AIA/CES Provider J425 Program AF1011

Presented by: Dr. Peter D’Antonio- FASA, FAES President/CEO, RPG Diffusor Systems
“RPG Diffusor Systems, Inc. ” is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members are available on request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

Learning Objectives

Part 1 Introduction: Building better schools Part 2 Acoustic t ools to design effective schools Part 3 Suggested designs for core and ancillary learning spaces

because sustainable school design has produced unacceptable acoustical results • PISA has carried out an international comparative trial of student performance in reading comprehension. calculus. and natural science .Part 1: Building Better Schools • There is a renewed interest in effective and sustainable school design • AIA is focusing attention on the subject • USGBC is focusing attention on the subject.

What is the Problem? • Existing acoustical designs have not evolved to incorporate the current state-of-the-art and the result is schools are failing to meet their intended goals • Existing acoustical designs are limited to conventional acoustical materials. like HVAC industry. which cannot address all of speech intelligibility and music appreciation challenges • Even with adequate budgets. there is a false sense of economy in short term goals. rather than factoring costs over the life of the project and the long term effects on the students and teachers • Selfish goals of special interest groups. ACT and simple curved reflectors. like thin fabric wrapped panels. to resist lower background noise standards • Failure to recognize that we have a problem and repeat past mistakes • Budgeting Agencies – It may take an increase in school budgets to insure success .

like classrooms and lecture halls • Stop using current school designs for ancillary learning spaces like band rooms.What is the solution? • Recognize that we have a problem • Stop using current school designs for core learning spaces. but it is a beginning • Consider the ideas presented today. practice rooms and auditoria • Begin adopting ANSI 12. which may seem heretical and revolutionary until adopted • Proceed one step at a time and adopt the ideas presented today in limited areas – Convert one lecture hall and let the school hear the difference – Convert one band room. background noise and noise intrusion – It’s not the answer.6 to control reverberation. watch the students select it over others • Begin collaborating with progressive acousticians .

Acoustics 10.Importance of Acoustics in Education Architecture Dec-2003 pg 122 6. Acoustics .

However. . • RPG offers the services of a LEED AP • Many products may be used to apply for LEED Credits • USGBC is primarily concerned with energy and sustainability issues.USGBC Member • RPG supports the mission of the USGBC to promote buildings that are environmentally responsible. they became interested in acoustics. because many of the studies in sustainable designs showed dissatisfaction with the acoustics. sustainable buildings. profitable and healthy places to live and work. the USGBC developed the LEED Rating System for developing high-performance. • In 1995. • Members of the USGBC representing all segments of the building industry developed LEED and continue to contribute to its evolution.

Enhanced Acoustical Performance Provide classrooms that facilitate better teacherstudent and student-student communication .ANSI S12.60-2002 • Adopted by USGBC.

1/5.2 Recycled Content (1-2 pts) Credit Opportunity for Enhance LEED for Schools (1pt) – STC Core Learning and Ancillary Learning Spaces • • • • • .2 Regional Materials (1-2 pts) – MR 6 Credit Rapidly Renewable Materials (1 pt) – MR Credit 7: Certified Wood.Possible LEED Credits • Credit Opportunities for Wood Products – MR Credit 3.1 and 4.2: Recycled content (10-40%) – EQ Credit 4.2: Recycled content Credit Opportunities for Microperforated Plastic Absorbers – EA Credit 1: Daylighting (1-10 pts) Credit Opportunities for Isolation Materials – MR Credit 4.4: Low-Emitting Substrates (Cores) (1 pt) Credit Opportunities for Glass Reinforced Gypsum Products – MR Credit 4.1 and 4.1/4.2: Low-Emitting Paints and Coatings (1 pt) – EQ Credit 4.2 Material Reuse (1-2 pts) – MR Credit 4.2 Recycled Content (1-2 pts) – MR Credit 5.1/4.FSC Cores/Veneers (1 pt) – EQ Credit 4.1/3.2: Low Emitting Adhesives/Paints Credit Opportunities for Upholstered Products – MR Credit 4.1: Low-Emitting Adhesives & Sealants (1 pt) – EQ Credit 4.1 and 4.

  cafeteria.7 * < 1.6 0.5 NRC 0.000 ft3 > 20. office or  conference room Core learning to music room. ceiling finishes and other sound absorbant finishes equals or exceeds total ceiling area.  Doors for  entry into music rooms are allowed an STC‐40 rating Note that these are minimum ratings and good design practice increases the STC of the door window assemblies to approach the wall STC rating 50 53 Not Addressed Not Addressed 50 53 45 ‐ 50 Not Addressed 45 ‐ 50 60 Not Addressed 60 . gymnasium.7 * < 1.000 ft3 (and all ancillary spaces) 0.000 ft3 < 20. Background Noise (dBA) < 10.000 ft3 (and all ancillary spaces) *  Includes building services AND exterior noise in determining total permissable background noise levels 35 * 35 * 40 * 45 (HVAC only) 45 (HVAC only) 45 (HVAC only) 35 ‐ 40 (HVAC only) 35 ‐ 40 (HVAC only) 35 ‐ 40 (HVAC only) Sound Transmission Class (STC) Core Learning * Core learning to core learning Core learning to common use and toilet rooms Core learning to corridor.5 LEED Minimum LEED Enhanced * 100% of all ceiling areas (excluding lights.7 * NRC 0.000 ft3 > 20. 0.6 (1) Reverberation Time for Core Learning Spaces < 10. diffusers and grills) in all classrooms and core learning spaces are finished with min.7 * NRC 0.5 NRC 0.7 < 1.7 materials OR total area of wall panels. indoor swimming pool * Windows are allowed an STC‐35 rating and core learning doors an STC‐30 rating. staircase.000 ft3 > 10.000 ft3 > 10.000 ft3 < 20. mechanical room.LEED for Schools V3 ANSI 12.

 gymnasium. gymnasium.LEED for Schools V3 Sound Transmission Class (STC) Ancillary  Learning Space * Corridor to corridor. staircase. common use  and toilet rooms Music room to music room Music room to office or conference room Music room to outside Music room to mechanical room. indoor swimming pool Office or conference room to corridor.  cafeteria. common use and toilet rooms Corridor to music room Corridor to office or conference room Corridor to outside Corridor to mechanical room. staircase. staircase. indoor swimming pool Music room to corridor.  Doors for entry into music rooms are  allowed an STC‐40 rating Note that these are minimum ratings and good design practice increases the STC of the door window assemblies to approach the wall STC rating 45 60 45 45 45 ‐ 55 60 60 60 45 60 45 60 45 45 60 Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed Not Addressed 45 60 45 45 45 ‐ 55 60 60 60 45 60 45 60 45 45 60 . indoor swimming pool * Windows are allowed an STC‐35 rating and core learning doors an STC‐30 rating.  common use and toilet rooms Office or conference room to music room Office or conference room  to office or  conference room Office or conference room to outside Office or conference room to mechanical room. gymnasium.  cafeteria.  cafeteria.

Teleconferencing rooms. dance studios or other high impact  activity rooms above core learning rooms < 20. dance studios or other high impact  activity rooms above core learning rooms > 20. Special Ed rooms and Large Auditoria .000 ft3 70* Not Addressed Not Addressed Gymnasia.000 ft3 65* Not Addressed Not Addressed Gymnasia. dance studios or other high impact  activity rooms above ancillary learning rooms 60* Not Addressed Not Addressed * Applies to renovations only.6 Does not apply to: Special purpose classrooms.  New construction the spaces shall not be located above core learning spaces (1) ANSI 12.LEED for Schools V3 Impact Isolation Class (IIC) Floor/ceilings above core learning areas 45 ‐ 50 Not Addressed Not Addressed Floor/ceilings above ancillary learning spaces 45 Not Addressed Not Addressed Gymnasia.

e PISA: Programme for International Student Assessment o OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development e International comparative trial of student performance in reading comprehension. and natural science . calculus.

Student performance in reading comprehension. international comparison Leistungen und Lesen im Internationalen Bereich .

Part 2: AcousticTools REFLECTION • Concert Hall • Recital Hall Core Learning Spaces • Gymnasium • Natatorium • Restaurant • Library • Atrium • Lobby Category 3: Category 1: • Auditorium • Theatre • Recording • Studio Broadcast Studios • Distance Learning • Home Theater Sound Production Category 4: Speech Category 2: Noise Control Sound Reproduction ABSORPTION DIFFUSION .

. HVAC…. C80.Volume. . Surface Treatment. The ceiling should be 20’ above the stage and constructed of GWB & Omniffusors. Shape.The Whole Picture Human Perception .. was > 3.Subjective Measures The music was very clear and articulate. The rear wall should constructed from 8” . Architectural Design . I could understand the speaker and felt very close to her. dB = 10 log ∫ ∫ Quantified Ratio of Sound Field’s Energy - p 2 dt p dt 2 0 ∞ Objective Measures Integrated sound energy arriving before 80 ms to that arriving after 80 ms. 80 ms . 80 ms C 80 .

Noise Control Good noise and vibration design requires control of transmission and flanking paths. Flanking sound Springs and elastomers are used to isolators floors ceilings and walls. .

Sound Control Sound is attenuated by absorption Good architectural acoustic sound control design requires an appropriate combination of absorptive. reflective and diffusive surfaces Redirected by reflection Uniformly scattered by diffusion .

Alton Everest. Acoustic Absorbers and Diffusers: Theory. D’Antonio (Taylor & Francis 2009) is a comprehensive treatment of what is currently known about the theory. The author explains acoustical concepts without the use of mathematical formulas and provides useful practical information. J. and excessive noise during events. . theaters. arenas. Cox and P. with chapters by P. Design and Application by T. swimming pools. and multipurpose rooms. D’Antonio and other contributors. This is an excellent introduction to acoustics. which causes poor speech intelligibility. design and application of acoustical surface treatments. Rocafort deals with sound control and acoustical design in large spaces including auditoriums. Typical problems include excessive reverberation (echo).J.Comprehensive Reference Texts Master Handbook of Acoustics by F. lobby areas. Mehta. Architectural Acoustics by M. Johnson & J.

Acoustic Tools: Absorption Process by which sound is attenuated due to frictional losses as it passes through the pores in the absorber.Part 2 . Sound energy is converted into heat. WALL Absorbed Sound (81%) Finish Material Incident Sound (100%) Reflected Sound (19%) .

∅=2a t D P P d R ta d . Membrane Absorber The membrane absorber is a limp mass that vibrates at a specific frequency and moves air through a porous panel converting sound into heat.Types of Absorbers Porous Absorber Contains interconnected voids and sound is absorbed by conversion to heat due to friction. Resonator Absorber The Helmholtz resonator is a vibrating mass of air in the neck against the volume of air in the larger volume acting as a spring.

05 V/Sa V= volume S= surface area -10 -20 [ii] -30 [i] a = absorption coefficient Diffusors Microphones Loudspeakers Material Sample [ii] No Sample [i] .Rev Room Method to Measure a Room impulse response V [i] 4 0 -4 -8 -40 50 100 150 ms 50 100 150 ms [ii] dB a b Integrated impulse response T60 = 0.

15 NRC 0.08 0.Quantifying Absorption NRC . if you need low frequency absorption! .60 0.25 2kHz 0.81 0.43 NRC is not a valid indicator of the effectiveness of the absorber.90 0.80 0.82 0.Noise Reduction Coefficient • Average of absorption coefficients 250 Hz through 2 kHz • Ranges between 0.65 0.25 0.50 1 kHz 0.0 (100%) • Examples: 5/8” ACT vs Low Frequency Resonator Frequency ACT Resonator 125 Hz 250 Hz 500 Hz 0.80 0.0 (0%) & 1.15 4kHz 0.

Frequency Dependent Absorbers • High Frequency Absorbers – Fabric wrapped panels – ACT • Mid Frequency Absorbers – Perforated Woods – Microperforated light transmitting plastics (new technology) – Microperforated wood panels (new technology) • Low Frequency Absorbers – Acoustical CMU – Metal plate resonators (new technology) .

4 0. Hz/10 .6 0.8 Absorption Coefficient 0.2 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Frequency.Effective Frequency of Absorbers 1 NRC 0.

When Your Project Calls for a Fabric Finish




Fabric Wrapped Panels

Textile Facing

When Your Project Calls for a Wood Finish R A D .

Types of Absorptive Wood R A D .

Perforation Patterns .

Performance Absorption is determined by three variables: Hole diameter/spacing (% open area) Panel thickness Cavity depth and contents .

When Your Project Calls for FiberFree. Visibility/Light Transmission R A D .

Reflected Sound Incident Sound Microperforated Panel 0.NEW Absorption Mechanism Viscous Losses When surface perforations are the same size as a boundary layer of air.5 mm diameter holes Air Cavity Glass .

Sound Absorption Data 1 Layer of Foil 30 mm off Glass 2 Layers of Foil 50 mm off Glass 30 mm off Glass 50 mm between layers 100 mm off Glass 30 mm off Glass 100 mm between layers .

Foil & Mounting .

Laser Cut Micro-Slotted Panels .

Light Transmitting Microslit .

When Your Project Calls for a CMU Finish




Acoustical CMU

Acoustical Properties

Slotted/Unsealed Slotted/Sealed Absorption Coefficient

Unslotted/Unsealed Unslotted/Sealed Transmission Loss

Acoustic Tools: Diffusion Process by which sound energy is redirected and scattered evenly over a larger area due to the surface irregularities of the reflecting surface. WALL Finish Material Diffused Sound Diffused Sound Incident Sound Diffused Sound . Occurs when surface irregularities are large compared to the wavelength.Part 2 .

even coverage and removal of acoustical glare caused by strong specular reflections . Light Diffusers Uniformly distribute light in a room. minimizing cold/hot zones and drafts.Why do you need Diffusion? Air Diffusers Uniformly distribute air in a room. Sound Diffusors Uniformly distribute sound in a room. providing ambiance. removing optical glare and minimizing bright and dim variations.

Where is Diffusion Needed? Anywhere you need to: Understand speech ~ or ~ Appreciate music! Multi-Use Auditorium Lecture Rooms Band/Orchestra Rooms Choral Rooms Music Practice Rooms .

Types of Acoustic Diffusers Reflection Phase Gratings Binary Amplitude Gratings Optimized Waveforms .

Design Theory of Diffusors Reflection Phase Grating diffusors were first introduced in the early 1980s. which couples boundary element multi-dimensional optimization techniques Aperiodic Modulation. They consisted of divided wells. whose depths were based on quadratic residue number theory Binary Amplitude Diffsorbers were created to provide diffusion through a variable impedance surface consisting of holes distributed according to an optimal binary sequence 00001000011……. state-of-the-art Waveform diffusors are designed using: Shape Optimization. Today. using optimal binary codes 1 0 1 1 1 CAD/CAM ..

Diffusion Frequency Bandwidth WALL Finish Material Diffused Sound Incident Sound Diffused Sound Diffused Sound Small Depth High Pitches Mid Depth Mid Pitches Small/Mid Depth High/Mid Pitch Mid/Large Depth Low/Mid Pitch .

is a ratio of the sound energy scattered in a nonspecular manner to the total reflected sound energy. I am proud to announce the publication of two measurement standards: Diffusion Coefficient (d). Publication AES-4id-2001 JAES. Vol. etc. a measure of the uniformity of the reflected sound. i.e. Envelopment. USELESS AS A PRODUCT SUBMITTAL • • • . 148-165 (March 2001). Clarity. I have been meeting with an international group of leading acousticians to draft standards to measure scattering surfaces. Publication ISO 174971 – Quantity: The purpose of this coefficient is to characterize surface scattering for use in geometrical room modeling programs and determine the effect of diffusion on the range of objective parameters that correlate with subjective impressions.Diffusion Measurement Standards • For the past 10+ years. T30. 49 (3). Soon to be incorporated in ISO 17497-2 – Quality: The purpose of this coefficient is to enable the design of diffusers and to allow acousticians to compare the performance of surfaces for room design and performance specifications Scattering Coefficient (s).

Scattering Coefficient (ISO 17497-1) Photo Courtesy of Jens Holger Rindel. Technical University of Denmark .

Diffusion Coefficient (ISO 17497-2) 3D Goniometer Semi-circular track with loudspeaker Foam wedges prevent reflections Pivot arm with sample & microphone .

Specular Reflection Redirection Diffuse Reflection .

Presentation Format 600 .

8 Coefficients 0.2 0 -0.Complete Diffusor Specification How much of the incident sound is absorbed (a) and scattered (s) How uniform is the scattered sound (dn) 1.4 0. Hz Amount of scattered sound = [(1-a)s] Uniform Diffusion s dn a .6 0.2 125 160 200 250 320 400 500 630 800 1000 1260 1600 2000 2500 3125 4000 Frequency.2 1 0.

-30.29 0.00 0.19 0.28 0.53 0. according to AES-4id-2001 at -60. 30.03 0.07 0.17497-1 (Scattering (ISO)) or determined from the average of the measured directional correlation scattering coefficients (Scattering (c)) according to the method of Mommertz [Reference 1.54 0.46 0.29 0.01 0. System Description / Performance Requirements • Performance Requirements Absorption Coefficient: Third-octave band acoustical performance requirements from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz for random incidence sound absorption shall be measured according to ASTM C423 or ISO 354.32 0.33 0. for sample and reference reflector.01 0.00 1.96 Absorption 0.00 0. • The random incidence coefficients shall be what are indicated in the table f (Hz) 100 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 1300 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 Diffusion 0.30 0.21 0.03 -0.22 0. which indicate the uniformity of scattering in third-octave bands.05/E3].00 0. Diffusion Coefficient: The normalized random incidence diffusion coefficient shall be the average of measured or calculated directional diffusion coefficients.53 0.03 0.47 0.26 0.00 0.01 0.79 1.35 0.54 0.00 1. and 60 degrees.00 0.05 -0. Directional polar responses.27 0.18 0.22 0.49 0.22 0.18 0.03 0.57 0.62 Scattering (ISO) 0.19 0.05/E1 and 1.24 0. 0.57 0. shall be provided to the acoustical consultant for approval.17 0. Scattering Coefficient: The random incidence scattering coefficient shall be measured according to ISO.87 0. Section 09XXX.19 0.20 .CSI Spec: Division 09.64 0.

walls and ceilings from the building structure to achieve a high isolation efficiency for airborne & structure-borne noise .Part 2: Acoustic Tools Isolation Box-in-Box The complete decoupling of floors.

Sound Paths Flanking sound .

STC E90/E413 FSTC E336 STC No Low Frequency Information below 125 Hz Focus on resonant frequency to control low frequencies .

Floor Isolation .

Wall Isolation .

Ceiling Isolation .

Door Isolation STC 41-49 STC 55 .

HVAC Options .

Part 3: Effective School Designs Classroom Lecture Hall Conference/Meeting Rooms Auditorium Ceiling Walls Pit Shells Music Rehearsal Music Practice Gymatorium Natatorium Cafeterias Common Areas Physical Plant .


m.000Hz to 4. • Why would we want to use ACT or thin fabric wrapped panels that absorb these important frequencies on ceilings of speech rooms and prevents them from fusing with the direct sound and making it louder and more intelligible??? .000 Hz frequency range. r. e. q. but requires more detailed information for understanding speech. People who suffer from noise induced hearing loss typically have a 4. g. which causes severe degradation of speech intelligibility. h. d. t. o. k. • The speech power is delivered in the vowels (a.What did you say? • The ear / brain processor can fill in a substantial amount of missing information in music. v. s. j. l. w).000Hz notch. n. • The speech intelligibility is delivered in the consonants (b. c. which requires information in the 2. i. u and sometimes y) which are predominantly in the frequency range of 250Hz to 500Hz. p. f.

Speech Acoustic Tools REFLECTION • Classroom • Lecture Hall Speech Intelligibility • Conference Room ABSORPTION DIFFUSION .

Effect of early reflections .

2.Speech Intelligibility Quantified 1. room volume. % ALCONS (Articulation Loss of Consonants) ~ Peutz Equation based calculation factoring in distance. 4.65 recommended. Below 15% is good. etc. STI/RASTI Speech Transmission Index correlates intelligibility with the decrease in modulation of the speech signal as it passes through the room. Early to Total Energy Ratio (Distinctness or D50) The ratio of sound arriving in the first 50 ms to the total sound is often used as a measure of speech clarity. >65% is recommended. >0. reverberation. directivity. Below 10% is excellent. 3. Word Lists A series of phonetically tailored words is read and listeners are graded on the % of the words they correctly identify. RASTI is a rapid implementation. .

Speech Intelligibility ~ D50 Source Distinctness Greater the amount of energy arriving before 50 ms after the direct sound the higher the distinctness & the better the speech intelligibility. ( > 65% = Good) Signal to Noise Ratio 50 ms D50 % = 100 * ∫ ∫ 0 p 2 dt p 2 dt 0 ∞ .

• Noise ~ Reverberation. Occupant Noise. Exterior Noise Intrusion & Noisy MEPF Systems .Signal to Noise ~ Intelligibility • Many of the problems that arise in poorly designed speech rooms stem from a low Signal to Noise Ratio. • Signal ~ Direct Sound & Early Reflections (50 ms).

8 sec T60 1.T60 Corrupts Speech Intelligibility Anechoic T60 0.3 sec T60 2 sec 2 Courtesy MC .

or a signal-tonoise ratio of +15 dB. • We can use the passive acoustics of the architecture to provide some of this needed gain. • An additional 2 dB is needed to compensate for neurological immaturity • An additional 5 dB is required to compensate for sensorineural and conductive hearing losses • An additional 5 dB is required for limited English proficiency and language disorders • An additional 3 dB is required to compensate for the effects of excessive reverberation. . • These additional requirements for classrooms total 15 dB over that of normal adults.Signal to Noise~ Intelligibility • Normal adults typically require 0 dB signal-to-noise ratios for high speech intelligibility when listening to simple and familiar speech material for short periods of time.

• The best approach is to simultaneously increase the signal by providing useful. diffuse reflections and decrease the Noise from all sources including reverberation by using appropriately placed Diffsorption. .Signal to Noise~ Intelligibility • Most approaches only try to reduce the Noise & often simultaneously decrease the strength of the Signal as well. early. The result is no net improvement.


Strong.CLASSROOM ~ Basics Acoustic Goals 1. diffuse reflections for Loudness. High Signal to Noise Ratio ! . 3. Appropriate Reverberance for Speech Intelligibility. early. free from distractions. 2. Envelopment & Speech Intelligibility. Quiet room.

etc). no doors. Common doors and other noise flanking paths (central clocks. return plenum or transfer grilles. doors without gaskets. No ceiling (open to floor/roof above). hollow doors. No wall absorption/diffsorption (painted GWB or CMU). roof drain pipes or toilet exhaust fan ducts passing through rooms. light switches.CLASSROOM ~ Basics • • • • • • • • Worst Case Scenario(s) Room dividers. No carpet under student seating. Sound absorptive ceiling. Rooftop HVAC units. Sliding doors. . air terminals over NC-25. VAV/FPB box or perimeter heat unit in classroom. air velocities over 500 fpm. etc. electrical outlets. unlined ducts. curtain dividers or single-layer GWB walls.

double-layer GWB) • No noise flanking paths (offset penetrations. • 25-50% wall diffsorption (BAD panels) ~ Consider soffits treated with diffsorption (BAD Panels). . Diffsorption along sides and rear. ducted return.CLASSROOM ~ Basics Best Case Scenario(s) Massive walls (8” CMU or 6” insulated. lined ductwork. • Maximum NC-25 background noise. insulated GWB ceiling. ducts/conduits above corridor ceiling). Diffusion over center/front part of room. VAV/FPB above corridor. • Solid core wood doors with gaskets. air velocities below 500 fpm within 25’ of classroom. isolated. • Double layer. Hard floor in center/front part of room. • Carpeted floors under student seating. HVAC in MERs. duct silencers. NC-20 air terminals.

CLASSROOM ~ Analysis Ceiling Treatment Options Absorption Reflection Diffusion .

Classroom~ Concept Model Reflective Front Wall/Ceiling Diffusive Ceiling Over Middle of Room Absorptive Perimeter Ceiling Diffsorptive Side/Rear Walls .

CLASSROOM ~ Analysis 20-50 ms Early Signal Absorption The sound pressure level. making it difficult for the speaker to project causing fatigue Diffusion With the diffusive ceiling. is rather low in the purely absorptive ceiling. SPL. SPL is more uniform and there is additional acoustic gain raising the level in the classroom and making it easier for the speaker to project & students to hear .

reflections are sparse with minimal sound arriving from the vertical plane Diffusion With diffusive ceiling.CLASSROOM ~ Analysis Absorption With the purely absorptive ceiling. reflection density is greater and sound is arriving uniformly from all directions .

• Energy reaches the students from many directions creating a sense of immersion in the learning experience (surround sound vs mono) for a more intimate. • Diffusion also improves student-student and studentteacher communication (not only teacher to student communication). • The teacher exerts less energy and experiences less fatigue by not speaking into an acoustic vacuum. attentive learning experience. . • Increasing the acoustic level increases the learning process by extending the attention span and also addresses hearing acuity and hearing impairment.CLASSROOM ~ Conclusions • Diffusive ceilings increase the acoustic level and uniformity of coverage without corrupting the speech intelligibility.


Freedom from Flutter and Echoes. . 2. Good Cross-Room Communication so lecturer and audience can engage in dialogue.LECTURE ROOM ~ Basics Acoustic Goals 1. 3. 4. Freedom from extraneous Noise from occupants and building systems. Appropriate Reverberance for high speech Intelligibility. 5. Good Support so that lecturer can hear himself.

• Room Shape (Rectangular Solid or Fan ~ Avoid Circular) • Room Volume (150 – 250 cf/seat) • Room Height (Low 10’ – 20’) • Absorptive & Diffusive Finish Materials .LECTURE ROOM ~ Basics Acoustic Goals 1. Appropriate Reverberance for high speech Intelligibility.

LECTURE ROOM ~ Basics Acoustic Goals 2. • Low. Sound Diffusive/Reflective Ceiling (or Reflectors) • AVOID SOUND ABSORPTIVE CEILING! . Good Cross-Room Communication so lecturer and audience can engage in dialogue.

LECTURE ROOM ~ Basics Acoustic Goals 3. • Specific wall & ceiling surfaces close to and facing back at lecturer location. Sound Diffusive/Reflective Ceiling (or Reflectors) • AVOID SOUND ABSORPTIVE CEILING! • AVOID SOUND ABSORPTIVE REAR WALL . Good Support so that lecturer can hear himself. • Sound diffusive rear wall (if less than 35’ away) • Sound diffsorptive rear wall (if greater than 35’ away) • Low.

) .LECTURE ROOM ~ Basics Acoustic Goals 4. Freedom from Flutter and Echoes.S.P. • Room Shaping (Avoid Parallel Reflective Surfaces) • Diffusive Finish Materials • Acoustic Treatment Location (Avoid S.A.

Gymnasium • During the same time period.S.A. • Makes echoes and flutter more audible and problematic.LECTURE HALL ~ S. a vertical sound ray is attenuated by almost 30 dB due to absorption. Classroom. Natatorium.P. • Leads to a non-mixing sound field characterized by different reverberation times in the two planes. • • • • Single Plane Absorption Syndrome (SPAS) Absorptive Ceiling & Absorptive Floor Reflective Walls Lecture Hall. • Diffusion can be used to correct this problem . while a horizontal sound ray is hardly attenuated at all.

Lecture Room Absorption Specular Reflection Diffusion Absorption HF Diffusion Diffsorption .

LECTURE HALL ~ Example .

LECTURE HALL ~ Analysis .

LECTURE HALL ~ Analysis 2D Diffusion 4” BAD Panels Reflective Risers .

5 sec Treated T60 = 0.LECTURE HALL ~ Analysis Untreated T60 > 1.70 sec .

LECTURE HALL ~ Example .

Fan Room Volume ~ 150 to 250 cf/seat.LECTURE ROOM ~ Checklist Room Shape ~ Rectangular. sound diffusive/reflective ceiling or ceiling reflectors (Not Absorptive) Reflective front wall Diffusive/reflective side walls (below 8’) Diffsorptive side walls (above 8’) Diffsorptive rear wall Reflective surfaces close to and facing lecturer Massive boundary construction & quiet building systems . Low.


Small 2D Diffusion Diffsorption ACT Ceiling ~ Carpeted Floor ~ Untreated Drywall Walls .Conference Room .

Conference Room 2D Diffusion 1D Diffusion ACT Ceiling ~ Carpeted Floor ~ Absorptive Panels on Walls .

Conference Room .Analysis .

Conference Room .Analysis Typical Treatment Proper Treatment ABSORPTION ABSORPTION DIFFUSION DIFFUSION .

Analysis Typical Treatment SPL (dB) Proper Treatment .Conference Room .


Acoustical Model .

Case 0 ~ No Treatment ABSORPTION .


Case 1 ~ Acoustic Deck ABSORPTION .


SPL Non-Uniformity Case 0 Standard Metal Deck No Treatment or Reflectors Great Variation & Bad Uniformity Case 1 ‘Acoustic’ Metal Deck No Other Treatment Less Variation (Except Rear Seats) Less Reverberance & More Echoes .

Case 2 ~ Reflectors .


Case 3 ~ Absorptive Rear Wall ABSORPTION .


Case 5 ~ Diffusive Surfaces DIFFUSION .


Rear Wall Treatment Case 3 Rear Wall Sound ABSORTIVE No Diffusion Great Variation & Bad Uniformity Rear 1/2 of Seating Suffers Case 4 Rear Wall Sound DIFFUSIVE No Absorption Far Less Variation. More Uniform Rear 1/2 of Seating Benefits .

Immersive Sound . Non-Enveloping Sound Case 4 Rear Wall Sound DIFFUSIVE No Absorption Enveloping.Case 5 ~ Reverberation Case 3 Rear Wall Sound ABSORTIVE No Diffusion Frontal.

Forestage Redesign

SPL Uniformity ~ Diffusion

Case 2 Smaller Forestage Reflector No Diffusion Great Variation & Bad Uniformity

Case 2B Larger Forestage Reflector No Diffusion Still Some Variation & Nonuniformity

Case 6 Larger Forestage Reflector Diffusive Surfaces Very Little Variation & Good Uniformity



• Appropriate Reverberation Time • Even Sound Distribution ~ Free From Spatial & Temporal NonUniformity • Enveloping Experience

Rose .College of St.

Rose .College of St.

Chautauqua Fletcher Hall .

Patterson Mill HS .

Bethpage HS .

Mattituck HS .

Harrisburg HS .

Academy of the Holy Cross HS .

Ben Davis HS .

Recital Hall .

Farmingdale HS .

Lincoln Way HS .

Cedarburg HS .

Farmingdale HS .


Rutgers University Beyrouth Pit .

Cyfair College .


Kresge Auditorium MIT Ceiling Reflectors ~ Diffusive Shape .

Ball State University .

Flown Towers and Canopy .

Murray Arts Center .

1st Baptist Church Eugene .



Band Room~ Analysis • Untreated • Treated -Low Frequency Control -Loudness Control -Ensemble -Variable Acoustics .

Emporia State University .

Rose .College of St.

Emporia State .

Commodores Navy Band .

Band Room .


Cleveland Institute of Music .


Cleveland Institute of Music Distance Learning: .Master Classes .Musical Education .


Gymnasiums can serve a variety of functions beyond sporting events. Classes ~ Dances ~ Meetings ~ Plays ~ Concerts Acoustic Goals 1. Adequate Speech Intelligibility 2. Controlled Harshness & Loudness 3. Low Frequency Absorption 4. Prevention of Echoes and Flutter

Acoustic Solution Upper Wall Diffsorptive Treatment • Upper Walls (8’ – 20’ Above Floor) • 75% Acoustic CMU (Pigmented, Slotted) • 75% Binary Amplitude Diffsorbor (BAD) Panels Ceiling/Deck • Acoustic Metal Deck (NRC 0.75+) • Acoustic Baffles (Hanging Vertically) • Acoustic Ceiling Tile (Durability?)

Gym Acoustic Treatment Acoustic Metal Deck Acoustic Block .

Painted CMU (2) Case 4: Required Acoustic Treatment • Roof .Acoustic Metal Deck • Walls – Acoustic CMU (Upper) Painted CMU • Case 4: 0.9 s .GYMNASIUM ~ Analysis Case 1: No Acoustic Treatment • Case 1: 4 s • Roof – Metal Roof Deck • Walls Painted CMU (All) Case 2: Minimal Acoustic Treatment • Case 2: 3 s • Roof – Acoustic Metal Deck • Walls – Painted CMU Case 3: Moderate Acoustic Treatment • Case 3: 1.3 s • Roof – Acoustic Metal Deck • Walls – Acoustic CMU (2).

Porter Township HS ~ Example .

Zanesville Gymnasium .


. Upper walls should be 50% sound absorptive/diffsorptive.Swimming Pools Ceiling should be 75% sound absorptive.

Swimming Pool .


.Cafeterias Walls should be 50% sound absorptive. Ceiling should be 75% sound absorptive.


Morgan State University .

Elementary School .

Public Library .


Northeastern University .




Noise Barriers .