is bad. fruit and bark of which are astringent and good for the same things as lentisk [1-90]. purging what should be purged out of the chest. and remedies to remove fatigue. The preferred resin is most clear. The resin from terminthos surpasses all other resins and after it is the lentiscina [1-90] then pituine [1-86] and elaterium [4-155]. dispersing. Syria. a glassy colour and inclining to an azure [blue]. 1-91. white. It is mixed with plasters. helps digestion. Cyprus and Africa. blacking from a shoemaker and saltpetre [potassium nitrate]. 5-39 erminthos is a well-known tree the leaves. The fruit is edible but hurts the stomach. It is also diuretic. It is good for leprosy with rust from brass. warm compresses. and is good for retaining hair on the eyebrows. Now all resin has a soothing. After these are reckoned both peucedanum [3-92] and pine cones. warming. Rubbed on or applied by itself it helps pains of the side. good for coughs and consumption [wasting disease] taken in syrups (either by itself or with honey). and in the islands called Cyclades. Pistacia terebinthus — Turpentine Tree see also 1-50. cleansing quality. used and taken in the same way. TERMINTHOS SUGGESTED: Terminthinus. and smells like terminthos. Termenteyne [old English]. softens the intestines. fragrant. It is adulterated by frankincense and resin of pine cones being mixed with it. For ears which run with filthy matter it is applied with oil and honey. Taken in a drink with wine it is good against harvest spider bites.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK strengthens the gums. T 93 . The resin is brought out of Arabia Petraea. It is diuretic and warming. excellent to act on venereal diseases. It also grows in Judaea. and it is effective for itching genitals. dry. The best and most abundant grows in Chios and the choicest is that which is clear and similar in whiteness to Tyrrhenian wax — full.

such as that of the larch tree. M 1-93. and another looks like honey. Cupressus funebris — Cypress oist resin also comes out of the pine tree and the pitch tree brought from Gallia and Hetruria. strobilus [pine cones] and the cypress are of a meaner sort and are not the same in strength as the others. Of these that of the pitch tree and fir tree excel. Pinus maritima. always stirring it until it is without any smell and brittle and dry. Fir Abies laryx. They are also different in colour for one is white. for they have a sweet smell and resemble frankincense in their odour. This is particularly good (taken in a linctus [syrup] or alone) for lasting coughs. Pinus rigida. Picea excelsa — White Spruce. Silver Fir. You must (when you have put four and a half litres of resin and two gallons of rain water into a jar) boil it over a coal fire gently. Previously it was sometimes brought from Colophon from which it had its surname of colophonia. Lentiscina [1-90] matches terminthos [1-91] in strength. At last having cooled it. LIGNUOS RETINES SUGGESTED: Soot from Resin A 94 ll liquid resin is burnt in a jar containing four times as much resin as the amount of the liquid that is to be poured into it. RETINA ALLAS SUGGESTED: Pinus mughus. yet they are made use of for the same purposes. Of that which is dry there is some called strobilina [from pine cones].GUMS from TREES 1-92. another of oil colour. Pine Picea alba. Pinus pinea. elaterium [4-155]. Pinus nigra. but like wax and brittle. Pinus sylvestris. Moist resin also comes out of the cypress tree. peucine [1-86] and pituine [1-86]. but that from the pitch tree. Larix europa — Larch Cupressus sempervirens. Choose that which smells sweetest and is clear — neither too dry nor too moist. good for the same purposes. and as it were yields to the fingers. Peuce — Pitch Pine. it must be . The best are brought out of Pityusa (an island which lies near Spain). Abies pectinata. as well as from Galatia (which is near the Alps) which the inhabitants of that place in their proper tongue call the larch tree.

A wine cupful (taken with honey in a linctus [syrup]) is good in antidotes for poisoning. melting it so that the filth may be separated from it. Boiled with barley meal and the urine of a boy it breaks up tumours [possibly goitre]. With raisins of 97 P . It is enough to boil the dry resin for one whole day and then store it. When thus burnt these are good to give a sweet smell to warm compresses and remedies to remove fatigue. and for weeping eyes. Ink with which to write is also made from it. and so it becomes extraordinarily white. Mixed with the same amount of wax it draws off pitted nails. for gnawedaround eye corners. for the membranes of the eyelids. coughs. pulmonary consumption [wasting disease]. Mixed with manna of thus [1-81] and waxy ointments and rubbed on it heals twisting ulcers. and with honey it fills up ulcers and cleans them. and fluids that are difficult to cough up from the chest. purulent abnormal growths. asthma. Rubbed on with sulphur. It is good rubbed on with rosaceum [1-53] for inflammation of the tonsils and uvula. as well as to colour ointments. Peuce — Pitch Pine ix liquida (also called conum) is gathered from the fattest wood of the pitch and pine trees. as well as for angina [spasmodic pains] and purulent [pus-filled] ears. 1-94. pine bark or bran it stops snakebite ulcers. Pinus rigida. but first you must strain all the resin. For snakebite it is applied with salt (ground fine). Pinus pinea. Pinus nigra. Then (as it is said) bottle and store it. Soot is also taken from resins as well as thus [1-81] which is good mixed with medicines to make the eyelids pleasing. and dissolves tubercles [growths] on the vulva and hardness on the perineum. Pinus maritima. PISSA UGRA SUGGESTED: Pinus mughus.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK put up in a bottle made without pitch. and is good for split feet and a split perineum. smooth and clean. It is also burnt without water on coals — gently at first but more violently when it begins to thicken — then place many coals under and boil it without intermission for three days and three nights until the remains have the predicted properties. They reckon the best is glittering.

PISSA XERA SUGGESTED: Pinus mughus. Pinus nigra. Applied as a poultice with barley meal it restores hair fallen out from alopecia [baldness]. When the first liquid pitch is used up put in more until you have made enough soot. pitch boiled again). and then use it. Pinus nigra. LIGNUOS UGRAS PISSES SUGGESTED: Pinus mughus. It is good for weak. for rubbing. weeping. Peuce — Pitch Pine oot is made from moist pitch. Pinus maritima. It is available for the same purposes as liquid pitch. S 1-97. It is also effective mixed with antiseptic plasters. put a portion of pitch into it and cover the lamp with a new ceramic jar made like a clibinus (above round and narrow and with a mouth below like ovens have) and let the lamp burn. 1-95. Peuce — Pitch Pine D 98 ry pitch is made from decocted liquid pitch. Pinus pinea. This is taken away while boiling the pitch by laying clean wool over it which is made moist by the steam ascending up.GUMS from TREES the sun and honey it covers carbuncles [infected boils] [malignant skin tumours] and rotten ulcers with scars. Pinus pinea. Pinus nigra. Peuce — Pitch Pine P icinum is made from the watery matter of pitch which swims on top (like whey on milk that has been separated). Pinus maritima. It is sharp and astringent and is used in medicines to make the eyelids pleasing. Pinus rigida. ulcerated eyes. Pinus rigida. Some of this (called boscas) is sticky like birdlime. and when hair must be restored to eyelids that are filled with excessive watery fluids. Pinus maritima. Pinus pinea. Liquid pitch also cures the same. and rubbed on them it cures boils and scabs on cattle. PISSELAION SUGGESTED: Pinus mughus. and another . Light a new lamp. Pinus rigida. It is squeezed out into a jar and this is done for as long as the pitch is boiling. It is also called palimpissa (that is. 1-96.

and filling up ulcers. and others call it apochyma as it is soluble because it was steeped in sea water. 1-100. 1-98. PISSASPHALTOS SUGGESTED: Pissasphaltos — Bitumen — Asphalt — Mineral Pitch [2] here is some called pissasphaltos found in Apollonia near Epidamnus. removing pus. The best shines and is purple and heavy with a strong scent. 1-99. which is carried down from the Ceraunian mountains by the violence of the river and cast on the shore. dispersing tubercula [nodules] and pannus [opaque thickening of cornea with veins]. It is found in Phoenicia. ASPHALTOS SUGGESTED: Bitumen — Asphalt — Mineral Pitch [1] udean bitumen is better than others. and which they falsely call Sicilian oil. It is warming and softening. It is also found (moist) swimming on wells in the country of the Agrigentines (Sicily) which they use for lamps instead of oil. Babylon and Zacynthus. Some have called the resin of the pine tree by the same name. smells good. The good dry pitch is pure. Sidon. growing into knobs which smell of pitch mixed with bitumen. for it is a kind of moist bitumen. and is golden underneath and resinous — such as the Lycian and Brutian which share the two natures of pitch and resin. but the black foul bitumen is worthless for it is adulterated with added pitch. fat. It is effective mixed with wound medicines.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK sort is dry. ZOPISSA SUGGESTED: Resin scraped off ships — Zopissa S J ome call the resin (which together with wax is scraped off ships) zopissa. T 99 .

also snakebites. close open cuts and sores. hip pains and pains of the side. and those troubled with asthma and difficult breathing. smelled. Furthermore. 1-73. arthritis and lethargy. white in colour.GUMS from TREES 1-101. and taken as a drink with vinegar it dissolves clots of blood. Pissasphaltos can do as much as pix [organic pitch] and bitumen mixed together. 1-102. or the smoke inhaled. and is effective for congested vulvae and prolapse when applied. It is given melted with barley water as a suppository to those troubled with dysentery. Taken as a drink with wine and castoreum [2-26] it draws out the menstrual flow. It attracts fire because it draws it to itself from a distance. and disperse and soften. It helps obstinate coughs. Properties of Asphaltos All bitumen is able to repress inflammation. which is strained Babylonian asphaltus. 4-116] they help frequent painful urination. KUPARISSOS SUGGESTED: Cupressus sempervirens — Cypress Cupressus funebris — Mourning Cypress. It cures dripping mucus if inhaled. Wrapped around teeth it soothes toothache. Weeping Cypress. Some is also found which is black. NAPHTHA SUGGESTED: Naptha — Bitumen — [3] Asphalt — Mineral Pitch T here is also some called naptha. Pills of it (bruised and taken as a drink with wine) are good for 100 T . Funereal Cypress he leaves of cypress bind and cool. it reveals those troubled with epilepsy if the smoke is inhaled like [burning] gagate [jet] stone. Taken as a drink with passum [raisin wine] and a little myrrh [1-77. wax and saltpetre [potassium nitrate] to help those troubled with podagra [gout]. Dry bitumen warmed with a continuous splashing (and so applied) retains hair. It is given to those troubled with colic as a catapotium [pill]. It is good for bathing eyes and for white spots on the cornea. A plaster of it is applied mixed with barley meal.

carbuncles [infected boils] [malignant skin tumours] and inflammation of the eyes. Pills of it (together with the filaments) placed smoking like a perfume [incense] are an insect repellant to drive away mosquitos. Juniperus communis — Juniper POISONOUS — WOOD SUGGESTED: Iuniperos ome juniper is bigger. The bark (burned and rubbed on with water) removes leprosy. but the scraping S Juniperus communis after FAGUET — 1880 101 . Boiled with vinegar and pounded into small pieces with lupins [2-132] it draws off rotten nails. diuretic and warming. and a little bitter to chew. It has sharp leaves. Brunfels] Juniperos vulgaris fructiosa [Bauhin]. and the poisons of venomous creatures. The leaves pounded into small pieces and applied as a poultice heal wounds. Pounded with figs it soothes hardness. It also staunches blood. as a result applied as a plaster and taken as a drink (or the juice taken with wine) they are good for those bitten by vipers. dysentery. A decoction of it does the same. griping. It is applied as a poultice either by itself or with polenta for erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. Pounded into small pieces with vinegar it dyes hair. the other equal to a bean — both round and fragrant. Either of the junipers [the bigger and the smaller] are sharp. excessive discharges from the bowels. One type of the fruit (called the juniper berry) is the size of a hazelnut. gaseousness. as a result it is good for convulsions and hernia. asthma and coughs. and cures polyps [protruding growths from mucus membrane] in the nostrils. ARKEOTHOS MEGALE. coughs. herpes [viral skin infection]. It is also diuretic. and when burned the fumes drive away snakes. sweet.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK bloody vomit. good for the stomach. It is mildly warming and astringent. some smaller. ARKEOTHOS MIKRA minor [Fuchs. and those who have congested or blocked wombs. 1-103. A poultice of it applied stops rupture of the intestines [hernia] and the leaves do the same. Mixed with a stiff ointment and applied it strengthens the stomach. Juniperus excelsa — Greek Juniper Arceuthinus [Latin]. good taken in drink for infirmities of the chest.

The lesser juniper some call archeuthis. they take away all blackness and foulness. Himalayan Cedar. Brathys. Taken as a drink with wine (as well as applied or by inhalation) they draw out blood through the urine. and the Romans call it herba sabina. Indian Cedar POISONOUS T 102 he cedar is a great tree from which cedria [oil of cedar] is gathered. 1-105. and sharp with a hot nature. which some call cypressus sylvestris. Similarly. and it is known to most like cypress growing for the most part in rough places and near the sea. some baryton. and drive out the birth. KEDROS. Juniperus sabina [Linnaeus]. and the Gauls jupicellusum. KEDROS MIKRA SUGGESTED: Cedrus libani. It has the same properties as the former. They are mixed with hot ointments and in particular with gleucinum [1-67]. some mnesitheus. Sabina folio tamarasci Dioscoridis [Bauhin]. the Egyptians libium. the Romans juniperus. BRATHUS SUGGESTED: Sabina [Fuchs]. the Africans zuorinsipet. There is a great juniper too. One has leaves like cypress. others. but is more prickly with a strong smell. Brathus [Latin]. Cedrus libanotica. and they break up carbuncles [infected boils]. some acatera. Larix cedrus — Cedar of Lebanon Cedar deodara. It has fruit like the cypress but much bigger. Larix deodara. Some use the leaves for perfume. Herba sabina — Savin. Some call it barathrum. Sabin T here are two kinds of savin. Pinus cedrus. The tree is short and extends itself mostly in breadth. The other kind has leaves like myrica [1-116]. There is another tree called cedar which is less . Applied as a poultice the leaves of either of them close stomas [openings] and alleviate inflammation. Abies cedrus. some. mnesitheus. applied as a plaster with honey. 1-104. Pina deodara — Deodar. acatalis.GUMS from TREES or dust of the wood (swallowed down) kills. and the Romans juniperus.

It is also mixed in antidotes. as a result some have called it the life of the dead. and it extracts the birth [abortifacient]. An oil is made of the moisture which is separated from the cedria [oil of cedar] by a fleece laid over it during boiling (as we have said in the chapter on pitch) good for the same purposes as cedria. dogs and oxen. A plaster of it applied with salt helps the bite of the horned viper. Dropped in with vinegar it kills worms in the ears. and it is taken in wine against the poison of sea hare [2-20]. and it helps elephantiasis [skin disease]. It is also good for eye medicines. It is warming and bad for the stomach but helps coughs. It takes away white spots and scars on the cornea. As much as a wine cupful of linctus [syrup] of it sipped (or the ointment applied) also purges ulcers of the lungs and cures them. and heals ulcers on those which came from shearing. and it helps inflammation of pus-filled tonsils. strongly rubbed in. Used with deer fat or bone marrow it repels snakes if the body is rubbed with it. Taken as a suppository it also kills ascaridae [threadworms] and other worms. The fruit of cedar is called cedrides. it dries out the menstrual flow. Dropped into the cavities of teeth it breaks the tooth but stops the pain. It does the same used as a mouthwash with vinegar. Rubbed on it kills lice and nits. poured out it falls by drops and is not diffused. clearing the sight when rubbed on. It corrupts cloths and skin because it heats and dries extraordinarily. The best cedria is thick and very clear with a strong scent. and when applied it kills ricinos [lice]. It helps for poison of the sea hare [2-20] taken in a drink with passum [raisin wine]. cures scabs on beasts. convulsions.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK prickly than juniper. Taken as a drink with pepper (pounded into small pieces). infused with a decoction of hyssop [3-30] it quietens their noise and hissing. The soot of it is gathered like that of pitch. bearing round fruit as big as myrtle berries. 105 . hernia and slow painful urination. Particularly the oil. Rubbed around the genitals before sexual union it causes sterility. It is able to decay living bodies and is a preservative of dead ones. Those who are troubled with angina are rubbed with it. and it has the same strength.

It is also called danaben. and is good for liver disorders — half a teaspoon taken as a drink with fragrant wine. The down of the leaves and filaments hurts the hearing and sight. and they remove vitiligines [form of leprosy]. but the bay berries heat more than the leaves. Used in animal fat they cure burns. asthma and dripping mucus around the chest. Ruscus hippoglossum. 106 T . and with those which disperse. They are good therefore taken in a linctus [syrup] (after they are pounded into small pieces) with honey or passum [raisin wine] for consumption [wasting disease]. Daphne-Alexandrina [Brunfels]. is an abortifacient. The bark of the root breaks stones [kidney.GUMS from TREES 1-106. Applied with barley flour and bread they are able to lessen any inflammation. mithrios. Ruscus hypoglossum [Linnaeus]. Both are warming and softening. PLATANOS SUGGESTED: Platanus orientalis — Oriental Plane he tender leaves of platanus (boiled in wine and applied as a poultice) stop discharges of the eyes. Roman Laurel S ome daphne [laurus] is found with a smaller leaf. The juice of the berries helps earache and hardness of hearing dropped into the ears with old wine and rosaceum [1-53]. They are also taken as a drink with wine against scorpion stings. DAPHNE SUGGESTED: Laurus-Alexandrina [Fuchs]. Pounded into small pieces and applied they are good for wasp and bee stings. some a broader. Horse Tongue. Baslingua — Laurel of Caesar [Mabberley]. or hypoglossion. Uvularia. The bark (boiled in vinegar) is a lotion for toothache. as a result a decoction of them is good as a hip bath for disorders of the vulva and bladder. Double Tongue Laurus nobilis — Sweet Bay. and alleviate oedema and inflammation. mythracice. 1-107. Laurel. urinary]. The green filaments (taken as a drink with wine) help those bitten by snakes. with hot ointments. Taken as a drink they make the stomach tender and provoke vomit. stephanos (as we should say a crown). The green leaves are somewhat astringent. It is mixed with recipes for medicines to remove fatigue. daphnos.

Pride of India. the leaves of which (and their juice) taken as a drink with wine (and applied as a poultice) help those bitten by vipers. Indian Lilac ? POISONOUS elia is a well-known tree. Melaleuca cajputi — Punk Tree. bruised small and rubbed on with honey. brings forth edible mushrooms at any time of the year. LEUKE SUGGESTED: Leucadendron argenteum. M 1-109. 109 . MELIA SUGGESTED: Melia azadirachta. Melia indica. The lukewarm juice of the leaves is good dropped in the ears for earache. and the leaves of it taken in a drink with wine (after the menstrual flow) are said to do the same. Some say that the bark of the white and the black leuke. Azadirachta indica — Persian Lilac. Myrtus leucadendron — Silver Tree Melaleuca leucadendron. Cajeput Oil Tree O ne ounce of the bark of the leuke tree (taken as a drink) helps sciatica [pains in hips. sciatic nerves] and slow painful urination. Taken as a drink with a mule’s kidney it is reported to take away conception [abortifacient]. but the thin membranous scales of the wood (taken in a drink) are reported to be deadly. cure moisture of the eyes. The filaments which put out at the first sprouting of the leaves. The bark burned and rubbed on with water removes leprosy. cut into pieces of a small size and scattered (or as it were sown) in beds that are dunged.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-108.

Shrubby Trefoil. dysentery. for it is flexible like a girdle. An owner [?uncia . as well as pounded into small pieces. MAKER SUGGESTED: Myristica moschata — Nutmeg Tree. a pale yellow. 1-111. put into linen and applied. It is taken as a drink for spitting-up blood. The same moisture. dried. SAPROTES XYLON SUGGESTED: Dry Rot T he rotten stuff like meal which is gathered out of old wood and stocks of trees cleans ulcers and brings them to scar when it is laid on them. It also stops serpentia [?snakebite] kneaded together with the same amount of anise [3-65] and wine. 1-112. The leaves. Mace bark is a yellow-saffron colour M acer is a bark brought out of Barbary.ounce] of the thicker bark (taken in a drink with wine or cold water) expels phlegm. The moisture which is found in the bladders [undeveloped fruit] at their first sprouting clears the face when rubbed on it. consolidates by drawing a callum [hard skin] over the fracture of a bone sooner. are good for leprosy and heal wounds. applied with hot cloths. branches and bark of ptelea are all astringent. A decoction of the leaves or bark of the roots. thick and according to the taste very astringent. PTELEA [modern usage] Ptelea trifoliata — Hop Tree. pounded into small pieces with vinegar and so applied. but especially the bark. and excessive discharges of the bowels. if it is wrapped around like a bandage. 110 . Wafer Ash [exotic] UNKNOWN T he leaves. The newlyemerged leaves are used for sauce like vegetables.GUMS from TREES 1-110. is formed into little creatures like gnats.

The seed (taken as a drink with vinegar) is good for epilepsy. the other is the female from which bindings are made for the tibia [pipe or flute]. and pains of the loins [digestive or procreative. Bamboo. The bark (burned and applied with vinegar) cures alopecia [baldness]. AIGEIROS SUGGESTED: Aegiceras majus— River Mangrove ALSO: Astragalus aegiceras see 4-62 T he leaves of aigeiros applied with vinegar help gouty pains. KALAMOS NASTOS. called chrysophorum by some. very knotty. fit for writing books [paper]. Another is thick and hollow. Dutch Reed Calamus rotang — Rattan Cane. crumbled and applied either by itself or with bulbus [2-200]) draws out splinters and thorns. and its resin is mixed with softening medicines. inclined to whiteness. known to all — whose root (bruised. 1-114. This yields a sweet smell when rubbed and looks like gold. It soothes limbs that are out of joint. Another is called phragmites — thin. called donax and cypria by some. Another is called syringias — with much flesh [or pith]. Chair-bottom Cane Syringia vulgaris — Common Lilac. Arundo phragmites. The 113 O . SURIGGIOS. Arundo donax — Giant Reed. Pipe Tree ne kind of calamus from which arrows are made is called nastos.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-113. lower torso] with vinegar. The green leaves (pounded and applied) heal erysipela [streptococcal skin infection] and other inflammations. Ground finely and taken as a drink it stops excessive discharges of the stomach and bowels. DONAX. Bamboo Reed. It is also reported that the oozing which trickles down from them near the river Padus grows hard and becomes amber. Arundo vulgaris — Common Reed. Cane Bambusa arundinacea — Common Bamboo Phragmites communis. growing around rivers. PHRAGMITES SUGGESTED: Dendrocalamus strictus — Male Bamboo Donax arundinaceus.

but it bears fruit like a gall [excrescence on oak trees]. 1-115. suck out the juice.GUMS from TREES paniculae flos [flowers] of the calami [reeds] falling into the ears cause deafness. Straightened and put in the fistula it is filled with moisture. Paper Reed P apyrus from which paper is made is known to everyone. MURIKE. Some of it is planted in gardens in Egypt — in other things like the wild. restrains erosive ulcers in the mouth and other places. Myrica gale after FAGUET —. of a mossy consistency. Tamarix gallica.1880 yrica or myrris is a well-known tree. MURRIS Tamarix sylvestris. burnt until it turns it into ashes. It is prepared (steeped in some liquid) and a linen thread tied around it until it is dry. SUGGESTED: Tamarix. Papyrus. murrha. those who have a flowing-forth from the vulva or sickness of the M 114 . Tamarix sylvestris foemina [Fuchs]. with a fruit as a flower. Papyrus antiquorum — Papyrus. Nile Papyrus. The harundo [reed] called cypria has a similar effectiveness. It has particular use in medicine for opening the mouth of fistulas [tubular ulcers]. myrrha . unequally astringent to the taste. eyes and spitting of blood. Tamarix germanica [Linnaeus]. but burnt paper does this better. It is given in drink to women troubled with colic. Myricaria germanica — Tamarisk [other usage] Sweet Gale — Myrica gale Murra. Tamarix myrica. The root is somewhat nourishing. 1-116. PAPUROS SUGGESTED: Cyperus papyrus. They also use it instead of wood. and used instead of galls in medicines for the mouth.a substance from which precious vases and other vessels are made. growing in marshy grounds and standing waters. As a result the Egyptians chew it. and spit out that which they have chewed. Tamarix fructiosa folio crassiove sive Germanica [Bauhin] Tamarix articulata. and upon swelling it opens the fistula.

Ribes grossularia [Mabberley] — Gooseberry [other usage] Common Buckthorn. The leaves and flowers applied as a poultice heal snakebites. 1-119. Ribes uva-crispa [Linnaeus]. similar to the fruit of the myrica [1-116]. E 1-118. RAMNOS TRISSUS SUGGESTED: Uva-crispa [Fuchs].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK head. There are some who make cups from the wood which they use for those troubled with spleen (as though the drink given them from such cups should do them good). and for those bitten by phalangii [harvest spiders]. Erica vulgaris glabra [Bauhin]. Purging Buckthorn — Rhamnus catharticus R hamnus is a shrub (growing around hedges) with upright stems and sharp thorns like oxyacantha. 1-117. EREIKA SUGGESTED: Erice [Fuchs]. For hip baths it is good for women troubled with a discharge of fluids from the vulva. Calluna vulgaris [in Sprague] — Heath rica is a shrubby tree like myrica [1-116] (but a great deal smaller) the flowers of which the bees use. Applied as a poultice it stops oedema. A decoction of the leaves (taken as a drink with wine) melts the spleen. thick and soft. and gargled in the mouth it helps toothache. A dilution of it is mixed with eye medicines which are good for sharpening the sight. There 117 . and a heated rub of it is good for those with lice and nits. The bark does the same things. Spinosa sylvestris [Bauhin]. Grossularia simplici acino. somewhat long. AKAKALIS UNKNOWN A cacalis is the fruit of a shrub growing in Egypt. but they make honey with it that is not good. as well as the fruit. Ash from the wood (applied) stops flows from the uterus. and the leaves are small.

It is said that the branches laid in gates or windows drive away the enchantments of witches. It is also called damassonium. and it is good against headaches.] It is also called persephonion. yet they are broader and more tender. heliostephanon. a little inclined to red. erymon. The leaves of all of them are effective rubbed on for erysipelas [inflammatory skin disease] and herpes [viral skin infection]. and the Africans call it atadin. Pythagoras calls it anthenoron. the Romans call it spina alba. white and thin. 1-120. basilion. Sea Orach see 2-145 alimus is a hedge-shrub like rhamnus [above] — somewhat white. with long stems of five feet and more. it is effective against poison and mischief. The leaves almost resemble those of the olive tree. asontiri. with its hairs less strong and stiff. and some. ALIMOS SUGGESTED: Atriplex halimus. and causes an abundance of milk [in breastfeeding]. asphe. and it is good for beasts to carry it around them. The leaves are boiled like vegetables with meat. the Romans. ampelucia. rabdion. and a third having darker and broader leaves. or leucacantha. a sort of corona of the sun or sacer caulis. [If anyone picks up rhamnus while the moon is decreasing and holds it. It grows in maritime places and hedges. asealuri. One teaspoon of the root (taken as a drink with honey and water) alleviates convulsions.GUMS from TREES is another besides this that is paler. osiridis diadema. spina cerualis. and for it to be put around ships. some. or a sort of regia. or asariphen. or sapsis. others. hernias and griping. the Egyptians. The fruit of it is broad. some. thorny. H 118 . without filaments. The Magi call it mercurii basis. Chenopodium halimus — Sea Purslane. and against devils and their assaults. albucus. some. britannica. shaped like a little pouch or whorl. a sort of little twig.

OXUAKANTHA SUGGESTED: Oxyacantha. Berberis vulgaris [Linnaeus] — Barberry [other usage] Lac Sumach — Rhus oxyacantha Hawthorn. and is good against poison and the bites of venomous beasts. and a deep root divided into many parts. red. Berberis dumetorum [Bauhin]. The root pounded into small pieces and applied as a plaster dissolves all new tubercula [nodules] and oedema. Dog Briar C ynosbatus [dogs’ bush] (also called oxyacantha) is a shrub much bigger than a common bush — almost the size of a tree. It bears leaves a great deal broader than 121 . Cynobatus. the stomach being touched gently with it or rubbed with it. Berberis [Fuchs]. a decoction of them (taken as a drink) regulates the bowels. breaks stones [urinary] in the bladder.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-121. It bears a fruit like myrtle — full. Rosa canina — Dog Rose. P 1-122. 1-123. or pytyanthe. The leaves and root are therefore astringent. KUNOSBATON SUGGESTED: Rubus caninus. White Thorn. Paliurus spina-Christi. The fat seed is found blackened with fungus. Rhamnus paliurus — Christ's Thorn. PALIOUROS australis. prickly and strong. May Bush. Taken in a drink it helps coughs. Canker Flower. draws out urine. It is said that the root is able to cause abortions. Taken in a drink or eaten. It is also called pyrina. Paliurus aliurus is a well-known shrub. but smaller and very prickly. The root bruised small and applied draws out splinters and thorns. Quick — Crataegus oxyacantha O xyacantha is a tree like a wild pear tree. Jerusalem Thorn. easily broken — with a kernel within. Garland Thorn SUGGESTED: Paliurus aculeatus. the fruit stops stomach outflows and the flows of women. and is good for the stings of snakes. Hiprose.

Egyptian Privet yprus is a tree with leaves on the sprigs like the olive. The best grows in Ascalon and Canopus. It has a sweet smell which it adds to hot medicines when it is mixed with them. The leaves are astringent. Lawsonia alba — Henna. Jasmine Box P hillyrea is a tree like cyprus [1-124] in size. C 1-123. but broader. PHILLUREA SUGGESTED: Phillyrea latifolia — Mock Privet. as a result they are chewed to help ulcers in the mouth. 1-124. Lawsonia inermis. The leaves are astringent like those of the wild olive [1-37]. The flowers (pounded into small pieces and applied the forehead with vinegar) cause headaches to cease.GUMS from TREES myrtle. When this is ripe it grows red and the stuff within is downy. white flowers. Its leaves are like those of the olive tree but broader and darker. and the seed black like the fruit of sambucus [4-174]. lying in bunches like grapes. effective for things that need astringency especially ulcers in the mouth. the flowers white and mossy with a sweet smell. either chewed or the sores washed with a decoction of it. Cypre. The leaves. pounded into small pieces. 122 . The dried fruit stops discharges from the intestines (the downy stuff of it is taken out for this is worthless for the arteries). and somewhat long fruit like the kernel of the olive. somewhat sweet. are steeped in the juice of struthium [2-193] and rubbed on to dye the hair yellow. softer and greener. KUPROS SUGGESTED: Cyprus. and has strong hairs around the sprigs. A decoction of them is used as a warm pack for those burnt by fire. It has fruit like the lentisk [1-90] — black. and applied as a poultice they cure all other hot inflammations and carbuncles [malignant tumours]. The ointment cyprinum [1-65] that is prepared from it becomes heating and softens the tendons. It grows in rough places. Taken as a drink it draws out urine and the menstrual flow. It is made hot in wine and taken as a drink.

C 1-127. or women's excessive discharges — taken either as a drink or infused. 1-128. some green. Helianthemum vulgare — Common Rockrose. or cytinus by some. It is a shrub growing in the same way as cistus. It is similar in strength to acacia. and do other things to it in the same way as lycium [1-132]. rough leaves. then steep and boil it. The Africans call it phyllesade. yet more astringent and drying — good for those troubled with colic. Ladanum Resin Tree Cistus ledon — Many-flavoured Gum Cistus SUGGESTED: Ladanum. Sunrose Cistus creticus. 125 . as a result the flowers (pounded into small pieces and taken as a drink twice a day in sharp wine) are good for dysentery. It is called robethrum. UPOKISTIS ETERA SUGGESTED: Cytinus hypocistis — Hypocistis parasitic plant — contains gallic acid H ypocistis grows around the roots of the cistus [rock roses] like cytinus on the pomegranate. Cistus T here is also another kind of cistus. Helianthemum chamaecistus. Cistus vulgaris. LADANON ladaniferus. but the female are white. KUSTOS THELUS SUGGESTED: Cistus ellipticus. Some of it is yellow.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-126. Cistus polymorphus — Cretan Rockrose istus (also called cistharon or cissaron) is a shrub which grows in rocky places. black. UPOKUSTIS. dysentery. The flowers of the male are like the pomegranate. but some dry and break it. It has an astringent quality. called ledum by some. blood-spitting. It is juiced like acacia. KUSTOS ARREN. Labdanum. Applied as a poultice by themselves they stop gangrenous ulceration of the cheeks. Cistus creticus — Gum Cistus. some white. and with a stiff ointment they heal burns and old ulcers. It has many low branches full of round.

That which is new when put on fire is quickly kindled because of its fat. easily softened. biting to the taste and gently astringent. 4-116] and oil of myrtle. The strength of the leaves is astringent. Taken as a drink with old wine it stops discharges of the bowels. acquiring some fat in the spring. fat. and opens closely-touching [blood] vessels. EBENOS Ceylon Ebony Ebenus cretica. Rubbed on with wine it makes scars look more handsome. strained. and it turns somewhat yellow on a whetstone. and mixed in a pessary it cures hard lumps in the womb. That which we call ladanum is made from this plant. as smooth as a horn that has been polished — which shows thick [close or compact] when broken. cough medicines and warm compresses. It prevents hair falling out [alopecia] mixed with wine. fashioned into little balls and stored. myrrh [1-77. Anthyllis cretica — Cretan Silver Bush SUGGESTED: Diospyros ebenum — he Ethiopian ebenus [ebony] is best — black. It cures earache dropped in the ears with honey water or rosaceum [1-53]. darker leaves. Some draw little cords across the shrubs. is somewhat green. It is astringent. warming and softening. The he-goats and she-goats feed on the leaves of it and evidently carry away the fat from them on their beards and thighs because it has a viscous nature. without veins. This is taken off. doing all the things that cistus does. There is another (called Indian) with streaks of white and yellow running between as well as many spots. It is effective in pain-relievers. They are known by this: — they are hollow like a sponge. take off the greasy matter that adheres to them and shape it. Laid on coals and burnt like incense it yields a sweet smell without smoke. The smoke is inhaled to expel the afterbirth. and it is also diuretic. 1-129. 1-73. Some sell the wood of sesame and acanthus (because they are somewhat similar) as ebenus. But the former is better.GUMS from TREES but it has longer. without sand — not foul and resinous such as that growing in Cyprus — but the Arabic and Libyan has less value. and are formed into small pieces inclining to a purple colour with nothing biting in the 126 T . The best has a sweet smell.

The part of the flower that is found in the middle of the roses (dried and sprinkled on) is good for gum discharges. rectum and vulva. then sift it and proceed in the same way. intestine. moistness of the stomach and erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. applied with a feather or washed with the liquid.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK taste nor sweet-smelling when burnt. 129 R . They are put in compositions called antherae [medicines extracted from flowers] and in wound antidotes. They must be turned over now and then least otherwise they putrefy or grow mouldy. first cutting off that which is called the nail (which is the white that is in the petal). Roses (dried and pounded into small pieces) are sprinkled on the thighs. Some use water instead of wine. and the rest must be pounded and pounded in the shade in a mortar until it becomes thick. and dried roses are more astringent. Rosa gallica [Linnaeus] — Common Rose. 1-130. It is made into eye medicines: the scrapings or dust from it steeped in Chian [from Scios in the Aegean sea] wine for a day and a night. It is also burnt in a new ceramic jar until it becomes coals. and then put in jars for eye salves or suppositories. boiled and applied. ears and gums. Ebenus cleans away things which darken the pupils of the eyes. Some beat it first. This is good for itching eyes and dry inflammation of the eyes. Rosa hortensis et sylvestris [Fuchs]. RHODON SUGGESTED: Rosa. and pain of the perineum. Rosa rubra [Bauhin]. and it is good for old discharges and pustules. and uses it to rub eye salves or suppositories on they will work better. then carefully pounded and converted into eye salves or suppositories. They are burnt for medicines to make the eyelids look pleasing. are good for inflammation of the area below the ribs. The same (without straining) bruised. If anyone makes a grinding pad of it. Dried roses (boiled in wine and strained) are good for headaches. and is then washed like burnt lead [5-96]. as well as the eyes. The heads [hips] (taken in a drink) stop loose intestines and blood-spitting. The juice must be pressed out of them whilst they are still young. French Rose odon [roses] cool and are astringent. The leaves are also dried in the shade.

Then it is boiled. Lycia and many other places. tightly corked all around. It loves rough places. Some also add two teaspoons of costus [1-15] and as much Illyrian iris. Rosa. similar to box. and many winding and woody roots. or an ox gall. smooth. thick. dried in the shade. also mixing in Chian [from Scios in the Aegean sea] wine with honey. It has a black fruit similar to pepper — bitter. It is counterfeited by the sediment of oil being mixed with it when boiled. The juice is drawn out of the leaves and shrubby stuff. Rosa sylvestris [Fuchs].GUMS from TREES 1-131. Rosa rubra [Bauhin]. Rhamnus infectorius [Matthiolus] — Spear-leaved Box Thorn L ycium (also called pyxacantha) is a thorny tree with stems of three feet or longer around which the leaves grow thickly. pounded together and steeped for many days. and stored in a jar made without pitch. a pale bark also similar when moistened. Take forty teaspoonfuls of fresh roses (which are beginning to fade) before they have absorbed any moisture. LUKION SUGGESTED: Lycium europaeum — European Box Thorn Lycium lanceolatum. Rosa gallica [Linnaeus] — Pomanders of Roses. Rosa hortensis. the woody matter of it removed. RHODIDES SUGGESTED: Rhodides. and when they have dried on the skin they are washed off with cold water. dulling the unsavoury smell of sweat. It grows abundantly in Cappadocia. These are pounded into small pieces and made into little balls the size of half a teaspoonful. 4-116]. or the juice of wormwood [3-26]. and the liquid boiled again until it becomes the consistency of honey. The froth which swims on top during boiling is taken off and bottled for eye 130 . ten teaspoonfuls of Indian nard [1-6] and six teaspoonfuls of myrrh [1-77. Common Rose. This is used around women’s necks instead of necklaces. They use the same (pounded into small pieces) in medicines made to repress sweat. 1-132. French Rose P omanders of roses (which they call rhodides) are made in the following way. and in ointments to rub on after bathing. 1-73.

It is a thornbush with many branches. Mimosa gummifera. AKAKIA SUGGESTED: Acacia. It heals hangnails. shingles and putrefying ulcers. whitlows. tonsils. and affritus [chafing] of the perineum. Acacia gummifera. It is said that the Indian lycium is made of a shrub called lonchitis [3-161. Boiled in vinegar and taken as a drink it is said to cure inflammation of the spleen and sickness of the head. chapped lips. thicker than the bush. taken as a drink with milk or swallowed down like pills. But it is a kind of thorn that has many upright stems. and is an antidote against deadly medicines. juice is made from the fruit pressed out and left in the sun. growing almost to the size of a tree. without a stinking smell. the broken bark looking red but the leaves similar to those of the olive tree. and those troubled with coughs. 3-162]. Acacia arabica. growing out of the bottom. Mimosa catechu. One half-wineglass of the seed (taken in drink) purges out watery matter. their itching and old discharges. Acacia nilotica. It is good for those troubled with colic and dysentery either taken as a drink or given as a suppository. Akakia. It is astringent and removes things that darken the pupils. Rubbed on it is good for pus-filled ears. and to expel women’s flows. Mimosa catechoides — Black Cutch. and is swallowed down like pills or taken as a drink with water for one bitten by a mad dog. three feet long or more. Given raw (pounded into small pieces) and taken in a drink it is said to have a similar effect. Similarly. It does 133 . It stops the menstrual flows of women. It is outwardly black but when it is cut yellow. cracks in the perineum. but the rest is used for other purposes. It helps those bitten by mad beasts.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK medicines. Mimosa arabica. It makes hair look yellow. Acacia stenocarpia — Gum Arabic Acacia catechu. Kutch [Catcho or Kat 16th century] A cacia grows in Egypt. Acacia senegal. the colour of saffron — such as the Indian which is better than the rest and more effective. ulcerous gums. astringent with bitterness. It is given in water to those who spit-up blood. It heals scabs on the eyelids. 1-133. The best lycium takes fire and as it is quenched has a red foam.

A decoction of the thorns closes together loose joints applied with hot cloths. it has a white flower. AMORGE SUGGESTED: Amurca — Sediment of Olive Oil A 134 murca is the sediment of oil which has been pressed out and boiled in a jar made of Cyprian brass until it is the consistency of honey. or honeyed . next to this is the white gum. From this a juice is pressed out and dried in the shade. Choose that which is a little yellow.GUMS from TREES not grow upright. It looks black if it is made of the ripe fruit. erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. It is able to close pores and dull the strength of sharp medicines with which it is mixed. transparent. That which coalesces is then poured out (until the water remains clean) and is made up into little balls. vinegar. ulcers of the mouth. and rubbed on with wine. It is burnt on coals. The gum of the thorns is the best — which is vermiculatum — resembling glass. The juice of this (drawn out of the whole plant) is therapeutic for the bowels. growing low and being more tender. Pounded with water it is a wash for eye diseases. in pods joined together each containing three or four seeds apiece. not woody. It is therapeutic for the bowels. but that which is resinous and foul is useless. but a pale yellow if it is made of the unripe. as far as is fit in acacia. It is burnt in an unfired clay jar in a furnace until the jar itself is thoroughly burned. pterygium [membrane on eye]. Another acacia grows in Cappadocia and Pontus. but is of less strength and useless in eye medicines. and the fruit lies in pods like lupin [2-132]. There is also a gum that comes out of this thorn which is astringent and cooling. the fire kept kindled with bellows. surrounded crosswise with filaments. creeping sores. Daubed on with an egg it does not allow burns to break out into pustules. 1-134. and falling [sunken] eyes. chilblains. The juice is good for eye diseases. similar to the Egyptian but a great deal smaller. Some juice the leaves together with the fruit. It stops the flows of women as well as prolapse of the vulva. In the autumn it bears seed somewhat smaller than lentil. 3-53]. and having leaves similar to rue [3-52. It is therapeutic for the bowels taken as a drink or a suppository. sweet-smelling. and it dyes hair black.

growing near and in watery fields and in rough and uneven places. others purple flowers. A teaspoonful (taken as a drink in wine) brings down milk [breastfeeding] and expels the menstrual flow. Growing old it becomes better. and those with dropsy. The seeds smeared on with water lessen cracks in the perineum. Put onto a fleece and applied on those who have dropsy it represses the swelling. The leaves either smoked and inhaled or scattered around drive away venomous creatures. 1-135. Used without boiling and new in a warm pack it assists those troubled with gout in their feet and joints. It is thought to be a preventative for chafing and blisters if anyone (as he 137 A . boiled to the consistency of honey with unripe olive oil and smeared around them.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK wine is as effective as lycium [1-132] for toothaches and wounds. It is hard to break and the leaves are similar to those of the olive tree yet more tender and bigger. and applied as a poultice they help those stung by such beasts. Taken as an infusion it is good for the perineum. It destroys generation [birth control] and is rubbed on the head bringing on a deep sleep. AGNOS SUGGESTED: Vitex agnus-castus — Agnus Castus. 3-11]. A decoction of the herb and seed is good as a hip bath for disorders and inflammation around the womb. the splenetic. and ulcerated vulvas. It is mixed with medicines that are good for the eyes and for closing pores. the genitals. Chaste-tree gnus [vitex] is a shrub almost as high as a tree bearing long sprigs. Some of them bear white flowers inclining to purple. The seed (taken in a drink with pulegium [3-36]. Hemp Tree. and the seed is like that of pepper. and with the leaves it heals dislocated joints and wounds. and is gently poured on the lethargic and mentally ill with vinegar and oil. It heals scabs on beasts [veterinary] rubbed on with a decoction of lupins [2-132] and chamaeleon [3-10. It is warming and astringent and the fruit (taken as a drink) helps those stung by snakes. It extracts spoiled teeth. Applied with butter and vine leaves they soothe hardness of the testes [old English: ovaries]. It dissolves headaches applied as a poultice. or the smoke inhaled or applied) causes purgation.

the Egyptians call it sum. and a decoction of them is an excellent warm pack for gout. or tridactylon. A juice is taken from it at the time of its flowering. It has the ability to clean away things that darken the pupils. the Magi call it semnon. and some. ITEA SUGGESTED: Primum salicis genus.GUMS from TREES travels) holds a rod of it in his hand. and the bark does the same. amictomiaenon. 138 . 1-136. Salix repens [Linnaeus] — Creeping Willow [Mabberley] [other usage] Itea ilicifolia. It also cleans away scurf [eczema]. Itea virginica. Taken by themselves with water they cause inconception [birth control]. Itea riparia I tea is a tree known to all whose fruit. bark and juice are astringent. leaves. the bark being cut. It is also called agonon (as we should say. The fruit (taken in a drink) is good for those who spit blood. for it is found coalesced within. and it is called lygos (that is. a sort of venerandum [to be respected]. vimen) because of the difficulty of breaking the stems. The juice from the leaves and bark warmed with rosaceum [1-53] in a cup of malum punicum [pomegranate] helps sores in the ears. ligusticum. salix marina. or lygon. It is called agnus because in the sacrifices to Ceres the chaste matrons used it for sprinkling under them. others call it piper agreste. Salix purpurea. rubbed on them. unfruitful or barren). Salix vitellina. the Romans. it is also called sanguis ibis. The leaves pounded into small pieces and taken in a drink with a little pepper and wine help those troubled with iliaca passio [painful intestinal obstruction]. Burnt and steeped in vinegar it takes away calluses and corns. a sort of vimen [producing long flexible shoots]. Alterum salicis genus [Fuchs].

calcined powder) are burnt together with the flowers in an unfired clay jar the mouth of which must be well sealed until the jar is thoroughly baked. As a result put into eye salves they are good for ulcers of the eyelids. It is good for ulcerous ears that are full of discharges. then kneaded together again with wine and burnt in the same way. Afterwards they are quenched with wine. as a result it is to be considered of equal strength. The leaves (and this serves instead of spodium. The leaves smeared on with barley meal are good for coeliac [intestinal complaints]. make it up into little balls. as well as ulcers and old dripping fluids. Oil Tree. hangnails and whitlows. Smoke Tree he wild olive tree (also called cotinon or the Ethiopian olive tree) has leaves of an astringent nature which — pounded into small pieces and so applied — are able to restrain erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. the flows of women. They clean foul ulcers and dispel pain and inflammation. They also heal ulcers in the mouth and apthae [thrush in children or candidiasis] when chewed. The juice applied stops eruption of the blood. epinyctis [pustules which appear only at night]. shingles [herpes]. staphylomata [inflammatory protrusion of the cornea] in the eyes. That which is strained out with wine is far stronger and fitter to be kept in store than that which is strained out with water. AGRIELAIA SUGGESTED: Olea europaea var oleaster — Wild Olive Elaeagnus angustifolia— Oleaster. 141 T . Their juice and a decoction of them does the same. and (applied with honey) to take away scabs. then strain it out. and pustules [pus under skin]. To extract the juice you must beat the leaves into small pieces and pour in wine or water. Zakkoum Oil Plant Elaeis guineensis — Oil Palm Cotinus coggyria. Afterwards they are washed like cerussa [white lead ore] and made up into balls. and having dried it in the sun. It seems that burnt like this it comes nothing short of spodium [calcined powder] for eye medicines.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-137. Applied with honey they retain skin that was torn on the head. gangrenous ulceration. carbuncles [malignant tumours]. Rhus cotinus — Venetian Sumach.

and it settles loose teeth. parasitic skin diseases and lichen [papular skin disease]. 1-139.GUMS from TREES 1-138. ELAIA SUGGESTED: Olea europaea — Olive T he leaves of the cultivated olive are good for the same purposes but have less strength — as a result they are better for eye medicines because of their mildness. as well as hurtful to the eyes and a cause of headaches. AGRIELAIA ELAION SUGGESTED: Olea europaea var oleaster — Wild Olive he oil of the wild olive is a mouth rinse for moist rotten gums. and emarginates [removes the edge of] carbuncles [infected boils] [malignant skin tumours]. The moisture which comes out of the burnt green wood (rubbed on) heals dandruff. and they clean foul ulcers. The olive which is pale yellow and new is worthless for the intestines but good for the stomach. A warm pack of it warmed and used as a mouthwash is a suitable medicine for rheumatic gums. That which is within the kernel pulls off scabby nails used with animal fat and corn meal. That which is black and ripe is easily spoiled and bad for the stomach. Olive ickled olives pounded into small pieces and applied as a poultice will not allow burns to grow into blisters. T 142 . ELAIA KOLUMBADES SUGGESTED: Olea europaea — Pickled Olives. but wool dipped into the oil must be placed around the gums with an instrument until they look white.The liquid of the brine used as a mouthwash strengthens gums and loose teeth. P 1-140. The fruit applied as a poultice heals dandruff and gangrenous ulceration of the cheeks. Roasted and applied as a poultice it prevents gangrenous ulceration.

T 1-142. It induces the movement of urine and the menstrual flow. and cures impetigo [skin infection] and lepra [old use — psoriasis]. and to blood-spitters. DAKRUON ELAIAS AITHIOPIKES SUGGESTED: Olea europaea var oleaster — Wild Olive Elaeagnus angustifolia— Oleaster. dysentery. Smoke Tree The third pressing of olive oil is also called tree oil. Quercus sessiflora — Oak ach part of the oak is astringent. DRUS SUGGESTED: Quercus cum longo pediculo [Bauhin]. and rubbed on it cleans scars and white spots on the cornea of the eyes. The olive tree and wild olive tree bear such a gum as this. It is categorised among medicines that are destructive.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-141. and pounded into small pieces it is put into suppositories for women troubled with excessive discharges of the womb. That which is similar to gum and ammoniacal — blackish. Rhus cotinus — Venetian Sumach. Oil Tree. It is good for moisture of the sight. and it is effective for toothache put into the cavities. A decoction of this is given for coeliac [intestinal complaints]. he oozing of the Ethiopian olive tree in a way resembles scammony. it expels the birth. and not biting to the taste — is useless. Quercus pedunculata. The wild olive tree is also called the Ethiopian olive tree. Zakkoum Oil Plant Elaeis guineensis — Oil Palm Cotinus coggyria. E 145 . but the film which lies between the bark and the stock (similar to that under the cup of the acorn) is most therapeutic for the bowels. It is a deep yellow consisting of little drops of a biting nature. Quercus robur [Linnaeus].

GUMS from TREES 1-143. Quercus cerris. Quercus sessiflora. Quercus pedunculata. Oak Quercus ilex. 146 . have similar effects. but also help poisonous bites. 1-144. Quercus ballota — Holm Oak. Quercus ballota — Holly Oak Quercus infectoria. Eaten as meat they cause headaches and are wind-inducing. Quercus lusitanica — Gall Oak. Quercus coccifera — Acorns. Great Scarlet Oak The fagus of Virgil was the Quercus aesculus [Loudon]. The leaves of all of them bruised and pounded into small pieces help oedema. F egus and prinus. The unripe ones pounded into small pieces and applied as a poultice relieve inflammation. Quercus aegilops. and strengthen feeble parts. Dyer’s Oak. BALANOI robur. With salted swines’ grease they are good for malignant calluses and injurious ulcers. It is first made clean with Cimolian earth [5-176]. A decoction of them and their bark (taken as a drink with cows' milk) helps poisoning. Nut Gall Oak Quercus robur after FAGUET — 1880 SUGGESTED: Quercus A corns produce the same effects as they are also diuretic. and the bark of the root of prinus boiled in water until it becomes tender and rotten and applied for a whole night dyes the hair black. both a kind of oak. PHEGOS. Those of the ilex [holly oak — Quercus ilex] have greater strength than those of the oak. PRINOS SUGGESTED: Fagus sylvatica — Common Beech. European Beech Tree [Pliny] Prinus.

The flesh is good for those who drink ephemerum [4-85] [antidote]. castana. heavy and without a hole. or to stop or dry. Castanea vesca. of things that are good for people). knobby. or first boiled whole in water (with which you must boil something else too. Castanea vulgaris — Chestnut. and especially the loose skins between the flesh and the shell. That which is in the middle of them put into the cavities of teeth eases the pain. Castanea sylvestris [Bauhin]. Pounded into small pieces they stop abnormal growths of the flesh. as well as ulcers of the mouth. Gall Oak. and stop discharges of the gums and the middle ear. or brine made with vinegar they are able to staunch blood.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK FRUIT from TREES 1-145. vinegar. A decoction of them is good in hip baths for a prolapsed uterus and for discharges. 149 . 1-146. Either of them is strongly astringent. KASTANA SUGGESTED: Castanea [Fuchs]. mota or Jupiter’s acorns) being astringent also have the same effects [as other astringents]. Quercus infectoria — Dyer’s Oak. They are good for coeliac [intestinal complaints] and dysentery pounded into small pieces and rubbed on. and also mixed with sauce. KEKIDES SUGGESTED: Quercus lusitanica. Sweet Chestnut T he Sardian nuts (also called lopima. of which some is called omphacitis. you ought to make use of them. It is little. Fagus castanea [Linnaeus]. or taken as a drink with wine or water. Castanea sativa. They make the hair black steeped in vinegar or water. Generally where there is need of an astringent. Laid on hot coals until they are set on fire and quenched with wine. Nut Gall Oak C ecides [galla] is a fruit of the oak. but the omphacitis ought to be chosen as it is the most effective. Some is smooth and light and has a hole in it.

ROUS SUGGESTED: Rhus coriaria — Tanning Sumach hus (which is sprinkled among sauces and also called erythrum) is the fruit of rhus coriaria. That which encloses the fruit is very useful. The fruit does the same things (being food) in mixing it with meat for coeliac [intestinal complaints] and dysentery. It prevents the excessive discharges called whites [leucorrhoea — a mucosal vaginal discharge] and cures haemorrhoids. applied with oak coals pounded into small pieces. The boiled liquid of this fruit gathers a cream that is better for these purposes than the fruit itself. which is called this because tanners use it for thickening their hides. The leaves applied as a poultice with vinegar or honey stop pterygium [membrane on the eye] and gangrene. Applied as a plaster with water it prevents inflammation of fractures. R Rhus coraria after FAGUET — 1878 150 . The leaves are astringent and good for the same purposes as acacia. the leaves somewhat long and red. The fruit is like little bunches of grapes — thick.FRUIT from TREES 1-147. the size of that of terminthos [1-91]. and blueness of wounds. and somewhat broad. A decoction dyes the hair black. It also leaves a gum which is put into the cavities of teeth to take away their pain. hip bath. The juice of the dried leaves boiled with water to the consistency of honey are as useful for as many things as lycium [1-132]. It is a little tree which grows on rocks — two feet high. and is a suppository for dysentery. It is a liquid medicine. desquamation or skin peeling. It cleans rough tongues with honey. jagged all around. and an instillation for discharges of the ears.

seeds] heal roughness of the arteries if eaten. and taken with old honey water it restores the strength. It is a green colour. It is sour and astringent and is taken in a drink with hard wine for discharges from tooth sockets and the menstrual flows of women. the stomach. and similar to cydonium [1-160] in smell. PHOINIX SUGGESTED: Poma. PHOINIKES THEBAIKAI SUGGESTED: Hyphaene thebaica. A wine is also made of it that has the same strength as the fruit. T 1-149. It stops haemorrhoids and glues wounds together if it is rubbed on. A decoction taken as a drink alone (and gargled up and down as well) is strongly astringent. Eaten with meat it does the same. Gingerbread Tree A drink of a decoction of the Thebaean palm relieves a fever’s burning heat. Fresh dates are more astringent than dried. It is similar to the Arabic myrobalan [1-40. The fruit is gathered in the autumn. The seeds of the dates are burnt in a new ceramic jar like all others are. Hyphaene coccifera. Dried dates eaten with meat are good for blood-spitting. 4-160] and it is called poma. They cause headaches and if eaten in too great an abundance with meat they inebriate. Date Palm Phoenix sylvestris — Wild Palm he palm tree grows in Egypt. It is pounded into small pieces with cydonium [1-160] and the waxy ointment oenanthinum [from vine shoots or blossoms] and rubbed on for disorders of the bladder. Corypha thebaica. the ripening time being half over. They are astringent and close 153 . then quenched and washed in wine. Douma thebaica — Doum Palm. The caryotae [pips. but if it is left alone until it comes to the full ripeness it becomes dates. Coccifera thebaica. and dysentery. They serve well instead of spodium [calcined powder] to make the eyelids pleasing. Phoenix dactylifera — Dates. and if they are not sufficiently burnt they must be burnt again.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK FRUIT TREES 1-148.

The dealers in unguents [ointments] use it for thickening their ointments. It is astringent for stopping feeding ulcers. Spatha. a stomach that is out of tune. PHOINIX ELATE SUGGESTED: Palma. P 154 . Boiled whilst it is tender and applied with rosin and wax for twenty days together it cures psoriasis. having that within it fat. With wine they stop abnormal growths of the flesh and bring ulcers to a scar. Great Fan Palm yields wine and sugar alma which is also called elate or spatha is the enclosure [or cup] of the fruit of the date trees as yet flourishing. and it draws loose joints together if it is pounded into small pieces and mixed together with warm compresses and poultices. The best is sweet-smelling. heavy. astringent. 1-150. and for dripping fluids of the eyelids (some nard [1-6. 1-10] being mixed with them).FRUIT TREES the pores. 1-7. The white marrow of the stalk (eaten while it is new. It is good for the thoracic area [heart]. Phoenix dactylifera — Palm. except that it is not so good in ointments. and disorders of the liver. It stops discharges of the intestines and a womb troubled with an excessive discharge. Tal Palm. or else boiled) is good for the same things as borassus. and disorders of the bladder and the bowels. The best seeds come out of Egypt from the low-growing palms. Given in drink it is good for inflammation in the kidneys. enclosed. Coverings of Date Fruits. Elate. also being good for pustules in the eyes and staphylomata [inflammatory protrusion of the cornea]. Date Palm Borassus flabellifer — Palmyra Palm. mixed with poultices suitable for this purpose. A decoction of it dyes the hair black if it is rubbed on it repeatedly. 1-8. The fruit which is contained inside is called elate or borassus and that is also astringent and produces the same effects as spatha [above].

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Arbutus unedo after FAGUET — 1892 155 .

FRUIT TREES Pistacia vera after FAGUET — 1878 156 .

but tastes unpleasant to the mouth and is astringent. abnormal growths in ulcers. They are juiced like hypocistis [1-127]. gangrenous ulcers. Punica granatum — calyx of Pomegranate Flowers he flowers of this (which are also called cytini) are astringent. That which is sharp helps a burning stomach. and is good in hip baths for dysentery and the fluids of childbirth. yet they do not nourish. being good for the same purposes as pomegranates. genitals and perineum. webs] between the fingers. and it is put into poultices as a glue for teeth which are broken. T 157 . The juice of the kernels (pressed out. KUTINOI SUGGESTED: Cytini. and sores in the nostrils.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-151. Of these the sweetest are best for the stomach. RHOA SUGGESTED: Punica granatum — Carthaginian Apple. and are flatulent as a result unsuitable for those with acute fever. Steeped in rain water and taken as a drink it helps blood-spitters. The kernel of the sharp one (dried in the sun then sprinkled on meat and boiled together with it) stops discharges of the intestines and excessive discharges from the stomach. drying and restringent. [to repair the damage]. Some relate that whoever swallows down three cytini (though ever so little) shall not be troubled with eye sores all that year. also for pterygium [membranes. That which tastes similar to wine has a middle strength. This helps especially if the juice is pressed out of the grains of sharp pomegranates. and agglutinate bloody wounds. then boiled and mixed with honey) is good for ulcers in the mouth. Pomegranate ll sorts of pomegranates have a pleasant taste and are good for the stomach. producing some heat around the stomach. A Punica granatum after FAGUET — 1880 1-152. A decoction makes a mouth rinse for moist flagging gums and loose teeth. earache. is more contractive and more diuretic.

It is similar to cytini and is juiced in the same way as hypocistis. 1-154. It is rubbed on for ulcers in the inner angle of the eye. pressed and boiled a little (for that which is not quickly grows sour) 158 T . and that which grows on the hills is the best. Both the green and dried fruit are given to eat to those who spit blood. some red and some a rosy colour. The herb and fruit are astringent. It is good with wine for the bites of harvest spiders and one stung by a scorpion. A decoction of the roots expels and kills worms hidden in the intestines. The juice of green myrtle pressed out has the same effect. The wine that is made from the fruit. Applied with flour of meal it lessens inflammation in the eyes. SIDIA SUGGESTED: Sidia. It is astringent and good for the same purposes as hypocistis and cytini [flowers of pomegranate]. BALAUSTION SUGGESTED: Balaustion [Bedevian]. A decoction of the fruit dyes the hair. Punica granatum — Pomegranate Rinds T he rinds of pomegranate (also called sidia) are also astringent and good for the same purposes as cytini [pomegranate flowers]. and to those troubled with erosions of the bladder. MURSINE — Broad-leaved Myrtle [other usage] Myrsine africana — African Myrsine see 4-146 SUGGESTED: Myrtus communis var romana he cultivated black myrtle is more effective for bodily uses than the white. 1-155. being good for the stomach and diuretic. Boiled with wine and applied as a poultice it heals ulcers that arise in the extremities of the body.FRUIT TREES 1-153. Punica protopunica [Mabberley] — Wild Pomegranate Tree B alaustium is the flower of wild pomegranate of which there are many kinds — some white. yet it has the weakest fruit.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Juglans regia after FAGUET — 1892 159 .

FRUIT TREES Morus alba after FAGUET — 1880 160 .

it is dried in the shade and put in jars to 161 . erysipelas [febrile disease with skin inflammation]. The leaves are juiced by pouring old wine or rain water on them and straining it out. and for coeliac [intestinal complaints]. and is used for blackening the hair. epinyctis [pustules which appear only at night] and joints. and for women troubled with excessive menstrual flows from the vulva. The leaves themselves pounded into small pieces and applied as a poultice with water are good for the moisture of ulcers. and it prevents sweats from cardiandi [disease of the heart]. webs] and paronychiae [whitlows]. pterygium [membranes. webs]. Bruised and mixed with hard wine and made into pellets. Burnt or else used raw with stiff ointment they heal burns. and the juice does the same. Similarly a decoction of the leaves is good for bathing joints that are loosened.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK and taken as a drink beforehand. and on armpits and thighs that are moist. Oil of unripe olives or a little rosaceum [1-53] and wine mixed together [with this] are good for shingles [herpes]. It cleans vitiligines [form of leprosy]. similar to hands clasping around the body of the myrtle. In hip baths it is good for prolapse of the vulva and perineum. It is more therapeutic for the bowels than myrtle. prevents [the effects of] excessive indulgence. It cleans dandruff. similar to a wart and the same colour. The dry leaves pounded into small pieces are effective scattered on paronychiae [whitlows]. It is dropped in to cure ears full of discharge. It is mixed with gentle plasters (which they call liparas) as is the oil that is made from the leaves. It must be used newly-made for when old it putrefies and loses its strength. and joints which grow together with difficulty. 1-156. For fractures that grow together with difficulty it is effective applied with hot cloths. and is good for the same things as the fruit. MURTIDANON SUGGESTED: Myrtidanum — Fungal growth on Myrtle M yrtidanum is that which grows on myrtle — unequal and standing out. inflammation of the testium [old use: ovaries]. scaly eruptions of the hairy scalp and rashes such as measles. all places subject to excessive discharges. and it prevents hair falling out. pterygium [membranes.

poultices. and dried they stop discharges of the bowels. baths. It causes a good colour. Gean Cherry.FRUIT TREES store. Prunus cerasus. Cydonia vulgaris — Quince Malus communis. and anywhere there is need of an astringent. Prunus avium [Linnaeus] — Sour Cherry. are hurtful to all that is sinewy. 1-157. especially combined with the remains left after pressing out grapes. St John's Bread he pods (taken while they are fresh) are bad for the stomach and loosen the intestines. blossoms and sprigs of all sorts of melea trees are astringent. but dried they stop discharges of the bowels. Malus sylvestris. Cydonia oblonga. Pyrus malus — Apple he leaves. sharpness of sight and appetite. C 1-158. They are also better for the stomach and diuretic. Taken in a drink with wine it is good for those troubled with kidney stones. Pomus. T 1-159. The unripe fruit is astringent. The gum from cerasia heals an old cough taken with diluted wine. Cydonia [Fuchs]. Cerasus acida. but if ripe it is not so. Locust Tree. Cerasus caproniana — Cherry Cerasus avium. and are flatulent. KERASIA SUGGESTED: Cerasus [Fuchs]. Hedge Berry erasia that are eaten when fresh are good for the intestines. MELEA SUGGESTED: Cotonea malus. suppositories. Mala cotonea minora [Bauhin]. Those apples which are ripe in the springtime encourage bile. Cerasus vulgaris. Pyrus cydonia [Linnaeus]. KERATIA SUGGESTED: Ceratonia siliqua — Carob Tree. especially those of the quince tree. It is more effective than the fruit and leaves. T 162 . It is mixed with stiff ointments.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Ficus carica after FAGUET — 1880 163 .

FRUIT TREES Avellana domestica after FUCHS — 1545 164 .

and besides this they are good (taken in a drink of wine) for inflammation of the eyes. menstrual problems]. and attacks mensium [monthly. An ointment is made of these called melinum which we use when we need an astringent oil. Cydonia [Fuchs]. Pyrus cydonia [Linnaeus].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-160. and a decoction is good in warm packs for prolapse of the perineum and vulva. and so that it may keep longer there is mixed with it one unit of honey to sixteen units of juice or else it would go sour. Raw quinces are especially good for those who spit up purulent matter and for biliousness. Cydonia oblonga. KUDONIA Mala cotonea minora [Bauhin]. The juice of the raw ones is taken and is good for orthopnoea [form of asthma]. and for joints. Boiled with honey they are good for the stomach and pleasant to taste but less astringent. but those which are called struthia [ostrich-like] and are big are less effective. ydonia are good for the stomach and diuretic. The same raw fruit is put into plasters to stop the bowels. bloody vomiting. Furthermore after they are well pounded and pressed a wine is made from them. In honey (or those preserved in honey) they are diuretic but the honey takes their strength and becomes astringent. Cydonia vulgaris — Quince SUGGESTED: Cotonea malus. spleens that have grown hard. You must choose out the right quinces — small and round and with a good scent. C Cydonia vulgaris after FAGUET — 1888 165 . inflamed breasts. If they are roasted they become milder and good for intestinal complaints and dysentery. as well as for churning and burning in the stomach. This is good for all the things previously specified. The water in which these have been steeped is good as a drink for those troubled with excessive discharges from the stomach or bowels. The dried blossoms as well as the fresh are suitable in plasters made for things that need an astringent. tooth sockets that discharge fluids.

Dried they are more astringent. PERSICA MELA SUGGESTED: Persica [Fuchs]. Must Apples. AGRIOMELA SUGGESTED: Pyrus malus var sylvestris — Crab Apples. 1-162.FRUIT TREES 1-161. T 166 . Prunus persica. but the unripe are astringent in the intestines. Amygdalus persica [Linnaeus] — Peach Persica mela — Persian fruit he fruit of persica are good for the stomach and for the intestines too if ripe. Persica molli carne [Bauhin] Persica malus. MELA EPEIROTIKA SUGGESTED: Pyrus pumila. yet less effective than quinces. They are called glycymela by some — as we should say. Pyrus praecox epirot — one who dwells inland — Apple T he fruit of epirotica (which the Latins call orbiculata) are good for the stomach and astringent in the intestines. Wild Apples W ild apples are similar to spring apples and are astringent. sweet apples. Persica vulgaris. but for those things which need an astringent you must use those which are least ripe. Cider Apples M elimela soften the intestines and drive living creatures from there [worms]. MELIMELA SUGGESTED: Melimela — Honey Apples. They are bad for the stomach and cause a burning heat. and a decoction of them dried and taken stops a stomach and intestines troubled with excessive discharges. 1-164. 1-163. encouraging urine [diuretic].

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Hiberis after FUCHS — 1545 167 .

FRUIT TREES Capparis tomentosa from ENGLER-PRANTL — 1897 168 .

Pyrum. smelling sweet with heaviness. Puroi [Pliny]. The leaves are thought to preserve cloths from from being motheaten if they are put into the chests where the cloths are. T 169 . MEDIKA SUGGESTED: Citrus medica var limonum — Lemon Citrus medica var cedrata — Citron. with seed similar to a pear. It is especially eaten by women [as a remedy] against their lusting [anaphrodisiac]. ARMENIACA SUGGESTED: Prunus armenaica. 1-167. T 1-166. Cedrat Tree T hose which are called Median. are known to all for it is a tree that bears fruit throughout the whole year one under another. Adam's Apple. Taken as a drink in wine it is able to resist poisons and subducere [to draw off] bowels. Pyrus communis — Cultivated Pear Tree here are many kinds of pears and they are all astringent and therefore fit to put into repellent poultices. resembling gold in colour. A decoction or the juice is a mouth rinse for sweet breath. A decoction of the dried ones (or if they are taken raw) stops discharges of the intestines.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-165. The fruit itself is somewhat long. but if they are eaten they hurt those who eat them while fasting. or cedromela and in the Latin citria. APION SUGGESTED: Pirum. Armenaica ALSO: Prunus — Apricot Tree pseudoarmenaica vulgaris he smaller which are called Armenian and in Latin praecoqua [premature .ripe before their time] are better for the stomach than the ripe [above]. wrinkled. Persian.

Wild Pear A chras is a kind of wild pear which takes long to ripen. somewhat astringent and slow to ripen. It is more astringent than the pear. There are some who say that if anyone boils wild pears together with mushrooms they become harmless. Pyrus germanica — Medlar Tree M espilus (which is called aronia by some) is a prickly tree similar in leaves to the oxyacantha. 1-170. This also has a round edible fruit with a broad navel. 1-169. Ash from the wood effectively helps those suffocated from eating mushrooms [antidote]. bearing a sweet fruit similar to a little apple with three stones within. MESPILON ETERON SUGGESTED: Mespilus azarolus. Neapolitan Medlar T here is another kind of mespilus growing in Italy also called epimelis or setanium. from which it is also called tricoccos (as we should say. It is a tree similar to an apple tree even in the leaves for it is not smaller. as a result it is good for the same purposes. Crataegus azarolus — Azarole Tree. and therapeutic for the bowels. good for the stomach.FRUIT TREES 1-168. It is long in ripening and if eaten is astringent. The leaves of it are also astringent. ACHRAS SUGGESTED: Pyrus communis var achras — Achras. 170 . threefold seed-endowed). MESPILON SUGGESTED: Pyrus chamaemespilus — Bastard Quince Mespilus germanica.

Rhamnus lotus — Jujube Tree. Cornel. and stops loose bowels. A decoction of the scrapings or sawdust of the wood (taken as a drink or suppository) helps dysentery and women troubled with their menstrual discharges. Zizyphus jujuba. Sorbus sativa [Bauhin]. Date Plum Zizyphus lotus. Wild Jujube. It is eaten instead of polenta. Lotus Jujube Zizyphus sativa.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-171. green at first but when ripe it grows yellow or the colour of wax. Sorbus domestica [Linnaeus]. OUA SUGGESTED: Sorbum ovatum [Fuchs]. LOTOS lotus — False Lotier. astringent in the bowels. Lotus Tree. first cut apart and dried in the sun. good for the stomach. It is edible and astringent. T 1-172. They are preserved in a pickle like olives. and a decoction of them (taken as a drink) does the same. Indian Jujube SUGGESTED: Diospyros he lotus tree has a stock of good growth and it bears fruit bigger than pepper — sweet. The moisture from the green leaves is burnt and this is good rubbed on for lichen [skin disease with red pustules]. Dogwood has wax-coloured fruit C ranus is a strong tree that bears fruit similar to the olive — somewhat long. ground up and eaten as a meal. Rhamnus zizyphus — Jujube Tree. 1-173. Pyrus sorbus — Service Tree va which are a yellowish colour and not yet ripe. Zizyphus. good for excessive discharges of the intestines and dysentery whether mixed with sapa [syruped new wine] or eaten with meat. U 171 . are astringent for the bowels.Cornus mascula — Cornelian Cherry. edible. It also dyes the hair yellow. Zizyphus vulgaris. KRANIA SUGGESTED: Cornus mas.

chaff. it is good for the stomach and therapeutic for the bowels. Prunus silvaticus. When eaten it is bad for the stomach and causes headaches. Plum Tree Prunus sylvestris [Fuchs. C 1-175. Comarus [Latin]. especially fruit of those from Syria and those growing in Damascus. Prunus sativa [Fuchs].FRUIT TREES 1-174. Dried. KOKKUMELIA [Pliny]. Rubbed on with vinegar it heals lichen [papular skin disease] on children. When ripe it is somewhat a yellowish or reddish colour. Prunus divaricata — Prune Tree. The fruit of wild plums dried when it is ripe does the same. KOMAROS SUGGESTED: Comaron. Bauhin]. the size more or less of a prune. gingiva [gums] and tonsils. Prunus spinosa [Linnaeus] — Wild Prune Tree SUGGESTED: Coccymelum occymelia is a known tree whose fruit is edible and bad for the stomach. and taken as a drink with wine breaks kidney stones. Cane Apples C omarus is a tree similar to the cotoneae [1-160] fruit tree with a thin leaf. 172 . softening the bowels. Boiled with sapa [syruped new wine] it becomes better for the stomach and more astringent to the bowels. Arbutus unedo— Fruit of Arbute Tree. The gum of the plum tree closes open cuts and sores. Strawberry Tree. A decoction of the leaves (used or prepared in wine and gargled) stops the excessive discharge that falls on the uva [uvula]. Arbutus andrachne. Prunus domestica [Linnaeus]. bearing fruit called memacyla. with no kernel.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Prunus sativa after FUCHS — 1545 173 .

FRUIT TREES Persica after FUCHS — 1545 174 .

They are good for bloody vomit taken with amyl [starch] and mint. The sweet edible almond has a great deal less strength than the bitter. the amount of a nut of the avellana [hazel] taken in a linctus [syrup] with milk and honey. Almonds if eaten take away pains and soften the bowels. coughs. and is taken in drink as a remedy for bloody vomit. Amygdalus amara — Bitter Almond Prunus amygdalus var dulcis. Prunus communis. They are good for inflamed kidneys and pneumonia taken as a drink with water or as a linctus [syrup] with resina terminthos [1-91]. AMUGDALE SUGGESTED: Prunus amygdalus var amara. as well as the almonds themselves. T 175 . It kills foxes when they eat it with something else. and shingles [herpes]. They keep away drunkenness if five to seven of them are taken before indulging. rotten ulcers. Applied to the forehead or temples with vinegar and rosaceum [1-53] they drive out the menstrual flow and help headaches. Taken in a drink with diluted wine it cures old coughs. Amygdalus communis — Sweet Almond RAW BITTER ALMOND SEED IS POISONOUS he root of the bitter almond tree bruised and boiled takes away spots on the face caused by sunburn. applied as a poultice. The gum of the tree is astringent and heats. Green almonds eaten with their shells heal moistness of the stomach. yet that also reduces symptoms and is diuretic. and inflation of the colon. cause sleep and are diuretic. Rubbed on with vinegar it takes away impetigo [skin infection] on the surface of the skin. and it is good taken in a drink with passum [raisin wine] for those troubled with urinary stones. They help diseased livers.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-176. Taken with passum [raisin wine] they help those troubled with painful urination and urinary stones. They are good with wine for epinyctides [pustules which appear at night]. and with honey for dog bites.

Pistacia officinarum.FRUIT TREES 1-177. As a result they are mixed with garlic to take away the tartness of it. C 176 . They are laid on inflamed breasts. They are antidotes against poisons eaten before or after. recommended by Pliny as a vermifuge [Loudon] Juglans regia after FAGUET — 1892 arya basilika which some call persica are hard to digest when eaten. suppurations and dislocations with a little honey and rue. They are good for the stomach chewed or else pounded into small pieces. 4-98]. hurt the stomach. Pistacia reticulata — Pistachio P istacia grow in Syria and are similar to pine nuts. Burnt together with their calyx and applied to the navel they lessen griping. but good to make one vomit if eaten while fasting. pounded into small pieces. They take away black and blue spots when applied. An oil is made of them bruised and pressed out. The putamen [seed vessels . The kernels of old caryae chewed and then applied as a poultice cure gangrene. Juglans — Walnut regia [Linnaeus] native to Persia.woody part] burnt and pounded in oil and wine and rubbed on the heads of children is good to make the hair pleasing and fills up alopecia [baldness]. 1-178. With onions and salt and honey they are good for those bitten by dogs or bitten by men. PISTAKIA SUGGESTED: Pistacia vera. breed headaches and are worthless for those who have a cough. 3-53. The kernel within is burnt. or with figs and rue [3-52. Eaten in a great quantity they expel broadworms. produce bile. aegilopses [ulcer or fistula in the inner angle of the eye] and alopecias [baldness] out of hand. KARUA BASILIKA SUGGESTED: Juglans [Fuchs]. The green [or new ones] are sweeter and less hurtful to the stomach. and applied with wine to stop the menstrual flow. Taken as a drink in wine they help those bitten by snakes. carbuncles [infected boils] [malignant skin tumours].

4-116] and crocus are mixed with it as well as the fruit of myrica [1-116]. myrrh [1-77. and for inflamed tonsils. galls [oak]. Nux avellana. and burnt whole. pounded into small pieces with goose grease or bear grease. Its fruit makes the intestines soluble. Corylus [Fuchs]. Some say that the shells burnt and pounded into small pieces together with oil make the pupils of gray-eyed children black if the forepart of the head is moistened with it. Corylus sylvestris [Bauhin]. yet pounded into small pieces and taken as a drink with honey and water they cure old coughs. MOREA SUGGESTED: Morus nigra — Mulberry Morinda umbellata. and is an antidote for those who have taken aconitum [4-77. A little honey mixed with it makes it good for the discharge of fluids. Boiled with rain water. Corylus sativa. Morus indica — Indian Mulberry [other usage] Morea sisrinchium [Loudon] — Spanish Nut orus or sycaminus is a well-known tree. Boiled in a brass jar or left in the sun it is made more astringent. and rubbed on they restore hair that has fallen out from alopecia [baldness]. C 1-180. wine and black fig leaves they dye the hair. Corylus maxima [in Sprague]. Corylus avellana [Linnaeus]. A wine cupful of juice from the leaves (taken as a M Morus nigra after FAGUET — 1880 Morus alba after FAGUET — 1880 177 . Roasted and eaten with a little pepper they digest dripping fluids. It is easily spoiled and bad for the stomach and the juice is the same. Unripe mulberries dried and pounded are mixed with sauces or rhus [1-147] and they help coeliac [intestinal complaints]. The leaves pounded into small pieces and applied with oil heal burns. iris and frankincense. The bark from the root boiled in water and taken as a drink loosens the bowels. for gangrenous ulceration of the cheeks. Nux pontica [Loudon] — Common Hazel arya Pontica (also called leptocarya [small carya]) are worthless for the stomach. The strength of it is increased if alumen [5-123] in small pieces. KARUA PONTIKA SUGGESTED: Avellana domestica.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-179. 1-73. expels broadworms from the intestines. Avellana-nux sylvestris. 4-78] as a drink.

Sycamore Maple. the juice is less spoiled and good in warm packs for inflammation. yields little nourishment. the outside of the bark being broken with a stone. SUKOMORON antiquorum. It bears fruit twice or four times a year. dissolves swellings. A decoction of the bark and leaves is a good rinse for toothache. It is milked at harvest time. and dissolves growths that ripen with difficulty. Acer pseudoplatanus — Maple. and is bad for the stomach. The tree is milked at the beginning of spring before it brings forth fruit. This juice is softening. Sycamore. the leaves similar to the mulberry tree. The next day there will be found some coalesced gum which is good for toothache. Mulberry Fig [other usage] Sycamore [old English]. They grow in shady and cold places. pains. healing ulcerated jaws. closes open cuts and sores from wounds. Bastard Sycamore. It helps in time of scarcity of corn [famine] by continually bearing fruit. There seem to be some wild mulberries similar to (the fruit) of the bramble but more astringent. and to fill up wounds with flesh. formed (into little balls). for if it is broken deeper in it sends nothing forth. and stored in newly-made jars. spleens that have grown hard. Ficus sycomorus — Sycamore Fig. and purges the bowels. It is a great tree similar to a fig tree — very full of juice. 1-181. Mock Plane Sycamine — old English for Mulberry [see above] SUGGESTED: Sycomorus S ycomorum is also called sycaminum and the fruit is called sycomorum because of the faintness of its taste. This juice is quickly spoiled with worms. the roots dug around and cut-in. and not growing ripe unless it is scratched with a nail or with iron. The fruit is good for the bowels. 178 .FRUIT TREES drink) helps those bitten by harvest spiders. then dried. It is taken in a drink and also rubbed on against the bites of snakes. and a cold stomach. It grows abundantly in Caria and Rhodes and places not very fertile for wheat. The oozing from it is gathered in a sponge or fleece. but from the stock. similar to the wild fig — sweeter than green figs but without grains. not from the highest (boughs) as on the fig tree.

They are mixed in poultices with barley meal. bladder and kidneys. 179 . marrow. Boiled with rue [3-52. quench thirst. and extinguish heat. and are good for the bowels.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-182. 1-183. Pounded raw with the things previously specified they do the same. 3-53. cause thirst. It is an elm [?ash] yet it has leaves similar to sycamine [1-180] and fruit the size of prunes and sweeter. they soften the bowels. They are good for old coughs and long-lasting disorders of the lungs. Boiled with hyssop [3-30] and taken as a drink they clean away things in the chest. A decoction of them is good for inflammation around the arteries and tonsils. They bring out pimples and sweat. In all other things it is similar to those mentioned above. epilepsy and dropsy. 4-190] and eaten. fenugreek or barley water for women’s warm packs. Boiled and afterwards pounded into small pieces and applied. They ripen pannus [opaque thickening of cornea with veins] more effectively with iris. saltpetre [potassium nitrate] or quicklime [calcium oxide — lime which has been burned but not yet slaked with water]. Ficus carica [Linnaeus] — Fig R ipe new syca are bad for the stomach and loosen the intestines but the looseness that comes from them is easily stopped. SUKON EN KUPRO UNKNOWN A tree grows in Cyprus that differs from these. boils and inflammatory tumours. curable and malignant discharges in the tibiae [hollow bones. they dissolve hard lumps and soften parotid tumours. The dried ones are nourishing and warming. They are useless for discharges of the stomach and intestines. as well as asthma. With pomegranate rind they clean away pterygium [membrane on the eye]. and with calcanthum [limestone] they cure difficult. SUKA SUGGESTED: Ficus sativa [Fuchs]. and pounded together with saltpetre [potassium nitrate] and cnicus [4-119. but good for the throat. arteries. 4-98] they are a suppository for griping. Ficus communis [Bauhin]. those who have a poor colour from a long illness. used in a gargle.

FRUIT TREES not only the tibia]. 180 . It takes away formicosam [anthill-shaped] warts if it is rubbed on the flesh with animal fat. they are pounded and pressed out. It expels the menstrual flow applied with the yolk of an egg or Tyrrhenian [Etruscan] wax. The sprigs of this tree boiled with beef makes it boil quicker. to open pores. spots made by the heat of the sun. vitiligines [form of leprosy]. and strikes of poisonous beasts. parasitical skin diseases. Ficus racemosa. Taken on wool and put into the cavities of teeth it helps toothache. Caprificus amboinensis — Getah Fig Tree. Burnt and put into a wax ointment they cure chilblains. Dropped on the sores it helps those stung by scorpions. cure noises and ringing in them. It is good put into poultices made for gout together with fenugreek flowers and vinegar. Taken as a drink with almonds that have been pounded into small pieces it is able to make bodies break out into boils. With polenta it cleans leprosy. and running sores on the head. They make milk more loosening if they are used to stir it with during boiling instead of a spatha [1-150]. The raw ones pounded into small pieces mixed with moist mustard and put into the ears. When they are great with child (not yet fruiting) and the eye (bud) has not put out. 1-184. lichen [papular skin disease]. SUKE AGRIA SUGGESTED: Ficus carica var sylvestris — Wild Fig Tree Ficus variegata. The (milky) juice of both the wild and cultivated figs coagulates milk like rennet. and those bitten by dogs. Ficus amboinensis. Wild Fig T he juice of the tender leaves of the wild syca tree does the same things. and the juice is dried in the shade and stored. Boiled in wine and mixed with wormwood [3-26] and barley meal they are good for dropsy applied as a poultice. Both the liquid and juice are taken for the strength they have to raise [fill] ulcers. loosen the bowels and relax the womb. and dissolves coagulated milk like vinegar.

Applied with ervum [2-129. They are good also with honey for the bites of dogs. heals. Give it to some as a suppository for dysentery. Vitiliginous [form of leprosy] white areas are plastered with the leaves or branches of the black fig. The leaves can do the same. You must steep the ashes long and often. KONIA SUKES SUGGESTED: Ficus carica var sylvestris — Wild Fig Tree Ficus variegata. undermining. Applied as a poultice with vinegar and salt they heal running ulcers on the head. OLUNTHOI SUGGESTED: Ficus carica — Unripe Figs lyntha (some of which are called erinei) boiled and applied as a poultice soften all nodules. It is given for clotting blood together and against dripping fluids. newly strained-out with a wine cupful of water and a little oil mixed in. 2-131] and wine they are good against the bites of rodents. O 1-186. Wild Fig Ficus carica — Fig ye is made from ashes of the burnt branches of the wild and cultivated syca trees. great ulcers. dandruff and epinycti [pustules which appear only at night]. By itself it helps coeliac [intestinal] complaints and dysentery. scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling] and goitres. for it cleans and removes things which are superfluous. It is good both for caustic medicines and gangrenous parts. For it cleans. and hollow.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 1-185. centipedes and millipedes. spiders. covers in flesh and closes together. similar to plasters made for bloody wounds. Applied raw with saltpetre [potassium nitrate] and meal they take away formicosam [anthill-shaped] warts and warty abnormal growths. old discharges. Caprificus amboinensis — Getah Fig Tree. and they dissolve boils [inflammatory tumours] with wax. Grossi [unripe figs] with the leaves of wild poppy draw out (broken) bones. and the ulcers called favi by the Latins but by the Greeks ceria [honeycombed ulcers]. hernia and convulsions. It must be used by moistening a sponge in it often and immediately applying it. the amount of a 181 L . Fig-like scabrous cheeks are rubbed with these. Ficus amboinensis. Ficus racemosa.

In the summer it puts out a milky flower and then it is more effective. It bears fruit fit to eat and good for the stomach. Bitter Candytuft — Iberis amara SUGGESTED: Nasturtium agreste beris or cardamantica has leaves similar to nasturtium [2-185]. and convulsions that cause sweats. Nasturtium pratense [Bauhin]. I 182 . They are good for those diseased with sciatica if a poultice similar to a plaster is made of it with salted lard of a sow (and so applied and let lie) for four hours. on which the spiders called cranocolopta are found.FRUIT TREES wine cupful given. It grows in untilled places. It is taken as an antidote in a drink for those who have swallowed gypsum [hydrous calcium sulphate — plaster of Paris] and for the bites of harvest spiders. IBERIS [Fuchs]. Hiberis [Brunfels]. 1-188. Mimusops schimperi — Egyptian Lebekbaum [Bedevian] P ersea is a tree which grows in Egypt. It is a convenient ointment with oil for those troubled with sores of the tendons. 1-187. Cardamine praetensis [Linnaeus] Cardamine amara — Bitter Cress. Afterward let the patient be put into a bath and rubbed on the places affected with oil and wine dipped in wool. especially in Thebes. PERSEA SUGGESTED: Persea. The dry leaves pounded into small pieces and applied are able to stop blood breaking out. Large Bitter Cress [other usage] Candytuft — Iberis numidica Clown Mustard. the length of it as much as a foot or somewhat smaller. Some have reported that this tree when it grew in Persis was deadly. It has two roots similar to nasturtium — warming and caustic. but when transported into Egypt it was altered and became good to eat. more flourishing in the spring. The other sorts of lye have the same effects (especially that of the oak) and they are all astringent.

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ointments.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK n the first book. as well as pot herbs [vegetables]. annexing for those such herbs as are endowed with a sharp quality because such are near of kin. oils. But in this being the second book we shall come to discussion both of living creatures and of honey and of milk and of animal fat and of those things which they call frumentacea [cereals]. I BOOK TWO Helix pomatia & other Pulmonata after FERUSSAC — 1875 183 . that the qualities of those things so similar in nature should not be separated. that we made of medicinal matters we have discoursed of aromata [fragrant herbs]. as are garlic and onions and mustard seed. trees and the liquors and gum and fruits that come of them. most loving Areius.

PORPHURA SUGGESTED: Purpura Shellfish . The raw shell roasted well should be mixed with washing medications made for psoriasis. 2-3. B 184 urnt purpura dry and clean teeth.yields Tyrian purple dye. and those who have convulsions. Dried in a sun-dried clay jar. 2-2. It dries up discharges from the bowels and liver. and stored. ECHINOS THALASSIOS Echinus species — Sea Urchin E chinus from the sea is good for the stomach. Burnt. or ointment amaracinum [1-68]. and diuretic.LIVING CREATURES LIVING CREATURES 2-1. . or cachexy [defective nutrition]. water under the skin [dropsy]. it cleans foul ulcers and represses abnormal growths on the flesh. good for the intestines. then given. and draw boils and heal them. repress excrescent flesh. it does as much good for the same things. 2-4. liquid pitch. ECHINOS CHERSAIOS Erinaceous genus — Hedgehog T he burnt skin of the earth hedgehog is good for alopecia [baldness] rubbed on with moist pitch. HIPPOKAMPOS Hippocampus [Latin] — Sea Horse H Sea Horse — Hippocampus from DAVIS — 1907 ippocampus is a little living creature of the sea that is burnt and the ashes used either in goose grease. Rubbed on it fills up alopecia [baldness] with hair. The dried flesh (taken in a drink with honey or vinegar and honey) helps inflamed kidneys. elephantiasis.

Their flesh is effective applied to one bitten by a dog. IONIA SUGGESTED: The columellae of Buccinae [Whelks] and Purpurae onia are the middle parts in the buccinae and purpurae around which they turn in or wind around.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-5. MUAKES SUGGESTED: Mytilacea species — Mussels T he Pontic mytuli are best. TELLINAI SUGGESTED: Tellina. The flesh of the buccina has a good taste and is good for the stomach. for after the burn is healed it falls off of its own accord. When burnt their effect is similar to the buccina but more peculiar. If anyone fills them with salt and burns them in an unfired clay jar they are good as toothpastes and rubbed on burns. It is burnt in the same way. bivalves ellinae whilst they are fresh and new are good for the bowels. The medicine must be left alone until it grows hard like a shell. I 2-7. burnt. Washed like lead they are good with honey for eye medicines as they consume thickened areas. Quicklime is made of them as we will show when we come to discuss calx. and clean away white spots on the cornea and whatever else darkens the pupils. they do not allow hairs on the eyelids to spring up again after they are once plucked out. but does not soften the bowels. 2-8. 185 T . 2-6. but is more caustic than the buccinae and purpurae because by nature they adhere less. Seasoned with salt. pounded into small pieces and dropped on with cedria [1-105]. especially their broth. family Tellinidae — Tellen. KUREKES SUGGESTED: Buccinum species — Whelks B urnt buccina do the same as the above but they are more caustic by nature.

white spots on the cornea. The best is brought from the Red Sea. Taken as a drink they trouble the bowels. and rubbed on with honey they take away scars in the eyes. The best are in Sardinia. The field snail (called sesilon or seselita) that hangs on bushes and shrubs troubles or disturbs the intestines and stomach causing vomiting. The inhaled smoke restores women troubled with constrictions of the uterus. vitiligines [form of leprosy] and the teeth. and clean leprosy. Africa. KOCHLIAS SUGGESTED: Helix aspersa. bivalve molluscs T he broth of chamae and other shellfish boiled in a little water stirs the bowels. The Babylonian is black and smaller. It is gathered after the lakes are dried up by extreme drought. Burnt whole with their flesh. The sea snail is also good for the stomach and is easily transient. 2-10. and those who have falling sickness. It is somewhat white and fat. As a result it smells sweet — the shellfish feeding on the nardus. surnamed pomatias (because of their covering). Sicily and Chios. Both of them (put on coals) have a sweet smell somewhat resembling castor [2-26] in scent. Helix hortensis — Garden Snails Helix pomatia — Snails. and moisture of the sight. It is taken with wine. The burnt shellfish itself does the same things as purpura and buccinum [above]. Applied 186 T . 2-11. CHAMAI SUGGESTED: Chamae species — Chama. pounded into small pieces. as well as those in the Alps near Liguria. but the river snail is poisonous. Onycha — Freshwater Mussels O nyx (or unguis) is the covering of a shellfish similar to that of the purpura [shellfish] found in India in the nardus-bearing lakes.LIVING CREATURES 2-9. Astypalaea. The burnt shells of all of them are able to heat and burn. ONUX SUGGESTED: Unionaceae. sunspots. edible species he earth snail is good for the stomach and spoiled with difficulty.

they kill them. pounded into small pieces. eaten. pacifies pains of the stomach. KARKINOI SUGGESTED: Cancer pagurus [Brachyura] — Crabs wo spoonfuls of ashes of burnt crevises or river crabs with one spoonful of the root of gentian (taken as a drink in wine for three days together) evidently helps one bitten by a mad dog. It is also roasted for the same purpose. Taken whole with the shell and a little of it taken with a drink of wine and myrrh. and so applied — is a remedy for the hurt done by it. and the strikes of harvest spiders and scorpions. they stop bleeding from the nostrils. it cures those troubled with colic and pains of the bladder. 187 T . especially those around the tendons. Sea crabs can do the same things but they work somewhat less effectively than these. Pounded together with basil and laid out for scorpions. as well as chilblains and diseases of the cornea. and those who have swallowed a sea hare [2-20]. T 2-13. The live flesh (especially of the African snail). 4-116] and frankincense heals wounds. Boiled and eaten with their broth they are good for those in consumption [wasting disease]. Pounded raw and taken as a drink with an ass's milk they help snakebites. Pounded into small pieces with vinegar. Pounded into small pieces and so applied they expel the menstrual flow.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK raw with their shells they dry up dropsy tumours and do not fall off until all the moisture is exhausted. They soothe gouty inflammation and draw out thorns applied in a similar way. 1-73. Their flesh pounded into small pieces and applied as a poultice with myrrh [1-77. 2-12. The earth-snail heals falling hair if one thrusts a needle through the flesh of the snail and touches the hair with the slimy matter that comes from there. SKORPIOS CHERSAIOS Scorpionidae — Scorpion he ground scorpion — taken raw. With boiled honey they soothe cracks in the feet and perineum.

he sea scolopendra boiled in oil and rubbed on removes hair [depilatory]. Coluber berus. SKORPIOS THALASSIOS SUGGESTED: Scorpaena. SKOLOPENDRA SUGGESTED: Myriapoda. white spots on the cornea. DRAKON THALASSIOS SUGGESTED: Trachinidae — Spiny-finned fishes. Scorpaenidae — Scorpion Fish Cottus scorpius — Sculpin T he gall of the sea scorpion is good for bathing eyes. T T 2-18. 2-16. 2-15. and excessive moisture in the eyes. You must (when you strip it) cut off the head and the tail because they are without 188 . goitres]. ECHIDNE Vipera communis.LIVING CREATURES 2-14. but when touched it breeds itching. It represses enlarging scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling. 2-17. Pelias berus — Viper he flesh of the viper (boiled and eaten) makes the eyes quick-sighted and is also good for disorders of the nerves. NARKE SUGGESTED: Torpedinidae — Electric Ray he sea torpedo applied to sores of long endurance around the head lessens the fierceness of the suffering. The same applied lifts up a perineum that has either overturned or else fallen down. Weevers T T he sea dragon (opened and applied) is a cure for the hurt done by his prickles. Cheilopoda — Millepedes Sea Centipedes.

1-8. Sometimes it may agree better with the stomach if some spikenard [1-6. OPHEOS GERAS Senecta anguium — Sloughed Skin of Snakes he senecta anguium (which is the skin that the snake casts in the spring time) boiled in wine is a remedy for pain in the ears if it is poured into them. The curds (taken in a drink three days after the menstrual 189 T . The head burnt and rubbed on with bears’ grease or vinegar cures baldness. After this it is pounded into small pieces and stored. LAGOOS CHERSAIOS Lepus timidus — Hare he brain of a land hare (eaten roasted) is good for the trembling that comes from fear. Boil it with oil and wine and a little salt and dill. The living viper is put into a new pot. Then. and with it a pint of salt and [the same of] well-pounded dry figs with six cups of honey. and for toothache used as a mouth rinse. the intestines having been taken out. LAGOOS THALASSIOS Aplysia depilans — Sea Hare he sea hare is similar to the little cuttlefish. They mix it (especially that of the sea viper) with eye medicines. Pounded into small pieces and applied (either by itself or with sea nettles) it makes any place without hair [depilatory]. T 2-20. 2-19. Some again say that those who eat them are longlived. as well as rubbed on or eaten for teething in children.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK flesh. The cover of the pot is tightly corked with clay and it is baked in an oven until the salt has turned to coals. wash that which is left and cut it in pieces. 1-10] or phullon [3-140] or a little malabathrum [1-11] is mixed in. T Aplysia depilans — Sea Hare from Davis — 1907 2-21. Some say that from feeding on them lice are bred in those who eat them but it is a lie. Salts are made of them for the same uses. 1-7. but they do not work as well. Cutting off the extreme parts by a certain measure is but a tale.

dandruff. and freckles. T 190 . SEPIA SUGGESTED: Sepia officinalis — Cuttlefish he black (ink) of the boiled sepia is hard to digest when eaten and it softens the bowels. T 2-24. scorpion. 2-22. Mullus barbatus — Red Mullet he mullus if often eaten is thought to cause dullness of sight. TRIGLA SUGGESTED: Mullidae. but cut apart whilst it is raw and applied it heals the hurt caused by the sea dragon [2-15]. vitiligines [form of leprosy]. It helps those with falling sickness. and the spider. It is washed and mixed with eye medicines. It is good for white spots on the cornea (in the eyes) of cattle [veterinary] blown into them. The blood rubbed on while warm cures sunspots. Likewise it stops excessive discharges of the womb and bowels. TRUGON THALASSIA SUGGESTED: Trigonidae pastinaca — Sting Ray he radius of the pastinaca marina that grows out of its tail (with scales turned backward) lessens a pained tooth for it breaks and expels it. and for the bites of vipers. T 2-23. Burnt in its own shell until the crusty matter is gone and afterwards pounded into small pieces it cleans vitiligines [form of leprosy]. teeth and sunspots. especially for curdling of the milk [while breastfeeding].LIVING CREATURES flow) are reported to cause sterility. and taken as a drink with vinegar it is good against poisons [antidote]. It removes pterygium [membranes on eyes] pounded into small pieces with salt and applied. The shell formed into washes is good to rub on rough cheeks.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Hedgehog — Echinus species after DAVIS — 1907 191 .

LIVING CREATURES Sepia officinalis after OWEN — 1909 192 .

Some adulterate it by pouring ammoniacum or gum tempered with blood and castoreum into the follicle and drying it. griping. Two teaspoonfuls (taken as a drink with pulegium [3-36]) encourage the menstrual flow. Those who take off the skin must take the liquid in there which looks similar to honey together with the loose skin that contains it. always distinguished by their natural loose skins. hiccups. T 2-26. They cause sneezing and are generally effective for many purposes. for it is impossible that he should touch them as they are joined underneath like those of a boar. T 193 . poisonous. then bottle and store it. Moistened with vinegar and rosaceum [1-53] it revives the lethargic or those brought low in any way. ORCHIS HIPPOPOTAMOU Hippopotamus amphibious — Hippopotamus he stones [testicles] of the hippopotamus are dried and pounded into small pieces and taken in a drink in wine against snakebite. biting in taste. put out the afterbirth. sharp. Generally it is warming. It is not true that this beast when it is pursued bites off his stones [testicles] and throws them away. Its stones [testicles] are good against the poisons of snakes. deadly poisons [antidote] and ixia [3-103]. It is good taken either as a drink or rubbed on for trembling. It is taken as a drink with vinegar against gaseousness. and are an abortifacient. and all diseases of the nerves. It does the same when smelled or inhaled as smoke. KASTOROS ORCHIS Castoreum — Beaver obtained from two sacs in the groin of the Beaver he beaver is a living creature with a double nature nourished for the most part in the waters with the fishes and crabs. with a strong smell. and that have waxy stuff within. Always choose those stones [testicles] which are connected together from one beginning (for it is impossible to find two follicles [small glands] knit together in one membrane).THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-25. dry it. easily crumbled. convulsions.

Taken as a suppository it cures sciatica. then taken in a drink to help those bitten by poisonous beasts. Mustelidae — Weasel T he household weasel is burned over flames after the bowels are taken out. family Ranidae — Frogs rogs are antidotes against the poisons of all snakes. The blood rubbed on helps scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling. and afterwards dried in the shade and kept a long time. The flesh of that which is salted draws out splinters. It is burnt complete together in a pot and the ashes rubbed on with vinegar for gout. but salted it yields no nourishment. BATRACHOI genus Rana. GALE KATOIKIDIOS Putorius nivalis. and for the teeth when they are washed with it. It is also good for epilepsy.LIVING CREATURES 2-27. AILOUROS SUGGESTED: Silurus glanis. F 2-29. Burnt and then put on they staunch bleeding. The belly of the weasel is stuffed with coriander and kept until it is old. The blood of green frogs dropped on prevents the hair from ever growing again once it has been pulled from the eyebrows. The broth is then taken for this and for old abscesses of the tendons. They cure alopecia [baldness] rubbed on with liquid pitch. drawing the discharges to the outside. yet it cleans the arteries and makes the voice clear. 194 T . Brine from it is good in baths for dysentery at the first sign. It is a very effective remedy (taken as a drink of two teaspoonfuls in wine) against all kinds of snakes. 2-28. goitres]. They are good for toothache boiled together with water and vinegar. It is taken the same way as an antidote to poisoning. and the epileptic. They are boiled into a broth in salt and oil. salted. Siluridae — Sheath Fish he silurus eaten whilst it is fresh is nourishing and good for the stomach.

If you give it to someone to drink you shall in this way bring down his bowels without any disturbance. OMOTARICHOS SUGGESTED: Orcynus thynus — Tunny motarichos is the flesh of the salted tunny. and for one bitten by a dog. and removes corns and warty abnormal growths. Those who eat it must be compelled to drink a great 195 O . stops gangrenous ulceration. SMARIS SUGGESTED: Osmerus eparlanus — Smelt he head of a salted smaris burnt stops abnormal growths of (protuberant) flesh. T 2-32. The flesh of this as well as all salted meat is good for one touched by a scorpion. MAINIS SUGGESTED: Maena small sea-fish. Applied it helps those bitten by dogs or snakes.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-30. Gobius species — Sea Gudgeon lace a freshly caught sea gudgeon in a swine’s stomach and sew it up. Boil it with twelve pints of water until it is reduced to two pints and then strain and cool it in the open air. P 2-33. eaten by the poor he burnt head of the moena (pounded into small pieces and sprinkled on) mends hard-skinned fissures in the perineum. T 2-31. the bite of which was fabled to cause death by swelling) take this. Those bitten by the viper called prester (a serpent. and its garum [Roman sauce made of fermented fish] rolled up and down around the mouth lessens rotten ulcers in there. KOBIOS SUGGESTED: Gobiidae.

and those which do not have a poisonous nature. 2-34. GARRON SUGGESTED: Garum — Liquid from Salt Fish arum (the liquid that comes out of salted flesh or fish). Smelled. perch and other tender rock fish. scorpion fish. The best broth for this is made from the fish called phycides?. Taken as a drink with wine or vinegar they release horseleeches. It is also effective applied to the bites of dogs. B 2-36. and to remove fluids troubling the hips. and is sometimes given as a suppository for dysentery and sciatica. S 196 . Swallowed down without beans they help one bitten by an asp.LIVING CREATURES amount of wine and then to vomit. applied. boiled with nothing else but water and oil and anise [3-65] and salt. Pounded into small pieces and put into the urethra they cure painful urination. to others that it may encourage ulceration of the parts not ulcerated. It is given to some so that it may repress ulcers (of the bowels). G 2-35. they revive those fallen into a faint from constriction of the vulva. It is excellent for the same purposes as eating sharp meats. Cimex rotandatus — Bed Bugs even cimices taken and put in meat with beans and swallowed down before a fit help those with quartains [fever with paroxysm every three to four days]. heals those bitten by dogs. ZOMOS NEARON ICHTHUON SUGGESTED: Fish Soup roth made from fresh fish (alone or taken as a drink with wine) is able to soothe the bowels. KOREIS Cimices — Cimex lectularius. represses gangrenous ulcers in the cheeks. julides.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-37. 2-39. PNEUMON THALASSIOS SUGGESTED: Scopelidae. PNEUMON CHOIRIOS Lungs of Swine. lamb or bear applied to chafing and blisters on the feet made by rubbing shoes prevents inflammation. pounded with oil or boiled and dropped into the ears lessens their pain. P 2-40. genus Plagyodus or Alepisaurus — Jellyfish family translates as the lungs of the sea ulmo marinus pounded into small pieces (whilst it is fresh). Taken as a drink with wine these help painful urination and yellow jaundice. M 2-38. SILPHE Cockroach — Blatta orientalis THESE INSECTS ARE CARRIERS OF MANY DISEASES. 197 T . KOUBARIDES Oniscus asellus — Common Woodlouse ‘Millipede’ [old English] illipedes that are found under water vessels are creatures with many feet that roll themselves up round when they are touched with the hand. and warmed in a pomegranate rind with rosaceum [1-53] and dropped in the ears they are good for earaches. Lamb or Bear he lungs of a swine. helps those troubled with ulcerated chilblains and other chilblains. Rubbed on with honey they help those with tonsillitis. T he inner parts of the kind of blatta which is found in bakehouses and mill houses. and applied. and those with gout.

and the grease of the same melted and poured in the ears lessens earache. . Steeped in oil they dissolve scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling. 2-42. 2-45. AIDOION ARRENOS ELAPHOU Testes of Deer he genitals of a male hart (pounded into small pieces and taken in a drink with wine) help those bitten by vipers. LEICHENES HIPPON Spavins of Horses T 198 he lichen [bony excrescence on legs] of horses is (according to description) that hardened substance which grows at their knees and hooves. sprinkled on they heal chilblains. Pounded into small pieces and taken in a drink with vinegar they are said to cure epilepsy.LIVING CREATURES 2-41. HEPAR ONEIRON Ass’s Liver A T n ass’s liver eaten roasted is good for epilepsy but it should be taken while fasting. ONUCHES ONON Ass’s Hooves T wo spoonfuls of an ass’s hoof that has been burnt (taken in a drink daily for many days) are said to cure epilepsy. 2-43. 2-44. PNEUMON ALOPEKOS Lungs of Fox L ungs of a fox (dried and taken in a drink) help the asthmatic. goitres].

2-47. They say that epilepsy may be discerned by eating the liver (especially) of the buck goat. T 199 . Eaten roasted it is good for the same purpose. HEPAR KAPROU Boar’s Liver he liver of a boar (taken whilst it is) fresh. HEPAR KUNOS LUSSONTOS Liver of Mad Dog RABIES IS HIGHLY COMMUNICABLE he liver of a mad dog (eaten roasted by those which have been bitten by him) is thought to keep them safe from the fear of water. ONUCHES AIGON Goats’ Hooves T he hooves of goats burnt and rubbed on with vinegar cure baldness. If anyone receives the smoke of it with open eyes whilst it is boiling he receives benefit from this.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-46. As a precaution they also use the tooth of that dog which bit. place it into a bag and tie it to the arm. T 2-48. is a remedy against the bites of snakes and beasts. dried and pounded into small pieces and taken as a drink with wine. HEPAR AIGOS Goat’s Liver he watery fluid that drips from the liver of a goat whilst it is a roasting is good rubbed on for those troubled with night blindness. T 2-49.

and it also stops discharges of blood from the meninx [membranes of the brain and spinal cord]. Broth from old cocks is given for purging the body.LIVING CREATURES 2-50. sew up the fowl. Having taken out the intestine [of the fowl] you must put in salt instead. 2-51. is good for the stomach. and boil it in twenty pints of water until they reduce to one and a half pints. H B 2-53. HEPAR AITHUAS Liver of Seagull T T wo spoonfuls of dried liver of mergus [seagull] (taken as a drink with honey water) expels the afterbirth. and for those who have hot burning stomachs. The broth of a chicken dressed simply (without anything else) is particularly given for restraining foul fluids. 2-52. The membrane of cocks which lies in the inner part under the ventricle. skin inflammation from rubbing. dried. but they must be changed often. (hard and clear) like a horn. KATTUMATA Old Leather he old leather of old soles of shoes (burnt. all which must be given 200 . pounded to powder and applied) helps burns. pounded to a powder and taken in a drink with wine. and blisters caused by wearing shoes. chafing. and which has to have the skin taken off when it is boiled. ENKEPHALOS ALEKTORIDOS Parts of Poultry rains of poultry are given in a drink with wine to those bitten by venomous creatures. ALEKTORIDES Parts of Poultry ens cut apart and applied whilst they are yet warm help the bites of snakes.

LEUKON TOU OOU White of Egg he white of an egg used raw cools and closes the pores of the skin. Rubbed on afterwards it prevents burns from breaking out into pustules. gluey (or sticky) black (fluids). but it must be pounded into powder and mixed with water and given like that. and stomachs labouring with gas. If it is sipped raw it helps bites of the snake called haemorrhois [a fable]. rough arteries. mucus and fluids in the chest. It is good for long-enduring acute fevers. the asthmatic. 2-54. A 2-55. Fried in a pan with the seed of sumach or galls [oak galls] and eaten (or else given alone) it stops discharges of the bowels. It lessens inflammation of the eyes applied with wool and with rosaceum [1-53]. and will repress them when laid on the forehead with frankincense. It draws out thick. and when dropped on inflamed eyes it soothes them. There are some who boil sea colewort.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK after it has stood cooling awhile in the open air. It constipates those troubled with discharges. raw. mercury [4-191]. and the throwing up of blood. ulcerated kidneys. The stomach of fowls salted and dried in the shade is the best help. T 201 . wine and honey mixed with it. and warmed a little it is good for bladder distress. the arthritic. or polypody [4-188] together with it. It protects the face from sunburn. Three teaspoonfuls are taken as an antidote against excessive evacuations from purging medicines as it presently stops the evacuating. The yolk roasted with saffron and rosaceum [1-53] is good for sores in the eyes. 4-190]. It is good with melilot [3-48] for inflammation around the perineum and the joints. cnicum [4-119. OON Eggs and their Yolk soft-cooked egg nourishes more than an uncooked one and a hard-cooked egg more than a soft.

The Africans who inhabit Leptis feed on these abundantly [food]. TETTIGES Acridiiae. CHELIDON Hirundo rustica — Swallows C 202 utting apart [at the increase of the moon] young swallows of the first hatching. This bird eaten roasted is good for those troubled with colic. When given little by little of this in drink it is said to expel stones from urine. having great limbs when it is young. you shall find stones . Locustidae — Grasshoppers G L rasshoppers if they are eaten roasted help disorders of the bladder. Crested Lark he lark is only a little bird having on the top of its head a tuft standing up similar to that of the peacock. 2-57. KORUDALLOS Alauda arvensis — Skylark.LIVING CREATURES 2-56. 2-58. PHINIS Pandion [Falco] haliaëtus — Osprey. especially in women. Their flesh is useless. AKRIDES Acridiiae. One kind of locust called asiracos or onos is without wings. Ossifrage hinis is a bird that they call ossifragum in Latin. Oedipoda migratoria. P T 2-59. This is dried and taken in a drink with wine as a great help to those bitten by scorpions. 2-60. Pachytylus migratorius — Locusts ocusts (smoked and inhaled) help difficulty in urinating.

washed and two spoonfuls taken in a drink) is good with gum tragacanth for bloodspitters. It is also good rubbed on for those with tonsillitis. Place these in an heifer’s or hart’s skin before they touch the ground and tie them to the arm or neck. It is also good for women troubled with excessive [menstrual] discharge. It is astringent. ELEPHANTOS ODONTOS RINISMA Elephant’s Tooth T he scraping of elephant’s tooth when applied cures whitlows of the finger or toenails. and for inflammation of the uvula and tonsils. It is burnt in an oven (first pounded and put into an unfired clay pot. sealed around with clay. given with some liquid suitable for that suffering. You shall with this ease and often wholly recover from epilepsy. T 2-63. coeliac [intestinal complaints]. of which take two. one of various colours and the other clear [and of one colour]. 2-62.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK in their bellies. and griping that has endured for a long time. and one teaspoon taken in a drink with water) help those who have tonsillitis. 2-61. and the ashes of them and of their female parents burnt in a ceramic pot and rubbed on with honey cause sharpness of sight. and fired) until it is 203 T . ASTRAGALOS UOS Knucklebone of Pig he anklebone of a swine (burnt until it becomes white. dysentery. Swallows are eaten with their ficedulae [intestines] as a medicine for causing sharp sight. jaundice and disorders of the bladder. then pounded to powder and taken in a drink) heals gas from colic. ELAPHOU KERAS Burnt Horn of a Hart — adult male Red Deer he horn of a hart (burnt. Swallows and their young ones (dried.

anti-ulcerous and heating. Then thrust them through with a thread and store them. leprosy and wild impetigo . T 2-66. yellowish cross streaks [in their wings]. they are stored and kept in a sieve that hangs up. The most effective have the most diversity of colours. Those of one colour are ineffective. and rubbed on the teeth it cleans them. Roasted a little in hot ashes. KANTHARIDES Cantharides vesicatoria — Spanish Fly Beetles POISONOUS hose dried beetles that are gathered from the corn are fit for storage. BOUPRESTEIS Buprestis — Buprestidae — Bupressedes POISONOUS I 204 n the same way the bupressedes are preserved for storage. They are types of cantharides [2-65] and erucae [caterpillars] of the pine tree. and are longbodied. Boiled with vinegar and used as a mouthwash it soothes pain of the inner teeth.LIVING CREATURES white. 2-64. This is good for discharges and ulcers in the eyes. and then afterwards it is washed in a similar way to cadmia [5-84]. Their common strength [see above] is antiseptic. KAMPAI Caterpillars T he erucae [caterpillars] which breed on vegetables rubbed with oil on anyone are said to protect him from the bites of poisonous beasts. as a result they are mixed in medicines that cure diseases of the cornea. full and fat. 2-65. If burnt raw it drives away snakes with the smell. like the blattae [cockroaches]. Place them into an unglazed jar and tie around the mouth of it a clean thin linen cloth: turn them towards the fumes of very sharp warmed vinegar and hold them there until they are stifled.

ulcerating. and prevent inflammation in ulcers that break out on the surface of the skin. Some also believe that the wings and feet of them are an antidote for those who have taken parasites in a drink. 2-68. It is antiseptic. and heating. thin and thick. and preserved in honey for the same uses. They are disembowelled. T 205 . ARACHNE Arachneidae — Spiders he spider — a creature also called holcos or lycos (that is. variously spotted. Moistened with oil they remove hair [depilatory]. SALAMANDRA Salamandridae — Salamander T he salamander is a kind of lizard. There is another kind of spider which spins a white web. cures the periodical circuits of paroxysm every third day in acute fevers. for example. Mixed with soothing suppositories they encourage the menstrual flow. lazy. Boiled together with rosaceum [1-53] and poured in the ears it helps earaches. lupus) — worked into one piece with a plaster. 2-67. of which it is said that when put into a purse of leather and hanged around the arm it cures the flows of quartain [with paroxysms every fourth day] acute fevers.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK [skin infection]. The cobwebs of spiders are applied to staunch blood. raptor. They are mixed in antiseptic and leprosy medicines to the same benefit as cantharides [2-65] and kept in store in a similar way. in vain thought fireproof. Some also have related that these cantharides [2-65] help dropsy by moving the urine. the head and the feet taken away. spread on linen and applied to the forehead or temples.

and takes away formicosam [anthill-shaped] warts. The liver is put into the cavities of teeth to cause the pain to cease. India and some at the Red Sea. It is also mixed with antidotes. They dissolve tertians [fevers with paroxysms every third day]. ENTERA GES Lumbricus — Earthworms orms from the soil (pounded into small pieces and applied) glue together sinews that are cut apart. Boiled with goose grease they cure diseases of the 206 W . Some are found in Libya. 2-71. and yet for all that. a decoction of lentils taken as a drink with honey (or the seed of lettuce taken in a drink with water) represses the intensity of this inclination. It is an earth crocodile of its own kind that is preserved in salt with nasturtium [2-185]. They say that a teaspoonful of the part of it that lies around the kidneys (taken in a drink of wine) is a great provocative to lust [aphrodisiac]. Cut quite apart and applied it eases those touched by a scorpion. SKINKOS Scincus officinalis — Skink chinchi are found in Egypt. SEPS Lizard of scincoid genus Seps — POISONOUS S S eps (also called the Calchidicen lizard) taken as a drink in wine heals those bitten by him. others near a river of Mauritania. SAURA Lacertilia — Lizard he head of a lizard (pounded into small pieces and applied) draws out splinters or whatever else sticks to [the body]. T 2-70. 2-72. pensiles [growths which hang down] (which they call acrochordonas [hanging warts]) and corns.LIVING CREATURES 2-69.

The best milk is white. Boiled together with oil and poured into the opposing ear they help toothaches. and their 207 . has an equal thickness. softening to the intestines. As a result it is also good for the stomach. That which is made in the spring has a more watery substance than that of the summer. Cow’s. and that eaten roasted they dry the spittle in the mouths of children. GALA SUGGESTED: Milk A ll milk is commonly good to drink. and causing the stomach and bowels to be inflated with gas. MUOGALE Myogale species — Shrew Mouse T I he shrewmouse (cut apart and applied) is a remedy for its own bites. and ‘beads’ when it is dropped on a fingernail. mercury [4-191] or clematis. 2-74.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK ears. All milk overturns the stomach and the intestines where the pasture is scammonious or has hellebore. 2-73. asses' and mare’s milk make the intestines more laxative and trouble it. For goats vomit which feed on the leaves of the white hellebore when they first shoot out. Goat’s milk disturbs the intestines less because goats for the most part feed on astringent food such as the oak. 2-75. as has been observed by us in the Vestin mountains. dropped in there. Sheep milk is both thick and sweet and very fat but not so good for the stomach. Pounded into small pieces and taken in a drink with passum [raisin wine] they expel urine. and that which comes from green pasture softens the intestines more. lentisk [1-90]. and the leaves of the olive tree and terminthos[1-91]. nourishing. MUES Mus musculus — House Mouse t is declared that cut-apart house mice are usefully applied to those touched by scorpions.

ORROS GALAKTOS SUGGESTED: Whey A ll milk has whey contained within it. In general it helps all internal ulcers. It is also gargled for ulcers of the mouth and tonsils. Separated out. For this cow’s milk helps best. pityocampa [pine grub or pine caterpillar]. dorycnium [4-75]. GALA SCHISTON SUGGESTED: Junket ll milk is separated by boiling it in a new ceramic jar and stirring it with a freshly cut down fig tree branch. That which is boiled with pebble stones and reduced to half. epilepsy. So that the milk does not boil over you must continually rub the brim of the jar with a sponge dipped in cold water during boiling. hyoscyamus [4-69]. kidneys and bladder. salamander. especially of the throat. and let those who drink it walk around during that time. New milk is good for ulcers. 4-78]. 2-76. intestines. After it has boiled two or three times a wine-cup of vinegar and honey for every half-pint of milk is poured into it: thus the whey is parted from the cheesy matter. or ephemerum [4-85]. and inflammation caused by deadly medicines like cantharis [2-65]. 2-77. and pustules that break out over the whole body. pustules and corrupt fluids it is given fresh with raw honey and a little water mixed together (salt also being mixed with it).LIVING CREATURES milk overturns the stomach and has a nauseous nature. Whey is given to drink (at intervals) in amounts of from one half-pint to five. leprosy. helps discharges of the bowels accompanied with ulceration. as well as for depression. lungs. That which has been once boiled is less inflating. elephantiasis. All milk when boiled becomes astringent to the intestines. this is fitter for purging and is given to those whom we would purge without distress. Against all itchiness in appearance. especially that which is evaporated by burning flints. and let down a silver pint jar full of cold water into it. buprestis [2-66]. aconitum [4-77. Especially asses' milk gargled in the mouth strengthens the gums 208 A .

W 2-79. TUROS NEAROS SUGGESTED: New Cheese ew cheese eaten without salt is nourishing. this stops discharges accompanied with ulceration. good for the stomach. GALA GUNAIKOS SUGGESTED: Woman’s Milk oman’s milk is the sweetest and most nourishing. 2-78. cows. It is given as a suppository or enema (either by itself or with barley water or cream of halica [2-114]) to relieve considerable gnawing of the intestines. and applied it is good for inflammation and bruises of the eyes. Boiled and strained out. unless at any time one gives them whey for purgation as was formerly shown. Some say that the milk of a bitch when she first whelps removes hair when rubbed on. All milk is worthless for the splenetic and hepatic. it is astringent in the intestines. or goats to boli it. epilepsy. and those troubled in their tendons. it is good for pangs of hunger in the stomach and for consumption. then roasted. If you place hot burning flints into the milk of sheep. increasing the flesh [weight gain] and mildly softening the bowels. upsetting the intestines and the bowels. Some is better than the other. vertigo.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK and the teeth. Mixed with frankincense that has been pounded into small pieces. Taken as a drink it is an antidote against poisonous medicines. and casts out dead embryos. it is dropped into eyes that are bloodshot from a blow. It is also an antidote in a drink for someone that has taken sea hare [2-20]. according to the nature of the milk from which it is made. It is good for gout rubbed on with meconium [4-65] and ceratium [wax ointments]. It is also squirted into an ulcerated vulva. Sucked. New salted cheese is more nourishing and if eaten is good for shrinking of the flesh [weight loss]. It is bad for the stomach. those who have fevers or whose heads ache. easy to digest. That N 209 .

set it on fire and having covered it let it burn in a ceramic jar made similar to a siphunculus [a little pipe from which water spurts]. Taken by itself it loosens the intestines. Butter that is neither stinking nor old is good against inflammations and hard lumps of the womb. Applied it is good for one bitten by an asp. BUTURON SUGGESTED: Butter G ood butter is made of the fattest milk such as ewes’ milk. Soot is gathered from butter as follows. It is softening and has the qualities of oil. Then scrape it off with a 210 . Mixed and rubbed on with honey it helps teething and itching of the gums in children.LIVING CREATURES which is older is therapeutic for the intestines. It is also of benefit mixed in suppurating medicines — especially for wounds around the nerves. When the first butter is used up pour in more and repeat the procedure until you have got as much soot as you desire. narrow above but with holes underneath. and the whey that is made along with cheese is very good nourishment for dogs. It is given as a suppository for dysentery and ulceration of the colus [? possibly colon]. New butter is put in sauce for meats instead of oil. It is also made from milk of goats. bladder and neck. Rubbed on externally it preserves the body and prevents pustules from breaking out. and in cakes instead of fat. Pour some butter into a new lamp. 2-81. and ulcers of the mouth [thrush. and when oil is not available it is an antidote against poison. HIPPACE SUGGESTED: Horse Cheese T hat which they call hippace is horse cheese. candidiasis]. It fills and cleans and encourages new flesh. Some have called the horse’s rennet by the name of hippace. the milk being stirred around in jars until the fat is separated. It has a poisonous smell yet is very nourishing and very similar to that made from pigs’ milk. neural membrane. 2-80.

black and blue bruises. The ash from wool is washed for eye medicines in a ceramic jar. and broken bones. and lay thin chips of teda [taeda — pitch pine] on it. unwashed wool is softest. and as an astringent.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK feather or wing and use it. ERIA SUGGESTED: Wool he best. separate from one another. Water is poured on it and lustily stirred around with the hands. and by reason of the oesypum [lanolin] that it contains it is softening. It is good (moistened in vinegar and oil or wine) as first treatment for wounds. For it easily drinks up the liquors into which it is dipped. Locks of wool that have been dyed with sea purple [pupurea — shellfish] are burnt in the same way. Some lay little spits [skewers] in a ceramic jar with a broad mouth. and after it is settled the water is poured out and other poured on and stirred around again. It is good applied with vinegar and rosaceum [1-53] for headaches and pains in the stomach or any other place. If any fat or pitch falls down from the teda it is taken and stored separately. It stops discharges and quickly brings ulcers to a scar. This is done until it does not bite if applied to the tongue but is somewhat astringent. and drawing ulcers to a scar. Some card the wool with the lanolin on. It is useful in eye medicines. repressing abnormal growths of flesh. peeling. 2-82. ERIA KEKAUMENA SUGGESTED: Burnt Wool B urnt wool has the properties of scab forming. T 2-83. moisten it with honey and burn it. to dry. then place the wool (carded and moistened with oil) on them so that it may not fall. It is burnt in an unfired clay jar (in the same way as other things) after being cleaned and carded. 211 . like that from the neck and from the thighs. Layering the chips and the wool one on the other by turn they set the teda [chips] gently on fire underneath and take them away when they have burnt out. bruises.

Others wash the wool and press out the filth. clean and white. put it into another ceramic jar. the greasy matter having been used up. or stir it around lustily with a stick until a quantity of foul foam gathers together. Applied in wool with melilot [3-48] and butter it is an abortifacient and 212 T . take away the grease that floats on top and wash it in water as was already explained. Afterwards sprinkle it with seawater. is somewhat astringent and it looks fat. When the fat that swims on top has settled. You can prepare it as follows. smells of unwashed wool. Let the first water fall away drop by drop. if applied to the tongue it does not bite. Straining it out into a ceramic platter that has warm water in it. If it has any filth remaining on it take it away. squeeze out all the filth. This should be done while the sun is warm. pour in more and stir it around with the hand until. Mix the oesypum [lanolin] that is gathered by hand. and pouring water into the jar stir it around again and sprinkle the foam with water and repeat as above. Store it in a ceramic jar. OISUPON SUGGESTED: Wool Fat. rubbing it with their hands as women do stiff ointments and this is whiter. and pouring water on it pour it from on high back again with a great spoon. Lanolin he greasiness of unwashed wool is called oesypum [lanolin]. It has nothing in it hard or compacted such as that counterfeited with wax ointment or animal fat. Some press out the grease and wash it in cold water. grows white. they cover it with a linen cloth and set it out in the sun until it becomes sufficiently thick and white. is smooth. Do this until there is no more foam on it. It is able to warm and soften and fill ulcers. especially those around the perineum and vulva. The best is not cleaned with radicula [radish]. throw it into a broad-mouthed jar.FATS FATS 2-84. and when rubbed with cold water in a shell. boil it with water in a kettle over a gentle fire. Take soft unwashed wool scoured with the herb soapweed [soapwort]. Some (after two days) pour out the first water and pour in fresh. wash it in hot water. tumbling it down forcibly until it foams.

(and is good) with goose grease for sores in the ears and genitals. monthly.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK draws out the menstrual flow. for women troubled with excessive discharges from the womb. 4-78]. In particular the rennet of a fawn applied the third day after the monthly purgation hinders conception. for clotting blood together. and if it is not it remains as it was. and a little before lying together) to the vulva with butter it causes inconception. Take the rennet of some other creature (especially of a lamb) and having put water onto it leave it alone a little while. dorcas [Dorcatherium aquaticum — ruminant]. and for constriction of the womb. Applied after the cleansing (that is. and wild ox have similar properties and are good (taken as a drink in wine) as an antidote against aconitum [4-77. and for eyelids that have grown hard and shed their hair. Soot is gathered from it (in the same way as we have previously described). Now to know whether it is the authentic rennet of sea calf it is tested as follows. Rennet of a lamb. kid. dysentery. and for throwing blood up out of the chest. doe. 2-85. deer. It is also good around the corners of eyes that have been eaten into and are scabbed. good for eye medicines. It is thought to be especially good (taken as a drink) for epilepsy. Rennet of the sea calf [seal — Phoca vitulina] has a strength very similar to castorium [2-26]. and after the menstrual flow purging it hinders conception [birth control]. fawn. and for clotting milk if used with vinegar. calf. Rennet of a horse that some call hippace is particularly good for the abdominal cavity and dysentery. platyceros [stag]. Afterwards pour the liquid in which that rennet lay on the rennet of the sea calf. Oesypum [lanolin] is burnt in a new ceramic jar until it is turned into ashes and loses all its fat. Taken in a drink it is an abortifacient. PITUA SUGGESTED: Rennet T hirty grains of rennet of hare (taken in a drink of wine) is good for those bitten by venomous creatures. If it is authentic it immediately melts into the water. Sea calves’ rennet is taken from the young ones when not yet able to swim together (with 213 . coeliac [intestinal complaints].

2-86. This fat is good mixed with medicines that take away weariness. Then removing all the water gently from it. set it over a gentle fire of coals and stir it with a continuous splashing.FATS the old). After the skin is removed from the fat. then it is strained through a linen cloth and put in jars. Having covered the jar carefully set it out in a very hot sun then strain out the part which has melted into another ceramic jar until all is used. When it has congealed take it down and take off the filth 214 . rubbing it carefully with the hands and (as it were) reviving it again. Having taken it down and allowed the dregs to settle a little put it into a mortar moistened with a sponge. and strip off the skin from it. and put it into a good amount of very cold rain water. That which is salted or has turned sour through age is an enemy to the womb. When it has melted strain it through a strainer into water and let it cool. Take the new thick fat that grows around the kidneys. put it into a ceramic jar that will hold twice the amount. Having washed it often in clean water. place water on it and melt it gently. melted. Some. Take any of these. instead of the sun. STEAR SUGGESTED: Goose Grease ew fat of either geese or poultry (even if it is kept long. Put it into a new ceramic jar that could contain twice as much fat as you mean to provide. carefully put it again into another jar already washed beforehand. fresh. add enough water to cover the fat. it is pounded and put on to a platter. N 2-87. but without salt) is good for disorders of the womb. remove the skin. and a little fine salt is put on it. There is also another way of preparing it as follows. then put it into a very cold place and use it. In general all rennet gathers together things that are scattered and dissolves things that are gathered together. STEAR HUEION KAI ARNEION SUGGESTED: Lard and Bear Grease F ats from swine or bears are prepared as follows. set the jar over hot water or over a small and gentle coal fire.

KAI PROBATEION. STEAR TRAGEION. Then having melted it a third time without water. Having cleaned it. Then throw it into a ceramic jar and add to it enough water to cover it. and it becomes clear.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK lying in the bottom. melt the suet a second time and repeat the procedure. When it is all melted. put it over a gentle coal fire and stir it around. Having washed the jar. pour it into water and cool it. strain it out into a mortar moistened with water. sprinkling the seawater on it. Take the fat of any of these (as described in the previous discussion) and having washed it (as explained in the preparation of fat of swine) remove the skin. store it in tightly corked ceramic jars and put the jars in a very cold place. Melt it again a third time without water and pour it again into the mortar. When it is all dissolved it must be put into a ceramic jar and sea water poured into it to stand no less than twenty centimetres above it. G 2-89. pouring in a little water until nothing similar to blood comes from it. put it into a mortar to temper it and beat it. Afterwards for every Attic [Athenian] pound of the suet you must put in four teaspoonfuls of Tyrrhenian [Etruscan] wax. 215 . oat. KAI ELAPHEION SUGGESTED: Mutton Suet etc. then it must be put into a mortar and pounded carefully. sheep and furthermore deer suet is prepared as follows. no fat swims on it. and when it is cold bottle it for storage like fat of swine. 2-88. Afterwards it is covered and is to be set out every day in the sun so that it may become white and lose its bad taste. STEAR BOEION SUGGESTED: Ox or Cow Suet F rom ox or cow suet (which is near the kidneys) the skin is to be taken off. Then (having strained it and taken away the filth that lies in the bottom) it must be put into a new jar. and it must be boiled until it has lost its own smell. and it must be washed in sea water taken out of the ocean.

and as many teaspoonfuls of palm. and other similar fats are prepared. If there is any bad smell left in it the day after. wild boars’. Prepared like this it is not very white. 2-91. place it into another ceramic jar. and one teaspoon each of aspalathus [1-19] and xylobalsamum [1-18]. Let all of them be pounded very finely. cassia and calamus [1-17. 1-10]. 4-52]. Afterwards pour in fragrant 216 . Then place it into the jar again and boil it with the same amount of sweet-smelling wine. If you would like to make it smell sweeter. the same amount as before. 1-8. Remove the skin from the fat you want to perfume. lions’.FATS 2-90. 1-7. For every four and a half pints of fat add seven teaspoonfuls of juncus arabicus [1-16. pouring out and pouring on water until it is thoroughly washed. It is also melted without salt to be used in some sores for which salt is not indicated. remove the jar from the fire and let the fat remain in there all night. When it begins to congeal rub it diligently with the hands again. wash it with running water from the river. Afterwards cool it down and let it remain all night. Then pour in more of the same kind of wine. camels’. cardamom and nardus[1-6. 1-114]. and having pulled off the skin put the fat into a new clay jar. Take new fat from the kidneys. sprinkle a little salt on it and melt it. Mix with all of this one ounce each of cinnamon. B ulls’ suet must be prepared as follows. PARDALEION KAI LEONTEION SUGGESTED: Bulls’ Suet etc. wash it as shown above and boil it in fragrant wine without any sea water in it. add to this forty teaspoonfuls of flowers of juncus arabicus. melt it and carefully skim it. When it has boiled twice. pour sweet-smelling wine on it again and repeat (as has been formerly described) until it discards all rank smell. STEAR POS AROMATISTEON SUGGESTED: Fats Blended with Scent C alves’ fat as well as fat from bulls and deer and the bone marrow of deer are given a sweet smell as follows. STEAR TAUREION. Then strain it out into clear water. horses’. In the same way panthers’.

Take one pound of bruised aspalathus [1-19] and four pounds of the flowers of amaracinum [1-68]. When the fat has received all the strength and smell of the thickeners take it down. boil it together three times in a similar way and remove it. The previously described fats are first thickened as follows so that they may more readily receive the strength of the sweet odour. On the following day pour out the wine and put in more of the same kind. mix with all of this eight teaspoonfuls of the fattest myrrh [1-77. Then take it from the fire and let it remain in the jar all night. strain it through a linen cloth and then aromatize it as described already. 1-73. and when it has lost all its strong greasy smell. Pound whatever fats you have (which are new and not mixed with blood or having other marks which have been often spoken of). On the next morning (after having taken out the salt) pour out the wine. take it off gently. set it securely over coals and boil it all together three times. put it in jars and use it. melt and strain the fat. Put them into a new jar and pour in old odoriferous white wine so that it exceeds eight fingers in depth. Then on the following day put them with the fat into a new ceramic jar that will hold three gallons. Take out two pounds of the fat and place it into a jar and add four half-pints of the same wine and four pounds of pounded seeds from a lotus tree [1-171].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK wine. 217 . [3-46] and cyprus [1-124]. In the same way fat that was prepared beforehand is made sweet smelling. strain it. place in there a myrtle branch. and that tree whose wood those who make pipes use. If you wish to make it smell sweeter. cork the jar tightly. serpyllum. When the fat has boiled for the third time. Some are content with one of these for this purpose. strain it and let it cool. melt it and put it in jars. 4-116] diluted in very old wine. Take the fat and boil it with wine. Boil them together using a slow fire until the fat has lost its native scent and rather smells of the wine. Fats are also thickened as follows. as well as aspalathus [1-19] (all thoroughly pounded). and add to this two and a quarter litres of wine and boil everything together. then wash the jar and take away the filth that sticks in the bottom. Boil it over a gentle fire stirring it around continuously. steep them in old wine and let them absorb it for one night. Then take off the jar and cool it.

and additionally take away the filth if any remains in the bottom. set it over the coals and make it boil three times. STEAR POS SAMPSUCHITETAI To Perfume Fat with Sampsuchum SUGGESTED: Amaracus. Knotted Marjoram F at is made to smell like sampsuchum as follows. mix with it exactly twelve teaspoonfuls each of pounded erysisceptrum [1-4]. Afterwards place them into a jar. In the same way both swine fat and bear fat and other similar fats are given a fragrant smell. All this must be done in the winter for in the summer it will not adhere together. Mix in again another pound and a half of bruised sampsuchum (as before). and having cooled it. Take one pound of well-prepared fat (especially bulls’ fat) and a pound and a half of carefully bruised ripe sampsuchum. Sampsucum. and calamus [1-17. wipe away the filth in the bottom. Origanum majorana [Linneaus]. Majorana hortensis — Sweet Marjoram. 218 .FATS Poultry or goose grease is given a sweet scent as follows. stop it tightly. 2-92. and having added to this one wine-cupful of old Lesbos wine. When the fat congeals take it out with a spoon (as previously described) put it into a new ceramic jar. Origanum majoranoides. Take two pints of either of these fats (which have been already prepared). When the fat loses its own taste. 1-114]. The following day melt them and press them through a clean linen cloth into a clean jar. place them into an earthenware pot. sprinkle on it a good quantity of wine and form them into little cakes. Some to help the process mix in a little Tyrrhenian wax. palma elaterium [4-155]. Then take the jar from the fire and allow the things in it to cool for one day and night. mix them. Sampsuchum. Maiorana [Fuchs]. cover them and let them remain for that night. pour water on them and boil them gently. strain it and let it stand (well-covered) all that night. repeating the remainder of the process. xylobalsamum [1-18]. and put the jars in a very cold place. Majorana vulgaris [Bauhin]. Most importantly boil and strain it. In the morning throw them into a ceramic jar. The next morning take out the paste. and make it into little cakes again. and put it in jars in a very cold place. Origanum majorum [Pliny].

cows and calves is somewhat astringent. clearing the face. Fat from goats has the most dissolving nature and helps the gouty. They say that ass's fat makes scars all one colour. and after you have thoroughly cooled it in a sieve in the shade (when it is dry) put it into a clean linen cloth and press it out strongly with your hands. The lions’ is similar to these and they say it is an antidote to defend against those who intend treachery. That from goats is more astringent. wash it well. yet that of bulls. Fats also remain pure stored in honey.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-93. The broth of these fats (sipped) is good for those with pulmonary consumption. Then (having put a string through it) hang it up in a shady place. STEAR CHENEION KAI ORNITHEION SUGGESTED: Preserving Fat of Geese and Poultry I f anyone wants to preserve fat of geese. 2-94. Swines’ fat is applied for disorders of the womb and perineum. as a result it is given boiled with polenta. tempered with the berries of a goat [i. Fat from elephants and deer (rubbed on) drives away snakes. it can be done as follows. STEATON DUNAMIS SUGGESTED: Medicinal uses of Fats ll fat is warming. and with barley water as a suppository or enema. After many days wrap it in new paper and put it in jars in a very cold place. rhoe [4-64] and cheese for dysentery. with goat’s dung] and saffron and applied. Fats of geese and poultry are good for women’s disorders. The same (applied with ash or chalk) is good for oedema. Bears’ fat is thought to make hair that was destroyed by alopecia 219 A . and is also good for those burnt by fire. Washed in wine it is good for pleurisy. cracks of the lips.e. Take whichever fresh fat you have. The same (kept in salt and grown very old in there as it were) warms and soothes. poultry or calves (which has not been prepared) from putrefying. and for sores of the ears. and is effective given as an antidote to those who have taken a drink of parasitically infected water. Sheep fat is equivalent to this. inflammation and fistulas [ulcers]. softening and purifying.

MUELOI SUGGESTED: Bone Marrow D eer marrow is the best. the filth that swims on top is taken off with a feather. Afterwards take it out and dry it . then a goat and a sheep. They are gathered at the time when spring is drawing on. CHOLE PASA SUGGESTED: Gall from various Animals A 220 ll kinds of gall is prepared and stored as follows. purifying. put it into boiling water. The bone marrow of a deer (rubbed on) also drives away venomous creatures. the filth that lies at the bottom having been carefully scraped away. Foxes’ fat cures sores of the ears. 2-95. and is good for chilblains. and healing. bind the mouth [of the gall bladder] with a linen thread. After it has congealed it is stored in a new earthenware jar. It makes hair in the armpits that has been removed never come up again. and fills up the hollow sores of ulcers. 2-96. then that from a calf. and afterwards it is strained through a linen cloth and similarly washed until the water becomes clean. If you want to store it unprepared follow the directions given in fats of poultry and of geese. It is hard to recognise except by whoever takes it out of the bones and preserves it. that from a bull. and towards the autumn. The fat of a viper mixed (in equal parts) with cedria [1-105] Attic [Athenian] honey and old oil is also good for dullness of the sight and liquids in the eyes. It is prepared like fat [above] being taken out of the choicest and freshest bones. applied by itself at the roots of the hair [depilatory]. after.FATS [baldness] grow again. All marrow is softening. and it is strained out into a mortar. Take gall that is new. for at other times of the year it is found in the bones — looking bloody and similar to flesh that is easily broken. Fat of river fish (melted in the sun and mixed with honey) rubbed on the eyes clears their sight. and then let it remain for as long as it would take to travel three furlongs [3/8 mile]. Afterwards it is melted in a double jar. Water is poured on it.

bind them with a linen thread. tie the beginning of the thread to the mouth of the bottle. and coarse eyelids. swine. and epilepsy. It heals [ulcers] on the perineum to a scar. as well as that from a bear. then cork it and put it in storage. Bulls’ gall with honey is effectively rubbed on those troubled with tonsillitis. eagle. and also takes away glandular fever. All kinds of gall are sharp and warming. the fish called callionymus [uranoscopus]. or goat. Gall from a tortoise is put into the nostrils for tonsillitis. argema [small white ulcer on the cornea]. It is put into wound plasters. it represses the protuberances of elephantiasis [skin disease]. That from a he-goat does the same. if. white hens and wild she-goats. A bull’s gall is more effective than that from a sheep. Gall from a wild she-goat rubbed on effectively cures the dim-sighted. It is an excellent cleanser for leprosy and dandruff with nitre [potassium nitrate — saltpetre] or fuller's earth [ammonium silicate]. They serve effectively for liquids and darkness of the eyes that has recently begun. varying in strength depending on their source. sea turtles and hyenas seem to be more effective.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK in a shady dry place. It is good with honey against spreading erosive ulcers. All of them have a tendency to laxativeness (especially in children). as well as that of partridge. and it is also good for noise in the ears [dropped in] with juice from leeks. Galls from sea scorpions [2-14]. dipping a lock of wool in there. For galls that you intend to mix with eye medicines. 221 . put them into a glass bottle containing honey. Sheep and bear galls are good for the same purposes but they are somewhat weaker: bear gall (taken in a linctus [syrup]) helps those with falling sickness. dropped in with goats’ milk or women’s. and purulent ears and cracks in them. and ointments that are rubbed about the body to prevent poisoning. and pains of the genitals and of the scrotum. Rubbed on. you apply it to the perineum. and is also good for gangrenous ulceration in the mouths of children. Gall from swine is effective taken for ulcers in the ears and all the other things.

scrofulous tumours [goitres]. Blood from a bull applied with polenta disperses and softens hardness. or who have taken poison in a drink. Applied with vinegar it dissolves hardness. and that from green frogs is thought to have the same effectiveness. breathing smoke from the burning dung of a male beast of the herd restores a uterus that has fallen down. PERI HAIMATON Blood — CAUTION lood from a goose. or kid are usefully mixed with antidotes. Taken in a drink with wine it is an antidote against poison. Blood from a he-goat. The application of it in the same way serves as a warm pack for lessening sciatica. It is wrapped in leaves. rennet of a hare and cumin). and bone inflammation. A hare’s blood rubbed on warm cures sunburn and freckles. pigeon. and applied. In particular. and partridge are rubbed on new sores on eyes and on eyes that are bloodshot and have dull sight. deer or hare (fried in a pan and eaten) stop dysentery and discharges of the abdominal cavity. Blood of a sea turtle (taken in a drink with wine. In particular that from a pigeon stops bleeding from the meninges [membranes of the spinal cord and brain]. B 2-98. duck. and the fumes also drive gnats 222 T . drake.FATS 2-97. and an antidote for drinking anything hateful or loathsome. Dog’s blood (taken as a drink) is good for those bitten by a mad dog. Blood of stallion horses is mixed with antiseptic medicines. is good against the bites of venomous creatures. turtle. Blood from an earth tortoise (taken as a drink) is said to be good for epileptics. she-goat. yet rubbed on it alleviates the pains of gout and erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. Blood from a chamaeleon is believed to make the eyelids hairless. warmed in hot ashes. Blood from a wood dove. The menstrual blood of a woman rubbed on her (or if she walks over it) is thought to keep her from conception. APOPATOS Dung — CAUTION he dung of a cow from the herd (applied whilst fresh) lessens the inflammation of wounds.

g. first lay wool moistened in oil. used with a waxy ointment of rosaceum [1-53]. pounded together with honey and hempseed and oil. They cure baldness. 223 . as well as burns. Dung of a stork (taken in a drink with water) is thought to be good for epilepsy. The dung of asses as well as horses staunches bleeding (whether used raw or burnt) mixed with vinegar. especially those that live on the mountains. hanging warts. (taken in a drink with wine) cures yellow jaundice. burnt and rubbed on with vinegar or vinegar and honey. Poultry dung does the same but less effectively. Burnt goat dung is effectively taken for sciatica as follows. Applied with swines’ grease they help the gouty. the smoke of the dung of a vulture is reported to be an abortifacient. then lay on it one by one hot pills of goat dung until the sense of it comes through the arm to the hip and lessens the pain. and warty abnormal growths. In that hollow middle space between thumb and forefinger where the thumb approaches towards the wrist. Dried and pounded into small pieces and applied in wool with frankincense they stop the flows of women. The dung of sheep applied with vinegar heals epinyctis [pustules which appear only at night]. Taken in a drink with spices they induce the menstrual flow and are an abortifacient. The dry (dung) of a wild swine (taken as a drink with water or wine) prevents throwing up of blood. mumps]. Dung of one of the drove that goes at grass (after it is dry) is steeped in wine and taken as a drink to considerably help those bitten by scorpions. Inhaled. erysipela [streptococcal skin infection] and parotitis [inflamed glands e. and lessens a longenduring pain of the side. and it heals burns. and with vinegar they restrain other discharges of blood.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK away. For hernia and convulsions it is taken as a drink with vinegar. The dung of mice (pounded into small pieces with vinegar and rubbed on) cures baldness. yet in particular it is good (taken in a drink with vinegar or wine) as an antidote against deadly mushrooms and the suffering of coli [colic]. but with vinegar it dissolves tumours [possibly goitre]. Boiled with vinegar or wine they are applied to the bites of snakes. This type of burning is called Arabic. The berries [dung] of goats. It breaks carbuncles [infected boils] [malignant skin tumours]. creeping ulcers. corns. Doves’ dung (being more hot and burning) is effective mixed with barley meal. and it cures dislocations used with rosaceum [1-53] waxy ointment.

dried. Others mix amyl [starch] or cymolia [cimolite — soft earth — hydrous silicate of alumina]. The best is smallest and soon crumbled. Dogs’ urine makes a warm pack for those bitten by mad dogs. The dung of an earth crocodile is good for women to colour the face and make it shine. They counterfeit it by feeding starlings with rice and selling their dung because it is similar. Pounded. The urine of an incorrupt boy (sipped) is good for asthma.FATS Taken as a drink with frankincense and honeyed wine it expels urinary stones. dry it until it looks like little worms and sell it instead of this. Older urine is a better cleanser for achor [scaly eruption of the scalp]. Put into purulent ears it represses their pus. deadly medicines and dropsy as it begins. dandruff. it is somewhat sour. and it closes open cuts and joins them together. argemae [small white ulcers on the cornea]. resembling fermented dough in the smell. and it represses gangrenous ulcerations. and sea dragons [2-15]. Mouse dung given to children [as a suppository] encourages the bowels to evacuate. sea scorpions. Dried and rubbed on with honey it is reported to help those troubled with tonsillitis. (It is found among secrets that man’s dung as well as dogs’ dung mixed with honey and applied to the throat is a remedy for tonsillitis. Dog dung that is taken up in the heat of the dog days [midsummer]. applied as a poultice) keeps wounds from inflaming. That of men (new-made. psoriasis and hot eruptions. is an astringent for the bowels. sift it finely through a thin sieve. and dim vision. and with saltpetre [potassium nitrate] it cleans leprosy and itchiness. The same urine with cyprian brass makes a glue for soldering gold 224 A . and boiled in a pomegranate rind it dries out worms in the ears. and boiled in brass with honey it cleans the scar of a healed wound. and taken in a drink with water or wine. And it is applied with hot cloths for the bites of sea vipers.) 2-99. colour it with anchusa. PERI OURON Urine — CAUTION man’s own water (taken as a drink) is an antidote against viper bites. even those in the genitals. smooth as amyl [starch] and quickly melted in liquid.

Boiled and applied it heals flesh that stands separated. taken as a drink it breaks and expels stones in the bladder. with a fragrant smell. especially that called hymettium. It eases pains of the womb boiled with cyprinum [1-65] and applied. It is cleansing. as well as noise in the ears and their pains. 2-101. The substance of the urine (rubbed on) alleviates erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. Urine of an ass is said to cure inflamed kidneys. 2-100. Some call this succinum pterygophoron [the wing of accompaniment] because it draws feathers to it. Bull’s urine pounded together with myrrh and dropped in the ears lessens earache. Boar’s urine has a similar property— more particularly. a pale yellow colour. and restores the exposed nut of the yard [old 225 A . and purges scars in the eyes. and draws out fluids. It eases those troubled with constriction of the womb. as a result it has only a foolish report. and which when taken (as it were) leaps back to the finger. and that from Sicily called simblium. and dropped in the ears it cures sores of the ears. not liquid but glutinous and firm. Rubbed on it kills lice and nits. the next best is that from the Cyclad Islands. and it cures lichen [skin disease with red pustules] boiled with liquid allom [5-123] and applied. MELI SUGGESTED: Honey ttic [Athenian] honey is the best. As a result it is good for all rotten and hollow ulcers when infused. opens pores. cleans the eyelids. Two cups of urine of a goat taken in a drink with spica nardi [spikenard] with water every day (is said) to expel urine through the bowels. Taken as a drink with water it is good for a stomach and intestines troubled with excessive discharge. The most appreciated is extremely sweet and sharp. LUNGOURION Lyncurium — Urine of a Lynx L yncurium [urine of a lynx] is thought (as soon as it is pissed out) to grow into a stone. dropped in lukewarm with salt dug up or mined sea shells pounded into small pieces.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK together.

similar in consistency to salt and brittle [enough] to be broken . SAKCHARON SUGGESTED: Arundo saccharifera. Saccharum officinale. MELI SARDOON SUGGESTED: Sardinian Honey T he honey that is made in Sardinia is bitter because the bees feed on wormwood [3-26] yet it is good rubbed on the face for sunburn and spots. It cleans away things that darken the pupils of the eyes. either rubbed on or gargled. then that of summer. It induces the movement of urine. 2-103. 3-53. It is sharp and the smell causes sneezing. but they are helped by eating rue [3-52. but that of winter (being thicker) is the worst. penis] which was opened by circumcision. Taken warm with rosaceum [1-53] it is an antidote for meconium [4-65]. makes eaters of it beside themselves with sweating. Spring honey is the best. causing weals and blisters. and cures coughs and those bitten by snakes. the foreskin being softened with honey (especially after bathing) for thirty days. Raw [honey] inflates the intestines and encourages coughs — as a result you ought to use clarified [honey]. It heals inflammations around the throat and tonsils. Rubbed on with costum [1-15] it heals sunburn. and is either licked or taken in a drink for fungi and those bitten by mad dogs. and tonsillitis. from the property of certain flowers. A 2-104. and with salt it takes away bruises.FATS English — rod. taking these as often as they vomit. MELI PONTIKON SUGGESTED: Heraclean Honey t some times (of the year) honey is made in Heraclea of Pontus which. Bambusa arundinacea — Sugar Reeds T 226 here is a kind of coalesced honey called sugar found in reeds in India and Arabia the happy. 2-102. 4-98] and salt meat and drinking mead [honey wine].

softening and reasonably filling. and boil it again. Then pierce the little cakes with a linen thread and hang them up at some distance from one another. Wax is made white as follows. When the wax has boiled again (as before) remove the jar from the fire. 2-105. and boil it. instead of sea water taken out of the deep.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK between the teeth like salt. Afterwards. It is usually either Pontic or Cretan. with a sweet taste and having the scent as it were of honey. and at night set them under the moon until they become perfectly white. If anyone wants to make it extraordinarily white let him do these things in the same way but let him boil it more often. It is mixed in 227 T . somewhat fat. then afterwards they take it out on a thin. They advise to set about this work in the spring when the sun both lessens its intensity and yields dew. and that it may be coalesced together separately. put it into a new jar and pour on it as much sea water (taken out of the deep) as shall be sufficient. Some. Cut clean wax into small pieces. boil it as previously described once or twice in very sharp brine. take the bottom of a new little jar (first moistened in cold water). It is good dissolved in water for the intestines and stomach. dipping it in a little with a soft touch. they place them in the sun until at last they become wonderfully white. and taken as a drink to help a painful bladder and kidneys. let it cool. Rubbed on it disperses things which darken the pupils. adding more fresh seawater to it. that a little of it may be taken. and do this until you have taken up all the wax. sprinkle them every now and then with water. cooling it in water again. Having taken it up. yet pure. When it has boiled two or three times remove the jar. In the daytime set them in the sun. take out the calce [lime] and scrape off the filth if there is any around it. The next best is somewhat white and fat. All wax is warming. round bottle with a handle. so that the wax does not melt. KEROS SUGGESTED: Beeswax he best wax is a pale yellow. pull off the first cake and let down the bottom of the jar again. sprinkling a little saltpetre [potassium nitrate] on it. laying the little round cakes on thick grass. let it down gently into the wax.

and it is applied to take away lichen [skin disease with red pustules].FATS broths for dysentery. Blepharis edulis after FAGUET — 1874 228 . and which is soft. It is extremely warm and attractive. The smoke from it (inhaled) helps old coughs. 2-106. It is found around the mouths of hives. being similar in nature to wax. and easy to spread (like mastic [1-90]). and draws out thorns and splinters. PROPOLIS SUGGESTED: Bee-glue T he yellow bee-glue that has a sweet scent and resembles styrax [1-79] should be chosen. as it does not allow the milk to curdle in those who suckle [breastfeeding]. and is swallowed down in an amount equal to ten grains of millet. excessively dry.

Boiled with a decoction of rue it represses swelling breasts. Meal from sitanian wheat is good applied as a poultice with vinegar or wine for those bitten by venomous creatures. Pyrum. or troubled with griping. Triticum tertium genus [Fuchs]. dissolves any inflammation. Bread made of the flour of it is more nourishing than the panis cibarius [from the merchants] but that from the meal of trimestris is lighter and quickly distributed. Wheat meal is applied as a plaster with juice of hyoscyamus [4-69] for discharges of the nerves and puffing up of the bowels. Glue made either of fine flour or 229 T . Bran boiled with sharp vinegar and applied as a warm poultice removes leprosy. Both by itself or mixed with other things. PUROI SUGGESTED: Tritici primum genus. wheat that is old and dry stops loose bowels. Boiled like glue and taken as linctus [syrup] it helps those who spit blood. Triticum aesetivum. Triticum turegidum [Linnaeus] — Wheat [other usage] Pirum. Triticum vulgare [Fuchs] Triticum sativum. mixed with some herbs or juices. It is good against coughs and irritations of the arteries boiled together with mint and butter. Bread (either raw or baked) applied with honey and water lessens all inflammation. or oil mixed with water. and is a convenient poultice for all inflammations as they begin. Wheat that is new (steeped in brine and applied) cures old lichen [papular skin disease]. Chewed and applied it helps those bitten by a mad dog. is very softening. and somewhat cooling. It ripens and opens other protuberances and boils or inflammatory tumours with salt.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK FRUMENTACEA: CEREALS 2-107. and is good for those bitten by vipers. Puroi — Pear Tree [Pliny] he most effective pyrum [wheat] for the preservation of health is new. Then after this is trimestre [called this because it is ripe in three months] called by some sitanium. with vinegar and honey it takes away freckles. The fermented dough of the meal (being warming and extractive) effectively lessens calluses in the soles of the feet. fully ripe and a yellowish colour. Wheat flour boiled with honey and water. which eaten raw breeds worms in the loins [lower torso].

fenugreek and rue [3-52. 2-108. With moist pitch. 3-53. wax. bad for the stomach. T 230 . Hordeum distichum [Fuchs]. Juice extracted out of the meal with water and boiled with pitch and oil is good for discharges of the joints. bramble. honey and water dissolves oedema and inflammation. It digests hard lumps with pitch. flatulent. wild pears. goitres]. wine. Boiled with sharp vinegar (as a poultice made of crithe meal) and applied warm it cures leprosy. It causes an abundance of milk [breastfeeding] boiled together with marathrum [3-81] seed and sipped. It is applied as a poultice with flax seed. cleansing. rosin and doves’ dung. KRITHE SUGGESTED: Hordeum polystichum. yet crithe water is more nourishing than the polenta that is made of it by reason of the cream that comes off it in the boiling. Meal of crithe stops discharges of the bowels and lessens inflammation. 4-98] against gaseousness in the intestines. if it is made more liquid and lukewarm and a spoonful is sipped up. Hordeum tetrastichum [in Sprague] — Two-row Barley Hordeum sativum. It is good for irritations. is good for those who spit blood.FRUMENTACEA: CEREALS the finest meal for gluing books. roughness of the arteries and ulcers. Wheat water is also good for these things as it is more nourishing and diuretic. With myrtle. Hordeum distichon [Brunfels. It brings ease to those troubled with pain in their side with melilot [3-48] and the heads of poppies. With quinces or vinegar it is good for gouty inflammation. the urine of an uncorrupted child and oil it ripens scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling. and ripens oedema. Hordeum vulgare — Six-row Barley see 2-157. Linnaeus]. It is urinary. or pomegranate rinds it stops discharges of the bowels. Meal of it boiled with figs. Crithmum maritimum he best crithe is is white and clean but it is less nourishing than wheat.

ZUTHOS SUGGESTED: Zythum. but made into bread it is less nourishing than wheat. Engrain. KOURMI SUGGESTED: Hordeum sativum. having the seed joined in two husks. Dinkel Wheat T here are two kinds of zea — one single and the other dicoccous. Hordeum sativum. Two-grained Wheat Triticum zea. produces bad fluids. It is more nourishing than barley. which people often drink instead of wine. One-grained Wheat Zeae primum genus [Fuchs]. pleasant-tasting to the mouth. A 2-111. Zeae dicoccus major [Bauhin] Triticum dicoccum — Emmer Wheat. Hordeum vulgare [Pliny] — Soured Barley Water. called curmi. ZEIA SUGGESTED: Zeae alterum genus [Fuchs]. It causes headaches. It is diuretic but hurtful to the kidneys and nerves (being especially bad for the neural membrane).THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-109. breeds ill fluids. and hurts the tendons. 2-110. It is also wind inducing. Hordeum vulgare — Fermented Barley Drink drink is made from barley. and causes leprosy. Ivory steeped in it is made fit to work on. Triticum spelta — Spelt Wheat. Egyptian Malt Liquor Z ythum is made from barley. There are similar sorts of drink made from wheat in western Iberia and in Brittany. Zea briza dicta. 231 . Triticum monococcum — Small Spelt. Zea monococcus germanica [Brunfels].

Spelt Wheat. but that from zea is more astringent to the bowels. Triticum spelta — Spelt Wheat. ATHERA zea. 2-113. Triticum romanum [Bedevian] O lyra [grain] is very similar to zea but somewhat less nourishing. It is also made into bread and crimnum [porridge] is similarly made of it. Dinkel Wheat Triticum dicoccum — Emmer Wheat.FRUMENTACEA: CEREALS 2-112. Spelta. TRAGOS SUGGESTED: Tragus berteronianus — Carrot Seed Grass ragus is somewhat similar in shape to chondrus [below] but is much less nourishing than zea [above] because it has much chaff. It is abundantly nourishing and easy to digest. especially dried by the fire beforehand. KRIMNON zea. Triticum aesetivum — Wheat SUGGESTED: Triticum C rimnum from which porridge is made is the coarsest meal that is made from zea and wheat. As a result it is hard to digest and softens the bowels. It is a spoonmeal (similar to liquid porridge) suitable for children. and it is good in plasters. Triticum sativum. 2-115. . 2-114. Two-grained Wheat SUGGESTED: Triticum A T 232 thera is made of zea ground very small. OLURA SUGGESTED: Olyra. Triticum spelta — Alica. Two-grained Wheat Triticum vulgare. Dinkel Wheat Triticum dicoccum — Emmer Wheat.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Triticum sativum after FAGUET — 1894 233 .

FRUMENTACEA: CEREALS Hordeum sativum after FAGUET — 1894 234 .

Avena vulgaris [Bauhin] Avena sativa var β [Linnaeus] — Oats [other usage] Bromus arvensis — Corn Brome Grass Bromus temulentus.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-116. Ivray NARCOTIC see 4-140 B romus is a grass similar to wheat in the leaves. C Oryza sativa after FAGUET — 1892 235 . more nourishing than rice. CHONDROS zea. ORUZA SUGGESTED: Oryza sativa — Rice O ryza is a kind of grass growing in marshy and moist places. and it has fruit on the top (as it were. Lolium temulentum. moderately nourishing and binding to the bowels. two-footed little locusts) in which is the seed. and a decoction of it is a fit suppository for those who have dysentery with much pain. distinguished by knots. and rubbed on it drives away pitted nails. Cream of bromus is sipped to help those troubled with a cough. Crepolea temulentum — Darnel. cures aegilopses [ulcer or fistula in the inner angle of the eye] that are new. but far better for the stomach. Dinkel Wheat Triticum dicoccum — Emmer Wheat. Porridge is also made from it for binding the intestines. Triticum spelta — Spelt Wheat. and more binding to the intestines. as effective for poultices as barley. Cheat. 2-117. Boiled with vinegar it takes away leprosy. Ryegrass. 2-118. Two-grained Wheat SUGGESTED:Triticum hondrus is made of grain called zea dicoccos. BROMOS SUGGESTED: Avena [Fuchs].

The Romans call it panicum. Oil is made [from the seeds] of it that the Egyptians use. Chaetochloa italica — Italian Millet [other usage] Cenchrus lappaceus — Bur Cenchrus SUGGESTED: Milium [Fuchs]. It is especially good for inflammation and sores of the eyes. It heals fractures. yet are less nourishing than millet and less astringent. Panicum C enchrus (which the Romans call millet) is less nourishing than other grains. and others call it melinen. if after it is eaten it remains between the teeth. KENCHROS chrus-galli. 2-120. With rosaceum [1-53] it eases headaches caused by heat. Echinochloa chrus-galli. Panic Millet Setaria italica. Sesamum orientale. ELUMOS SUGGESTED: Panicum [Fuchs]. 2-121. burns. Sesamum oleiferum — Sesame seeds. Mat Grass — Elymus arenarius E lymus is of grain seeds similar to millet which are made into meal in the same way. Setaria italica [in Sprague] [other usage] Lyme Grass.FRUMENTACEA: CEREALS 2-119. S 236 . Oplismenus chrus-galli — Small Millet. Barnyard Grass. Applied it disperses thicknesses in the nerves. and are effective for the same uses. The herb boiled in wine does the same. Gingelly. but made into bread (or used as porridge) it stops discharges of the intestines and induces the passing of urine. Marram. and the bites of the horned viper. Cockspur Panicum Panicum miliaceum [Linnaeus] — Millet. Gingili esamum is hurtful to the stomach and causes a stinking breath in the mouth. disorders of the colon. inflammation in the ears. SESAMON SUGGESTED: Sesamum indicum. Heated and put warm into bags [as a hot pad] it helps griping and other disorders.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Triticum spelta after FAGUET — 1894 237 .

FRUMENTACEA: CEREALS Asparagus altilis from FUCHS — 1545 238 .

goitres]. Lychnis segetum major [Bauhin]. Aira coerulea — Purple Molinia. With natural sulphur and vinegar it cures wild lichenae [skin disease] and leprosy. and having poured in (other) water again it must be pounded. and breaks open swellings that are hard to ripen. eats away muscle. or frankincense helps conception. applied as a poultice with radishes and salt. Agrostemma githago [Linnaeus] — Corn Cockle [other usage] Molinia caerulea. The Romans call it lolium. rotten ulcers.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-122. and if it is possible in the night too. Blawing Grass see 2-116 ira (which grows among wheat) ground up has the power to remove the edges from nomae [grazer disease. tissue and bones]. The smoke inhaled with polenta. Then the bran that lies underneath must be taken away with a skimmer. AIRA SUGGESTED: Lolium [Fuchs]. When it appears to be very soft (having poured out the water) it must be trod with the feet. Amyl A myl is called this because it is made without the help of a mill. 4-116]. for if it remains moist even a little it presently grows sour. and after it is strained you are to dry it on new tiles in a very warm sun. and that which is left must be strained. It is made from this clean three-months wheat [sitanium or trimestre] being steeped in water five times a day. The best is made of that wheat which ripens in three months and grows in Crete or Egypt. 1-73. hollow ulcers and pustules. Lavender Grass. and it is also called thyaron. myrrh [1-77. A 2-123. Taken in a drink it stops the throwing-up of 239 . saffron. AMULON SUGGESTED: Starch. It is effective against discharges of the eyes. and gangrene. Boiled with honey and water and applied as a poultice it is good for those with sciatica. When it has become soft you must pour out the water gently without jogging so that the best starch is not poured out together with it. Boiled in wine with pigeons’ dung and flaxseed it dissolves scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling.

and dried in a very hot sun (as has been formerly described). Starch is also made from zea [Triticum zea] that is steeped for one or two days. Sesamum indicum after FAGUET — 1888 240 . This is not fit for bodily use but for other uses it is fit enough.FRUMENTACEA: CEREALS blood. kneaded with the hands like dough. It is mixed with milk and sauces. as well as disorders of the arteries.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Elymus arenarius from WILLKOMM — 1903 241 .

FRUMENTACEA: CEREALS Milium from FUCHS — 1545 242 .

Foenumgraecum [Fuchs]. dandruff and scaly eruptions on the scalp. softening and dilating the places about the womb. and the Egyptians. It is inserted instead of a pessary with goose grease. Pounded into small pieces with boiled honey and water and applied as a poultice. The oil (with myrtle) cleans hair and scars in the private parts. buceras. the Latins call it foenumgraecum. Used raw (applied as a plaster with saltpetre [potassium nitrate] and figs) it takes away sunburn and varicose veins. With lye it disperses inflammation of the parotid gland and hard lumps. itasin. ceraitis. or lotos. elis [flour of fenugreek] and meal of fenugreek are softening and dispersing. Boiled with wine it cleans away herpes [viral skin infection] and favus [contagious 243 L . It is also called carpon. LINON SUGGESTED: Linum sativum [Bauhin].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK LACHANA: VEGETABLES 2-124. Pounded into small pieces and applied as a plaster with saltpetre [potassium nitrate] and vinegar it reduces the spleen. TELEOS ALEURON. and for stinking loose bowels from dysentery. dispersing and softening all inflammation inwardly and outwardly. T 2-125. The seed (boiled with honey and oil and a little water. it is good for both inner and outer inflammation. TELIS Foenumgraecum sativum [Bauhin]. aegoceras. A decoction of it is a bath for women’s problems caused either from inflammation or closure (of the vulva). A decoction is used for ineffective straining at stools or urination. Trigonella foenum-graecum [Linnaeus] — Fenugreek SUGGESTED: Foenograecum. Linum usitatissimum — Flax inum [flax] is commonly known. The cream of it (boiled in water and strained out) cleans hair. With vinegar the green leaves are good for weak and ulcerated places. or taken in boiled honey) has the same strength as fenugreek.

LACHANA: VEGETABLES

skin disease]. It takes off pitted nails, taken with an equal amount of nasturtium [2-185] and honey. Taken with honey instead of syrup, it brings up things from the chest and it relieves coughs. Mixed with honey and pepper into a flat cake and eaten, it encourages the pursuit of sexual pleasure [aphrodisiac]. A decoction is given as a suppository for ulcers of the bowels and womb, as well as for expelling excrement; and it is very good (like a decoction of fenugreek) used as a hip bath for inflammation of the womb. It is also called linocalamis, anion, or linon agrion; the Romans call it linomyrum, and the Africans, zeraphis.

2-126. EREBINTHOS
SUGGESTED: Cicer

nigrum [Fuchs], Cicer sativum [Bauhin] Cicer arietinum [Linnaeus] — Chick-pea, Gram

Astragalus cicer, Phaca cicer — Mountain Chickpea, Vetch
Erebus — God of the Underworld

icer that is set or sown is agreeable to the stomach, diuretic, causes winds and a good colour all around, expels the menstrual flow, is an abortifacient, and encourages milk. It is applied as a poultice (especially boiled with ervum [2-129, 2-131]) for inflammation from stones [urinary, kidney], protruding warts, scabs, running ulcers of the head, and for lichenae [skin disease], and cancerous malignant ulcers with barley and honey. The other type is called arietinus and both of them are diuretic, a decoction being given with libanotis [medicated drinks] for yellow jaundice and dropsy; but they hurt an ulcerated bladder and the kidneys. Some touch the top of every wart with a cicer when the moon is new, some with one, some with another, bind them up in a linen cloth and command them to be put backward, as though the warts would fall away by these means. There is also a wild cicer with leaves similar to that which is set or sown, sharp in smell but different in the seed, serviceable for the same uses as the set plants.

C

244

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Nelumbo nucifera after FAGUET — 1888

245

LACHANA: VEGETABLES

Faba vulgaris from FUCHS — 1545

246

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

2-127. KUAMOS HELLENIKOS
SUGGESTED: Faba,

Faba vulgaris [Fuchs] Vicia faba [Linnaeus] — Broad Bean

Cyamus, Cyamos, Colocasia [Pliny] — Egyptian Bean
see 2-197, 2-128

C

yamus. The Greek bean is windy, flatulent, hard to digest, and causes troublesome dreams. Yet it is good for coughs and gaining body weight, as it is in the midst of hot and cold. Boiled with vinegar and honey and eaten with the husks it stops dysentery and discharges of the coeliac [intestinal complaints]; and eaten it is good against vomiting. It is made less flatulent if the first water in which it was boiled is thrown away. Green [raw] beans are worse for the stomach and more wind inducing. Meal from the bean (applied as a poultice either by itself or with polenta) lessens inflammation from a stroke, makes scars all one colour, helps swollen inflamed breasts, and dries up milk. With honey and meal of fenugreek it dissolves boils or inflammatory tumours, parotid tumours, and blueness under the eyes. With roses, frankincense and the white of an egg it represses the falling-forwards of the eyes, staphylomata [inflammatory protrusion of the cornea] and oedema. Kneaded with wine it helps excessive liquids and blows to the eyes. Chewed without the husks, it is applied to the forehead as a coolant for discharges. Boiled in wine it cures the inflammation of stones [urinary, kidney]. Applied as a poultice to the place where the pubic hair grows in children, it keeps them hairless for a long time. It cleans vitiligines [form of leprosy]. If the husks are applied as a poultice it makes hair that has been plucked grow out emaciated and thin. Applied with polenta, alumen [5-123] and old oil it dissolves scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling]. A decoction of it dyes wool. It is applied to discharges of blood caused by leeches, shelled and divided in two parts as it grew. The cut half closely pressed on suppresses it.

247

LACHANA: VEGETABLES

2-128. KUAMOS AIGUPTIOS
Nelumbo nucifera, Nelumbium nelumbo, Nymphaea nelumbo, Nelumbo nucifera — Nelumbo, East Indian Lotus, Sacred Bean, Egyptian Bean, Pythagorean Bean, Seed of the Lotus
see 2-127

SUGGESTED: Nelumbium speciosum,

T

he Egyptian bean (which some call pontican) grows abundantly in Egypt, Asia and Cilicia, and is found in marshy places. It has a leaf as great as a hat, a stalk the height of a foot, about the thickness of a finger. The flower is a rose colour, twice as big as the flower of a poppy. Having done blowing it bears pods similar to little bags, in each of which is a little bean (standing out above the covering) similar to a little bladder. It is called ciborium or cibotium (as we should say, loculamentum) because the setting of the bean is made when it is put in moist land and so left in the water. The root is thicker than that of the reed and lies underneath. This is used either boiled or raw and is called collocasia. The bean itself is also eaten green, but when dry it grows black and is bigger than the Greek one, astringent, and good for the stomach. As a result the meal that is made from them, sprinkled on instead of polenta, is good for dysentery and the abdominal cavity, and it is given as a porridge. The husks work better boiled in mulsum [honey, water and wine] and three cupfuls of it given to drink. The green in the middle of them is bitter to taste, and good for earache, pounded into small pieces, boiled with rosaceum [1-53] and dropped in the ears.

2-129. PHAKOS
SUGGESTED: Lens [Fuchs], Lens vulgaris [Bauhin], Ervum lens [Linnaeus], Lens esculenta, Lens culinaris — Lentils
see 2-131

haca (which the Latins call lens or lentils) is frequently eaten. It is dulling to the sight, hard to digest, worthless for the stomach, puffs up the stomach and intestines with wind, but is therapeutic for the intestines if eaten with the husks. The best is easily digested and
248

P

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Lens from FUCHS — 1545

249

LACHANA: VEGETABLES

Foenumgraecum from FUCHS — 1545

250

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

leaves nothing black when steeping it. It is astringent; as a result it is therapeutic for the bowels, if the husks are taken away first, and it is well boiled. The first water in which it is boiled is thrown away as the first boiling is laxative to the bowels. It causes troublesome dreams and is bad for sinewy parts, the lungs and the head. It will do its proper work better against discharges of the bowels if it is mixed with vinegar, intubus [endive], purslane, black beet, myrtle berries, pomegranate rinds, dry roses, medlars, service fruit, Theban pears, dates, the fruit of cotonea [1-160], chicory, plantain, whole galls [oak galls] (which are thrown away after they are boiled), or rhoe [4-64] which is sprinkled on meats. The vinegar must be carefully boiled with it otherwise it troubles the bowels. Thirty grains of lentils (pilled and swallowed) help a churning stomach. Boiled and re-boiled with polenta and applied, it lessens gout. With honey it joins together the hollowness of sores, breaks the scabs of ulcers and cleans them. Boiled with vinegar it disperses hard lumps and scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling, goitres]. With melilot [3-48] or the fruit of cotonea (and rosaceum [1-53] mixed with it all) it heals inflammation of the eyes and the perineum. For a worse inflammation of the perineum and large hollow sores, it is boiled with pomegranate rinds or dry roses as well as honey. It is good with seawater for ulcers of the cheek that have become gangrenous. It is good taken as previously described for shingles [herpes], pustules, erysipela [streptococcal skin infection] and chilblains. Boiled in seawater and applied it helps swollen breasts and curdling milk in women’s breasts.

251

LACHANA: VEGETABLES

2-130. PHASIOLOS
Isopyron, Isopyrum, Phaseolites, Phaseolus, Phasel [Pliny], Phaseolus lunatus [Linnaeus in Mabberley] — Pulses [other usage] Phaseolus vulgaris, Phaseolus coccineus — French Beans, Kidney Beans, Scarlet Runner Beans, Haricot Beans
see 4-121, 2-176

SUGGESTED: Phasiolus,

hasiolus is flatulent, stirs up wind, and is hard to digest. Boiled green and eaten, it softens the bowels but is apt to make one vomit.

P

2-131. OROBOS
SUGGESTED: Ervum sativum, Ervum album sativum

[Fuchs] Lathyris sativus [Bauhin, Linnaeus], Ervum sylvestre, Lathyris sylvestris [in Sprague] — Indian Pea, Riga Pea, Dogtooth Pea [Mabberley] causes motorneurone disease [other usage] Orobus tuberosus — Orobe, Bitter Vetch

robos (which the Latins call ervum) is a little wellknown shrub with narrow thin leaves, bearing little seeds in the husks from which a meal is made called ervina that is fit for bodily uses. If it is eaten it annoys the head, troubles the bowels, and brings out blood through the urine. It fattens beasts if it is boiled and given to them. Ervina flour is made as follows. Select the fullest and whitest seeds, sprinkle them with water and stir them together. When you have allowed them to absorb enough water, dry them until their husks are quite broken. Then grind them, sift them through a fine sieve and put the flour in storage. It is good for the bowels, diuretic, and causes a good colour. Taken excessively either in meat or drink it brings out blood through the intestines and bladder (with suffering). With honey it cleans ulcers, freckles, sunburn, spots, and the rest of the body. It stops ulcers of the cheeks, scleroma [hardened nasal or laryngeal tissue patches], and gangrene. It softens hard lumps in the breasts, and emarginates [removes the edge of] wild boils, carbuncles [infected
252

O

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Linum usitatissimum after FAGUET — 1888

253

LACHANA: VEGETABLES

Cicer arietinum after FAGUET — 1888

254

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

boils] [malignant skin tumours] and favus [contagious skin disease]. Kneaded with wine and applied it cures the bites of dogs, bites of men, and of vipers; with vinegar it lessens painful frequent urination, griping, and ineffective straining at stool or urination. Toasted and taken with honey (in the amount of a nut) it is good for those whose meat does not nourish them. A decoction applied with hot cloths cures chilblains and itchiness on the body.

2-132. THERMOS EMEROS
SUGGESTED: Lupinus albus

[Fuchs, Linnaeus], Lupinus termis — Egyptian Lupin, Termus

hermus which is sown is commonly known. The meal of it taken as a linctus [syrup] with honey (or as a drink with vinegar) expels worms; and the lupins themselves steeped and eaten bitter does the same, as well as a decoction of them taken as a drink with rue [3-52, 3-53, 4-98] and pepper. This also helps the splenetic. It is good as a warm pack for gangrene, wild ulcers, scabs that are new, vitiligines [type of leprosy], spots, rashes such as measles, and running ulcers on the head. The same given in a pessary with myrrh [1-77, 1-73, 4-116] and honey extracts the menstrual flow and is an abortifacient. The meal cleans the skin and its bruises, and with polenta and water it lessens inflammation. With vinegar it lessens the pains of sciatica and swellings. Boiled in vinegar and applied as a poultice it induces passing of scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling, goitres] out of their place, and breaks carbuncles [infected boils] [malignant skin tumours] all around. Lupines (boiled with rain water until they cream) clear the face, and boiled with the root of black chamaeleon [3-11] they cure scabs on sheep [veterinary] that are washed with a lukewarm decoction of it. The root boiled with water and taken as a drink expels urine. The lupines themselves sweetened, pounded into small pieces and taken as a drink with vinegar soothe a nauseous stomach and cure lack of appetite. The Latins call it lupinus, the Egyptians, brechu.

T

255

LACHANA: VEGETABLES

2-133. THERMOS AGRIOS
SUGGESTED: Lupinus

angustifolius — Wild Lupin

T

here is a wild lupin that the Latins call lupinus agrestis, similar to that which is sown, yet it is in every way less effective for the same purposes than the sown lupin.

2-134. GONGULIS
SUGGESTED: Rapum sativum, Rapum

sativum album [Fuchs], Gongulis [Latin], Brassica rapa — Rape, Common Turnip Brassica napus — Naphew, Nape, Winter Rape, Swede

he boiled root of gongule is nourishing yet very windy. It breeds moist loose flesh and encourages sexual appetite [aphrodisiac]. A decoction makes a warm pack for gout and chilblains. Used alone, pounded into small pieces and applied, it is good for the same things too. If anyone makes the root hollow and melts a waxy ointment of oil of roses in there in hot ashes, this is effective for ulcerated chilblains. The tender tops are eaten boiled and they encourage urine [diuretic]. The seed is good in antidotes and treacles that stop pain. Taken as a drink it is good against deadly medicines [antidote] and encourages sexual activity [aphrodisiac]. Rapum pickled in brine and eaten is less nourishing, yet it restores the appetite. It is also called gongilida, or golgosium; the Romans call it rapum.

T

2-135. GONGOLE AGRIOE
SUGGESTED: Rapum sylvestre, Napus-Bunias sylvestris [Fuchs Plate #99], Barbarea vulgaris — Winter Cress, Yellow Rocket

Rapunculus esculentis [Bauhin], Campanula rapunculus [Linnaeus] — Rampion [Mabberley]

T
256

he wild rapum grows in fields, a shrub of two feet high, bearing many boughs, smooth on the top; [the root] is the thickness of a finger or more. It bears seed in husks similar to cups. When the coverings that contain

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Napus Bunias sativus from FUCHS — 1545

257

LACHANA: VEGETABLES

Napus Bunias sylvestris from FUCHS — 1545

258

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

the seeds are opened there is another husk within (similar to a head) in which are little black seeds. When these are broken they are white within. They are put into sebaceous treatments for clearing the face and other parts of the body, such as those made from the meal of lupins [2-132], wheat, lolium [2-116, 4-140], or ervum [2-129, 2-131].

2-136. BOUNIAS
SUGGESTED: Napus-Bunias sativas [Fuchs Plate #98], Brassica campestris var rapa [Linnaeus], Barbarea praecox — Land Cress [other usage] Bunias cakile, Cakile maritima — Common Sea Rocket Bunias erucago, Bunias aspera, Bunias orientalis — Bunias

unias and its root (boiled) is wind-inducing and less nourishing. The seed (taken in a drink beforehand) makes poisons ineffective. It is mixed with antidotes and the root is preserved in salt.

B

2-137. RAPHANIS
SUGGESTED: Raphanus sativus, Radix, Radicula

[Fuchs, Brunfels, Linnaeus] — Common Cultivated Radish

R

adish also breeds wind and heats. It is welcome to the mouth but not good for the stomach; besides, it causes belching and is diuretic. It is good for the intestines if one takes it after meat, helping digestion more, but eaten beforehand it suspends the meat. Thus it is good for those who desire to vomit to eat it before meat. It also sharpens the senses. Boiled and taken it is good for those who have had a cough for a long time, and who breed thick phlegm in their chests. The skin (taken with vinegar and honey) is stronger to make one vomit, and good for dropsy. Applied as a poultice it is good for the splenetic. With honey it stops gangrenous ulceration of the cheeks, and takes away black and blue marks under the eyes. It helps those bitten by vipers, and thickens hair lost from alopecia. With meal of lolium [2-116, 4-140] it takes off freckles. Eaten or taken in a drink it helps those strangled from eating mushrooms, and drives down the
259

LACHANA: VEGETABLES

menstrual flow. Taken as a drink with vinegar the seed causes internal ulcers, is diuretic, and reduces the spleen. Boiled with warm vinegar and honey it serves as a gargle to help tonsillitis. Taken as a drink with wine it helps bites from a horned viper; and smeared on with vinegar it emarginates [removes the edge of] gangrene powerfully. It is also called polyides eryngium, the Latins call it radix nostratis, and the Africans call it thorpath.

2-138. RAPHANOS AGRIA
sylvestris, Armoracia [Fuchs], Raphanus rusticanus [Bauhin], Cochlearia armoracia [Linnaeus], Nasturtium armoracia, Roripa armoracia, Radicula armoracia Armoracia rusticana — Common Horseradish
SUGGESTED: Raphanis

he wild radish (which the Romans call armoracia) has leaves similar to that which is sown, or rather more similar to those of lampsana. The root is slender, soft, and somewhat sharp; both the leaves and root are boiled instead of vegetables. It is warming, diuretic and burning.

T

2-139. SISARON
SUGGESTED: Pastinaca sativa [Linnaeus] Sisarum sativum magnum, Sisarum sativum minus [Fuchs], Pastinaca sativa latifolia, Sisarum Germanorum [Bauhin], Siser, Sisarum, Sium sisarum [Linnaeus, Bedevian], Pastinaca sylvestris latifolia, Pastinaca sativa [in Sprague] — Skirret, Water Parsnip

S

iser is commonly known. The root (eaten boiled) is pleasing to the taste and effective for the stomach. It is diuretic and stirs up the appetite.

260

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Brassica primum genus from FUCHS — 1545

261

LACHANA: VEGETABLES

Brassica secundum genus from FUCHS — 1545

262

the seed is pointed. abdominal afflictions. but you must first thoroughly rub the place in the sun with nitre [potassium nitrate — saltpetre] or vinegar. Rumex obtusifolius [Linnaeus]. The roots of these boiled with vinegar (or used raw and applied as a poultice) cures leprosy. A decoction boiled in vinegar lessens the spleen. small. A decoction of sorrel applied with hot cloths or mixed with a bath relieves itchiness. break stones in the bladder. If anyone drinks it beforehand he shall have no hurt when struck (by a scorpion). Lapathum aquaticum — Water Sorrel. they dissolve scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling]. anaxuris. The herbs of all of these (boiled) soothe the intestines. L 263 . Applied raw as a poultice with rosaceum [1-53] or saffron it dissolves the melicerides [encysted tumour with exudation like honey]. goitres. The seed of the wild lapathum. Water Dock Oxalis. low. draw out the menstrual flow. red. Acetosa pratensis [Bauhin]. There is a third kind that is wild. Sorrel [Mabberley] apathum (one sort of it is called oxylapathum) grows in marshy places. Some use the roots as an amulet (hanging them around the neck) for goitre. LAPATHON SUGGESTED: Oxylapathum. whose leaves are similar to the wild small lapathum. oxylapathum and oxalis is effective (taken in a drink of water or wine) for dysentery. Acetosa [Fuchs]. or lapathum. Rumex acetosa [Linnaeus] — Dock. There is also a fourth kind called oxalis. It is hard and somewhat pointed towards the top. and swollen parotid glands. Lapatium acutum [Fuchs]. Boiled with wine and taken as a drink they help jaundice. impetigo [skin infection] and rough nails. and sharp on the stalk and the branches. Boiled in wine and applied. similar to plantain. Pounded into small pieces and applied. It lessens earache and toothache used as a rinse with liquid from sorrel boiled in wine.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-140. a scorpion strike. but that in the garden is not similar to the other. and help those touched by scorpions. they also stop women’s flows. soft. the stalk is not great. and a nauseous stomach.

having no use medicinally.LACHANA: VEGETABLES 2-141.Bliti genus. blitum. H L ippolapathum is a great olus [one that is well known] growing in marshes. others. riplam. Amaranthus blitum. more nourishing and more agreeable to the stomach than lapathum. The Egyptians call it eclotoripam. HIPPOLAPATHON Rhabarabum monarchorum [Fuchs]. the Latins. Hippolapathum latifolium [Bauhin]. BLITON SUGGESTED: Blitum [Fuchs]. 2-143. and the Egyptians. euthmoe. Lapsana communis — Common Nipplewort ampsana is a wild olus [one that is well known]. LAMPSANE SUGGESTED: Lampsana communis. Chenopodium polyspermum [Linnaeus]. Rumex alpinus [Linnaeus]. The Latins call it napium [wood nymph]. Rumex hydrolapathum — Water Dock. Horse Sorrel SUGGESTED: Rumicis secundum genus. and the Dacians. Albersia blitum — Blite. whose stalks and leaves are eaten boiled [vegetable]. It has the same properties as those mentioned above. Wild Amaranth [other usage] Blitum virgatum — Strawberry Spinach litum is also eaten as a vegetable. 2-142. B 264 . bles.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Sisarum sativum magnum from FUCHS — 1545 265 .

LACHANA: VEGETABLES Rumicis tertium genus. Rumex obtusifolius from FUCHS — 1545 266 .

MALACHE AGRIA. and for the perineum. Althea rosea [in Sprague] — Common Mallow [other usage] Malache [Bedevian] — Wild Ochra Hibiscus esculentis. Fat Hen [other usage] Atraphaxis spinosa — Prickly Atraphaxis SUGGESTED: Atriplex hortensis A traphaxis [atra — black. The boiled leaves pounded into small pieces and applied with oil help burns and erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. It is good for those bitten by harvest spiders. diadesma. M 2-145. Linnaeus]. The broth boiled together with the roots helps all poisonings. Gobbo alache that is sown is more fit to be eaten than the wild.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-144. Rubbed on it is effective for bee and wasp stings. but those who drink it must continuously vomit it up. Alcea rosea. The raw leaves (chewed with a little salt and rubbed on with honey) are able to cure an ulcer in the inner angle of the eye. muris cauda. Malva sylvestris pumila [Fuchs]. The Latins call it hortensis [of the garden]. Chenopodium album [Linnaeus] — Goosefoot. Abelmoschus esculentis — Okra. Applied with urine it cures running sores on the head and dandruff. The seed of the wild lotus is mixed with it and taken as a drink with wine to lessen disorders of the bladder. and if a man is rubbed with it beforehand (raw. chocorten. Malva sylvestris [Linnaeus]. and it brings out milk. Zoroastrians. and others. phaxis — hair] is a wellknown vegetable of two types — one wild. A decoction of it is a softening bath for the womb. Malva rotundifolia. MALACHE KEPAIA SUGGESTED: Malva hortensis. It is bad for the stomach and good for the bowels. but when it must be brought to a scar then it must be used with salt. the Egyptians. the Magi. which are effective for the intestines and bladder. pounded finely with oil) he remains unstrikable. especially the stalks. caprae lien. Gombo. Pythagoras calls it anthema. Atriplex hortensis alba [Bauhin]. the other 267 . and is fit in suppositories for pangs of hunger in the intestines. for the womb. ATRAPHAXIS [Fuchs.

Brassica napus [Linnaeus] — Rape rambe that is sown or set is good for the bowels. for when thoroughly boiled it is therapeutic for the intestines. Spinosa sylvestris [Bauhin]. the Latins call it atriplex. A decoction (taken as a drink) induces movement of the bowels and the menstrual flow. The young tendrils are better for the stomach yet sharper and more diuretic. and more so that which is twice boiled or boiled in lye. Poured into the nostrils by itself it purges the head. The seed (taken in a drink with honey and water) cures jaundice. Eaten raw with vinegar they are good for the splenetic. and the Egyptians. Chewed and the juice swallowed down they restore the loss of the voice. Taken in a drink with wine it helps those bitten by a viper.LACHANA: VEGETABLES sown in gardens. They stop hair from falling out of the head. With the meal of fenugreek and vinegar it helps those with gout in their feet and joints. KRAMBE EMEROS SUGGESTED: Brassica tertium genus. it helps the dullsighted and those troubled with trembling. Boiled and mixed with honey they are good against erosive gangrenes. 4-140] it expels the menstrual flow. The flower applied 268 C . Crambe [Fuchs] — Kale Gossularia simplici acino. ochi. They also heal erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. It is also called chrysolachanon. and that which grows in Egypt is inedible in its bitterness. epinyctides [pustules which appear at night] and psoriasis. 2-146. and applied it is good for foul or old ulcers. Preserved in salt it is bad for the stomach and troubles the intestines. Eaten. Taken after meat it extinguishes the maladies that come from gluttony and wine [hangovers]. Taken as a pessary with meal of lolium [2-116. It is eaten slightly boiled. The latter is eaten boiled as a vegetable. The juice (taken raw and swallowed with iris and saltpetre [potassium nitrate]) softens the intestines. The leaves pounded into small pieces and applied (either alone or with polenta) are good for any inflammation and oedema. With salt they break carbuncles [infected boils] [malignant skin tumours] all around. Summer crambe is worthless for the stomach and sharper. Smeared on either raw or boiled it dissolves inflammation in bones.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Oxalis. Rumex acetosa from FUCHS — 1545 269 .

LACHANA: VEGETABLES Plantago media from FUCHS — 1545 270 .

It is salty to the taste and somewhat bitter with a fatty substance. and eaten boiled excessively loosening to the bowels. while the Latins call it brassica. especially of cabbage that grows in Egypt. i. with many thin leaves similar to the round aristolochia. W 2-148. 2-147. and dissolve oedema and inflammation. It is put into antidotes for the bites of poisonous snakes. The seed. rougher and bitter. The whole herb is an enemy to the stomach. It has white juice but not in any great abundance.e. Some (because of its sharpness) boil it together with fat from rams. It clears the skin on the face and cleans away freckles. The green stalks burnt together with the roots are mixed with old swines’ grease and applied to lessen long-lasting pains in the side. sharp. Every one of them springs from reddish branches out of one stalk (similar to cissus). garden brassica. The leaves applied as a poultice are able to seal wounds. T Brassica oleracea after FAGUET — 1888 271 . It is also called crambe cepaea. (taken as a drink) expels worms. KRAMBE AGRIA SUGGESTED: Brassica oleracea — Wild Kale [Mabberley] ild crambe (which the Latins call brassica rustica) grows most commonly in steep coastal places. KRAMBE THALASSIA SUGGESTED: Crambe maritima — Sea Kale. Sea Cabbage hat which is called sea crambe is altogether different from the cultivated. The young tendrils boiled in lye are not unsavoury in the mouth.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK in a pessary after childbirth hinders conception. It is similar to that which is sown but is whiter.

it lessens numbness of the teeth. TEUTLON MELAN AGRION candida [Fuchs]. They both have bad juice because of the saltpetre [potassium nitrate] in them. other (inflammations). Portulaca oleracea [Linnaeus]. and dissolves the hot desire to sexual union [anaphrodisiac]. Beta rubra vulgaris [Bauhin] — Beetroot SUGGESTED: Beta here are two types of great teutlon. as well as burns and erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. Portulaca latifolia. and disorders of the bladder. burning of the stomach and intestines and their excessive discharges. erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. As a result. the spitting of blood. Cicla officinarum [Bauhin]. helps eroded kidneys and the bladder. Beta alba. Eaten. inflammation of the eyes. Peplo [Italian]. they heal rashes such as measles. A decoction of the roots and leaves applied with hot cloths cleanses dandruff and the lendes [loins (digestive or procreative) and buttocks]. Taken as a drink the juice has similar effects. Boiled. as well as the the scalp for loss of hair on the head but first shave it. ANDRACHNE SUGGESTED: Portulaca hortensis [Fuchs]. Swiss Chard Beta nigra [Fuchs]. The Latins call it beta silvatica. burning of the stomach. and is good in burning fevers. Portulaca sativa [Bauhin]. Portulaca oleracea var sativa — Garden Purslane [other usage] Andrachne telephoides — False Orpine Arbutus andrachne — Greek Strawberry Tree A ndrachne is astringent.LACHANA: VEGETABLES 2-149. T 2-150. the juice put into the nostrils with honey purges the head and helps earache. but the white are good for the intestines. You must rub vitiligines [form of leprosy] and erosive ulcers with the raw leaves and nitre [saltpetre]. Applied with polenta it helps headaches. and soothes chilblains. The black are more astringent for the stomach boiled with lens [lentils] (especially the root). Boiled very well (it is good) for worms [roundworms in the intestines]. 272 . Beta vulgaris — White Beet.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Plantago minor from FUCHS — 1545 273 .

LACHANA: VEGETABLES Portulaca oleracea after FAGUET — 1888 274 .

or for a damaged vulva. Asparagus sativa [Bauhin]. ANDRACHNE AGRIA SUGGESTED: Portulaca sylvestris [Fuchs. maemoem. boiled and eaten. 2-151. the small stalks of which. and bites of the seps [poisonous lizard]. and somewhat salty. mochmutim. and the Egyptians. Chewed they are found to have good juice — sticky. Asparagus acutifolius. Bauhin]. It has leaves similar to those of the olive tree but much smaller yet more abundant and tender. a well-known herb. Asparagus officinalis var altilis [Linnaeus] — Asparagus. There are many red stalks emerging from one root. soothe the intestines and encourage urine [diuretic]. It provides irrigation [supply of moisture] with rosaceum [1-53] or oil for headaches that come from heat. It is warming. sharp. sempervivum sylvestre. some. It is also called aizoon agrion i. as well as eruptions of blood. and applied with goose grease it dissolves scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling. With wine it is a cleansing ointment for pustules of the head. Portulaca oleracea var sylvestris [Linnaeus] — Yellow Portulaca ndrachne sylvestris has broader and thicker little leaves than the andrachne above. jaundice. the Africans.e. A 2-152. and ulcerating. goitres]. the Dacians.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK dysentery. lax. or telephium. It grows in rocky places. Portulaca angustifolia [Bauhin]. and is applied with polenta to wounds growing into gangrene. A decoction of the roots (taken as a drink) helps frequent and painful urination. It is effective mixed with eye medicines. Asparagus corruda. leaning earthward. and is a suppository for bowels troubled with excessive discharges. the Latins (call it) illecebra. kidney A Asparagus after FAGUET — 1888 275 . ASPHARAGOS SUGGESTED: Asparagus altilis [Brunfels]. It grows in rocky places (sometimes also in gardens). Sparrow Grass spharagus is also called myon. haemorrhoids. portulaca.

The leaves are drying and astringent. Linnaeus]. The seed (taken in a drink) is good to obtain the same results. rough. Plantago media [Brunfels. white. Therefore rubbed on they work against all malignancies. Some have related that if one pounds ram’s horns in pieces and buries them. Arnoglossa. broad-leaved. a finger thick. The smaller sort has narrower leaves. filthy ulcers.LACHANA: VEGETABLES ailments and hip problems. Asparagus is a plant with many branches and many long leaves similar to marathrum [3-81]. softer. hedges and moist places. a foot in height. The bigger kind is more flourishing. ARNOGLOSSON. The flowers are pale. The larger is better for use. Plantago latifolia sinuata [Bauhin] — Waybread. asparagus comes up. as well as those bitten by harvest spiders. and leprous. smoother and thinner. Boiled in wine it helps those troubled with toothache (a decoction being kept on the pained tooth). They also stop excessive T 276 . The stalks pounded into small pieces with white wine lessen disorders of the kidneys. somewhat red. with a great round root that has a knob. Boiled with figs and chickpeas and eaten it cures jaundice. with the seed on the top of the stalks. Brunfels. bending down (as it were) on the ground. The stalk is angular. a sort of an olus [one that is well known]. Displayed [like an amulet] (and a decoction taken as a drink) it makes one barren and not fit for generation [birth control]. ARNOGLOSSON MIKRON SUGGESTED: Plantago major [Fuchs. The root boiled either in wine or vinegar lessens dislocations. Greater Plantain Plantago minor [Fuchs]. running. Septinervia. It grows in marshes. with an angular stalk. They say that if dogs drink a decoction they will die. Taken either boiled or roasted it soothes slow painful urination and dysentery. which is incredible to me. the other larger. and lessens hip pains and painful urination. Linnaeus] Plantago angustifolia major [Bauhin] — Hoary Plantain Plantago lanceolata after FAGUET — 1888 wo kinds of arnoglossa are found — one lesser. smaller. closed around from the middle to the top with thin seed. The roots underneath are tender. 2-153.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Vicia faba after THIEBAULT — 1888 277 .

LACHANA: VEGETABLES Atriplex hortensis from FUCHS — 1545 278 .

inflammation. shingles [herpes] and epinyctis [pustules which appear only at night]. as well as the inflammation of bones. and it is good (taken as a drink) for bleeding gums and for those who vomit blood.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK discharges of blood. (that is the Friday). washed every now and then with it. mumps]. and parotitis [inflamed glands. It is used as a pessary in wool for constriction of the womb and for a womb troubled with excessive discharges. They form a skin over old irregular ulcers. The juice being dropped in the ears or mixed in eye salves helps earache and sores on the eyes. and that four roots (help) a quartain [with paroxysms every fourth day] fever. It is also given boiled with lentils instead of beets. 279 . The herb is also given (boiled) for the dropsy called leucoplegmatia [a tendency to dropsy] caused by eating dry meats. carbuncles [malignant tumours]. but take this as a secret for it is most true and according to experience). and heal chironian [cheiralgia — pain in the hand or cuts from a surgeon] and hollow creeks caused by it. but some say that three roots (taken as a drink with three cupfuls of wine and as much water) help a fever with recurrent paroxysms. given on the second and fourth day until the parascive. The root and the leaves are given in passum [raisin wine] for ulcers in the bladder and kidneys. scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling. Some also use the root as an amulet for scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling goitres] to dissolve them. however it must be taken while eating the meats. The herb (boiled and taken with water and salt) helps dysentery and abdominal distress. gangrenous ulceration. (The Syrians say that a broth of this and calamint with honey will cure the paralysed. They are good applied with salt for dog bites. The root is boiled and the mouth is washed with this decoction (or the root is chewed) to lessen toothache. and helps fistulas [ulcers] poured into them. goitres]. The seeds (taken as a drink in wine) stop discharges of the bowels and the spitting of blood. It is good for dysentery given as an enema or suppository. burns. and ulcers of the eyes. It is taken as a drink against consumption. The juice of the leaves cleans ulcers in the mouth. It is also good given to the epileptic and the asthmatic. With cimolia [like fuller's earth] or cerussa [white lead ore] it heals skin inflammation.

and the Africans. and relieves . expel the menstrual flow. similar to eruca [2-170]). and is used in wreaths for the head. bigger than black mint. SISUMBRION SUGGESTED: Sisymbrium [Fuchs]. SION TO EN ODASIN SUGGESTED: Sium. polynervon (that is having many tendons). Mentha aquatica [Fuchs. It is also called anagallis aquatica. as well as a sort of juncus odoratus. Alliaria officinalis — Sauce-alone. It is similar to garden mint. The seed (taken in a drink with wine) is good for slow painful urination and urinary stones. the Spaniards. schoenos aromatica. are abortifacient. Erysimum officinale — Hedge Mustard Sisymbrium alliaria. with broad leaves similar to hipposelinum [3-78]. the Gauls tarbidolopion. plantago minor. The Magi call it erechneumonis. yet broader-leaved and with a sweeter scent. S 2-155. (that is dog’s tongue). Anagallis aquatica minor [Bauhin]. darenion. 2-154. cynoglosson. yet somewhat smaller and aromatic — which is eaten (either boiled or raw) to break stones [kidney. and are good for dysentery. thesarican. Water Parsnip Sium falcaria. fat. It is warming. Eaten they also induce the movement of urine. bladder] and discharge them. Anagallis-aquatica [Fuchs]. little. the Egyptians. Garlic Wort S 280 isymbrium grows in untilled ground. Sium siculum — Water Parsnip species ium aquaticum is a little shrub which is found in the water — upright.LACHANA: VEGETABLES It is also called arnion (as we should say of a lamb). with round leaves. heptapleuron. probation (as we should say of a sheep). atiercon. aschat. the Latins. or laver. Veronica beccabunga [Linnaeus] — Brooklime [Mabberley] [other usage] Sium latifolium — Water Parsley. (Crateuas speaks of it thus: it is a herb like a shrub. Linnaeus] — Water Mint [Mabberley] [other usage] Sisymbrium officinale.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Anagallis aquatica from FUCHS — 1545 281 .

LACHANA: VEGETABLES Sisymbrium from FUCHS — 1545 282 .

Radicula nasturtium-aquaticum. and some. 2-156. Sisymbrium aquaticum. root and leaves (boiled in wine and taken as a drink) are effective to help frequent painful urination and jaundice. Some call it cardamine [meadow cress]. Roripa nasturtium-aquaticum — Water Cress. herba venerea. They are also good for the stings of wasps and bees. round. Nasturtium officinale [Brunfels]. Taken as a drink it stops vomiting.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK griping and the hiccups. Peter’s Cress C rithmon (also called critamon) is a shrubby little herb about a foot in height. 283 . The seed. which grows in rocky maritime places. SISUMBRION ETERON cardamine. Sisymbrium nasturtium. The leaves are laid on the temples and the forehead for headaches. It is also called serpillum sylvestre. sion. Sea Fennel. fragrant. It is used as a vegetable (eaten either boiled or raw). Nasturtium aquaticum [Fuchs]. and they induce the menstrual flow. It has round leaves at first but when grown they are divided like those of eruca [2-170]. Cachrys maritimum — Samphire. It is warming and diuretic and is eaten raw. the Latins call it austeralis. KRITHMON SUGGESTED: Crithmum maritimum. It is also called cardamine because it resembles nasturtium [2-185] in the taste. It bears white flowers and a soft fruit similar to libanotis — sweet smelling. Water Grass see 2-170 SUGGESTED: Sisymbrium T he other sisymbrium is a watery herb growing in the same places as sion [2-154]. It is full of fat whitish leaves similar to those of purslane — yet thicker and longer and salty to the taste. 2-157. or veneris corona. applied at night and wiped away in the morning. The roots are the thickness of a finger. and others. with thick leaves. It takes away freckles and sunburn. and is also preserved in brine. and with a pleasant taste. When dry it splits and has a seed within similar to wheat. Nasturtium aquaticum supinum [Bauhin].

the Africans call it atirsipte. Coronopus hortensis [Bauhin]. grows like a tree. Sonchus oleraceus var laevis [Linnaeus] — Sowthistle. and is broad leaved. some. SONCHOS TRUPHEROS aspera [Fuchs]. the Latins caciatrix. This is effective for the same purposes. It has a thin astringent root that is eaten for coeliac [intestinal complaints]. with indented leaves. and the Africans. or cichorium. as a result they are applied for a burning stomach and inflammation. Coronopus. on hillocks and by highways. It is eaten (boiled) as a vegetable. Cornu C oronopus is a little herb that is somewhat long. Herba stella — Buckshorn Plantain. Plantago coronopis var β [Linnaeus]. or astrion. The stalk is angular and somewhat red within with ragged leaves at a distance all around. It grows in untilled places. spread on the ground. SONCHOS TRACHOS. Star of the Earth SUGGESTED: Coronopus. It is also called ammonos. 2-159. KORONOPOUS cervium [Fuchs]. Sonchus asper non laciniatus [Bauhin]. Sonchus laevis laciniatus latifolius [Bauhin]. the Romans call it cicerbita. They are cooling and moderately astringent. SONCHOS AKANTHODESTEROS. Cornus cervicum. or sanguinaria. the other more tender and edible. It draws down milk and is applied on wool to help inflammation of the perineum and womb. gathuonem. The juice is sipped to lessen pangs of hunger in the stomach. Milkthistle [Mabberley] SUGGESTED: Sonchus here are two kinds of sonchus — one more wild and prickly. There is also another kind of sonchus that is also tender. Sonchus asper laciniatus. The herb and root are applied to help those touched by a scorpion. but the leaves divide the stalk. T 284 . Sonchus oleraceus var asper [Linnaeus] — Common Sowthistle Sonchus non-aspera [Fuchs]. stilago. It is also called asperum.LACHANA: VEGETABLES 2-158.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Sonchus aspera from FUCHS — 1545 285 .

LACHANA: VEGETABLES Sonchus non aspera from FUCHS — 1545 286 .

Hedypnois maior [Brunfels]. The juice from them with cerussa [white lead ore] and vinegar is good rubbed on those who need cooling. SERIS Endiva vulgaris [Bauhin]. Wild Succory SUGGESTED: Hedypnois. Taraxacum officinale — Dandelion [other usage] Chondrilla juncea. Both are astringent. Succory SUGGESTED: Intybum saticvum latifolium [Fuchs. the Egyptians call it agon. Leontodon taraxacum [Linnaeus]. and the Romans. Scariol [Fuchs] — Endive Intybum sylvestre. Taraxacon [Fuchs]. Pounded into small pieces with myrrh [1-77.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-160. has leaves. Gum Succory. cooling and good for the stomach. 1-73. as a result some have said that it is a kind of wild seris. it 287 . but the other kind. one is more similar to lettuce and is broad leaved. and with polenta they heal erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. The herb and root are rubbed on to help those who are touched by a scorpion. Cichorium sylvestre. Intubus erraticus. They help gout and inflammation of the eyes. Applied with polenta (or by themselves) they are good for heart conditions. and the wild (especially) are best for the stomach. 4-116] and an amount the size of an olive applied in a linen cloth. that of the garden. Bauhin]. of which the wild is called pickris or cichorum. Cichorium officinarum [Bauhin] Cichorium intybus [Linnaeus] — Wild Chicory. eris has two types — wild and cultivated. the other is narrow-leaved and bitter. Chondrille. KONDRILLE ETERA leonis. Dens C ondrilla (also called cichorium or seris). It is also called picris. for when eaten they comfort a disturbed and burning stomach. Boiled and taken with vinegar they stop discharges of the bowels. a stalk and flowers similar to chicory. Of the two kinds. Cichorea [Fuchs]. Cichorium endivia [Linnaeus] Intybum sativum angustifolium. intybus agrestis. S Cichorium intybus after FAGUET — 1880 2-161. but it is altogether much smaller. KONDRILLE. Around the stems a gum is found (about the size of a bean) that is similar to mastic [1-51]. is broader-leaved and more pleasant in the mouth. Chondrilla graminea — Chondrilla.

The root (taken whilst it is new) is good for the same purposes — a needle being dipped [into the juice of] it and applied to the hair. Juice from bruised scrapings is dropped in the ears either by itself or with rosaceum [1-53] to help earache. 2-162. see 4-178 Cucumis colocynthis — Colocynth. and it is similarly used for inflammations of the eyes and gout. Scrapings of it are effective applied to the upper part of the heads of children troubled with heat of the head called siriasis [sunstroke]. smooth. round. somewhat long. The herb boiled whole and the juice of it strained out and taken as a drink with a little honey and nitre [saltpetre] gently loosens the bowels. Bitter Gourd T he edible colocynth (bruised and applied raw) lessens oedema and the suppuration of ulcers. a pale yellow. put wine in there. it is good for the appearance of burns from heat. Rubbed on. full of juice. It grows in fertile and cultivated fields. and the juice is good for retaining the hair on the eyelids.LACHANA: VEGETABLES dries out the menstrual flow. The stalk and the leaves are digestive. set it out in the open air. The gum preserves the hair. 288 . Taken as a drink with wine it is also good against vipers. the stalk full of juice. then afterwards dilute it and drink it fasting. KOLOKUNTHA SUGGESTED: Citrullus colocynthis. which are diluted and mixed with saltpetre [potassium nitrate] to take away sunburn. it gently soothes the bowels. scattered on the ground. and the juice boiled with wine and taken as a drink (or else taken alone) stops discharges of the bowels. and a slender root — lively. There is also another kind of condrilla with a gnawed-around leaf. The herb pounded together with the root and mixed with honey is formed into lozenges. If you hollow it (raw). Bitter Apple.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Intybum sativum angustifolia from FUCHS — 1545 289 .

LACHANA: VEGETABLES Intybum sativum latifolium from FUCHS — 1545 290 .

Sicyos [Latin]. Lagenaria vulgaris. Cucurbita maior. and it is laid as an anacollema [against that which is glued together] to the forehead for rheumatic eyes. Bauhin]. Dudaim Melon [other usage] Cucurbita pepo — Pumpkin Melopopone [Italian]. If anyone wants to vomit gently after supper two times ten grains will be sufficient for this. The leaves are applied with wine to heal the bites of dogs. With milk or passum [raisin wine] it is good for ulcers of the bladder. Cantalupo. cooling (if it is not spoiled). Cucumis sativa — Cucumber T he cultivated cucumer is good for the intestines and the stomach. Cucumis dudaim var aegypticus — Sweet Melon. Cucumis pepo [Fuchs]. It also heals favus [contagious skin disease] rubbed on with honey. Cucurbita lagenaria [Linnaeus]. SIKUOS EMEROS SUGGESTED: Cucumis sativus vulgaris [Fuchs. T 291 . Popone [Italian]. Cucumis melo [Linnaeus]. is a scourer to purge away filth and make the skin on the face clear. and the seed is mildly diuretic. The juice together with the seed. with honey they heal pustules that appear at night. PEPON SUGGESTED: Pepo. 2-164. The scrapings are laid on top of the heads of children troubled with siriasis [sunstroke]. mixed with meal and dried in the sun. but applied it alleviates inflammation of the eyes. Melo vulgaris [Bauhin]. It is smelled to revive those in a swoon.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-163. A teaspoon of the dry root (taken as a drink with honey water) causes vomiting. effective for the bladder. Cucurbita oblonga [Fuchs]. Cucurbita pepo var melopepo — Squash he pulp of pepon is diuretic if eaten.

Lactuca scariola var sativa — Common Lettuce L actuca (the garden lettuce) is good for the stomach. In general it is sleep-inducing and eases pain. causes sleep. and the Romans.LACHANA: VEGETABLES 2-165. and mistiness and dimness of the eyes. embrosi. Boiled. and the Egyptians. pherumbras. 292 . 2-166. It draws out the menstrual flow. paler in the leaves. The Magi call it sanguis Titani. The Romans call it lactuca. The milky juice of it is first exposed to the sun (like other extracted juices) and stored in new ceramic jars. Lactuca scariola [Linnaeus]. a little cooling. Lactuca crispa [Bauhin]. THRIDAX AGRIA SUGGESTED: Lactuca sylvestris [Fuchs]. The seeds (taken in a drink) help those who dream continuously. It is somewhat similar to poppy in properties. The seed of this (as well as the cultivated. and it is good against their burning heat rubbed on with woman’s milk. They are also preserved in brine. Thridax [Latin]. Zoroastrians. Lactuca sativa [Linnaeus]. and bitter to the taste. lactuca sylvestris. and is given as a drink for those touched by a scorpion or harvest spider. It also wears off albugo [eye disease]. as a result some mix the milky juice of it with meconium [4-65]. and turn away sexual intercourse [anaphrodisiac]. Eaten too often they cause of dullness of sight. When they shoot up into a stalk they have properties similar to the juice and milk of the wild lettuce. it is more nourishing. Lactuca virosa — Wild Lettuce Lactuca virosa [seed head] after FAGUET — 1880 W ild lettuce is similar to the cultivated only largerstalked. The juice is also good for the same purposes yet weaker. thinner and sharper. Eaten unwashed it is good for the stomach. softens the bowels and draws down milk. Twenty grains of the juice (taken in a drink with posca [hot drinks]) purges away watery matter through the bowels. THRIDAX EMEROS SUGGESTED: Lactuca sativa crispa et rotunda [Fuchs]. taken in a drink) turns away lustful dreams and venereal diseases.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Intybum sylvestre caeruleum from FUCHS — 1545 293 .

LACHANA: VEGETABLES Hedypnois maior from FUCHS — 1545 294 .

white and bitter. A decoction (taken as a drink with wine) is good for the bladder. the Africans. G 2-168. GINGIDION Chaerefolium [Fuchs] Chaerophyllum sativum [Bauhin]. and the Egyptians call it seselis. with leaves similar to marathrum [3-81]. the Romans. and is diuretic. Bur Parsley C aucalis (also called wild daucus) has a little stalk a foot in length or more. edible whether eaten raw or boiled. 295 . the Syrians. Anthriscus cerefolium — Chervil [Mabberley] SUGGESTED: Gingidium. pes gallinaceum. The Romans call it bisacutum. Caucalis pumila. ingidium grows plentifully in Cilicia and Syria — a little herb similar to wild pastinaca yet thinner. Democritus calls it bryon. Scandix [Pliny] — Wild Chervil. and liver. Pickled. A decoction (taken as a drink) is good for the bladder. Cow Weed S candix is a wild vegetable — somewhat sharp and bitter. It is used as a vegetable. and on the top of it a white tuft with a fragrant scent. KAUKALIS SUGGESTED: Caucalis grandiflora. dorysastrum. This is also used as a vegetable (eaten either raw or boiled). acicula. and some. and with a thicker little root. Scandix cerefolium [Linnaeus]. tiricta. very divided and rough. adorion. eaten both raw and boiled. 2-169. Caucalis platycarpus — Caucalis. it is good for the stomach and diuretic. and it is also called lepidium. Cow Parsley.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-167. good for the intestines and the stomach. SKANDUX SUGGESTED: Anthriscus sylvestris. kidneys. some call it pes pulli. It is also called caucum. Hedge Parsley. or myitis. the Egyptians. The Romans call it herba scanaria.

Ocimum magnum [Fuchs] Ocimum basilicum. and helps the flow of milk. The eyes must be shut whilst the sneezing lasts. rosaceum [1-53] and vinegar it helps inflammation. ethrekicen. Some avoid it and do not 296 O . Eaten much it dulls the eyesight and softens the bowels. and the Africans. They steep it first in vinegar or milk. Ocimum minutum. Applied with flour of polenta. Wild Rocket E aten raw in any great amount this encourages the pursuit of sexual pleasure [aphrodisiac]. Eruca sativa [Fuchs]. Ocimum mediocre. and dries up excess fluids in them. the seed of which the men there use instead of mustard. The juice takes away dimness in the eyes. Nasturtium sylvestre [Brunfels]. moves flatulence. The Romans call it eruca. and the herb does the same. for frequent painful urination. and flatulence. Used alone with Chian [from Scios in the Aegean sea] wine (it is good) for sores of the eyes. It is hard to digest.LACHANA: VEGETABLES 2-170. Basilicum — Basil. make it into lozenges. They use the seed in making sauces so that it may last longer. OKIMON SUGGESTED: Ocimum exiguum. Wild ezymum grows as well especially in Iberia towards the west. It is more diuretic and far sharper than the cultivated. Sinapi primum [Fuchs] — Hedge Mustard — Sinapi. EUZOMON SUGGESTED: Eyzumum. Taken in a drink the seed is good for those who breed depression. Erucacastrum obtusangulum. the Egyptians. and the seed has a similar effect — also being diuretic. Sweet Basil cimum is commonly known. digestive and good for the bowels. Sisymbrium tenuifolium [Linnaeus] — Hedge Mustard Diplotaxis tenuifolia [in Sprague] — Rocket Eruca sylvestris. Brassica erucacastrum — Bastard Rocket. and the strikes of poisonous fishes and scorpions. It causes considerable sneezing when smelled. Eruca [Pliny]. asuric. Rorippa sylvestre [in Sprague] — Watercress see 2-156 [other usage] Eruca vesicaria ssp sativa — Rocket Salad Eruca erucacastrum. and afterwards place it in storage. is uretic. Eruca [Bauhin]. 2-171.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Gingidium from FUCHS — 1545 297 .

LACHANA: VEGETABLES Eruca sativa from FUCHS — 1545 298 .

Tragopogon pratensis — Salsify. rough. 2-172. somewhat red (as it were) two feet [high] and sometimes bigger.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK eat it. Orobanche barbata — Lesser Broomrape Orobanche ramosa — Branched Broomrape ALL SLIGHTLY POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Orobanche O robanche (commonly called lycos — as we should say. The root lies underneath. It is used as a vegetable (either raw or boiled) eaten from a platter like asparagus. The Africans have used it because those who eat it and are touched by a scorpion remain without pain. the thickness of a finger. It seems that when it grows among pulse [legumes] it chokes them. or somewhat inclining to yellow. T 299 . Goat’s Beard ragopogon or tetrapogon (also called come) has a short stalk and leaves similar to saffron. or leonem. endowed with whitish flowers. Boiled together with legumes it is thought to make them boil sooner. It is also called cynomorion. and the Cyprians call it thyrsine. TRAGOPOGON SUGGESTED: Tragopogon Orobanche ramosa after FAGUET — 1888 crocifolius — Wild Salsify Tragopogon porrifolius. because when it is chewed and set in the sun it breeds little worms. It is an edible herb. Vegetable Oyster. tender. OROBANKE major — Greater Broomrape Orobanche minor. It has a big cup on the stalk and black fruit in the top. Oyster Plant. fattish in the leaves. a wolf) has a little stalk. from which it has its name. eaten through with holes when the stalk dries. 2-173. The root is long and sweet. from which it took its name.

Phaseolus vulgaris. It bears fruit similar to fenugreek but longer and more widely known. about two feet high — with three or four tender slips growing together on the top from which come the flowers. Bulbus leucanthemus — Eleven o’ Clock Lady.LACHANA: VEGETABLES 2-174. which outwardly seem the colour of herbs but opened they are similar to milk. SMILAX SUGGESTED: Smilax-hortensis. The root is bulbose and is eaten both raw and boiled [vegetable]. False Truffle T uber is a round. Rhizopogon album. HUDNON SUGGESTED: Tuber album. Scarlet Runner Beans. ORNITHOGALON SUGGESTED: Ornithogalum umbellatum. whitish. Phasiolus [Fuchs]. Scilla campestris. Haricot Beans [other usage] Myrsiphyllum asparagoides — Smilax. Between them is a little head (cut-in like cachrys [3-88]) that is baked together with bread (like melanthium [3-93]). The fruit (pod) is eaten with the seeds as a vegetable. pale. O 2-175. Choiromyces meandriformis — White Truffle. Star of Bethlehem rnithogalon has a tender stalk — thin. Phaseolus coccineus — French Beans. not the same colour but partly somewhat reddish. These grow so much that they are made into bowers. boiled like asparagus. Kidney Beans. Climbing Asparagus see 2-130 arden smilax whose fruit lobia (pods) is called asparagus by some. yellow root without leaves or stalk. 300 G . 2-176. has leaves like ivy only softer. with seeds within similar to kidneys. Phaseolus vulgaris [Linnaeus]. It is dug up in the spring and is edible eaten either raw or boiled [vegetable]. It encourages urine and causes troublesome dreams. with thin stalks and tendrils wrapped around the neighbouring shrubs.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Eruca sylvestris from FUCHS — 1545 301 .

LACHANA: VEGETABLES Smilax hortensis from FUCHS — 1545 302 .

Alfalfa. M 2-178. Those who breed beasts use the whole herb instead of grass [fodder]. Lathyrus segetum — Yellow Vetchling SUGGESTED: Aphace. Orobanche ramosa after FAGUET — 1888 303 . sending out stalks similar to trifolium with seeds the size of a lentil. MEDICE SUGGESTED: Medicago sativa — Lucerne. These little seeds are astringent. This is dried and mixed (because of its sweet savour) in salt sauces. as a result they stop both excessive discharge of the bowels and the stomach. Sylvestris A phaca is a small-leaved little shrub that grows in the fields. They contain three or four little seeds smaller than lentils. Linnaeus] — Bush Vetch [Mabberley] [other usage] Lathyrus aphaca.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-177. Applied whilst green it is good for whatever has need of cooling. fried or bruised and boiled [vegetable]. Aphaca vulgaris. The pods that are found thickly on it are bigger than lentil pods. They are [eaten] as the lentil is. APHAKE vitia. Os mundi [Fuchs]. twisted around like a little horn. Vicia sepium [Bauhin. higher than lentils. Common Medick edica recently sprung-up is similar to meadow trifolium [clover] but when more grown it becomes narrower-leaved.

the juice mixed with vinegar and manna [exudation of certain trees] or frankincense. Porrum commune. causes dullness of sight. Boiled with barley water (or otherwise eaten) it brings out things that close up the chest. and heals pustules which appear at night. and the prasum itself also does good if applied. Two teaspoonfuls of the seeds (taken in a drink with the same amount of myrtle berries) stop the throwing-up of old blood. T 304 . The juice dropped in the ears with vinegar. expels the menstrual flow. is uretic and good for the stomach. Taken as a drink with honey and water the juice is a remedy for those bitten by venomous creatures. discourages venereal diseases. causes troublesome dreams. Allium porrum. It cleans the breath canals [lungs]. and milk or rosaceum [1-53] helps earache and noises in the ears. The seed is sharper and somewhat astringent. The leaves applied with rhoe [4-64] obsoniorum [any food which is not bread] take away varos [papules of smallpox]. stops the blood (especially that which comes from the nostrils). reduces the intensity of symptoms. Applied with salt it removes the edges on the crusts of ulcers. and hurts ulcerated bladders and kidneys. PRASON [Fuchs]. Allium ameloprasum var porrum — Leek SUGGESTED: Porrum capitatum he headed prasum (which the Latins call porrum) is inflative. It grows sweet and becomes less flatulent if it is boiled in two [separate] waters and steeped in [fresh] cold water.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Leek — Allium ameloprasum var porrum after FAGUET — 1888 2-179. has bad juice. Porrum sectivum. The blades boiled in sea water and vinegar are excellent in a bath for suffocation and hardness of the womb. As a result. Allium schoenoprasum [Linnaeus]. frankincense. Eaten frequently it dulls the sight and is worthless for the stomach. and is good used as linctus [syrup] with honey for all disorders in the chest. Eaten (it is good) against consumption [wasting disease].

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Aphace from FUCHS — 1545 305 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Erucaria cakiloides from ENGLER-PRANTL— 1897 306 .

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-180. excessive discharges of the intestines. noise in the ears. Cepa vulgaris [Bauhin]. Cepa ascolonia [Pliny]. Vine Leek. small clouds in the eye. AMELOPRASON Allium ameloprasum var ameloprasum — Wild Leek. If much is eaten in 307 T . Porrum ascalonium — Shallot. and the loss of hair (rubbed on) as it brings out the hair sooner than alcyonium [5-136]. and those who are beginning to be troubled with liquids in the eyes. It both induces and expels the menstrual flow. expelling the menstrual flow. All of them have a biting quality and are inflative. they are given as a suppository. and purulent ears. rue [3-52. Allium cepa [Linnaeus]. argema [small white ulcer on the cornea]. the red more than the white. 2-181. cause thirst. Blue Leek. Great-headed Garlic. It is good if those bitten by poisonous beasts eat it. but boiled it becomes more diuretic. First peeled and put into oil. as well as angina [heart pains]. Onion (much eaten) causes headaches. Levant Garlic SUGGESTED: A mpeloprasum is worse for the stomach than leeks but is warmer and more uretic. It is also good for dripping water in the ears. The juice rubbed on with honey helps dull sight. Ascalonian Garlic he long onion is sharper than the round. They reduce the intensity of symptoms. KROMUON SUGGESTED: Askolonion krommoon [Theophrastus]. cause nauseousness and purging. It is a poultice with salt. Thoroughly rubbed on in the sun with vinegar it cures vitiligines [form of leprosy]. and with an equal amount of spodium [calcined powder] it lessens scabby inflammations of the eyes. Porrum cepa — Onion Allium ascalonium. and inhaled it purges the head by the nostrils. open the passages for excrement. inviting appetite. With poultry grease it is good for shoe-chafing. Scallion. 3-53. hardness of hearing. the raw more than the roasted or that kept in salt. Cepa [Fuchs]. 4-98] and honey for those bitten by dogs. With salt it represses varos [smallpox pustules]. and are good for haemorrhoids. the dry more than the green. are good for the bowels.

running ulcers on the head. With honey it takes away vitiligines [form of leprosy]. and psoriasis. warming. Boiled with taeda [pitch pine] and frankincense and kept in the mouth it lessens toothache. and dulls vision. Burnt and mixed with honey it cures bruised eyes. biting quality. 2-182. or else pounded into small pieces in wine and taken as a drink. and eaten either raw or boiled lessens old coughs. and that in Egypt has only one head like the leek — sweet. It is rubbed on for loss of hair but for this it must be used with ointment of nard [1-6. dandruff. Eaten. LEUKOSKORODON. and the same way to relieve roughness of the throat). inclining to a purple colour. Elsewhere it is compacted of many white cloves that the Greeks call aglithai. Porrum sativum — Garlic SUGGESTED: Allium ome garlic is cultivated and grows in gardens. breeds boils on the outside of the body. dries the stomach. Allium sylvestre. and the Latins. There is another wild kind called ophioscorodon (that is.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY times of sickness it makes men lethargic. ELAPHOSKORODON hortense. It expels flatulence. it is good against change of waters (to clear the throat. as well as elaphoscorodon (as we should say. It is applied as a poultice that is effective for the same purposes. hart’s garlic). freckles. disturbs the belly. it draws out broadworms and draws away urine. 1-8. Allium sativum. It is also called polyides. as well as applied to anyone bitten by a mad dog. It clears the arteries. serpent’s garlic). Boiled and applied as a plaster with raisins of the sun or figs it ripens and breaks swelling sores. SKORODON. 1-10]. Eaten. It is a poultice with fig leaves and 308 S . the Magi call it calabotis. Linnaeus]. causes thirst and puffing up. Ophioscorodon does the same things when eaten. 1-7. Allium oleraceum. Taken as a drink with a decoction of origanum it kills lice and nits. It is good like nothing else for those bitten by vipers or with haemorrhous [women’s excessive loss of blood] (with wine taken shortly afterwards). Allium ursinum [Fuchs. With salt and oil it heals erupted pimples. caepa. It has a sharp. lichenes [skin disease]. Allium vineale. OPHIOSKORODON.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Anthriscus sylvestris after THIEBAULT — 1881 309 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Cucurbita pepo after THIEBAULT — 1888 310 .

rough skin of the arteries. but which if broken looks green within. 2-183. SKORODOPRASON SUGGESTED: Allium scorodoprasum — Spanish Garlic. some call it elaphoboscum. It is used to draw out anything from deep within to the outside of the body (to cure it) by diverting the suffering some other way. This sort is new and in its prime. and is good for dropsy. The stamping that is made of it with black olives called myrton [garlic and olives] induces the movement of urine. Leucosinapis officinalis. It is also called geboscum. performing things that the garlic and the leek do.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK cumin for those bitten by the mygale [shrew mouse]. eaten boiled like leek and thus made to become sweet. Spanish Shallot cordoprasum grows to the size of a leek. allium. and revives those troubled with constriction of the vulva. helps the epileptic. Salad Mustard. fat or wax ointment it cures loss of hair. The juice (mixed with honey water and gargled) is good for hard swollen tonsils. and is chewed to purge phlegm from the head. S 2-184. hard. Brassica alba — White Mustard. It is able to warm. and the Latins. Pounded into small pieces and put into the nostrils it causes snivelling. opens the mouths of veins. SINEPI Sinapi hortense [Brunfels]. and for old. hoose sinepi that is not very dry. Cultivated Mustard SUGGESTED: Napy. Sinapis alba [Linnaeus]. A decoction of the leaves is a hip bath to bring down the menstrual flow and afterbirth. Rubbed on with honey. and as it were juicy and bluish grey. It is also inhaled as smoke for the same purpose. Sinapis primum genus [Fuchs]. thin. It is used as a vegetable. sharing the qualities of both garlic and leek (from which it has a mixed kind of strength). It is rubbed on the lethargic (their head being first shaved). and to draw. Mixed with figs and applied to the place until it becomes red it is good for sciatica [pains in the hips]. cleans the 311 C . red or full. but with fewer efficacies.

iberis. T 312 . Taken as a drink it is an antidote against the poison of snakes. lessens the spleen. It prevents falling hair. sharp. and takes away bruises from the eyes. and it drives away snakes with inhalation of the smoke from it. bad for the stomach. Lepidium sativum [Linnaeus]. It keeps the spleen low. is an abortifacient. It has a similar nature to mustard seed and rocket seed. being sprinkled on the drink dry (the same as polenta). It is taken in a drink against the circuits of fevers. It takes away smallpox pustules. The seed of any sort of cress is warming. It is also called napy. Lepidium oleraceum — Common Garden Cress. troubles the intestines. It is good pounded with figs and applied for hardness of hearing and noise in the ears. The juice rubbed on with honey is good for dullness of sight and rough skin of the jowls. moves the menstrual flow. Cardamum. KARDAMON sativum. and the Romans call it sinapi. cardamina.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY face. and boiled in sipping drinks brings up things sticking in the chest. Nasturtium hortense vulgatum [Bauhin]. Cressio hortensis [Fuchs. and incites to copulation [aphrodisiac]. and the Latins. It is also called cynocardamom. It is effective mixed with drawing plasters such as those made for scabies [itchy parasitical disease]. Brunfels]. rubbed on with honey. or cardamantica. It is good for sciatica rubbed on with vinegar and polenta. 2-185. It is rubbed about with vinegar for leprosy and wild impetigo [skin infection]. The herb does the same things as the seed yet it is somewhat less effective. Nasturtium he best cress seems to be from Babylon. Tongue Grass SUGGESTED: Nasturtium hortense. It brings carbuncles [infected boils] to suppuration breaking them all around. The juice is pressed out of it whilst the seed is green and dried in the sun. the Egyptians call it semeth. It dissolves oedema and inflammation. expels worms. nasturtium. It cleans away psoriasis and impetigo [skin infection]. and rubbed on with brine brings boils or inflammatory tumours to suppuration.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Lepidium perfoliatum after FAGUET — 1888 313 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Sedum telephium after FAGUET — 1888 314 .

Mithridate Mustard. and it grows in paths. Lepidium campestre [Brunfels] — Field Cress. The flowers are somewhat white. 315 . shaped like a dish as it were. THLASPI latifolium [Fuchs]. sinapim. in which a little seed is enclosed similar to nasturtium [2-185]. the height of about a finger. DRABA SUGGESTED: Draba verna [Linnaeus]. bending to the ground. The seed is sharp and warming. Pepperwort [other usage] Thlaspi arvense — Penny Cress. sinapi sylvestre. the Romans. It induces the menstrual flow and is an abortifacient. Wild Bastard Cress. An acetabulum [vinegar cruet measure] (taken in a drink) purges bile upward and downward. scandulaceum. T 2-187. dasmophon. myopteron.Thlaspi campestre [Linnaeus]. Taken in a drink it brings out blood and breaks internal abscesses. has slender sprigs with leaves on both sides like lepidium. or pes gallinaceum. on walls. broken or bruised. myiten. divided at the top. broad-leaved and big-rooted. and a tuft on the top with white flowers similar to elder. It is made into a sup pository for sciatica. and in hedges. somewhat broad. a herb of about a foot high. Draba nemoralis — Witlow Grass D raba. from which it took its name. the Egyptians call it suitempsum. It sends out a little stalk two feet in height with a few little branches. Around the whole of it there is fruit from the top.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-186. and this is also mixed in suppositories for sciatica. or bitrum. somewhat fat. and it is also called capsella. This herb is boiled with barley water (especially in Cappadocia) and the dry seed is mixed with sauces instead of pepper. Crateuas mentions another kind of thlaspi called Persicum sinapi. It is also called thlaspidium. Draba arabis. narrow in the leaves. Europhila vulgaris — Common Europhila Draba olympica. yet more tender and paler. Wild Cress Thlaspi alliaceum — Garlic-scented Shepherd’s Purse SUGGESTED: Thlaspi hlaspi is a little herb.

Rapistrum [Fuchs]. Chaba roxberghii — Long Pepper Piper nigrum — Black Pepper P 316 epper is said to be a short tree that growing in India which sends out a fruit — at first long. Licked in with honey they are good for excessive discharges of the chest. and if you put seven grains into a house. It has leaves like eruca sylvestris [2-170]. the Egyptians. glandular tumours. pounded into small pieces with wine. pliable and flexible like a rein. inflammation from stones [urinary. Sisymbrium officinale. sciatic nerves]. there shall be arguing). It has a little stalk. ERUSIMON sylvestris. Alliaria officinalis — Blistercress. E 2-189. and the Romans call it irio. and flowers of a yellowish colour. On the top are little pods like horns (as slender as those of fenugreek) in which are little seeds like those of nasturtium [2-185]. the Magi call it Herculis psoriasista. Piper aromaticum. Chaba officinarum. It is taken in a drink against deadly medicinal drinks [antidote]. should be taken as a drink for pains in the intestines. Singer’s Plant [other usage] Erysimum alliaria. similar to pods — which is the long pepper. Sinapis arvensis [Linnaeus]. Sinapis rysimum grows about towns. In general it thins and warms but it is made milder for syrups — first steeped in water and dried or bound into a linen cloth. (Erysimum. erethmu. coughs. Erysimum cheiranthoides — Treacle Mustard. kidney]. It is also called chamaeplion. Rubbed on with water or honey it is good for hidden diseases of the cornea. Garlicwort Erysimum barbarea. burning according to the taste. spitting-up of rotten stuff. and roasted. Erysimum officinale — Hedge Mustard. wrapped around with kneaded flour. It has something within it . the yards of houses and gardens. Rapistrum flore luteo [Bauhin]. and inflammation of the breasts. Treacle Wormseed SUGGESTED: Irion. PIPER SUGGESTED: Piper longum. hard lumps.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY 2-188. jaundice and sciatica [pains in hips. Piper chaba.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Irion from FUCHS — 1545 317 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Piper nigrum after FAGUET — 1874 318 .

and fitter to be used in sauces. black. Some is found among the black — without nourishment. Mixed in sauces it eases pain. and is suitable for antidotes and the bites of poisonous snakes. will be perfect pepper. Applied as a pessary it seems to hinder conception after sexual intercourse [birth control]. it helps those bitten by poisonous beasts. and with nitre [saltpetre] it cleans away vitiligines [type of leprosy]. It is good (either taken in a drink or rubbed on) for periodical chills (of fevers). The long pepper is endowed with an extraordinarily biting quality. and cleans away things that darken the pupils. not too wrinkled. and for the bites of poisonous snakes. Rubbed on with vinegar it humbles the spleen. At its time of opening itself it sends out clusters bearing grains such as we know (some of which are unripe) which are the white pepper — especially suitable for eye medicines. lank and light — which is called brasma. It is good (taken either in syrups or liquid medicines) for suffering about the chest and for coughs. The green herb is used for many 319 . Yet the root of pepper is similar to costus [1-15] — warming the taste and causing spittle. Choose that which is heaviest and full. urinary. ZINGIBERI SUGGESTED: Zingiber officinale — Ginger G inger is a private plant growing plentifully in primitive Arabia. The root of it is not ginger (as some have supposed) as we will show a little later.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK similar to millet. Chewed with adenoid passae [lozenges] it draws mucus out of the head. more aromatic because it is ripe. is healing. and it is an abortifacient. and encourages appetite. is somewhat bitter because of being unripe. The black is sweeter and sharper than the white. and dissolves griping taken as a drink with tender leaves of laurel. It is roasted in a new ceramic jar over coals — being shaken about similar to lens [lentils]. new and not branny. It is good rubbed on with honey for tonsillitis. but the white and unripe is weaker. Taken with pitch it dissolves scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling]. digestive. attracting and dissolving. more pleasant to the mouth. All pepper in general is warming. antidotes. 2-190. and chewed with stavesacre [4-156] it extracts mucus.

It has small little roots like those of cyprus [1-124]. It has a little root that is of no use. and in a general way it resembles pepper in its strength. but bigger. Dried and pounded. Achillea ptarmica. sharp in taste. Pyrethrum sylvestre P 320 tarmica is a little shrub with many small round branches similar to southernwood. they are mixed with salt and sauces instead of pepper. It has a fruit growing on the little branches near the leaves.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY purposes (as we use rue [3-52. around which are many leaves — somewhat long. The leaves applied with the seeds are able to dissolve oedema and old hard lumps. Persica hydropiper [Bauhin]. and with a sweet smell. more delicate and whiter. It sends out a stalk that is knotty and strong. Ptarmika vulgaris — Sneezewort. UDROPEPERI [Fuchs]. and it is also sharp. Persicaria urens. whitish. similar to those of the olive tree. and with boiled meats. similar to pepper but without any sweet smell. H 2-192. They are warming and digestive. Bastard Pellitory SUGGESTED: Ptarmice. soften the intestines gently. Polygonum hydropiper [Linnaeus] — Water Pepper SLIGHTLY POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Hydropiper ydropiper grows chiefly near standing waters or those flowing gently. and take away bruises. boiling and mixing it in oil) for drinking. On the top is a little head like anthemis arvensis . Dracunculis pratensis serrato folio [Bauhin]. PTARMIKE [Fuchs]. resembling pepper in taste. Some (because of rotting soon) are preserved and carried into Italy in ceramic jars and are fit for [use with] meat. Choose those that are least rotten. and are good for the stomach. 4-98]. 3-53. Ginger root is effective against things that darken the pupils [eyes]. but they are used together with their pickle. 2-191. It is also mixed with antidotes. Achillea macrocephala. and leaves similar to mint. around which are hollows with wings. hanging close together like clusters of grapes.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Zingiber officinalis from ENGLER-PRANTL — 1897 321 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Capparis spinosa after FAGUET — 1874 322 .

3-57] and root of capparis [2-204] it breaks stones [kidney] and voids them by urine. It is also called cerdon. very similar to rape [coleseed] root and 323 C . STROUTHION Saponaria major laevis [Bauhin]. sharp according to the smell. with whitish spots beneath and above. The flowers induce sneezing most effectively. The root is sharp and uretic. causing sneezing. and melts a hardened spleen. Cyclamen officinale — Cyclamen. Bouncing Bet. The leaves smeared on (with the flowers) are able to take away bruises below the eyes. from which it is named. and it draws off bowels. 3-56. Boiled with barley meal and wine it dissolves the inflammation of bones. and is an abortifacient. 2-194. catharsis. the Egyptians. S truthium (which fullers use for cleaning their wool) is commonly known. KUKLAMINOS SUGGESTED: Cyclamen cyclaminus.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK [3-156]. the root black. the Magi call it chalyriton. varied. A spoonful of it (taken with honey) helps those with liver disorders. Bleeding Nun Cyclamen graecum — Greek Cyclamen yclaminus has leaves like cissus. It grows in mountainous and rocky places. on which are flowers similar to roses. tending to a purple colour. a stalk of four fingers high. Saponaria [Fuchs]. and asthma. Cyclamen europaem [Linnaeus]. It induces sneezing. oeno. 2-193. a purple colour. or herba lanaria. It is mixed with eye salves made for sharpening the sight. struthiocamelus. the Latins. coughs. radix. and the Africans call it syris. Saponaria officinalis [Linnaeus] — Soapwort. or chamaerrhytos. Sow Bread. and (placed below) it draws down the menstrual flow. Fuller's Herb [Mabberley] SUGGESTED: Struthium. Pounded into small pieces and put up into the nostrils with honey it purges through the mouth. Smeared on with polenta and vinegar it takes away leprosy. Taken with panaces [3-55. round. and with soothing medicines. Cyclamen littorale. bare and naked. small.

Applied. rapum terrae. it brings wounds to a scar. It is said that it is pounded and made into lozenges and taken with catapotia [pills]. It is inserted on wool into the perineum to bring down excrement from the bowels. It is also called cissanthemon. The root with vinegar (either alone or with honey) cleans the skin. zoroastris. gout. it is a remedy against the bites of snakes. umbilicus terrae. They say that if a woman great with child walks over the root that she aborts. The juice rubbed on with honey is good for bathing the eyes and moisture of the eyes. The root is made hollow. The juice rubbed on with vinegar restores a fallen perineum. chelonion. Osthenes calls it aspho. the Romans. and produces abortions. This is an excellent ointment for those troubled with chilblains. The root is kept in storage. little ulcers on the head and chilblains. and mixed with wine it causes drunkenness. it softens the spleen (and reduces it). or orbicularis. It is also mixed with medicines that cause abortion. chuline. ichthyotheron. filled with oil. 324 . and be covered with many cloths so that he may sweat (more easily). but whoever drinks it must lie down on his bed in a warm house not open to the wind. or trimphalites. The pounded root is juiced and squeezed out. especially under trees. It is taken as a drink with wine against deadly poisons. miaspho. cissophylon. Taken as a drink with honey water it drives phlegm and water [fluids] downwards. Rubbed on the navel and the lower part of the bowels and the hips it softens the bowels. Three teaspoonfuls (taken in a drink with passum [raisin wine] or honey diluted in water) drives away yellow jaundice. The sweat that comes out is found to be a bile colour. the Magi. theske. and set over warm ashes (and sometimes a little Tyrrhenian [Etruscan] wax is added so that it is gluey). and it is also called arcar. the Egyptians. especially against the sea hare. It grows in shady places. and that tied around her it hastens the birth. It takes away sunburn. Boiled in old oil and the oil smeared on. Juice from cyclaminus is put into the nostrils with honey to purge the head. cut in pieces like squill. stops pustules from breaking out and cures wounds. Applied. A decoction applied with hot cloths is suitable for dislocations. and [repairs] the loss of hair. It induces the menstrual flow either taken in a drink or placed below.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY somewhat broader. the juice then boiled to the consistency of honey.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Cyclaminus rotundus from FUCHS — 1545 325 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Struthium sativum from FUCHS — 1545 326 .

Pounded into small pieces with honey and applied. hernia. cut in small pieces. and it abounds in purple spots. Taken in a drink with wine it stirs up the vehement desire to sexual intercourse [aphrodisiac]. DRAKONTION MECA SUGGESTED: Dracunculus [Fuchs]. The root is dug up during harvest.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-195. washed. Arum dracunculus. One teaspoon of the fruit (taken in a drink with two cups of white wine [daily] for forty days) melts the spleen. thrust through with a thong and dried in the shade. Snake Plant. Common Dragon. Lords and Ladies racontium maius grows in shady places around hedges. It brings forth a fruit on the top of the stalk in clusters — at first an ash colour. white. Dracunculus polyphyllus. It is taken in a drink for asthma. taken in a drink with diluted wine. but when ripe inclining to a saffron and purple colour. convulsions. and the fruit is bunches of berries similar to cissus. knotty stalks rolling around the trees that grow next to them. it 327 D . round. Taken in a drink it purges away the residue [placenta] after childbearing. and dripping fluids. Dracunculus vulgaris. The root is useless. similar to the tendrils of vines. It has a smooth upright stalk about two feet in height and the thickness of a staff around. and dried in the shade. so that it resembles a dragon. thick. It is warming. sharp to the taste and viscous. T 2-196a. overcoloured according to the time. single. Dragon Arum. The flowers are white and fragrant. Boiled or roasted it is good (taken as a linctus [syrup] with honey) for orthopnoea [form of asthma]. It has leaves like lapathum [2-140] folded within one another. Dracunculis vulgaris [in Sprague]. soft. Dracontia radix — Dragonwort. with a thin bark. It is gathered and juiced when thoroughly ripe. and brings down the intestines by urine. It has a very great root. Arum dracunculus [Linnaeus]. It grows in rough places. coughs. KUKLAMINOS ETERA SUGGESTED: Cyclamen psuedo-graecum he other cyclamen (also called cissanthemon or cissophylon) has leaves similar to cissus but smaller.

The smell of the root or herb is destructive of recent conceptions [abortifacient]. They say that the smell of it after the flowers have withered destroys newly conceived embryos [abortifacient]. DRAKONTION MIKRON micron. They say that a viper shall not bite those who rub the leaves in their hands or carry the dug up root about them. or cyperis. and apply the leaves as an astringent on new wounds. white spots on the cornea. small clouds in the eye. spotted with purple spots. As much as thirty grains (taken as a drink with posca [hot drinks]) cause abortion. as are thirty grains of the seed (taken in a drink with posca [hot drinks]). and for use as an abortifacient. similar to aron [2-197]. mauriaria. and the thickness of a stalk. some. It grows in shady places around hedges and mounds. the colour at first indeed similar to grass but when ripe similar to saffron.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY takes away the malignancy of ulcers and eating ulcers (especially with the white vine [bryony]). Dracunculus minor [Fuchs]. The juice is good for eye medicines. Put into the nostrils with wool it destroys polyps. as well as boiled in wine to those with chilblains. It is also called aron. It takes away polyps and diseases of the cornea. 2-196b. iaron. The fruit on the top is similar to clusters of grapes. Some pour the juice of this (with oil) into the ears of those with earache. and mistiness in the eyes. hieracicus. biaron. Dracunculus palustris [Bauhin]. aron agreste. 328 D . Dracunculus Plinii. hernias. Calla palustris [Linnaeus] — Water Arum SEEDS POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Hydropiper rubeum. Rubbed on. The root is round and bulbous. convulsions. It is good for vitiligines [form of leprosy] smeared on with honey. and others call it sigingialios. the Romans call it colubrina. like the shape of a snake. over-coloured. it stops diseases of the cornea [eyes]. biting to the taste. isaron. Dracontion racontium or dracunculus has large leaves similar to cissus with white spots and an upright stalk forty inches high. with a thin bark. The root has a warming quality and helps asthma. Suppositories are formed from it with honey for fistulas. The juice of the seed (pressed out and put with oil into the ear) stops earaches.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Cucumis melo after THIEBAULT — 1888 329 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Dracunculus maior from FUCHS — 1545 330 .

The roots. and is somewhat less sharp. and dim vision. The leaves are preserved in salt for eating. 2-197. applied with bullock's dung to those troubled with gout. The juice of the root is good for small clouds in the eye. Salves are made from it for fistulas. The root — white like that of dracontium — is also [a vegetable] eaten boiled. Taro Arum maculatum [Linnaeus] — Sago A ron sends out leaves similar to those of dracontium. ARON SUGGESTED: Arum vulgare non maculatum [Brunfels] Arum colocasia. The leaves pounded into small pieces are effectively applied to one newly wounded instead of flax seed. in which is fruit inclining to a saffron colour. They say that if any one rubs his hands with the root he remains unbitten by a viper. Colocasia esculenta.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK coughs. having first washed them. yet smaller and less spotted. Colocasia. Pounded fine with white bryony and honey it cleans malignant and spreading ulcers and brings them to a scar. Caladium nymphaefolium — Egyptian Arum. Eatable Arum. Particularly the root. cut them in small pieces. For chilblains it is boiled in wine and applied. and dripping fluids. white spots on the cornea. Colocasia antiquorum. It is diuretic and (taken in a drink of wine) stirs up affections to sexual intercourse [aphrodisiac]. The roots must be put in jars by those who dug it up during the harvest. Dried and pounded fine it is taken in syrup with honey. and for bringing out the embryo [abortifacient]. The root is used for health (eaten either boiled or raw). made a thread go through them and dried them in the shade. they are boiled and eaten by themselves. a faint purple stalk twenty centimetres long in the shape of a pestle. Those who live in the Gymnesian Isles called Baleares mix the boiled root with a lot of honey and place it in their banquets instead of placentae [cakes]. It makes the moisture sticking in the chest easily expectorated given either boiled or roasted with honey. does them 331 . Arum esculenta. It cleans away vitiligines [form of leprosy] rubbed on with vinegar. Wrapped in the leaves. seeds and leaves have the same strength as dracontium. Dried. cheese is kept from putrefying. or else eaten alone.

In brief it is edible because it is not oversharp. A 332 . A teaspoonful of these (taken in a drink of wine) induces the movement of urine and the menstrual flow. dracontium. convulsions and hernia. On the top is a flower called anthericon. sharp to the taste. Lilium martagone [Linnaeus]. The root is stored in the same way as the root of dracunculum. It causes easy vomiting if as much as a knucklebone is eaten with meat. It is also called lupha. 2-198. The sediment of wine boiled together with the root cures filthy feeding ulcers. inflammation of the breasts. ARISARON SUGGESTED: Arum arisarum. Asphodelus albus. root and flowers with wine to bites. Asphodelus ramosus — Asphodel. similar to suppositories. myrrh [1-77. The roots are underneath — somewhat long. As much as three teaspoonfuls given to those bitten by snakes is effective. 4-116] and saffron. As a result (rubbed on) it prevents gangrenous ulceration of the cheeks. They also cure pains of the side. some. some call it thymon.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY good. The juice of the root with old sweet wine. stones [kidney. round. but for new inflammation [it is to be applied] with polenta. coughs. and warming in strength. ASPHODELOS SUGGESTED: Asphodelus foemina [Fuchs]. 1-73. Lilium purpureum [Brunfels]. King’s Rod Asphodel Asphodelus luteus after FAGUET — 1888 sphodelus is a plant (known to most) with leaves similar to the great leek and a smooth stalk. Either alone or warmed together with frankincense. and the Cyprians call it colocassion. but either put in or applied it destroys the genitals of any living creature. (boiled together) is an excellent medicine to rub on the eyes. but it is sharper than aron [arum]. tubercula [nodules]. A risarum is a small little herb with a root the size of an olive tree’s. and you must apply a poultice made of the leaves. Salves are made from it that are effective for fistulas. 2-199. and boils or inflammatory tumours. Arisarum Friar’s Cowl vulgare — Aris. urinary]. among the Syrians it is called alimon.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Scilla non scripta after FAGUET — 1888 333 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Dracunculus Plinij tertius from FUCHS — 1545 334 .

The burnt ashes of the root are rubbed on to thicken thinned hair. and with honey or vinegar [they also remove] varos [smallpox 335 . They say that the root (taken in a drink) makes men have no appetite for pursuit of sexual pleasure [anaphrodisiac]. The oil (boiled in the hollowed roots over a fire) is rubbed on ulcerated chilblains and burns. and the Romans call it albucium.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK honey. It bears flowers at the time of harvest but white asphodelus must be cut down around the vernal equinox before the seed increases. splinters. centipedes and scorpions. gangrene. That which is bitter and similar to the squill is better for the stomach and helps digestion. and pepper pounded into small pieces). and gout (applied either with honey or by themselves). They repress sweats and alleviate pains in the stomach. bruises. provoke sexual intercourse [aphrodisiac]. They are very nourishing and replenish flesh but they breed wind. They clean bruises below the eyes applied either alone or with the yolk of an egg. All are sharp and warming. It is also called anthericum. They are good for oedema from dropsy. The seed and flowers (taken in a drink of wine) are an extraordinary remedy against the strikes of millipedes. The root is smeared on to take away vitiligo alba [type of leprosy] that is first rubbed with a napkin in the sun. And Crateuas the herbalist says the same and that one teaspoonful of the root (taken as a drink with wine) cures the pains of gout. Rubbed on they are good for dislocations. BOLBOS EDODIMOS SUGGESTED: Bulbus sylvestris [Fuchs]. and the bites of dogs (applied similarly with honey. However they purge the intestines excessively. and poured into the ear it helps earache. The juice (alone) poured into the opposing ear. good for the stomach and bowels. Roasted with saltpetre [potassium nitrate] they clean away dandruff and running sores on the head. Gagea lutea [in Sprague] — Yellow Star of Bethlehem T he edible red bulbus that is brought from Africa is well known to all. lessens toothache. Linnaeus]. 2-200. wine and myrrh it is good to put into purulent ears. sore joints. and are harsh to the tongue and tonsils. Ornithogalum luteum [Bauhin.

BOLBOS EMETIKOS SUGGESTED: Scilla amoena — Nodding Squill Ornithogalum arabicum — Great-flowered Star of Bethlehem ulbus vomitorius has more flexible leaves — similar to a bridle and far bigger than the edible. Boiled with polenta and applied with swines’ grease it quickly brings oedema and tubercles [growths] to suppuration and breaks them. It is wrapped in dough or clay and put into an oven or hidden under hot coals until the dough that enfolds it is sufficiently baked. It is likewise baked in a tightly-corked ceramic jar and put into an oven.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY pustules]. Burnt and mixed with alcyonium [5-136] and rubbed on in the sun they take away sunburn and black scars. and a root with a black bark similar to the bulbus [above]. as well as freckles. Care must be taken of feeding too much on them because they hurt the sinews. and for bruise ointments. the first water thrown away and fresh water poured on it. B 2-202. The root eaten alone (as well as a decoction of it taken as a drink) cures disorders of the bladder and encourages vomiting. until the water becomes neither bitter nor sharp. placing other dough or clay around it — for that which is not thus roasted is hurtful if given. 2-201. Boiled and eaten with vinegar they are good for hernias. When taken off (if the squill within it is not tender) we shall bake it again. and of that the very middle part is taken. It is then cut into pieces and boiled. They take away piles [haemorrhoids] roasted in hot embers and applied with the burnt heads of fish called maenae. Urginea maritima — Medicinal Squill. Urginea scilla. It is also cut into pieces and dried in the 336 . the part around the outside of it being thrown away. Sea Onion. especially if it is (taken inwardly) carried to the bowels. SKILLA [Linnaeus] Ornithogalum maritima. With polenta they are good for broken places of the ears. Squill VERY POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Scilla maritima S Urginea maritima after FAGUET — 1888 cilla is sharp and burning but it is roasted and made useful for man’s purposes.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Bulbus sylvestris. Gagea lutea from FUCHS — 1545 337 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Ornithogalum umbellatum after FAGUET — 1888 338 .

so that the parcels may not touch one another. and must be avoided by those who have an inward ulceration. those troubled with a cough for a long time. 339 . 2-203. It is also an antidote against poison hanged up whole before doors. Put into liquid medicines and aromatic medicines it is good for those in whom we wish to induce movement of urine. 2-131] and formed into tablets) is effective given with honey water for the spleen. jaundice. Boiled and taken in the same way it does the same. the asthmatic. wine. and a bitter burning taste. for dropsy. It has a similar strength and preparation as the squill and the same dose [is to be taken of it]. For cracks in the feet the inner part of the raw squill is applied (either boiled in oil or else dissolved with rosin). and dropsy. Sea Daffodil P ancratium (also called the little squill) has a pale red or pale purple root similar to the great bulbus. and vinegar of squills. Thirty grains (taken as a syrup with honey) is sufficient. Mixing eight parts of roasted salt (pounded into small pieces) to one part of roasted squill we give one spoonful or two of it to those fasting for softening the bowels. very much facilitating mixtures. The seed (pounded into small pieces and eaten with a dried fig or honey) softens the bowels. These pieces we use to manufacture oil. and those who spit up (blood). As a result the root (juiced and mixed with flour of ervum [2-129. The leaves are similar to lilies but longer. It is boiled together with honey and eaten for the same purposes. Boiled with vinegar it is a plaster for those bitten by vipers. Roasted squill (rubbed on) is good for hanging warts and chilblains. It also draws out the slimy stuff that sticks in the bowels. Scilla pancratium — Sea Pancratium Lily.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK shade and the pieces thrust through with a little linen thread. griping. PANICRATION SUGGESTED: Pancratium maritimum. It is good for the same disorders but has a milder nature than squill. a stomach in which the meat swims above.

The African caper (especially that which grows near the people called Marmaridae) causes excessive gaseousness. but that from the Red Sea and Arabia is extremely sharp. and also cleans away every old. and the fruit similar to olives. It is laid (with barley meal) on those troubled with spleen. crooked like a hook. Both the stalk and fruit are preserved in salt to eat. islands. and it lessens toothache. Caper apparis is a prickly shrub spread in a round circumference on the ground. The same (taken in a drink) helps sciatica and palsy. it also expels urine and bloody excrement. ophioscorodon. aconitum. and is good for hernia and convulsions. raising pustules in the mouth and eating up the gums to the bare bone. ioniten. It disturbs the belly. or ophiostapllylen (i. Pounded into small pieces with vinegar it takes away white vitiligines [form of leprosy]. or trichomanes. It is also called cynosbatos (as we would say. thallian. which. KAPPARIS SUGGESTED: Capparis spinosa — Common Caper Bush. is worthless for the stomach. and in courtyards belonging to houses. On opening it first sends forth a white flower. That in Apulia encourages vomiting. some. the apple of a crow. therefore it is useless for eating. capria. The many roots are woody and great. draws away mucus in the head. falling off. hippomanes. The dry rind of the root is good for the things spoken of before.e. The leaves are round (similar to those of the malicottoon [quince] tree). and causes thirst. scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling]. petraea. and goitres. There are prickles on the bush. hard ulcer. there is found something in the shape of of a long suppository. The juice poured in the ears kills worms in there. dog’s bush). snake’s grape). or oligocloron. holophyton. and the root is bitten to help a pained tooth. Two teaspoonfuls of the fruit reduces the spleen (taken in a drink with wine daily for forty days). Eaten boiled it is better for the stomach than raw. Boiled in vinegar and used as a mouthwash it dries out the menstrual flow. It grows only in rough barren places. The leaves and root pounded together dissolve hard lumps. When opened this has little red grains similar to those of a pomegranate. The Magi call it potera. C 340 . filthy.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY 2-204.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Capparis erythrocarpa from ENGLER-PRANTL — 1897 341 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Malacocissus minor from FUCHS — 1545 342 .

BATRACHION ETERON. or haloscorodon. It is also good in the same way for the spleen and it takes away leprosy. hung around the neck. it is also called the heart of a wolf. L 2-206. yet broader and somewhat white and fat. Ranunculus aquatilius — Water Crowfoot. Linnaeus] — Dittander. Sclerata [Fuchs]. The flower is a yellowish colour and sometimes purple. Pounded into small pieces with root of elecampane and applied for a quarter of an hour. Ranunculus asiaticus — Turban Ranunculus arvensis — Corn Crowfoot. Ranunculus scleratus. Green Mustard Lepidium campestre. BATRACHION TETARTON SUGGESTED: Batrachio [Italian]. the lily. Corn Buttercup Apium sylvestre. and the Africans. some. it is a most effective plaster for sciatica. Persian Buttercup. Crowfoot. 2-205. Water Anemone ALL POISONOUS T here are many kinds of batrachium (also called apium agreste). in height about a foot. One of them has leaves similar to those of coriander. The stalk is not thick. herbiaeathum. Ranunculis acris — Buttercup. but their strength is the same — sharp and very ulcerating. The leaves are sharp and ulcerating.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK peuteron. It has a bitter little root. It grows near rivers or running water. The other kind is more downy and longer-stalked. BATRACHION. with more in-cuttings on the leaves. The root is thought to take away toothache. Ranunculus palustris [Bauhin]. with little fibrous strings growing out (like that of hellebore). or thlaspi. LEPIDION latifolium [Bauhin. Ranunculus aquaticus. and is extremely sharp. BATRACHION TRITON. It grows 343 . The Romans call it sinapi Persicum. Blister Plant. Agreste apium. inturis. Asiatic Crowfoot. Thlaspi campestre — Pepperwort SUGGESTED: Lepidium epidium (also called gingidium) is a well-known little herb that is preserved in brine with milk. Pepperwort.

Of the cultivated some bear flowers in a Phoenician [red] colour. ANEMONE SUGGESTED: Anemone sylvestris [Fuchs]. Anemone hortensis — Garden Anemone POISONOUS Anemone alba after FAGUET . as well as taking away abscesses. milky or purple colour.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY abundantly in Sardinia where they call it apium agreste. applied for only a little time. Rubbed on it takes away leprosy. The chewed root extracts mucus. The leaves and stalks boiled together with barley water (and eaten) draw out milk [breastfeeding]. In a pessary it encourages the menstrual flow. there are many small little roots. the other cultivated. as a result the juice of the root poured into the nostrils helps in purging the head. on which are flowers like poppies with the heads in the middle black or azure [blue]. others of a pale. and alopecia [baldness]. and they remove marks. The flower is a Phoenician [red] colour. hanging warts. They are both sharp. thin. Applied to teeth it eases toothache but breaks the teeth. The root is the size of that of the olive or bigger. and it cleans the filthiness of ulcers. Boiled in passum [raisin wine] and applied it cures inflammation of the eyes. The leaves and the tender stalks (rubbed on) are ulcerating and scab forming. with pain. The little stalks are downy. The wild is altogether bigger than the cultivated. Anemone pulsillata [Linnaeus]. they take away scabby nails and parasitic skin diseases. and mends scars in the eyes and moisture in the eyes. There is a third very small kind with a hard taste and a flower like gold. 2-207. A lukewarm boiled decoction of it is a suitable warm pack for those troubled with chilblains. A 344 . and a fourth (similar to this) with a flower the colour of milk. As a result. The leaves are similar to coriander but less ragged. The dried root pounded into small pieces and applied to the nostrils causes sneezing.1888 nemone has two types — one wild. next to the ground. Pulsatilla vulgaris — Pasque Flower [Mabberley] Anemone pavonina. and there is one kind that has black leaves and is sharper. broader and harder in the leaves. and it has a longer head.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Cynara scolymus from ENGLER-PRANTL — 1897 345 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Cochlearia armoracia after FAGUET — 1887 346 .

black anemone. gesparine. sharp juice. are deceived calling argemone ‘eupatorium’ [4-41]. ARGEMONE Papaver hybridum — Pale Poppy. It yields sharp juice of a saffron colour. Yet the Phoenician [red] colour of the argemone is somewhat less deep. because of the similarity of the colour of the flowers which are a Phoenician colour [red]. goitres]. It is also effective against scab [itchy 347 A . but (as it were) a top like asparagus. and a round root. Anemones neither give out juice nor have they a head or cup. rgemone is very like the wild poppy. It is also called wild anemone. Osthenes calls it berylius. Pythagoras calls it atractylis. pounded with saltpetre [potassium nitrate] and sulphur that has not felt fire. chuffis. anemion. The leaves applied as a poultice take away argemae [small white ulcers on the cornea] and small clouds in the eye. and lessen inflammation. tragoceros. It is good for white leprosy dried. Cock’s Head. 2-208. with a head similar to papaver rhoeas [4-64] but somewhat longer and broad towards the upper parts. cnicus agrestis. Both of them have little heads between (similar to the wild poppy). purple anemone. and those of rhoeas somewhat narrower. Ornios calls it ceranios. but those of argemone are somewhat broader at the top. and the Africans. a flower on the stalk a Phoenician [red] colour. It cures those who use it (rubbed on dry first) in a bath. and sifted. orci tunica. or barbyle. and they grow them for the most part in fields. Rough Poppy. but the rhoeas has a whiter. Sand Poppy SUGGESTED: Papaver argemone. and both it and argemone flower later. as well as that of the rhoeas. the Magi.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Some. the Romans. Wind Rose. The argemone yields juice of a saffron colour that is extremely sharp to the taste. not being able to distinguish between that which is called argemone and the papaver rhoeas [4-64] (of which we will speak when we come to discussion of poppies) from the wild anemone. Crateuas the herbalist says (to the same intent) that this herb argemone pounded together with swines' grease dissolves scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling. meconium. It has a divided leaf similar to anemone.

or concordialis. Papaver caucasicum. It seals wounds and is good applied to inflammation. drive away inflammation.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY parasitical skin diseases]. and it is also called pergalia. or sarcocolla. 4-86]. KORKOROS [Fuchs]. It is also called oenone. It is put in the opposing nostril to the sore tooth. Anagallis repens. The juice gargled purges the head of mucus. They are both lessening in strength. (as we should say) concord. for that which has an azure [blue] flower is called the female. With Attic 348 T . Papaver orientale — Poppy species SUGGESTED: Papaver armenaicum. It is also called artemone. differing in the flower. it is able to cure cuts and lessen inflammation of the eyes. ARGEMONE Papaver floribundum. with round fruit. the Romans call it liburnia. 2-208a. Lysimachia adoensis — Scarlet Pimpernel. extract [draw out] splinters or thorns that were run into the body. somewhat round. Linnaeus]. They are little shrubs spreading on the ground. anthemis arvensis. It is good (taken in a drink of wine) for those bitten by poisonous beasts. Similarly applied it cures convulsions and twitching. Anagallis coerulea — Blue Pimpernel POISONOUS — CAUSES ANAEMIA AND DERMATITIS SUGGESTED: Anagallis mas [other usage] Korkoros. Anagallis arvensis [Linnaeus]. Anagallis phoenecea. arselam. similar to those of helxine [4-39. the Gauls call it corna. and poured into the nostrils it stops toothache. ANAGALLIS. and repress gangrenous ulcers. Corchoris olitorius — Corchorus here are two kinds of anagallis. the Romans call it artemonia. It is good (taken in a drink with water) for dysentery. Pounded into small pieces (while still green) and applied. but that of a Phoenician [red] colour is called the male. Poor Man’s Weather Glass Anagallis foemina [Fuchs. he other argemone is like wild poppy in the leaves. or homonoia. T 2-209. with small leaves on their four-cornered little stalks. or flos campestris.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Lactuca sylvestris from FUCHS — 1545 349 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Veronica mas from FUCHS — 1545 350 .

honey. the black a black one or sometimes a saffron colour (which the vulgar sort also call dionysium). or saltpetre [potassium nitrate] is poured into the nostrils and is good for old sores on the head. macia. The white therefore bears a white fruit. and the Africans. Hedera helix [Fuchs. and taken in too great an 351 . Sorrel Vine C issus has many differences (according to the type) but there are three most particular kinds. purulent ears. as well as for kidney and liver ailments. some black and another helix [spiralled]. nycteritis. and that which has the Phoenician [red] flower encourages it. cerceraphron. is full of corners and red. 2-210. Linnaeus] — Common Ivy ALSO: Hedera helix poetica. All cissus is sharp and astringent and touches the sinewy parts. or zeliauros. the Dacians. Hedera helix vegeta [other usage] Cissus quadrangularis. the Egyptians call it micij. The juice and clusters [of fruit] (taken as a drink) cause sterility. the Gauls. the Magi. the Etruscans. but the helix [spiralled] is without fruit and has white branches and thin leaves. aeritis. but some say that if the anagallis which has the azure [blue] flower is applied it stops prolapse of the perineum.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK [Athenian] honey it mends argemae [small white ulcers on the cornea] and helps moisture of the eyes. masitipos. Vitis quadrangularis — Edible Stemmed Vine Cissus digitata — Wild Grape. sapana. meciato. halicacabus. The same amount (pounded into small pieces with waxy ointments) are good for burns. The juice from the leaves and berries with irinum [1-66]. Some call it punicea. It is good (taken as a drink with wine) for those bitten by vipers. for some is white. others. chelidonion. the Magi call it oculi sanguis. KISSOS SUGGESTED: Hedera nigra. and for dropsy. the Romans. others. the Romans. but it must be taken in a drink twice a day. The flowers (as much as one can take up of them with three fingers) taken in a drink of wine are good for dysentery. The common anagallis some call corchoros. asirrhizi. The head is moistened with this juice (with vinegar and rosaceum) [1-53]. aegitis. or sauritis. and with oil it cures sore. The tender leaves boiled with vinegar (or the raw ones pounded together with bread) heal the spleen.

and the Gauls. or asplenos. The clusters of berries (pounded fine and given as a pessary) induce the menstrual flow. CHELIDONION SUGGESTED: Chelidonium majus [Fuchs. The root cures jaundice. yet those of chelidonia are more tender. the Romans call it silvae mater. persis. The clusters of berries dye the hair black. chrysocarpos. hederula). bigger however than those of poppy. root and fruit are juiced when they emerge in summer. cemos. some. subites. cissaros. or cussion. and a saffron colour. Bauhin. The fruit is like horned poppy — slender. dionysia. (as we would say. The juice from the roots (taken as a drink with vinegar) helps those bitten by harvest spiders. somewhat a sky blue colour. and with a strong smell. The oozing of cissus removes hair [depilatory]. The leaves are similar to those of ranunculus. and also 352 C . and applied as poultices cure sunburn and very bad burns. The leaves. This juice is dried in the shade and made into little balls. taken in a drink with anisum [3-65] and white wine. The root is single at the upper end but divided lower down. long like a cone — in which are little seeds. Greater Celandine helidonia the greater sends out a slender stalk the height of a foot or more with branches full of leaves. It is also called cittaros. biting. a little bitter. The juice (dropped in) purges away the stinking smell in the nostrils and their rotten ulcers. A teaspoonful taken as a drink after womens’ cleansing hinders conception. warmed with rosaceum in a pomegranate skin) dropped into the opposite ear during toothache lessen the pain. poetica. and rubbed on it kills lice. (a sort of bacchicei). and by every leaf there is a flower like leucoion [3-138]. The juice of this (mixed with honey and boiled in a brass jar over coals) is good for sharpening the sight [eyes]. Five berries from a cluster of berries (pounded fine. corymbias. Linnaeus] — Swallow Wort.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY amount trouble the mind. The stalks of the leaves moistened with honey and put into the vulva expel the menstrual flow and are an abortifacient. hedera. The juice is a saffron colour — sharp. 2-211. The leaves (boiled as previously mentioned) are laid as a poultice on any sort of ulcer. ithutherion.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Isatis sativa from FUCHS — 1545 353 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Isatis sylvestris from FUCHS — 1545 354 .

OTHONNA SUGGESTED: Othonna — African Ragwort Othonna cheirifolia — Barbary Ragwort The plant of the ancients can have had little affinity with that of the moderns [Loudon]. or othonion. some say that it is the juice of the flowers of horned poppy. with leaves similar to cissus [2-210].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK applied with wine for herpes [viral skin infection]. yet much rounder. and some say that it is the juice of a certain primitive herb called othonna. Similarly a decoction of it gargled with honey powerfully purges the head. tender and somewhat fat. It seems to be called chelidonia because it springs out of the ground together with the swallows’ appearance and withers with them departing. It lessens toothache if chewed. the Romans call it fabium. It takes away parasitic skin diseases and scabbed nails. ulcerating to the outside of the skin. the Gauls. CHELIDONION MIKRON Scrofularia [Fuchs] Malacocissus minor [Brunfels]. The juiced roots are put into the nostrils with honey for purging the head. pandionis radix. It is also called paeonia. crataea. It is sharp like anemone. mothoth. and that it grows in the part of Arabia that 355 . the Egyptians. growing close together like wheat grains. hyoscyamus [4-69] and poppy. 2-212. and purges all things out of the chest. without a stalk (compact). It has many small roots from a single place. crustane. some of glaucium. Chelidonia rotundifolia minor [Bauhin]. C 2-213. helidonia minor (which some have called sylvestre triticum) is a little herb full of little feet. glaucios. philomedion. Some have related that if any of the swallows’ young ones is blind. but there are three or four which grow out long. some that it is a mixture of the juices of anagallis coerulea [2-209]. Ranunculus ficaria [Linnaeus] — Celadine SUGGESTED: Chelidonium minus. thona. and the Dacians. smaller. S ome say othonna is the juice of chelidonia major. the female parents bring this herb to heal it. It grows around waters and marshy places. aoubios.

Finally. small like those of anagallis [2-209]. Mouse Ear Myosotis alpestris — Myosotis. The root of this (applied) heals ulcers in the inner angle of the eye. anthyllion. Forget-me-not see 4-87 uris auriculae (also called myosotis) sends out many hollow stalks of a somewhat reddish colour (toward the lower end) from one root.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY lies towards Egypt. myortochon. or myrtosplenon. myoton. a blackish colour. Some also call it alsine. Some say that othonna is an Egyptian stone found in Thebais — the colour of brass. illfavoured or mouldy. MUOS OTON SUGGESTED: Alsine maior [Fuchs]. the herb is similar to scolopendrium [3-121] yet smoother and smaller. ending in a sharp point. M 356 . labatholabat. Chickweed. Some say that there is a certain kind of fluid that flows from the herb. they make into lozenges for the same use. the Romans call it muris auricula. Thinner little stalks grow out of the wings. which. as a result some think it to be a kind of anemone. Starwort [Mabberley] [other usage] Myosotis arvensis — Field Forget-me-not. two and two. small in size. Linnaeus]. Alsine media [Bauhin. it has a biting nature and removes all things that darken the pupils whatsoever. It has only a few leaves (like eruca [2-170]) full of holes as though they were wormeaten. washing and removing the stones from it. The root is the thickness of a finger with many hairy strings. growing up by distances. It is juiced and put into eye medicines for when there is need of cleansing the eyes. with a certain kind of burning and astringency. It bears a broad-petalled saffroncoloured flower. and the Africans. The leaves are somewhat long and narrow with the backbone of them standing out. 2-214. on which are little flowers of a skyblue colour. biting to the taste. Stellara media [in Sprague] — Stitchwort.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Anagallis mas from FUCHS — 1545 357 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Anagallis foemina from FUCHS — 1545 358 .

Dyer’s Weed cultivated. Isatis tinctoria var sativa [Linnaeus]. On the top hang many little pods similar to tongues in which is the seed. herpes [viral skin infection] and rotten ulcers. and slender somewhat reddish stalks with many slits. taken as a drink and also applied. and a thin flower of a yellowish colour. heal bloody wounds. and is also good for the splenetic. Glastum — Woad. It is also called egne parva. 2-216. and the Romans. It is similar in effectiveness to that spoken of before. Ash of Jerusalem. or egne. separated or distinguished in a way by five little leaves apiece and those equal. and it bears a stalk over two feet high and not only over one foot high. — Goodyer) I 359 . POISONOUS — fermented leaves produce indigo blue dye I satis sativa (which the dyers use) has a leaf like plantain but fatter and darker. in which are the seed. ruta. It is also called augion. Pastel. Isatis campestris — Field Woad satis sylvestris is similar to that mentioned above but it has bigger leaves nearly the size of those of lettuce. thicker stalk. (It is to be understood that these descriptions of isatis contain that which is erroneous. ISATIS EMEROS SUGGESTED: Isatis sativa [Fuchs]. sharp. a flower of a purple or azure [blue] colour and the fruit like a cross.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 2-215. a lower. Isatis tinctoria var vulgaris [Linnaeus]. the Magi call it arusium. ISATIS AGRIA SUGGESTED: Isatis sylvestris [Fuchs]. But the wild sort bears blacker leaves than this. and cure spreading ulcers. The leaves (applied) are able to dissolve any oedema or tumour. for the cultivated bears both a yellowish flower and more slender and much divided branches and little pods on the top. but there is contained in these a black seed similar to melanthium [3-93]. like tongues in which are the seeds. stop bleeding. the Romans call it ruta minor. and a stalk over two feet high.

Sedum telephium [Linnaeus]. but after they have dried they must be wiped off. Sedum purpureum. Sedum vulgare. but after this you must use barley meal. Livelong. and some call it portulaca sylvestris. Telephium Telephium imperati after FAGUET — 1888 purpurascens [Fuchs] Acetabulum alterum album. TELEPHION SUGGESTED: Telephium album. Chelidonium majus after FAGUET — 1888 360 . the flowers a yellowish or whitish colour. It grows in the springtime in vineyards and clay or shale places. the Egyptians. tough and fleshy. anoth. Rubbed on with vinegar in the sun they take away vitiligines [type of leprosy]. Telefio [Italian] — Orpine. Some call it sempervivum sylvestre. Acetabulum alterum purpureum [Brunfels]. The leaves applied for six hours cure white leprosy.HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY 2-217. Midsummer Men T elephium is similar to andrachne [2-150] both in the leaves and stalk. atirtopuris. the Romans call it illecebra. full of azure-coloured [blue] leaves — thick. and the Africans. with two wings sticking from every knot of the leaves. six or seven small branches from the root.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Tertia ranunculi lutei from FUCHS — 1545 361 .

HERBS WITH A SHARP QUALITY Ranunculi quarta from FUCHS — 1545 362 .

and falls from on high. AGARICON SUGGESTED: Fomes officinalis. indigestion. To those with tuberculosis of the lungs it is given with passum [raisin wine]. Boletus laricis. tasting sweet indeed at first. juices. and to the splenetic with vinegar and honey. but in this the third book we will set out an account of roots. Some of it is male and some female. Thirty grains (taken with water) stops the 363 .THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK BOOK THREE: ROOTS I n the previous books. but all thin. vegetables. Some say it is the root of a tree. most loving Areius. and sickly looks a teaspoonful is given. some that it grows in the stocks of trees that are rotten. For gastritis it is given as it is. Polyphorus igniarius. of lacrymae [resins]. after dissolving it grows bitter. It also grows in Galatia in Asia. good for griping. like mushrooms. and seeds — suitable both for common use and for medications. womb constriction. Ungulina officinalis — Agaric [other usage] Agaricus aurantiacus — Orange Mushroom Agaricus campestris — Common Mushroom A garicum is said to be a root similar to silphium [3-94]. chewed and swallowed down without moisture poured on it. we have talked of spices. of which the female excels. asthma. having straight veins within. herbs. grains. hernias. Boletus purgans. In a similar way it is given for acidic vomiting. Twenty grains is given with honeyed wine to those not feverish. but the male is round and grows the same on all sides. 3-1. trees and their fruits. and in Cilicia on the cedars but this is brittle and weak. jaundice. nephritis. As for the properties of it: it is astringent and warming. but it is given in honey and water to the feverish. ointments. dysentery. In taste both are the same. It grows in Agaria in the Sarmatian (country). oils. as well as living creatures. and herbs possessing sharpness. Polyphorus officinalis. dysuria. not thick on the outside like silphium. For liver ailments.

and thirty grains (taken as a drink with wine) helps the strikes and bites of snakes. somewhat light. but to the feverish give it with honey and water. Pie Rhubarb. convulsions. weakness of the stomach. flows of fevers. from where it is brought. similar to centaury the larger. It takes away bruises and 364 R . given before a fever fit. It is an antidote for poison taken with one teaspoonful of diluted wine. Finally. and the same weight is effectively given to women with a suffocated womb. yet smaller and redder within. rickets. It dissolves shivering. and is slimy to the taste with a weak astringency.BOOK THREE: ROOTS throwing-up of blood. all types of suffering. and epilepsy. afflictions around the womb. It is good (taken in a drink) for gaseousness. sciatica. and to others with vinegar and honey. but the best is not wormeaten. Chewed. spitting up blood. An equal amount (taken with vinegar and honey) is good for sore hips. given according to strength and age — to some with water. for tuberculosis with passum [raisin wine]. abdominal cavity afflictions. The root is outwardly black. loose. it is pale and somewhat similar to saffron in colour. It encourages the menstrual flow. griping and disorders of the bladder and chest. A teaspoonful or two (taken as a drink with honey and water) purges the bowels. spleen. dysentery. 3-2. You must give it as you do agaric [above] for every disorder — allowing the same amounts with liquids. It is without smell. sore joints. RA [Italian]. matters related to hypochondria [indigestion with nervous disorder]. liver ailments. using it with honeyed wine to those not feverish. to others with wine. or honey and water. it is good for all internal disorders. asthma. inflammation in the kidneys. Rheum officinale — Wild Rhubarb Rheum rhaponticum — Rhapontic. Garden Rhubarb the leaves are POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Rabarabo ha grows in places beyond the Bosporus. for gastritis chewed as it is and swallowed down (no moisture taken with it). to the splenetic with vinegar and honey. and bites from poisonous beasts.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Gentiana from FUCHS — 1545 365 .

BOOK THREE: ROOTS Chamaeleon albus from FUCHS — 1545 366 .

and it dissipates obstinate inflammations applied with water. Asterias lutea. The long root is similar to aristolochia [3-4. and with broad fruit in cups. smooth. The root — especially the juice — applied as a suppository. and (taken as a drink with pepper. boiled until it becomes like honey in consistency. It is juiced by being bruised and steeped in water for five days. a medicine for deep ulcers. The juice is mixed into the sharper sort of eye salves or suppositories in place of meconium [4-65].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK lichen [papular skin disease] rubbed on with vinegar. light. two feet high. like sphondylium [3-90]. The leaves are similar to carya [1-178] or plantain at the root. Gentiana lutea [Linnaeus]. When the water is cold it is strained through a linen cloth. others. or chironium. surrounded with leaves at bigger distances. 3-6] — longer. 367 . The root cleans vitiligines [form of leprosy]. 3-3. It is also called ria. thick and bitter. and stored in a ceramic jar. falls from heights. 3-5. but those on the middle stalk and especially those around the top are a little jagged. It grows on the highest peaks of mountains and in shady watery places. Sweertia lutea — Yellow Gentian most bitter plant material known G entiana seems indeed first to have been found by Gentius the king of the Illyrians from whom it took its surname. It is a wound herb applied like lycium [1-132]. The chief strength of it is astringency with some heating. A teaspoonful of extracted juice is good for disorders of the sides. cicendia. aloe gallica. somewhat reddish. is an abortifacient. the Romans. and convulsions. gentiana. and an ointment for inflamed eyes. GENTIANE SUGGESTED: Gentiana [Fuchs]. the Trojans call it aloitis. It is also called centaurea radix. rice and wine) it helps those bitten by venomous creatures. The stalk is empty. then afterwards boiled in the water until the roots appear on top. hernia. Two teaspoonfuls of the root are warming and astringent. divided by joints. or cyminalis. narce. It also helps liver ailments and gastritis taken as a drink with water. chaffed. the thickness of a finger. and it is also called reon. the Romans call it rha ponticum.

with leaves somewhat longer than the round aristolochia. Brunfels]. the white flowers are similar to little hats. These. slender. and the red (part) in them has a bad scent. Fumaria bulbosa [Bauhin. 4-98]. it has leaves similar to cissus — sweet smelling. ARISTOLOCHIA STROGGOLE SUGGESTED: Pistolochia [Fuchs]. Bauhin] — Round Aristoloch. become similar to a pear. but the root of the long kind is the thickness of a finger. with slender branches full of somewhat long leaves similar to the smaller sempervivum [4-89.BOOK THREE: ROOTS 3-4. with sharpness. with many shoots on one root. 4-90. Common Birthwort POISONOUS T 368 here is also a third long type which is called clematitis. Aristolochia longa [Fuchs. The ointment makers use them effectively for thickening . Aristolochia clematitis [Linnaeus. 3-6. The flowers are similar to rue [3-52. or teuxinon. and poisonous. The round type is called female. The roots are longer. withering. and the Romans call it herba aristolochia. Linnaeus]. and purple flowers with a bad scent. The root of the round aristolochia is like a turnip. bright yellow. being twenty centimetres long or more. slender branches of about twenty centimetres length. The branches are very long. Both of them are mostly of wood colour. Apple of Earth. Corydalis cava [in Sprague] — Fumitory A ristolochia is called this because it is thought to help women in childbirth exceedingly well. ARISTOLOCHIA MAKRA SUGGESTED: Aristolochia pistolochia — Birthwort POISONOUS T he long aristolochia is called male and dactylitis. with a thick bark and an aromatic smell. 3-5. tender. bitter to taste. somewhat round. 4-91]. ARISTOLOCHIA KLEMATITIS SUGGESTED: Aristolochia rotunda [Fuchs]. 3-53. It is also called melocarpum. in a terminal flattened inflorescence.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Aristolochia clematitis after HEYNS — 1888 369 .

BOOK THREE: ROOTS Aristolochia rotunda vulgaris from FUCHS — 1545 370 .

Moreover. dardanus. and takes off scales on bones. rocky places. 3-7. taken as a drink with water. chamaemelum. the size of the berries of the plane tree but sharper. the Sicilians. Taken in a drink with pepper and myrrh [1-77. the branches two feet high. or iontitis by some. It grows in mountainous or warm. only let the one with the fever inhale the smoke over coals and the fever will stop. the fruit. and the Dacians call it absinthium rusticum. it helps asthma. the Italians. with pods like lentil. Liquortia [Fuchs]. ephesia. chills. Applied. Applied. The flower is similar to hyacinth. similar to those of gentian. the Egyptians. It is thought that all clematitis is good for these things. the colour of wood. Liquortia officinalis — Liquorice Plant G lycyrrhiza grows abundantly in Cappadocia and Pontus. red and small. It is a little shrub. thick and clammy to the touch. rickets. level places or else in rough. lestitis. Yet this has less strength than those previously mentioned. It is called arariza. The roots are long. terrae malum. hernias. 4-116] it puts out all remaining bodily wastes and the menstrual flow. it heals wounds. 1-73. It also cleans gums and teeth. somewhat bitter and sweetish. and cleans foul ulcers and fills up their hollows. The Gauls call it theximon. the spleen. melecaprum. Glycyrrhiza laevis. With iris and honey it emarginates [removes the edge of] rotten ulcers. and pains of the side. GLUKORIZA SUGGESTED: Glycyrrhiza. and the round is effective for the things we have mentioned. it extracts splinters and prickles. pyxionyx. convulsions. It is good for a serious fever. With the seed of dracunculus [2-196b] and honey it helps malignancies in the nostrils. One teaspoonful of the round one (taken in a drink with wine. (Crateuas the Herbalist and Gallus have said the same and that it is good for the gouty). and is an abortifacient. Boiled with oil or swine grease and rubbed on it cures chills. around which the leaves grow thickly like lentiscum [1-90]. but the long one is given for poisons of snakes and deadly poisons. Glycyrrhiza glabra [Linnaeus]. and also applied) is indeed good for poisons. Applied in a pessary it does the same.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK ointments. sophoeth. They are 371 .

sharp. and chewed. scythion. The flowers are azure [blue]. glyceraton. 3-8. When dry it is first steeped and then pounded. and the Latins call it dulcis radix. homoenomoea. For the feverish. Centaurea cyanus [Linnaeus] — Bachelor’s Button SUGGESTED: Cyanus. symphyton. and bladder or kidney disorders. glycyphyton. pounded into small pieces with water. The juice does the same things. A decoction of the new roots is good for the same things. adipson. inclining to red. The root is good with wine for hernia. Cyanus segetum [Bauhin]. Arcadia. It loves a rich soil open to the sun. Cyanus sylvestris [Brunfels].BOOK THREE: ROOTS juiced like lycium [1-132]. Pholoe. parasitic skin diseases. shaved into the form of a suppository and applied to the vulva. It draws together. The dry root pounded into small pieces is fit for sprinkling on pterygium [membrane on eye]. it heals wounds. sound. it is good for wounds. difficulty with breathing. woods and hillocks. Peloponesse. libthestaso. the circumference of them cut-in like a saw. full of juice. 372 . convulsions. Lycia. It is also called pontica. Messenia. heavy. leontica. disorders in the chest and liver. It is abundant in Lycia. 4-190] (laid as it were) in downy flowers. The root is thick. old coughs. It is good similarly for burning of the stomach. and around Smyrna. it is good for the stomach. This juice is good for sharpness of the arteries but it must be put under the tongue to let it melt. about two feet long. with a certain astringency and sweetness. or peenthaomoeos. Helis. Taken with a drink of passum [raisin wine] and melted in the mouth it quenches thirst. Rubbed on. green in colour (like those of brassica). On top are heads like poppy somewhat large in circumference. and the seed similar to cnicus [4-119. KENTAURION MAKRON [Fuchs]. Flos frumentorum C Centaurea cyanus after WINKLER — 1891 entaury the great has leaves similar to the carya [1-178]. somewhat long. Pounded whilst moist. two teaspoonfuls of the root is given. It expels the menstrual flow and is an abortifacient. It has a of stalk two or three feet high like lapathum [2-140] with many shoots from the root. sylithra. pleurisy. bloodspitters and those without fevers. Similarly it is given for griping and sores of the vulva.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Spina incognita from FUCHS — 1545 373 .

BOOK THREE: ROOTS Aristolochia longa from FUCHS — 1545 374 .

chironias or limnestis. 3-9. Earthgall. marone. Centaurea verutum Erythraea centaurium. afterwards it is boiled until it floats above the water. They mix it with T Centaureum minus from FUCHS — 1545 375 . uvifera. first it is gathered when full of seed and steeped in water for five days. Feverwort. moving it continuously with a stick. Centaurium erythraea — Lesser Centaury. Gentiana centaurium [Linnaeus]. In a pessary it extracts the menstrual flow and is an abortifacient. The juice is good for eye medicines with honey. the root small. In Lycia they juice it and use it like lycium [1-132]. and purges old ulcers and brings them to a scar. The leaves are small. 4-98]. limnesion. and boiled again to the consistency of honey. drawing out blood and easing pain. miserable and smooth. if you pound it and boil it. when everything is at its peak. Taken as a drink it is equally good for disorders of the strength. They stir it about in the sun. Dwarf Centaury SUGGESTED: Centaurium he little centaury is a herb similar to hypericum [3-171] or origanum. Boiled and swallowed down. and joins together flesh that is pale and flaccid. a faint Phoenician [reddish] purple. Afterwards the cooled herb is pressed and strained through a linen cloth. cleaning away things that darken the pupils. urinary]. Pounded while still green and applied it seals wounds. Common Centaury. and helps those with stones [kidney. the Romans call it ferum. Used in suppositories it soothes slow and painful urination. with a stalk over twenty centimetres high that has corners. KENTAURION MIKRON minus [Fuchs. The seed is similar to wheat. the Magi call it blood of Hercules. Some beat it (green and full of seed) then press out the juice and throw it into an unglazed ceramic jar. or fel terrae. very long. Centaury. The herb is juiced. It is also called narce. in a clear season.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK heals. It is gathered when the sun is about to rise. Bauhin]. it expels bile and thick fluids through the bowels. like rue [3-52. pelethronion. It is called panacea [heal-all] because it soothes all sores from inflammation and strong blows. A decoction of it is a fit suppository for sciatica. Chironia centaurium. 3-115]. The flowers are similar to those of lychnis [3-114. and repeatedly scraping away pieces that hang out. 3-53.

hypocistis [1-127] and herbs similar to these are boiled and stirred around as previously mentioned. tulbela. Gather the herb in the spring at sunrise. febrifuga. unripe grapes. roots. for dew prevents the thickening of moist juices. and similar things. Juices pressed out of moist barks. and it is also called limnaion because it loves moist places. helps women troubled with motherhood [pregnancy]. helleborites. painful urination and [urinary] stones.BOOK THREE: ROOTS moist juice and cover it carefully at night. Centaury is good for inflammation and bruises from strikes. wormwood [3-26]. Many of the dry roots or herbs that are juiced are prepared by boiling (like gentian). the Romans. Lycium [1-132]. the Magi call it the blood of Hercules. the Dacians. or amaranton. mandragora [mandrake]. Carlina acaulis from ENGLER-PRANTL— 1897 376 . and eases the pain of slow. some. Centaury is also called limnesion. herba multiradix. or herbs are stirred around in the sun (as previously mentioned) — including thapsia [4-157].

or ixia.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-10. It does not have a stalk but out of the middle puts out a prickle similar to that of the sea urchin or cinara. For dropsy a teaspoonful is given with wine to ease them. Brunfels]. It is taken in hard wine with a decoction of origanum. swine. The flowers are a purple colour. The root is thick in fertile hills but in the mountains it is more slender. with a strong sweet taste. the Egyptians. CHAMAILEON LEUKOS SUGGESTED: Chamaeleon albus [Fuchs. Carlina acaulis [Linnaeus] — Stemless Carline Thistle [other usage] Carlina gummifera. the Romans call it carduus nutans varius. sharper. 377 . and mice. A decoction is taken in a drink for frequent painful urination. with seed similar to cnicus [4-119. 4-190]. like hairs. and stronger than the black chamaeleon [below]. white at the bottom. It has leaves similar to silybum [4-159] or carduus nutans [musk thistle] but rougher. epthosephim. Atractylis gummifera — White Chamoeleon W hite chamaeleon is called ixia because in some places viscous matter is found at the roots of it which women use instead of mastic [1-89. It is also called chrysisceptrum. Carlina caulescens [Bauhin]. epher. and some. Taken as a drink with wine it is an antidote to poison. flying away in down. Kneaded with polenta then diluted with water and oil it kills dogs. An acetabulum [vinegar cruet] of this (taken in a drink) expels broadworms. 1-90]. somewhat aromatic.

or red. Wrapped in same amount of pepper and wax it helps pained teeth. and is biting when chewed. vernilago. It has a long root — light. CHAMAILEON MELAS Spina incognita [Fuchs]. somewhat red. ulophonum. Conveyed warm through a quill [straw] it breaks a sore tooth. is mixed with ripening medicines. Echinops sphaerocephalus [Linnaeus] — Globe Thistle [other usage] Cardopatium corymbosum. some. B lack chamaeleon has leaves similar to scolymus hispanicus. It is also called pancarpon. heals spreading wild ulcers. similar to hyacinth. or cynoxylon. and used to remove parasitic skin diseases. pale. 3-12. sobel. cnidium coccum. often green. black. the Latins call it carduus nutans niger. azure-coloured [blue]. It is called chamaeleon because of the various colours of the leaves. destroying them.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-11. with a tuft and prickly flowers — small. Teeth are preserved if it is boiled with vinegar and poured on them. variously-coloured. It grows in dry rocky grounds and places bordering the sea. Carthamus corymbosum. thinner and distinguished with red. yet they are smaller. It sends out a stalk the thickness of a finger. When cut it is a pale yellow. The root (pounded into small pieces) is mixed with a little cobblers' ink. cedar oil and swines’ grease. cynomachon. The root is thick. and a decoction of it soothes toothache. Centaurea crocodylium — Blush-flowered Centaury C 378 rocodilium is similar to black chamaeleon [above] but it grows in woody places. differing according to the place. KROKODEILION SUGGESTED: Carthamus lanatus. compact and sometimes eaten-into. It cleans away vitiligines [form of leprosy] and sunburn. ocimoides. and applied. For these vary. ixia. It is used as a mouthwash. . twenty centimetres high. boiled with vinegar and rubbed on (with the addition of sulphur and bitumen). Brotera corymbosa — Black Chamoeleon SUGGESTED: Chamaeleon niger. and the Egyptians. Carduus sphaerocephalus [Bauhin]. It cleans away lichen [papular skin disease].

The medicine must be stored in a brass box. or meleta. tall and prickly. Dipsacus sativus [Bauhin]. some call it the bath of Venus. DIPSAKON SUGGESTED: Dipsacus albus. the thistle of Venus. having (as it were) some prickly bladders on the middle of the back both within and without. chamaeleon. some. sciare. On the top of the stalk at every shoot there is one head similar to a hedgehog. 3-13. The root of this (boiled with wine and pounded until the thickness of a wax ointment) is put in to heal cracks and fistulas in the perineum. They say that it is a cure for protruding and hanging warts. Dried it turns white. chir.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK somewhat broad. Cardo fullonum. The worms from the heads (bound up in a purse and hanged around the neck or the arm) are said to cure those who have fevers with recurrent paroxysms. and the Dacians. Carduus fullonius [Fuchs]. Draper's Teazle Dipsacus sylvestris — Wild Teazle. two at every knot. Barber's Brushes ipsacus is also a prickly plant. The root warmed in water and taken as a drink is able to drive out quantities blood through the nostrils. and hollow places around the two (joining) parts of the leaves so that it gathers water from the dew and showers (which is how it got its name). with a sharp smell. but the head (divided) has small worms around the middle of the pith. The seed of it (round and double like a buckler [shield]) is diuretic. seseneor. Dipsacus fullonum — Fullers’ Teazle. It is also called crocodilium. the Egyptians. Shepherd's Rod. or onocardium. somewhat long and prickly. It has a high stalk full of prickles. D 379 . the Romans call it the lip of Venus. some. like nasturtium [2-185]. It is given to the splenetic evidently helping them. with leaves enclosing the stalk similar to lettuce.

the thickness of the great finger or rather more. The root (taken in a drink) is good for bloodspitters. and the Romans call it spina regia. while the Romans call it spina.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-14. and a decoction of this as a mouth rinse is good for toothache. It grows in rough places. 4-190] but rounder. or erysisceptron. The flowers are purple. It has leaves similar to white chamaeleon [3-10] but narrower. or carduus. gastritis. but smaller and somewhat long. and those bitten by snakes. donacitis. and it encourages urine. Scotch Thistle SUGGESTED: Spina alba sylvestris A cantha leuke grows on mountains and in woody places. They say that worn as an amulet (by itself) it drives away poisonous creatures. Onopordium acanthum [Linnaeus] — Cotton Thistle. It is also called wild cinara. AKANTHA LEUKE [Fuchs]. On the top of it there is a prickly head similar to a sea urchin. It is laid on oedema. It is also called acanthisa. and the abdominal cavity. the throwing-up of blood and other discharges — the root being similarly effective. The stalk is over two feet (high). in which is the seed like that of cnicus [4-119. empty within. The seed (taken in a drink) helps convulsed children. 3-15. 380 . good for excessive [menstrual] discharges of women. whiter. AKANTHA ARABIKE SUGGESTED: Acanthus spinosus — Oyster Plant A cantha arabica seems similar in nature to the white thistle — astringent. somewhat rough and prickly. a pale white.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Glycyrrhiza glabra after FAGUET — 1888 381 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Centaurea benedicta after THIEBAULT — 1880 382 .

The whole shrub is surrounded with a thin woolly down and is prickly. similar to tragacanth — the leaves little.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-16. Sanguisorba minor — Salad Burnet Astragalus poterium. The roots are underneath. thin. and the thorn is called white but is darker and thicker. or pyracantha. colymus hispanicus has leaves like chamaeleon [3-10. It grows in sandy and hilly countries. SKOLUMOS Articocalus [Fuchs]. or andidotum. two or three feet long. When cut close to the ground they send out a fluid similar to gum. Astragalus arnacantha — Small Goat’s Thorn SUGGESTED: Poterium oterium is a large shrub with long branches — soft. The root lies underneath — black. thick. 3-11]. It is also called phrynion. the flowers are small and white. the Romans call it strobylus. chnus. strong and sinewy. round. The new growth of the herb boiled like asparagus is eaten instead of a vegetable. The roots (cut and smeared on) heal cut-apart sinews and wounds. and taken as a drink as it draws out much stinking urine. Cynara scolymus [Linnaeus] — Artichoke [other usage] Spotted Golden Thistle — Scolymus maculatus Golden Thistle. The seed (to one who tastes it) has a sweet scent and is sharp with no use. Cinara. Cinara hortensis [Bauhin]. It is also called ferula. and a decoction of it (taken as a drink) is good for disorders of the strength. Spanish Oyster Plant — Scolymus hispanicus SUGGESTED: Scolymus. It puts out a long stalk full of leaves on which is a prickly head. and the Ionians call it neurada. S Carduus scolymus after FAGUET — 1880 3-17. and the Egyptians. flexible like a bridle. its strength good for those with a bad smell in the armpits and the rest of the body [body odour] applied or boiled in wine. POTERION officinale — Great Burnet Poterium sanguisorba. P 383 .

They are good for tuberculosis of the lungs. similar to carduus nutans [musk thistle] — prickly. T 384 . The roots underneath are viscous. somewhat long. yellowish. 3-19. The roots and leaves of this (taken as a drink) help one troubled with a painfully stiff neck. pasderota. divided like those of eruca [2-170]. Acanthus mollis after FAGUET — 1888 cantha or herpacantha grows in gardens and moist rocky places. Acanthus mollis [Bauhin. Taken in a drink they encourage urine and stop discharges of the bowels. — Bears Breeches Bears Breeches — Acanthus spinosus. [Fuchs]. shorter than the garden variety that is cultivated. Applied. acanthus topiaria.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-18. AKANTHION UNKNOWN A canthium has leaves similar to the white thorn [above] with prickly abnormal growths. A 3-20. Acanthus spinosus. From these the white seed grows out. It has far broader. The root of this affects as many things as the previous one. longer leaves than lettuce. they are good for burns and dislocations. This is gathered and made into one (or spun). or craepula. and on top there is down similar to a spiders web. somewhat dark. thick and smooth. surrounded all around by distances with certain longish little leaves (similar to little hives) of a hyacinth colour. mamolaria. reddish and long. the thickness of a finger towards the top. Linnaeus]. and convulsions. It is also called melamphyllon. with a head similar to a thyrsus [wand]. hernia. AKANTHA ERPEKANTHA SUGGESTED: Acantha vera. There is also a wild acantha. Acanthus sativus. It has a smooth stalk two feet high. and is similar to silk. AKANTHA AGRIA SUGGESTED: Acanthus spinosissimus — White-spined Akantha he Romans call acantha sylvestris by the name of spina agrestis. mouldy.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Carthamus tinctorius after THIEBAULT — 1880 385 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Dipsacus purpureus from FUCHS — 1545 386 .

many round little heads. It is preserved in brine before the prickles emerge. similar to those of rue [3-52. and it is very pleasant. The branches have sharp strong prickles that are similar to arrowheads. Three cups of a decoction (taken as a drink with wine) helps lung congestion that has lasted long. 3-22. From this low strong 387 . The bark of this (taken in a drink with wine) removes skin. sciatica. It is also called polygonatum. and convulsions. and the Thuscans. Leucanthemum. The juice from the root (taken as a drink) does the same. It is shrubby. 3-23. others call it ischias. the Romans call it gniacardus. It grows in meadows and is somewhat rough and sweet smelling. Resta bovis. Remora aratri [Fuchs]. thin like the lentil. Boiled in posca [hot drinks] and used as a mouth rinse it soothes toothache. Goat’s Thorn T ragacantha has a root that is broad and woody appearing above the earth. or phyllon. Dog Daisy L eucacantha has a root that is similar to cyprus [1-124] — bitter and strong — which is chewed to lessen toothache. and emarginates [removes the edge of] the scurf of ulcers. not smelling unseemly. 4-98] or lotus. ANONIS SUGGESTED: Anonis. and small little leaves. Anonis spinosa [Bauhin]. full of joints with hollow wings. hernia. [Bedevian] — Ox-eye Daisy. Ononis spinosa [Linnaeus] — Spiny Restharrow A nonis (also called ononis) has branches twenty centimetres long or more. and a decoction of this (taken as a drink) is thought to cure haemorrhoids. 3-53.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-21. TRAGAKANTHE SUGGESTED: Astragalus tragacantha — Gum Tragacanth Plant. White Weed. LEUKAKANTHA SUGGESTED: Chrysanthemum leucacanthemum. breaks up urinary stones. alba spina. There is a white root that is warming and reduces the intensity of symptoms.

slender. spreading out. and as an antidote for those who have taken a deadly drink. broad. hermium. caryon. on the tops of which are little round heads surrounded with very sharp prickles like a star. It is able like [other] gums to close the pores. ERUNGION SUGGESTED: Eryngium. and aromatic to the taste. pale. It is also called erynge. Field Eryngo. the Romans. It is able to warm. Hart’s horn that has been burned and washed (or a little allom scissile [5-123]) is also mixed with it.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS branches emerge. It melts when put under the tongue. They are broad and rough in the circumference. and somewhat sweet. black on the outside and white within. The new leaves are stored in brine and eaten as vegetables. eryneris. It is sweet smelling and aromatic. It is good with wine for liver complaints. Growing bigger they become prickly at the furthest points of the stalks. smooth. It is used for eye medicines. The root is long. strong. Iringus [Fuchs]. siserti. There is also a tragacanth gum adhering to the root when it is cut. coughs. On them are many small thin leaves with prickles between hidden in the leaves — white. hard all around. or sometimes azure [blue]. origanum chlunium. the Magi. white. myracanthum. Taken as a drink it dissolves griping and gaseousness. Eryngium campestre [Linnaeus] — Common Eryngo. The Egyptians call it crobysus. Eryngium vulgare [Bauhin]. It is said that used as a personal ornament or rubbed on someone it dissolves tubercles [growths]. and for dripping fluids in a linctus [syrup] with honey. A teaspoonful steeped in passum [raisin wine] is taken as a drink for pain of the kidneys and erosion of the bladder. or moly. clean. The root (taken as a drink with honey water) cures tetanus and epilepsy. and grows in fields and rough places. Eryngium E ryngium is one of the prickly plants. roughness of the arteries. those bitten by venomous creatures. gorginium. 3-24. capitulum 388 . It is taken in a drink for the most part with one teaspoonful of pastinaca [3-59] seed. upright. the thickness of a big finger or thumb. The colour can be green. and expels urine and the menstrual flow. The best is transparent.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Eryngij from FUCHS — 1545 389 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Acanthus vera from FUCHS — 1545 390 .

some. like liver. That which is black and hard to break. or herba montana. glittering. This amount with thirty grains weight of water (or one teaspoonful of a drink) stops the spitting of blood and cleans jaundice. and excels in bitterness. and the extracted juice is brought from there. but three teaspoonfuls fully purges. sicupnoex. Aloe vulgaris [Bauhin]. and heals the broken foreskin of boys.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK cardui. It is astringent. dries. the bitterness. refuse. loosens the intestines. ALOE SUGGESTED: Aloe [Fuchs]. Mixed with sweet wine it cures the joints and cracks in 391 . brittle. fat. thin prickles along the sides. ciotocapeta. It has only one root like a stake. It grows abundantly and thickly in India. one of which seems to have the purest substance. cherdan. It sends out a stalk similar to anthericum [3-122]. and brings boils to a scar and represses them. Asia and certain seabordering places and islands as in Andros. yellowish. and because it does not fall into pieces (as much as the smallest crumb) squeezed in the fingers. Mixed with other purging medicines it makes them less hurtful to the stomach. with short. All of it has a strong scent and is very bitter to the taste. Aloe vera [Linnaeus] — Aloe A loe has a leaf almost like squill — thick. Swallowed with rosin (or taken either with water or boiled honey) it loosens the bowels. unstony. Sprinkled on dry it heals wounds. 3-25. They counterfeit it with gum — which is noticed by the taste. Some mix acacia with it. two spoonfuls taken in a drink with cold water or warm milk. It effectively heals ulcerated genitals. thickens bodies. and some. carterae. the Spaniards. the other similar to liver. easily melted. pounded into small pieces and applied. the Dacians. sores and wounds. There is a thick kind of juice that is grainy. the strength of the smell. but suitable for closing open cuts. This type is not good for extracting juice. has a white flower. broken or bow-backed behind. and cleans the stomach. chida. the Africans. procures sleep. It also grows in Arabia. and seed similar to asphodelus [2-199]. Choose the pure that is undeceitful. somewhat broad near the stem.

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS the perineum. It is urinary. turned continuously until it is roasted evenly. It is an antidote given with wine for (the poison) of ixia [3-103] and hemlock. It is warming. the bites of the shrewmouse. The vapour of a decoction is used for earache and toothache. a painful stomach. With wine it stops the hair falling off [alopecia]. It soothes rough skin. also for dullness of sight [eyes] and pus-filled ears. and bites of the sea dragon [2-15]. and the Barbarians. rubbed with vinegar and rosaceum [1-53] on the forehead and the temples. the Romans call it aloa. It is also applied to hypochondria [nervous gastric disorder]. and takes away bruises and low blood pressure with honey. It is used for bruises with honey. aloe. itchiness of the eye corners. and the best grows in Pontus and Cappadocia on the mountain called Taurus. the liver. and with water for pustules that appear at night. It stops discharges of blood from haemorrhoids. 3-26. the sandy part separated as useless. eryngium. and keeps one from overindulging taken as a drink beforehand. brings pterygium [membrane on eye] to a scar. Artemisia absinthium [Linnaeus] — Wormwood NARCOTIC SUGGESTED: Absinthium bsinthium (also called bathypicron) is a well-known herb. Taken as a drink and applied with honey it expels the menstrual flow. It is roasted for eye medicines in a clean. and with honey and wine it is good for the tonsils. It is also called amphibion. 392 A . or tragoceros. Seriphium absinthium [in Sprague]. astringent and digestive. and takes away bilious matter sticking in the stomach and bowels. and headaches. It is good with vinegar for constrictions from [eating] mushrooms. Three cups of a dilution or decoction of it (taken every day) heals lack of appetite and jaundice. It is then washed. It is good (taken as a drink with seseli [3-60 to 3-62] or celtic nardus [1-7]) for gaseousness and pains in the intestines and stomach. red-hot ceramic jar. APSINTHION vulgare [Fuchs]. as well as the gums and all sores in the mouth. With honey and saltpetre [potassium nitrate] it is an ointment for a synanchic [abscessed] throat. Boiled with passum [raisin wine] it is a plaster for very painful eyes. herminum. and the most fat and smooth taken.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Anonis from FUCHS — 1545 393 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Hysopus hortensis from FUCHS — 1545 394 .

We do not allow it in liquid medicines as it is bad for the stomach and causes headaches. Some counterfeit the juice with boiled amurca [sediment of buckthorn oil]. It is also called sandonion. The Isiaci use it instead of an olive branch. It is good for dropsy and the spleen mixed with figs. and the Romans. It seems that the juice does the same work. somewhat bitter. They drink to each other with it in the summer thinking it to cause health. and boiled by itself (or with rice) and taken with honey it kills ascaridae [threadworms] and roundworms. Ink for writing that is made by steeping it keeps writings from being eaten by mice. loosening the bowels gently. 395 . Artemisia pauciflora — Sea Wormwood. It seems that placed in chests it keeps the garments uneaten [by moths]. Rubbed on with oil it forbids the mosquitos to touch the body [insect repellant]. Egypt. Cattle grow very fat feeding on it [fodder]. but for the stomach mix it with rosaceum [1-53]. The Egyptians call it somi. APSINTHION THALASSION SUGGESTED: Artemisia maritima.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK and [those] who have suffered long pounded together with Cyprian [possibly rose] wax ointment. the Romans call it santonicum. Garden Cypress. and with a strong smell. The herb has thin branches similar to the small abrotanum [3-29] with abundant little seeds. It is astringent with some heating. saltpetre [potassium nitrate] and meal of lolium [2-116. 4-140]. which they use in the absence of fever for the purposes previously mentioned. or seriphum. absinthium rusticum. It does the same things with sapa [new wine syrup] or boiled together with lentils. 3-27. bad for the stomach. Especially around Propontis and Thrace a wine is made from it which is called absinthe. Sea Artemisia A bsinthium marinum (also called seriphion) grows abundantly in the Taurus Mountains around Cappadocia and in Taphosiris.

This seems to be the Sicilian. Absinthium ponticum [Bauhin]. somewhat bitter. Taken in a drink of wine it helps those who are bitten. 3-29. eyes] pounded into small pieces and boiled with barley meal. Taken in a drink of wine it is an antidote for deadly poisons. with a sweet smell. It is also called abutonon. absinthium. giving it this surname from its growing in the country of Sardonis. hernia. and taken in a drink of water) helps difficult breathing. cholopoeon. It dissolves pannus [opaque thickening of cornea with veins. thelyphthorion. It grows abundantly in Cappadocia. ABROTONON SUGGESTED: Abrotonum foemina [Fuchs]. With oil it is an ointment for those who have chills. and the stoppage of the menstrual flow. which they call by the place’s name — santonicum. It is particularly good for the strikes of the harvest spider and scorpions. and some strength. somewhat white. not as seedy. It drives away snakes scattered under [foot] or inhaled as smoke. Abrotanum mas [Linnaeus]. It helps inflammation of the eyes applied with boiled quince or with bread. bitter in taste. APSINTHION TRITON SANTONION — Holy Wormwood Artemisia glacialis — Silky Wormwood. Artemisia abrotanum — Southernwood he female abrotanum is a tree-like shrub. the leaves with little in-cuts (like those of seriphium) around the branches. The other (called male) is full of sprigs. boiled. convulsions. with a golden corymbus [flat or slightly convex inflorescence] on the top. heraclion. sciatica. and Hierapolis in Syria. Glacier Wormwood SUGGESTED: Artemisia santonicum T here is a third kind of wormwood that grows abundantly in Galatia (or rather Gallia) near the Alps. and able to do the same things as the Seriphian [3-27]. It is also mixed in the composition of oil irinum [1-66]. It is similar to wormwood. 396 T . and Galatia in Asia. The seed of these (pounded raw. Artemisia pontica. with slender seeds like wormwood. full of flowers that display in the summer. difficult painful urination.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-28.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Aloe umbellata after FAGUET — 1888 397 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Pulegium foemina from FUCHS — 1545 398 .

internal coughs. the other grown in gardens. Boiled with figs. sharp to the taste. but longer-leaved. 4-98]. Lavandula stoechas — French Lavender. which is how it got its name. The smoke being inhaled. It causes a good colour.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK absinthiomenon. it is also called later or cassiala. Applied with warm water it dissolves bruises. or irio [irinum? 1-66]. It is a herb with slender twigs and filaments similar to thyme. asthma. The Magi call it nervi palmae. Spanish Lavender S toechas grows in the Islands of Galatia near Messalia called the Stoechades. Licked with honey it does the same. and the Egyptians call it pesalem. H 3-31. mucus. Stoechas purpurea [Bauhin]. or procampylon. and dulcis cubitus. but with wine for inflammation. A decoction (taken as a drink with vinegar and honey) expels thick fluids through the bowels. and kills worms. some. USSOPOS hortensis [Fuchs] Hyssopus officinalis [Linnaeus] — Hyssop Origanum syriacum —Hyssop of the Bible [Mabberley] SUGGESTED: Hyssopus yssopus (a well-known herb) is of two sorts — one mountainous. Stichas arabica [Fuchs]. absinthium ponticum. The best grows in Cilicia. and it is also called femineus frutex. and orthopnoea [type of asthma]. water. It is eaten with green figs (pounded into small pieces) for emptying the intestines. iris. 3-53. it dissolves windiness around the ears. and Lavandula stoechas after WINKLER — 1891 399 . 3-30. cynanchites and the Romans. and taken as a drink it helps pneumonia. It is able to reduce the intensity of symptoms and warms. STOICHAS SUGGESTED: Stichas. With a decoction of figs it is an excellent gargle for a synanchic [abscessed] throat. honey and rue [3-52. Boiled with vinegar and used as a lotion it soothes toothache. The Latins call it hyssopum. but it purges more forcibly mixed with cardamom. It is daubed on with figs and saltpetre [potassium nitrate] for the spleen and dropsy.

With milk it also soothes earache. and on the tops of the sprigs. It is warming. and has seed like berries hanging together. It can do the same things as the Heracleotic [3-32]. the Egyptians call it suphlo. all of them being sunned in the burning heat under the dog [in summer] in a brass copper jar for forty days. and apthae [aptha — infant thrush or candidiasis]. the Magi. Dropped in with oil irinum [1-66] it purges through the nostrils. The herb scattered under[foot] expels snakes. and dropsy it is eaten with a fig. It is dried and the amount of an acetabulum [vinegar cruet] taken in a drink with honey and water to expel black (fluids) through the bowels. . A decoction of it in a bath is good for prurigo [chronic itching]. psoriasis and jaundice. hernia. ORIGANOS ONITIS SUGGESTED: Origanum onitis — Pot Marjoram T 400 hat which is called onitis is paler in the leaves. schiolebina. Licked in with honey it induces the menstrual flow and cures coughs. and a tuft not of a round shape but (as it were) divided. The juice of the green herb cures tonsils. oculus pythonis. A vomitory medicine is made from it with onions and rhus [1-147]. the Romans. ORIGANOS ERAKLEOTIKE SUGGESTED: Origanum heracleoticum [Loudon] — Winter-sweet Marjoram O riganum heracleoticum (also called conila) has a leaf similar to hyssop [3-30]. It is given as an antidote with passum [raisin wine] for those who have taken a drink of hemlock or meconium [4-65]. For convulsions. It is also called syncliopa. [inflammation of the] uvula. not thick. the seed.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS somewhat bitter. A decoction of it (like hyssop [3-30]) is good for disorders in the chest. resembles hyssop [3-30] more. as a result a decoction of it (taken as a drink with wine) is good for those bitten by poisonous beasts. pancration or styphonia. alcibiades. It is useful mixed with antidotes. 3-33. 3-32. Yet it is not altogether as effective. and with vinegar and honey for those who have taken a drink of gypsum or ephemerum [4-85].

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Calaminthae genus from FUCHS — 1545 401 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Calaminthae tertium genus from FUCHS — 1545 402 .

TRAGORIGANOS. and are given as linctuses [syrups] with honey for coughs and pneumonia. Candian Savory T ragoriganum is a little shrub similar to origanum or wild serpyllum [3-46] in its leaves and small branches. Smyrna. The leaves and flowers (taken in a drink with wine) effectively help those bitten by snakes. others call it cunila. Some is found that is more prosperous and broaderleaved. The flowers are white. It dissolves oedema applied with polenta. It is also called panaces heraclion. for gastric [disorders]. unsavoury belchers. and are given as an antidote with wine for those who have taken a drink of ixia [3-103]. ineffective. the root thin. and Crete. 3-35. depending on the location. The best is the Cilician and those in Co. gluey enough. Thymus tragoriganum. urinary. and those who have seasickness. nausea and heartburn. Chios. Origanum vulgare [Fuchs]. as well as nicander colophonius. Organy O riganum sylvestre has leaves similar to origanum. Another (which is also called prasium) has small shoots and thin leaves. as a result it is given to the squeamish. TRAGORIGANOS ALLOS SUGGESTED: Satureia thymbra. Thymus graveolens. but the thin stems are twenty centimetres high.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-34. Origanum vulgare [Linnaeus] — Wild Marjoram. All are warming. They expel the menstrual flow. Micromeria thymbra — Savory of Crete. on which are tufts similar to dill. Taken in a drink with vinegar they are effective for the spleen. A liquid medicine of it is mild. 403 . and good for the intestines (in a decoction taken as a drink) for they drive down depression. AGRIORIGANOS SUGGESTED: Origanum sylvestre.

It draws out depressive matter through the intestines. and some. similar to pulegium [3-36]. Pulegium vulgare. with a kind of woolly adherence. Rubbed on with polenta it soothes all inflammation. Pulegium latifolium [Bauhin]. and inversions of the womb. Applied with vinegar to the nostrils it restores those who faint. Glechon [Latin] — Pennyroyal. Dictamnus fraxinella — White Dittany. DIKTAMNON SUGGESTED: Dictamnus albus. It is also called blechron. but it bears neither flower nor seed. GLECHON SUGGESTED: Pulegium [Fuchs]. and taken as a drink with wine it helps those bitten by snakes. With waxy ointments it extinguishes varos [smallpox pustules]. Amaracus dictamnus — Dittany of Crete D 404 ictamnus is a Cretian herb — sharp. apoleium. it expels dead embryos. hardness. gallisopsis. Pulegium foemina [Brunfels]. Dictamnus creticus. Fraxinella Origanum dictamnus. It is also good for the spleen applied with salt. and it is good as a bath for gaseousness. G 3-37. Mentha pulegium [Linnaeus]. the Africans. the Gauls. downy. Candle Plant. It does all the things that the cultivated pulegium does but much more forcibly. and is an abortifacient. or arsenicanthon. Taken as a drink it expels the menstrual flow and the afterbirth. By itself it is good for gout (applied) until redness appears. It is also called blechon because when cattle taste it at its flowering time they are filled with bleating. Taken as a drink with salt and honey it brings up stuff out of the lungs and helps the convulsed. Pudding Grass lechium (a well-known herb) reduces the intensity of symptoms and is warming and digestive. It has bigger leaves. A decoction soothes itching washed on. for not only taken as a drink but also applied and inhaled as smoke. smooth. Taken as a drink with posca [hot drinks] it soothes nausea and gnawing of the stomach.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-36. albolon. the Romans call it polium. Gas Plant. They say that goats in Crete having fed on . it strengthens the gums. Pounded dry and burnt.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Amaracus from FUCHS — 1545 405 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Calaminthae alterum genus from FUCHS — 1545 406 .

It does the same things as dictamnus. The herb is applied to cure prickles under the feet. for it lessens it. artemedion. It is good against all snakes. and the juice (taken as a drink with wine) helps those bitten by snakes. if it is taken in drink). It first cleans ulcers and rotten. the hot seasons. and the touch kills them. gangrenous ulcerations. Such is the strength of this herb that even the smell drives away poisonous beasts. or elbunium. Ballota pseudodictamnus — White Horehound. embactron. and in the autumn. belotocos. or [on] the rest of the body. eldian. If one is pricked apply this to him and immediately you shall help him. dorcidium. Bastard Dittany SUGGESTED: Marrubium pseudodictamnus. T 407 . creticus. the Romans call it ustilago rustica. 3-38. apply it for the spleen and disorders from inflammation in hidden places.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK the herb reject arrows if shot [wounds]. (Rub dried dictamnus in your hands until it is similar to meal. Dig up the herb in the spring. The juice dropped into a wound caused by iron. immediately cures. It is also effective for a painful spleen. It is also a birth-hastener. Having made meal of it. throw in a drop of wine and apply it to your body. hat which is called pseudodictamnus grows in many places and is similar to the one above but less sharp. beluacos. The juice rubbed on (alone or with polenta) is cleansing. The root warms those who taste it. ephemeron. or the bite of a poisonous beast (and as well as dropping it on.) It is also called pulegium sylvestre. PSEUDODIKTAMNOS Berringeria pseudodictamnus. but is not similarly effective. They gather it in the summer and the fall. and then it fills them up.

and is available for all cleansing for a woman. hidden by filaments — whitish. given to drink it cures bloodspitters. but the most wicked women (making a pessary of it) apply it and use it as an abortifacient. especially odiferous and poisonous-smelling — like on outworn garments. Taken as a drink with white wine it cures a painful spleen and dysentery. but with bigger branches. The smell of the leaves is most pleasant. is a wound herb and a blood-stauncher. 3-40. or becion. Similarly. the Romans. Fraxinella Origanum hirtum. A nother kind of dictamnus is brought from Crete that has leaves similar to sisymbrium [2-155]. Gas Plant. Dictamnus fraxinella. with four-square and somewhat white stalks.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-39. Elelisphacon dissolves chilliness and coughs and is good used with rosaceum [1-53] and wax ointment for all bad ulcers. It dyes the hair black. sharper and thicker. DIKTAMNOS ALLO Dictamnus albus. and helps the strikes of the pastinaca marina [2-22]. Dictamnus creticus. yet longer. Candle Plant. cosalon. It grows in rough places. A decoction of the leaves and branches (with wine) applied with hot cloths soothes itchiness around the genitals. Amaracus dictamnus — White Dittany. Salvia minor [Fuchs. It is effective for all things (as that above) but somewhat less biting. the Egyptians call it apusi. 408 . It is mixed with plasters and antidotal medicines. and cleanses wild ulcers. ciosmin. Salvia officinalis [Linnaeus] — Sage H elelisphacum is a much-branched somewhat long shrub. and a flower similar to wild origanum — black and soft. phagnon. The leaves are similar to malicottoon [1-160]. It is also called elaphoboscon. salvia. is an abortifacient. Origanum creticum — Hairy Marjoram SUGGESTED: Origanum dictamnus. between sisymbrium and sage. ELELISPHAKON SUGGESTED: Salvia maior. sphagnon. and others. Bauhin]. The seed is on top of the stalks like wild horminum [3-145]. A decoction of the leaves and branches (taken as a drink) is able to induce movement of the urine and the menstrual flow.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Salvia maior from FUCHS — 1545 409 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Meliloti quartum genus from FUCHS — 1545 410 .

Whorled Mint Mentha piperita — White Mint. Mentha arvensis [Linnaeus]. or macetho. kills roundworms. Horse Mint [other usage] Mentastro [Italian]. Mentastro [Italian]. H 3-42. astringent. Mentha gentilis. it makes a rough tongue smooth. and with salt it is a poultice for dog bites. vomiting. Applied with polenta it dissolves suppurations. It keeps milk from curdling if the leaves are steeped in it. it is good for the stomach and fit for sauce. it causes inconception. Applied to women before sexual intercourse. It soothes the swelling and extension of the breasts. nepeta. Two or three little sprigs (taken in a drink with the juice of a sour pomegranate) soothe hiccups. Marrubium vulgare — Common White Horehound see 3-119 he wild hedyosmus (which the Romans call mentastrum) has rougher leaves. Mentha viridis. Spearmint. and less suitable for use in health. the Egyptians. Peppermint edyosmus is a well-known little herb that is warming. It is also called mentha. others call it pherthumerthrumonthu. Applied to the forehead it eases headaches. As a result the juice of it (taken as a drink with vinegar) stops blood. EDUOSMOS EMEROS SUGGESTED: Mentha sativa [Linnaeus]. some. Mentha viridis — Common Mint. The juice with honey and water helps earache. Calamintha arvensis [Bauhin] — Wild Mint. T 411 . and bile. more poisonous to smell. perxo. tis. and drying. is altogether bigger than sisymbrium [2-155]. Finally.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-41. Mentha sylvestris. EDUOSMOS AGRIOS SUGGESTED: Mentastrum [Fuchs]. the Romans call it menta. Rubbed on. and encourages lust [aphrodisiac].

The leaves of all of them are strongly warming and sharp to the taste: the roots are not effective. convulsions. S 412 . and has whitish leaves similar to basil. because it also has a similar smell. burning the outward skin. and it is less effective. longer in the leaves. with the sprigs and stalks angular. Catnip. A decoction (taken as a drink) induces the passing of urine. It grows in plain fields and rough watery places. griping. Taken as a drink (or applied) it helps those bitten by snakes. Nep Calamintha officinalis. Boiled in wine and applied. ome calamintha is more mountainous. and a purple flower. Inhaled as smoke or scattered underfoot it drives away snakes. The juice is dropped in the ears to kill worms. The leaves pounded into small pieces and given in a pessary are an abortifacient and expel the menstrual flow. Taken as a drink (beforehand) with wine it is an antidote against poisons and cleans away jaundice. Pounded into small pieces (either boiled or raw) and taken as a drink with salt and honey it kills both roundworms and threadworms. It is applied to sciatica for a medicine to eliminate waste or morbid matter.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-43. orthopnoea [form of asthma]. The Romans call this nepeta. bile. Pulicaria dysenterica [in Sprague] — Fleabane Calamintha nepeta. as a result some have called it pulegium agreste. Nepeta cataria [Linnaeus]— Catmint. Melissa calamintha — Common Calamint. and helps hernia. The third sort is similar to wild mint. and chills. it makes black scars white and takes away bruises. Inula dysenterica [Linnaeus]. Eaten with the whey of milk and taken as a drink (afterwards) it helps those with elephantiasis. KALAMINTHE Conyza media asteris [Bauhin]. Cat Mint SUGGESTED: Calamintha tertium genus [Fuchs]. bigger than that previously mentioned in the stalk and branch. The other sort is similar to pulegium [3-36] yet bigger.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Peganum harmala after TEGETMEYER — 1897 413 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Melilotus officinalis after FAGUET — 1888 414 .

and the Dacians.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-44. stephane. yet more effective for meat [sauce] because it does not have as much sharpness. the Romans call it thymus. Applied with vinegar it dissolves new swellings and clots of blood. A decoction with honey helps orthopnoea [form of asthma] and the asthmatic. epithumis. Applied with wine and polenta it is good for hip pains. or thyrsium. only smaller and more tender. It grows chiefly in rocky and barren places. It grows in barren and rough places — similar to thyme. Wild Thyme. There is also a cultivated satureia. Serpyllum sylvestre [Fuchs]. and bearing a stalk full of flowers of a greenish colour. the Egyptians. mozula. is an abortifacient. Taken as a drink with salt and vinegar it is able to drive out phlegmy matter through the bowels. It is a little shrub full of branches surrounded with many narrow little leaves. cephalotus. E 3-45. Eaten with meat it is good for poor vision. T 415 . and little heads with flowers resembling purple on the top. and takes away thymos [hormonal glandular enlargement] and hanging warts. Mother of Thyme veryone knows thyme. It is also called white thyme. THUMOS SUGGESTED:Thymus angustifolius. Thymus glaber — Wild Thyme. and is urinary. Mother of Thyme hymbra is also well known. It is good instead of sauce for use in health. It can do the same things as thyme (taken the same way) and it is suitable for use in health. Serpyllum vulgare minus [Bauhin]. expels worms and the menstrual flow. expels the afterbirth. Thymus serpyllum [Linnaeus] — Creeping Thyme. THUMBRA SUGGESTED: Sisymbrium [Pliny] see 2-155. Mixed with honey and taken as a linctus [syrup] it makes matter come up [vomitory]. of less value in everything than the wild.

It has leaves and small branches similar to origanum. It is a herb with many branches that creeps along the earth. being stronger and hotter than the garden kind and more suitable for medicinal use. It is also called zygis sylvestris. It helps griping. soothes headaches. sending out thin branches full of sprigs. It is plaited into wreaths for the head. Majorana vulgaris [Bauhin]. A decoction (taken as a drink) is good for those 416 T . longer. Origanum majorum [Pliny].ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-46. yet they are narrow. Majorana hortensis — Sweet Marjoram. The flower is sharp to the taste. but the Egyptian is second to this. with round rough leaves similar to thin-leaved calamint. Amaracus. sweet to the smell. ERPULLOS ZOGIS SUGGESTED: Thymus. Maiorana [Fuchs]. serpyllum. yet whiter. or polion. Potherb Thyme erpyllum is the garden kind. Boiled with vinegar (with rosaceum [1-53] mixed in there) and the head moistened with it. surrounded with leaves similar to rue. SAMPSUCHON SUGGESTED: Sampsuchum. It is so-called from its creeping. Trailed down from unmortared walls it becomes more abundant. convulsions. similar to sampsuchum [3-47] in smell. Four teaspoonfuls of the juice (taken as a drink with vinegar) stop the vomiting of blood. inflammation of the liver and snakebites taken as a drink and applied. there it roots. It grows on rocks. H 3-47. Sampsucum. the Romans. and because if any part of it touches the earth. cicer erraticum. Thymus vulgaris [Linnaeus] — Garden Thyme. others. and used for making wreaths for the head. Knotted Marjoram he best sampsuchum is the Cyzicenian and the Cyprian. Origanum majorana [Linneaus]. ERPULLOS. and harder. It is especially good for lethargy and frenzy. the root useless. the Egyptians call it meruopyos. Taken in a drink it expels the menstrual flow and causes an urge to urinate. Serpyllum romanum [Fuchs]. The other is wild and is called zygis — not creeping but upright. Origanum majoranoides. hernia. very fragrant and heating.

Apium rusticum Lesser Hemlock or Fool’s Parsley POISONOUS after THIEBAULT — 1881 417 .THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Aethusa cynapium.

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Ruta graveolens after FAGUET — 1874 418 .

In a pessary they drive out the menstrual flow. The Cyzicenians and those in Sicily call it amaracum. and weak regarding the sweet smell. Pythagoras calls it thrambes. Trigonella elatior — Wild Trefoil [other usage] Melilotus officinalis. and they are rubbed on with salt and vinegar for the strike of a scorpion. and when let fall on [the head] gently with vinegar and rosaceum [1-53] it soothes 419 T . Trigonella corniculata. Trifolium melilotus corniculata [Linnaeus]. It is a powerful astringent. with a sweet scent. Melilotus arvensis. Melilot he best melilotus is the Attic [Athenian] and that which grows in Chalcedon — similar to saffron. the heads of poppies. cnecion. the Egyptians. or intybus [2-160]. inclining to yellow. as well as scaly eruptions on the scalp. rubbed on with Chian [from Scios in the Aegean sea] earth and wine or galls [oak galls]. maiorana. wheat flour. Corona regia. and with softening medicines for warmth’s sake. Sometimes the roasted yolk of an egg is mixed with it. and for frequent painful urination. and mixed with medications to remove fatigue. Trifolium melilotus officinalis — Honey Lotus. King’s Clover. softens all inflammation — especially that around the eyes. The dry leaves are smeared on with honey to take away bruises. myurum. 3-48. womb. agathides. the Armenians.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK who are beginning to have dropsy. and the Romans. hemp seed. It also grows in Campania around Nola. the Magi call it the ass of the priest. and the stones [testicles]. It is also called trifolium. or acapnon. Meliloti quartum genus [Fuchs]. For pain in the stomach boil it with wine or use it raw with some of the things previously mentioned. others. Used alone in water it also cures new melicerides [encysted tumour with honey-like exudation]. MELILOTOS SUGGESTED: Melilotus italica. Juiced raw and dropped in the ears with passum [raisin wine] it eases earache. sopho. genitura Isidis. amaracum. or the meal of fenugreek. and boiled with passum [raisin wine] and applied. They are rubbed on with flour of polenta for inflammation. buttocks and anus. For dislocations and oedema they are applied with a wax ointment. and griping.

and the Romans call it ocimastrum. BAKCHARIS SUGGESTED: Baccharis. by the Magi. It is also called zoodotion. sertula. It is also called origanis. it heals both pannus [opaque thickening of cornea with veins] and erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. Acinos vulgaris — Acinos see 3-109. Conyza dioscoroidis. It is used to make wreaths for the head. M 3-50. and ortamon. it stops gangrenous ulceration. AKINOS SUGGESTED: Thymus acinos. but the leaves of this are much paler. 3-51. thermuthin. The leaves 420 . It grows in abundance both near Magnesia and near Tralles. or. Applied. Ocimum pilosum. Baccharis aphylla from ENGLER-PRANTL — 1897 B accharis is a herb with many stalks and a sweet scent. similar to basil but rougher. Cat Thyme arum or hysobrium is a well-known herb full of sprigs. and the menstrual flow. and it is mixed with the hot ingredients of compound ointments. and the flower sweeter. similar in the flower to origanum. It has a sweet scent. 4-176 A cinus or aconus is a herb with a small stalk used in making wreaths for the head. 4-28. Applied. It has abilities similar to sisymbrium [2-155] — somewhat astringent and gently heating. Ploughman’s Spikenard Baccharis now applied to an American genus of Compositae. the Egyptians call it haemith. 3-49. or trypatium. MARON SUGGESTED: Teucrium marum — Marum Germander. Taken as a drink it stops discharges of the intestines. It is also called basilicum sylvestre. Baccharis dioscorides — Bacchar [Bedevian]. and the Romans. and is also sown in gardens by some.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS headaches.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Ammi from FUCHS — 1545 421 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Origanum sylvestre from FUCHS — 1545 422 .

lung 423 M . and are applied to help headaches. and the roots are similar to those of black veratrum [4-151]. Ruta chalepensis — Aleppo Rue. It expels the menstrual flow. The smell is sleepinducing. ulcerating. 4-98 ountainous wild rue is sharper than the tame or garden rue and unfit for eating. the stalk angular. breasts inflamed from childbearing.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK are sharp. The same is taken against snakebites. It is good in scented powders. Herb of Grace CAUTION — ALLERGIC REACTIONS— OVERDOSE TOXIC OR FATAL SUGGESTED: Peganum harmala — Wild Rue. and similar in smell to cinnamon. a foot in height. An acetabulum [vinegar cruet] of the seed (taken as a drink in wine) is an antidote for deadly medicines. diuretic. and erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. It is good taken as a drink for pain in the sides of the chest. having a very fragrant smell. and either eaten or taken as a drink it extinguishes conception [abortifacient]. obstinate coughs. One of the tender roots (applied as a pessary) is an abortifacient. Bauhin]. falls from on high. Syrian Rue Ruta hortensis [Fuchs. The leaves eaten (beforehand) by themselves or with carya [1-178] or dry figs make poisons ineffective. 3-52. Boiled in water the root helps convulsions. Of the garden kind the fittest for eating grows near fig trees. in size between the violet and verbascum [4-104]. and bring out the menstrual flow. Syrian Rue. Boiled with dried dill and taken as a drink it stops griping. somewhat sharp. see 3-53. Ruta graveolens [Linnaeus] — Common Rue. The leaves are astringent. with suckers. warming. PEGANON TO OREINON Harmel Ruta angustifolia. and is usefully given with wine to those bitten by snakes. coughs. inflammation of the eyes. ulcers of the eyes as they begin. dry places. PEGANON TO KEPAION. It loves rough. and a decoction of it is good for bathing women in childbirth. Both are sharp. hard breathing. Eaten (or taken as a drink) they are astringent to the bowels. whitish and sweet smelling. The flowers are a purple colour. hard breathing. and painful urination. hernia.

and it is usefully mixed with antidotes. kidney]. Pounded into small pieces with honey and applied from the genitals to the perineum. rectum. churma. herpes [viral skin infection]. Boiled in wine until half the amount remains then taken as a drink (and also rubbed on) it helps these [problems] also. The juice warmed in a pomegranate rind and dropped in the ears is good for ear sores. Applied with bay leaves it helps inflammation from stones [urinary. With myrtle wax ointment it helps rashes such as measles. For gaseousness of the colus [colic]. Taken in a drink the seed is good for disorders within.They ought. and applied with the same things it takes away warty abnormal growths and myrmecias [warts resembling an anthill]. eaten too much.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS inflammation. so to gather it. cerussa [white lead ore] and rosaceum [1-53] it cures erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. the Romans call it ruta montana or ruta hortense. it stops the bad smells that come [from eating] garlic and onions. pepper and saltpetre [potassium nitrate] it heals white vitiligo [type of leprosy]. Chewed. Rubbed on with vinegar. some. the Syrians. the rue that grows in Macedonia by the river Haliacmon kills. and periodical chills (as previously mentioned). and with figs for dropsy under the skin. Boiled in oil and taken as a drink it expels worms. having first rubbed [protection on] the face and the hands. and intestines it is boiled with oil and given as a suppository. The root 424 . but that place is mountainous and full of vipers. The hilly rue kills. and scaly eruptions on the scalp. besasa and the Africans. Pounded fine and applied with rosaceum [1-53] and vinegar it helps headaches and stops bloody discharges from the nostrils. They say that eaten. harmala. Eaten raw or pickled it is a sight-restorer. They say that the juice sprinkled on chicken keeps off the cats. Applied with honey and allom [5-123] it is good for lichenae [skin disease]. and applied with polenta it soothes pains in the eyes. and puffs it up with itching and extreme inflammation. Rubbed on all over with wine. pains in the hips and joints. vulva. Gathered around flowering time for pickling it makes the skin red. Having dried the seed. It is also called rhyten montana. It is applied with honey for painful joints. it also cures constriction of the womb. give it to drink for seven days to one who sheds his water [dehydration] and it shall cease. epnubu. the Egyptians. Rubbed on with juice of marathrum [3-81] and honey it helps dullness of sight.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Hieracium minus from FUCHS — 1545 425 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Coriandrum sativum after THIEBAULT — 1881 426 .

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK of it is called mountain moly. flowers similar to white violets. Africans. or chamepitys. extremely bitter to the taste. Syrian Rue. sentinalis. It is sharper than the cultivated and more effective in use. Pounded into small pieces with honey. It is a shrub that brings out many shoots from one root. with much longer more tender leaves than the other rue. MOLU SUGGESTED: Allium moly — Wild Garlic Allium magicum [Loudon] — Homer’s Moly M oly has leaves similar to grass (but broader) on the ground. 3-53. others. 4-98 ome call ruta sylvestris (both that in Cappadocia and that in Galatia near Asia) moly. consisting especially of three parts. the Egyptians. But you must not eat the wild because it is hurtful. and on the top. a milky 427 . churma semmaked. saffron. little heads a little bigger than the cultivated rue. because in some ways it is similar to moly (having a black root and white flowers) and it grows in hilly fertile places. corion. It induces the menstrual flow and is an abortifacient. the gall of hens. and the Africans. Harmel see 3-52. and marathrum [3-81] juice it is good for dullness of the sight. in which is a three-cornered seed of a faint yellow. Ruta sylvestris — Wild Rue. PEGANON AGRION SUGGESTED: Ruta montana. wine. and it is good (taken in a drink) for epilepsy and pains in the hips. S 3-54. epnubu. churwa and the Cappadocians. It has a strong scent and white flowers. the Syrians call it besasa. It is also called harmala. Mountain Rue Thalictrum aquilegifolium — Meadow Rue Galega officinalis — Common Goat’s Rue Asplenium ruta-muriara — Wall Rue Peganum harmala — Wild Rue. The seed ripens in the autumn. The wild rue therefore is similar to the cultivated. Ruta sylvestris is also called hypericon. Ruta legitima. moly. Use is made of this. androsaemon. the Romans call it hederalis.

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS colour. and Psophis in Arcadia. Libya. hot to the taste. The root is juiced after being cut when the stalks are newlyemerged. Being rubbed in water with the fingers tests 428 P . PANAKES HERAKLEION SUGGESTED: Heracleum panaces — Fig-leaved Cow Parsnip Heracleum sphondylium — Common Cow Parsnip Heracleum gummiferum. It sends out a white juice that. not worm-eaten. The seed smells sweet and acrid. The seed that comes from the middle of the stalk is good. jagged five-fold in the circumference. The many white strong-smelling roots emerge from one beginning. and in Macedonia. but the black and soft is worthless as it is adulterated with ammoniacum [3-98] or wax. It is also called leucoion sylvestre. To remove the liquid from the leaves they lay them beforehand on a hollow dug in the ground and pick them up them when dry. 4-140] and inserted as a pessary for openings of the womb. inside indeed white and somewhat red. but outside a saffron colour. It has a very high stalk (like a ferula) with white down and smaller leaves around it. 3-55. They also juice the stalk. and with a strong scent. Heracleum pyrenaicum — Downy Cow Parsnip anances heracleum (from which opopanax is gathered) grows in abundance in Boeotia. less in quantity than those of the violet. This is very good. for that which comes from the sprigs is less nourished. on the top of which stands something similar to garlic. and a long tuft on the top like dill. dried. It has yellowish flowers. dry. and aromatic. with thick bark and a somewhat bitter taste. smooth. in the shape of a scallion [2-179]. The root is small. pounded with flour of lolium [2-116. The herb moly (cut up by the root and carried around the body) is good against poisoning and bewitching. It also grows in Cyrene. It has rough green leaves lying on the ground. brittle. It is carefully cultivated in gardens for the benefit that comes from the juice. coming very near to those of the fig. has a saffron colour on the outside. fit for use. white. fat. Heracleum pubescens. The [dried] juice that excels is the most bitter to the taste. melting quickly. cutting it at harvest time and taking out the liquid the same way. The best roots are stretched out. It has a white stalk of four feet.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Eleoselinum from FUCHS — 1545 429 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Careum from FUCHS — 1545 430 .

have a medicinal quality suitable for ulcers. convulsions. is an abortifacient.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK it. and rubbed on with raisin clusters it is good for gout. and scatters gaseousness and hardness in the womb. rougher. P 431 . and fragrant. PANAKES ASKLEPION SUGGESTED: Asclepias syriaca — Milkweed. The root is small. The flowers and seeds applied pounded into small pieces with honey. Silkweed Thapsia asclepium [Loudon] — Deadly Carrot POISONOUS — Aesculapius is the god of medicine — see 3-106 anaces Aesculapij sends a thin stalk of a foot’s length (distinguished by knots) out of the earth. hernia. griping. As a result. 3-56. 3-6] it is good for the bites of poisonous beasts. and on the top is a tuft on which are sharp. Pounded into small pieces and rubbed on with honey it is effective for old ulcers. It is taken as a drink with wine for constriction of the womb. It is mixed with [medicines for] removal of fatigue. The seed (taken with wormwood [3-26]) induces the menstrual flow. and the root shaved and applied to the vulva is an abortifacient. and reduces the intensity of symptoms. and with aristolochia [3-4. It soothes toothache put into tooth cavities. Some call [this] panaces wild origanum. It is an ointment for hip pains. pannus [opaque thickening of cornea with veins]. Mixed with pitch it is an excellent plaster for those bitten by mad dogs. It breaks carbuncles all around. Dissolved with honey it induces the menstrual flow. and with head medicines. and is rubbed on as a sight-restorer for the eyes. taken as a drink with honey and water (or wine) it is good for periods of acute fevers and chills. for the counterfeited dissolves and becomes similar to milk. and applied it covers exposed bones with flesh. around which are leaves similar to marathrum [3-81]. pains in the side. some again call it cunila (where it is referred to in the section on origanum). and spreading ulcers. For snakebites it is taken as a drink with wine and rubbed on with oil. yet bigger. parasitic diseases in the bladder. fragrant flowers of a golden colour. and slow painful urination. coughs. 3-5. It is warming and softening.

Heal-all Chiron was a centaur. gaseousness. fragrant. and a slender shallow root that is sharp to the taste. teacher of Aesculapius [see above].ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-57. Ajava Seeds see 3-70 igusticum grows most plentifully in Liguria on the Apennine. but sharp and aromatic to the taste. Those near the top stalk are more slender and cut-in. anaces Chironion grows chiefly on the mountain Pelius. and their strength is the same. The roots and the seed are effective mixed with oxypota [oxymel — vinegar and honey drink] and digestive medicines. They are good for internal pains. similar to the Heracleotic panaces. LIGUSTIKON SUGGESTED: Ligusticum ajwain. Taken in a drink it makes urine pass. yet more tender and fragrant. The inhabitants call it panaces not without reason since the root and the stalk are similar to the Heracleotic [3-55] panaces. The root applied does the same. Ferula opopanax. The root is white. oedema. shadowy mountains. It is excellent for 432 L . somewhat long. Bunium copticum — Ammi. Ptychotis ajawain. a hill bordering on the Alps (from which it has its name). On the top is a tuft on which is the seed — black. Laserpitium chironium — Opopanax. around which are leaves similar to those of melilot [3-48]. as well as the menstrual flow. P 3-58. Bishop’s Weed. like that of marathrum [3-81]. and strikes from poisonous beasts. disorders of the stomach (especially). gold flowers. PANAKES CHEIRONION SUGGESTED: Opopanax chironium. digestion. The seed and roots are heating and digestive. It has leaves similar to amaracus [white dittany]. It grows on the highest. Sison ammi. It bears a thin knotty stalk similar to dill. Lovage. and the filaments are also applied effectively for the same purposes. roughest. Ptychotis coptica. Carum copticum. sound. Taken in a drink the root is able to act against snakes’ poison. but especially in places dug in the earth. Ammi copticum.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Hipposelinum from FUCHS — 1545 433 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Apium hortense from FUCHS — 1545 434 .

and the Africans sicham. STAPHULINOS AGRIOS.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK the stomach. Pastinaca erratica. clean ulcers that spread. for it is bitter. It has a rough upright stalk with a tuft similar to dill on which are white flowers. counterfeits it. and in the midst something small of a purple colour and of almost a saffron colour. as well as for the bites and strikes of venomous creatures. The root is the thickness of a finger. Carota [Fuchs]. and is good for the same purposes. pounded into small pieces with honey and applied. Daucus officinarum [Bauhin]. Daucus carota var sativa [Linnaeus] — Carrot Daucus carota var sylvestris — Wild Carrot SUGGESTED: Staphylinum taphylinum has leaves like gingidium. as a result the inhabitants use it instead of pepper. the Egyptians. The garden pastinaca is fitter to be eaten. They also say that those who take it beforehand shall experience no assault from wild beasts. Some counterfeit it mixing together with it the seed of fennel or seseli. dropsy. It encourages conception. Pastinaca sativa prima. the Romans call it carota. The seed induces the menstrual flow. and is good in liquid medicines for frequent painful urination. A certain seed similar to it. It is also called panacea or panaces. working more weakly. taken as a drink (or inserted as a pessary). babiburu. mixing it with their sauces. only broader and somewhat bitter. sweet smelling and edible (boiled as a vegetable). It is also called cerascomen. The leaves. and pleurisy. which you shall discern by the taste. STAPHULINOS KEPAIOS [Pliny]. some pastinaca rustica. The root (also being urinary) is applied to stir up sexual intercourse [aphrodisiac]. S 435 . 3-59. twenty centimetres long.

Tooth Pick SUGGESTED: Seseli S eseli Massiliense has leaves similar to marathrum [3-81] yet thicker. Gingidium umbella oblonga [Bauhin]. and are effective for all disorders within. and very sweet. It is also called sphagnon. Ammi visagna [in Sprague]. 436 . It is given to goats and other cattle as a drink for hastening delivery. induce the menstrual flow. 3-61. yet sharper and more fragrant than the Massaleotican [3-60]. It produces similar effects.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-60. in which is a seed — somewhat long. and it has a stalk more full of branches. thick like wheat. It is also good for cooling [sudden] fevers. and is taken as a drink with pepper and wine for chills in childbirth. on which are stems eighteen inches long. Libanotis latifolia altera [Bauhin]. Daucus visagna [Linnaeus]. SESELI AITHIOPIKON SUGGESTED: Dauci alterum genus. Daucus visagna — Pick-tooth. similar to those of periclymenom. and quickly sharp if eaten. angular. Seseli aethiopicum [Fuchs]. The Egyptians call it cyonophricen. The little heads are like dill. They cure old coughs. are abortifacient. They are good for urinary constriction and epilepsy. The root is long with a sweet scent. The seed and root are warming: taken as a drink they cure slow painful urination and orthopnoea [form of asthma]. It is a large shrub with branches of about two feet. and taken as a drink with wine the seed helps digestion and dissolves griping. Laserpitium latifolium [Linnaeus] — Broad-leaved Laserwort [Loudon] E thiopian seselis has leaves similar to cissus [2-210] yet smaller and somewhat long. the seeds black. It has a tuft similar to dill. SESELI MASSALEOTIKON massiliense [Fuchs].

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Daucus carota after THIEBAULT — 1881 437 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Levisticum from FUCHS — 1545 438 .

Athamanta cervaria [Linnaeus] — Hog Fennel. Athemanta meum [Linnaeus]. moist and hilly places. It is also called tordylum. similar to a ferula. and a stalk bigger than the Massiliense [3-60]. Peucedanum cervaria [in Sprague]. T 439 . Spignel. Seseli hat which grows in Peloponnesus has leaves similar to hemlock but broader and thicker. It has the same strength [as those above]. Bear Root [other usage] Tordyilum suaveolens. Tordylon. Meu. Athemanticum meum. in which is a broader seed with a sweet scent and more fleshy. T 3-63. SESELI PELOPONNESIAKON Peloponnesiacum [Fuchs]. Pastinaca schekakul — Rough Parsnip Tordylium officinale — Small Hartwort Tordylium maximum— Hartwort formerly included in genus Seseli see 1-3 ordylium grows on the hill Amanus in Cilicia. and to expel the menstrual flow. On the top of this is a broad tuft. makes any kidney disease sound. Seseli creticum [Fuchs]. The root is licked in with honey to draw up matter that stops the chest. It is taken in a drink for painful urination. somewhat sharp and aromatic. It grows in rough. Seseli meum — Bald-money. The juice from the stalk and seed (while yet green) taken as a drink for ten days with as much as thirty grains of passum [raisin wine]. Aethusa meum.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-62. Daucus montanus apii [Bauhin]. Pastinaca dissecta. It is a little herb full of shoots. TORDULION SUGGESTED: Daucus creticus. It also grows in Ida. Wild Celery SUGGESTED: Dauci tertium genus. with a little round double seed similar to little shields. Meum athemanticum [in Sprague]. while others call it creticum.

draws down milk. It is also good for removing the poison of venomous creatures. eating it with cucurbita [2-164] boiled with vinegar. with an acrid taste. and incites sexual union [aphrodisiac]. Bastard Stone Parsley ison is a little seed similar to apium [3-77] that grows in Syria — somewhat long. Pimpinella anisum [Linnaeus]. and gaseousness. Apium carvi. painful urination. dissolving. and pounded into small pieces and dropped in the ears with rosaceum [1-53]. It is taken in a drink for the spleen. black. It is mixed usefully in antidotes and oxypota [oxymel — vinegar and honey drink]. not branny and strongly scented. dispersing. Inhaled by the nostrils it quietens headaches. The Cretian claims the first place. good for the stomach. 3-66. It is also called sion.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-64. pain-easing. It is urinary. and retention of the menstrual flow. Taken in a drink it takes away thirst caused by dropsy. and the Romans call it anisum. Carum carvi [Linnaeus]. KAROS SUGGESTED: Caros. Sweet Cumin. It stops discharges of the intestines and white excessive discharges. The inhabitants use it for a sauce. full. Aniseed Plant A nisum is generally warming. ANISON SUGGESTED: Anisum herbariis [Bauhin]. Bunium carum — Caraway arum is a well-known little seed. Careum [Fuchs]. it heals cracks in them. It has much the same nature as anisum [3-65]. warming. SISON SUGGESTED: Sison amomum. and the second is the Egyptian. Anisum vulgare. Tragium anisum — Anise. drying. Sium aromaticum — Hedge Sison. The best is new. The boiled root is edible as a vegetable (like parsnip). 440 C . Sium amomum. It has (as it were) many little grains on the tops. and it makes the breath sweet. urinary. S 3-65. pleasant to the mouth and digestive.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Spina alba sylvestris from FUCHS — 1545 441 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Brooklime Veronica beccabunga after FAGUET — 1888 442 .

kidney]. Selinum athenum. especially the Ethiopian which Hippocrates called the kingly. the Romans. The seed (burnt and sprinkled on) takes away venereal warts. and drying. The Egyptians call it arachu. crines cynocephali. or genitura Mercurij. A decoction of the dried filaments and the seed (taken as a drink) draws down milk. next the Egyptian. It is good boiled with oil and given as a suppository (or applied with barley meal) for griping and gaseousness. the Magi call it genitura cynocephali. the Africans. and stops both the intestines and the vomit that floats on top of the stomach. Cilicia. poltum. Asia. soothes griping and gaseousness. and then the rest. It is hot. anethum. It is also given with posca [hot drinks] for orthopnoea [difficult breathing]. Peucedanum graveolens. Pastinaca athenum — Dill SUGGESTED: Anethum hortense A nethum is eaten as a vegetable.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-67. C 443 . A decoction is good as a bath for women troubled with womb disorders. it stops hiccups. 3-68. It grows in Galatia. KUMINON AGRION SUGGESTED: Cuminum cyminum. sicciria. Applied with raisins and bean flour (or waxy ointments) it helps inflammation from stones [urinary. it makes urine pass. It also changes the skin to a paler colour either taken in a drink or smeared on. the region of Tarentum and many other places. and taken too often as a drink it both dulls the sight and extinguishes conception [abortifacient]. Cuminum — Cumin odoratum umin is cultivated. It is also called polgidos or anicetum. ANETHON [Bauhin] Anethum graveolens [Linnaeus]. and with wine to those bitten by venomous creatures. Pounded into small pieces with vinegar it is applied to stop women’s excessive discharges [menstrual flow] and bleeding from the nostrils. and the Dacians. It has a good taste. similarly. astringent.

and those bitten by venomous creatures. Chewed and applied with honey and grapes it takes away bruises. These are the most effective. Applied with the same [things] it cures inflammation from stones [urinary. Goutweed.1881 uminum sylvestre grows in Lycia. Bishop’s Weed. Linnaeus] A mmi is a well-known little seed. This is warming. It is a little shrub with a thin stalk twenty centimetres long. With vinegar it soothes hiccups. Galatia in Asia. on which are four or five little leaves (as it were) sawnaround with incisions (like gingidium [2-167]). and some call it cuminum silvaticum. It is good (taken in a drink with wine) for griping. Taken in a drink this is an excellent remedy for those bitten by snakes. It is mixed with corrosive medicines made of dried beetles [2-65] to resist the difficult painful urination that follows. AMMI — Bishop’s Weed. Herb Gerard. in which is the husky seed. kidney]. The Romans call it cuminum agreste. It grows in hilly places. Out of every flower it sends out little horns lifted up in which is the seed (similar to melanthium [3-93]). difficult painful urination. and similar to origanum in the taste. Applied with honey it takes away bruises around the eyes. It helps those troubled with slow painful urination and stones [urinary. and those who urinate drops of blood. KUMINON EMERON SUGGESTED: Lagoëcia cuminoides — Common Wild Cumin C Lagoecia cuminoides after THIEBAULT . It induces the menstrual flow.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-69. Choose seed that is pure and not branny. Amee see 3-58 [other usage] Aegopodium podagraria — Ammi [1551]. It has five or six little round. acrid and drying. There is also another kind of wild cumin similar to the cultivated. Ground Elder SUGGESTED: Ammi majus [Bauhin. and Carthage in Spain. kidney]. The seed is taken in a drink with water for griping and gaseousness. smaller than cumin. 3-70. It is taken with wine for the poison of venomous creatures and moisture of the stomach. Afterwards let them drink boiled apium [3-77] seeds. sharper to the taste than the cultivated. soft heads on the top. Taken 444 .

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Aparine from FUCHS — 1545 445 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Heracleum sphondylium after THIEBAULT — 1881 446 .

as a result men ought to avoid the excessive and frequent use of it. and carbuncles [infected boils] [malignant skin tumours]. IERAKION MEGA SUGGESTED: Hieracium maius. The Romans call it ammium Alexandrinum. hollow. Sonchites [Fuchs]. vinegar and rosaceum [1-53] mends burning inflammation on the outside of the skin. The juice rubbed on with cerussa [white lead ore] or litharge [monoxide of lead]. As a result (applied with bread or polenta) it heals erysipela [streptococcal skin infection] and creeping ulcers. kidney]. 3-71. With honey and raisins it cures epinyctis [pustules which appear only at night]. A little of the seed (taken as a drink with passum [raisin wine]) expels worms and promotes the creation of seed [sperm]. The Egyptians call it ochion. With bruised beans it dissolves scrofulous tumours [goitres] and the inflammation of bones. Hieracium murorum — Wood Hawkweed. inflammation from stones [urinary. and yellowish flowers in somewhat long little heads. Wall Hawkweed he great hieracium produces a rough stalk — somewhat red. It has thinly-jagged leaves at distances. Coriandrum majus [Bauhin] Coriandrum sativum — Coriander POSSIBLE ALLERGIC REACTIONS orion or coriannum is well known. and gently astringent. C 3-72. and the Africans. indifferent. As T Hieracium majus from FUCHS — 1545 447 . prickly.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK either as a drink or smeared on it changes the [skin] to a paler colour. It is able to cool. It is cooling. and soaked with raisins or rosin it cleans the vulva. If too much is taken it disturbs the understanding dangerously. Sonchus arvensis [Linnaeus] — Corn Sowthistle [other usage] Hieracium sylvaticum. similar in circumference to sonchus [2-159]. goid. or regium cuminum. It is also called Aethiopicum. KORIANNON SUGGESTED: Coriandrum [Fuchs]. but some have said that the Ethiopian cumin has one nature and the ammi another.

Celeri graveolens — Marsh Celery. A decoction of it with the roots (taken as a drink) resists poisonous medicines [antidote] by causing vomiting. antidotes and cough medicines. It is mixed effectively with pain-easing medicines. sithileas. others. Wild Celery. IERAKION MIKRON Crepis tectorum [Linnaeus] — Hawksbeard [Mabberley] [other usage] Hieracium pilosella — Mouse-ear Hawkweed SUGGESTED: Hieraceum minus [Fuchs]. Eleoselinum. 3-73. Apium graveolens [Linnaeus]. also helping those bitten by poisonous beasts and those who have taken a drink of white lead. T 3-74. Marsh Parsley. intubus agrestis. and eaten boiled or raw it causes an urge to urinate. entimon agrion. It soothes burning in the stomach. SELINON AGRION. slacks breasts swollen with clotted milk. It also breaks winds. and the Africans. It sends out tender little green stalks on which are yellow flowers in a circle. T 448 . The seed is more urinary. Apium celleri.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS a result it is good applied on a burning stomach. It stops discharges of the bowels. The juice is sipped to soothe pangs of hunger in the stomach. and for inflammation. Some call this sonchiten. the Romans. and the Africans. Apium hortense [Fuchs]. sithilesade. he little hieracium also has jagged leaves at distances. Smallage [other usage] Selinum carvifola — Milk Parsley he herb garden selinum applied with bread or floured polenta is good for the same things as coriander (as well as for inflammation of the eyes). Apium palustre [Brunfels]. SELINON KEPAION SUGGESTED: Apium. the Romans call itlampuca. Celery. It has the same uses as that previously spoken of [3-72]. It is also called sonchiten. The herb (with the root) is applied to help one bitten by a scorpion.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Black Stinking Horehound Ballota nigra after FAGUET — 1892 449 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Teucrium polium after FAGUET — 1888 450 .

others. Petroselinum vulgo [Bauhin]. We must not be deceived thinking oreoselinon is that which grows on rocks. Athamanta oreoselinum — Mountain Parsley A pium (also called petroselinum) grows in steep places in Macedonia. OREOSELINON SUGGESTED: Oreoselinum. Apium palustre. and heating medicines. similar to cumin. with a sweet smell. Some call it campestre. Petroselinum hortense [in Sprague]. diuretics. 3-77. and the Romans. Sii primum genus. It is mixed with antidotes. Amomum officinarum. [Bauhin]. Common Garden Parsley O reoselinon has a single stalk twenty centimetres high from a slender root. Sison amomum [Linnaeus] [other usage] Petroselinum oreoselinum. and the Egyptians. Apium vulgare — Rock Celery. H 3-76. It is bigger than the cultivated and it has similar effects to the garden kind. Carum petroselinum. Apium hortense. Laver vulgo dicitur [Fuchs]. anonim. the Romans call it apium montanum. It has seed similar to ammi visagna but 451 . Apium palustre. Apium petroselinum [Linnaeus]. water smallage. PETROSELINON SUGGESTED: Petroselinum. Sion. apium rusticum. Petroselinum macedonicum [Fuchs]. Petroselinum crispum. Taken as a drink in wine both the seed and root are urinary. thin. sharp. for petroselinum is different. Around it are little branches with little heads (similar to hemlock yet a great deal more slender) on which is the seed — somewhat long. Petroselinum sylvestre [Fuchs]. and they also expel the menstrual flow. Sium angustifolium [Linnaeus] —Water Parsnip SUGGESTED: Heleio elioselinum grows in watery places. It is also called petroselinum sylvestre. It grows in rocky mountainous places.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-75. ELEIOSELINON selinon [Pliny]. Petroselinum sativum.

sharp. and preserved raw in brine. aromatic scent. and the root does the same. the stalk hollow. others call it agrioselinon. and bladder. Smyrnium Dioscorides [Bauhin]. pleasing to the taste. It is bigger and paler than the garden selinum. kidneys. somewhat long. Horse Parsley.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS with a sweeter. Olus atrum [Fuchs] Hipposelinum Theophrasti. the leaves broader. aromatic. Petroselinum alexandrinum — Alexanders. high. over which are filaments like libanotis [3-87. It is diuretic and expels the menstrual flow. It is also called grielon. It helps slow painful urination. It grows in shady places and near marshes. 3-78. The root is sweet in scent. Taken as a drink in honeyed wine the seed is able to expel the menstrual flow. white. Smyrnium olusatrum [Linnaeus]. as well as pain in the sides. and the leaves and stalks are eaten boiled. 3-75]. tender (as it were) with lines. and the Romans call it olusatrum. Boeotin Myrrh see 1-78 H ipposelinon is different to that which is properly called smyrnium (as we will immediately declare). Black Lovage. It is also mixed with urinary antidotes. It is used as a vegetable like selinum [3-74. The seed is black. and not thick. and colus [colic]. griping of the stomach. inclining to purple. sharp. They are prepared either by themselves or with fish. or smyrnium. solid. IPPOSELINON SUGGESTED: Hipposelinum. Taken as a drink or rubbed on it heats those who are chilled. It is good (taken in a drink) for gaseousness. The root is eaten boiled or raw. 3-89]. It is full of flowers standing together in clusters before it has fully opened. 452 .

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Asclepias from FUCHS — 1545 453 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Trifolium pratense after FAGUET — 1888 454 .

The round seed is similar to that of colewort [2-146] — black. and it brings wounds to a scar. The root. tender. 3-75] with many sprigs. The root (taken in a drink) helps those bitten by snakes. This has a stalk similar to selinum [3-74. It soothes gaseousness in the stomach. SMURNION Levisticum vulgare [Brunfels]. It grows in dry rocky or hilly places and untilled corners. and they stop discharges of the bowels. Smyrnium perfoliatum — Cretan Alexanders myrnium (which they call petroselinum in Cilicia) grows plentifully on the hill called Amanus. and bladder. Angelica levisticum — Lovage. somewhat thick. it also soothes coughs and orthopnoea [difficult breathing. 4-116] to the taste. 1-73. biting the top of the throat. The leaves are eaten preserved in brine like vegetables. Mountain Hemlock POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Smyrnium. full of juice. with sharpness. spleen. Ligusticum levisticum [Linnaeus]. sharp. Taken as a drink with wine it expels the menstrual flow and afterbirth. Levisticum [Fuchs]. It is especially taken in a drink for dropsy. with the bark black on the outside. strong and sweet smelling. it dissolves recent oedema. and inclining to a faint yellow in colour. making one for one. S 455 . but the leaves are broader towards the ground. fragrant. and recurrent fevers. [other usage] Smyrnium dioscorides. but pale within or a faint white. Boiled and applied as a pessary it causes abortion.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-79. Ligusticum vulgare [Bauhin]. Applied. and is good for sciatica. The seed is good for the kidneys. Levisticum officinale [in Sprague]. and heals difficult painful urination. herb and seed are warming. There is a tuft on the stalk similar to that of dill [3-67]. They wind around beneath. asthma]. inflammations and hard lumps. like myrrh [1-77. The root is sharp. and causes sweat and belching. Levisticum vulgare. Levisticum officinale. and a medicinal scent.

Taken as a drink with wine it is suitable for those bitten by snakes. herpyxe or lyme. 3-81. the Romans call it cervi ocellum. others nephrium. and lessens the burning heat of fevers and nausea of the stomach. with pale yellow tufts similar to dill flowers [3-67]. is able to draw down milk [in breastfeeding]. Foeniculum vulgare Germanicum [Bauhin]. The green seed together with the 456 M . and the seed is also similar to dill. broken around in a sharp way. ascacau. as does the seed taken in a drink or boiled together with barley water. A decoction of the fronds (taken as a drink) is good for inflamed kidneys and disorders of the bladder as it is diuretic. The new stalks are eaten [as vegetables] like other herbs. The leaves are two fingers-breadth. Anethum foeniculum [Linnaeus] — Common Fennel [other usage] Marathrum [Bedevian] — Waterweed arathrum (the herb itself). the Egyptians chemis. as a result the seed is given with wine to those bitten by snakes. The root is about the length of three fingers. ophioctonon. ophigenium. ELAPHOBOSKON SUGGESTED: Elafobosco Vero [Italian]. The roots (pounded into small pieces and applied with honey) heal dog bites. MARATHRON SUGGESTED: Foeniculum [Fuchs]. such as for restoration of the sight. white. Broad-leaved Hog’s Fennel produces peucedanin — see 3-92 E laphoboscum has a knotty stalk similar to libanotis or to marathrum [3-81]. They say that deer having fed on this very herb thereby resist the bites of snakes. Some call it elaphicum. Peucedanum ostrithium. very long like terminthos [1-91]. Foeniculum capillaceum. The stalk has very many little sprigs. Imperatoria ostrithium — Masterwort. Foeniculum foeniculum. the thickness of a finger. eaten. Juice from the bruised stalks and leaves (dried in the sun) is a useful preparation for eye medicines. sweet and edible. Foeniculum officinale. and the Africans. Taken as a drink with cold water it expels the menstrual flow.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-80.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Cnicus benedictus from ENGLER-PRANTL — 1897 457 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Circaea alpina after FAGUET — 1878 458 .

ophioctonon. and cleans women after childbirth. 3-82. herpyxe. Applied. A decoction of the leaves (taken as a drink) brings out milk [breastfeeding]. it expels the menstrual flow. 459 . faeniculos. The properties of it are similar to those above. cuinos. the Egyptians. the Magi. working more weakly. helps those bitten by poisonous beasts. Cachrys libanotis. ophigenium. kidney]. It is also called marathrum sylvestre. heating. and the Africans. Romans. thymarnolion. sharp. breaks stones [urinary. and the Gauls. some. A decoction of the seed and root (taken as a drink) stops discharges of the bowels. slender. and cleans jaundice. chemis. IPPOMARATHRON SUGGESTED: Foeniculum vulgare — Wild Fennel [other usage] Hippomaratrum libanotis. In Iberia towards the west it sends out a liquid similar to gum. somewhat long leaves and the round seed is similar to that of coriander. The inhabitants cut it down around the middle of the stalk during its flowering and lay it by the fire so that (as it were) in a sweat near the warmth it may exude the gum. and taken in a drink cures slow painful urination. There is another herb called hippomarathrum that has small.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK leaves and branches is juiced for the same purposes. or lyme. faeniculum erraticum. with a sweet scent. as well as the root when the new stems emerge. sistrameor. ascacau. The root underneath has a sweet scent. and this is more effective than the juice for eye medicines. the Romans call it cervi ocellum. Cachola — Rosemary Frankincense see 3-87 Hippomaratrum siculus — Hairy Hippomarathrum H ippomarathrum is the tall wild marathrum. nephrium. It is also called elaphicum. It bears seed similar to cachryi [3-88]. or meum. the Egyptians call it sampsos. others.

rough and sweet smelling when chewed. it dissolves oedema. The seed in the pods resembles milium [3-158]. sweet smelling and hot to one who tastes it. The flower is similar to the white violet. and in these is the seed which is sharp. a stalk twenty centimetres long. with white flowers. white. Only the seed of all the others is useful. similar to dolphins (from which they are named). somewhat long. The flowers are white. A decoction (taken as a drink with wine) helps those bitten by harvest spiders. Wild Carrot pastinaca is from the Latin for daucus see 3-59 SUGGESTED: Pastinaca sativa. D 3-84. There is another kind similar to wild selinum — sharp. This is taken as a drink with wine (especially) against harm from poisonous beasts. sharp like cumin. but of the Cretan kind the root is also useful. It grows in rocky sunny places. twenty centimetres in length. and frees one from griping. is an abortifacient. The root is about the thickness of a finger. relieving old coughs. but a head and seed similar to dill [3-67]. DELPHINION SUGGESTED: Delphinium oxysepalum — Tatra Larkspur 250 species in genus — POISONOUS elphinium sends out shoots two feet long (or more) from one root. Pastinaca aucus (which is also called dircaeum) from Crete has leaves similar to marathrum [3-81] yet smaller and more slender. Pastinaca dissecta [Loudon] — Parsnip Daucus carota var boissieri — Parsnip. The third kind has leaves similar to coriander. DAUKOS lucida. Applied. They also say 460 D . full of long seed.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-83. and a tuft similar to coriander. A decoction of the seed of any of them (taken as a drink) is warming. but that from Crete is the best. with a purple colour. around which are little cut-in leaves — thin. induces the flow of urine. It expels the menstrual flow. and (taken as a drink in wine) helps those bitten by scorpions like nothing else can. On the head is a tuft similar to pastinaca [3-59].

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Atractylis hirsutior from FUCHS — 1545 461 .

Carlina corymbosa] from FUCHS — 1545 462 .ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Atractylis vulgaris minor [errore.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK that scorpions grow faint and become inactive and numb when the herb is applied to them. or cronios. and when it is taken away they are restored to their former state. and the Romans. it expels phlegm. nereadium. or arnopurites. It is also called diachysis. T Delphinium peregrinum after FAGUET — 1894 3-86. similar to hair curled round. It draws out phlegm. salivaris. pyrinon. Cost. and a tuft like dill [3-67]. and is excellent for chilled or paralytic parts of the body. Alexander’s Foot [other usage] Pyrethrum tanacetum — Tansy. Costmary Pyrethrum balsamita — Pyrethrum. the Romans call it bucinus. Anthemis pyrethrum [Linnaeus]. paralysis. sosacros. DELPHINION ETERON SUGGESTED: Delphinium elatum 250 species in genus — poisonous he other delphinium is similar to that above. extremely burning and hot to one who tastes it. as a result boiled with vinegar and used as a mouthwash it helps toothache. diachytos. It grows in rough sunny places. Feverfew SUGGESTED: Pyrethrum yrethrum is a herb which sends out a stalk and leaves like wild daucus [3-83] and marathrum [3-81]. delphinias. pyroton. PURETHRON [Fuchs]. pyrothron. The root is long. nerion. Chewed. is helpful for long-lasting chills. hyacinthus. camaros. It is also called dorycnion. Anacyclus pyrethrum [in Sprague] — Pellitory of Spain. It is also called hyacinthum. the Magi call it purites. P 463 . yet is much more slender in the leaves and branches. and rubbed on with oil it produces sweats. 3-85. the Romans call it buccinus minor. It has the same properties as that previously mentioned. but it is not altogether as effective. about the thickness of the big finger.

and are good for those bitten by venomous creatures. and chewed is burning to the taste. old disorders in the chest. rocky places. Juice from the root and herb (mixed with honey and rubbed on) restores the sight. LIBANOTIS SUGGESTED: Libanotis. convulsions. and applied it dissolves old oedemas. but when broken white. A decoction (taken as a drink with wine) expels the menstrua [menstrual flow] and urine. cure griping. It has leaves similar to marathrum [3-81] but thicker and broader. With honey the dry roots clean ulcers. It grows in rough. Candy Carrot Hippomaratrum libanotis. lying like a wheel on the ground. and on the top is a tuft in which is a lot of white seed shaped like a vertebra. and gout in the feet. smelling sweet. Pounded into small pieces and applied with lolium meal [2-116.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-87. The root is black on the outer part. 3-89 ibanotis has two types — one of which bears fruit called zea by some (or campsanema). round. very large. A decoction of the seed (taken as a drink) does the same. Athamanta cretensis. and dissolves suppurations that are dissolved with difficulty. 4-140] and vinegar. Cachrys libanotis. but it bears a broad black seed like sphondylium [3-90]. Rubbed on with oil it causes sweat. sharp smelling. similar to rosin. Athamanta annua — Cretan Carrot. and smells of frankincense. That which is called infertile (being similar to that mentioned before) sends out neither stalk nor flower nor seed. Athamanta — Mountain Spignel see 1-3. sweet-smelling. 3-60 to 3-62 Libanotis cretensis. the seed of which is called cachris [see cachry below]. Mixed with the sharpest vinegar it cleans vitiligines [form of leprosy]. The root is white. The stalk is a foot and more [in length] with many wings. and jaundice. The herb of all of them in general (pounded and applied) stops haemorrhoids. it is good for hernia. The second kind is similar in everything to the first. Cachola — Rosemary Frankincense see 3-88. Given with pepper and wine it helps epilepsy. not burning. lessens inflammations (such as in the perineum) and venereal warts. and 464 L . with corners.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Melissophyllum verum from FUCHS — 1545 465 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Teucrium from FUCHS — 1545 466 .

and in gleucinum [1-67] ointments. Peter’s Cress see 3-87 C achry is warming and extraordinarily drying. It is boiled in water and given to drink before exercises. with leaves similar to wild lettuce. thin. somewhat long. Cachrys maritimum — Samphire. around which are small leaves — thick. and then he who exercises bathes and is drenched with wine. LIBANOTIS SUGGESTED: Libanotis coronaria. Theophrastus speaks of a libanotis growing with erica. with a strong scent. It is warming and cures jaundice. as a result it is good mixed with sebaceous treatments. Sea Fennel. Old Man L ibanotis the Romans call rosmarinus and those who plait wreaths for the head use it. It is also mixed with remedies for the removal of fatigue.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK for abscesses we ought to use the kind that bears no cachrys [seed]. white on the inside. and has a short root. A decoction of this (taken as a drink) purges upward and downward. but the leaves are paler and sharper than those of lettuce. 467 . which is bitter. for that is sharp and harsh to the throat. and it is sprinkled on the head and wiped off after three days for rheumatic eyes. 3-88. Rosmarinus [Fuchs]. Rosmarinus officinalis [Linnaeus] — Common Rosemary. The shoots are slender. KAGCHRU SUGGESTED: Cachrys libanotis — Rosemary Frankincense Cachrys panacifolia — Parsnip-leaved Cachrys Crithmum maritimum. but green on the outside. 3-89.

Applied with rue [3-52] it restrains herpes [viral skin infection]. If the head is moistened with it (with oil). and the Magi. It is given with wine to those bitten by snakes. it is good for fever of the brain. Shaved and inserted it eliminates the hardness of fistulas [ulcers]. It grows in moist. The root is given to the jaundiced and liverish.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-90. asthma. it revives those who fall in a faint. S 3-91. the Egyptians. similar to seselis. Heracleum sphondylium [Linnaeus]. the Romans call it herba rotularis. paler. and headaches. asterium. osiris. nisyris. Cow Parsnip. The stalks cause headaches if eaten. placed in the sun like other juices. Narthex asafoeteda — Asafoetida. epilepsy and constriction of the womb. phondylium has leaves somewhat similar to platanus [1-107] as well as to those of panax [3-55]. Rubbed on with oil it encourages sweating. Sphondylium branca ursina — Meadow Parsnip. The ferula frequently brings forth a stalk fifty 468 T . It is also preserved. jaundice. NARTHEX SUGGESTED: Ferula foetida. The fresh juice from the flower is good for ulcerated and purulent ears. lethargy. choradanon. Taken in a drink it cures the liver. apsapher. Inhaled. and put in as a tent [a curved slice inserted] it stops flows of blood from the nostrils. sphondulis. The seed on the top is double. It is also called arangem. or oenanthe. Ferula puberula. Taken in a drink the seed helps those troubled with griping. The flowers are white. phalangium. marshy countries. and huskier. Hogweed JUICE CAUSES BLISTERS AND PERMANENT PURPLE PIGMENTATION SUGGESTED: Acanthus germanica [Fuchs]. but broader. and the root is white like raphanus [2-137]. with a strong scent. They are also preserved in brine. SPHONDULION Sphondylium vulgare hirsutum [Bauhin]. Assafoetida he pith of narthex (which the Romans call ferula) taken in a drink whilst it is green helps bloodspitting and stomach complaints. The stalks are a foot high (or rather more) similar to marathrum [3-81]. The seed of this (taken in a drink) purges phlegmy stuff through the bowels.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Artemisia latifolia from FUCHS — 1545 469 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Melissophyllum vulgare from FUCHS — 1545 470 .

It has thick hairs in abundance around the root. and rubbed on with oil and vinegar for the convulsed. It should be inhaled for womb constriction. Gathering it causes headaches and brings on vertigo if you do not rub your nostrils beforehand with rosaceum [1-53]. for those who have suffered for a long time with headaches. vertigo. and that which flows from it is presently placed in the shade (for under direct sunlight it is coloured immediately). the root black. It is effective for hard breathing. with a strong scent. It gently soothes the intestines. yellowish. 3-92. revives those who fall in a faint. PEUKEDANON SUGGESTED: Peucedanum germanicum [Bauhin] Peucedanum officinale [Linnaeus]. griping and windy afflictions. very full of liquid. It is good rubbed on with vinegar and rosaceum [1-53] for lethargy. and wonderfully helps hard labour in childbirth. Sometimes a fluid similar to frankincense is found. slender stalk similar to marathrum [3-81]. It is good (taken with an egg) for coughs. with a strong scent. Sulphur Weed see 3-80 eucedanum sends out a thin. It removes blockages 471 P . The liquid is taken as follows: the root whilst still tender is cut with a knife. The flower is yellow. for the paralytic. and epilepsy. Selinum officinale. The stalks and the root have their liquid removed like mandrake and are juiced. The juice made in Sardinia and Samothracia is the best. warming to the taste.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK centimetres long. A decoction (taken as a drink) is effective for disorders and matters related to the bladder and kidneys. lessens the spleen. from which (cut in near to the root) comes the sagapenum [see 3-95] (gum). and put into cavities for toothache. Selinum peucedanum — Hog’s Fennel. already congealed. It is good for earache dropped in with of oil of roses. It grows on shady hills. sciatica. mental illness. The root becomes useless having lost its liquid. but this liquid does not work as well and quickly becomes useless. The scent is good in general for disorders of the strength. It has leaves similar to marathrum [3-81] yet much thicker and bigger. and drives away snakes. sticking to the stalks and to the roots. and also wet your head beforehand with it.

old oedema. the mouth washed with it (boiled with vinegar and taeda [pitch pine]). stataria. it cleans foul ulcers. working less effectively. It is also called agrion. Black Cumin Melanthium alterum Damascenum vocatum. sweet smelling. the Magi call it bonus daemon. some. A decoction of this (pounded into small pieces) is taken as a drink. It is good applied to the forehead for those troubled with headaches. Drunk for several days it draws out the menstrual flow. or agriophyllon. It is mixed with stiff ointments and warm compresses. bound up in a loincloth and inhaled. Nigella sativa [Linnaeus] — Common Fennel Flower. Choose roots that are new. somewhat long. and a small little head on the top like poppy. rue. Nigella hortensis altera [Fuchs]. and the Romans. used sprinkled on loaves. Devil in a Bush Melanthium sylvestre. Pounded into small pieces. and warm bread or dill [3-67]. and heals old ulcers. full of scent. leprosy. Nigella angustifolia [Bauhin]. pinasgelum. urine and 472 M . It is poured into the nostrils (after it is pounded into small pieces with irinum [1-66]) for those who begin to have liquids dripping from their eyes. Applied with old wine it takes away corns that are first incised or cut around. it expels roundworms. It has small leaves similar to senecio [ragwort] but much more slender. The root is effective for the same purposes. elanthium is a little shrub with slender shoots two feet in length or more. 3-93. Cuminum sylvestre alterum [Fuchs]. uneaten [by worms]. Nigella damascena [Linnaeus] — Love in a Mist. with side partitions in which are seed — black. and hard lumps. The nail [fingernail for application] smeared with it with water. it helps those troubled with mucus. Applied with vinegar it takes away freckles. The liquid is dissolved in pills with bitter almonds. sharp. Dried.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS of the womb. MELANTHION Schwartz Kommich [Fuchs]. sound. It is good for toothache. removes scales from bones. Nigella arvensis [Linnaeus] POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Melanthium hortense primum.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Scordium from FUCHS — 1545 473 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Silphium perfoliatum after THIEBAULT — 1888 474 .

and the leaves maspeta. Osteritium [Fuchs]. The Median and Syrian are weaker in strength and they have a more poisonous smell. SILPHION Imperatoria major [Bauhin]. called maspetum. It tastes good mixed with sauces and salt. The liquid is gathered from the roots and stalks that are cut. A decoction (taken as a drink with wine) eases difficult breathing. A decoction (taken as a drink) is an antitoxin for deadly medicines. SUGGESTED: Laserpitium germanicum. [other usage] Silphium laciniatum — Compass Plant S ilphium grows in places around Syria. The stalk. A teaspoonful (taken as a drink with water) helps those bitten by harvest spiders. Some have called the stalk sylphium. Some also call this mecon agria melana. it takes away abnormal growths around the perineum. goitres] and tuberculae [nodules] used in a wax ointment. It cures scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling. is very like ferula [3-95]. Imperatoria ostruthium [Linnaeus]. sight and feel. Although you taste ever so little of the Cyrenian.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK milk [breastfeeding]. sagapenum [3-95] or bean meal being mixed with it. it drives away snakes. so that if you taste it your mouth breathes but a little of it. and hurts the bladder. Broad-leaved Hog’s Fennel There is evidence that the silphium of the ancients was harvested to extinction. smell. 3-94. Boiled in a pomegranate skin with vinegar and applied. the root magudarim. neither scented like leek nor unpleasant to taste. 1-73. and it is very gentle to smell. Of this the best is somewhat red and transparent (emulating myrrh [1-77. 4-116]). Media and Libya. The juice is 475 . or smeared on bruises with oil. and predominant in its smell. it causes dullness over your body. The root is warming. They say that it kills if a lot is taken (in a drink). Peucedanum ostruthium [in Sprague] — Masterwort. hard to digest. inflative. and easily changing into a white colour. which you shall discern by the taste. Inhaled. but with leaves similar to apium [3-77] and a broad seed. Armenia. With a wax ointment of irinum [1-66] and cyprinum [1-65] it is suitable for use in sciatica. All the juice is adulterated before it is dry. the Romans call it papaver niger.

A decoction (taken as a drink with pepper and myrrh [1-77. It takes away corns and fleshy hardnesses that are first cut in all around. or by itself. It is poured into gangrene that is first incised or cut.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS the most effective. It is good for those whose milk curdles within [breastfeeding]. 1-73. With honey and water it is an effective gargle for synanchic [abscessed] throats. Smeared on with honey it represses inflammation of the uvula. and to be sipped for pleurisy. For toothache it is put into cavities. pepper and vinegar. saltpetre [potassium nitrate] and honey. malignant skin tumours] it is used with rue. and smeared on with honey disperses the dripping of fluids [in the eyes] as they begin. Gargled with vinegar it casts off horseleeches that stick to the throat. Taken with meat it makes skin better coloured. and taken with vinegar and honey helps epilepsy. and it is good for coughs given with a raw egg. and rubbed on or taken as a drink for injuries from all poisonous beasts and poisoned arrows. It helps long-lasting difficulties of the lungs. or the mouth is washed with it (with hyssop [3-30] and figs boiled with posca [hot drinks]). and then the stalk. With dry figs it is effective for jaundice and dropsy. Diluted in water and sipped. It is rubbed on diluted in oil for those touched by scorpions. For carcomata [carcinomata — now cancer — old use: disease of the cornea] and polyps [growths from mucus membrane] it is rubbed on for several days with cobblers ink or aerugo [verdigris — brass oxide]. A decoction (taken as a drink with lye [alkaline salts in water]) helps sudden convulsions and hernia. A decoction (taken as a drink) with pepper. but you must pull off protuberances with a pair of pliers. or put into a linen cloth with frankincense it is wrapped around the tooth. It is good applied to the wounds of those bitten by dogs. curing alopecia [baldness] by rubbing it with wine. 4-116]) induces the menstrual flow. and to the opisthotonic [form of tetanus]. Taken with raisins it helps the coeliac [intestinal complaints]. It is inflative and sharp. For carbuncles [infected boils. Having made ten grains of it into a pill give it to swallow to those with tetanus. It causes quickness of sight. It is first kneaded together with wax ointment (or the inside of dry figs and vinegar) to cure recent lichen [skin disease]. It is 476 . frankincense and wine dissolves chills. it immediately clears a voice that is suddenly hoarse. then the leaves.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Rosmarinus from FUCHS — 1545 477 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Botrys from FUCHS — 1545 478 .

Inhaled with vinegar it raises up those with a strangled [congested. When pierced like this it also spills on the ground. things that darken the pupils. smelling in-between the juice of silphium [3-94] and galbanum. It is full of very sharp liquid. and gather it as follows. with a loose substance and without juice. Giant Fennel produces sagapenum gum resin agapenum is the liquid of the ferulacean herb growing in Media. S 3-96. bitter almonds and honey. but is considerably less effective. Taken with wine it also heals those bitten by venomous creatures. blocked] womb. a hill near Mauretania. The best is transparent.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK dissolved in pills with bitter almonds. and (especially) for cut-off voices [laryngitis]. 4-98] or warm bread. also 4-170 uphorbium is a tree-like ferula in Libya that grows on Tmolus. rue [3-52. SAGAPENON SUGGESTED: Ferula persica — Ferula. 3-53. the root of which is similar to silphium but somewhat less thick — sharp. a yellow colour outside but white inside. The men there are afraid of it because of its extraordinary heat. and the juice of the leaves [is used] in the same way. It is eaten with vinegar and honey and is good for the arteries. It does the same things as silphium. There are two kinds of this liquid: one 479 E . It cleans scars in the eyes. they pierce the stalk with long tools. and presently a quantity of liquid flows out (like out of some jar) into the bellies. and dripping fluids. water. and is an abortifacient. Binding around the tree washed sheep stomachs and standing a distance away. 3-95. There is said to be another magudaris [gift of the wise man] that grows in Libya. dullness of sight. It is dissolved as a liquid with rue. or warm bread. and sharp to the taste. It is good for pains. They eat it [as a salad] with lettuce instead of eruca. EUPHORBION SUGGESTED: Euphorbia amygdaloides — Wood Spurge Euphorbia officinarum — Poisonous Gum Thistle see tithymal 4-165 a-f.

and boils or inflammatory tumours. hard breathing. attractive and dispersing. as a result it is mixed with honey and collyriums [1642CE — eye salve. Either applied or inhaled it expels the menstrual flow and is an abortifacient. 1748CE — suppository] depending on the sharpness. with something like seeds of ferula mixed. and convulsions. so that whatever is brought seems to be euphorbium. burning. pure. The best is similar to frankincense. it raises up the epileptic. Inhaled. It is mixed with aromatic liquid medicines and is good (taken as a drink) for sore hips. It removes scales from bones the same day. It is also swallowed down for old coughs. neither too moist nor too dry. CHALBANE SUGGESTED: Ferula galbaniflua — Galbanum Plant used in incense albanum is the resin of the ferula growing in Syria. Inhaled. The first discovery of it was when Juba was king of Libya. Smeared on with vinegar and saltpetre [potassium nitrate] it takes away freckles. 1-73. clotted. It is also called metopium [1-71]. 3-97. hernia. A decoction (taken as a drink) burns for a whole day. Taken like this it casts out a dead embryo. A decoction (taken as a drink) with vinegar and myrrh [1-77. Choose that which is transparent and sharp. It is adulterated with sarcocolla and glue mixed together. Some claim that no hurt will fall on those bitten by snakes if (having cut the skin of the head even to the bone) you pour in this resin (pounded into small pieces) and sew up the wound. It is warming. but the other that is gathered in the bellies has a glassy look and is compact. 4-116] resists poison. asthma. but it is necessary for those who use it to secure the flesh lying around the bones with linen cloths or stiff ointments. and helps womb congestion and those with vertigo. They adulterate it by mixing it with rosin. The juice rubbed on has the ability to dissolve liquids.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS transparent like sarcocolla [3-99] (similar to ervum [2-129. fat. with a strong scent. not woody. 2-131]). but that which is tasted is very hard to test because the tongue having been once bitten the burning remains for a long time. it 480 G . bruised beans and ammoniacum [3-98]. It is applied for pains in the side.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Matricaria pyrethrum after THIEBAULT — 1888 481 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Peucedanus from FUCHS — 1545 482 .

Smeared on the tooth or put into a cavity it soothes toothaches. eye sockets]. similar to castor [2-26] in smell. Peucedanum ammoniacum — Gum Ammoniacum Plant. or burned brass. without filth. cleans white spots on the cornea [eye]. It expels bloody urine. and takes away pains of the joints and hips. and dissolves hardness and inflammation of bones. Dorema SUGGESTED: Dorema ammoniacum. clear and thick. One teaspoonful of a decoction (taken as a drink with vinegar) lessens the spleen. and those who have moisture in the chest. It is called thrausma. but bitter to the taste. without stones. It is softening. epileptics.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK drives away poisonous beasts. orthopnoeic [those with difficulty breathing]. A decoction (taken as a drink) brings down the intestines and is an abortifacient. or warm bread. 3-98. and keeps those rubbed with it unbitten. When melted the filth from it will swim on top and you can separate it as follows. for this way the best will be melted (as through a strainer) but the woody stuff will remain in the linen cloth. hang it in a brass pot or ceramic jar so that the bundle does not touch the bottom of the jar. Dorema aurium. AMMONIAKON Diserneston gummiferum. Licked with honey (or sipped with juice of barley water) it also helps the asthmatic. or else with meconium [4-65]. If you want to purify it put it into warm water. The whole shrub (together with the root) is called agasyllis. is not woody. It is the liquid of a ferula that grows in Libya near Cyrene. chin. Applied all over [the body] with sphondylium [3-90] and oil it kills snakes. attracting and warming. The best has a good colour. Pounded into small 483 A . and removes the roughness of the gene [cheeks. or liquid myrica gale). The earthy or stony is called phurama. It is dissolved in pills with bitter almonds and water (or rue. or honey and water. Gum of Ammon. Tie the galbanum in a clean thin linen cloth. and it seems to be good for frequent painful urination. Plug it closed and pour boiling water over it. mmoniacum is the herb from which ammoniacan incense is gathered. similar to frankincense in little clots. It grows in Libya near Ammon’s temple and is the juice of a tree similar to ferula.

It is able to close open cuts and sore wounds. and afterwards beat them to press out the juice. with a strong scent. It is white and transparent. Glaucium leiocarpum. The inhabitants throw the leaves into a pot. warm it in half-cold ovens until withered. Glaucium phoeniceum — Red Horned Poppy see 4-64 G laucium is the juice of a herb that grows at Hierapolis in Syria.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS pieces with vinegar and applied. it softens hard lumps around the spleen and liver. saltpetre [potassium nitrate]. 3-100. It is counterfeited by gum being mixed with it. KOLLA SUGGESTED: Glue from the hides of Bulls he best glutinum (also called xylocolla or taurocolla) is that from Rhodes made from bull hides. and somewhat bitter to the taste. or heliastrus. GLAUKION SUGGESTED: Chelidonium corniculatum. it dissolves knobs around the joints [arthritis]. and more bitter to the taste. and oil cyprinum [1-65]. It has considerable quantities of saffron-coloured juice. SARKOKOLLA SUGGESTED: Sarcocolla [Bedevian] — Sarcocol S arcocolla is the fluid of a tree growing in Persia (similar to thin frankincense) dark yellow. 3-99. Glaucium corniculatum. but the black glue is bad. Applied with honey or mixed with pitch. The leaves are similar to the horned poppy but fatter. Dissolved in vinegar it is able to take away impetigo [skin infection] and 484 T . it is good for weariness and sciatica (instead of medications to remove fatigue). 3-101. scattered on the ground. and to stop fluids in the eyes. It is used for new eye sores because it is cooling. It is also called agasyllon. and the Romans call it gutta. It is mixed with plasters. Rubbed on mixed with vinegar. criotheos.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Anthemis arvensis after THIEBAULT — 1888 485 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Chamaedrys vulgaris mas from FUCHS — 1545 486 .

It is able to disperse. Diluted with warm water and smeared on. It heals epinyctis [pustules which appear only at night] in an adhesive plaster. it reduces the spleen. Loranthus europaeus — Continental Mistletoe PARTS ARE POISONOUS he best ixia is new. It also grows on the apple tree. T 487 . and medicines for making facial skin smooth. Mixed with unslaked lime and wine sediment. The best is made in Pontus — white. its strength is extended. This fruit is pounded. very quickly melted. agate stone. and digest swellings and inflammation of the parotid gland and other suppurations. with no part rough or branny. medicines for leprosy. it prevents burns from blistering. It is made of a certain round fruit (with leaves similar to box) that grows on the oak. or asiatic [Centella asiatica — asiaticoside]) and applied. T 3-103. the colour of a leek on the inside. and pale yellow on the outside. Smeared with arsenic or sacarach [saccharate — salt of saccharic acid] it also draws off nails. but some process it by chewing it. With frankincense it softens old ulcers and malignant suppurations. 3-102.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK leprosy on the outside of the skin. IXOS SUGGESTED: Viscum album [Linnaeus]. pear tree and other trees. and afterwards boiled in water. soften. Boiled (with quicklime. mixed equally with wax and rosin. ICHTHUOKOLLA SUGGESTED: Fish Glue hat called fish glue is from the intestines of a whale fish. It is good to include in head plasters. attract. Diluted with honey and vinegar it is good for wounds. then washed. somewhat rough. not scabby.

The seed. The herb sticks to cloths. and the shepherds use it instead of a strainer for milk. The flowers are white. The herb (taken in pounded swines’ grease) dissolves scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling] and goitres. lysson is a somewhat rough little shrub with round leaves. Hanged on them with a purple cloth. philanthropum. Pounded into small pieces with honey it cleans freckles. or adeseton. Moonwort Sprengel says this is Alyssum alpestre [Loudon]. A 488 . somewhat hollow in the middle (like a navel). The fruit is similar to little double shields. and ixos.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-104. It is also called ampelocarpum. ALUSSON SUGGESTED: Marrubium alysson. stalks and leaves are juiced (taken as a drink with wine) to help those bitten by harvest spiders and snakes. Cleavers. A 3-105. A decoction of this (taken as a drink) dissolves afflictions in those without fever. It is also called aspidium. Hanged in a house it is said to be wholesome and an amulet for men and beasts. When held or smelled it has a similar effect. for taking out hairs with it. Galium aparine — Catch Grass. It grows in hilly and rough places. haplophyllon. white. The leaves are at distances lying about in a circle (like those of rubia [dyer’s madder]). Sticky Willy parine has many little square rough branches. APARINE SUGGESTED: Aparine vulgaris [Bauhin]. the seed hard. Pounded together in meat and given. omphelocarpum. round. in which is the somewhat broad seed. The juice dropped in ears cures earache. Goosegrass. accuseton. it drives away sores on cattle. it is thought to cure madness in a dog. Marrubium alyssum — Plaited-leaved Horehound.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Phalaris canariensis after FAGUET — 1888 489 .

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS Anthemis nobilis after THIEBAULT — 1888 490 .

sclepias sends out many long little branches (similar to cissus). It has prickly little heads on the top and a pale flower. A 3-107. colus. Carlina gummifera — White Chameleon. cnicus sylvestris. The flower smells strongly. Hirundinaria. and others. and slender roots with a sweet scent. Silkweed Thapsia asclepium [Loudon] — Deadly Carrot POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Asclepias. the Romans. cheno. It is also called cission. Vincetoxicum officinale [in Sprague] — Milkweed [other usage] Asclepias syriaca — Milkweed. ASKLEPIAS Asclepias albo flore [Bauhin]. The leaves. The leaves are applied for malignant sores in the breasts and womb. fusus agrestis. Wilder Feldsaffran [Fuchs]. A 491 . and most of it is naked and rough. A decoction of the roots (taken as a drink in wine) helps those with griping and those bitten by poisonous beasts. Asclepias vincetoxicum [Linnaeus]. Bauhin]. Atractylis vulgaris minor [Brunfels]. ATRAKTULIS SUGGESTED: Atractylis mitior. Cnicus benedictus [Linnaeus]. Carduus benedictus — Blessed Thistle [other usage] Atractylis gummifera. Carlina vulgaris [Linnaeus]. some. the Magi call it aphedros. and fruit of this plant (pounded into small pieces and taken as a drink with pepper and wine) help those touched by scorpions. Atractylis hirsutior. and taking it away are in pain again. Spindle Wort tractylis is a thorn similar to cnicus [ 4-119. It grows on hills. Cartamus sylvestris. Some relate that those touched this way are without pain as long as they hold the herb. and the seed is rather like that of securidaca (that which gives peace). filaments.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-106. but the root is thin and useless. the Egyptians. presepium. or aspidium. Carduus benedictus [Fuchs. Women use it instead of a spindle. 4-190] with much longer leaves on the top of the shoots. It is also called amyron. Vincetoxicum [Fuchs]. or cissophullon. Cnicus sylvestris hirsutior [Bauhin].

It stops discharges of the bowels boiled down two thirds and taken as a drink (in wine for the non-feverish. pleasant smell. with leaves similar to serpyllum [3-46]. hernia. and casts off hanging warts. or echeonymon. It is also called cleollicum. convulsions. similar to marrubium [3-38]. The herb (and a decoction of it) is taken as a drink for the bites of venomous creatures. You must loosen it after it has been applied for five days. KLINOPODION SUGGESTED: Clinopodium vulgare. 4-176 C linopodium is a little shrub full of shoots two feet high that grows on rocks. 492 . but for the feverish with water). and slow painful urination. A decoction (taken as a drink for many days) draws out the menstrual flow. and the Romans call it puteologonthria. or zopyrum. and flowers like the feet of a bed. Field Wild Basil see 3-50. Melissa clinopodium.) It is also called clinopodium. Calamintha clinopodium — Wild Basil. It does not have a tuft but little clusters on the top with a certain sharp. Polycnemum recurvum P olycnemon is a shrub full of sprigs. (Experience has taught how the little branches bruised in white wine are a great help for those possessed with the so-called water delirium. with leaves similar to origanum. is an abortifacient. It is effective (applied green. set around at distances. It is taken in a drink with wine for slow painful urination and hernia. with water) for closing open cuts and sore wounds. polygonatum. ocimoides. 3-109. and a stalk with many joints like pulegium [3-36]. or dried.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-108. colus iovis. POLUKNEMON SUGGESTED: Polycnemum arvense. Horse Thyme.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Rubia tinctorum after FAGUET — 1881

493

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS

Ajuga reptans after FAGUET — 1874

494

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

3-110. LEONTOPETALON
SUGGESTED: Leontice leontopetalum —

Lion's Turnip

Leontice, Lion's Leaf,

eontopetalum sends out a stalk twenty centimetres long (or rather more) with many wings on whose tops are pods similar to cicer [2-126]. In these are two or three little seeds. The flowers are a Phoenician colour [red] (similar to anemone), but the leaves are similar to colewort [kale], cut-in like those of poppy. The root is black like rapum [turnip] with abnormal growths (as it were), some knotty. It grows in fields and among wheat. A decoction of the root (taken as a drink with wine) helps those bitten by snakes, quickly relieving their pain. It is also mixed with enemas or suppositories for sciatica. It is also called leontopodium, leontium, doricteris, lychnis sylvestris, doris, pardale, thorybethron, rapeium, papaver corniculatum, or anemone; the Romans call it papaverculum, and semen leoninum.

L

3-111. TEUKRION
SUGGESTED: Teucrium [Fuchs, Bauhin], Teucrium flavum [Linnaeus] — Germander

[other usage] Teucrium creticum, Teucrium hyssopifolium — Cretan Germander Teucrium scordioides, Teucrium scorodinia — Wood Germander, Wood Sage, Garlic Sage

eucrium is a herb like a rod (resembling germander), with a thin leaf similar to that of cicer [2-126]. It grows abundantly in Cilicia (in that part near Gentias), and Kissas. A decoction (taken green, as a drink with posca [hot drinks]; or dried, boiled, and taken excessively as a drink) is able to diminish the spleen. With figs and vinegar it is applied to the splenical. For those bitten by poisonous beasts it is applied with vinegar alone (without figs). Some call this chamedrys, others, teucris.

T

495

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS

3-112. CHAMAIDRUS
[Fuchs], Chamaedrys minor repens,Teucrium chamaedrys [Linnaeus] — Common Germander, Ground Oak, Wall Germander Chamaedrys vera foemina [Fuchs], Botrys Chamaedryoides [Bauhin], Teucrium botrys — Cut-leaved Germander see 3-130 Chamaedrys vulgaris mas, Veronica teucrium, Veronica chamaedrys [Linnaeus], Chamaedrys vulgaris foemina [Fuchs] — Wild Germander, Germander Speedwell
SUGGESTED: Chamaedrys vera mas

C

hamaedrys grows in rough rocky places. It is a small shrub twenty centimetres long, with bitter little leaves similar in shape and in the jagging to an oak. The little flower is pale purple. It must be gathered when full of seed. Freshly picked (boiled with water and given as a drink) it is able to help convulsions and coughs, as well as spleens with hardened swellings, frequent painful urination, and dropsy at first presentation. It expels the menstrual flow and is an abortifacient. A decoction (taken as a drink with vinegar) reduces the spleen. A decoction is good against venomous creatures, taken as a drink with wine and smeared on. Pounded into small pieces, it may also be formed into pills for the purposes previously mentioned. It is pounded into small pieces with honey to clean old ulcers. Rubbed on with oil it takes away dimness in the eyes. Rubbed on, it is warming. The Romans call it trissago minor, some chamedrops, or linodrys, but because it has a certain similarity to teucrium, some also have called it teucrium.

3-113. LEUKAS
SUGGESTED: Leucas foliis rotundus, Phlomis

Leucas indica — Leucas

biflora [Roxburgh];

L
496

eucas of the hill [wild] is broader-leaved than the cultivated. The seed is sharper, more bitter, and worse-tasting in the mouth, yet it is more effective than the cultivated. Both of them (smeared on and taken as a drink) are good with wine against the venom of poisonous creatures, especially those of the sea.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Althaea officinalis after FAGUET — 1874

497

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS

Milium effusum after FAGUET — 1888

498

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

3-114. LUCHNIS STEPHANOMATIKE
— Campion, Lamp Flower, Maltese Cross Lychnis coeli-rosa, Agrostemma coeli-rosa — Rose of Heaven Lychnis coronaria, Agrostemma coronaria — Rose Campion, Mullein Pink
SUGGESTED: Lychnis

ychnis has a flower similar to a white violet but almost purple, interwoven into little crowns, the seed of which (taken in a drink with wine) helps those bitten by scorpions. It is also called athanates, aquilonium, vallarium, geranopodium, corymbion, taurion, sceptrum, or maloion; the Egyptians call it seneom, the Magi call it the blood of a menstrual woman, and the Romans call it genicularis, or vallaria.

L

3-115. LUCHNIS AGRIA
SUGGESTED: Lychnis

viscaria — Viscid Campion

ychnis sylvestris is similar to the culivated in all things. Two teaspoons of a decoction of the seed (taken as a drink) expels bilious matter through the intestines and helps those touched by scorpions. They say that when this herb is laid near scorpions they become numb and unable to hurt. It is also called tragonoton, atocion, hieracopodion, or lampas, the Egyptians call it semura, the Magi call it genitals of a menstrual woman, the Romans, intybus agrestis, some, lapathum, or caphaguina, and others, seris.

L

3-116. KRINON BASILIKON
SUGGESTED: Lilium, Lilium album [Fuchs], Lilium candidum [Linnaeus] — Madonna Lily [other usage] Crinum toxicarium, Crinum asiaticum — White Lily, Lily Asphodel, Poison Bulb
POISONOUS

Lychnis viscaria after FAGUET — 1888

he flowers of crinum are used to make wreaths for the head (called lirium by some), and also to make ointment called lirinum or susinum [1-62] that soothes the sinews, and is effective for hard lumps around the womb.
499

T

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS

The leaves are applied to help those bitten by snakes. Boiled, they are good for burns, and preserved in vinegar they are good for wounds. The juice from the leaves (mixed with vinegar or honey and boiled in a brass jar) is a liquid medicine for old ulcers and new wounds. The root (roasted and pounded into small pieces with rosaceum [1-53]) cures and soothes the womb, expels the menstrual flow, and heals ulcers, making a new skin. Pounded into small pieces with honey it cures distresses of the nerves, cleans leprosy and alphos [noncontagious leprosy], takes off dandruff, clears the face, and removes wrinkles. Pounded into small pieces with vinegar (or with the leaves of hyoscyamus [4-69] and wheat flour) it soothes inflammation from stones [urinary, kidney]. A decoction of the seed (taken as a drink) is an antidote for snakebite. Both the seed and the leaves (pounded into small pieces) are a poultice with wine for erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. Some say that there are lily flowers of a purple colour. Those most effective for the manufacture of ointment grow in Syria, and in Pisidia near Pamphylia. It is also called crinanthemom, or callirium, the Magi call it sanguis martis, Osthenes calls it aura crocodili, the Egyptians, symphaephu, some, tialos, the Romans, lilium, some, rosa Iunonis, the Syrians, sasa, and the Africans, abiblabon.

3-117. BALLOTE
SUGGESTED: Ballote, Marrubium nigrum [Fuchs], Marrubium nigrum foetidum [Bauhin], Ballota nigra [Linnaeus], Balotta foetida — Black Stinking Horehound, Foetid Horehound

allota (or marrubium nigrum) sends out many black stalks that are four-cornered and somewhat rough from one root. The leaves are similar to marrubium [3-38, 3-42] yet bigger, rounder, black and rough, spaced at distances along the stalk (like apiastrum), with a strong scent (which is why they have called it apiastrum); and the flowers lie around the white stalks in a circle. The leaves (applied with salt) are good for those bitten by dogs. Warmed in warm ashes until withered, they repress skin lesions, and with honey they clean foul ulcers. It is also called nophtham, notianoscemin, cynosprasion, notheras,
500

B

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Onobrychis sativa after FAGUET — 1888

501

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS

Cannabis sativa after FAGUET — 1880

502

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

nochelis, nostelis, nophrys, gnothuris, or gnotera. The Romans call it apnium, some, melita, others, ulceraria, marrubium, or cantherinum, the Egyptians, asphos, some, esce, and the Magi call it the blood of Isis.

3-118. MELISSOPHULLON
SUGGESTED: Melissophyllum verum, Melissen [Fuchs],

Lamium montanum melissae folio [Bauhin], Melittis melissophyllum [Linnaeus] — Bastard Balm, Balm Melittis, Honey Balm

Melissophyllum adulterinum [Fuchs], Melissophyllum vulgare [Brunfels], Melissa hortensis [Bauhin], Melissa officinalis [Linnaeus], Apiastrum, Citrago — Lemon Balm, Bee Balm, Balm Leaf

elissophyllum some call melittena because bees delight in the herb. The leaves and little stalk are similar to ballota [3-117], but these are bigger, thinner, not so rough, and smell of lemon. A decoction of the leaves (taken as a drink with wine, and also applied) is good for those touched by scorpions, or bitten by harvest spiders or dogs. A decoction of them is a warm pack for the same purposes. It is suitable for women’s hip baths for moving the menstrual flow, as a mouth rinse for toothache, and as an enema or suppository for dysentery. A decoction of the leaves (taken as a drink with saltpetre [potassium nitrate]) helps those who are ill from mushrooms or griping. Taken as a linctus [syrup] it helps difficult breathing, and applied with salt it dissolves scrofulous tumours [goitres] and cleans ulcers. Smeared on, it lessens the pains of gout. It is also called melitteon, meliphyllon, erythra, or temele; the Romans call it apiastrum, some, citrago, and the Gauls, merisimorion.

M

503

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS

3-119. PRASION
Marrubium album vulgare [Bauhin], Mentastro [Italian], Marrubium vulgare [Linnaeus] — Common White Horehound [other usage] Prasium majus — Great Hedge Nettle Prasium minus —Small Sicilian Prasium
see 3-42

SUGGESTED: Marrubium [Fuchs, Brunfels],

rasium is a shrub with many branches from one root, somewhat rough, white and four-cornered in the stems. The leaf is equal to a big finger, somewhat round, thick, wrinkled, bitter to the taste. The seed lies on the stalks at distances and the flowers are sharp like the vertebrae of backbones. It grows in places near houses and rubbish of buildings. The dried leaves (with the seed) boiled with water (or juiced while green) are given with honey for tuberculosis of the lungs, asthma, and coughs. If dry iris is mixed with it, it brings up thick stuff out of the chest. It is given to women not yet cleansed for driving out the menstrual flow and the afterbirth, to women in hard labour, to those bitten by venomous creatures, and to those who have taken some deadly thing as a drink. Yet it is offensive to the bladder and veins. The leaves (smeared on with honey) clean foul ulcers, drive away pterygium [membrane on eye] and gangrenous ulceration of the cheeks, and lessen pains of the sides. The juice made from the pressed leaves (thickened in the sun) provides for the same purposes. Rubbed on with wine and honey it is a sight restorer, and it purges away jaundice through the nostrils. Dropped in by itself or with rosaceum [1-53] it is good for earaches. It is also called eupatorium, phyllophares, tripedilon, camel’s foot, or philophares; the Egyptians call it asterope, the Magi, sanguis tauri, some, aphedros, genitura hori, the Romans, marrubium, some, labeonia, and the Africans, atierberzia.

P

504

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Hypericum perforatum after THIEBAULT — 1880

505

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS

Althea from FUCHS — 1545

506

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

3-120. STACHUS
SUGGESTED: Stachys [Fuchs], Stachys

major germanica [Bauhin], Stachys germanica [Linnaeus] — Hedge Nettle, Woundwort, Betony

S

tachys is a shrub similar to marrubium [3-38] yet somewhat longer; with many thin leaves, somewhat rough, hard, with sweet scent, white; with many small shoots out of the same root, but paler than those of marrubium. It grows in rough hilly places, and it is warming and sharp. As a result a decoction of the leaves (taken as a drink) expels the menstrual flow and afterbirth.

3-121. PHULLITIS
SUGGESTED: Asplenium scolopendrium, Scolopendrium vulgare,

Scolopendrium officinarum, Phyllitis scolopendrium, Adiantum scolopendrium — Hart’s Tongue Fern, Horse Tongue

P

hyllitis sends out six or seven upright leaves similar to rumex [2-141] yet somewhat longer and more flourishing, smooth on the front parts, but on the back parts having (as it were) thin little worms hanging. It grows in shady places and pleasure gardens. It is bitter to the taste and has no stalk, seed, or flower. A decoction of the leaves (taken as a drink with wine) is good for those bitten by snakes. It is helpful for four-footed beasts [veterinary] poured in through the mouth. It is taken as a drink for dysentery and diarrhoea. It is also called phyllis, acaulon, or lapathum sylvestre.

3-122. PHALAGGION
liliago — Unbranched Lily Spiderwort Anthericum ramosum, Phalangium ramosam — Branched Lily Spiderwort
Phalangium species are now Anthericum.

SUGGESTED: Anthericum

P

halangium some call phalangite while others call it leucacantha. There are two or three (or more) stems
507

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS

distant from one another. The flowers are white like lilies with many in-cuts. The seed is thick and black similar to half of a lens [lentil] but much more slender. The small little root is thin and green while being pulled out of the earth; afterwards it contracts. It grows in hilly places. A decoction of the leaves, seeds, and flowers (taken as a drink with wine) helps those touched by scorpions or bitten by harvest spiders. It also dissolves griping.

3-123. TRIPHULLON
sativa [Fuchs], Lotus hortensis odora [Bauhin], Trifolium melilotus-coerulea [Linnaeus], Trigonella coerulea [in Sprague] — Trefoil [other usage] Trigonella corniculata, Trigonella eliator — Wild Trefoil
SUGGESTED: Trifolium odoratum, Lotus

T

rifolium is a shrub higher than a foot, with slender black stems like onion stalks with branches attached. These have are three leaves on every sprig (like the lotus tree). The smell of them when they emerge is like rue [3-52, 3-53, 4-98], but when grown it is like bitumen. It sends out a purple flower; the seed is somewhat broad and rough with at the one end (as it were), a horn. The root is thin, long and strong. The seeds and leaves (taken as a drink in water) help pleurisy, frequent painful urination, epilepsy, those beginning to have dropsy, and womb congestion. It expels the menstrual flow, but three teaspoonfuls of the seed or four teaspoonfuls of the leaves must be given. A decoction of the leaves (pounded into small pieces and taken as a drink with vinegar and honey) helps those bitten by venomous creatures. Some say that a decoction of the entire shrub with roots and leaves applied with hot cloths to those bitten by snakes soothes the pains, but if someone with an ulcer is applied with hot cloths from the water in which another was healed he feels the same pains as those bitten did. Some give three leaves in drink for fevers with recurrent paroxysms, or three seeds with wine for dissolving the circular flows of acute fevers. The root is also mixed with antidotes. It is also called oxyphyllon, menyanthes, asphaltium, orcnicinum, the Romans call it trifolium, and some, trifolium acutum odoratum.
508

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Oenanthe, Filipendula from FUCHS — 1545

509

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS

Alcea from FUCHS — 1545

510

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

3-124. POLION
SUGGESTED: Teucrium polium

— Cat Thyme, Hulwort, Mountain Germander

olion the mountainous is also called teuthris, and it is useful. It is a thin little white shrub twenty centimetres long, full of seed; with a small head on the top similar to a little corymbus [flat or slightly convex inflorescence], like gray hair, strongly scented with a pleasant smell. Some is shrubbier, not altogether as strong to smell, and not as effective in working. A decoction (taken as a drink with vinegar) is able to help those bitten by venomous creatures, or with dropsy, or jaundice, and the splenetic; but it causes headaches and is bad for the stomach. It also induces movement of the intestines and the menstrual flow. Scattered underneath (or inhaled) it drives away venomous creatures. Applied, it heals wounds. It is also called teuthrion, pheuxaspidion, achaemenis, ebenitis, melosmon, belion, or leontocharon.

P

3-125. SKORDION
SUGGESTED: Scordium

[Fuchs], Teucrium scordium [Linnaeus] — Garlic Germander, Water Germander

S

cordium grows in marshy, mountainous places. It has leaves similar to chamedrys but bigger and not as cut-in around the circumference. It resembles garlic in its smell somewhat, and is astringent and bitter to the taste. Pale red flowers grow from the little four-cornered stalks. The pounded herb (green or dry) is warming and diuretic given in drink. Boiled with wine it is good for snakebite and poisons. For pangs of hunger in the stomach, dysentery, and frequent painful urination give two teaspoonfuls with honey water. It expels purulent thicknesses out of the chest. It helps old coughs, hernias, and convulsions mixed dry in a linctus [syrup] with nasturtium [2-185], honey and rosin. Used in a stiff ointment it relaxes hypochondrium [nervous gastric disorder] with long-lasting inflammation. Smeared on with sharp vinegar (or applied with water) it is good for gout. Applied, it induces the menstrual flow, and heals wounds. With honey it cleans old ulcers and brings them
511

chamedrys. echium has six or seven leaves (similar to cissus but bigger) growing from the root — white on the lower side but green on the upper side — with many corners. tussilago. the Magi call it sanguis podotis. The most effective is the Pontic and Cretan. Ocymum filamentosum — Becium Loudon remarks that Bekion is a name for sage in Dioscorides. or mithridanios. Ungula caballina [Fuchs. or chamegiron. arcophyton. The root is thin and of no use. Ocymum grandiflorum. The juice is taken as a drink for the same sores. It is dried and burned. BECHION SUGGESTED: Tussilago. it restrains abnormal growths of the flesh. It has a pale yellow flower in the springtime but it quickly throws off both the flower and the stalk. the Romans. pharpharia. 3-126. Tussilago farfara [Linnaeus] — Coltsfoot [other usage] Becium bicolor. Orminon. The Egyptians call it saartha. dysosmon. and the Bessians call it asa. It is also called richion. Boiled in honey water and taken as a drink it expels dead embryos. peganon. It grows near flowing or gushing watery places. It is also called scorbium.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS to a scar. and the Romans. as a result some have thought the herb to be without stalk or flower. pleuritis. chameleuce. see 3-145. some. and the burning root (inhaled) does the same. The stalk is twenty centimetres long. calamintha sylvestris. pustulago. petrina. apho. Tussilago vulgaris [Bauhin]. procheton. Used dry. pagonaton. trisago palustris. Brunfels]. the Egyptians. Farfaria. and the smoke from it is inhaled through a funnel to cure those troubled with a dry cough or difficult breathing: opening the mouth wide they take the smoke in at the mouth and swallow it down. B 512 . others. Ocymum abyssinicum. pithion. The leaves (pounded into small pieces and applied) cure erysipela [streptococcal skin infection] and all inflammations. It breaks up abscesses in the chest.

for the closure and inflammation of the womb. Tanacetum vulgare [Linnaeus] — Common Tansy. Parthenium matricaria. After blood has hardened around the joints. the breaking of stones [urinary. There is one sort that is prosperous with broader leaves and stems. Buttons SUGGESTED: Artemisia latifolia ome artemisia is polyclonos. another smaller. Artemisia monoclonos. extremely small. some monoclonos. it flowers in the summer. Artemisia vulgaris major [Bauhin]. Much of the herb applied to the lower part of the bowels induces the menstrual flow. and if you wear it on your feet it drives away venomous beasts and devils. It is a shrub-like herb similar to wormwood [3-26] but bigger. kidney]. and stoppage of urine. The scent of this is sweeter than of the other. Artemisia vulgaris [Linnaeus] — Mugwort Artemisia tenuifolia. It grows for the most part in places near the sea. Artemisia tenuifolia [Brunfels]. the flowers little. with a strong smell. 1-73. and the juice (kneaded together with myrrh [1-77. as an abortifacient. Some (in the Mediterranean parts) call a slender-branched little herb with a single stalk.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-127. Boiled. 4-116] and applied) draws from the womb as many things as does bathing. they are good put into womens’ baths for driving out the menstrual flow and afterbirth. and with the leaves coarser. Chrysanthemum vulgare. Tanacetum. take the bigger branches with rosaceum [1-53] and (having boiled them in a pot) rub the sick man all over with this as 513 S . three teaspoonfuls of the filaments is given in drink to bring out the same things. If anyone has the herb artemisia with him while travelling it dissolves weariness. Pyrethrum parthenium. thin and white. Matricaria parthenium [Linnaeus]. Matricaria vulgaris [Bauhin]. Tagetes [Fuchs]. ARTEMISIA MONOKLONOS ARTEMISIA MONOKLONOS ETERA [Fuchs]. Chrysanthemum parthenium [in Sprague] — Feverfew Chrysanthemum Artemisia monoclonos. abundant with flowers of a tawny yellow colour. Matricaria [Fuchs]. They both warm and relieve.

If anyone is pained in his strength. the Gauls call it ponem. ephesia. It is also called toxetesia. with small leaves like rue around the emergent stalk. full of branches. sozusa. and he shall be whole. rapium.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS he goes to sleep. the Romans call it salentia. In Cappadocia it is plaited into wreaths for the head. the Magi call it sanguis hominis. It has small stems full of little seeds like little bunches of grapes. some. and the Egyptians. herba regia. It is also called botrys. AMBROSIA SUGGESTED: Ambrosia maritima — Sea Ambrosia. The flowers and bruised leaves of this give off the smell of sampsuchum [3-47]. lea. and soothes slow painful urination and rupture of the opisthotonum [form of tetanus]. two feet long. Oak of Cappodocia. and the Dacians. and make (as it were) a warm compress and lay it on the stomach. 3-128. and he shall be healed. anactorios. or botrys artemisia. Therefore if anyone is suffering in his stomach he should pound this herb well with oil of almonds. It is able to repress and repel. A 3-129. the Romans call it caper sylvaticus. or artenisia. Oak of Jerusalem Ambrosia artemisifolia — Common Ragweed A mbrosia is a little shrub three feet in height. or apium rusticum. which never flower — smelling pleasant like wine. serpyllum. others. ARTEMISIA LEPTOPHULLOS SUGGESTED: Artemisia herba alba — Artemisia rtemisia grows around rivulets and hedges and in sown fields. 514 . it is also called chrysanthemon. It helps womens' womb congestion considerably. tertanageta. merseo. and is smeared on as an astringent for fluids that have come down. having mixed the juice of this with oil of roses let him rub with it. The root is slender. or lycophrys. zuoste.

some. 3-131. and all of it has a wonderful sweet scent. herba gruina. but there is no use for it in medicine. Herba Roberti. the Africans iesce. The many leaves are similar to chicory. Robertiana [Fuchs].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-130. pulmonia. 515 . A decoction (with wine) is used as a drink to ease difficult breathing. or geranogeron. Chenopodium botrys [Linnaeus] — Purple Goosefoot Chamaedrys vera foemina [Fuchs]. GERANION ETERON SUGGESTED: Geranium tertium. Adder’s Tongue. Geranium sanguinem [Linnaeus]. GERANION. The Cappadocians call this ambrosia. It has slender little downy stalks two feet long. mertryx. and the Africans. the Romans. Teucrium botrys — Cut-leaved Germander see 3-112 SUGGESTED: Botrys B otrus is a yellowish herb like a shrub. Geranium praetense. and so it is also laid among cloths. It grows especially near running waters and brooks. or the teeth of dogs). BOTRUS [Fuchs]. A teaspoonful of a decoction (taken as a drink in wine) dissolves swellings of the vulva. and the seed grows around all the branches. the Romans call it echinaster. and on the tops of the wings certain abnormal growths looking upward (like the heads of cranes with the beaks. ienk. leaves like mallow. The Magi call it hierobryncas. Fox Geranium Geranium sextum [Fuchs]. and it is also called artemisa. but others call it oxyphyllon. sweet when eaten. it is also called alterum geranium by some. some. Botrys ambrosioides vulgaris [Bauhin]. broad-spread. myrrhis cardamomum. trica. having many wings. cicotria. It is also called pelonitis. a root somewhat round. Botrys Chamaedryoides [Bauhin]. or origanum. Geranium fuscum — Crane’s Bill G eranium has a jagged leaf similar to anemone but longer. Geranium robertianum [Linnaeus] — Herb Robert.

ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-132. Filago germanica [Linnaeus] — Cudweed [other usage] Gnaphalium citrinum. Small Bulrush SUGGESTED: Typha T yphe sends out a leaf similar to cyprus [1-124]. sweet smelling. the Egyptians call it semeon. many small black flowers. It is also called hires. It is also called panicula. and some. Cat’s Tail. some tucularis. windy and open sunny . anaxeton or anaphalis. many shoots. Typha latifolia [Linnaeus]. Geat Reed Mace. The flowers (used in old washed swines’ grease) cure burns. and seed similar to milium [3-158] in certain (as it were) little horns. 3-134. S 3-133. Marsh Pestle Typha angustifolia [Linnaeus] — Lesser Reedmace Typha angustata — Reed Mace. Gnaphalium germanicum. and a stalk smooth and equal. Typha palustris major [Bauhin]. gelasonen. Typha major — Bulrush. albinus. Gnaphalium stoechas. GNAPHALION Gnaphalium vulgare majus [Bauhin]. white. It grows in marshes and places with standing water. ome use gnaphalium leaves instead of flocks [scraps of wool] because they are white and soft. Larger Reedmace. centunculus. The leaves (given to drink with hard wine) are good for dysentery. warming. the Gauls. The three or four roots are twenty centimetres long. mertryx. TUPHE [Fuchs]. the Romans. surrounded around on the top with thick flowers which turn into down. Gold Flower. Golden Tufts SUGGESTED: Gnaphalium [Fuchs]. KIRKAIA SUGGESTED: Circaea lutetiana — Common Enchanter’s Nightshade Circaea alpina — Alpine Enchanter’s Nightshade C 516 ircea (also called diraea) has leaves similar to garden solanum nigrum [4-74]. Helichrysum stoechas — Cassidony. It grows chiefly in some rocky.

Fine-leaved Water Dropwort POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Oenanthe. keep off gnats. It is also called leucanthon. Spiraea filipendula [Linnaeus]. The roots are useless. The height of the stalk of the bigger sort is two feet. As much as three pounds of the root (bruised and steeped a day and a night in three pints of sweet wine and taken as a drink for three days) cleans the womb. Erigeron canadensis — Fleabane. 3-136. or kerascomion. and kill fleas. and on swellings and wounds. The flower is foul. A 517 C . griping and jaundice. Erigeron SUGGESTED: Conyza odorata. OINANTHE [Fuchs]. Phellandrium aquaticum — Water Hemlock. The seed. a tawny yellow. Horsebane. and the flowers and leaves are taken in a drink with wine for expulsion of the menstrual flow. The seed is like atriplex [1-120. The seed (taken in liquids and sipped) draws down milk. 2-145]. and for slow painful urination. falling into down. The shrub is scattered underneath with the leaves. with white flowers and a thick stalk twenty centimetres long. broader leaves and a strong scent. The conyza called little has a better smell.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK places. It grows on rocks. stalks and leaves are given to drink (with honeyed wine) to discharge the afterbirth. The root is good (with wine) for slow painful urination and jaundice. somewhat bitter. Filipendula hexapetala [in Sprague] — Dropwort [Mabberley] [other usage] Oenanthe phellandrium. and the smoke of these is inhaled to drive away poisonous beasts. and it has a great root with many round heads. KONUZA odorata — Ovrabla Conyza squarrosa — Great Fleabane Conyza canadensis. 3-135. as an abortifacient. Filipendula vulgaris [Bauhin]. both have leaves similar to the olive but these are rough and thick. Filipendula O enanthe has leaves like staphulinus. but the bigger sort has a higher stalk. The leaves are usefully laid on those bitten by snakes. but the lesser is a foot. Pluchea onyza magna.

H 518 . the Egyptians call it iocroi. The root is pounded finely like the great bulbus [2-200. not fat but with a much stronger smell. or anticantharon. crinanthemon. and the Africans. Thinly applied. lilium sylvestre. some. abiblabon.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS decoction (taken as a drink with vinegar) helps epilepsy. the Magi call it brephoctonos. with a colour very similar to ochre. anubias. it grows in watery places. some. or pissan. bulbus. lilium agreste. porphyranthes. it cures headaches. phragmosa. There is also a third kind of conyza but the stalk is thicker and softer and the leaves bigger than the smaller sort. It is also called panios or libanotis. The herb rubbed on with oil is good for chills. ceti. The leaves (pounded into small pieces and applied) lessen inflammation of the breasts that comes with childbirth. 2-201] and taken as a drink or applied with honey in wool as a pessary for drawing out water and blood. and a decoction as a hip bath cures disorders in the womb and cleans away the menstrual flow. intubus. or dinosmos. the Egyptians. ischys. some. It is weaker than the bigger. some. the Magi call it cronos. phycos. and inflammation of the eyes. Conyza parva. the flowers in threes or fours at every flowering. 3-137. febrifuga. danais. The root and leaves are effective applied on burns. The juice (applied) causes abortions. EMEROKALLIS SUGGESTED: Hemerocallis fulva — Lemon Lily. alusteri. militaris mina. more unpleasant and less effective. the Romans. tanachium. green like leeks. similar in their shape to a lily when they begin to open. or hedemias. the Romans. lilium marinum. Yellow Day Lily emerocallis has leaves and a stalk similar to a lily. delliarion. It is also called hemerocatallacton. It is also called cynozematitis. bulbus sanguineus.

Leucoium bulbosum vulgare [Bauhin]. Used in wax ointments they cure cracks in the perineum. viola matronalis. the dried flowers of which (boiled) are good for bathing inflammation around the womb and expelling the menstrual flow. Damask Violet Viola-lutea [Fuchs]. Hesperis hortensis [Bauhin]. many knotty shoots growing out of one root. Dame's Rocket. It is also called basilion. the Romans call it opula alba. if after the cleansing of 519 . some call it viola alba. LEUKOION. The fittest of these for medicinal use is the yellowish. or else it is purple. augustia. L 3-139. Cheiranthus cheiri [Linnaeus] — Wallflower [other usage] Leucoion [Theophrastus].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-138. KRATAIOGONON SUGGESTED: Crataegus monogyna — Common Hawthorn Crataegus orientalis — Eastern Thorn Crataegus laevigata. or polyphura. Hesperis matronalis var hortensis subvar albiflora [Linnaeus] — Dame's Violet. and a seed similar to millet. Leucoium luteum vulgare [Bauhin]. Viola eukoion is commonly known but there are different coloured flowers. It is said by some that drinking the seed causes a woman to bring forth a male child. Leucoion-Dioscorides luteum [Brunfels]. and with honey they cure apthas [small ulcers]. and it is extremely sharp. Two teaspoonfuls of a decoction of the seed (taken as a drink with wine or applied as a pessary with honey) draw out the menstrual flow and afterbirth. LEUKOION THALASSION alba. yellowish and azure [blue]. Leucoion-Dioscorides album [Fuchs]. Leucojum vernum [Linnaeus] — Spring Snowflake SUGGESTED: Leucoion. Viola alba [Fuchs]. for it is found white. passarina. The roots (smeared on with vinegar) repress the spleen and help gout. Crataegus oxyacantha — Midland Hawthorn C rataeogonon (also called crateonon) has leaves similar to melampyrum. and are an abortifacient. It grows for the most part in shady and shrubby places.

3-141. Soldier Orchid [other usage] Orchis undulata — Wavy-leaved Orchis Orchis longibracteta — Sicilian Orchis Herminum monorchis. somewhat long. Bryophyllum — Air Plant. the other beneath. and a bigger seed. Crateus relates this concerning these. she drinks three times a day (while fasting) thirty grains with two cups of water for forty days. bryonia. one part above. It is said that if the bigger root is eaten by 520 O . ORCHIS SUGGESTED: Orchis mas latifolia [Fuchs. The root is eaten (boiled) like bulbus [2-200. but thelygonum causes females. a stalk the height of twenty centimetres on which are flowers of a purple hue. double. Ophrys monorchis — Musk Orchis rchis (also called cynosorchis) has leaves scattered on the earth around the stalk. and lets the man drink it similarly for as many days and then lie with her. rather like poppy. It is said that a decoction of arrhenogonon (taken as a drink) produces male offspring.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS the menstrual flow and before the time of sexual intercourse. but he seems to me to relate these things according to the report of them [not experience]. 2-201]. Life Plant see 4-192 pinnatum P hyllum grows on rocks. a slender root. a thin short stalk. Arrhenogonon is similar in other things to that previously mentioned but differs in having the seed (similar to olives) coming in a cluster out of the flower. some. Orchis militaris [Linnaeus] — Military Orchid. smooth and longer. a white flower. PHULLON SUGGESTED: Bryophyllum calycinum. and the bottom of it is similar to an olive — tender but narrower. Floppers. the leaf greener than the olive. Cynosorchis latifolia [Bauhin]. Some call this elaeophyllon. Brunfels]. The root is bulbous. one full but the other soft and full of wrinkles. That which is called thelygonon has (as it were) moss. 3-140. narrow like the olive.

Smeared on it destroys fistulas. Habenaria bifolia [Brunfels] [other usage] Satyrium hircinum. little stalks twenty centimetres long. Triorchis mas minor [Brunfels]. and the lesser eaten by women makes them conceive females.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK men. it makes their offspring males. clean ulcers. It has a naked stalk a foot long. ORCHIS ETEROS mas [Fuchs]. Ophrys insectifera [Linnaeus]. Serapias cordigera — Serapias SUGGESTED: Triochis-serapias esticulus alter (also called serapias — as Acreas does for the many uses of the root) has leaves similar to leek. 3-142. tissue and bones]. and the dry root to suppress and dissolve venereal diseases. yet smaller and reddish. eats away muscle. S atyrium some call trifolium because it bears leaves in threes (as it were) bending down to the earth. somewhat long but broader and fat. It is further related that women in Thessalia give it to drink with goat’s milk. and repress herpes [viral infection]. Ophrys apifera [in Sprague] — Bee Orchid [other usage] Serapias lingua. a white flower similar to a lily. winding around in the wings. It grows in stony. Orchis fucum [Bauhin]. Orchis bifolia [Linnaeus]. the flowers almost purple. sandy places. There is a similar story told of this as there is of the dog’s stone [cyanosorchis 3-141]. Orchis hircina — Lizard Orchis SUGGESTED: Satyrion-trifolium [Fuchs]. The root (similar to testicles) lies under. similar to rumex [2-141] or lily. and a decoction (taken as a drink with wine) cures the intestines. Sprinkled on dry it stops nomae [grazer disease. The tenderer root is given to encourage venereal diseases. and soothes inflamed parts. T 3-143. In a decoction (taken as a drink) the one dissolves the other. a 521 . and applied is able to dissipate oedema. Orchis morio [Linnaeus] — Green Winged Orchid Triorchis foemina [Fuchs]. SATURION Orchis trifolia major [Bauhin].

Salvia sylvestris [Fuchs]. but the stalk is four-cornered and half a . Annual Clary C 522 ultivated horminum is an herb similar to marrubium in the leaves. It is also called satyrium erythraicum. Horminum pratense foliis serratis [Bauhin]. It grows in sunny. Orchis maculata [Linnaeus]. melium aquaticum. Clary Horminum domesticum. SUGGESTED: Satyrium-basilicum mas S atyrium erythronium has a seed similar to flax seed but big. Orchis Fuchsii [in Sprague] — Early Purple Orchid. 3-145. entaticon. pleasant in the mouth to one who tastes it. The bark of the root is somewhat thin and red. Salvia pratensis [Linnaeus] — Meadow Sage. but even more so when a decoction is taken as a drink with wine. Orchis palmata angustifolia minor [Bauhin]. and use it if he wishes to lay with a woman. the Romans call it molorticulum veneris. Dead Man's Finger [other usage] Erythronium dens-canis — Dog’s-tooth Violet Modern satyrium species are only found at the Cape of Good Hope. One ought to drink it in black hard wine for severe spasms. ORMINON EMERON SUGGESTED: Orminum sativum [Fuchs]. but the inside is white. but white within. Salvia sclarea [Linnaeus] — Clary Orminum sylvestre. It is said that it is an aphrodisiac. It is related that the root (taken into the hand) encourages venereal diseases. firm. like scincus. Gymnadenia conopsea [Brunfels]. similar to an egg. or testiculum satyri. and sweet. hilly places. Salvia horminum — Common Sage. satyriscus. glittering and smooth. For they say that this also is an aphrodisiac. Horminum sclarea dictum [Bauhin]. Orchis conopsea [Linnaeus] — Gnat-like Orchid Satyrium-basilicum foemina. sweet to the taste and pleasant in the mouth. 3-144. Satyrium-basilicum mas alterum [Fuchs].ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS bulbous root as big as an apple — red. morion. priapiscus. SATURION ERUTHRONION [Fuchs. Brunfels].

and also white spots on the corneas of the eyes. in which are two different types of seed. but in the other it is somewhat long and black. There are abnormal growths similar to husks around this (as it were) looking towards the root. Alhagi maurorum. Taken as a pessary with honey before sexual intercourse it is thought to hinder conception. and it is also mixed with antidotes. somewhat long.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK foot high. Onosma sericeum O nosma has soft leaves similar to those of anchusa. hormia. a decoction (taken as a drink) is good for the stomach. The herb (applied) does the same things. or flowers. but pods like little horns in which is the red seed similar to an axe that has two edges (from which it is named). and the Dacians. somewhat 523 . scattered on the earth very like those of anchusa [4-23 to 4-26]. In the wild it is found round and dark. but it is without stalk. ONOSMA SUGGESTED: Onosma echioides — Hairy Onosma ALSO: Onosma tauricum. It is bitter to one who tastes it. The little root lies underneath. Egyptian Manna Plant Biserrula pelecinus — Hatchet Vetch SUGGESTED: Hedysarum H edysarum (called pelecinus by the ointment makers) is a shrub with little leaves similar to cicer [2-126]. Use is made of this and it is also thought that a decoction (taken as a drink with wine) is an aphrodisiac. and smeared on with water it dissolves oedema and extracts splinters. 3-146. Onosma orientale. seed. Alhagi mannifera — Camel Thorn. It grows among barley and wheat. The wild one is stronger. 3-147. Soola Clover Hedysarum alhagi. EDUSARON crinitum — Crook-podded Hedysarum Hedysarum coronarium — French Honeysuckle. as a result it is mixed with compound ointments (especially with gleucinum [1-67]). the length of four fingers but the breadth of one finger. The Romans call it geminalis. With honey it cleans away argema [small white ulcer on the cornea].

Nymphaea alba [Linnaeus] — Water Nymph. The root is taken as a drink for lecherous dreams because it relieves these. Flatter Dock ymphaea grows in marshes and standing waters. some (in a way) standing above the water. black. and others also in the water. and a decoction of the seed (taken as a drink) does the same. and applied with pitch it cures baldness. Boeotia. NUMPHAIA SUGGESTED: Nymphaea candida [Fuchs]. it has many leaves similar to those of the Egyptian bean. It is found in abundance at Helis on the river Anigrus. N 524 . with water it takes away psoriasis. but when it has done blooming it becomes round in a circumference like an apple. 3-148. and in Aliartus. It causes a faintness of the genitals for a few days if one drinks it continuously. and it is harvested in the autumn. coarse. like a sceptre. It is also called osmas. or ononis. similar to that of the Egyptian bean. weak. she aborts. A decoction of the leaves of this (taken as a drink in wine) is an abortifacient. and reddish. clammy to the taste. not thick. The root is applied for disorders of the stomach and bladder. similar to a lily. It grows in rough places. The stalk is smooth. or the head of poppy — black. broad. It seems to be called nymphaea because it loves watery places. Nymphaea alba major [Bauhin]. phlonitis. yet smaller and somewhat longer. in which is a black seed. The root is black. all from the same root. The flowers are white. with the middle a saffron colour. thick. This (dried and taken as a drink with wine) helps coeliac [intestinal] complaints and dysentery. thin. White Water Lily. They say also that if one with child walks over this herb. and reduces the spleen.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS long.

It grows on walls and shady rocks or pebble stones — stalkless. Sea Navelwort ALSO: Androsace obtusifolia ndrosaces grows in sea-bordering places in Syria. ASPLENON SUGGESTED: Asplenium adiantium-nigrum. and a glittering yellowish flower (like a rose).THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-149. Black Spleenwort. ANDROSACES SUGGESTED: Androsace lactea — Androsace. with slender. Adiantium-nigrum — Black Maidenhair Fern. bitter. Black Oak Fern Adiantum capillus veneris. Nymphaea lutea major [Bauhin]. A decoction of the root and seed (taken as a drink in black wine) is good for the excessive menstrual discharges of women. having on its head a pod containing the seed. 3-150. but green above. Capillaire see 3-121 A splenon has many leaves (similar to the creatures called centipedes and millipedes) growing round about out of one root. Nymphaea luteum. Herba capillorum-veneris — Maidenhair. A 3-151. The leaves (boiled with 525 . [its leaves] cut-in like those of fern. It is also called picras. flowerless. leafless branches. leuce. Nymphaea lutea [Linnaeus]. NUMPHAIA ALLE lutea [Fuchs]. and a decoction of the herb and the seed (taken as a drink) does the same. seedless. Two teaspoonfuls of a decoction (taken as a drink with wine) is able to encourage much urine in dropsy. or thalassia. Brandy Bottle SUGGESTED: Nymphaea T here is also another nymphaea (the flower of which is called nuphar) which has leaves similar to that previously mentioned. It is also called nymphona. Nuphar luteum [in Sprague] — Yellow Water Lily. It grows in places around Thessalia near the river Peneus. yellowish and rough underneath. but it has a coarse white root. Venus’s Hair. The herb is thin. It is smeared usefully upon gout.

Two teaspoonfuls of a decoction (taken as a drink) has considerable strength to help frequent painful urination 526 T . pteryx. Lady’s Fingers. The other kind is similar in its leaves and small branches to chamepitys [3-175]. Phyllitis scolopendrium [Linnaeus] — Hart's-tongue Fern [other usage] Hemionitis [Bedevian] — Mulewort. Anthyllis prior — Kidney Vetch. It is also called scolopendrium. hiccups and jaundice. The many slender roots are underneath. or flower. and sharper. but they are rougher. The herb is astringent to the taste and is taken as a drink with vinegar to reduce the spleen. aturius. but it bears no stalk. and upright little branches the height of twenty centimetres. Scolopendria. shorter. while the Magi call it the blood of a weasel. Wound Wort Anthyllis barba jovis — Jove’s Beard. Lingua cervina [Fuchs]. Lingua cervina officinarum [Bauhin]. the root like chicory. It is thought to be a cause of barrenness (used alone or hung about one with the spleen of a mule) but they say that to cause barrenness it must be dug up when the night is moonless. and breaks stones in the bladder. seed. phrygia. Asplenium scolopendrium. hemionion. somewhat salty to the taste. with the leaves soft. It grows in rocky places. or philtrodotes. Jupiter’s Beard Anthyllis cretica — Cretan Kidney Vetch SUGGESTED: Anthyllis here are two types of anthyllis. Hemionitis emionitis puts out a horned leaf similar to dracunculus [2-196b] (like the third-day moon).ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS vinegar and taken as a drink for forty days) are able to reduce the spleen. It helps slow painful urination. the root slender and little. lonchitis. EMIONITIS SUGGESTED: Hemionitis. but you must also rub the spleen with the leaves pounded into small pieces with wine. The flower is a purple colour. One has leaves similar to lens [lentils]. phrygitis. It grows in sandy sunny places. It is also called splenium. H 3-153. smelling extremely strong. 3-152. splenium. ANTHULLIS vulneraria.

and for suffering from intestinal obstruction. It is also called anthyllon. with little round heads. Consolida regia [Brunfels]. Anthemis tinctoria [Linnaeus] — Dyers Chamomile. thin. ANTHEMIS. relieving strength. ANTHEMIS MELANANTHES SUGGESTED: Chamaemelon leucanthemum [Fuchs. and induce urine. Consolida regalis arvensis [Bauhin]. They also heal wounds. eranthemis. properly called eranthemon. 3-154. Chamaemelum vulgare. flowers. they clean away jaundice. Some also use it as a 527 T . but outside there are round about white. soranthis. are abortifacient. Delphinium consolida [Linnaeus] — Forking Larkspur here are three kinds of anthemis (differing only in their flowers) the branches twenty centimetres long. It is gathered in the spring. as well as chrysanthemon. Leucanthemum Dioscoridis [Bauhin]. Taken as a drink of a decoction (or by bathing) they expel the menstrual flow. yellowish. The roots. ANTHEMIS PORPHURANTHES. and cure liver ailments. many. Chewed. they cure apta [aptha — thrush in children or candidiasis]. It grows in rough places and byways. the Romans call it solaster. and herb have a warming. That called leucanthemon is more urinary. which in all respects is the bigger. Pounded into small pieces and given as a pessary (with rosaceum [1-53] and milk) they soften inflammations of the womb. expel stones [urinary. The most effective for those troubled with stones is that of a purple colour. Matricaria recucita. and a decoction (taken as a drink with vinegar and honey) of that which is similar to chamepitys heals epilepsy (among other things). Brunfels]. with many wings. within them flowers of gold colour. or flos campestris. kidney]. anthemis. or purple leaves. the quantities like those of rue. Smeared on they cure ulcers in the inner angle of the eye. Matricaria chamomilla [Linnaeus] — Wild Chamomile Chamaemelum chrysanthemum [Fuchs]. shrubby. The smaller branches are little.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK and inflamed kidneys. and a decoction of them is used in warm packs for the bladder. They are taken as a drink for gaseousness. Yellow Chamomile Chamaemelum eranthemon [Fuchs]. leucanthemon.

or millefolium. sometimes one part of the flower or root. The root is dried and stored. (Chamomile pounded into small pieces with rosaceum [1-53] cures fevers. doubling it by turn every other day — and you must drink it in diluted honey. the white flowers are in a circle. chamemelum.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS suppository (beating it finely with oil) for recurrent fevers. anthemis. It is also called leucanthemon. Chamaemelum foetidum [Bauhin]. PARTHENION (AMARAKON) SUGGESTED: Amaracinum. astertiphe. and the Africans. and physicians remove them at the beginning of spring). A decoction of it is fit for bathing a hardened and inflamed womb. Cotula foetida [Fuchs]. the Etruscans. or callias. Dried and taken as a drink with vinegar and honey (or with salt) it is able to drive phlegm and cholera downward and out. The shortest is best and grows in sandy places. Parthenium. 3-155. the Romans call it malium. melabathrum. thamacth. leucanthemon. It is applied (with its flowers) for skin inflammation and other inflammation. Anthemis cotula [Linnaeus] — Stinking Chamomile. chrysocalis. some call it chamemelum because of the similarity of its smell to apples. the Romans call it solis oculus. It is also called amaracum. P 528 . It is an effective plant for those who are reasonably well. and the Africans. The herb (without its flower) is effective (given in drink) for urinary stones and the asthmatic. Dictamnus creticus. Sometimes the opposite — give two parts of the flower and one of the herb. some call it melanthemon. Burning Bush arthenium has thin leaves (similar to coriander). or flos campestris. and they are somewhat poisonous to smell and bitter to taste. Amaracus dictamnus — Dittany of Crete. their middle is yellow. and to help the asthmatic and depressive. When there is need of it sometimes give two parts of the herb. chrysocome. The leaves and flowers must be stored when they have been pounded apart and made into little balls. cautan. Mayweed [Mabberley] [other usage] Origanum amaracus — Amaracus Origanum dictamnus. or eranthemon because it flowers in the spring.

genitura Mercurii. devils. Paeonia communis [Bauhin]. and they call the root paeonia. similar to eyes (from which it is named). yellowish flowers — bigger than anthemis. eases toothache. PAIONIA ARREN. Chamaemelum arvensis. Buphthalmum — Corn Chamomile It is believed that the buhphthalmum of Pliny is a species of anthemis [Loudon]. Garden Peony POISONOUS eonia (or glycyside) some call pentoboron. BUPHTHALMON [Fuchs]. PAIONIA THELEIA SUGGESTED: Paeonia foemina [Fuchs]. The flowers of this (pounded into small pieces with wax ointment) dissolve oedema and hard lumps. narat. Scentless Mayweed [other usage] Buphthalmum graveolens — Ox-eye Buphthalmum salicifolium —Yellow Ox-eye Daisy Anthemis arvensis. some. It grows in fields and around towns. Chamaemelum inodorum [Bauhin]. They say that a decoction (taken as a drink after coming out from a bath) causes the jaundiced to have a good colour for some time. semen incorruptibile. the Magi call it haemorrha. which opened are found to contain five or six little red grains 529 P . Oculis bovis uphthalmum sends out somewhat slender tender little stalks. and loosens the bowels. or balsamina. Matricaria inodora [Linnaeus] — False Chamomile. You must gather buphthalmum while the moon is increasing. but the female is jagged in the leaves (similar to smyrnium [3-78. leaves like marathrum [3-81]. It is also called cachlan. The male has leaves similar to the carya [1-178]. the Romans call it kappacorania. B 3-157. Paeonia officinalis var foemina [Linnaeus] — Female Peony. 3-79]). It is used against fears. SUGGESTED: Buphthalmum. and if anyone chews the root (and afterwards spits it out) it immediately stops mucus. enchantments.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-156. The stalk grows as high as two feet with many branches. and the Africans. and poisons (turning aside these things). or mnesitheos. It sends out certain pods on the top of the stalk similar to almonds.

paeonium. and taken as a drink and eaten by children they take away the beginnings of stones [kidney. like asphodelus [2-199]. aglaophotis. A decoction (boiled in wine and taken as a drink) stops discharges of the bowels. A decoction of ten or twelve red grains of the seed (taken as a drink in black hard wine) stops bloody excessive discharges (in women). it is hanged about one and is good against poisons. The root of the male is about the thickness of a finger and twenty centimetres in height. the Magi call it selenogonon. or day. inflamed kidneys.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS similar to those of the pomegranate — black in the middle. Peony grows on the tops of the highest mountains. A decoction (taken as a drink with wine) helps pains in the intestines. white. jaundice. urinary]. phthisi and the Romans. bewitching. The male peonie some call orobelium. and against fevers that come with shivering whether by night. The root is given to women who are not cleansed after childbirth. inclining to purple. panthiceratos. idaei dactyli. orobax. menogenion. casta. astringent to taste. 530 . The herb peony is plucked up in the heat of the dog days [summer] before sunrise. And it is said that (sometimes) growing on a hill where there were devils. or paroxysm. haemagogum. and devils and their assaults. fears. theodonium. A decoction of as much as fifteen grains of the black [part] (taken as a drink in honey water or wine) is good both for suffocation that comes from nightmares. and pain in the bladder. menion. paeseden. The amount of an almond (of a decoction taken as a drink) induces the menstrual flow. Eaten. and for suffocation of the womb and disorders of the mother [pregnancy]. On the root of the female there are seven or eight tubers similar to acorns. they help those who feel gnawing at the stomach. it drove them away. or selenion. some.

Pearl Plant ome call lithospermon 'Heraclean' because of the strength of the seed. Some call it aegonychon. gorgonium. Lithospermum officinale [Linnaeus]. a spoonful of a decoction (taken as a drink with water) is good for the same purposes. and somewhat long. strong.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-158. PHALARIS SUGGESTED: Phalaris arundinacea. and the Dacians. Lithospermum sativum [Fuchs]. the thickness of the sharp bulrush. The herb (cut and juiced with water or wine and so taken as a drink) is able to be effective for disorders of the bladder and sperm. 2-131]. knotty. resembling those of zea [Triticum zea]. Phalaris canariensis — Canary Grass. among which is a round white stone seed similar to the little ervum [2-129. S 3-159. but longer. tantalitis. — Common Gromwell. On the cloven top of them is a springing-out (similar to little budded stems) with long leaves. Phalaris halaris sends out many little stalks from slender useless roots — the breadth of two hands. LITHOSPERMON SUGGESTED: Lithospermum. exonychon. lapis leoninus. leontion. It grows in rough eminent places. Lithospermum majus erectum [Bauhin]. The leaves are similar to those of zea. P 531 . which is also called lithospermon. yet more slender and sweet in taste. urinary]. It has leaves similar to those of the olive. The small branches are straight. and those around the bottom lie on the ground. The white seed is abundant like millet. woody. gonoleta. slender. or diosporon. A decoction of the seed (taken as a drink with white wine) is able to break stones [kidney. and expel urine. Milium solis. the Romans call it columba. broader and softer. similar to reeds.

some ereuthodanum. black. It also has a . sciatica. the Egyptians. The stalks of it are four-cornered. some sown — as in Thabana. long. broken about towards the root (and as it were) lying on the ground. similar to those of aparine. Italy and in Caria — sown among the olives. The red root is suitable for dying. cinnabar. and sometimes also blood. sophobi. red. afterwards red. It draws out quantities of thick urine. and a decoction (taken as a drink with vinegar and honey) reduces the spleen. but in every respect bigger and stronger. Galilee and Ravenna. Those who drink it must be washed every day and the difference of their voided excrement viewed. after that it is ripe. Smeared on with vinegar it cures white vitiligines [form of leprosy]. the Etruscians. The seed is round. The root some call dracons. S 3-161. rough. ERUTHRODANON sativa [Fuchs]. Rubia tinctorum [Fuchs. Linnaeus]. some. The root is thin. Rubia tinctorum sativa [Bauhin] — Dyer’s Madder Rubia sylvestris [Fuchs]. Polypodium lonchitis. as a result a decoction (taken as a drink with honey and water) helps jaundice. at first green. Some of it is wild. like in the fields. and diuretic. rubia passiva.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-160. and it is also called teuthrion. The root (inserted as a pessary) is an abortifacient. and paralysis. Serapias. yet broader and somewhat red. the Romans. and draws out the menstrual flow and afterbirth. LONCHITIS SUGGESTED: Lonchitis. Aspidium lonchitis — Shield Fern. having the leaves at distances at every joint lying about like stars in a circle. Holly Fern see 3-162 L 532 onchitis has many leaves very similar to leek. It is sown usefully because much gain is made of it. Gallium molugo — Hedge Bedstraw [Mabberley] [other usage] Rubia peregrina — Wild Madder SUGGESTED: Rubia ome call eruthrodanum 'erythodanon'. lappa minor. Rubia sylvestris laevis [Bauhin]. long. A decoction of the stalk with the leaves (taken as a drink) helps those bitten by venomous creatures.

bigger. or medusa. Althaea Dioscoridis et Plinii [Bauhin]. the Romans call it venerea. on which are flowers — similar to little hats in shape (similar to comical persons opening their mouths wide) — and they are black. Boiled in honey and water or wine (or pounded by itself) it is good for wounds. A decoction of the root of this (taken as a drink) with wine is diuretic. White Mallow lthaea is a kind of wild mallow. It grows in rough. from which it was thought worthy of its surname. The root is similar to daucus. or lanceola. A decoction of it does the same. Holly Fern — Lonchitis. The Romans call it longina. or calabrina. Bismalva. ALTHAIA SUGGESTED: Althaea [Fuchs]. Hibiscus — Marsh Mallow. inflamed breasts.g. and more jagged. flatulent tumours. Althaea officinalis [Linnaeus]. The seed is shut in three-cornered cases shaped like a spearhead. from opening the mouth wide towards the lower lip (as it were) a little tongue. mumps]. disorders of the perineum. It has a rose-like flower. the downy leaves round like cyclamen. It is called althaea for its many properties and various uses. white within. and it reduces the spleen. LONCHITIS ETERA SUGGESTED: Shield Fern. dry places. Serapias. but sharper. the stalk two feet high. It dissolves and ripens. bruises. parotitis [inflamed glands e. It is also called cestron. Polypodium lonchitis. A decoction (taken as a drink with vinegar) is able to cure wounds and remove inflammation. and a clammy root. Aspidium lonchitis see 3-161 onchitis altera (also called the rough lonchitis) sends out leaves similar to scolopendrium [3-121].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK few around the stalk. but some white thing arises from them. goose grease or turpentine it is good in a pessary for inflammation and closures of the womb. 3-162. and distension of the nerves. Boiled (as above) and kneaded together with swines’ grease. or breaks and brings to a scar. suppurations. 533 A . L 3-163. swellings.

Linnaeus]. A decoction of these (taken as a drink with wine or water) cures dysentery and hernias. and those of all small creatures (taken as a drink in wine or posca [hot drinks]). Alcea vulgaris major [Bauhin]. Althea cannabina — Egyptian Hemp lcea is a kind of wild mallow having cut-in leaves similar to those of the holy herb. It is also called ibiscus. Rubbed on with oxelaeum [from oxalis or wood sorrel] it prevents hurt from poisonous beasts. or althiocon. KANNABIS EMEROS SUGGESTED: Cannabis sativa [Fuchs. the Romans call it cannabis. The herb (juiced while green) is good for earaches. boiled with vinegar and the mouth washed with it. A 3-165. Cannabis gigantea — Hemp C 534 annabis is a plant of considerable use in this life for twisting very strong ropes. Malva alcea [Linnaeus] — Hollyhock [Mabberley] [other usage] Alcea cannabina. A decoction of the seed (taken as a drink) is good against bee stings. It has three or four stalks. It bears leaves with a bad scent. and excessive discharges from the bowels. similar to the ash. A decoction of the root (taken as a drink with wine) helps dysentery. and a round seed. schoenostrophon. a little flower similar to a rose. a bark similar to cannabis [3-165]. trembling. . long hollow stalks. The root thickens water (pounded into small pieces. It is also called cannabium. mixed.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS also expelling the so-called bodily wastes. pains in the hips. or asterion. ALKEA SUGGESTED: Alcea [Fuchs. vomiting blood. and five or six broad white roots almost a foot long. The seed (either green or dry) pounded into small pieces and rubbed on with vinegar in the sun cleans vitiligines [form of leprosy]. Eaten in quantities these quench conception. 3-164. and the leaves (with a little oil) are laid on bites and on those who are burned. and it soothes toothache. and placed out in the open air). It is effective against dysentery. Brunfels]. Brunfels. and those troubled with hernia.

the seed in long little horns shaped like kidneys. The leaves are similar to the cultivated but sharper and darker. It is given with wine for headaches. cannabis. The flowers are similar to brassica. as well as for expulsion of the afterbirth and menstrual flow. with the seed and root similar to althea. The root (boiled and applied) is able to lessen inflammation. A 535 . or agnacopum. ANAGURIS [ONAGURIS] SUGGESTED: Anagyris foetida — Bean Clover. It is hung as an amulet on those who have hard labour [in giving birth]. A teaspoonful is given to drink in passum [raisin wine] for asthma.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-166. yet one must at once (after the woman’s delivery) take off the amulet and put it away. variously coloured. acopon. The tender leaves of this (pounded into small pieces and applied) repress oedema. C 3-167. 3-115]. its leaves and stems very similar to agnus castus [1-135]. It is also called hydrastina. It is also called anagyros. the Romans call it terminalis. dissolve oedema. with an extremely strong scent. The bark of this is suitable for twining ropes. They harden when the grapes ripen. Stinking Wood nagyris is a shrub similar to a tree. Bastard Hemp SUGGESTED: Hibiscus cannabinus — Hemp Mallow. solid. KANNABIS AGRIA Deccan Hemp Cannabis sativa var indica — Indian Hemp Datisca cannabina — Cretan Hemp Plant. and some. annabis sylvestris bears little stems similar to those of althea [3-163] but darker. and disperse hardened matter around the joints. The juice of the root dissolves and ripens. and as an abortifacient. The seed (eaten) encourages vomiting excessively. The reddish flowers are similar to lychnis [3-114. sharper and smaller.

Alisma. somewhat thick. it loves watery places. ALISMA SUGGESTED: Plantago-aquatica. and a thin root. The herb itself (applied) stops discharges of the intestines. It is also good for convulsions. Damasonium [Fuchs]. The roots are like black hellebore — thin. and those who have drunk opium [antidote]. One or two teaspoonfuls of a decoction of the root (taken as a drink with wine) is good for those who have eaten sea hare [2-20]. and helps most taken as a drink with a decoction of the roots of that asparagus called myacanthus. and soothes oedema. single. and disorders of the womb. damassonium. sharp. white. A decoction of the leaves (taken as a drink with wine) helps slow painful urination and those who have a scabbed bladder. expels the menstrual flow. It is also called alcea. with little heads similar to a thyrsus [staff]. Mad-dog Weed see 1-11 lisma has leaves similar to plantain but narrower and bending down toward the earth. A 536 . sweet-smelling. Alisma plantago-aquatica [Linnaeus] — Water Plantain. KEPAIA UNKNOWN C epea is a succulent similar to portulaca [4-168]. Plantago-aquatica latifolia. It helps griping and dysentery by itself (or taken as a drink with an equal amount of daucus seed). The stalk is slender.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-168. The flowers are thin. 3-169. more than a foot high. yet it has darker leaves. and somewhat pale. or lyron. or been bitten by a toad. acyron.

It grows in moist undisturbed places. A decoction (taken as a drink with wine) drives away fevers with paroxysms ocurring every third or fourth day. French Grass Onobrychis christagalli — Medick Vetch see 3-41 SUGGESTED: nobrychis has leaves similar to lens [lentils] but a little longer. eschasmene. and a decoction (taken as a drink with wine) cures slow painful urination. the Romans call it opaca. It grows in tilled and rough places. The small pods are somewhat rough. Onobrychis sativa. Onobrychis viciaefolia — Sanfoin. H 537 . in which is a black seed smelling of rosin. or chamepitys. Holy Clover. full of reddish branches. corion. some. It has leaves similar to rue. O 3-171. The leaves (applied together with the seed) heal burns. lopta. Perforata [Fuchs]. or chamepitys. with a yellowish flower that (crushed with the fingers) yields a bloody juice — which is why it is called androsemon. and inserted as a pessary moves the menstrual flow. It is also called onobrochilos. Hypericum perforatum [Linnaeus] — Klamath Weed [Mabberley] ypericum is a shrub twenty centimetres high. ONOBRUCHIS Hedysarum onobrychis. a purple flower. the size of barley. and a small root. hypericum. The herb (pounded into small pieces and smeared on) is able to dissolve tubercles [growths]. aniassexe. a stalk twenty centimetres long. UPERIKON SUGGESTED: Hypericum. long in the circumference.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-170. A decoction of the seed (taken as a drink for forty days) cures sciatica. brichilata. It is also called androsemon. because the seed is similar in smell to the rosin of pine. and the Dacians. or iuncinalis. corion. It has a diuretic strength. Rubbed on with oil it encourages sweating. Hypericum vulgare [Bauhin].

Park Leaves. Androsaemum hirsutum [Bauhin]. Two teaspoonfuls of the seed of this (pounded into small pieces and taken in a drink) expel bilious excrement. The filaments yield a rosin-like smell when bruised. Hypericum hirsutum [Linnaeus] Siberian St John’s Wort — Hypericum ascyron scyrum is also a kind of hypericum. Smeared on. 4-98]. and with the small leaves appearing a purple colour. it is good for burns. so that it is called acrosemon for this. around which are small little flowers of a yellowish colour. Hypericum hircinum — Stinking St John’s Wort. The little stems are a purple colour. It is also called dionysias. staining the fingers with blood. and fruit (similar to hypericum) smelling of rosin. which send out a juice similar to wine when bruised. ANDROSAIMON SUGGESTED: Androsaeumum [Fuchs].ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS 3-172. Goat-scented St John’s Wort Androsaemum officinale. or ascyron. full of sprigs. 538 A . The seed is in a little cup similar to that of black poppy (as it were) marked with lines and points. Hypericum androsaemum — Tutsan. It expels much bilious excrement. the leaves three times or four times bigger than rue [3-52. The herb (smeared on) heals burns and stops blood. It is also called ascyroides. It has many wings on the top open on each side and feathered. differing in size. and it especially cures sciatica. bigger in the branches. It must be given continuously until they are cured. One must sip water after the purge. All Saint’s Wort ndrosemum differs from hypericum and from ascyrum being a shrub of thin branches. ASKURON SUGGESTED: Ascyrum [Fuchs]. A decoction of the fruit (taken as a drink with a pint of honey water) is available for sciatica. 3-53. it bears yellow flowers. and bruised (as it were). more full of sprigs. Hypericum montanum [Linnaeus] — Mountain St John's Wort [other usage] Androsaemum hircinum. or acrosemon. A 3-173.

giving a decoction to drink against aconitum [4-77. fatter and rough. pleasanttasting. A decoction of the seed of this (taken as a drink with wine) induces the passage of urine and the menstrual flow. thick around the branches. Pounded into small pieces with figs (and given as a pill) it soothes the bowels. with leaves similar to the smaller sempervivum [4-89. with a smell of pine. tetanus. It is necessary for the patient when drinking it to be well covered all over for it causes the whole body to sweat. or chills. CHAMAIPITUS SUGGESTED: Chamaepitys lutea vulgaris [Bauhin]. 4-9 oris has a leaf similar to erica but smaller. sharp. Coris Coris monspeliensis. KORIS SUGGESTED: Hypericum coris — Heath-leaved St John’s Wort. 4-90. C 3-175. fatter and red. Polenta (moistened with a decoction of the herb) is applied for the purposes mentioned above. Some also call this hypericum. and from this one recovers agility. A decoction (taken as a drink with pepper) helps those bitten by harvest spiders. and with a good smell. 4-91]. or with sciatica. Teucrium chamaepitys [Linnaeus]. A decoction (taken as a drink with honey water for forty days) cures hip pains. Yellow Bugle hamaepitys is a bow-backed herb creeping on the ground. Used with oil it is also an effective ointment for severe spasms. and it is good for griping. Symphytum petraeum [Bedevian] — Montpellier Coris see 3-88. Ajuga chamaepitys [in Sprague] — Ground Pine. 4-78]. A decoction of the leaves of this (taken as a drink with wine for seven days) cures jaundice. (or white) and the root is like that of chicory. It is a shrub twenty centimetres high. The flowers are thin and yellow. The root of this (boiled with wine and taken as a drink) is thought to help those who faint often. Taken with 539 C .THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 3-174. It is given (effectively) for liver complaints. frequent painful urination and inflamed kidneys. Pontus they use it as an antidote. In Heraclea. but much thinner.

These have a similar strength to that previously mentioned. scales aeris [flakes of fish of the air]. heals wounds. This also smells of pine. This also smells of pine. or wild bryony. the Romans.ROOTS OF AKANTHODA or PRICKLY PLANTS honey. and rosin it purges. CHAMAIPITUS TRITE SUGGESTED: Ajuga chia — Chia Bugle Ajuga iva. Delphinium peregrinum after FAGUET — 1894 540 . but a black seed. with a coarse white stalk. Applied as a pessary (with honey) it expels things from the womb. There is a third kind called the male. 3-176. and a white flower. with thin small leaves. Smeared on with honey it dissolves hard lumps in the breasts. and the Dacians dochela. yet are not as effective. It is also called pitusorusis. and a little seed with wings. curved in the shape of an anchor. Common Bugle T here is also another chamaepitys with branches a foot long. in Pontus they call it holocyron. It is a smooth little herb. small yellowish flowers. or orizelon. Musky Bugle Ajuga reptans — Bugle Weed. the Magi call it sanguis Minervae. Teucrium iva — Herb Ivy. and represses herpes [viral skin infection]. filaments similar to that above. in Euboea it is called sideritis. CHAMAIPITUS ETERA. white and rough. with thin sprigs. the Athenians call it ionia. cupripum.

.

.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Betonica sylvestris altera from FUCHS — 1545 541 .

Polygonum mas from FUCHS — 1545 542 .

but the leaves must be dried. Stachys officinalis after FAGUET — 1888 543 . ointments. It is called psychotrophon because it is found in the coldest places. hernia. I have spoken of aromatic matters. Stachys officinalis [in Sprague]. If anyone drinks it (beforehand) he shall not be hurt. best beloved Areius. and stored in a ceramic jar. It is good with honey for tuberculosis of the lungs. Betonica officinalis [Linnaeus]. The roots underneath are thin like hellebore.Betonica officinalis. Stachys betonica — Betony. soft. KESTRON SUGGESTED: Betonica [Fuchs]. In this the fourth book we will discuss herbs and roots not previously mentioned. oils. They are bigger towards the root. A decoction of a teaspoonful of the leaves is taken as a drink with honey water for convulsions. Windflower [other usage] Cestrum nocturnum — Night Jasmine estron is a herb with a thin four-cornered stalk the height of a foot or more. They ought to dry the leaves after gathering. 4-1. disorders of the womb. Three teaspoonfuls are given with a pint of wine to those bitten by venomous creatures. vegetables. cereals. or rosmarinus.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK I BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS n the three books before this. throwing up phlegmy stuff. The Romans call it vetonica. The herb (applied) helps those bitten by venomous creatures. herbs and seeds. It is also urinary. as there is the most use of these. although he takes a deadly medicine. juices. Betonica purpurea [Bauhin]. and for spitting up pus. jagged all around. the leaves long. and draws out the menstrual flow. A drink of a decoction of these (with honey water) encourages vomit. and on the top of the stalks lies the seed encased in an ear like thymbra [3-45]. trees. similar to the oak. Four teaspoonfuls of a decoction (taken as a drink with ten cups of honey water) purge. Hedge Nettle. Bishop’s Wort. pounded into small pieces. roots. and womb constriction. C Betony . living creatures. and a teaspoonful of a decoction (taken as a drink with wine) helps against deadly poisons [antidote]. smelling well. Woundwort.

and they are three-cornered into an upright stalk. Codlins and Cream Lysimachia lutea [Fuchs]. Lysimachia vulgaris [Linnaeus] — Common Yellow Loosestrife see 4-118 L 544 ysimachia sends out thin stalks a foot high (or even higher) at the joints of which thin leaves emerge. The strength of it is as follows. LUSIMACHION SUGGESTED: Lysimachia purpurea [Fuchs]. It is available for everything else that needs an astringent. mild places around shrubs. It has a root all red. and difficult sleep. or rubbed around the temples with bitumen it heals headaches. astringent to the taste. Caryophyllus sylvestris vulgaris latifolius [Bauhin]. It preserves both the souls and bodies of men. The leaves are juiced and thickened by stirring in the sun or over a fire. Bruised when it is new and applied to the wound of a broken head it makes it painless. Picotee. It does this if changed every day until it is healed. with more filaments. It is astringent — suitable for gangrenous ulceration in the mouth and tonsils. Dianthus carthusianorum [Linnaeus] — Carthusian Pink Betonica coronaria. It heals wounds and extracts broken bones. britannica. Dianthus caryophyllus. Clove Pink SUGGESTED: Betonica sylvestris una etonica. It is effective against night-walking. On them are purple flowers. The leaves are like leek. Epilobium hirsutum [Linnaeus] — Apple Pie. Boiled with water and applied with hot cloths. clean.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-2. The juice of the leaves is . similar to those of the willow. BETTONIKE [Fuchs]. It sends out a stalk that is not great. harmful places. and astringent to the taste. The flowers are red or a golden colour. and a short thin root. Caryophyllus domesticus — Carnation. and it is recommended for all types of cures. The smoke of the root is also inhaled for them. B 4-3. and with a good scent. Betony grows in meadows and hilly. It grows in marshy places and near water. or vettonica is an herb with leaves similar to lapathum sylvestre [2-140] but darker. the middle of the leaves is a reddish colour.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Polygonum bistorta after FAGUET — 1892 545 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Lysimachia lutea from FUCHS — 1545 546 .

biliousness. and slow painful urination. It stops women's excessive menstrual discharges used as a pessary. herculea. cnopodion. seminalis. zarithea. The Egyptians call it thephin. The smoke (inhaled) has very sharp fumes so that it both drives away snakes. It is effective for bloodspitters. T 547 .THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK astringent. erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. Armstrong medicinal. In a pessary it stops women’s excessive menstrual discharges. peuthalida. cynochalem. enema. Boiled with wine (and also adding honey) it is excellent for ulcers on the genitals. genitura herois. for herpes [viral skin infection]. stemphin. the leaves similar to those of rue [3-52. and taken as a drink with wine it helps those bitten by venomous creatures. some. and kills flies. It is also called lytron. throwing-up blood. chulum. Polygonum aviculare [Linnaeus] — Knotgrass. carcinethron. Taken one hour before the fit it helps the circuits of acute fevers. or suppository. and dropped in the ears it is good for ear sores and their pus. It is also a wound herb and staunches blood. Centinode. some. Polygonum latifolium [Bauhin]. asphalton. and the Africans. chiliophullon. The juice (taken as a drink) is astringent and cooling. is good for throwing-up blood and dysentery. polycarpon. some. food he male polygonon is a tender herb with many slender branches surrounded with joints. The leaves are applied for burning of the stomach. POLUGONON ARREN SUGGESTED: Polygonum-mas [Fuchs]. unguis muris. and fresh wounds. clema. the Romans. The flower is white or purple. The herb is effective stuffed in the nostrils for flows of blood. Knotweed. It has seed by every leaf. which is why it is called the male. discharges from the intestines. 3-53. It is also called polygonaton. stopinaca. the Magi. 4-98] but somewhat longer and softer. myrtopetalon. and a liquid medicine of it. or pedalion. 4-4. creeping along the earth like grass. It also evidently causes an urge to urinate. inflammation.

lematis grows in good soil. Convallaria polygonatum. KLEMATIS Vinca minor [Linnaeus] — Running Myrtle. the thickness of a finger — good applied on wounds. the number to be reckoned from the root. tender. A decoction of the leaves and the stalks of this (taken as a drink with wine) lessen excessive discharges of the bowels and dysentery. 1-16]. It has small vinelike branches. Polygonatum officinale. a shrub higher than a foot. At every emerging of the leaves are white flowers in a larger quantity than the leaves. Polygonatum multiflorum [in Sprague] — Solomon’s Seal Polygonatum angustifolium [Fuchs]. and to take away spots on the face. and all around the joints there are small leaves similar to those of the pine. Sigillium salomonis — Solomon’s Seal. long. with many thick joints. for it tastes astringent. but much smaller. P 4-7a. Polygonatum verticillatum [in Sprague]. and a little leaf similar to laurel both in shape and colour. POLUGONATON SUGGESTED: Polygonatum latifolium [Fuchs]. It grows in watery places. similar to a reed. Periwinkle SUGGESTED: Clematis daphnoides [Fuchs. Polygonatum. The Romans call it seminalis. Sealwort olygonatum grows on hills. Water Pepper T he female polygonon is a little shrub with one stalk. strongly scented. 548 C . Polygonatum vulgare.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-5. Bauhin]. It is astringent and cooling. 4-6. with continuous joints lying on one another like a trumpet. with leaves similar to laurel but broader and smoother. POLUGONON THELU SUGGESTED: Polygonum amphibium — Amphibious Persicaria Polygonum hydropiper — Persicaria. The root is of no use. somewhat similar in taste to a quince or pomegranate. doing the same things as that above because it is not weaker. as much as the thickness of juncus [4-52. Convallaria verticillata [Linnaeus]. It has a white root — soft.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Polygonatum vulgare after HEYNS — 1888 549 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Clematis daphnoides from FUCHS — 1545 550 .

4-7b. in which are black seeds. It is also called daphnoides. but longer like those of polygonum [4-4. They say that those who have this shall not be bitten. reddish. Chewed. polygonoides. painful urination. whitish. The seed of this (pounded into small pieces and taken as a drink with water or honey water) drives phlegm and bile downward. It winds around trees like smilax [4-144. They are preserved with lepidium [2-205] to eat with meat [vegetable]. Jacob’s Ladder. 4-5] or calamint. or philetaerium. flexible. The root of this is carried around one to prevent scorpions striking. T 4-8. 4-98]. with leaves a little bigger than rue [3-52. applied. myrsinoides. The root is a foot long. 4-145]. POLEMONION SUGGESTED: Polemonium caeruleum — Charity.The root of this is taken as a drink in wine against venomous creatures. It grows in untilled ground. and sciatica.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Applied in a pessary with milk and rosaceum [1-53] (or cyprinum [1-65]) it cures pains of the womb. The leaves (applied as a poultice) drive away leprosy. On the top of them is what looks like clusters of berries. It is said that a decoction (taken as a drink with vinegar) helps those bitten by snakes. it helps those bitten by venomous creatures. the leaf extremely sharp to the taste and ulcerating. the Egyptians call it phylacuum. 3-53. KLEMATIS ETERA SUGGESTED: Clematis cirrhosa — Evergreen Clematis Clematis angustifolia —Virgin's Bower Clematis alpina — Alpine Clematis POISONOUS here is another clematis which sends out a vinelike branch. It grows in hilly. Greek Valerian olemonia has thin little winged branches. and the Romans. similar to struthium [2-193]. it eases toothache. ambuxus. A teaspoonful with vinegar is given for the spleen. and though they are touched 551 P . and with water for dysentery. It is also called epigetis. rough places.

The whole plant is woody and has a sweet smell. It also joins together broken flesh. is sweet to the taste. This (boiled with honey and water and taken as a drink) gets up vile stuff from the lungs. and for inflammation in the kidneys. Consolida maior [Fuchs].BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS yet nothing will happen. similar to those of bugloss [4-128. Knitbone S ymphyton alterum sends out a stalk two feet high or more — light. Symphytum consolida major [Bauhin]. SUMPHUTON ALLO SUGGESTED: Symphytum-magnum. and little heads like thyme. see 3-174 Symphytum petraeum — Montpellier Coris S ymphitum Petraeum grows on rocks. The stalk has some extensions of slender leaves adhering to it. 4-10. but within white and slimy — of which 552 . while the Cappadocians call it chiliodynamis. It is given with water to those who spit up blood. similar to that of sonchus [2-159] — around which comes (from not great distances) rough narrow leaves. Boiled with wine it is taken (as a drink) for dysentery. heals new wounds. and causes spittle. it eases toothaches. It is also called philetaeria. The roots are underneath — to the outward appearance black. 4-23 to 4-27]. Chewed. SUMPHUTON PETRAION SUGGESTED: Coris monspeliensis. and chewed it quenches thirst. empty. It has little branches similar to origanum. and the seed is around the stalk like verbascum [4-104]. somewhat long. 4-9. Symphytum officinale [Linnaeus] — Comfrey. The whole stalk and leaves have a somewhat prickly down that causes itching if touched. stretching along at the corners. and women's excessive bloody menstrual discharges. and represses vaginal hernias. It is boiled with vinegar and honey for convulsions and hernias. Used as a poultice it is good for the roughness of a sore throat. thick. angular. thin leaves. From every wing are yellowish flowers standing up. It has a long. faint purple root almost the thickness of a finger.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Polemonium caeruleum after FAGUET — 1888 553 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Comfrey or Knitbone Symphytum officinale after HEYNS — 1888 554 .

It is also called tobion. Esparto SUGGESTED: Stobaea toebe is well known. a very thin root. while the Romans call it solidago. Applied. The seed and the leaves are astringent. It has little pods on the stalk (nodding together) similar to iris and the curled tufts of the polypus. and it is dropped into purulent ears. STOIBE pinnata [Loudon] — Carthmus-like Stobaea Stipa pennata. 4-11. It has astringent leaves. Boiled. Macrochloa tenacissima — Alfa. It is also called pecton. and they stop excessive bloody discharges. while the Romans call it stupa. KLUMENON UNKNOWN C lymenon sends out a foursquare stalk similar to that of the bean. and tendrils like those of coronopus [2-158] or grass.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK use is made. the thickness of four fingers. OLESTION SUGGESTED: Holosteum umbellatum — Holosteum. The leaves are applied to help bloodshot eyes caused by a stroke. Chickweed. It grows on hills. white to see. this can also join pieces of flesh together. H 4-12. Stipa Stipa tenacissima. so a decoction of them is given as a suppository for dysentery. they join pieces of flesh together. Stipa barbata — Feather Grass. and it is given (as a drink with wine) for hernias. Jagged Chickweed. Boiled. they close up new wounds. similar to filaments. and leaves similar to those of plantain. S 4-13. Pounded into small pieces (and taken in a drink) they are good for bloodspitters and hernias. That on the hills is 555 . Umbellate Stitchwort olostium is a little herb about three or four fingers above the ground. They are smeared on for inflammations — most usefully for those in the perineum — with the leaves of senecio [4-123].

carpathum. The juice (taken as a drink) is good for throwing-up blood. On top is a white flower similar to the bean. P 556 . and is good for difficult breathing and the hiccups. and the leaves have the same strength.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS the best. PERIKLUMENON SUGGESTED: Periclymenus. It is also called aegine. Caprifoly ericlymenon is a single little shrub with small whitish leaves circling it at distances similar to cissus [2-210]. or volucrum maius. volucrum majus. splenium. After the sixth day it makes one urinate blood. helxine major. dyticon. the root is thick and round. It is also called calycanthemom. Lonicera caprifolium — Common Honeysuckle. a somewhat round hard seed (in a way) lying on the leaf and hard to pluck out. Woodbine. It is also birth hastening. helyophthes. Perfoliate Honeysuckle. and by the leaves’ emergence are seeds similar to cissus. for abdominal cavities. lanath. Lonicera periclymenum [Linnaeus]. It grows in fields and hedges and winds itself around the neighbouring shrubs. periclymenon. It is astringent and cooling. the Romans. Periclymenum. myrsine. or clumenion. A teaspoonful (taken in a drink for forty days) reduces the spleen. the Egyptians. the Magi call it poliom veneris. Mater silvana. clematitis. and for excessive bloody discharges. it drives away the shivering. It is all juiced together with the root. and it stops flows of blood that come out of the nostrils. The leaves or the pods. pounded into small pieces and applied to new wounds. hepatitis. smilax. dissolves weariness. A decoction (taken as a drink for thirty seven days) is said to make men unfit for generation [birth control]. and the Africans. or merginem. 4-14. hepatitis. turcum. clymenon. Caprifolium [Fuchs]. The seed of this is gathered when it is ripe and dried in the shade. the Romans call it volucrum. clymenon. and they also call it agonon. Rubbed (with oil) on those who have fever fits that recur. anatolicon. or calycanthemon. the Egyptians call it oxiui. bring them effectively to a scar.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Stipa tenacissima after FAGUET — 1894 557 .

Empetrum from FUCHS — 1545 558 .BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Saxifragum.

On it there are also certain hairy abnormal growths similar to ears. TRIBOLOS ENUDROS SUGGESTED: Tribulus terrestris — Caltrops. with stiff hard prickles on them. Rockfoil axifragum is a shrub (similar to epithymon)growing on rocks and in rough places. kidney].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-15a. sweet and nourishing. tribulus aquaticus — growing in rivers. but it is given with warm water while the fever lasts. and scattered on the ground. They are both astringent and cooling. SAXIPHRAGON SUGGESTED: Saxifraga. Ruta muraria [Bauhin]. using it instead of bread. The vinelike branches are long. With honey they heal thrush [candidiasis]. The Thracians living by the river Strymon fatten horses with the green herb. A teaspoonful of the land kind (taken in a drink and applied as well) recovers those bitten by vipers. The herb (boiled with wine) is helpful in cases of slow painful urination when there is no fever. Asplenium Ruta-muraria [Linnaeus] — Wall Rue [other usage] Saxifraga cymbalaria — Saxifrage. and are poultices for all inflammation. It is good against poisons (taken in a drink with wine) and a decoction of it (sprinkled) kills fleas. It grows near rivers and in courtyards of houses. It also cures stones in the bladder and S 559 . the tonsils. Land Caltrops Trapa natans — Water Caltrops ribulus has two types: the land kind has similar leaves to portulaca [4-168] yet they are thin. There is another kind found in the water — which is also called bucephalus. the fruit is hard like that of the other. Empetrum [Brunfels]. Ruta-muraria [Fuchs]. with the hair standing above but hiding the prickle. The leaves are broad with a long stem. they take for food. and rotten ulcers of the mouth and gums. They are juiced for eye medicines. or tauroceros. T Tribulus terrestris after FAGUET — 1874 4-15b. but the seed. The seed (taken in a drink when it is new) helps stones [urinary. Saxifragum. but the stalk is thick at the top rather than in the bottom. or by the Romans.

Statice maritima — Sea Lavender. It is also called neuroides. or sanaria. the Syrians. It grows in the ranks of corn. It grows in fields. or rapronium. and stop women's excessive bloody menstrual discharges. Limonium vulgare. LAGOPOUS SUGGESTED: Lagopus. 4-16. An acetabulum [vinegar cruet] of the seed (pounded into small pieces and taken in a drink with wine) is able to help dysentery and abdominal cavities. also. meuda. astringent to the taste. Hare’s Foot [other usage] Filago lagopus — Cotton Rose. full of red seed. the Mysians call it mendruta. the Romans. Pyrola rotundifolia [Linnaeus] — Wintergreen [other usage] Statice limonium. potamogeton. veratrum nigrum. or scyllion. dacina. LEIMONION Pyrola [Fuchs]. lonchitis. Wild Marsh Beet Statice thouini after FAGUET — 1892 SUGGESTED: Limonium. Leporinus pes. and the Dacians. Trifolium arvense [Linnaeus] — Field Clover.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS encourages the urine. tintinabulum terrae. while the Romans call it saxifraga. empetrum. the Gauls. L 560 . It is also called cuminum leporis. Trifolium humile [Fuchs]. scolopendrium. the Magi call it cor lupi. It is also hanged about one for inflammation of the groin. and a thin upright stalk equal (as it were) to the lily. some. Pyrola rotundifolia major [Bauhin]. lycosemphyllon. or bruchum. It is also called saxifrangum. Hare’s Foot agopus is restrictive to the intestines if a decoction is taken as a drink with wine (but for those with a fever with water). helleborosemata. iumbarum. L 4-17. imonium has ten or more leaves similar to beet yet thinner and smaller.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Limonium from FUCHS — 1545 561 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Lycopsis from FUCHS — 1545 562 .

trifolium. It has leaves similar to seris [2-160]. It grows in watery places. and the Egyptians. it stops excessive bloody discharges. a great stalk of three feet. It is also called medica. 4-190]. E 4-20. Three teaspoonfuls of the leaves pounded into small pieces. thrias. clemation. Campanula laciniata — Bell Flower. MEDION medium — Canterbury Bells. A decoction of the seed (taken as a drink with wine) draws out the menstrual flow. XIPHION Lily Gladiolus communis. EPIMEDION SUGGESTED: Epimedium alpinum — Barrenwort. the roots are thin. (but it bears neither seed nor flowers). cybellium. The leaves (pounded into small pieces with oil) make a poultice for the breasts so that they do not swell. Sword X iphion is called phasganon because the shape of the leaf is similar to that of iris. the thickness of a staff. Gladiolus byzantinus — Sword Lily SUGGESTED: Gladiolus illyricus — Gladiole. Pounded into small pieces when it is dry and licked in with honey that has been boiled for several days. The root is twenty centimetres long. The root causes barrenness. narrower. and taken as a drink in wine for three days after the menstrual flow purgation. bitter to the taste. 563 . or polyrrhizon. It is also called erineos. round purple-coloured flowers. keeps women from conception [birth control].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-18. with about ten or twelve leaves similar to cissus. Harebell SUGGESTED: Campanula edium grows in shady rocky places. stronglyscented and unsavoury to the taste. Mercury's Violet Campanula cichoracea — Headed Bell Flower Medium alpinum. while the Romans call it vindicta. and small seed similar to cnicus [4-119. epaphou. the Romans call it trifolium odoratum. black. osmos. yet smaller. or polyphyllon. trigonos. Bishop's Hat pimedium has a stalk that is not great. M 4-19.

the Romans call it gladiolus. It is also called xiphidion. or bolon. It is also called machaeronion. and on the top of the stalk are little balls in which is the seed. and in the middle it is a Phoenician colour [red]. The long red root has many joints. 4-22. Bur Sparganium erectum. round seed. and that the upper root is effective given to children that are broken [? foreskin or hymen] in a liquid medicine with water. XURIS SUGGESTED: Xyris indica. anactorion. and fibrous. That which lies underneath is slender but that above. and some. 4-21. red and sharp. genitalis. but that the lowest make them without lust [anaphrodisiac]. one-foot long — on which are triangular pods.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS pointed like a little sword. The root and seed are given with wine to those bitten by venomous creatures. and is good for wounds in 564 X . The root that is on top (applied with wine and frankincense) is able to draw out prickles and splinters. or arion. It grows (especially) in fields. They say that a decoction of the upper root (taken as a drink with wine) encourages sexual intercourse [aphrodisiac]. Sparganium ramosum — Branched Bur Reed Reed Sparganium ramosum (female inflorescence) after FAGUET — 1894 S parganium has leaves similar to a little sword but narrower and bending downward more. On them is a purple flower. and used for a pessary it draws out the menstrual flow. fuller. Xyris congensis. 4-140] and honey water) to dissolve the pannus [opaque thickening of cornea with veins]. The seed (in little cases) is similar to beans — round. Xyris capensis — Xyris yris has leaves similar to iris but broader and sharp at the top. with a stalk breaking out of the middle of the leaves — thick enough. It sends forth a stalk a foot long. and (with meal of lolium [2-116. and two roots — one of them resting on the other — similar to little scallions. on which are purple flowers distant from one another by steps. It is mixed with similar plasters. SPARGANION SUGGESTED: Sparganium simplex — Reed Grass.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Campanula media after FAGUET — 1888 565 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Gladiolus communis from ENGLER-PRANTL — 1897 566 .

The ointment makers use the root for thickening ointments. hernia. Given as a pessary it is an abortifacient. Applied with polenta it cures erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. ANCHOUSA SUGGESTED: Anchusa aggregata — Cluster-flowered Bugloss Anchusa azurea. vitiligines [form of leprosy]. sciatica. A 567 . It grows in good grounds. Anchusa paniculata. The root has an astringent nature: good (boiled in wax and oil) for burns and old ulcers. dyeing the hands. A decoction of the leaves (taken as a drink with wine) stops discharges of the bowels. salyx. onophyllon. the Romans call it gladiolus. Buglossum officinale — Italian Alkanet. Anchusa tinctoria. Anchusa italica. Sea Bugloss Alkanna tinctoria. Applied with vinegar it cures oedema and inflammation. some call it iris agrestis. sharp and black — on every side of the root joining to the earth. Lithospermum tinctorium — Alkanet. while the Africans call it buinesath. A decoction of it is given for jaundice and inflamed kidneys. It is also called iris agria. It is also called calyx. a fifth part of the root of centaury and sufficient honey. it also reduces the spleen. 4-119. The root (bruised with passum [raisin wine]) is taken as a drink for convulsion. 4-23. and the colour almost of blood. and intestinal discharges. and it is given to the splenetic (if they have a fever) with honey and water.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK the head and fractures. Dyer’s Bugloss or Spanish Bugloss see 4-24. onoclea. If a decoction is taken as a drink with vinegar. or cactos. catanchusa. or nonea. In the summer it becomes astringent. and smeared on with vinegar it cures leprosy. archibellion. while the Dacians call it aprus. mydusa. The root is the thickness of a finger. lybica. slow painful urination. it extracts prickles and all sorts of weapons without pain. porphyris. and mixed with one third part flour of brass [zinc oxide]. Thirty grains of a decoction of the seed (taken as a drink in wine) is most uretical. 4-128 Alkanet [Bugloss] Anchusa italica after FAGUET — 1888 nchusa has many prickly leaves (similar to the sharpleaved lettuce) — rough.

with flowers of a purple colour drawing towards a Phoenician [red]. and with polenta it heals erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. and on them little flowers. taken as a drink. This is also called anchusa. It sends out a long. LUKOPSIS SUGGESTED: Lycopsis arvensis. ANCHOUSA ETERA SUGGESTED: see 4-23. It grows in sandy places. The root (applied with oil) heals wounds. but with a smaller seed of a Phoenician [red] colour. The root is red and astringent.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-24. ANCHOUSA ETERA SUGGESTED: see 4-128 T here is also another similar to the above. it will kill him. 4-26. There are thin little branches. 4-128 nchusa altera differs from the above in having smaller leaves yet equally sharp. The root and leaves are able to help those bitten by venomous creatures — especially the viper-bitten — eaten. Chewed and spat out into the mouth of a snake. Anchusa arvensis — Field Bugloss see 4-27 L ycopsis has leaves similar to lettuce — but longer. or onocheiles. thicker. sharp and broader — lying down around the head of the root. or hanged about one. An acetabulum [vinegar cruet] of a decoction the root (taken as a drink with hyssop [3-30] and nasturtium [2-185]) draws out broadworms. rough stalk with many prickly shoots a foot long. Chewed and spat out into the mouth of a venomous beast. it will kill him. It grows in level fields. The roots are red and very long. A 4-25. straight. It is also called alcibiadian. almost a purple. Around harvest time they have something similar to blood in them. Pounded into small pieces and rubbed on with oil it reduces sweating. 568 .

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Echium after FUCHS — 1545 569 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Erinus alpinus after FAGUET — 1888 570 .

or alcibiadion. similar to the head of a viper. Clinopodium arvense Ocimi facie [Bauhin]. Thymos acinos [Linnaeus]. There are many thin little stalks. The flowers by the leaves are a purple colour. OKIMOEIDES SUGGESTED: Ocimastrum. 4-28. Taken with wine or some other sipping it lessens the pain of the loins [digestive or procreative]. somewhat black. E 4-28. Buglossum chion has long. Ocimum sylvestre [Fuchs]. A decoction of the seed (taken as a drink in wine) is able to cure the viper-bitten and the bites of other snakes. The root that lies underneath is thin and useless.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-27. Bugloss [other usage] Echium plantagineum — Purple Viper's Bugloss SUGGESTED: Echion. with pods similar to hyoscyamus [4-69] full of black seed similar to melanthium [3-93]. Buglossum sylvestre minus [Bauhin]. 4-176 cimoides has leaves similar to basil. Lycopsis arvensis [Linnaeus] — Anchusa. and rough branches twenty centimetres long. while the Romans call it alcibiacum [halicacabum — a bad poison]. echion. 3-109. smaller as they grow nearer to the top of the stalk. similar to those which make leaves rough. 4-116] and pepper for sciatica. It is also called philetaerium. Ocimum pilosum. Both the leaves and the seed are of similar use. with thin little prickles lying on them. It is also called aridan. but also makes those who drink it beforehand unbitten. The root is thinner than a finger. Acinos. Acinos vulgaris — Acinos see 3-50. 571 O . It is also given with myrrh [1-77. 1-73. Satureja acinos [in Sprague]. ECHION sylvestre. and on either side thin little black leaves spread abroad (similar to wings). in which is the seed. althaea. sparganon. scorpiuron. Echium germanicum spinosum [Fuchs]. a decoction of which (taken as a drink with wine) not only helps those already bitten by snakes. somewhat thin leaves similar to those of anchusa [4-23 to 4-26]. sharp. but smaller and fat.

ERINOS SUGGESTED: Erinus hispanicus. cotiata. thermutis. Erinus alpinus [Bedevian] — Erinus. and a little black seed with an unpleasant taste. E 4-30. It is also called ocimoides. Liver Balsam rinus grows by rivers and fountains and has leaves similar to those of basil yet smaller and jagged at the upper parts. or hydrero. painful urination. sanguinalis. 4-29. while the Romans call it ocimastrum. Stellaria holostea [Linnaeus]. the Romans. jebal. AGROSTIS SUGGESTED: Gramen [Fuchs]. thersites. 572 .BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS amaranthis. the Egyptians say anuphi. nemesion. and the Africans. knotty roots. aparia. hyaenopsolon. elaphion. sweet. white flowers. and the juice soothes earache (dropped in the ears with sulphur that never felt the fire and saltpetre [potassium nitrate]). the sharp leaves hard and broad like a little reed. The stalk is full of liquid and so are the leaves. or amaxitist. with five or six little branches twenty centimeters long. gramen. A decoction of it (taken as a drink) is good for griping. Caryophyllus arvensis glaber flore majore [Bauhin]. the Dacians. or misopathos. and it breaks urinary stones. Fiorin Grass Agrostis interrupta after FAGUET — 1894 A grostis has little branches full of joints creeping on the earth and growing out from the stalks. porphyris. Agrostis palustris — White Bent Grass. augion. It is also called aegicon. some say assefolium. or uniola. and ulcers around the bladder. the Spaniards. antimimon. The root of this (pounded into small pieces) is applied to heal wounds. Two teaspoonfuls of the seed (mixed with four of honey and smeared on) stop discharges of the eyes. while the Romans call it basil. nourishing for cows and labouring cattle. probataea. — Greater Stitchwort [Mabberley] [other usage] Agrostis alba.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Graminus genus after FUCHS — 1545 573 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Stachys after FUCHS — 1545 574 .

4-33. Betonica annua var hirsuta. a small seed. AGROSTIS EN PARNASSO SUGGESTED: Parnassia palustris — Grass of Parnassus he grass that grows on Parnassus is more full of stems. as much honey. Phragmites communis — Common Reed SUGGESTED: Calamagrostis R T eed grass is bigger in every respect than gramen. 4-116]. It sends out foursquare stalks twenty centimetres long or rather more — not unpleasant to the taste. strong. and a third part of frankincense) is an excellent medicine for the eyes. Stachys sideritis — Mountain Woundwort S ideritis is a herb with leaves similar to marrubium [3-38] but longer. pepper. the Magi call it genitura.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-31. it is a killer of labouring beasts (especially that which grows in Babylon by the wayside). That which grows in Cilicia (which the inhabitants call cinna) inflames rude beasts if often fed on when it is moist. The seed is strongly diuretic. and has a sweet scent. and stops vomits and flowing bowels. Stachys procumbens. an half part of myrrh [1-77. soft. Stachys recta [Linnaeus]. yet smaller and sharp. similar to those of sage or oak. and in them is black seed. The juice of this (boiled with wine. The leaves (applied) are able to close open cuts and sore wounds. 575 . and reduce inflammation. KALAMAGROSTIS arenaria — Sea Sand Reed Phragmites australis. Sideritis vulgaris hirsuta erecta [Bauhin]. SIDERITIS SUGGESTED: Sideritis-prima [Fuchs]. It grows in places under rocks. It is also called Heraclea. and five or six effective roots of a finger's thickness — white. or the tail of a scorpion. Pythagoras says parmiron. a white flower. 1-73. A decoction of the roots is good for the same disorders. some say the blood of Titan. It is stored in a brass box. and somewhat gently astringent — on which are round whorls at distances apart (similar to marrubium). It bears leaves similar to cissus [2-210]. but eaten. 4-32.

somewhat white and ruddy. sendionor. and from the upper wings long thin shoots with a rough head on the top. bitter to the taste. similar to coriander. Osthenes says buphthalmum. in which is the seed — similar to beet but rounder and harder. not unpleasant but having a medicinal smell. the flowers white.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Acreas. SIDERITIS ETERA SUGGESTED: Stachys arvensis [Mabberley] — Stagger-weed he other sideritis has slender branches of two feet. This (with the leaves) is good for wounds. SIDERITIS TRITE SUGGESTED: Stachys sylvatica — Hedge Woundwort T here is said to be yet another sideritis (which Crateuas calls heraclea) growing in walls and vineyards. vertumnus. asterchillos. 4-34. smooth tender little stalks about twenty centimetres long. clammy. round like a sphere. ACHILLEIOS SUGGESTED: Achillea ageratum — Milfoil. solaster. the Romans. the Egyptians. the little flowers of a Phoenician [red] colour. and leaves on long stems (similar to those of fern) with many in-cuts towards the top on either side. some. It bears small rods a hand’s width long (or rather more) in the shape of spindles. and about them thin little leaves having frequent in-cuts across like coriander — somewhat red. Santolina fragrantissima — Lavender Cotton A 576 chillea is also called achillea sideritis. T 4-35. and the Africans. with many leaves from one root. xanthophanes. 4-36. The fibres of this (pounded) . resembling gold. clammy — and the strength of this (applied) is that it congeals bleeding and new wounds. Sweet Maudlin Achillea atrata — Black Milfoil Achillea fragrantissima. smelling considerably. It grows in fertile places. There is a round tuft on the top.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Rubus after FUCHS — 1545 577 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Helxine cissampelos after FUCHS — 1545 578 .

and it dyes the hair. and stops bleeding. The Magi say sanguis Titani. It is also drunk for dysentery. or Heracleon. atus (with which we are familiar) binds and dries. the Dacians. rubus. The juice of the thoroughly ripe fruit is good put into oral medicines. 4-37. The leaves are chewed to strengthen the gums and heal apthae [aptylia — absence of saliva]. haemceos. reduces inflammation. heal running ulcers on the head. militaris. sanguis ibis. stratioticon. BATOS Rubus fructu nigro [Bauhin]. chiliophyllon. some. The leaves (applied) restrain herpes [viral skin infection]. BATOS IDAIA SUGGESTED: Rubus idaeus — Red Raspberry Rubus idaeus after FAGUET — 1888 t is called rubus idaeus because it grows abundantly in Ida — but it is much more tender than that above. supercilium veneris. Rubus vulgaris. with little prickles. the Romans. and it is also found without prickles. or mora vaticana. Common Bramble SUGGESTED: Rubus [Fuchs]. some call it acorus sylvaticus. B 4-38. venereal warts. It does I 579 . some. as also of that of the womb (in a pessary). It is also called cynosbatos. or asyntrophon. and is convenient for the bites of the prester [mythological snake]. and the Africans call it asterchillos. and haemorrhoids. and a decoction of this is a douche for the excessive menstrual flows of women. or millefolium. the Romans. The flowers of it (as a drink with wine) also stop the bowels. it also stops discharges of the intestines. the Egyptians. Some call it myriomorphon. drooping eyes. Eaten when it is half-ripe. sentis. ametros. A decoction of the tops of it (as a drink) stops the flows of the intestines. they are available for gastritis and heart conditions. and some.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK congeals bloody wounds. Rubus fructiosus [Linnaeus]. Rubus plicatus — Blackberry. The juice from the bruised stalks and leaves stirred in the sun does better for all the purposes previously mentioned. mantia. Pounded into small pieces and applied. selinorition. restrains the excessive menstrual flows of women.

The five or six branches are thin. ELXINE KUSSAMPELOS SUGGESTED: Helxine-cissampelos. vineyards and corn. Convolvulus. twenty centimetres long from the root. melampelon. or analetamenon. 4-39. The leaves (applied with polenta) are able to help inflamed rheumatic eyes. full of leaves that are sharp to the taste. cissampelon. hapap. rounder. with long little branches clasping around wherever it occurs. amelxine. Pipewort SUGGESTED: Antirrhinum Elatine paludosa after FAGUET — 1888 latine has leaves similar to helxine [above] but smaller. and furthermore the flower (pounded into small pieces with honey and rubbed on) helps eye inflammation. and the Egyptians. Waterwort. the Romans call it volutum laparou. Convolvulus arvensis [Linnaeus] — Common Bindweed H elxine has leaves similar to cissus but smaller. amorgine. Convolvulus minor arvensis [Bauhin]. It grows in hedges. psychuacos. 4-40. Pointed-leaved Toadflax Elatine hydropiper — Water Pepper. sucotachos. canochersaea.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS the same things as that mentioned above. It is given in a drink with water for gastritis. It grows among corn and in tilled places. Cymbalaria elatine — Elatine. eusine. Linaria elatine. Volubilis media [Fuchs]. The juice of the leaves (taken as a drink) has a laxative effect on the bowels. and extinguishes erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. E 580 . Cancerwort. ELATINE elatine. cissamethon. Boiled and sipped it stops dysentery. and hairy. It is also called elitis.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Parnassia palustris after FAGUET — 1894 581 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Quinquefolium after FUCHS — 1545 582 .

583 P . Cinquefoil Potentilla congesta after FAGUET — 1888 SUGGESTED: Quinquefolium entaphyllum has thin branches like festuca [fescue grass] twenty centimetres long. It grows in moist places and by rivers. The leaves of this (pounded fine and applied with old swines’ grease) heal difficult scars on ulcers. straight. Agrimonia eupatoria [Linnaeus] — Agrimony. and the leaves jagged (at distances) most commonly into five parts (or rather more. for it is diverse (as we have shown). Some were deceived and called this artemisia. somewhat rough. Potentilla hirta — Five Fingers Grass. five on every stem but rarely anywhere more. and those inclining to black. bending downward so that dried it sticks to clothes. Quinquefolium album majus alterum [Bauhin]. cut-in all around like a saw. woody. EUPATORION Agrimonia [Fuchs]. A decoction of the root reduced one third by simmering (held in the mouth) is able to relieve toothache. Potentilla pimpinelloides. cut-in on the edges like a saw. PENTAPHULLON maius candidum [Fuchs]. Eupatorium veterum [Bauhin]. Potentilla opaca. white. The seed and herb (taken as a drink with wine) help dysentery and serpent bites. on which is the seed. E 4-42. It is also called hepatorium. Cocklebur. The seed grows all around from the middle of the stalk. and it has a somewhat long reddish root (thicker than black hellebore) that is of considerable use. black and rough — half a metre long or rather more. or hepatitis. gargled. while the Romans call it volucrum maius. Five Leaf. similar to those of quinquefolium or even cannabis). The flower is pale. Liverwort. it relieves roughness of the throat. or yellowish like gold.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-41. Sticklewort [other usage] Eupatorium syriacum — Syrian Eupatorium Eupatorium cannabinum — Hemp Agrimony SUGGESTED: Eupatorium. It has leaves similar to mint. Agrimonia eupatoria after FAGUET — 1888 upatorium is an herb like a shrub placing out one stem — thin. Potentilla alba [Linnaeus] — Tormentil [Mabberley] [other usage] Pentafillo [Italian]. Used as a mouthwash it stops rotten ulcers in the mouth.

disorders of the nerves. and conjunctivitis. boiled in vinegar and applied. 4-43. asphalton. 4-140]. and scabies [itchy parasitical disease] caused by a pernicious famine. the uvula. Applied with salt and honey they heal wounds and fistulas. dysentery. and it heals skin lesions and psoriasis. A decoction (poured on the hands) is excellent against fears and enchantments. hardened tonsils. (If anyone carries pentadactylon [cinquefoil] around his body he remains without suffering. the Gauls pempedula. and sciatica. hardened places. suppurations. discharges of blood. it restrains herpes [viral skin disease]. oedema. or hermodactylon. pentacoenon. It is cut for washing. as well as drawing down the afterbirth. propedula. and purification. callipetalon. and the ears seven or eight. and the Dacians.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS and taken as a drink it helps flowing bowels. the Magi. enotron. and one for a paroxysm every day. and three glasses of the juice of the leaves (taken as a drink for some days) soon cures jaundice. some. xyloloton. the Egyptians call it orphitebeoce. sores under the tongue. or thymiatitis. pentadactylon. some. The leaves are taken in a drink with honey water or diluted wine and a little pepper for recurrent fevers. It grows in fields and 584 P . It helps the eyes. Pounded finely. quinquefolium. PHOINIX SUGGESTED: Hordeum murinum — Wall Barley hoenix has leaves similar to barley only shorter and narrower. They help epilepsy (taken as a drink for thirty days). the teeth. three for a paroxysm every third day. with an ear [of seed] similar to lolium [2-116. and stops flows of blood. unguis ibis. goitres. xylopetalon. Taken as a drink (or else applied) it helps those who are broken [foreskin or hymen]. and for deadly poisons. pseudoselinon. and dissolves swellings. aneurisms. The juice from the tender root is good for disorders in the liver and the lungs.) It is also called pentapetes. erysipela [skin inflammation]. therefore gather the herb when the moon increases at the time of the sun arising. pentatomon. the leaves of four little branches for a paroxysm every fourth day. the joints. arthritis. ala ibis. branches around the root six fingers in length. tumours [possibly goitre]. the Romans.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Equisetum after FUCHS — 1545 585 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Equisetum arvense after FAGUET — 1891 586 .

Bottlebrush. The Romans say palolucupinum. making a scent when bruised similar to that of roses. The root of this is especially astringent serving as such for those for whom there is need. or ostheles.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK on newly-mortared roofs. It has empty little reddish stalks distinguished by joints growing one into another. A decoction (taken as a drink in hard wine) it is able to stop discharges of the intestines. It is taken in a drink for discharges of the intestines and women's excessive menstrual discharges. It is also called rhodida. Sedum rhodiola [in Sprague]. Some say that it is a blood-stauncher. Witches’ Milk SUGGESTED: Equisetum H ippuris grows in moist places and ditches. Equisetum arvense [Linnaeus]. It stops all discharges of blood. Rhodiola rosea [Linnaeus]. 4-46. It is also called rhus. IDAIA RHIZA UNKNOWN — this means root from Ida I daea radix has similar leaves to oxymyrsine near which there grows out (as it were) little tendrils and flowers. It is useful for those aggrieved with headaches. and around them many thin 587 . athnon. rhus stachyos. IPPOURIS minus. similar to costus [1-15] but lighter and uneven. and excessive urine. 4-45. the Egyptians. Bottlebrush. Hippuris. Cauda equina — False Horsetail. bruised and applied with a little rosaceum [1-53] and applied moist to the forehead and temples. Sedum roseum — Roseroot. Meadow Horsetail [other usage] Hippuris vulgaris — Mare’s Tail. the excessive discharges of blood from the womb. Rosy-flowered Stonecrop R hodia radix grows in Macedonia. phoenicopteron. bound in red wool and hanged about one. Radix rhodia [Bauhin]. anchinops. 4-44. RHODIA RADIX SUGGESTED: Rhodia-radix [Fuchs]. Equisetum brevius [Fuchs]. Horsepipe.

with shorter. anabasion. while the Egyptians say pherphram. It grows to a height climbing on the trunks of trees standing nearby. salix equinalis. A decoction (taken as a drink with wine) helps dysentery and induces urine. IPPOURIS ETERA Equisetum sylvaticum after FAGUET — 1891 Equisetum longius. 4-47. Mixed with vinegar it heals wounds. having the same strength as that above. The root is woody and hard. whiter. cibus Saturni. It is said also that a decoction of the leaves (taken as a drink in water) joins openings of the intestines. The best is from Galatia and Armenia. Equisetum scirpoides — Common Scouring Bush SUGGESTED: H ippuris alterum has a stalk that is straight. or gyon. while the Romans say salix equinalis. to which cling grains like lentils which are taken out and stored. gis. softer filaments at distances. It is also called trimachion. Both the root and herb help coughs and asthma. Polygonum foemina [Fuchs]. cheredranon. It is also called equitium. It is surrounded with many black filaments similar to the tail of a horse. the Magi. Anamirta paniculata — Cocculus Indicus Plant Quercus coccifera — Kermes Oak — little coccus insect is found on it Coccus means berries as well as being the name of the dyer’s insect. even higher than a foot (as it were) empty. and hernia. and some. and the herb is astringent.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS rushy leaves. equinalis. Cocculus plukenetii [Loudon] — Cocculus — twining shrub Anamirta cocculus. Hippuris. chedra. Pounded into small pieces (and sprinkled on) it closes bleeding wounds. and last of all that from 588 C . and hangs on them. 4-48. anabasis. the Romans. and any cutting-apart of the bladder. itiandendron. Equisetum palustre [Linnaeus] — Meadow Horsetail [other usage] Equisetum hyemale. or ephudron. The juice of it stops discharges of blood from the nostrils. occum tinctile is a little shrub full of sprigs. KOKKOS BAPHIKE SUGGESTED: Cocculus officinale. or schoniostrophon. phaedra. then that from Asia and that from Cilicia.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Agrimonia eupatoria after FAGUET — 1888 589 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Anamirta cocculus after FAGUET — 1887 590 .

salia. the Dacians. splinters. It has leaves. about twenty centimetres tall or more. and induces the menstrual flow. breaks stones in the bladder. seed and fluid (applied with wine) draw out arrowheads. TRAGOS SUGGESTED: Tragus berteronianus — Carrot Seed Grass see 2-115 ragus grows particularly near the sea. It has no leaves.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Spain. the Egyptians. In the autumn the leaves put out the scent of a goat. scorpion. It is a little shrub. A decoction (taken as a drink) cures slow painful urination. and a thin white root similar to wild raphanus. 591 T . and the Africans. TRAGION ALLO SUGGESTED: Herba à cent goûts [French]. tragoceros. It is also called tragos. achiosm. It has a liquid similar to gum. The leaves. and good for wounds and lost strength. some. stems and seed similar to lentiscus [1-90] but all smaller. T 4-51. on the ground. not large. TRAGION SUGGESTED: Chenopodium vulvaria. A teaspoonful is taken. and call them coccum. or garganon. which is eaten (raw or boiled) to help dysentery. Tragium germanicum — Stinking Motherwort ragium grows only in Crete. Mugwort ragium alterum has leaves similar to scolopendrium [3-121]. T 4-50. somewhat long. 4-49. Pounded into small pieces and applied with vinegar it is astringent. Artemisia vulgaris — Motherwort. bituensa. As a result it is called tragium. while the Romans say cornulaca. They say that wild goats that have been shot feed on this herb and put out the arrows. and all things fastened within. sober. It grows in steep hilly places. That in Cilicia grows on oaks [with grains] similar in shape to a little snail. which the women there gather by mouth.

chudua. It is also called juncus laevis. 4-52. or traganos. pointed on the top. or supercilium solis. Some also beat it and make it into tablets for storage to use later. black seed — but the reeds of this are thicker and more fleshy. the other the sharp juncus. Sea Rush Juncus acutus — Sharp Rush. especially astringent to the taste.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS but on the branches there hang (as it were) many little red kernels about the size of wheat. and this also has seed on the top similar to that before it. juncus manualis. It is also called scorpion. There is a third type — much more fleshy and rougher than the first two — which is called holoschoenos. Ten kernels of the seed of this (taken as a drink with wine) help the abdomen and women having their discharges [menstrual flow]. 592 . while the Romans say juncus marinus. and the other has a round. The Ethiopian juncus has seed that will cause sleep. Sweet Rushes Juncus arabicus — Rush. Dutch Rush see 1-16 SUGGESTED: Schoenus T wo types of shoenus are found. and the Africans. and induces urine. The seed of any of them (dried and taken in a drink with diluted wine) stops discharges of the intestines. the one of which is called the smooth juncus. oxypternos. Juncus effusus — Rushes. and the tender leaves near the root (applied) are good for harvest spider bites. and excessive bloody discharges. SCHOINOS incanus — Bog Rush Schoenus ferrugineous — Rusty Bog Rush Shoenus mucronatus — Clustered Bog Rush Juncus conglomeratus. some. We must beware of too much of it in liquid medicines for it encourages sleep excessively. It is also good for headaches. and of this again there are two types for one is barren. sharp on the top.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Sedum acre after FAGUET — 1874 593 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Chrysanthemum simplex after FUCHS — 1545 594 .

It is also called chysitis. 4-55. Chrysocoma villosa C hrysocome is a small shrub twenty centimetres long with filaments like corymbi [flattened inflorescences] resembling hyssop [3-30]. Hepatica fontana [Bauhin]. Horse-hair Lichen Parmelia saxatilis — Lichen ichen grows on rocks and is also called bryon. and some. 595 . lessen inflammation. L 4-54. It is a moss sticking to moist rocks. It is taken (boiled with honey water) for cleansing the womb. and heal lichen [papular skin disease]. PARONUCHIA SUGGESTED: Paronychia serpyllifolia — Thyme-leaved Nailwort Paronychia serpyllifola after FAGUET — 1888 P aronychia grows among rocks. the Africans. and applied with honey it helps jaundice. The root is warming and binding — of suitable use for the liver and pneumonia. Marchantia polymorpha [Linnaeus] [other usage] Lecanora esculenta — Manna Lichen Alectoria jubata — Rock Hair Moss. while the Romans say Iovis barba. Lichen petraeus latifolius. It is also called adocetos. while the Romans call it unguinalis. rocky places. It is applied (bruised) to all. It also helps the fluids of the mouth and tongue [saliva]. to heal whitlows and favus [contagious honeycombed skin disease]. LEICHEN SUGGESTED: Lichen. a slender thick root like black hellebore — not unpleasant to the taste. This is applied to stop discharges of blood. dubath. amarantum.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-53. chrysanthemon. or phrynion. somewhat sour in its sweetness. neuras. equal to cyprus [1-124]. or the beard of Jupiter. CHRUSOKOME SUGGESTED: Chrysocoma [Bedevian] — Goldylocks ALSO: Chrysocoma linosyris. burchumath. Hepatica [Fuchs]. It grows in shady. It is a small shrub similar to peplus — less in length but larger in the leaves.

and hernia. and a thin root. ELICHRUSON SUGGESTED: Amarantus luteus. the filaments circular. the bites of snakes. while some call it amarantum. and has flowers similar to verbascum coronarium [4-104]. C 4-57. Helichryson [Fuchs]. H 596 . and dissolves clots of blood in the bladder or bowels. sciatica. Helichrysum chinophylum. (as it were) dry bunches of berries. Helichrysum arenarium — Helichrysum. A decoction of the filaments (taken as a drink with wine) helps painful urination. It is also called chrysanthemon. but the shrub is thick. protecting them from moths. Thirty grains in a dilution of white wine (given to one fasting) stops dripping fluids. a round tuft. strongly red within but with the exterior black. CHRUSOGONON SUGGESTED: Bongardia chrysogonum — Golden Rod hrysogonum has leaves similar to the oak. green. shining like gold. straight and strong — and narrow leaves (similar to those of abrotanum) set apart at distances. Stichas citrina. A decoction (taken as a drink with must [pulp from grapes]) induces the menstrual flow. Cudweed. it helps the bites of the shrewmouse. Helichrysum arenarium [in Sprague]. Gnaphalium arenarium [Linnaeus]. It grows in rough places near running water. It is stored together with clothes. Eternal Flower. Pounded finely with vinegar and applied. Golden Sunflower elichrysum (with which they crown their statues) has a little stem — white.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-56. a root similar to rape [coleseed].

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Papaver erraticum alterum after FUCHS — 1545 597 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Papaver erraticum primum after FUCHS — 1545 598 .

calchas. Smoke from the herb itself is inhaled to induce the movement of urine. It is called ageratum because the flower remains for a long time. 599 . They are astringent to the body. (Chrysanthemon you take out of the earth before the rising of the sun. Crown Daisy SUGGESTED: Chrysanthemum. Milfoil Ageratum conyzoides — Floss Flowers. and to soften hardness around the womb. and yellowish flowers strongly shining with an eye (which is why it is called this). Bastard Agrimony. smaller than helichrysum. It gives the jaundiced a good colour in good time given to drink after they have spent a long time in the baths. Celestine A geratum is a low shrub twenty centimetres long. similar (especially) to origanum. and the Africans. very jagged leaves all around. or chalcanthemon. Ranunculus repens [Linnaeus] — Creeping Buttercup [Mabberley] [other usage] Chrysanthemum segetum — Corn Marigold.) It is also called bupthalmum.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-58. A decoction of it is burning [to take or use]. CHRUSANTHEMON Chrysanthemum simplex [Fuchs]. Crown Marigold. AGERATON SUGGESTED: Achillea ageratum — Sweet Maudlin. C hrysanthemon is a tender shrubby herb. keeping its colour. being good for averting women witches and all enchantments. chalcanthum. Ranunculus pratensis erectus dulcis [Bauhin]. and are hung around the neck. with a tuft on which is a flower (like a protuberance) of a golden colour. chalcitis. Corn Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum coronarium — Garden Chrysanthemum. The flowers (pounded into small pieces with wax ointment) are said to dissolve steatomata [encysted fatty tumour]. and the stalks are eaten as vegetables. garuleum. the Romans say acantha. churzeta. It grows in towns. full of single sprigs. Goat Weed. bringing out smooth stalks. 4-59. the Thuscans.

Verbena recta [Fuchs]. Erysimum officinale [Linnaeus]. goitres. or herba sanguinalis. PERISTEREON ORTHOS Verbenaca recta. the Egyptians say pempsempte. Sinapis alterum genus sylvestre. ferrea. and joins new wounds. Lippia citrata. and headache. It seems to be named this because doves gladly stop around it. trixalis. Vervain [Pliny]. Verbenaca. but that which bends is drying. Pigeon’s Grass. and it eases weariness. It is found for the most part with only one shoot and one root. Vervain [Pliny]. sacra herba. exupera. or philtrodotes. Verbenaca supina [Fuchs]. crista gallinacea. and hardened tonsils. the Magi. When anyone shivers with a fever let someone with branches from this stand before him and immediately he is cured. and with honey it heals old ones with a new skin. Herb Louisa SUGGESTED: Peristereon. growing out of the stalk. some say the blood of the weasel. Applied with vinegar it represses erysipela [streptococcal skin infection] and rotten ulcers. Verbena officinalis [Linnaeus] — Vervain. bunion. Iunonis lachryma. Aloysia citriodora. Erysimum vulgare [Bauhin]. smaller and . Lippia citriodora — Lemon Verbena. The upright (tied to one) is good for pains of the eyes. PERISTEREON UPTIOS. H 600 ierabotane sends out angular stems of a foot (or rather more) around which are the leaves at distances — similar to the oak. Bruised with vinegar it immediately dissolves scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling]. It seems that the leaves (applied as a pessary with rosaceum [1-53] or new swines’ grease) cause womb pains to stop. the Romans. IEROBOTANE Verbena supina. Verbena communis caerulo flore [Bauhin]. Holy Herb SUGGESTED: Peristereon. yet narrower. Sisymbrium officinale [in Sprague] — Hedge Mustard [Mabberley] [other usage] Verbena triphylla. P eristereon orthos grows in watery places. dimness of sight.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-60. 4-61. It is a n herb with a height of twenty centimetres (or rather more) the whitish leaves cut-in. It is also called trygonium. and some. The upright peristereon extends the pudendum [genitals].

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Papaver sativum after FUCHS — 1545 601 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Papaver somniferum after FAGUET — 1874 602 .

A teaspoonful of a decoction of the leaves with thirty grains of frankincense in one half-pint of old wine is taken as a drink for jaundice by one fasting for forty days. of a good amount. erigenion. A decoction of the root (taken as a drink in wine) stops flowing bowels and induces urine. onyx. It is good (similarly) dried into powder and sprinkled on old ulcers. and the root lies underneath — round. scene talum. The leaves (applied) lessen inflammation and long-lasting oedema. or demetrias. and the Romans. dichromon. with strong.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK cut-in all around. The fourth joint is given to those who have a paroxysm every fourth day. The root is somewhat long and thin. or nonaria. curitis. black. ASTRAGALOS SUGGESTED: Astragalus gummifera — Astragal. phersephonion. Milk Vetch Astragalus glycyphyllos — Milk Vetch. Gargled. It is also called chamaesyce. It is also called peristereon [huption]. and in great abundance in Memphis. callesis. and it staunches blood. 4-62. Iovis colum. chamaelycon. Arcadia. it stops erosive ulcers in the mouth. the Romans say pinus trivius. An infusion of it sprinkled in feasts is said to make the guests merrier [relaxant]. The third joint from the earth (with all the leaves) is given to drink to those who have a paroxysm every third day. cincinnalis. and clean foul ulcers. or gatales. It is pounded with difficulty because of the solidity of it. hipparison. It grows in windy. similar to chickpea in the leaves and sprigs. drawing to an azure [blue]. The whole herb (boiled with wine) breaks crusts all around in the tonsils. the flowers purple and thin. sideritis. Liquorice Vetch see 1-113 A stragalus is a small little shrub on the ground. and some call it glacula. The leaves and root (given to drink with wine or smeared on) are useful against snakes. similar to the radish. hard growths folded one within another like horns — pleasantly astringent to the taste. the Egyptians say pemphthephtha. shady and snowy places. The little leaves are purple. 603 . They call it sacra herba because it suitable for use as amulets in purification. as well as ficus terrae. Pythagoras calls it erysisceptron.

and the root similar to bulbus. whitish. it also is therapeutic for the bowels. or porphyranthes. Having boiled five or six little heads of this (with three cups of wine to reduce it to two). the seed is red. Hyacinthus racemosus caeruleus monor latifolius [Bauhin]. UAKINTHOS Hyacinthus comosus major purpureus [Bauhin]. a foot in height. the Romans call it vaccinium. a smooth green stalk twenty centimetres long. 4-64. Papaver rhoeas [Linnaeus] — Field Poppy. the head is somewhat long. similar to that of the wild anemone. and helps those bitten by harvest spiders. ulcinum. It is also called helonias. Hyacinthus botyroides [Linnaeus]. or thyme — jagged but longer and rough. Hyacinthus comosus [Linnaeus]. and some. Muscari botyroides — Grape Hyacinth ALSO: Scilla bifolia [Linnaeus] — Squill SUGGESTED: Hyacinthus caeruleus maximus [Fuchs]. It has a downy stalk — straight. thinner than a little finger. The root is somewhat long. eruca [2-170]. The leaves are similar to origanum. at which time it is also gathered. H yacinthus has leaves similar to a bulbus [2-200].BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-63. give it to drink to those whom you would make sleep. A decoction (taken as a drink with wine) cleanses jaundice. chicory. and bitter. Corn Poppy P Papaver rhoeas after FAGUET — 1874 apaver erraticum is called this because it quickly casts away its flower. Corn Rose. a curled calyx lying on it full of flowers of a purple colour. MEKON ROIAS SUGGESTED: Papaver-erraticum primum [Fuchs]. The flower is purple and sometimes white. Smeared with white wine on boys this is thought to keep them hairless. rough. the thickness of a little finger. A decoction of much as an acetabulum [vinegar cruet] of the seed (taken as a drink 604 . it grows in fields in the spring. The seed is more astringent and is put in treacles. A decoction (taken as a drink) induces urine. Muscari comosum [in Sprague] — Tassel Hyacinth Hyacinthus caeruleus maior [Fuchs]. yet somewhat smaller than that of anemone.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Hyacinthus after FUCHS — 1545 605 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Hyoscyamus niger after FAGUET — 1892 606 .

A decoction is taken as a drink against lack of sleep. and the Egyptians. and some call it rhoeas [4-64] because a liquid flows out of it. dripping fluids in the throat. A decoction of them applied with hot cloths (or sprinkled on) is sleep inducing. the Romans call it papaveralis. There is a third — more wild. and it is called thylacitis — having a somewhat long little head and white seed. It is also called oxytonum. The leaves and heads (boiled in water and applied with hot cloths) cause sleep. MEKON AGRIOS. nanti. with a head somewhat long — and they are all cooling.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK with honey and water) softens the bowels gently. Papaver hortensis semine albo [Bauhin]. 4-65. The heads (pounded into small pieces and mixed into poultices with polenta) are good for inflammation and erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. the seed of which is made into bread for use in the time of health. It is necessary for those who beat them when they are green to make them into tablets. more medicinal and longer than these. It is applied with water on the forehead and 607 T . and abdominal afflictions. It becomes more effective if juice of hypocistis [1-127] and acacia are mixed with it. The seed of the black poppy (pounded into small pieces) is given to drink with wine for excessive discharges of the bowels. It is also mixed with honeyed confections and cakes for the same purpose. and then use them. They use it with honey instead of sesame. The leaves (applied together with the heads) heal inflammation. MEKON EMEROS SUGGESTED: Papaver sativum [Fuchs]. dry them for storage. and women's excessive discharges. here is a poppy that is cultivated and set in gardens. and then boiled again with honey until the dullness is thickened. make a licking medicine soothing for coughs. The other (which is wild and also called pithitishas) has a head bending down. Cultivation of poppies with the intention of producing opium is illegal. The heads are boiled alone in water until half. Papaver somniferum var album [Linnaeus] — White Opium Poppy Papaver somniferum var niger [Loudon] — Black Poppy NARCOTIC.

It is set on fire for eye medicines in a new ceramic jar until it appears to be softer and a more yellowish red. Erasistratus says that Diagoras disallows the use of it for those who are sick with ear sores or eye sores. heavy. easily pierced with water. and a digester. because it is a duller of the sight and a causer of sleep. Mnesidemus says that the use of it is only effective to inhale. For inflammation of the eyes it is used with a roasted egg yolk and saffron. and to wipe off the fluid that 608 . and for erysipela [streptococcal skin infection] and wounds with vinegar. That liquid is best which is thick. but for gout with women’s milk and saffron. and that otherwise it is hurtful. squeeze it out through a press. Some are come to so much madness as to mix grease with it. good to cause sleep. that made from glaucium is a saffron colour. bitter to the taste.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS temples for those who cannot sleep. neither clotted nor growing thick in the straining (like wax). But dissolved. smooth. It is helpful for aches. That of gum is without strength and transparent. It is not out of place to describe the way they gather the liquid. This is called meconium and is weaker than opium. helping coughs and abdominal cavity afflictions. beat it in a mortar. and when set in the sun flowing abroad. Taken as a drink too often it hurts (making men lethargic) and it kills. disproved by experience. 2-131]) is a pain-easer. a sleep-causer. thickening. white. Andreas says that if it were not adulterated they would be blind who were rubbed with it. and sleepy in smell. and keeping strength in its smell after it is put out. 1-73. A little of it (taken with as much as a grain of ervum [2-129. or juice of the wild lettuce. not sharp. It is necessary for those who make opium (after the dew has dried away) to scarify around the asterisk [star on top] with a knife so that it does not pierce into the inside. and make it into lozenges. and when lighted at a candle not with a dark flame. and myrrh [1-77. saffron. but the liquid itself (taken) is more cooling. gum. These things are false. Some beat the stems with the leaves. and drying. and for pain in the ears dropped in them with oil of almonds. 4-116]. because the efficacy of the medicine bears witness to the work of it. Put up with the finger as a suppository it causes sleep. That of the wild lettuce is faint in its smell and rougher. and from the sides of the head make straight incisions in the outside. They counterfeit it by mixing glaucium [3-100]. sprinkled on with rosaceum [1-53].

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Psyllium after FUCHS — 1545 609 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Mala insana after FUCHS — 1545 610 .

for there is found another thickened (fluid). and to help those who urinate thick or cobweb-like stuff. The thick black root grows on the surface of the ground. sisimaca. with a little pod (bending like a horn) similar to that of fenugreek. with the stalk the same. Chelidonium glaucum [Linnaeus]. thinking that glaucium [3-100] was made of this.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK comes out with the finger into a spoon. but in cutting it you must stand back so that the liquid is not wiped away on your clothes. Brunfels]. and the Egyptians. and again to return not long after. because of the resemblance of the leaves. It grows in rough maritime places. and the leaves and flowers (smeared on with oil) root out the crusts of ulcers. A decoction of the root is taken as a drink and it cures dysentery. MEKON KERATITES corniculatum [Fuchs. Rubbed on. and they fall under the same remedies. from which it is named. the Romans say pabulum marinum. The seed is small. or thalassium. An acetabulum [vinegar cruet] of a decoction of the seed (taken as a drink with honey and water) purges the bowels gently. P Glaucium flavum after FAGUET — 1874 611 . mecon rhoeas. and also on the day after. It must be pounded in a mortar and stored as tablets. Some have been deceived. Glaucium flavum [in Sprague]. and the Africans. wanti. black. It is also called paralion. it takes away argema [small white ulcer on the cornea] and small clouds in the eyes of beasts. Sea Poppy SUGGESTED: Papaver apaver cornutum has rough white leaves similar to verbascum [4-104]. Glaucium luteum — Horned Poppy. similar to that of poppy. In eating or drinking this same horned poppy the same symptoms occur as in the taking of opium [above]. The root (boiled in water until half the amount remains and taken as a drink) is able to cure sciatica and liver disorders. the Romans say papaver. It is also called chamaesyce. The seed is gathered dry in the summer. jagged like a saw all around like those of wild poppy. agreste papaver. 4-66. the flower a pale yellow. or oxytonon.

and the leaves especially small. and little hard. similar to radicula [radish]. with little branches. A vinegar cruet of the seed (taken with honey and water) purges by vomiting.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-67. Hen Bell. black. Heracleum pubescens. H 4-69. a black seed. with the leaves and pods more 612 . UOSKUAMOS LEUKOS. 4-145]. P 4-68. however. prickly shields. and rough. Hyoscyamus niger [Linnaeus] — Henbane. At the stalk flowers come out in sequence. leaves similar to smilax [4-144. Heracleum pyrenaicum — Downy Cow Parsnip apaver spumeum (called heracleum by some) has a stalk twenty centimetres long. MEKON APHRODES SUGGESTED: Heracleum gummiferum. There are three important different types. The leaves are broad. somewhat long. and such a purging is effectively good for epilepsy. It has a leaf similar to rue. For one bears almost purple flowers. and the entire small herb is white and frothy. and when dried falls away. UOSKUAMOS MELOIDES SUGGESTED: Hyoscyamus flavus [Fuchs]. hedged in with little shields full of seed (like the poppy above). The root is thin for the most part. and it has uses similar to those of the juice of poppy. UOSKUAMOS MELAS. UPEKOON SUGGESTED: Hypecoum procumbens — Horned Cumin. like the flowers of the pomegranate. Procumbent Hypecoum ypecoon (also called hypopheon) grows among wheat and fields. But the other has yellowish flowers. jagged. The seed of this is gathered in the summer when it is fully-grown. Hyoscyamus Hyoscyamus albus — White Henbane POISONOUS H yoscyamus is a shrub that sends out thick stalks. the seed white between them.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Solanum hortense after FUCHS — 1545 613 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Physalis alkekengi after THIEBAULT — 1888 614 .

hypnoticum. but if this is not present then you must use the yellow. Zoroastres. atomon. fluid discharges of the eyes and their other disorders. and are also good for coughs.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK tender. Pounded into small pieces with wine and applied. inflated genitals. tender. ear pains. and other inflammation. Apollinaris. It is also called dioscyamos. They say if anyone gives a suppository with it to someone that has an ulcer in the perineum that it has the same effect. and the disorders of the womb. and the seed a faint yellow like that of iris. and are scarcely usable. 615 . The green seed is pounded and mixed with 'three months' wheat meal. With meal or polenta it is used for inflammation of the eyes and feet. with white flowers and white seed. It grows near the sea and among the rubbish of buildings. adamenon. Pythagoras and Osthenes call it xeleon. It is effective mixed with other poultices made to stop pain. or dithiambrion. the Romans. You must therefore use the white. The root (boiled with vinegar) is a mouth rinse for toothache. inanaoentaria. Ten grains of the seeds (taken in a drink with the seed of poppy. emmanes. which is the worst. they cause a mean disturbance of the senses. and stored. The fresh leaves (smeared on) are the most soothing of pain for all difficulties. some. mucus. for sharp hot mucus. but refuse the black. The juice is better than the liquid. and better for pain. made into tablets. The seed is juiced while tender. The fittest for cures is the third kind. and downy. pythonion. The leaves (made into little balls) are good to use in all medications — mixed with polenta or else applied by themselves. and so pressed out. Boiled like vegetables and a tryblium [plateful] eaten. tephonion. The seed of it (in particular) is juiced. and breasts swollen in childbirth. It is useful for a year because it is soon spoiled. adamas. which is the gentlest — fat. These both cause delirium and sleep. it is good for gout. and for women's excessive discharges [menstrual flow] and other discharges of blood. honey and water) do the same things. A decoction of three or four (taken as a drink with wine) cures fevers called epialae [sudden]. pounded until dry with hot water poured on it. the mass then dried in the sun. and the leaves and the stalks are pounded and pressed. First of all the juice and that liquid made from the dry seed is made for suppositories to take away pain.

Put into boiling water it suppresses heat. and smear it on (when the water has grown thick) for it cools abundantly. and ears with worms. the Egyptians. Smeared on with vinegar it heals the hernias of children and those whose navels protrude. not large. vinegar. phoebulonga. dieliam. in which is seed similar to fleas. P 4-71. and the whole herb little like hay.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS the Magi. It grows in fields and untilled places. tumours. herba pulicaria. It is also called cataphysis. Having pounded an acetabulum [vinegar cruet] of it into small pieces. rhaponticum. Psyllium majus erectum [Bauhin]. black and hard. Solanum melongena [Linnaeus] — Eggplant S 616 trychnos cepaius is a little shrub that is edible. inflammation of the parotid gland. They say that brought into a house (fresh) it does not allow fleas to breed. and the Dacians. and the juice (with honey) is good for running ears. dislocations and aches. cynocephalion. some. with many wings. cynomuia. the leaves dark. or water it is cooling. vargugum. The stem comes from the middle of the stalk. Solanum pomiferum fructu oblongo [Bauhin]. 4-70. and the Africans. Plantago psyllium [Linnaeus]— Psyllium. oedema. stems twenty centimetres long. and it is also good against erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. bilinuntiam. Pounded with grease it cleans the foulness and malignancies of ulcers. The herb is . PSULLION SUGGESTED: Psyllium [Fuchs]. bigger and broader than ocymum [basil]. the Romans. it helps the arthritic. the Thuscans. with two or three little pods rolled on the top close together. which becomes black or yellow after it is ripe. STRUCHNOS KEPAIOS SUGGESTED: Mala-insana. the fruit round and green. the Sicilians call it conidijs. they must steep it in two fingers of water. or sicelioticon. the Gauls. psylleris. saptho. Amoris poma [Fuchs]. Flea Seed syllium has a rough leaf similar to coronopis [2-158] only longer. crystallium. Applied with rosaceum [1-53]. silvacium.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Deadly Nightshade Atropa belladona POISONOUS after FAGUET — 1888 617 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Mandragora mas after FUCHS — 1545 618 .

astrismunim. and with bread for ulcers on the eyes. allelo. By themselves (pounded into small pieces and applied) they cure ulcers on the eyes and aches. dorycnion. It is mixed with eyewashes instead of water. and it is cooling — as a result the leaves (applied) are good for erysipela [streptococcal skin infection] and shingles [herpes] with flour of polenta. It is also called dirceaum. the Egyptians. 4-72. the Gauls. Alkekeng. Physalis halicacabum. Vesicaria. Physalis francheti. Physalis alkekengi [Linnaeus]. scubulum. The herb of either of them is juiced and dried in the shade for storage. plaiting with it wreaths for the head. yet broader. smooth. like the kernel of a grape — which the crown-plaiters use. Dropped in the ears it helps earache. The juice (kneaded together with yellow dung from barn hens and applied in a linen cloth) is suitable for aegilopses [ulcer or fistula in the inner angle of the eye]. The juice (with cerusa [wax]. and is available for the same uses. some. the Romans call it strumum. and dissolve inflammation of the parotid gland. round. Bladder Herb POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Halicacabum here is also another strychnos (which they properly call halicacabum [bad poison] or physalis) with similar leaves to that previously spoken of. they help a burning stomach. It has the same strength and use as garden strychnos [above] except when eaten. STRUCHNON ALIKAKABON vulgare. and applied as a pessary in wool it stops women's excessive discharges [menstrual flow]. Pounded into small pieces with salt and applied. rosaceum [1-53] and sediment [of grapes]) is good against erysipela [streptococcal skin infection] and herpes [viral skin infection]. or (with an egg) for rubbing on for sharp discharges.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK harmless to the taste. but the stalks of this (after they have grown) bend towards the earth. it is good for children with psoriasis. and the Africans. Winter Cherry. Alkekengi officinarum — Strawberry Tomato. or calliada. It has fruit in round pods similar to bladders — reddish. the 619 T . It is also called [strychnos] sative. The fruit (taken in a drink) is able to clean away urinary jaundice. Alkakengi [Fuchs]. cacubalum. solanum furiale. Gently poured on with rosaceum.

The juice from the root (rubbed on with honey) takes away dullness of the sight. Linnaeus] — Black Nightshade.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Romans call it Apollinaris minor. some. with heads lying on them like olives but rougher. with many thick branches. Solanum melanocerasus [Bauhin]. opsaginem. with tails. 4-74. Hound’s Berry Strychnos [Latin] — Nightshades — Solanum species POISONOUS trychnos manicus has a leaf that is a neighbour to eruca [2-170] but bigger. The juice of it is mixed with medications and lozenges to ease pain. 4-73. Solanum officinarum [Bauhin]. STRUCHNON MANIKON SUGGESTED: Solanum hortense [Fuchs]. It grows in rocky places not far from the sea. similar to the quince. Mandragora morion [Fuchs]. STRUCHNON UPNOTIKON SUGGESTED: Solanum somniferum. the height of one and a half metres. and the fruit in pods of a saffron colour. milder than the liquid of poppy. It sends out ten or twelve tall stalks from the root. hard to break. This is helped by a large quantity of honey and water taken as a drink. A teaspoonful of a decoction of the bark of this root (taken as a drink in wine) is sleep inducing. with a red flower of good size. like the 620 S . But the fruit is too urinary. or vesicaria. Solanum nigrum [Fuchs. coming close to those of the acanthus called paederos. the Dacians call it cucolida. full of fat leaves. Some call this halicacabum [bad poison]. A decoction of a cluster of twelve berries (taken as a drink) is given for dropsy. and the Africans. but more induce a faint. Boiled in wine and held [in the mouth] it helps toothache. Atropa belladonna — Deadly Nightshade Strychnos [Latin] — Nightshades — Solanum species POISONOUS S trychnos somnificum is a shrub of a good size. herba ulticana. The root has a somewhat red bark. cacabum.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Aconitum pardalianches after FUCHS — 1545 621 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Aconitum lycocotonum luteum after FUCHS — 1545 622 .

on the top it has little pods as thick as those of cicer [2-126] in which are five or six little round seeds. The flower is black and after this it has cluster-like fruit — round. Two teaspoonfuls of a decoction (taken as a drink) make one beside himself for three days. 2-131]. It grows among rocks not far from the sea. ten or twelve in partitions. and of various colours. or orthogyion. soft as grapes. or caleam. firm. black. The root is the thickness of a finger and the length of a foot. The remedy of this is honey and water. It has leaves similar to the olive in colour but smaller. and among rocks near the sea. hollow. A teaspoon of a decoction of the root (taken as a drink with wine) is able to effect not unpleasant fantasies [hallucinogenic]. the length of about a foot. and this seems also to have a sleepy quality. enoron. Some also say that the seed of it is taken for love medicines. Crateuas calls it halicacabum [a bad poison].THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK ball of the plane tree but bigger and broader. smooth. DORUKNION SUGGESTED: Dorycnium [Bedevian] — Venemous Trefoil ALSO: Dorycnium monspeliense. similar to the cluster of berries of cissus [2-210]. D 623 . thryon. anydron. and taken too much it kills. taken as a drink in copious amounts and vomited up again. 4-75. Dorycnium herbaceum Senecio doronicum — Leopard’s Bane Groundsel POISONOUS orycnium is a shrub similar to a newly-planted olive. and four (taken as a drink) kill him. The flower is white. The root lies underneath — white. Some have called it persion. with branches less than a foot long. pentadryon. about the amount of little ervum [2-129. thick. stronger and extremely coarse. It grows in hilly places open to the wind.

Twenty grains of the juice (taken as a drink with honey and water) expel phlegm and black bile upward like hellebore. and it is also without a stalk. but when too much is taken as a drink it kills. with a sweet scent — in which is seed like a pear. with a certain strength — which the shepherds eat to fall asleep. the new leaves are good both for inflammations of the eyes and ulcers. and put it in jars. As much as five grains (applied alone) expels the menstrual flow and is an abortifacient. wrapped within one another. with narrower. Applied with polenta. heavy scent. They use a winecupful of it for those who cannot sleep. longer leaves than lettuce. boiled together with it for six hours. The bark of the root is pounded and juiced while it is fresh. The bark from the root is peeled off. The root is said to soften ivory. and some have called it norion. strain it. medications to ease pain. POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Mandragora mas andagoras has a root that seems to be a maker of love medicines. scattered on the ground. pierced with a thread. and hanged up in storage. The two or three roots are a good size. The apples are also juiced in a similar way. The male is white. It is mixed with eye medicines. and put up into the perineum as a suppository it causes sleep. smooth like beet but the apples are twice as big — almost saffron in colour. and placed under a press. Among them are apples similar to serviceberries — pale. Mandragora fructu rotundo [Bauhin]. yet bigger and paler. Mandragora officinarum [Linnaeus]. with a poisonous. called thridacias. Atropa mandragora. The leaves are bigger. and to make it ready to be formed into whatever shape a man wants. white. and whom they wish to anaesthetise to cut or cauterize. sweetsmelling. Mandragorites — Common Mandrake. white within. broad. black according to outward appearance. The root is similar to that above.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-76. and softening suppositories. MANDRAGORAS [Fuchs]. black. Some boil the roots in wine until a third remains. or are seriously injured. 624 M . There is one sort that is female. but the juice from them becomes weakened. After it is stirred the beaters should bottle it in a ceramic jar. but it has no stalk. and with a thick bark. Devil’s Apple NARCOTIC.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Cicuta after FUCHS — 1545 625 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Taxus baccata after FAGUET — 1888 626 .

bombochylon. Pythagoras. You must put three pounds (of the bark of the root) into thirteen gallons of sweet wine. abscesses. and tumours. some. goitres and tumours.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK They dissolve all hardnesses. a little longer than twenty centimetres. lying round around the root. anthropomorphon. It is also called antimelon. For they do not notice the pain because they are overcome with dead sleep. twenty centimetres long. It is juiced — the root first incised or cut around various ways — and that which runs out is then gathered into a bowl. and three cupfuls of it is given to those who shall be cut or cauterized (as previously mentioned). Used too much they make men speechless. will infatuate [cause unconsciousness]. white. They give out also that there is another sort called morion growing in shady places and around hollows. Wine from the bark of the root is prepared without boiling. and is used with honey or oil for the strikes of snakes. circea. or food that is eaten with bread). The root (pounded into small pieces with vinegar) heals erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. With water it disperses scrofulous tumours [glandular swelling]. and the apples (inhaled or eaten) are sleep inducing. as is the apple juice. xeranthe. They say also that a decoction of the root (taken as a drink with strychnos manicum) is an antidote. and given as a pessary with sulphur that never felt the fire it stops the red excessive discharge [menstrual flow]. antimnion. the thickness of the great finger. or minon. circaeum. and the juice is more effective than the liquid. the Egyptians call it apemum. aloitin. experience shows as much. The leaves (preserved in brine) are stored for the same uses. For a man sleeps in the same fashion as when he ate it (sensible of nothing for three or four hours) from the time that it is brought him. having leaves similar to the white mandrake but smaller (as it were). A decoction of the seed of the apples (taken as a drink) purges the womb. 627 . and with polenta it soothes the pains of the joints. And physicians also use this when they are about to cut or cauterize [anaesthetic]. Rubbed on gently for five or six days it defaces scars without ulcerating. glandular tumours [possibly goitre]. They say as much as a teaspoon of a decoction of this (taken as a drink or eaten with polenta in placetum. This is tender and white. dircaea. The roots do not bear liquid in every place.

It is also called cynoctonon. sows. with a bare stalk (like a stem of fern) the height of a foot or more. in a way somewhat long. AKONITON ETERON SUGGESTED: Aconitum luteum. glittering like alabaster. Aconitum lycoctonum [Fuchs. some. gonogeonas. 628 . and all wild beasts. yet smaller and a little rough. with a stalk of twenty centimetres. 4-77. mala canina.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS thridacian. wolves. these they use for hunting wolves. Wolf’s-bane POISONOUS SUGGESTED: Aconitum Aconitum napellus after FAGUET — 1894 A conitum has three or four leaves similar to cyclamen or cucumber. the Romans. mala terrestria. It is also mixed with pain-relieving medicines for eyes. Aconitum pyramidale — Monk’s Hood. hemionous. Aconite. the black roots are like the fringes of squills [sea onions]. They say that the root of this applied to a scorpion makes him insensible. cammarum. Paris quadrifolia [Linnaeus] — Herb Paris [other usage] Aconitum napellus. while the Romans call it colomestrum. myoctonon. and a root similar to the tail of a scorpion. Aconitum lycoctonum after FAGUET — 1894 4-78. kills them. The seed is in pods. thelyphonum. it kills panthers. Zoroastres calls it diamonon. and some. Dog’s-bane POISONOUSR A conitum alterum grows plentifully in Italy on the hills called Vestini. placing them into raw meat which. Aconitum pyrenaicum. or cammaron. when eaten by the wolves. the Magi. lycoctonon. or archinen. It has leaves similar to those of the plane tree but more jagged and a great deal smaller and darker. Solanum quadrifolium bacciferum [Bauhin]. differing from that above. It is also called pardalianches. or white bean. or theriophonon. Linnaeus]. and that he is raised again by hellebore applied to him. Aconitum variable. AKONITON pardalianches [Fuchs]. Aconitum vulparia —Wolf’s-bane. Put into lumps of meat and given to them.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Ephemerum non letale after FUCHS — 1545 629 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Helxine. Parietaria after FUCHS — 1545 630 .

Conion [Fuchs]. with leaves similar to ferula but narrower with a heavy smell. MILAX SUGGESTED: Taxus baccata [Pliny] — Yew Tree POISONOUS M ilax is a tree similar to the fir in its leaves and their quantities. ageomoron. this is very useful in cures. prevent the breasts from enlarging during virginity. coete. The most potent grows in Crete. aphron creidion. paralysis. Smeared on. Herb Bennet. Osthenes calls it babathy.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-79. ethusa. they weaken the genitals. it removes herpes and erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. It is also called aegynos. Megara and Attica. but it is helped by unmixed wine. the Egyptians. amaurosis. growing in Italy and Narbona near Spain. apemphin. Chickens that eat the fruit of that which grows in 631 . and thickened by stirring in the sun. Cicuta major [Bauhin] Conium maculatum [Linnaeus]. apolegousa. timoron. and the Romans. The tops (or the filaments) are juiced before the seed is dry. dardanis. Coriandrum maculatum — Poison Hemlock. and smeared on. 4-80. pressed out. abioton. Dried. The root is hollow and not deep. catechomenion. then that which grows in Chios and Cilicia. The herb and the filaments (pounded into small pieces and smeared on about the testicles) help lustful dreamers and nocturnal emission of sperm. They drive away milk. KONEION SUGGESTED: Cicuta. dolia. The juice is effectively mixed with pain-relieving eyewashes or salves. cicuta. This is also one of the venomous herbs killing with its coldness. or catapsyxis. and prevent the testicles in children from developing. Common Hemlock [other usage] Cicuta virosa —Water Hemlock. Cowbane POISONOUS C onium sends out a great knotty stalk (similar to marathrum [3-81]). and on the tops. polyanodynos. and a whitish flower with seed similar to aniseed [3-65] only whiter. abnormal growths and tufts. pounded. apseudes.

hippomanes. A decoction is taken as a drink with wine against the bites of venomous creatures. cynarice. The fruit is like a pod of beans. but they preserve men [dead bodies. with longer. full of yellow juice. but with a horn which (opened) is full of a downy stuff similar to thistledown. phaleos. woody. It grows in enclosed greens. or elaphoscordon. Put into bread and put out for them. and fruit similar to that of the almond. That growing in Narbonie has such great strength that those who sit underneath (or fall asleep) are hurt by the shade. ophioscorodon. seabordering places and in places near rivers. cynocrambe. foxes. the Romans. hard to break.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Italy turn black. cynanche. It is also called cynanchon. perhaps]. wolves. and panthers. long. cynomoron. small and black. leaves similar to cissus [2-210] but softer and sharper towards the top. It is also called thymalus. oligoros. 4-81. 4-82. the leaves of this kills dogs. Nerium oleander — Rose Bay. APOCUNON SUGGESTED: Apocynum venetum — Venetian Dog’s-bane POISONOUS A pocynon is a shrub with long willow-like stems. The root is sharp. The flower and the leaves are able to kill dogs. and more 632 N . canina. thicker leaves than the almond. cynoctonon. somewhat viscous. Oleander POISONOUS erium is a well-known shrub. with a heavy scent. and brackish to the taste. onistis. and some. and immediately dissolves their lips. about the thickness of a finger. the Magi call it paralysis. and that frequently they die. brassica rustica. Oleander [Fuchs]. NERION SUGGESTED: Nerium. This is mentioned as a warning. pardalianches. and men that eat it fall into unconsciousness. asses. mules and most four footed living creatures. similar to a bladder. a flower similar to a rose. pointed. and the Romans call it taxus. in which are little seeds — hard.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Sedum minus mas after FUCHS — 1545 633 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Urtica maior after FUCHS — 1545 634 .

It grows 635 W . it has a red seed. and laurorosa. afterwards it bears leaves similar to bulbus [2-200]. but more weak sorts of living creatures such as goats and sheep die if they drink the steepings of them. tender. for they grow among rusty nails. Colchicum commune [Bauhin]. 4-83.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK so if you mix it with rue [3-52. rotten rags. and is found white. It is also called rododaphne. drenched with nitre [saltpetre] and oil. but fatter. or among trees that bear harmful fruits. or haemostaris. F 4-84. SOME SPECIES POISONOUS ungi have a double difference for they are either edible or poisonous. choking or breeding bile. All are helped. 4-98]. rhododendron. the Egyptians. rhodedaphane. Colchicum autumnale [Linnaeus] — Meadow Saffron POISONOUS hen autumn ceases colchicum sends out a whitish flower similar to the flower of saffron. The bulb has a central partition at which it sends out the flower. yet for all that taken too much they hurt. or soaked in a decoction of sharp brine or thymbra [3-45]. and are put out whole (for the most part) with the excrement. growing rotten. the holes of snakes. spongos. and come to be so on many occasions. and stored after they are picked they quickly spoil. Hermodactylis [Fuchs]. The stalk is twenty centimetres long. They are nourishing and hard to dissolve. KOLCHIKON SUGGESTED: Colchicum. and the root has a tawny black bark which. Such as these also have a viscous coalesced fluid. icmane. oleander. or hen dung with vinegar. and the Africans. or liquified with origanum. the Lucanians. peeled. Those that are not harmful (boiled in broth) are sweet. being hard to digest. or syruped with a quantity of honey. and full of sweet liquid. scinphe. the Romans call it rhododendron. 3-53. MUKETES SUGGESTED: Fungi species — Mushrooms etc.

and around the stalks (as it were) sharp little seeds. pannus [opaque thickening of cornea with veins] that is beginning. EPHEMERON SUGGESTED: Ephemerum-non-letale. We have described it so that it may not lie hidden and be eaten instead of bulbus. single.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS abundantly in Messenia and at Colchos. It is also called ephemerum. or agrestis bulbus. and cow's milk (taken as a drink) so that when this is at hand they need no other help. The leaves (boiled in wine and smeared on) dissolve oedema and tumours without fluid. bitter. Soleirolia soleirolii — Mind-your-own-business. similar to mushrooms. The root lies underneath. Mother of Thousands elxine grows in mounds and walls. as a result (smeared on) they heal erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. E 4-86. It grows in woods and shady places. give them whatever helps those who eat mushrooms [above]. it kills by choking. venereal warts. Parietaria officinarum et Dioscorides [Bauhin]. and oedema. Convallaria majalis [Linnaeus] — Lily of The Valley phemerum has leaves and a stalk similar to the lily but whiter. all types of inflammation. and the seed soft. catching hold of cloths. The root of this (used in a mouth rinse) is a remedy for toothache. long. ELXINE SUGGESTED: Helxine. the flowers white. somewhat red. Lilium convallium album [Bauhin]. dehydration. 4-85. rough leaves similar to mercury [4-191]. The juice of it (mixed with cerussa [white lead ore] and smeared on) helps erysipela [streptococcal skin infection] and herpes [viral skin infection]. and taken with 636 H . Parietaria [Fuchs]. To help those who eat these. astringent and sweet smelling. It has thin little stalks. for it is strangely alluring to the inexperienced for its pleasantness. the thickness of a finger. Lilium convallium [Fuchs]. It is also called agrestis iris. and the Romans call it bulbus agrestis. Parietaria officinalis [Linnaeus] — Pellitory of the Wall [other usage] Helxine soleirolii. Eaten. The leaves are astringent and cooling.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Galeopsis minor after FUCHS — 1545 637 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Gallium after FUCHS — 1545 638 .

asyria. Sandwort see 2-214 SUGGESTED: Alsine lsine is named because it has leaves similar to the little ears of a mouse. the Romans call it viperalis. PHAKOS EPI TON TELMATON polyrrhiza. myortochon. agrestis hygiena. 639 L . It is also called mouse-ear. and it also heals vaginal hernias found in children. Chickweed. and it is also called alsine because it loves shady woody places. or epipteron. Smeared on with polenta. Spirodela polyrrhiza — Greater Duckweed Lemna minor — Water Lentils. and dropped in the ears with rosaceum [1-53] is good for earache. and not rough. It is also called sideritis. clibadium. being a moss similar to lentils which is cooling. and the Africans. ALSINE maior [Fuchs]. or myortosplenon. and some. it is cooling and astringent. The juice of it is dropped in the ears for earaches. and bruised it smells of cucumbers. laphotholabat. erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. anthyllion. good for inflammation of the eyes. Duckweed SUGGESTED: Lemna ens (which grows in marshes) is found in standing waters. Chickweed. A 4-88. Alsine verna — Alsine Alsine procubens. and gout of the feet. and in general it can do the same things as helxine. It is good (applied both by itself or with polenta) for all inflammation. It is also called wild lens. heraclia. longer-leaved. As much as a wine cupful of the juice (sipped) helps those who have coughed a long time. parthenium. Linnaeus]. It is a herb similar to helxine [4-86] but lower. Water Lens. Alsine media [Bauhin. Stellara media [in Sprague] — Stitchwort. 4-87. it helps gout in the feet. Starwort [Mabberley] [other usage] Alsine junipera. is an effective gargle and ointment for inflamed tonsils.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK cyprinum [1-65] and goat’s grease. or polyonymon. iceosmigdonos. Arenaria procubens — Purslane. the Romans call it muris auricula.

full of little round. and for dysentery. mounds. sharp on the top. boros. some. or sedum majus. chrysitis. very flourishing. AEIZOON TO MIXRON SUGGESTED: Sedum minus mas [Fuchs]. Taken as a drink with wine it draws out roundworms. with in-cuts (as it were) like the Characian tithymal [4-165a]. stergethron. It is also called aeithales. T 4-90. ambrosion. in size about twenty centimetres. the leaves (applied by themselves or with polenta) are good for erysipela. bouophthalmum. small. Jupiter’s Beard. and the Egyptians. Roof Houseleek The Greeks gave the name aizoon to sempervivum [Loudon]. The many little stalks emerge from one root.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-89. protogonom. the thickness of a big finger. It sends out stalks a foot long or rather more. It is cooling and astringent. thin. fat. Some plant it on their houses. fat. pamphanes. and in a pessary it stops women's excessive discharges [menstrual flow]. thin and green. Sedum rupestre [Linnaeus] — Stonecrop empervivum parvum [aizoon] grows in walls. similar to a tongue towards the top. aeonion aichryson. The juice is effective rubbed on weak eyes. Hens and Chickens. The leaves of this have 640 S . and gangrenous ulceration of the cheeks. with a tuft and flowers. ceriacuspia. Jovis caulis. AEIZOON TO MEGA maius [Fuchs]. inflammation of the eyes. It sends out a stalk in the middle also. by reason of blood. The juice is poured on with polenta and rosaceum [1-53] for headaches. describing an eye-like circle. leaves. SUGGESTED: Sedum Sempervivum tectorum after FAGUET — 1888 he great aizoon is called this because of its evergreen leaves. some. zoophthalmon. burns. and it is given in drink to those bitten by harvest spiders. herpes [viral skin infection]. The leaves are fat. those with diarrhoea. chrysanthemom. and somewhat shady ditches. Sedum majus vulgare [Bauhin]. the Romans. holochryson. leapetes. chrysospermon. but those around the head set together one to another. rocks. those below bending downwards. the size of a big finger. the Magi call it paronychia. or notios. and gout in the feet. Sempervivum tectorum [Linnaeus] — Houseleek. It grows in hilly and tilled places.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Senecio vulgaris after THIEBAULT — 1888 641 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Potamogeton after FUCHS — 1545 642 .

or stergthron. hortus veneris. It grows among rocks. The leaves (eaten with the root) break stones [urinary. Navelwort. loosens the obstructions of the skin in the genitals. theobrotion. dissolving tumours [possibly goitre] applied with goose grease. with a short little stalk in the middle in which is the seed. and they also use it for love medicines. petrophthes. The juice of this and the leaves (rubbed on with wine or squirted in). The root is round like the olive. and hollow. sempervivum parvum. herba semperviva. It is warming. Some call the thin-leaved sempervivum. tumours [possibly goitre]. It is given with mead [honey wine] for dropsy. and the Romans call it sempervivum minus. KOTULEDON — Kidneywort. 4-91. Sedum acre [Linnaeus] — Wall Pepper. Cotyledon umbilicus after FAGUET — 1874 643 . Stonecrop [Mabberley] here seems to be a third kind of sempervivum that has little leaves. and a burning stomach. similar to those of portulaca [4-168]. cymbalium. it helps inflammation. brotion. or sempervivum sylvestre. Sempervivum minus vermiculatum acre [Bauhin]. Pennywort SUGGESTED: Cotyledon lusitanica. hidden. chimerinen. chilblains. T 4-92. It is also called scytalium. and the Romans call it umbilicus veneris. the Romans call it vitalis. AEIZOON ETERON SUGGESTED: Sedi tertium genus [Fuchs]. Venus’s Navelwort Cotyledon umbilicus — Cotyledon. erysipela [streptococcal skin infection]. terrae umbilicus. Sempervivum is also called petrophues. and induce urine. and rough. Navelwort. Applied. sharp. or telephium. It is also called portulaca agrestis. or ceraunia. and the Egyptians. Umbilicus erectus U mbilicus veneris has a leaf like an acetabulum [vinegar cruet]. thicker. and the Romans call it illecebra. etijcelta. some. kidney]. crobysson. stichis. and ulcerating. round.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK the same strength as the previous one.

The leaves of either of them (smeared on with salt) heal anything bitten by dogs. A decoction of the leaves (taken as a 644 A . KOTULEDON ETERON SUGGESTED: Cotyledon orbiculata. pleurisy and pneumonia. The leaves (boiled together with small shellfish) soften the bowels. fat leaves similar to little tongues. cancers. thick around the root. The leaves (pounded into small pieces and applied with the juice) are good for discharges of blood from the nostrils. Pounded small and applied with myrrh [1-77. and on it flowers and seeds similar to hypericum [3-171]. and the foulness of ulcers. It is good for the same uses as sempervivum. It is also called cymbalium. dislocations. dissolve windiness. and the new leaves (applied) restore a prolapsed womb. malignancies. Urtica urens [Linnaeus] — Roman Nettle [Loudon] Urtica maior [Fuchs]. Licked in with honey it helps asthma. Urtica dioica. tumours. Urtica pilulifera [Linnaeus]. describing (as it were) an eye in the middle. not as sharp. sharper and darker in the leaves. It is mixed with antiseptic preparations. and fetches up stuff out of the chest. and abscesses. inflammation of the parotid gland. pannus [opaque thickening of cornea with veins]. It has a thin little stalk. and induce urine. and it has a seed similar to hempseed only smaller. Boiled with barley water they bring up stuff from the chest. but the root is bigger.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-93. astringent to the taste. Cotyledon barbeyi — Cotyledon here is also another kind of cotyledon with broader. They are applied to the splenical with wax ointment. 4-116] they induce the menstrual flow. 1-73. Urtica vera [Fuchs]. Urtica dioica [Linnaeus] — Stinging Nettle [other usage] Acalypha indica — Acalypha. gangrene. Three-seeded Mercury calyphe has two varieties. AKALUPHE. similar to the bigger sempervivum [4-89]. and the other has a thin seed. A decoction of the seed (taken as a drink with passum [raisin wine]) is an aphrodisiac and opens the womb. T 4-94. Urtica urens maxima [Bauhin]. One is wilder. AKALUPHE ETERA SUGGESTED: Urtica romana.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Verbascum nigrum after FUCHS — 1545 645 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Verbascum sylvestre after FUCHS — 1545 646 .

It has little branches. The flower is smeared on for burns from fire. the Romans call it urtica. It is also mixed with waxy rose ointment and placed in the sun till it turns white. Rennet allion is called this because coagulates milk instead of rennet. or adice. urtica labeonis. inflammation of the parotid gland. but the leaves are smoother. and the Romans call it urtica mollis. or galephos. The other acalyphe is also called knide. and a decoction of this used in a warm pack is of benefit. They must lay on a poultice of this twice a day. cancers. and this is a G 647 . stalk and seed are able to dissolve hard lumps. Ficaria [Fuchs]. Common Hempnettle aliopsis — the whole little shrub with the stalk and leaves is similar to the nettle. 4-95. and it stops flows of blood. dyn. and the juice is gargled to keep down an inflamed uvula. The leaves. and rotten ulcers. GALIOPSIS SUGGESTED: Galeopsis. byways and house courtyards everywhere. GALLION SUGGESTED: Gallium [Fuchs]. It is also called knide. with the leaves very similar to aparina yet straight. The thin flowers are nearly purple. the Egyptians. in thick abundance and smelling good. Galium verum [Linnaeus] — Ladies' Bedstraw. making the poultice lukewarm. the Dacians. and a thin yellowish flower on top. It grows in hedges.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK drink with a little myrrh) induces the menstrual flow. and pannus [opaque thickening of cornea with veins]. and the Romans. Scrophularia maior. the Egyptians call it aethopi. other gangrenes. and smell strongly if bruised. Scrophularia aquatica [Linnaeus] — Water Figwort [other usage] Galeopsis tetrahit — Galeopsis. tumours [possibly goitre]. It is also called guleobdolon. selepsion. Holy Hemp. Galium luteum [Bauhin]. juice. It is also good applied with salt for nomae [grazer disease. G 4-96. tissue and bones]. eats away muscle.

4-97. some senecium] 4-98. It is also called gallerium. and of the perineum. with little leaves like eruca [2-170]. herbulum. the Romans. and nerves. Thalictrum nigricans — Fen Rue. THALIKTRON SUGGESTED: Thalictrum aquilegifolium — Columbine-leaved Meadow Rue Thalictrum flavum. or else by themselves. Senecio minor vulgaris [Bauhin]. and a little stalk the thickness of rue on which are the leaves. see 3-52. . or. The leaves with the flowers are cooling. It grows in marshy places. These are pounded into small pieces and applied to form a skin over ulcers that will not heal. Common Meadow Rue. galatium. and after blowing turn into down. urinary]. ERIGERON SUGGESTED: Erigeron. Some call it erechthites. It grows (especially) in fields. the root is of no use. cure inflammations from stones [kidney.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS medication for acopon. The root encourages sexual intercourse [aphrodisiac]. Senetio [Fuchs. because in the spring the flowers turn gray like hair. False Rhubarb. quickly opening. Brunfels]. the flowers are yellowish. The down smeared on by itself in vinegar does the same. It grows mostly on unmortared stone walls and about towns. This is also why it was called erigeron. The leaves smeared on with a little wine. Senecio vulgaris [Linnaeus] — Groundsel S enecio is a reddish little stalk a foot high. The whole stalk soaked with water and drunk with must [grape pulp] cures pains of the stomach from cholera. 3-53 T 648 halictrum has leaves similar to coriander but fatter. Drunk while fresh they cause strangling. jagged at the edges only a great deal smaller. With manna thuris [1-83] it heals other wounds.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Petasites farfara after THIEBAULT — 1888 649 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Personatia after FUCHS — 1545 650 .

There is also another potamogeton with leaves the same but longer and thinner. Potamogeton rotundifolium [Bauhin]. Tenchweed. Potamogeton natans [Linnaeus] — Devil’s Spoons. Lichen Moss officinalis uscus marinus grows on stones and shells by the sea — hairy. Wall Moss. POTAMOGEITON. and pounded into small pieces with wine and an acetabulum [vinegar cruet] taken as a drink. Corallina Muscus arboreus — Moss. good for gouty afflictions and inflammation. the thin little stalks the same. but they must use them while they are still moist (before they dry). it helps dysentery and the abdominal cavity. feeding ulcers. It is also called ballaris. POTAMOGEITON ETEROS SUGGESTED: Potamogeton [Fuchs]. and the Romans call it gnomeusilum. and is good for itches. which some have thought to be that little root which women use which is also called fucus. PHUKOS THALASSION SUGGESTED: Fucus vesiculosus — Bladderwrack ucus marinus — one sort of it is broad. very flourishing. Sicacer says that the Phoenician [red] is good against snakes. It cools and is therapeutic. All are cooling in poultices. BRUON THALASSION SUGGESTED: Bryon. M 4-100. Broad-leaved Pondweed P otamogeton has a thick leaf (similar to beet) standing a little above the water. Brion [French]. F 4-101. slender. Bryum. growing in Crete near the ground. this is binding. white. and gout in the feet that needs astringency. Corallina — Thread Moss. full of a reddish seed.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-99. and old ulcers. or irane. without a stalk. the other somewhat long and almost purple and the third. It is called this because it grows in marshes and watery places. very astringent — good for inflammation. and stops women's excessive 651 . and not perishable. Eaten.

It grows in somewhat rough fields and especially around the ways. 4-102. erysipela [streptococcal skin infection] and oedema uninflammed. It also grows in watery. Stratiotes. Millefolium. It is also called stachyitis. Tropical Duckweed tratiotes which grows in the water is called this because it swims on the waters and lives without a root. the flowers are small and white. This herb is excellent for an excessive discharge of blood. and the Magi. and the abnormal growths of the leaves are very short and jagged. Milfoil. the Egyptians. old and new ulcers. Supercilium veneris — Yarrow. the Egyptians call it tibus. marshy places. STRATIOTES CHILIOPHULLOS Millefolium vulgare album [Bauhin]. the Romans call it fatalist. the blood of a cat. S 4-103. Achillea millefolium [Linnaeus]. The leaves are (most chiefly) similar in their shortness and roughness to wild cumin yet even shorter. A decoction (taken as a drink and also smeared on with vinegar) keeps wounds.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS bloody discharges [menstrual flow]. and the tuft is thicker than this and fuller. It has a leaf similar to that of sempervivum [4-89 to 4-91] yet bigger. It is cooling and stops bloody discharges from the kidneys. for it has small shoots on the top on which are the tufts in the shape of dill [3-67]. and for fistulas [ulcers]. STRATIOTES O EN TOIS UDASIN SUGGESTED: Stratiotes aloides — Water Soldier Pistia stratiodes — Water Lettuce. S tratiotes millefolius is a small little shrub twenty centimetres long (or more) with leaves similar to the feathers of a young bird. 652 . It is also called river stratiotes. ethenchis. Nosebleed SUGGESTED: Stratiotes-millefolium [Fuchs].

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Fumaria officinalis after FAGUET — 1874 653 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Cytisus laburnum after FAGUET — 1891 654 .

Aaron's Rod IRRITANT RESIN Verbascum thapsus after FAGUET — 1888 [other usage] Jerusalem Sage — Phlomis fructiosa Wickweed — Phlomis floccosa hlomis has a double difference. somewhat long. Verbascum densifolium. foeminalis. The black is similar to the white in all things. That called the male is white-leaved. There is a third phlomis. with round leaves. and some. and white. The flowers are white or of a faint aker [ochre]. It grows in fields. somewhat rough. Verbascum nigrum. Of the two former.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-104. as well as wounds from falls. as a result the amount of a knucklebone is effective (given with wine in a drink) for flowing [diarrhoea].Verbascum thapsus [Linnaeus]. PHLOMOS LEUKE ARREN. convulsions. and a yellowish flower like gold. yet it is broader-leaved and darker in the leaves. for one sort is white and the other black. Thapsus barbatus — Great Mullein. The white stalk is a foot high or more. PHLOMOS LEUKE MELAINA. with a hard taste. the seed black. Verbascum phlomoides [Linnaeus]. Verbascum lychnitis [Linnaeus] — White Mullein Verbascum candidum mas [Fuchs]. There is also another sort called wild. called lychnitis. the thickness of a finger. — Black Mullein Verbascum candidum foemina [Fuchs]. one is female and the other male. PHLOMOS AGRIA SUGGESTED: Verbascum sylvestre. A decoction of it is good for hernia. and thinner in the stalk. bruises. the Romans call it verbasculum. rough. growing near the ground. the root is astringent. broader. the root long. It is also called plenos. sometimes thryallis. the leaves similar to sage. The leaves of the female are similar to brassica but with many more filaments. good for candle wicks. and used as a mouthwash it soothes toothache. with three or four or more thick fat rough leaves. PHLOMOS LEUKE THELEIA. with tall stems and tree-like. The golden colour in the flowers dyes the hair.Verbascum nigrum [Fuchs]. narrower in the leaves. with sprigs around the stems similar to marrubium. and of the white. PHLOMOS. and old coughs. 655 P . These phlomides are also two-fold.

and the soft stalk long like little cumin. There are many long thick roots from the very bottom. The seed is about the size of ervum [2-129. only rougher and rounder. It grows abundantly in Messenia and Ida. It is also drunk in wine for sciatica and dysuria. similar to little cumin. similar to apiastrum [3-118]. 656 . AITHIOPIS SUGGESTED: [Pliny] Aethiopis — Ethiopian Sage — Salvia aethiopis A ethiopis has leaves similar to verbascum [4-104]. ARKTION SUGGESTED: Arctium minus — Lesser Burdock A rctium (which some call arcturum) has leaves similar to verbascum [4-104] but rougher and rounder. The root is tender. very rough and thick.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS and wherever it is put it attracts woodworm. The root and seed of this (boiled in wine) are held in the mouth to lessen toothache. thick and rugged. but dried they become black and hard like horns. and the stalk is soft and long. It is taken as a drink in wine for sciatica and painful urination. and it has leaves similar to verbascum. 2-131] with two in one capsule. It is a poultice for burns and chilblains. or arction [4-106]. putting out many wings. gluey to the taste. 4-106. They say that the leaves of the female sort stored together with figs. The root and seed of this (soaked in wine) have the strength (held in the mouth) to soothe toothache. and with honey (or wine) for eating ulcers. and it is applied with hot cloths for burns and chilblains. sweet and white. in a circle around the bottom of the root. 4-105. the tender root is sweet and white. With vinegar it heals wounds and helps those touched by scorpions. The leaves (boiled in water) are applied for oedema and inflammation of the eyes. The stalk is foursquare. The leaves of the wild kind are poultices for burns. keeps them from decaying. The root of this is called arcturum.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Aster atticus purpureus after FUCHS — 1545 657 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Viola odorata after FAGUET — 1875 658 .

the Romans call it personacea. 4-108. Petasites vulgaris. or aparine.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-107. PETASITES SUGGESTED: Petasites hybridus [in Sprague]. lappa. Lappa major. but black on the outside. Arctium bardana — Greater Burdock. like a mushroom. prosopion. Lappa tomentosa. and some. Bardana [Fuchs]. Bog Rhubarb [other usage] Petasites fragrans — Winter Heliotrope. Arctium tomentosum. Arcium Dioscorides [Bauhin]. Sweet Coltsfoot Petasites albus — White Butterbur etasites has a little stalk higher than a foot. P Petasites officinalis after THIEBAULT — 1888 659 . It is good pounded into small pieces and smeared on for malignancies and eating ulcers. The leaves are effective applied to old ulcers. The root is large. Petasites officinalis. darker and rough. A rcion has leaves similar to those of colocynthis yet bigger. Arctium majus. white within. Arctium lappa. One teaspoon of a decoction (taken as a drink with pine kernels) helps spitters of blood and corrupt matter. ARKEION Lappa maior. on which is a large leaf similar to a hat lying on it. the thickness of the big finger. it soothes sores from wrenching the joints around. Beggar’s Buttons see 4-106 SUGGESTED: Personatia. Batchelor’s Buttons. harder. and smeared on. Tussilago petasites [Linnaeus] — Butterbur. It is also called personata. with a whitish stalk. prosopis. sometimes the herb is without one.

fumaria. C 4-111. the Egyptians. Pes Galliniceus [Pliny]. EPIPAKTIS Cephalenthera ensifolia — Epipactis. It is taken as a drink against poisons [antidote]. . white spots on the cornea. inducing tears — from which it received this name. and things that darken the pupils. E 4-110. Fumaria. tucis. Helleborine Epipactis helleborine. peristerion. marmarites. cynx. Epipactis latifolia — Broad Helleborine SUGGESTED: Epipactis grandiflora. Fumiterre Corydalis is an ancient Greek name for fumitory [Loudon]. but the many leaves are paler and the colour of ashes everywhere. Fumus terrae [Fuchs]. it is able to stop hairs pulled from off the eyebrows from growing again. nubeculae [speck or small cloud in the eye]. coryon. pipactis is a small little shrub with very small little leaves. chelidonion parvum. the juice sharp — quickening the sight. capnos that is among barley. Smeared on with gum. some. capnites. It is also called elleborine. LOTOS EMEROS SUGGESTED: Lotus tetragonolobus — Garden Winged Pea Tetragonolobus palestinus — Four-winged Garden Pea L 660 otus sativa grows in gardens. corydalion sylvestre. the Romans call it apium. Fumaria officinalis [Linnaeus] — Fumitory. and some. or borion. and for disorders in the liver. Juiced and mixed with honey it dissolves argema [small white ulcer on the cornea]. The herb (eaten) expels bilious urine. cantharis. The flower is purple. It is also called tripodion. or trifolium. capnogorion. KAPNOS Epipactis latifolia after FAGUET — 1891 SUGGESTED: Capnum.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-109. apnum is a very tender shrubby little herb similar to coriander. It is also called corydalion. or caliocri.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Chamaecissus after FUCHS — 1545 661 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Hound’s-tongue — Cynoglossum officinalis after FAGUET — 1888 662 .

in taste similar to green chickpeas. C 663 . Brunfels]. A decoction of them (taken as a drink) induces urine. It is also called libyon. It has a stalk of two feet (or even more) with many wings. dissolving new oedemas. Yellow Trefoil [Mabberley] [other usage] Medicago arborea [Bedevian] — Cytisus of Greeks. L Lotus corniculatus after FAGUET — 1880 4-113. cleaning away spots on the face and sunburn. or trifolium. but smaller. Pounded into small pieces and a decoction taken as a drink by itself (or else with the seed of mallows. The leaves are cooling. with wine. the leaves are like the three-leaved clover that grows in meadows. with a bigger backbone. medicine-like in the taste.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-112. Rubbed on with honey it is warming and gently astringent. and the Romans call it trifolium minus. LOTOS AGRIOS Melilotus germanica [Fuchs]. pounded into small pieces and smeared on with bread. the seed is similar to fenugreek but a great deal smaller. or trifolium. Hop Clover. lotus grandis. Lotus corniculatus [Linnaeus]. Trifolium corniculatum — Bird's Foot Trefoil SUGGESTED: otus sylvestris grows in great abundance in Libya. Medicago lupulina [Linnaeus] — Black Medick. and the Romans call it trifolium majus. It is also called teline. Moon Trefoil Common Cytisus — Cytisus sessifolius ytisus is a white shrub like rhamnus which sends out branches a foot long or more. if crushed with the fingers smelling like eruca [2-170]. around which are leaves similar to fenugreek or lotus trifolia. Tree Medick. or passum [raisin wine]) helps disorders of the bladder. KUTISOS SUGGESTED: Trifolium-pratense luteum [Fuchs. Some plant it near bee hives to attract the bees.

or achillea. some. from which it is named. with a little flower — white like the lily — which they say opens at the rising of the sun and closes when it sets. and that all the head is hidden in the water. LOTOS AIGUPTIOS SUGGESTED: Nymphaea lotus — Egyptian Lotus. It is also given to drink with water and salt for falls. White Lotus. Boiled.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-114. 4-115. M 664 . beliucandas. covering the water. It has a root like malum cydonium [1-160] that is also eaten raw or boiled [vegetable]. It is also called myllophullon. supercilium veneris. It grows in marshy places. The head is like the larger poppy. and again at the rising of the sun it stands above. has a stalk similar to that of the bean. in which is seed like millet which they pry out to put into their bread making. MURIOPHULLON SUGGESTED: Myriophyllum spicatum — Water Milfoil yriophyllum has a tender little stalk growing singly from one root around which are many smooth leaves like marathrum [3-81]. it is similar to the yolk of an egg. with various colours (as it were) on purpose artificially polished. the Romans call it millefolium. and the Gauls. Water Lily of Egypt L otus which grows in Egypt in the water. stratiotice. Smeared on green or dry with vinegar this keeps the later sores of ulcers uninflamed. Sacred Lotus. The stalk is somewhat hollow.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Daphne alexandrinum after FUCHS — 1545 665 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Antirrhinum majus after FAGUET — 1888 666 .

two feet tall. Gold Of Pleasure sativa yagros is a brushy kind of herb. Sweet Fern see 2-168 SUGGESTED: Scandix [Pliny]. Chaerophyllum sylvestre [Linnaeus] — Wild Chervil. but it has a long root — tender. sweetsmelling and pleasant to eat. Cow Weed [other usage] Myrrhis odorata. with pale leaves similar those of rubia [dyer’s madder]. Chaerophyllum odoratum — Myrrh. Cow Parsley. and it purges out the menstrual flow and afterbirth. They use it. It seems that the fat from them makes sleek and smooth any roughness of the body. British Myrrh.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-116. It is also called melampyrom. and using them instead of a candle. twice or three times a day) in pestilential seasons. M 4-117. and rubbing the stems. MURRIS Myrrhis. Scandix odorata. Camelina — Camelina. or myrrha. Sweet Cicely. Cicutaria [Fuchs]. Boiled in liquid (to be sipped) it is given for pulmonary consumption. The fat seed is like a neck or whorl. A decoction (taken as a drink with wine) helps those bitten by harvest spiders. scorching and bruising it. MUAGROS SUGGESTED: Myagrum sativum. Myrrhis sylvestris seminibus laevibus [Bauhin]. It is also called conila. Anthriscus sylvestris [in Sprague]. M 667 . Some say that it is a prophylactic against infection (taken as a drink with wine. yrrhis is similar to hemlock in its stalk and leaves. round.

Anchusa officinalis [Linnaeus] — Bugloss. A dilution of the root taken as a drink by the wild living creatures is able to make them tame. and on it are little heads. Great Willowherb. or lymphatic vessels. rough. It is also called oenothera. Cirsium tuberosum. The root is white and long. KIRSION germanicum. Apple Pie. and dried gives off the smell of wine. purple on the top. turning into down. C 668 . the corners with soft prickles at distances. Common Alkanet. O 4-119. it soothes wild ulcers. Codlins and Cream see 4-3 nagra is a good-sized shrub like a tree. but broader and like those of the lily. Common Bugloss [other usage] Cirsium bulbosam. Cnicus tuberosus — Tuberous Thistle see 4-23 to 4-27. Smeared on. 4-23 to 4-27] — pretty. it stops the pains of enlarged veins. with leaves like the almond tree. It is also called great bugloss. The large flowers are like roses. Acreas writes that bound on the hurt place. and the Romans call it spina mollis. The ball at the upper end of the stalk is rough. arteries. Cirsion [Fuchs]. and the leaves similar to bugloss [4-128.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-118. longer. or onuris. The small leaves emerge from beneath like a rose. Epilobium hirsutum — Onagrade. ONAGRA SUGGESTED: Onagra [Italian]. Echium lanuginosum primum [Brunfels]. somewhat white and prickly at the ends. It grows in hilly places. 4-190 SUGGESTED: Cirsium irsium has a tender threesquare stalk two feet high.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Smilax aspera after FAGUET — 1888 669 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Helleborus foetedus after FAGUET — 1894 670 .

The stars [flowers] of this shine in the night. it helps an inflamed stomach. Aster atticus caeuruleus vulgaris [Bauhin]. rathibis. it drives away snakes. but the leaf tastes like anise [3-65]. and epilepsy in children. 2-176 SUGGESTED: Isopyrum I sopyron bears a tendril towards the upper leaf. Tripolium vulgare — Italian Starwort.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-120. A decoction of the seed of this (taken as a drink with honey and water) helps disorders Isopyrum fumaroides after FAGUET — 1888 671 . Crateuas the herbalist relates that pounded (green) with old swines’ grease it is good for one bitten by a mad dog. for those who do not know it when they see it think it is a spirit. the Romans call it inguinalis. and prolapse of the perineum. and it has small leaves similar to a star. Smeared on. or sows eye. bubonium. and inhaled. On the top of the stalk are thin little heads full of small seeds. ISOPURON fumaroides [Bedevian] — Fumitory-leaved Isopyron Isopyrum thalictroides — Meadow Rue-leaved Isopyron see 2-170. Aster amellus [Linnaeus]. and the Dacians. or for a swollen throat. Gathered when it is dry (with the left hand of the pained party) and hanged about the thigh. as well as inflammation of the eyes and the thighs. and it is found by the keepers of sheep. ASTER ASTIKOS atticus [Fuchs]. similar to melanthium [3-93] according to the taste. It grows among rocks and in coarse places. Tripoly see 4-135 SUGGESTED: Aster ster atticus has a woody little stem with a purple flower on the top (or a yellowish one) cut all around like the little head of anthemis [3-154]. Sea Aster. it frees him of the pain. asterion. A 4-121. It is good (applied fresh and moist) for inflammation of the thighs. Aster tripolium. A decoction of the purple part of the flower (taken as a drink with water) helps the synanchic [abscessed throat]. It is also called asteriscos. Sea Starwort. The leaves around the stalk are somewhat long and rough. Tripolium.

Viola purpurea. It is also called dasypodion. Sweet Violet Viola neglecta — Neglected Violet on has a leaf smaller than cissus [2-210]. and is good for bloodspitters. and little stalks in the midst (from the root) on which is a little flower. C acalia bears white leaves of a good size with a stalk in the middle of them. KAKALIA SUGGESTED: Cacalia verbascifolia. and a flower similar to bryony. straight and white. priapeion. Senecio thapsoides — Cacalia. some. It is cooling. Viola [Fuchs]. thinner and darker. I 4-123. this is Bupleurum longifolum [Loudon]. It is also called leontice. and liver disorders. and epilepsy of children. 672 . very sweet. or cybelion. ION SUGGESTED: [Pliny] Ion. 4-122. of a purple. Some call it phasiolum because it is similar to phasiolus. Tassel Flower Cacalia alpina — Alpine Cacalia According to Sprengel. It grows in shady rough places. it grows on hills. The root of this (steeped in wine like tragacanth and licked or chewed by itself) cures coughs and roughness of the throat. The grains that come after flowering are pounded into small pieces and smeared on with wax ointment to keep the face smooth and without wrinkles. inflammation of the eyes. so that the leaves (applied by themselves or with polenta) help a burning stomach. Viola odorata [Linnaeus] — Violet. wild violet. the Romans call it setialis. or viola purpurea. A decoction of the purple part of the flower (taken as a drink with water) helps the synanchic [abscessed throat]. and prolapse of the perineum.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS of the chest and coughs. Inula candida. Wild Caraway. muraria.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Helleborus niger after FAGUET — 1894 673 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Prunus laurocerasus after FAGUET — 1888 674 .

slow and painful urination. It is used with honey and water — moist. the seed has a sweet scent and is smaller than that of hyoscyamus [4-69]. 4-124 seudobunium is a small shrub. Hedera terrestris vulgaris [Bauhin]. kidneys and bladder. stalks and leaves. Sium bulbocastanum — Arnut. twenty centimetres long. and is properly used for the spleen. smaller. with leaves similar to bunium [above]. scopa regia. B 4-125. BOUNION SUGGESTED: Meum bunius — Coriander-leaved Bawd-money unium sends out a quadrangular stalk of a good length and a finger’s thickness. and strongly bitter to the taste. thepso.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-124. The root is thin. and some. Glechoma hederacea [Linnaeus] — Ground Ivy C hamaecissus has many leaves like those of cissus only longer and thinner. the Africans. white and useless. Applied lukewarm (with salt and wine) it dissolves tumours [possibly goitre]. It is also called aton. and pains of the side. PSEUDOBOUNION SUGGESTED: Bunium bulbocastanum. and leaves similar to smallage [celery — old use] but much thinner. Tuberous Caraway see 2-136. actine. Hedera terrestris [Fuchs]. found in Crete. full of leaves from the ground. or juiced with the roots. draws out the afterbirth. erxoe. A decoction made with four small branches (taken as a drink with water) is able to heal griping. the Magi call it paradacry. The flowers are similar to leucoion. CHAMAIKISSOS SUGGESTED: Chamaecissus [Pliny]. Earth Chestnut. with five or six small branches of twenty centimetres. or anemosphoron. the Egyptians. and a sharp taste. It is urinary and warming. the Romans. closer to those of coriander. dry. Carum bulbocastanum. P 4-126. It grows in 675 . zigar. The flower is like dill [3-67]. Pig Nut.

Common Sea Bugloss see 4-23 to 4-27. and the Africans ansanaph. unfruitful ivy. the Egyptians. It has leaves laying on the ground. Borrago uglossum grows in plain misty places and is gathered in the month July. Buglossa Vera [Italian]. For fevers with recurrent paroxysms every third day give the bugloss that has three stalks to drink. Anchusa italica. and flowers similar to roses. They say that it is good to use for abscesses (like verbascum [4-104]). The Magi call it genitura felis. A decoction (taken as a drink for six or seven days) cleans away jaundice. Borago officinalis [Linnaeus] — Common Borage. B 676 . Talewort [other usage] Buglossum officinale. They say that it is good for the chills of acute fevers. Buglossum latifolium borrago [Bauhin]. the crown of the earth. is thought to be a cause of mirth. put into wine. Osthenes calls it tzanuchi. Anchusa paniculata — Italian Alkanet. Give that which has four stalks to someone who has fevers with recurrent paroxysms every fourth day. boiling to a third the whole herb with the roots and seed. with little crumpled leaves and branches. some. while the Romans call it hedera pluviatica. It is a herb that is all green. lingua bovis. 4-119 SUGGESTED: Buglossum. but these must be boiled with wine. 4-127. It is also called chamaeleuce. 4-128. CHAMAIPEUKE SUGGESTED: Chamaepeuce diacantha — Fishbone Thistle C hamaepeuce (pounded into small pieces and taken as a drink in water) is good for disorders of the loins [digestive or procreative]. or selinitis. both rougher and darker (like the tongue of an ox) which. the Romans. antuenrin besor.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS tilled places. libanis. BOUGLOSSON [Fuchs]. A decoction of the leaves (as much as thirty grains taken as a drink in three cupfuls of water for forty or fifty days) is good for sciatica.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Daphne mezereum after FAGUET — 1878 677 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Cucumer sylvestris after FUCHS — 1545 678 .

C 4-130. but narrower and smaller. slender. idiophyton. They also say that this is prescribed for love medicines to be hanged on one. The herb (boiled and taken as a drink with wine) soothes the bowels. PHUTEUMA SUGGESTED: Phyteuma spicatum — Spiked Horned Rampion Phyteuma orbiculare — Round-headed Rampion P hyteuma has leaves similar to radicula only smaller. On the tops of the stalks are little heads (as it were) bored through. and some. Lion's Foot eontopodion is a two-finger long little herb with small. Lycopsis [Brunfels]. the Romans call it lingua canis. and a thin little root close to the earth which some consider good for a love medicine. woolier towards the root. without stalks. strong leaves the length of three or four fingers — rough. It is also called phytom. and whitish. It grows in sandy places. 4-131. cemus. or scolimos. abundant seed. which have black flowers. damnamene. Buglossum sylvestre tertium [Bauhin] Cynoglossum officinalis — Hound’s Tongue. splenion. The root underneath is small. The leaves (pounded into small pieces with old swine grease) are able to heal persons or animals bitten by dogs. aetonychon.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-129. Gipsy Flower SUGGESTED: Cynoglossum ynoglosson has leaves similar to the broad-leaved plantain. phytobasila. It is also called zoonychon. caballation. KUNOGLOSSON officinarum [Fuchs]. LEONTOPODION SUGGESTED: Leontopodium vulgare — Common Lion’s Foot Gnaphalium leontopodium — Everlasting. Live Ever. and that it dissolves small swellings. bored through. 679 L . downy. The seed is hardly seen because of the down that wraps it. lingua canina. as well as the loss of hair [alopecia] and burns. Lion’s Paw Cudweed Leontopodium alpinum — Edelweiss. scattered on the ground.

The filaments seem to be an effective amulet for headaches. and on the top (as it were) a little tongue by the leaves. or lychnis sylvestris. It is said that (used as a personal ornament) this opposes poisons. carnation-like in appearance. but the flowers are purple. so it was also called sylvestris lychnis. 4-133. Cymbalaria muralis — Cymbalaria. it makes one beautiful. 680 . Calf’s Snout see 4-143 A ntirrhinon is a herb similar to anagallis [2-209] in the leaves and stalk. crocomerion. The Magi call it sanguis crocodili. neumatus. palladium. and some. Linaria cymbalaria. daphnoenes. Some call this antirrhinon. and that rubbed on with lily oil or cyprine [nutsedge]. ANTIRRINON (KUNOKEPHALON) SUGGESTED: Antirrhinum asarina — Bastard Asarum Antirrhinum cymbalaria. 4-132. and prickly filaments. and some have called it lychnis agrestis. or crossophthoon. some. the Egyptians. Kenilworth Ivy. anarrhinon. the Romans. or flammula.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS crossion. Ivy-leaved Toadflax Antirrhinum orontium — Lesser Snapdragon. minercium. The root and juice are mixed with warm compresses. It bears a fruit like the nostrils of a calf. IPPOGLOSSON SUGGESTED: Ruscus aculeatus — Butcher’s Broom See 4-147 H ippoglosson is a little shrub similar to myrtus agrestis [myrtle] with thin leaves. It is also called anarrhinon. similar to leucoion [3-138] only smaller.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Balanites aegyptica after FAGUET — 1875 681 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Staphisagria after FUCHS — 1545 682 .

herba filicula. dionysias. scattered on the earth. Hymenoema graecum. Blue Cupidone. jagged towards the top. KATANANKE Hymenoema tournefortii — Candy Lionsfoot Catananche caerulea — Cupid’s Dart. or stachyites. and in the evening. or crotion. and the Dacians.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK 4-134. the Romans. the Magi call it archaras. It has leaves similar to woad yet thicker. It is also called damnamene. thyrsion. bored through in many parts. Sea Starwort ripolium grows in places near the sea where the sea overflows and departs. and a stalk twenty centimetres long. around noon. It is also called psyche. and they say that the Thessalian women use them. Phoenician [red]. Sea Aster. The small seed (like cicer [2-126]) is found on the little stems. and hot to the taste. nor in the sea. meris. but soft. The other is the size of a little apple. cemos. Some report that both kinds are good for liquid love medicines. and the Romans call it calamaris. a Phoenician colour [red]. and six or seven rush-like heads in which is seed similar to ervum [2-129. purple. it bends down to the ground and is similar to the claws of a dead kite [bird]. Two teaspoonfuls of a decoction (taken as a drink in wine) expel water and urine through the bowels. some. sweet smelling. caropithla. The root is white. TRIPOLION SUGGESTED: Tripolium vulgare. about the size of an olive. C 4-135. the root is small. Withered. arcopus. demos. and jagged. 2-131]. some. or Iovis madius. and the leaves similar in shape and colour to the olive. It is cut for antidotes against poisons. datisca. potamogeton. atanance has one sort with long leaves like those of coronopis. Blue Succory SUGGESTED: Catananche graeca. Aster see 4-120 tripolium. a thin root. T 683 . It is said that the flower of this changes its colour three times a day — in the morning it is white. Aster atticus — Tripoly. neither is it in the dry.

ebenotrichon. It is smeared on (raw) for venomous beast bites. A 4-I37.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-136. It makes cocks and quails more vicious. It bears no [other] stalk. phithophthethela. very small. thickens the loss of hair [alopecia] and disperses tumours [possibly goitre]. the splenical. trichomanes. Capillaire SUGGESTED: Adiantum foliis coriandri diantum has little leaves similar to coriander. Asplenium viride [Fuchs]. ADIANTON [Bauhin]. difficulty in breathing. and excessive discharges of the stomach. Venus’s Hair. or supercilium terrae. and the Dacians. With lye it wipes off dandruff and scaly eruptions of the scalp. Polytrichon T 684 richomanes grows about the same places. . terrae capillus. The root is useless. with slender leaves in order on either side. very small. one against the other. It is planted for sheep around sheep enclosures [feed]. kidney]. flower. It draws out the menstrual flow and afterbirth. The leaves are like filix [fern]. It stops the spitting-up of blood. and glistening. callitrichon. or seed. the Egyptians call it epiert. and around moist walls and fountains. argion. It is also called polytrichon. Bristle Fern SUGGESTED: Trichomanes. and frequent painful urination. Taken as a drink with wine. it breaks stones [urinary. and helps those bitten by venomous creatures. Linnaeus]. or like lenticula [2-129]. TRICHOMANES officinarum. or coriandrum aquaticum. some. Asplenium trichomanes. mixed with their meat. jagged on the top. stops discharges of the intestines. A decoction of it (rubbed on with lye and wine) does the same. twenty centimetres long. the Romans. Herba capillorum-veneris — Maidenhair. Adiantum capillus veneris [Fuchs. A decoction of the herb (taken as a drink) is able to help asthma. With ladanum [1-128] and oil myrsinum [1-48] and inhalants (or else oesypum [lanolin] and wine) it prevents falling hair. Adiantum trichomanes — Common Spleenwort. very thin. It grows in shady marshy places. jaundice. cincinnalis. and the little stalks on which they grow are black. being like fern.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Hippophae rhamnoides after FAGUET — 1888 685 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS Carduus mariae from FUCHS — 1545 686 .

Hard Grass Phleum aegylops. It has leaves like atriplex [2-145]. Some also call this adiantum. and the Romans call it avena. beaten. Bauhin]. capillaris. and dried. Goat Grass. clean. And some also beat it with wine to preserve it. mixed with meal. pterion. Some call it phasganon. XANTHION SUGGESTED: Xanthium. some. prickly. it has a cornered stalk a cubit long. Lappa minor [Fuchs. X 4-139. or bromos. pinula. The fruit is expediently laid on oedema. filaments) grow out. smear it on. some. It is thought it can do the same things to that mentioned before. The juice is stored for the same purposes. is able to make hair yellow. Xanthium strumarium [Linnaeus] — Cocklebur [Mabberley] anthium grows in fertile places and marshes that are dried up.THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK upon thin little stems. but often with two or three red seeds on the top of the head on which beards (or as it were. opteron. diluting it with lukewarm water. Triticum ovatum after FAGUET — 1894 687 . the Romans. choeradolethron. with a bad taste. but a round fruit as a great olive. cbascanon. some. having incuts. The fruit. and some also call this aparine. The herb (applied with meal) heals aegilopses [ulcer or fistula in the inner angle of the eye] and dissolves hard lumps. some filicula. and having first rubbed the head with nitre. antithesion. Triticum ovatum — Hard Grass. Oat Grass Aegilops caudata [Loudon]— Cretan Hard Grass A egilops is a little herb with leaves similar to wheat. gathered before it is perfectly dry. close in scent to nasturtium. and many stings upon it. some. and preserved in a clay jar. It is also called sitospelos. AIGILOPS SUGGESTED: Aegilops ovata — Goat Grass. and somewhat black. some. siphon. To use it take a quantity of half a sextary of it. 4-I38. some. like the balls of the plane tree taking hold of clothes after you touch it. glittering.

Those from beneath are paler. Black Saltwort G laux is similar in its leaves to cytisus [4-113] or lentils. or acrospelos. salt. It is also called siphonion. and the Romans call it avena. Milkweed Polygala oppositifolia after FAGUET — 1888 P olygalon is a little shrub twenty centimetres long. Lolium temulentum. GLAUX SUGGESTED: Glaux maritima — Sea Milkwort. mix with it the same amount of honey. This is good for ozaena [ulcerative disease with mucopurulent discharge of the nose] if you apply it to the nostril with a wet a linen cloth. and those from above green. BROMOS temulentus. and oil) are sipped to restore milk that has stopped flowing [breastfeeding]. and use it. and applied alone it does the same. These (boiled with barley meal. from the root. POLUGALON SUGGESTED: Polygala vulgaris — Common Milkwort. 4-141. Crepolea temulentum — Darnel. Strain the boiled herb with its roots in water until the decoction is reduced two thirds. 4-142. Some beat aloes finely. The flowers are similar to leucoioi [3-138] but smaller. 688 . mix it with bromus. Cheat. Ryegrass. and it sends out five or six thin shoots from the earth. harsh to the taste. A decoction (taken as a drink) is thought to cause more milk [breastfeeding]. It is also good (boiled with dry roses in wine) for stinking breath. It grows by the sea.BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS 4-140. and boil it until it is the thickness of moist honey. of a purple colour. twenty centimetres long. with leaves similar to lentils. Ivray NARCOTIC [Loudon] SUGGESTED: Bromus [other usage] Bromus arvensis — Corn Brome Grass see 2-116 B romus is a drying herb similar to aegilops.

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK Narcissus pseudonarcissus after FAGUET — 1891 689 .

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS

Croton tiglium after FAGUET — 1878

690

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

4-143. OSUROS
Linaria vulgaris lutea flore majore [Bauhin], Antirrhinum linaria [Linnaeus], Linaria vulgaris [in Sprague], Antirrhinum majus, Orontium majus — Great Snapdragon, Dragon’s Mouth, Dog’s Mouth [other usage] Osyris alba — Poet's Cassia, Gardrobe
see 4-133

SUGGESTED: Osyris, Linaria [Fuchs],

O

syris is a little black shrub, with thin hard-to-break stems, and around each, three small leaves; there are also four or five or six of these, like hemp; they are black when they are beginning but later they become reddish. A decoction of this (taken as a drink) helps jaundice.

4-144. SMILAX TRACHEIA
SUGGESTED: Smilax-aspera [Fuchs, Linnaeus]

— Prickly Ivy, Rough Bindweed

S

milax trachea has leaves similar to periclymen [4-14], with many sprigs, thin and prickly like paliurus or rubus, and it is wrapped around trees creeping (as it were) above and beneath. It bears a clustered fruit like a grape bunch, which ripens red, somewhat gently biting to the taste; the root is hard and thick. It grows in marshy rough places. A decoction of the leaves and fruit is an antidote for deadly poisons, taken as a drink beforehand (or afterwards). It is said that this herb, beaten and given to drink to a newborn small child, prevents hurt by any poisonous medicine. It is cut for antidotes against poison.

4-145. SMILAX LEIA
SUGGESTED: Smilax-levis, Volubilis maior [Fuchs], Convolvulus major albus [Bauhin], Convolvulus sepium [Linnaeus], Calystegia sepium [Brunfels] — Bindweed

S

milax laea has leaves similar to cissus but softer, smoother and thinner. It has vinelike branches like the last one, without prickles, and it is wrapped around
691

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS

trees like the former. It has small black seed like lupin [2-132], but always with many small, round, white flowers above, on every smilax. Arbors are made from it in the summer, but it sheds its leaves in the fall. Thirty grains of the seed of this (taken as a drink with the same amount of dorycnium [4-75]) is said to cause many troublesome dreams.

4-146. MURSINE AGRIA
SUGGESTED: Myrtus communis var romana

— Broad-leaved Myrtle

[other usage] Myrsine africana — African Myrsine

M

yrsine has a leaf similar to myrtle but broader, sharp at the top like a spear. The fruit is round and borne in the centre of the leaves [[flattened stems], red when ripe, with the inside bony. The little branches are willow-like, many emerging out of the same root, and hard to break, the length of a forearm, and full of leaves. The root is like that of grass, harsh to the taste, somewhat bitter. It grows in rough steep places. The leaves and berries (taken as a drink in wine) are able to induce urine, expel the menstrual flow, and break stones in the bladder. It cures jaundice, slow painful urination, and headaches. A decoction of the root (taken as a drink with wine) does the same. The newly-grown stalks (used as vegetables) are eaten instead of asparagus, but they are bitter and diuretic. It is also called sacra myrtus, spinosa myrtus, murina spina, agonon, scincos, minthe, catangelos, anangelos, acairon, ocneron, cine, lichene, chamaepitys, or chamaemyrsine; the Boeotians call it gurenia, the Magi, genitura Herculis, and the Romans, ruscus.

692

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Tithymalus cyparissias after FUCHS — 1545

693

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS

Tithymalus helioscopium after FUCHS — 1545

694

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

4-147. DAPHNE ALEXANDRINA
SUGGESTED: Laurus-Alexandrina

[Fuchs], Daphne-Alexandrina [Brunfels], Ruscus hypoglossum [Linnaeus], Ruscus hippoglossum, Uvularia, Baslingua — Laurel of Caesar [Mabberley], Horse Tongue, Double Tongue
See 4-132

[other usage] Alexandrian Laurel — Danaë laurus, Danaidea racemosa, Ruscus racemosus

aurus Alexandrina has leaves similar to myrsine agria but larger, softer and paler, with a red fruit in the centre of them the size of a cicer [2-126]. The branches lie on the earth, twenty centimetres long (or sometimes more). The root is similar to myrsine agria but larger, with a sweet scent, and softer. It grows in hilly places. Six teaspoons of the root (taken as a drink with sweet wine) is able to help women in difficult labour [childbirth], and those with slow painful urination, and it extracts blood. It is also called idaea, danae, hypoglotton, zalaea, stephane, daphnos, samothracica, methrion, or hypoglossion.

L

Ruscus racemosus after FAGUET — 1888

4-148. DAPHNOIDES
Daphnoides, Laureola [Fuchs], Clematis aegyptica, Daphne laureola, Daphne mezereum [Linnaeus], Thymelaea praecox, Thymelaea mezereum, Mezereum officinale — Spurge, Laurel, Dwarf Bay, Mezereon, Spurge Olive, Dwarf Laurel
SUGGESTED: Mezereon [Pliny], Thymelaea [Medieval],

aphnoeides is similar to alypon [4-180] with a flower like nymphaea [3-148], and in the midst of this, something like a cone, in which is the seed. It is a little shrub, a foot high, with many branches (flexible like a thong), bearing leaves from the middle to the top. The bark around the stems is very gluey; the leaves are similar to the bay, but softer, more slender, and not easily broken, biting and burning the mouth and the jaws. The flowers are white and the fruit black when it is grown ripe; the root is useless. It grows in mountainous places. The leaves (taken in a drink either dried or fresh) expel phlegm through the bowels. It encourages vomiting and the menstrual flow. Chewed, it draws mucus from the

D

Daphne mezereum after FAGUET — 1878

695

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS

head, and it also encourages sneezing, and a decoction of as much as eleven grains of the fruit (taken as a drink) purges. It is also called daphnitis, or hydragogon; the Romans call it laureola, some, lactago, and the Gauls, ousubim.

4-149. CHAMAIDAPHNE
SUGGESTED: Prunus laurocerasus

[Pliny], Cerasus laurocerasus, Padus laurocerasus, Laurocerasus officinalis — Dwarf Laurel, Cherry Laurel

hamaedaphne sends out single-branched rods a foot long — straight, thin and smooth; the leaves of this are similar to the [other] bay but much smoother, thinner and greener. The fruit is round and red, growing near to the leaves. The leaves of this (pounded into small pieces and smeared on) helps headaches and burning of the stomach. They cease griping, taken as a drink with wine. The juice (given to drink with wine) expels the menstrual flow and urine, and applied in a pessary it does the same. Some have called this alexandrina, daphnitis, or hydragogon, the Romans, laureola, some lactago, and the Gauls, ousubim.

C

4-150. ELLEBOROS
SUGGESTED: Elleborus-albus, Elleborus candidus [Fuchs],

Veratrum album [Fuchs, Linnaeus], Helleborus albus — Hellebore, White Hellebore, Lungwort
POISONOUS

E

lleborus albus has leaves similar to those of plantain or of the wild beet but shorter, darker, and red in colour. The stalk is a hand’s width, hollow. It is peeled when it begins to dry. The many thin roots are underneath, coming out together from a small, somewhat long little head like an onion. It grows in rough hilly places. You must gather the roots at harvest time. The best is that which is mildly extended, white, easily broken and fleshy, not peaked, and like a rush (or giving off down) when broken; but with the pith thin, not burning the taste too much, nor drawing out spittle
696

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Tithymalus platyphyllos after FUCHS — 1545

697

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS

Lathyris after FUCHS — 1545

698

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

too fast, for this sort is choking. The best is the Cyrenian and the Galatian. The Cappadocian is paler, downy and more choking. It purges by causing vomiting, expelling matter of various colours. It is mixed with eye salves that are able to take away things that darken the pupils. It expels the menstrual flow, is applied as an abortifacient, and encourages sneezing. Kneaded with honey and polenta and boiled to gether with pieces of meat, it kills mice and decomposes them. It is given to those fasting either by itself, or with sesame and barley water, alica [2-114], honey water, porridge, lens [lentils], or some other sipping liquid. It is also made into bread and baked like wheat. The method of treatment and the dieting is fully explained by those who by declaration have written about the dosages of it. We most agree with Phlomides the Sicilian from Enna. For it is tedious in discussing medicinal matters, professedly to set down the therapeutical institution. Some give it with a lot of sipping stuff or a great quantity of juice, or else, giving beforehand some small nourishment, they straight away give the hellebore to one in whom (especially) choking is suspected, or who has weakness of the body. The purging is without danger to those who take it like this, because the medicine is not unseasonably applied to their bodies. Suppositories of it (put up into the perineum with vinegar) encourage vomiting. It is also called ascis, atomon, or pignatoxaris; the Magi call it genitura Herculis, some, polyides, or anaphytos; the Egyptians call it somphia, some, unre, the Romans, veratrum album, the Gauls, laginum, and some, anepsa.

699

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS

4-151. ELLEBOROS MELAS
SUGGESTED: Elleborum nigrum

[Fuchs], Helleborus viridis [Linnaeus], Helleborus officinalis, Helleborus niger, Veratrum nigrum — Black Hellebore, Christmas Rose Elleborus niger adulterinus sylvestris [Fuchs], Helleborus foetidus [Linnaeus] — Stinkwort [Mabberley]

[other usage] Astrantia major — Black Hellebore, Masterwort, Larger Astrantia
ALL POISONOUS

elleborus niger is called melampodium since it is thought that one Melampus, a goatherd, purged and cured the mad daughters of Proteus with it. It has green leaves similar to the plane tree, but smaller, closer to those of spondylium, more jagged, darker, and somewhat rough. The stalk is rough, and the flowers white, inclining to purple, and in clusters. In it is seed similar to cnicus [4-119, 4-190] that those who live in Anticyra call sesamoeides [4-152] and use for purges. The roots underneath are thin and black, hanging (as it were) on an onion-like little head, which also has use. It grows in rough high dry places. The best is taken out of countries such as Anticyra, for the blackest and best grows there. Choose that which is fleshy and well nourished with only thin pith, sharp and burning to the taste, such as that in Helicon and Parnassus, and that growing in Aetolia. That from Helicon is the best. It purges the intestines from above, driving out phlegm and bile, given alone (or with scammony and a teaspoonful or thirty grains of salt). It is also boiled with lens [lentils] and broths that are taken for purging. It is good for epilepsy, depression, delirium, arthritis and paralysis. Given in a pessary it expels the menstrual flow, is an abortifacient, and cleans fistulas [ulcers] (put into them and taken away after the third day). Similarly, it is put into the ears for those who are hard of hearing, leaving it alone for two or three days. Rubbed on with frankincense, or wax, pitch, and oil cedrinum [cedar], it also heals parasitic skin diseases. Applied with vinegar it heals vitiligo [type of leprosy], impetigo, and leprosy. Boiled with vinegar and used as a mouthwash, it soothes toothache. It is also put into corrosive medicines. With
700

H

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Peplos after FUCHS — 1545

701

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS

Convolvulus scammonia after FAGUET — 1888

702

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

barley meal and wine it is a good poultice for dropsy. Planted near the roots of vines it makes the wine made from them purgative. They sprinkle it around houses thinking it preserves them from evil spirits. When they dig it they stand praying to Apollo and Aesculapius, observing the eagle’s flight, for they say he flies that way not without danger to them. For the bird causes death if one is seen digging hellebore; and one must dig it with swiftness because inhaling it causes a headache. To prevent this, those who dig it eat garlic and drink wine, so they are made less liable to be hurt. It is pithy, as is the white hellebore. It is also called melampodium, ectomon, polyrrhizon, protion, melanorrhizon, or cyrranion; the Magi call it zomarition, the Egyptians, isea, some, elaphine, or cemeleg, the Romans, veratrum nigrum, some, saraca, and the Dacians, prodiorna.

4-152. SESAMOEIDES
SUGGESTED:

ALSO: Sesamum

Sesamum triphyllum — Wild Sesame Hyptis spicigera — Black Sesame

indicum, Sesamum orientale

sesamoides means ‘like sesame’

T

he great sesamoides is a herb similar to senecio [ragwort] or to rue [3-52, 3-53, 4-98] — the flower white, the root slender and useless, the seed similar to that of sesama [2-121], bitter to the taste — which purges both phlegm and bile upward. It is pounded into small pieces and taken with fifteen grains of white hellebore with honey and water. It is also called sesamites, or sesamis, lupina scutica, white hellebore, or anticyricon. In Anticyra they call it hellebore because it is mixed in the purges with white hellebore.

4-153. SESAMOEIDES MIKRON
SUGGESTED:

Sesamum triphyllum — Wild Sesame Hyptis spicigera — Black Sesame

T

he small sesamoides has small stalks twenty centimetres long, with leaves similar to coronopis, yet rougher and smaller. On top of the little stalks are small
703

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS

heads, with somewhat purple little flowers, the middle of which is white, in which is seed similar to sesama [2-121], bitter and yellowish. The root is thin. Half an acetabulum [vinegar cruet] of a decoction of the seed (taken as a drink with honey water) purges bile and phlegm downwards. Applied with water it dissolves small swellings and oedema. It grows in rough places. It is also called coronion, or sylvestre sesamon.

4-154. SIKUS AGRIOS
SUGGESTED: Sicyos agrios

[Apuleius], Cucumis sylvestris, Cucumer asininus [Fuchs], Ecballium elaterium, Ecballium agreste, Momordica elaterium [Linnaeus], Elaterium officinale [in Sprague] — Wild Cucumber, Squirting Cucumber
POISONOUS

ucus agria differs from the cultivated sucus in the fruit, having them much smaller, similar to somewhat long little suppositories. The leaves and shoots are similar to the cultivated. The root is white. It grows in the rubbish of houses and in sandy places. The shrub is bitter. The juice of the leaves dropped in the ears is good for earache, and the root (smeared on with polenta) dissolves all old oedemas. Applied with resin terminthos [1-91] it breaks small swellings. Boiled with vinegar (and smeared on) it dissolves gout, and is a suppository for sciatica, and a decoction is a mouthrinse for toothache. Pounded into small pieces (when it has dried) it cleanses vitiligines [form of leprosy], leprosy, and impetigo [skin infection], and purifies black scars and spots on the face. Fifteen grains (at the least) of the juice of the root (and as much as the fourth part of an acetabulum [vinegar cruet] of the bark) also purge phlegm and bile (especially in dropsy) but without hurting the stomach. One must take a half a pound of the root, beat it finely with two pints of wine (especially Libyan wine) and give a quarter pint (every third day) until the swelling is sufficiently reduced. It is also called elaterium, grynon, balis, syncrisis, bubalion, scopion, imbriferum, peucedanon, or notion; the Romans call it agtetum, some, agrestis, and the Africans, cusimezar.
704

S

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

Sambucus ebulus after FAGUET — 1881

705

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS

Colocynthis after FUCHS — 1545

706

THE HERBAL OF DIOSCORIDES THE GREEK

4-155. ELATERION
SUGGESTED: Sicyos

agrios [Apuleius], Cucumis sylvestris, Cucumer asininus [Fuchs], Ecballium elaterium, Ecballium agreste, Momordica elaterium [Linnaeus], Elaterium officinale [in Sprague] — Wild Cucumber, Squirting Cucumber
POISONOUS

laterium is made (as follows) from the fruit of the cucumber. Choose cucumbers that spring back when touched, lay them aside, leaving them for a night. Then the next day set a loosely woven sarce [strainer] over a jar, and with a little knife held in place with the edge upward, take the cucumbers one by one with both hands, cut them, and strain out the liquid through the sarce [strainer] into the little jar that stands underneath, also straining out the purple stuff which adheres to the sarce [strainer] so that it may also pass through. Put that which has been strained into a basin standing by, then lay together the cut stuff on the cloth, moisten it with fresh water, strain it, and throw the remainder away. Having stirred the liquid around in the basin, cover it with a linen cloth, set it in the sun, and after a while pour away all the water that swims on top (with any coalesced matter). Do this often, as long as any water remains standing on top, which you clear out by drops. Placing the sediment into a mortar, pound it and make it into tablets. So that the liquid may be quickly dried up, some sprinkle sifted ashes on the ground, and hollowing their midst, spread over it a doubled linen cloth, pour in the elaterium, and when it has dried, they beat it in a mortar (as previously mentioned). Some (instead of fresh water) wash it by pouring on seawater. Some (in the last washing) pour on honey and water. The best elaterium has a rather moist whiteness, is light, smooth, extremely bitter to the taste, and applied to a candle is soon kindled. But that which resembles leeks and is coarse and foul to the sight, full of ervum [2-129, 2-131] and ashes, is heavy and useless. Some also mix starch with the juice of cucumber to make it white and light. That which is two years old is good for purging (until it is ten). The perfect dose is ten grains, the least five grains, and for children, two aureola (?). If more is taken
707

E

BOOK FOUR: OTHER HERBS & ROOTS

(as a drink) it is dangerous. It induces purging both downward and upward, expelling phlegm and bile. This purging is best for difficult breathers. If you want to purge the intestines downward mix it with twice as much salt, and stibium [trisulphide of antimony or black antimony] as much as to colour it, give pills as big as ervum [seed] formed with water, and let him sip them with one winecupful of lukewarm water. For vomiting, dilute the elaterium in water and rub under the tongue with a feather, as far in as possible. If he finds it difficult to vomit, dilute it either in oil or ointment irinum [1-66], but forbid him to sleep. To those who are excessively purged you must frequently give oiled wine, for this way the vomiters are restored. If the vomiting does not cease cold water must be given with polenta, posca [hot drinks], and an apple, and other things to thicken the stomach. Elaterium (used in a pess