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Collection Spaþii Imaginate
Spaþii imaginate Series coordinator: Augustin Ioan English proofreader: Barbara Bartos Cover: Ionuþ Ardeleanu-Paici Photo credits: Claudia Robles - Konfluentia (2007). Sub-editing: Ameluþa Viºan Imagine copertã:
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Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naþionale a României Artã, spaþiu ºi memorie în epoca digitalã / coord.: Tincuþa Heinzel. Bucureºti: Paideia, 2009 Bibliogr. ISBN 978-973-596-551-8 I. Heinzel, Tincuþa (coord.) 7
Editor Tincuþa Heinzel
ART, SPACE AND MEMORY IN THE DIGITAL ERA
Translators: Barbara Bartos, Patricia Comãnescu, Tincuþa Heinzel, Simona Klodnischi, Ancuþa Ionescu
image. are part of a process in which creators and users constantly interact in defining and negotiating these new structures of everyday life. The approaches are diverse. The change they produced compels us to reconsider the conditions of our modern lives. but they had induced changes in the way we represent and understand the world. thus creating a new model for understanding reality.INTRODUCTION Tincuþa Heinzel The revolution that took place in the consumption of electronics and digital communication devices in the second half of 20th Century compels us to speak of a real technological revolution. the possibilities they offer. the interactions that take place between the physical and virtual space involve a complex set of processes. while their potential demands to be explored. The speed with which all these technologies integrate into our daily life. the utopias they generate. and information. They had a direct impact not only on the conditions of our everyday life and our models of social interaction. Not few of those asked to describe and 5 . as well. There is no wonder that the problems raised by the new media have been and will continue to be the subject of complex investigations. Digital technologies have become the common denominator of the way we represent and utilize different elements that compose our environment: sound. The correlations that can be made between the different elements of the phenomenological environment and the interfaces that translate these correlations.
The separation of genres was often questioned. the texts assembled here are questioning the relationship between art and technology in the current digital era. discuss the models of perceiving and understanding this new environment. The complete reliance on instrumentation in science (Latour) and the mathematization of reality (Koyre) pushed the scientific explanation and production to become closely related in modern epistemology. The issues addressed during the conference. If the tools we use have an influence on the way we deal with our environment. If the Greek classical philosophy distinguished between téckhne and episteme. then digitization is its most salient expression. Technology and Space in the Digital Era. The technology is not an imitation of nature any more. technology and science are asked to push the frontiers of knowledge.define the phenomenon. Martin Heidegger. The volume and the impact of scientific and technological research in our everyday life make it a cultural act. focusing on the impact of new media in our lives. Today. reorganizing the research methods and their institutional recognition are polemic issues. the association often made between the study of new media and the phenomenon of modernity. while art is asked to mirror these new experiences. Interdisciplinarity has become mandatory. organized by the Association 2580 in Sibiu in the fall of 2007. It should not be neglected also. this relationship had been reformulated from a modern perspective. as well. If quantification has become the motif of modern times. and Marshall McLuhan are enlightening at this point. but an extension of it. are we using them at their fullest potential? What traps are to be avoided? What 6 . Borrowing concepts from different disciplines turned out to be a viable approach. have referenced concepts and terms that were outlined in earlier studies of technique and its contexts. The influences of Walter Benjamin. Precisely these types of associations have demanded some of the most complex approaches in the analysis of digital media. The social and political dimensions of the new media are often subject of theoretical research. What can and should art and aesthetics do in these circumstances? Based on the presentations made during the conference Areas of Conflu(x)ence: Art.
to the integration of experimental methods into artistic creation the conference tried. or to propose new ways for their future interaction. from the surveillance of the internet and of the public spaces. but to de-figure. Bogdan Ghiu discusses the concept of visibility and the way it defines reality. to the creation and organization of databases. today they seem to be out of control. seen through the current framework of technological impact. The super-production of power (Agamben) and the generalized panopticism (Foucault) are contributing to the dissipation of the architectonic structures of power. analytical. to present different current theoretical positions related to these issues. Free from the constraints of 7 . The subject proposed by Bogdan Ghiu tries to clarify how a pertinent significant act can be realized in the current media-overwhelmed environment. or even polemic. Using as a starting point the abundant innovations in imaging and communication devices produced today. the texts gathered here try to identify the role of art and aesthetics in contemporary society. today democratic transparency and generalized visibility lead to an uncontrollable irrepressible generalization of control. The other group tries to quantify the precise experience gained from diverse artistic and technical projects. the image of man has long since left the attention of the power generating structures. but in registering the continual flux of data. We find texts that are debating the framework of our existential structures and sensibilities. If modernity has always tried to adjust and correct the way things have become visible. Bogdan Ghiu places the source of todays visibility in the lineage of Giorgio Agambens concept of bare life or Michel Foucaults concepts of panopticism and biopolitics. from the digitization of cultural patrimony.do we expect from technology? Should the new technologies be a matter of concern? If the proposed area of exploration was wide. The power doesnt look to des-figure. If in the past there were only insular visible aspects. The post-neo-panopticism is not interested in the image any more. The studies presented here can be divided into two groups. to the liberty of expression and the promotion of open source software. to question the forms they take. from the existence of the virtual space. The new visibility does not promote mimetic representation. Whether descriptive.
and reconstructing the magnetic and electronic impulses which are the medium itself. but in the man himself. Woody Vasulka was an experimenter and a creator of technology. part of the flux itself. The relationship between art and technology is also questioned in the 2005 interview with Woody Vasulka. this search for a new utopia. Refusing to create delineate a hierarchy between informatics and music. deconstructing. to produce a change in the narrative structure. and their impact on the musical composition. is not completed. Approaching this new medium. based on the analysis of the material elements. In a text that discusses the creation of musical instruments and digital technologies. Woody Vasulka had hoped to break the structures that defined the analogue media. the new visibility is not interested in the image of the man. must become an art of an hyper-perceptible existence in the imperceptible. a technology wearing man. art must be reborn as ars and techné. trying to short-circuit him. is from Vasulkas point of view. In the interview. the direct correlation between these two elements 8 . art can recreate the distance. the author looks to offer a gnoseologic understanding of the notion of interaction. as well. almost a necessity. as well as the paradigms and the models of interaction that these imply. preoccupied by technology. which he ends up somatizing it. Paolo Ferreira Lopes analyzes their categoriezation and operational structures. in a critical way. Recognized as a pioneer of video art. the artist talks about the hopes of an entire generation to take over. the interaction is the notion describing the adaptability of digital computation relative to the real world. The modern man who finds himself in a continuous process of escape.representation. and in the case of music. still dominant at the time. Defined in informatics as a dynamic principle (Wegner). is an equipped man. By altering. The fact that this attempt. not only technologically but ideologically. to traverse him. Or for doing this. that was video art in the 1960s. and the software used in his own compositions. What art can do in this omni-visibility and trans-visibility caught between bio-métrisable (fr) and bio-maîtrisable (fr)? For Bogdan Ghiu. the dominant forms of representation. can restore the corporeality. Woody Vasulka has tried to conquer it.
transforms the code not only into a new way of representation. The new way of reading the information. but also in the way in which digital language exploits mathematical models as way of avoiding the intentional and predictable act. The concept of mimesis in the digital context cannot be clarified outside of the current digital utopias and. If the mediation and the tasks imposed by architectural competitions invite the use of digital visualization techniques. the computational device is less a tool for rationalization. Transcribing the distortions of the materials. the notion of musical performance being dependent on its time-based character and its interpretation imposed by the software. questioning the principles of industrial repetition. Thus. The formalization of the interactive processes can lead to two forms of interactivity: one orientated towards the internal space of the machine. That is the reason why the interaction that can be established between the composer/interpreter. and the traditional instrument cannot be attached to a principle of causality. are ways that allow for a gradual understanding of reality. the author notes that the fictive space built by these new technologies. The paradigms of interaction in music are built through the development of musical models whose relevance in real time is translated in a spatial sound effect. The text of Sophie Fetro. the computer. not less spectacular is inserting a bit of fiction into reality. The introduction of a sequence in real-time opposes de facto the act of creation. but into an actor of the project. in which there is no temporal synchronicity but only the interpretative act. as much as a tool for the interpretation 9 . undoubtedly leads to a new utopian era. the use of these technologies leads to the hierarchization of the image. Design and Architecure: Arts of F[r]iction inventories the influence exerted by the virtual reality technology on architecture and design. The author shows that if digital imagination was built around the notion of simulating reality. Surrealistic inspiration finds its expression not only in the attempt to go beyond reality. The exchanges between the architectural design and the computational design lead to a new production and fabrication process. and the other having an impact on the human-machine relationship. imposed by the digital culture. an act which implies reflection. the author finds it difficult to establish a real time relationship. Considering the data. Digital Surrealities.and time.
the neo-primitive investigations. Gemma San Cornelio and Pau Alsinas text Spaces of Flows: Processes and Places in Spatial Media Artworks discusses the question of spatial media in the contemporary arts. the authors try to define a theoretical framework for analyzing the current media art production. The declared purpose of this archaeological investigation is to determine the type of relationships produced by the information and communication technologies today as they relate to space. well as drawing attention to crisis housing and sustainable architecture as relevant solutions. while arguing that this situation does not exclude the research. The author is mapping the reasons why the notion of habitation does not find its expression in todays projects and innovations. Most often technical development is assimilated into a modern perspective that builds itself around the notion of progress. Augustin Ioans text about the experiment in Romanian architecture puts into question precisely the lack of such preoccupation after 1989. via the new forms of cultural production and consumption. and takes as starting point an incursion in the history of notions and concepts of space as they had been defined over time. Even though there werent any outstanding acts. The hyper-reality of the digital era.of reality. arts. Last but not least. Polemicly. and ideas. The interaction between the artistic representation and the theoretical and the scientific ways of understanding the world has often been debated in the histories of science. by making a parallel between the historiography of the concept of space and the models of contemporary artistic practice. the experiments in industrial architecture and the impressive participation in international contests. The question the author is trying to answer is how to define some viable forms of experimentation that could function in the current conditions of economic and technologic austerity in Romania. transforms the current architecture into a computational performance art. 10 . were ways in which the Romanian architects have tried to detached themselves from the conformism imposed by the communist state. the text deconstructs the politico-economic socialist context and its heritage. He points out the concept of virtual heritage the digital reconstruction of patrimonial projects. and classifies the possible forms of refuge of the architect facing the political power.
a video recording. recording. and studying of material culture. the Google virtual library and the opposition of the French National Library).Three of the texts presented here are discussing problems related to digital archiving. presenting. DVDs and internet projects lead by Anne-Marie Duguet that explore the complete work of an artist based on different archives of his/hers activity. The different ways of accessing the data and the relationship between the different parts of the digital archive.de. and offering them the opportunity to think of an original way to structure and navigate the data. intellectual. a performance. In the present text are offered details about how the TK DVD. make of the TK DVD a work in itself. anarchive is a collection of CD-ROMs. for example. In the lineage of the medieval cabinets of curiosities. The objective of the collection is to offer an instrument of historical and critical research for work of an artist. The digitization of collections and archives. The originality of the project consists in inviting the artists to select the elements to be included in the data base. and to take advantage of the new reproduction and documentation tools available in order to save a recording of a perishable artistic intervention. classifying. dedicated to the French artist Thierry Kuntzel. such as an installation. Besides developing a critical method 11 . some of them highly debated (see. Heike Helferts text brings to attention the archiving and restoration project 40yearsvideoart. or an intervention in public space. The three texts published here present three different approaches regarding the collection and digitization of archives. was realized. the digitization of collections poses a series of questions of technical. juridical. If collecting and archiving are processes that can be subject of research onto themselves. The project tried to offer an overview of the different tendencies and modalities of expression in German video art beginning with 1963 until today. the research of pertinent ways of displaying them in a digital context is the subject of a diverse series of projects. the texts describe three ways of capturing and presenting the artistic message as it is transferred from the analogue to the digital format. and aesthetic nature. Presenting projects of different complexity. the museum is probably the most vivid modern expression of collecting.
and to have a friendly user interface. Mediarc is a technical project that looks to offer answers for the preservation of a variety documents by offering easily accessible and efficient solutions. and archive the works included in the collection. One of most significant issues in the process of digitization is the concept of free software. and the shortage of hardware devices that allow the reading and processing of the video material. requires its restoration and transfer from the magnetic support to digital format. the project tried to respond to the safety and security needs of a database. The volume approaches the ways in which new technologies have influenced the artistic production. and to highlight a few points of view and possible ways of approaching it.for the analysis and interpretation of the works. This collection of texts is organized around different types of imagery and sound. the publication offers possible answers to the way in which image and sound are affected by the digital technologies of today. digital camera. as the video. the degradation of the magnetic support. Movements like open source tried to tackle the issue of free access by proposing different sets of interventions. Even if it may seem strange that a relatively young medium. The present book has attempted to present various layers of theoretical research on new media. 12 . to offer reliable technical solutions and system stability. its organization. which allows data entry into a database by accessing different peripherals: scanner. MEDIARC Open Source Multiuser Central Archiving System: Web Application for the Electronic Management of Documents and Other Files. a special effort was made to digitally collect. Based on diverse artistic and aesthetic experiences. video camera. as well as. spatial forms and forms of memory to be found in the current digital context. But this transfer is not only technically problematic. the complexities involved in the organization of a database or an archive. As Peter Tomaz Dobrila and Uro Indihar state. and the attempt to preserve the authentic experience of the work. tries to put into practice an open source system for on-line archiving. and its perception. restore. The relationship established between the original work and its digital versions. can raise preservation concerns. are not details to be neglected. its spatial representation.
and to the translators: Barbara Bartos. Thanks. (Text translated from Romanian by Barbara Bartos) 13 . to the participants at the conference. Patricia Comãnescu.Thanks to all those who contributed to the materialization of this project. also to Augustin Ioan. the coordinator of the Imagined Spaces collection and to Eugenia Petre from Paideia Publishing House who made possible the publication of this volume. Ancuþa Ionescu. to the authors of the texts. Simona Klodnischi.
turning from latent into manifest and evident actuality? Is this about a slow evolution that could have been avoided. with irreparable consequences? And if this is where the novelty lies. a drift for the prompting of which we feel guilty. become sweepingly generalized. the innovation. what does it actually consist of? And what does the new field specifically the new field of visibility mean? My amazement and hence my questions are not at all preliminary and not in the least rhetorical. that it has undergone a qualitative shift and turned into a field? Has it. the term of comparison.. the final break-up. Types of Imagery and Sound and Their Interaction IMPERCEPTIBLE. the old field of visibility? In an implicit wording again is this all about an evolution that has finally reached the threshold.. what reference should we use in the attempt to define the novelty we feel. thus inducing a broad reorganization of the entire field.CHAPTER I. as my thread would suggest. lie in the fact that the contemporary world visibility has passed beyond. we perceive? Otherwise said. but that proves to have been inexorable and that has now finally 15 . Should therefore the novelty. which should be the benchmark. gone over a threshold. Which visibility? What kind of visibility? Where does novelty lie here. HYPERCEPTIBLE: THE NEW HODOLOGICAL CONDITION Bogdan Ghiu Which visibility? How many visibilities ? Art in the new field of visibility.
well delimited and controlled: the visibility fields of the past were controlled control spaces. The incontrollable is in fact exactly this purely ideal line. I think. accompanying it. the hodos between two fixed points. thus changing it radically: we live in a new field because this field was conquered by visibility. between these two attitudes. corrected. denudation. Hence. a new visibility and 16 . dissociation. spectrally walking it along full of remorse. both visibility and transparency are bestowed with an ambiguous. Well. between the triumph of the Lights and its consequences. the shift. to have grown coextensive with the entire mundane field. impossible to draw. according to our presupposition. deceitful. However. thus seems to be defined by the coextensivity of visibility with the field. alternate speech: we celebrate the democratic transparency and visibility. An objective process. dualist perspective on history: a new impersonation of history. public non-concealment and at the same time deplore their historical victory. impossible to live subjectively. a path. Three far too expedite concepts Novelty does not only consist of this two-sided. as a deviation from the straight triumphal way that proves itself to have been the royal path. division. the mainstream our historic moralized conscience remains to haunt from now on. leading to the generalization of visibility and thus to an incontrollable generalization of control. When today we say visibility. In the political discourse and generally. A qualitative leap rendered possible by a quantitative accumulation. we say transparency. we say exposure. in the public contemporary discourse. The novelty. but they were insular. a line of psychic scission hard. abettingly-valued generalization of visibility. intrusion.come off victorious? Its something like that that we actually conceive modernity: as a process concomitantly fatal and that could yet have been avoided. I consider that visibility fields were also in place so far. these well-controlled control spaces have now escaped our control. We are living in a society of uncontrolled and incontrollable control. adjusted. Visibility thus seems to have become a field. There exists.
immediate. but is expeditely . their broad serviceability tricks us and the hasty critical gestures that derive from the uncritical utilization of these concepts lead to an ambiguous. of exception-to-law spaces.translated. where the delineation between celebration and denunciation triumphantly displays its impossibility. the novelty about the new field of visibility. hasty use the three concepts do not describe innovation. Artistic thought. for an overproduction of power. confined and excluded at the same time: confinement outside the society. As a matter of fact. Giorgio Agambens bare life describes the denudation. sometimes right through their instrumentality.exactly this . particularly. The uncritical fashion of the immediately-critical employment of Foucaults concept of panopticism spares me any description. protected and is made available for monstrous experiments. of juridical exceptionalism. where humaneness ceases to be defended. Yet. is quite in vogue. But in this case we are faced with a non-critical takeover of immediately and hastily serviceable critical instruments of sensibly different lines of critical thought. as Michel Foucault has designed and mapped them. of the rule-of-law. double-sided criticism. we live in the evidence of these three concepts.and hence with equally hasty lack of criticism . In our critical applications. Coupling the concept of bare life proposed by Giorgio Agamben with the concept of panopticism and that of biopolitics. outside the reach of justice. Power to the people: trans-visibilty and senselessness In a direct. The also Foucauldian concept of biopolitics still preserves a certain aura of indeterminacy.is the source of the novelty of the new field of visibility. the exposure of humaneness.not the field-like generalization of the old visibility . Spaces where life is being laid bare are totalitarian spaces. the ruling powers production of non-rule-of-law spaces. clarified by its correlation with the concept of bare life. but the old: 17 . uses them increasingly often and with ever growing success.
materiality. The major contemporary shift as regards visibility is the appearance. mimetically-recognizable images of humaneness. but flows: supra-power in continuous flow. limitation. that it no longer gets piled up or stored. It now performs a permanent-automatic scanning of humaneness. The old panopticist visibility bred offspring. where arts and media are claiming it in a fratricidal dispute. is no longer of interest for power production: it was yielded to society. It shifted to the dimension of time. is no longer pertinent to contemporary production of (over)power. I mean they disappear as pertinence to the production of power: they were yielded to the society that continues to believe that the stake is there. that this is the target. The image of man. proliferation. screens. The new transparency. micro. producing 18 . The current production of power forsakes its panopticist.or macro-totalitarian correlation with space. state operating mode is all the time that of a supra-power. therefore exactly the exception situations of contemporary normality. counteroffensive. Static power is permanently under the threat of opposition. generalization and standardization of a fundamentally new. spaces. Contemporary power itself has been subjected to a qualitative shift: its steady. are no longer mimetic-representational. The dispute over mans image. Its exactly the image that they are no longer related to. exactly due to its new condition of flow. un-recognizable and irreducible type of visibility. material. by annulling it: time is transcended. over the images about man has become a society game. new visibility. the image of bare life no longer matters. Architectonics. it defined itself in space and as well-delimited space it materialized as an architecture of power. Post-neo-panopticism no longer produces representational. Yet the difference against the past is that it no longer isolates itself. the architectural layout itself disappears. The image of man was dismissed. Post-neo-panopticism is no longer interested in images. Today. constraint. time is all the time past. Modern-traditional panopticism was cutting out and defined spaces. it no longer counts for the power. the old architecturalization of power is doubled by the converse dis-architecturalization of power.totalitarian political conditions.
more correctly the infra-human pattern: sets of pertinent information. Under conditions of accelerated speed. I repeat it. Life denudation has transcended man. It is there. they have surpassed their historic literal stage and constitute the new regime of contemporary normality.abstract. panopticism. the production of non-visual. but add up and redistribute: the old normalization. actually its coming into full effect. literally apply. un-recognizable. extra-visual images of humaneness define the new normality. the invisible or trans-visible visibility. defines today this specific locked regime. humaneness is un-recognizable and irrepresentable. Its this scientific-economic transparent-rendering and visualization of man down to the human pattern that a reorganization of rule-of-law regimes derives from. whereas the new visibility. as people. purely idealized information records in a continuous flow. of situations of juridical exceptionality. Only here do concepts like bare life. irrepresentable. To man. automated production of supra-power in a continuous steady mode. in their fight for image with media. 19 . un-noticeable. They become. the space of explicit punishment. yielded back to civil society. or the modern-type normalization defines today the locked. The old panopticism we rush to denounce and represent in our critical celerity. Power no longer needs images. As men. explicitly legal regime. And this is imperceptible. We face a radicalization of the bare life phenomenon. of light speed of the flow. attack. arts. we are free also enter the artistic-media dispute over the images of ourselves because the shape man or the level of pertinence of what we call man were made available. no longer can touch. the space of exception. biopolitics effectively. affect the economic scientism power production currently builds on the adjusted. The historic regimes of visibility and power do not replace each other. at that level of humaneness that the manipulation of man takes place today. punitive. the consensual stake of the social game between arts and media. But the phenomena described by these three concepts have themselves evolved. the new visibility and new transparency: it scans man stripping him in continuous flow down to what is called human or .
By both the concept of bare life and that of panopticism. extorted. But today. Power production. his representations. let to go. Man is today important in the form of humaneness that stretches underneath. And it is exactly for this reason that even when we voice criticism. the schemes of communication are identical with those of the power schemes. but remained free: the voluntarist finalism of modernity is manifest today in the form of a deliverance. Humaneness is dissociated from man by the latters reduction to resource. he renders himself happily. its communication-production-effecting scheme. but also through his normal. We are free exactly to the extent whereby we were delivered. but by de-figuring him. continuous. I believe that today we have really become free. Its down there. no longer needs man and his images. dismissed from the great krato-dicy of alienation. We did not become. the new visibility goes through us. the reference of bulky bargaining and prophetic-apocalyptical imprecations of modernity. They are both reversible schemes of production. underneath. target and support of power. current existence of subject-patient whose permanent normal-clinical condition is that of being connected to life-support machines. exploited subject-object is the great anti-hero of modernity. miniaturized and undergoes a ceaseless decline by a double and 20 . of residual humanity. Power emerges and is preserved today not by des-figuring man. jubilantly to this reduction not only in the spaces especially intended for this purpose of the old panopticist power production. effecting. we actually celebrate: a granted victory. Become? It would be more exact for me to say got free. pertinent only as a human resource And in this capacity. of barren-panoptic existence. object. a conceded triumph. Man is important. Well. accomplishment. that all globalisations and worldwide-expanding processes take place.(Artistic) dis-figuring and de-figuration: ultra-human man (technological) As types of scientific formalization. The political revolution of modernity has grown automated. The submissive. modern man was celebrating himself as conspicuous victim.
his eyes escaping through the walls of rolling images. He no longer needs to sedentarily shut himself in the house in front of the TV or the PC. the current individual (shall we call him modern? Shall we call him post-modern? Maybe call him hyper. portable computer. territorially manages his flow. He shut himself in the Heideggerian open he has so long yearned for. pretending that we could still give him a name?) is an equipped. train. the individual as such. media. He is a man occupied by technology. wears technology (the technological suit).or ultramodern? Or call him otherwise. that progressively loses its own body and which we now confer more and more bodiness to. he is the flow itself. just like Aristotles metaphysical intellect in his treaty De anima. fellow-people etc. Between the outer (financial. individual and crowd) flows and the inner flow of each of us. the body with increasingly more organs and accessories.contradictory process that frames the entire social field. hiding. Yet he thriftily. one with it. transforming precisely the society into a field: somatizing and idealizing itself. an equipped man: mobile phone. is part of it. an activation surface. MP3-player on his ears. through osmosis with technology. abstracting and idealizing itself. advertisement. naturalizing it: instead of the organless body. a contact and recording toggle-switch decision surface. commodity. transforming himself into the screen and relay for social market messages. Contemporary man carries technology. his ears walled off by loudspeakers. resorbing. he circulates. He territorializes the 21 . he is moving all the time: he dwells inside the flow. rationalizing itself through merger. plane. carries the TV set with him. The equipped man: equi-pathy and the society of departure Man. the entity individual is no more than an interface. automobile. an ever better equipped man. this increasingly becomes a part of his mandatory corporal equipment and is underway towards somatization: the current individual embeds technology in his body. He evaded.
setting off for adventure. but in the later form eschiper it meant something close to what we understand today by escapade and through escapism (eschipre meaning seaman). the coming: send. (Love. He runs away. we get equipped to leave.) 3) If we were to play (just a little) with words. without preoccupying ourselves with the arrival. work. man as collective equipment of man. in an immobile nomadism. couple.to leave. Also in old French. We set off equipped. we permanently. We actually live in departing. So. metaphora means until today transposition). in what sense. the pathology of equivalence and equipotency. or senses. In current society departure 22 . the society have turned from community. We get equipped . its departure itself that counts: technologically we set off unmoving. as human technology. into the equipment of each separate individual. We set off in the flow. is departure: a literally built metaphor (a word of Greek extraction. to navigate. Derived from an ancient Anglo-Saxon word (scipian) and another just as old Norwegian one (skipa). as social suit . living. our fellow people serving as equipment.inclusively with all the others. to seclude himself as swiftly as possible (thats what speed serves him for) on the move. because he leads an equipped existence: the others. the seamanship term équipe (documented for the first time in 1160) meant in old French to get aboard. can we speak about the current individual as about an equipped man? 1) Because. we are the flow: existence in /as adventure. family. as structurally afflicted with equi-pathy and manifesting equi-pathologies: the pathology of mass individualism. incessantly leave without arriving. he unceasingly evades just to shut. we equip ourselves in all the senses of the word. start. as I said. 2) Because he operates inside an equipage. équipée meant embarkation.. he carries purportedly communicational equipment. However. current man can also be considered as equi-path. Hence. Technology as such. human environment etc.much-frowned upon de-territorialization which thus becomes a false deliverance.
that defines lifes normality itself in our societies. Contemporary man is interleaved between two visibilities: a conceded one. through man. Happy biometry: living in-visibility Between the old transparency-visibility that still builts on image. and the new transparency-visibility. scanning him down to the human pattern. that works with images and which media and arts dispute each other. two screens. relay and channel between these two visibility modes. he is exactly in the condition opposite to that described by the concept of plasticity initiated by Catherine Malabou1 (subject to recent. incipient discussions). messaging ourselves into the settings of the others. between these two visibilities: the old one. and the new transparency-visibility where man has turned from the condition of emitter-producer and receptor-addressee-beneficiary of power-information (as he was in the old . Between dis-figuring that operates with images. Man has become that Dead Part or Dead Zone between the central tower and the circular peripheral wall of Benthams Panopticum. between the old transparency-visibility that operated with images of man art was having access to.today attentively circumscribed visible regime of visibility). the existential track were stripped off their initiatory. We live in a society of departure. man is today squeezed in as between two lenses. and a new one. the trajectory. and de-figuring that goes beyond the images in a kind of a live 23 . captivating. and another one that transcends man. by its dissociation into human resources as an informational-technological portrait pertinent to the new economy of power production. interleaved. teleological feature. where man has become human resource. that of man scanned through in continuous flow down to the human pattern. and which is the really important level for a critical analysis. defining todays exceptional situations and punitive spaces. in ever homogenously equipped equipment-cities and societies: an equipment-humanity. of the residual deliverance of humanity accompanied by its images.was uncoupled from arrival. he is rather a medium. Between brackets said.
action in flow.that arts do and can fight with . But the old hodological condition of exception has today become normal. in environments where perceptibility already naturally reduced and cumbersome . Important to man. it belongs to day-to-day life. servo-engines permanently mobilized in a true ontology of the enemy3. Dangerous exception environments are those characterized by speed. the natural difficulty of establishing a useful perception.no longer counts as a game and social convention. when de-figurativity competes des-figurability ? 24 .and the hyperceptible produced by contemporary connectivity and portability. We live between the imperceptible favored by media technologies . art do? What can art still do when image-built reality. current. through the bio-metering of existence. says Simondon. non-separatibility. define the new human-biometric condition of man. The technological continuum. rigidly interleaved between omni-visibility and trans-visibility. A good perception hinders the occurrence of accidents.becomes progressively hard to accomplish. man sunk in humaneness. the ultra-human and ultra-humanized man. in extreme conditions. We actually live increasingly dangerous: soldier-men. According to Gilbert Simondons analysis (in his Course about Perception2). undermined through human. when the image . The biométrisable (in French) existence becomes an increasingly bio-maîtrisable existence. pilot-individuals. are those machines that facilitate a practical perception of use in conditions of exception. under these circumstances. Art as public space: des-figuring versus de-figuring What can. media technology has exploited the perception deficiencies of human senses. man has become a medium framed by the technological continuum.be it even multiply disfigured . The new visibility is in-visibility: the imperceptible as a frame-condition of hyperceptibility.television broadcast of pertinent data and information at the speed that causes the production of power and supra-power.
denouncing the false scientist-naturalized man-environment continuities against the human . time-forms. the eye. Changeux4). ready to somatize into the ideality of the human imagination. that can thus become measurable in bio-technologic standards. denouncing the sped-up already accomplished process of merger and osmosis between humaneness and technology. following the trend of their own products and processes. the delimitation of the body in the environment against the transformation of humaneness in a field and correlatively remaking serviceability: existential techniques against technology. corporality and instrumentality. of man-field. restoring and manifesting the synaptic exteriority (according to J. but unceasingly expands it. At the same time. of reducing man to the condition of medium and relay between human and technology-borne existence. becoming identical to images. following its sovereign animal instinct. against the equi-pathy and portable connection. virtualizing the entire field of reality. 25 . hard to foresee post-technological condition of man: the rebirth of the hand. with no technological body. symbolizing the technologic-economic market processes. But until recently. the spacing. fluid forms that make reference to each other also by figural way. The virtue of virtual images is conferred by their capacity to induce an update in its turn virtual . Only now does the image become really ideal. compacted.technology osmosis. contemporary art restores the body.It can restore the distance. But now. interleaved. taking after them: getting increasingly flat. pointing to and inducing the flow. the devices themselves virtualize. reconditioning man in the new ultra-humanist field of humaneness.-P. disappearing vertiginously. non-corporeal. ethics versus technological estheticism (forms symbolizing. pointing to a possible. virtual technologically produced images still benefited by a technologic body of visible gear that could still draw attention upon their technological artificiality. This is where art intervenes or needs to intervene. self-representing themselves: vector forms. flow forms. Art renders handicraft essence.that does not go beyond the field of virtuality.) Art restores the public space. neo-tactility aimed at re-distancing man. the existential do-it-yourself.
panopticism or biopolitics (M. 2000. offering itself as a an environment of hyper-perceptibility and trans-visibility of scientific economic coding & recoding: humaneness through man. temporalité. where the other messages represent the noise. Éditions Léo Scheer. Gilbert Simondon. Catherine Malabou. and from man. 2. in this authentic communitarianism. nationalism a communism of machines and with machines.). LAvenir de Hegel.In the imperceptible frame of hyperceptibility we live in. comes down and dwindles. 2004. Agamben). Plasticité. Paris Vrin. A new humanity emerges: new mergers. changes. Bayard. La plasticité au soir de lécriture. Foucault) need to be applied only to the ultra-human condition of the contemporary man. destruction. gets reabsorbed. I think that concepts like that of bare life (G. Cours sur la Perception (1964-1965). dialectique. Paris. actes du colloque du Fresnoy. Éditions de la Transparence. Dialectique. 1996. new osmoses. becoming usefully invisible. art reminds of the urgency of finding a way to restore the level of perceptibility under extreme conditions. (dir. Getting back and concluding. Éditions Léo Scheer. It restores the minimal threshold of perceptibility. Paris. 2005. (Text translated from Romanian by Simona Klodnischi) References 1. where it actually is the field. new alliances are underway. Plasticité. 26 . déconstruction. art of hyperceptible existence in the imperceptible. happy to retrieve itself into a hyper-neo-perception in the new field of visibility.hodos in the adverse mined territory. and frantically consumes images of itself. re-becoming ars and teckne. Paris. the path . You hear this from someone compelled to learn how to stay on the watch for transitions and permanently transform survival techniques into life arts. produces. 2006. Power production was by way of economics returned to civil society and this one. Que faire de notre cerveau?. Art in the strict meaning of the word disappears. takes photos.
Critical Inquiry. Le Seuil. pp. Céline Lafontaine. Synapse: jonction entre neurones. Des machines à penser à la pensée machine. les membranes cellulaires de la terminaison axonale et de la surface innervée se juxtaposent. no 21. pp. The Ontology of the Ennemy: Norbert Wiener and the Cybernetics Vision. Cf. 414): 27 . Fayard. Jean-Pierre Changeux. A son niveau. Lhomme neuronal. mais ne fusionnent pas (p. 2004.3. 1983. mais aussi entre neurones et dautres catégories cellulaires (cellules musculaires. apud. glandulaires). Paris. 228-266. 4. Paris. Peter Galison. 33-38. LEmpire cybernetique.
the Digital Image Articulator was one of the first image synthesizers ever build. a digital image device specifically build to manipulate electronic images in real time with the use of custom software. Their efforts continued and culminated with the creation of the Digital Image Articulator. and reconstruction of the electronic data. the Vasulkas looked to inventory the possibilities offered by the apparatus. As Woody Vasulka put it in the interview. had to be discovered. Their artistic trajectory started with the use of the video camera for recording New Yorks underground art scene. they have also discovered a new medium: the video. Tincuþa Heinzel Introduction Woody and Steina Vasulka moved to New York in 1965 and. deconstruction. along with a new environment. Later their interest was directed toward the medium itself and toward the language it proposed. In a certain way they were pioneers. Being ones of the first to use video and electronic devices with the purpose of producing image and sound artifacts. the result was the alteration. the new material provided by the electronic instruments had to be experimented with.VIDEO BETWEEN UTOPIA AND HISTORY. The logic behind this approach was resumed by Claudine Eizykman and 29 . Their latest works explore what Woody Vasulka calls media machines and non-centric space. Realized in collaboration with Jeffrey Schier. INTERVIEW WITH WOODY VASULKA.
it was probably unavoidable that. seen from the perspective of the film camera. video offered all the possibilities of an unexplored field. at a certain point. and to reveal a possible poetic of technology.1 If photography and film were subservient to the dominant eye of the film camera. the latter remarked the fact that the Romantic idea of the author is highly present in Woody Vasulkas discourse. Vasulka would approach the issue of the narrative structure. From a technophobes point of view. in which they are not only masters of an instrument. as it was understood up to that point. If todays technology seems to minimize authors role. Being an exponent of cinematic arts. not to enslave them Woody Vasulka said in the interview. for the artists Steina and Woody Vasulka. As Marco Maria Gazzano stated. Woody Vasulkas merit is that of succeeding. to a technophiles point of view. the creative process represents a dialogue with the machine. we find ourselves in the middle of the technology conundrum. If reality was as it was. Technophobia is generally skeptic of any artifice and manifests its support for the natural order. to manipulate in order to invent. fact that leads 30 . moral aspects are detached from the technological phenomenon. In most of cases. Far from being dehumanizing. but the receptors of its capacities. The purpose was to escape the principles of the narrative. Wanting or not. it also seems to hold back people: use technology to free people. Considering his preoccupations with the fundamentals of language. the reality of the apparatus promised freedom from the constraints of the established narrative format. to transcript the source video code by inventorying the vocabulary of the electronic image and by mapping its syntax. from the very beginning. it is not surprising that the positions took by different people are so diverse.Guy Fihman in the formula: to understand in order to manipulate. Considering the impact that technology has today.2 As observers of machines capacities. video was in the direct lineage of film. the artists are asked to provide the conditions which allow it to manifest itself. to invent in order to understand. In a discussion with Peter Weibel in July 1987. this approach proves to be a highly subjective way of artistic expression. the palette is quite wide.
In The Forms of Existence of Technical Objects. Woody Vasulka position seems to define itself: it is about the cultural integration of technology. economic. avoiding any critical approach. It could be said that the principle of innovation involves the harmonization of the technological with the social. or political fields. but in the same time. we need to discus the invention. On the other hand. that is. in the same way as technology itself cannot be objectified. as it happens in Gilbert Simondons case. Born out of artifice. This quality was defined by Jean-Pierre Seris4 as innovation. education playing a central role in this sense. the technologic character of an object is given by its ability to be grounded both in the technologic field as well as in the social. what could probably be criticized is precisely their initial claim: the presupposition that there is a scientific solution for any kind of problem thus. A technological invention clarifies a principle. the technophiles not only advocate for a constant co-existence of the human-machine relationship. it not objectified. the technological culture must build itself on the basis of critical inquiry. Thus. As defined by Gilbert Simondon. Gilbert Simondon defined the technical character of an object as the quality that it allows it to be compatible with other elements inside the technological field. economic. From a totally different perspective. The technical character of an object cannot be separated from the evolution of technology. they argue for a cultural integration of technology. the technological object is the result of the technologic inertia. is the instrument of this evolution. one of the central keys to understanding the technological phenomenon is its own technical character. It has been argued against such an attitude by pointing out its simplistic view and the rather poor way in which it defines technology. in its capacity to be compatible with the technological and cultural fields simultaneously. and in fact. From this point of view. while innovation deals with the 31 .to a constant appeal to the traditional and symbolic culture3. One of the values of the technological object can be measured in its utility. and cultural fields. but. Even so. Perhaps.
Theyve raised some questions for me. revealing its capacities.and this would be my first question . How to innovate? Isnt this. We can state that Vasulka is a pioneer of video art and that his work relates to the aspects of invention. TH: Yes. so I will give you the perfect answer.. Woody Vasulka: I suppose you are asking me the perfect question. like the one published by Cinedoc in Paris. Describing the code of the machine. What the poetics of the machine reveals in Vasulkas work is the raw character of the machine itself. 2005. are all elements that define invention. only this takes place with a critical eye on the act of innovation. I would like to know how you define your approach to art and technology. and I would like to use this opportunity to find out some of the answers. in fact. the central question of modernity? The following interview took place in September 2005 at ZKM. Though they are art objects of critical questioning. What interests me .. Any pioneering activity that highlights the characteristics of the technological process itself. in other words.. and economical systems. Interview with Woody Vasulka ZKM. The tension that dominates Woody Vasulkas work is that between invention and innovation. Woody Vasulkas works dont show any interest in harmonizing with the rules of the social. Tincuþa Heinzel: I had the chance to assist at one of your conferences held last year at Paris 1 University. aims to clarify a technological principle.. political. I know. Germany. readjusting the functional system itself.is the way you generally relate to technology. and I also saw some of your catalogues. by this leading to the reassessment of the system. with the constitutive elements of culture. Karlsruhe.development and practical application of this principle. September 8. the questions are always more difficult than the answers. 32 .
and I am referring here to music composition and its elements. analogue way was confronted by the sound produced by the electronic equipment. this new material has also been adopted by the visual world.which suddenly found themselves resetted by new instruments and new ways of organizing sound. There was a curiosity to explore this other world. involved in experimenting with the format. OK. that developed itself like a coding system . or in other normal. The format is somehow an interface between the human experience and the forms of abstraction. After a series of experiences in film. the idea of the art material imposed itself. The colors and other various components of the image were transferred then into the 33 . namely the musical instruments.) musical instruments. Immediately before us was the film. The sound produced by voice. The electronic sound offered the first kind of understanding of a different organization of sound. or by musical instruments. photography and music. but if you do it internally than you can produce those sounds within the apparatus. And this was basically the first critique of the analogue world.WV: And you wouldnt come all the way here if you didnt know the question. It was about a world that existed for centuries. And the resulted discourse marked a different force within a different world. And the filmmakers were already. and produce sounds directly from code. organize. pitch. and rhythm . like harmony. at this stage in the Sixties. And the electronic equipment started to organize the sound based on the internal functioning of the apparatus. Outside is the acoustic space that you need to record or to hear. n. whether they are narratives or visual. which was of course combined with the existence of digital instruments digital instruments that are not operational could not be operated by the direct influence of the hand or (traditional t. So this kind of unity of the instrument. And this was probably the most interesting thing: this inquiry into how the music or the sound environment can be made without involving the reality of the objects that have vibrating surfaces. this new way. but we are looking inside the electronic instruments. and the code is not simply a score. but by code. With the electronically generated sound structures we do not look anymore outside into the acoustic space. When you can develop. then you can understand the difference.
like musicians play . in fact. Before.but all these components begin then to be constructed internally inside the instrument. activated by a sort of dependency on each others energy and time potential. where they were no more exclusively recorded through a camera. and then the system being treated as behavior. that also made the separation between the traditional world and the new world. through the lens . certainly. being somehow described. And we really played . and practicing them. when everything underwent a transfer from the hands of the industry to the citizens. It was this entire electronic world which led to the conceptualization of the material. and new codes was important to us.therefore in order to understand the technology they kept it separated from society. Of course.we played with audio-visual electronic instruments for a long. And thats how we got our world to open. the principles of digital instruments. it was a sort of professional technological cast .organizing electronic instruments.which is a sort of how the human eyes look at this world . and. This transition is the reason for my work. or evolution. These are. It is a kind of eurhythmics. Later. when these rules of engagement were about taking over the secrets of the industrial society. became the critique of the previous camera obscura. new materials. that somehow has a certain development. or whatever. this idea was expanded. as well. 34 . which was then translated. and tearing them apart. It was in a way some kind of a coup. so to speak. or visible through the analogue world of the speakers and monitors. Just remember that we grew up in the Sixties. So it was also a political statement. because you have to know the secrets of the world. This separation between the world in which we grew up and the world that contained new instruments. and Steinas work. We can say that we came from parallel experiences and a few years later we took different directions in our work. it became in the end a practice. TH: And do you feel that in fact.like the priests . or made audible. But this idea of the material being defined. And we were citizens who could play with the fire of gods. the digital and the electronic media have allowed a change in the material source of art? WV: One reason for that is curiosity. long period of time. of course. so that audio and video became mutually interactive.
But this was still the dominant way we looked at the new material. It wasnt really a programmatic movement. Our generation was. and the dominant role of the microphone couldnt be denied either. this kind of movement. for example. or of the history. It was not only a pictorial reality. We came immediately like owners.a symbol. And then they became sort of independent. It was a whole generational movement. 35 .Suddenly the dominant role of the camera couldnt be denied. sounds. being either melodramatic or analytic. Jimmy Hendrix was still alive. That was the reality of the Sixties. It concerns the relationship between the material and the social condition of art. of the narration.as a static image for being limiting elements required to produce narration. Is this another topic in your work? WV: The first idea about the camera obscura .had an important role in this matter. You take a somewhat critical attitude against towards narration. when you are speaking about the nature of the film. But there are also some art theories which relate the very concept of art to that of narration. which made that the components became smaller and cheaper. My generation and the whole 20th Century were profoundly convinced that this was a form of reality. And the narration. or a cliché. but it was also a symbol since it was a moving image . It was a sort of separation from Hollywood and the established market which were corrupted. but it was far away from the instrumentation of the current way of producing images. knowing also that later you return to it. From their perspective. I am quite interested how you relate to narration. and aesthetic reasons that made these things happen. Now. And they instituted. So the new instruments contained all the old media that existed before. socio-politic. art is a sort of narration of the society. And there was also a technological change. And there were many economic. TH: There is a question that comes to my mind listening to what you said. In one of your catalogues. taking over this generation of devices. tried in a way to criticize the world we were looking at. or we all instituted. and so on.to present the world as it is . as well as the cultural and the political context. and performances. and still is such an owner. in the States there was the Civil Rights movement. of the story. and there were many reasons for that: there was still war in Vietnam. There was a new generation of designers. you really accuse somehow the cinema and the photogram .
which raised these questions.one that was not reflected through peoples feelings that love each other or kill each other. So these were the questions that. But these questions were already asked by some independent filmmakers. What I tried to do. had no assignment. or with a minimum of elements. one that can be achieved by colored fields. It was very much undefined. But they werent really made to succeed. It was no longer the image of the world. I attempted to question these artifacts that I could find in the electronic world and to question how these artifacts could actually be used. So I made two long pieces: Art of Memory and The Commission. was to identify a different image that came from a different world. or of social reality. It was about a different domain . was not specified. It was a sort of minimalist ideology still carrying on the very unambiguous narrative content. and there is a vocabulary that could be used and re-contextualized in order to remake a content. We were looking for a change in the state of our mind. to create a new narrative. There is a language that is made by electronic means. So.I was looking for a different image.I dont know if you know his films. it was a certain period of freedom while working with this material (the video). But I found out that they had completely failed. There was no definition and no tradition to be used. or of gender. because they were just designed for people to look at and say if such an attempt is possible or 36 . And what had to be figured out was the reason for that change: what made this change possible and how to employ these basic primitive elements to structure something different from the world that we knew? Later in my life. I think.like television. in the Seventies. ethical indifference because the machine at that time was not employed by any kind of ideology or instrumentalist ideology . or that of reality. All this was the very change of the image. a mood that conveys a possible reflection upon the world. It becomes a kind of pure. or of the narrative system. my generation tried to answer. they were conceived to question if this narrative possibility exists. such as Paul Sharits . These authors questioned the new narrative or abstract narrative. And this image was independent. And thats why I made these two works. What does this mean? Nobody really knew.
and if this experience is valid. it has to be passed on. WV: Thats right! Im looking back and Im trying to see what happened. But its not even possible to finish it because there is too much data. But that was rather unusual in my work. Anyway. I understand that you are working now on archiving and digitizing some video (VHS)5 works.I got turned on to robotics. I am looking at it historically and Im trying to see what has been developed. what was accomplished. and what it supports. Because this material taught me a lot. not really robotics . so to speak.you know . A lot of them! And Im thinking of what that means. because right after that and Im referring now to the Eighties . simplest code could be. still the film dealt with the 20th Century. primitive. And this is another question. Many people thought Id gave too many clues. They are very broad: we can see works that tell a story.a sort of rewarding direction for this new material? But there was also this curiosity about what it does. Im not looking for an overview. With this project Im looking to build a repertory of all these works. So I would like to narrate a sort of paradigm. you know. all my life. to see which works are related. a 20th Century which was a sadistic system of wars . And there is also the problem of the collective approach. Its a broad arena. because its subject was history. and how could it be learned. like Art of the Memory. what the most basic. recent history.not. which are outside of the trends. we can see documentaries or abstract films.like human robots . I see a lot of unfinished works. I dont know if a discussion about the collection has its place here.especially the Second World War and this system was a sort of instrument for the development of this narrative. That means I didnt create them to succeed. I am referring specifically to the Oasis project. but to question these things. and video and computer media have widely spread genres. Yet one of them succeeded somehow. I always tried. What is the code that could set a new effort.but a kind of media constructions. the only paradigm in my work that interests me. to look for what the code is. And this is still the question TH: Speaking of transferring. Im going to get through it and 37 . or how we could form it. So I try to establish a history of styles. in .
the best art I know. art is completely powerless in the current world configuration. driven by desire. And I consider that somehow. and this narrows down its options. Also.like it was when it used to work for the church when the artists were called to depict the heavens in such a way as to attract as many people as possible and to keep them believing in the promise of the eternal life. 38 . a failed experiment has the same value as a successful one. because it doesnt produce sufficient returns. You were speaking of a paradigm WV: What is a research? A research is an attempt to understand the way the world works. Art has been marginalized. In science. and that is limiting. is usually done outside of the institutional realm. in some strange way. it has no meaning. Its usually done in a governmental or institutional environment and by that is often subject to institutional changes. The aesthetic experiment has to deal with aesthetic evaluations. Art cannot make you rich. If art produces non-art. Especially today. some of them have passed away by now. Maybe not quite the same value. with approvals and norms. another problem I have with science is that it takes place in a different environment. Its not true research.Ill do what I can. with the opinions of one or the other. science is well funded. TH: You have described your work like some kind of research. So its like a kind of gong. Actually its more like certain passions. So. they are looking for solutions to produce more energy. they make atomic weapons. Art. It is not an independent activity. or whatever else. while artists are never well funded. Art does not hold that Ace card anymore. while the aesthetic experiment doesnt really have any options. It is no longer auxiliary to power . cannot improve your living conditions. your approach is similar to a scientific research. Art is made to succeed. I will take care of my friends. art has much more limits. I dont think that art works this way. On the other hand. like obsessions. We cannot fund art enough. Scientists can change the world. but scientists experiment in order to crown their success. Scientific research has to deal with more or less successful experiments.
after centuries of questions. WV: You see. that they develop magnificent art. The link between art and science is made through technology. a transcendental power. it is still a transcendental mystery. TH: I am quite surprised by your answer since your artistic interests are so tightly related to the video material.to be priced from $20 or $12 to $30 million. Most collaboration initiatives between art and science actually come from science. All this happens behind their back. Let me define it in a different way. only a few survive. scientists have always fought to prove the fact that their work is as creative as that of the artists. works documented throughout the centuries. somehow. of making a little daily object . This is almost evident. It all ended in a complete disaster. but then. Sometimes you give the impression that your work follows the same directions as the scientific research. and where each artist appreciates the work for the other. that this relationship is real. 39 . There is not evidence of such a practice. usually the artists have long since passed away or they arent part of the transaction anymore. Maybe it is possible to combine art and science. There are paintings that go way back to the prehistory. Its impossible. Other people could support the contrary. Still. But it does work. that they work together.like a canvas . We had an experience. sometimes! And this is the very provocative power of art. with a group of artists and scientists in a laboratory in Santa Fe. But Im not aware of these situations. But if you consider all the scientific theories. But of course. I think your answer is very much related to the contextual or sociological aspect of the work. The questions raised by the artistic creation have always provoked extreme behaviors. I will never doubt that. though technology. perhaps six or eight years ago. But thats just my opinion. I could be totally wrong.. Maybe science and technology have a lot in common. And how it does it. Of course artists are like crazy people. I think this is just a theory. there is a community of artists that knows how the system works. because in order to exist.Of course art has a certain power. But art has an unshakable past.. and that these people like each other. Maybe the only thing common between art and science is indirectly. science needs an everlasting project.
And that is irreconcilable. and what things will be. than you see that actually what the poor people of New Orleans are looking for is comfort. in which we grew up. many times before and its still happening. What these people lack is the fact that their existence has nothing to do with the market economy. and that what counts is the human quality of life. the next steps to be done? What things are important for you. TH: Which are. from your point of view. Ive met many scientists and Ive met many artists. And then you take science. Of course we can say that Einsteins theory has held up for a century. saying that everyone will work and make money. Somebody else can convince you that this relationship is true. But it depends on the angle from which you look at it. every scientific domain is questionable. All of a sudden. So I think art and science are not really similar processes. we can think of the work of scientists as an intense effort to convince their own community of the existence of something. there is the promise that through automation we will free the human being from enslavement its 19th Century utopian thinking. this is an observation.There are masterpieces. Art is usually a conglomeration of symbolic. and which you probably know very well. a new understanding. And then there were these promises of the market economy. 40 . and even if the French Academy brought them together in the 18th Century. calling itself the Arts and Science Academy. and Ive seen not only profound differences in aesthetic thinking. And of course. the socialism. My generation has known several of these projects. Then. or whatever other kind of sentences. which is kind of an old discourse. When you look at the latest catastrophe in New Orleans. iconic. This marriage can only be made in heaven. of interest in the future? WV: What I see as an important issue in the future is basically what it is called the utopian model. from your perspective. even if many scientists deny that. but can you imagine the number of theories that have been forgotten? This has already happened many. or the communism. Were talking about a new aesthetic. but Ive also seen profound differences in their social environment. but this goes on only for a short period of time. Anyway. and eventually become rich.
Or is there any way people can choose to live according to the talent. Only in Bhutan. from what Ive heard lately. and these concepts keep coming back into the United States. We. which was the latest evolutionary concept. So I am interested in the story of a generation. non-figurative. I think. It is an aberration! It consists of a war prepared and paid for from the national budget. It sounds so strange! But the man was correct. and they are talking about the Gross National Product being happiness. Of course this is nothing new. It is the budget that goes to war. or whatever old terms might define their abilities. And eventually. lets call them of enlightenment. the actors of historical movements. So. Then. The generation of the Sixties in the United States and everywhere. They are even called preemptive. and Im referring here to the concept of preemptive war. you realize that these officials arent interested in improving the governmental strategy anymore. as well. we have to decide what the value of human existence is. including that of the video. There have been a series of patents. like those aiming to eradicate poverty. It is whats lacking in 41 . ability. the future is this unfulfilled promise of the past reconfigured as a vision. Is it to get a job? More and more people are born because there is a need for more slave labor. But this is an approached that was used in Germany during WWII. became the actors of a certain style of social movement. and what is our existence? Are we here to build a large predatory capitalist system or to oppose it to Marxs old model? I think we live in very strange times. But it contrasts so much with all these promises of evolution. there are the waves of wars that are no longer considered aberrations. we took advantage of those politics. video was especially politicized from the inside. Then you have to ask the question why. there is a kind of kingdom there. We were extremely realistic of the politics of the time. and see how far removed the artists concerns are from the official interests. So it is the very existence of a person that is questioned. It did not matter the format: be it abstract. we were totally involved with every aspect of the social condition. And art is now placed in a no mans land. non-narrative.So. suddenly there is a crisis of thought. my generation and I. If you look around. what counts is the happiness of his people.
but about something that supports the values of tolerance and will advance the qualities that in the end do not follow the industrial and political necessities. and then the religion. there is this democratic process which justifies it. Sometime I am tempted by the idea of making art. thats all I can say. Im only an instrument. I am not a creative person anymore. Anyway. or areas that have just been neglected. There is a struggle for personal choice. but who. But I believe it is a deep human crisis: to find out who we are. and not to enslave them. We have this repetition of the past over which none of us has control. And suddenly in the United States begins its exacerbation again. and if they dont help you. And then there is a certain kind of Islam. The crisis raises questions like: what is all about in the end. And looking at the media. could be productive through their aesthetic innocence? These arrangements. and what the process that allowed it to be born was. are the same thing. I became just an observer.the art of today. for the moment these are all my questions. because they dont have the ability to maintain a job. Its about free people who dont want to participate in the way that society forces them to. It took us four centuries to get rid of the religious oppression. If allowed. because there are so many unfinished areas. and the evolution of the media was so rapid that we barely could touch on some of these things or describe them in some way. Im looking at the past and Im trying to imagine what was. because the time has passed so fast. I would like to make a suggestion: use technology to free people. you cannot think otherwise. It is not about liberation. and what we should be. You know. So I am reflexive. Do you have any other questions? TH: No. So. and on top of it. maybe. But there is no evidence that such a thing is happening. and this. WV: Use my answers. and what is the relationship between people and industry? Are we exploited? Should we be exploited? What about the people that cannot be employed. forget them. I dont know why. 42 . what kind of explanations do we get? What is the relationship between government and people.
13-23. 1994. The residence at ZKM was possible with the support of DAAD German Academic Exchange Service. 1969-1984: 15 annees dimages electroniques -â. Pasquier reviews the position of some philosophers in respect to technology: he recounts Jacque Ellul technophobia and Gilbert Simondon technophila. as well as the radical emancipating position formulated by Tristam Engelhard. Paris.119/2005. no. 4 Séris. La question de la technique ». WV: We all are. Fahrenheit 451. Parachute. « Technique ».CINEDOC. Ed. Cine-MBXA . Ed. Media e Nuove Immagini nellarte Contemporanea ». p. 1984. Jean-Pierre. Ed. 154-164. Roma. PUF. 3 Philippe Pasquier .« Lintelligence artificielle et la création contemporain en réflexion. (catalogue) 2 Gazzano Marco Maria « On the Trail of the Fire from the Gods ». Paris. pg. 1995 (catalog). Thanks to Woody Vasulka for the interview. In his article. in « Steina e Woody Vasulka Video.TH: As am I. probably. Notes Steina et Woody Vasulka Videastes. 5 transcription note 1 43 .
vicinity and 45 . The digital musical instrument: an ontological perspective on the main structures of sound manipulation interfaces and interactions. more specifically those created through digital lutherie. 1. when I was passionately interested in the construction of sound producing instruments. Reflection on several operating structures resulting from the integration of digital technologies in music and sound production. Introduction My fascination with interaction stems from my childhood.A GNOSSEOLOGICAL APPROACH OF THE CONCEPT OF INTERACTION REAL TIME IN MUSIC SEVERAL PARADIGMS AND MODELS Paulo Ferreira-Lopes Abstract Digital technology and the tools of artistic expression. they can be illustrated by the impact and implications of the lutherie of musical instruments on musical compositions based on digital technologies. presuppose the meeting. As for my research interests of the last ten years. The construction of musical instruments. Paradigms and interaction models.
For both the method of accessing the instrument and for the process of sound production. whose components are the composition. the relationship between computer science and music is not structured in a hierarchical form. As for the specific case of my work. digital technologies and computer science are but a few elements in the chain of creation. of its sound. 46 . support and on the back-end side. the performer and the composer. and for the personal application of my research. these domains represent indirectly the different components and parts that structure a musical instrument. the computer science involved. interface. in my work as well as in my mind. Invariably and generally. This means that the elements hardware and software which representare the basis of a the computer science-based work and which enable the production of the basic material of musical composition namely the sound . Materially speaking.coexist within a chain of multiple interactions. In this sense. goes beyond the materialization of the instrument. The material specificity of each of these elements naturally and permanently determines not only the dimensions and the characteristics of the instrument. concerning both its macroform and its microstructure. Actually. This means that the digital environment and the use of digital means in the conception of an instrument. this implies mastering and deepening our knowledge on subjects such as the representation. the degree of complexity of the instrument. interaction. one can discern several domains which coexist and structure the development of my projects. as well as the applications that I intend for them.intersection of several subjects and of different fields of knowledge. The individual complexity of each of the parts and components of the musical instrument as well as the complexity according to which each of the parts connect to each other. determine in the end. but also the limits of the composition and the outline of the network that leads to its finalization due to the endogenous characteristics of the instruments. or of its function controls. one should consider that the use of digital technologies generates reflexes and interactions in the field of the musical composition.
on the other hand function as a mirror. It is not unusual for the composer to create his own instruments in accordance with a pre-established ideal which evolves in fragments. several of the main aspects related to the concept of the musical instrument1. are proven to be the essential aspects of the mentioned approaches: • through the study of the connections between the user and the surface structure of the musical instrument: the interface • through analyzing the relationships between the user and the more profound and abstract structures of the musical instrument: the interaction. either from a conversational or visual point of view (including gestures). The musical instrument can. I quote a paragraph from of my PhD thesis: The musical instrument may be the material motivation of the musical composition. In the case of the new media especially those transmitted or fixed on a digital support . with the progression of his lutherie work as his instrument begins to take shape. The musical instrument may become at the same time the object of a composition. 2. as the 47 . As for the quantification and the measure of the interaction. enabling a shallow access to the main outline of musical reality. A gnosseological approach on the concept of interaction In general. the fluctuation between these two variables is conditioned by the type of support used by the communicational phenomenon. the interaction proves to be weak as the communication is unilateral. (pp 162-163) In this respect. The limits and the challenges of its complexity can direct the contents and the form of a musical composition. the concept of interaction as defined by the different fields of communication sciences is the result of communication seen.the interaction proves to be strong. In the case of traditional media. by means of reduction or redunndancy.In order to support this basic idea.
one can mark note. One of the most interesting paradigms tackling the concept of interaction is that of Wegners. which proves to be very strong. The concept of interaction introduced by Wegner evolves to a dynamical principle. in order to offset some of the opposing reactions to his algorithmic calculation.communication mechanism is theoretically established according to an exchange model. as well as. that the mainstream understanding of the general concept of interaction is directed either to a category focusing on the action and the transfers of states which is reached due to the action moving to other possible states (Dance: 1967. according to the communication science. modalities and degrees of interaction in the framework of interaction between man and machine. If case certain divergences come up regarding the communicational phenomenon. analyzed by Wegner (Wegner: 2001). McLoughlin: 1988). a new principle. as will be discussed we later. and especially those influenced by the fundamental thought of symbolical interaction. (Rafaelli: 1988) In short. Trying to identify the common aspects of the most widespread approaches towards the concept of interaction. As for computer sciences. moves away from the simplification based on the communicational principle mentioned earlier. I have inferred several taxonomies. requiring an extensive flexibility of calculation which must adapt to the reality. according to the participants personality. their occurrence may be explained by the specificities of the media and of the instruments related to different fields of research. or to a category which defines the concept of interaction as a process catalyzing instable states directed towards principle of communication and exchange. 48 . by the specificities induced by quantifying the signification of each media. is based grosso modo on the communicational phenomenon. as compared to the quite closed communication chains in which the information was exchanged and converted by algorithmic calculation previously. and to connect to the temporal axis. the concept of interaction. The concept of interaction. This concept reveals thus. on a macro-dimensional level. However.
in the technical terminology of musical composition delimits the vast connotations of interaction and music. one has to consider the lack of precision found in few attempts to understand the principles of causality between real-time and interaction. implies a greater complexity. especially when these theoretical speculations eliminate the interaction between mixed forms of music or recorded music. as its definition becomes extremely formalized in some cases. as I said it previously. 3. In this respect. Realtime. Here is the Manourys position on the subject: Considered from the point of view of an intelligent interactivity between musician and machine. From this point of view. 49 . but the contrary (Manoury: 1987). I will mention my study developed in the context of a my PhD thesis tackling on one hand the definition of the concept of interaction oriented towards the internal space of the computer and towards the space of calculation. it is not difficult to conceive real-time as if it could simultaneously include many unique aesthetic tendencies and. needs to reintegrate itself into the body of the electroacoustical music so that the performer should no longer be the slave of the machine. from the computer science point of view and by comparison to communication sciences. and on the other hand. As I tackle the concept of interaction from the point of view of computer sciences. based on the concept of adaptive interaction. Consequently the concept of interaction. or branches into several fields of knowledge. in other cases. can lead to solving the problems more efficiently and closer to the human context.Wegner presupposes that the association between algorithms and interactive technologies. towards the impact of the human-machine relationship on the concept of interaction. Interaction and real-time in music A few attempts to study the relationships between music and interaction compel the us to reflect on the concept of real-time. At this point. the interpretation. my research evolves two different levels.
Here is Horacio Vaggiones commentary on the immanent characteristics of the outer surrounding space of the composition and its interactions with the concert hall: We have to add to this the characteristics of the concert halls reaction. cannot take place. limit the topic of interaction to certain technological contexts. However. as the interpretation is an exogenous manifestation. without mentioning the importance of the speakers as instruments of perceptive reproduction. If. In this sense. using pre-recorded music. one can often note that the use of real-time. if we take into consideration the relationships between architectural space and the acoustic conditions needed by a musical composition. which can enhance the interpretation of a piece. In my opinion. This argumentation implies that in the mixed compositions. among the number of potential advantages brought by real-time technologies to the field of music its most profitable use 50 . as the time dimension does not allow for interpretation. the concept of interpretative variation is highly dependant (if not exclusively dependent) on the time axis. due to the fixed and unchanging medium of the composition. on one hand it is true that real-time enables a direct intervention on the sound processes involved and the implementation of wider interactive processes during the concert.at the same time. the interaction. which is a true resonance box: the sounds thus projected will spring to other ghostlike locations drawing unique paths for each elevation and each tone. observed in a more refined light and in certain applications. or the compositions recorded exclusively on media. one can immediately note the countless interactions. For interpretation. encounters serious problems because of several limitations. 7). in the case of mixed-media works that use previously recorded music are the integration of reactions to all kinds of interactions is inexistent. According to Manoury. these limitations will never find a solution through technologic development because these problems are a the result of time irreversibility associated to certain uses of realtime technology. which also include the acoustics of a space. it is worth mentioning that due to its nature. (Vaggione: 2000: pp. derived from the principle of time interpretation.
I have to reconsider and to exactly forecast the consequences of such a choice. that certain technical solutions adopted at the beginning of the project were simply outdated after almost 20 months of work. These models. This approach is also valid for the composer as for the computer scientist. for which the production time and the time of setting the digital instrument was so long. real-time compositions or certain methods of sound production. I think nevertheless that the use of real-time requires apprenticeship and the substantial mastery of different fields of knowledge. in my opinion. I quote for example my work Sotto Voce. evenit doest do it in a systematic way. 51 . the topic of interaction has a very important role. in digital lutherie: the building of digital musical instruments and their association to the traditional instruments. In this sense. from a certain point of view real-time technologies introduced the concept of flexibility and intuition in musical composition. but most of all for the performer. and as a result of my observations. especially those involving multi-channel distribution. The introduction and use of digital technologies in my work starts with the beginning of the nineties. inherent to musical creation and composition. do not really find. simultaneously associated with reflections of diverse natures. more specifically related to several families of sound synthesis. the space of reflection and construction/deconstruction. As far as my whole body of reflections is concerned. from a real-time perspective. being interested in real-time technologies since 1993. On the contrary. considering the costs. each time I have to begin a new project. Paradigms and models of interaction There have been almost twenty years since electronic technologies were present in my creative work. essentially. 4. In this sense. Even if. the musical composition often compels the composer to develop models.resides. what is more commonly named spatial rendering. especially the time costs and the compositional complexity implied by the real-time when composing a musical piece.
reflects undoubtedly a rather formal choice than an aesthetical one. the musicians and the instruments. In this context. • the micro-local process. via the computer. As for the global process. These two typologies enable the standardization of: • the global process.adapted to specific situations. tries to explain the types of interaction and communication models. Among the analyzed cases. • the local process. In this sense. during the concert. the composition. This is a consequence of my intervention. Not only did this kind of reflection have an enormous influence on the creation and the composition of my musical pieces and of the instruments involved. The typology concept. • the digital musical instruments. but I also introduced the computer as a means of expression and as concert instrument since the computer may simultaneously be the creative instrument and my ideal digital musical instrument. I developed a classification model for an interaction paradigm (Ferreira-Lopes: 2004) founded on two main typologies: genre (discrete or non-discrete) and directionality (unidirectional/multidirectional). enable the establishment of a catalogue-memory or of a musical notation which generally and musically reflects the paradigms of interaction between the composer. and aside my interventions in setting the acoustic levels (on the mixing console) or in adjusting the equalization. one can deduct that the configuration of an interactive device. which are the basis of a relationship formed on principles of cooperation and exchange between two realities: • the performer through his music. while a local or a micro-local process is associated to discrete time developments. one can conclude that realtime and the consequences of its use dont allow us to infer an universal aesthetic status. and more specifically that of a digital musical instrument. 52 . in the creation of musical pieces along to the other performers. one can remark that it is associated with non-discrete time developments. In this way. which are quite different from a multicasting device such as an interactive CD or DVD.
the construction of my digital musical instrument and of the global system aimed to model the mutes by applying filters on the trumpet signal. Within this structure. as described in my research paper from 20002. 5. often very intensely. during the a concert. joystick. That is. Conclusions As for the specific aspects concerning my instruments and the particular objectives of each instrument. followed 53 . using peripheral devices (sensors. On the other hand.the computer integrates functions similar to those of the musical instruments as it not only is the means of connecting traditional instruments to the musical device. the integration of the computer in the concert as a musical instrument. My presence in the realization of my musical pieces. Concerning my composition doN. or only transformating the interventions of the performers. before the rehearsals. acquiring the status of performer along that of composer. the main objective of the project was that of confronting the musician with the possible extensions of his instrument. implies the specific construction of the instruments. when I use the computer in concert. as digital filters modeled after the mutes of the trumpet. and thus. etc. some of them of a material nature. which I control in a unique manner. like the mutes of the trumpet. especially those resulting directly from my intervention. but it is also an autonomous instrument.) that are especially configured and assembled ergonomically for a specific work. mouse. The quality of the musical outcome during the concert also depends on the time that I spend rehearsing on my instrument. implies that the quality of the musical outcome and the quality of the interactions. and the development of (quasi meta-technical) strategies in order to play my instruments. The solutions for constructing the instrument. I control it and interact with it as well. Id especially like to mention in this article two projects: doN and Sotto Voce. and other virtual. depends entirely on the quality and on the complexity of the surface structures or on the deeper and more abstract structures of the musical instrument.
Thus. whose modules included each an IIR FIR band pass filter. connected to tools of spread modulating spectrum (the ring modulation principle). based essentially on Gérad de Caussés work. I relaunch in the space the outcome of the aforementioned operations using four speakers. In the case of Sotto Voce for cello and live electronics. At the beginning of the project in October 1998. the audience must assemble the resulted fragments in a single point where they can rebuild the pieces of a previous deconstruction. as well as. I tried the implementation of filters using the Fourier transforms as well as general techniques of convolving the signal. after the splitting using the band-pass filter and after treatments based on the FIR and IIR filters. globally speaking. In this composition I wanted to work on two aspects: the first aspect being the 3D spatial rendering. As for the second aspect. or both at the same time. Then. 54 . using the acoustical multiplicity spread in the space. throwing in space residues generated by a sound source which is the cello. The modeled mutes enabled an outcome similar to the acoustical reality of the trumpet reaching dissonant paradoxes opposed to the source. the aspect of communication between performers and instruments. Finally. enables the spectator to acoustically rebuild the disjunctions initially operated. whose spatial modelling signifies either a movement of the source. the second that of instrument replication in realtime. the main objective was to combine the musical structure of the instrumental part and the coordination of each of the four instruments. according to my research. at the end of 1999 I abandoned the transforms trying to establish the functional basis of the instrument on the FIR IIR filters. the paradigms are completely different from those of doN. My idea was to split an object in four dynamic segments which enable us to monitor its evolution in the field of time/frequency.several stages. This solution allowed me to have quite a flexible instrument when it comes to calculating the computational power of the computer and the musical outcome. This operation. or a model of acoustical space. As for the 3D spatial rendering. using the cello. I actually wanted to create an environment different from the common models.
Étude de modèles interactifs et dinterfaces de contrôle en temps réel pour la composition musicale. Garnett. Ferreira-Lopes. I would also like to thank ZKM for hosting my projects. of Sciences and Technologies of Art. This means that the cellist plays simultaneously five instruments independent from one another. The Aesthetics of Computer Music in Computer Music Journal vol 25 no. This type of challenge is only possible thanks to the principles according to which I specifically structured this instrument: • the principle of non-causality between the manipulation of the instrument and its impact on the musical outcome. 2004. This research was developed with the support of Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia.Considering that signal processing modules (the filters) are fed acoustically by the cello signal. . Coimbra D. Vila Nova Cerveira / Portugal . as well as autonomously duplicating the associated instrument. A. . this operation enables the reproduction of the cello signal x times. (Text translated from French by Patricia Comãnescu) 7. PHD . Mutations and Metaphors of the Digital Music Instrument in ACTAS do 2º Workshop Luso-Galaico de Artes Digitais. in Lisbon and of the POCI2010 program. : Music and Interaction: Consequences. 6. 1. Massachusetts : The MIT Press. University of Paris VIII . P. 2001. Paris . . E. 55 . Acknowledgments We are thankful to Horacio Vaggione for his precious advice and orientation. References Ferreira-Lopes. and Sousa Dias. 2005.Dep. G. • the non-synchronization in time of the manipulation of control interface and its impact on the musical outcome. • the diminishment of musicians gestures as they relate to the evolution and the development of the musical content operated by the digital musical instrument. P.
1999 . Weibel. Lisbonne : Fondation Calouste Gulbenkian . Tuebingen : Genista VERLAG . : Lespace composable sur quelques catégories opératoires dans la musique électroacoustique in M. T. 1998. . Interactivity : From New Media to Communication (pp110-134) in Sage Annual Review of Communication Research . Paris : Hermes.Goebel. P. Manoury. 2 http://ima. LHarmatan .): Espace : musique. The Art of Interface Technology in The Sciences of the interfaces (p. in John Carroll (ed. 272-281) . Solomos et J-M Chouvel (Ed. 1999. J. Risset. J. The Art of Interfacing : Senses.Newbury Park : Sage . Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium. Winograd. C. Evolution des outils de création sonore in Interfaces homme-machine et création musicale . : Interaction Spaces for 21st Century Computing. Beverley Hills . .zkm. . Paris. H. P.). Sense and the Discipline of Playing Interfaces in The Sciences of the interfaces (p. philosophie. . .de/~pfl/publications3/rap00. 1988. Addison-Wesley. De lincidence des systèmes en temps réels sur la création musicale in Actes de la Conférence ARTE E TECNOLOGIA . Tuebingen : Genista VERLAG.1987. . J. Tracking a new concept in media and communication Studies in Computer Media and Communication . . Notes We highlight the concept of interface as one of the most important concepts introduced by the research on the diffrerent aspects of the interaction within the musical composition. 306-314) . Interactivity . Oxford : Oxford University Press. 2001. Vaggione . 1999. S.html 1 56 . Rafaeli. 1999. Jensen.
On the contrary. Spatial Forms DIGITAL SURREALITIES. A new form of imaging is being created due to digital design. dont give up reality entirely. and the perceptible and practicable environment with a new dimension. DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE: ARTS OF F[R]ICTION Sophie Fetro If certain digital images are based on the simulation of the reality. on the contrary. architects and designers have high hopes in the representational and programmatic possibilities offered by new media. others. almost fictitious spaces. The digital representations that imply directly the question of mimesis in the deign1 arts become sometimes so autonomous that they confirm Georg Simmels considerations related to the work of art as existence par-delà la réalité2 (existence beyond reality).CHAPTER II. but it also questioned their capacity to change their work habits and approach to reality. Not only did the development of the CAD challenge architects and designers relationships to the traditional operating modes. the arts of design that involve the digital realm in their creative process. are designed to introduce a part of fiction into reality. 1. The spaces. Digital Utopias Developers. digitally defined. seem to move away from reality and to generate unlikely. However. they count on the abstraction and fictional power of digital representation in order to enrich the architecture. es57 .
as well as by eschatological visions. The architects and designers who propose to both transform reality through their designs and to create new realities. although removed from their religious origins and their biblical models. namely the imaginary island invented by Morus. the nowhere-space. remind us of the prophetic traditions as they make out of computer imaging the measure of a new eloquence. found in the digital space a place of possible existence and visibility. or the energy saving BedZed garden-city in Great Britain10. Messenger of both the worst deviations and the most promising visions. where the nightmare intersects the dream. of a cathartic deliverance from contemporary fears and anxieties. 58 . as Marc Augé8 puts it. developed new methods which highlight this relationship between design and utopia. They base their dream of a neverland and set off to conquer new territories on these technologies. The utopia6.pecially the 3D software and modeling programs. Intimately connected to utopia through invention and prediction the arts of design unveil new ways of organizing the space and the human environment. by the echoes of Eden and of the lost Paradise7. digital imaging reveals the ambivalent characteristic of the utopia. somehow akin to the utopian worlds described in literature 3 or seen on film 4. the digital space may be a refuge from reality. Marked by the search of the ideal city. The 21st Century inaugurates a new utopian age thanks to the development of the digital world and of computer graphics imaging techinques. The digital world and Thomas Mourus visions have two features in common: rationalizing reality and introducing Science Fiction5 in this process. or to the ideal cities imagined by Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux. the present digital utopias. A good example is the project to rehabilitate a housing complex in Netherland by the Greg Lynn FORM9 architecture firm. This purely fictitious space could recall the nowhere-space of the computer networks. Fostering the imagination of the ideal city. the hope for the successful application of visionary projects is still there. Despite previous totalitarian drifts caused by the materialization of certain political and social utopias.
nor from their possible posterity. that give their projects the necessary attention grabbing shine. dominates and opens the way to the a visual overload at the cost of less demonstrative projects. or of projects that dont privilege the image. they are a visual testimony that enables the understanding of the age and of its practices. to the point that the projects dont even need to be executed in order to exist. their digital broadcasting on the Internet and the use of competitions are challenges that determine architects and designers to develop their projects through digital imaging technologies. or even because these projects assume their virtual existence as is. for many. This hierarchy imposed by the image. dependent on the image. the digital space is a voluntary exile. The Art of Representation The Subordination of the Project to the Image The media coverage of the projects. namely to a surplus of iconicity. does not deter the interest from these projects. the architectural photographer was the one capable of enhancing a buildings 59 . in producing overwhelming images. The use of synthetic images in the arts of design and the visual proliferation enabled by the computer leads to a state opposed to the lack of iconicity12 mentioned by Cyrille Simonnet. up to then. This existence. Either they could not be materialized for budgetary reasons or due to modification impediments. even if not new. The design or architecture projections are more than ever so dependant on the image.2. The Photogenic Object Designers fascination with computer tools leads to a new form of seduction of the project by the image. They engage thus. If. Like the previously non-executed projects11. With the wider introduction of CAD in the deign process. the flattering characteristic of the realistic representation was amplified more than ever before. This type of reasoning that values the visually attractive object excludes from the beginning the modest object.
visual communication. light. properly or metaphorically speaking. the cinema via special effects or even the whole visual media environment (architecture. Seeing the Landscape Through Virtual Perspective The 3D and CAD programs are new visualization devices producing not only original imaging but also largely modifying our perception of the real environment. With digital technologies. but. which functions based on the light sensitivity of the medium. nowadays the photographical quality of a building is predefined and refined by computer programs (that enable the choice of the best vista. So. mainly a virtual design that has first of all emerged as an image. what one sees is no longer a work of art or a building. As Mark Wigley puts it in his text. As opposed to the film camera. New household and outdoor and indoor landscapes are about to flourish both in real life as well as in the virtual environment. Back to Black13. Although this vision requires a certain level of visual education (a culture of the virtual image). 60 . design.appearance thanks to exposures. etc. the 3D modeling software is based on an internal luminescence that give the virtual objects a particular aesthetic quality.).). are the promoters of a passive but effective education of the eye. as for example in Arik Levis Meteor series of tables featuring mirrored and faceted surfaces or even Jean Nouvels Agbar tower in Barcelona. the media. founded on a process of inverting the principle of drawing with black on white. A new surface quality appears. framing or to favorable lighting. This is transposed in the digital projects to a specific luminosity. but also by the computer programs employed. skin effects. Illustrating the artistization that Alain Roger debates in his Court traité du paysage (Short Treaty on Landscape)14 there is a similar phenomenon that perceives the landscape through the virtual grid filter. a new iconography is born. a project is no longer solely marked by the architects or designers gesture or imprint. etc. via advertising.
and is typical for the 20th Century design process. These images. whereas others have a different goal. which one doesnt know where to really situate.3. Its strangeness. and sometimes even the main part of the project. somewhere between reality and fiction. The computer tool. partially caused by the distortions of the volumes. The project of designing a Reebok store proposed by the American studio CAP16. As axonometry. the computer. facilitates a digital overtaking of reality. especially with artists like Gerrit Rietveld. able to produce images more real than nature itself. introduce a doubt in what is being perceived. they claim an indescribable and singular quality which questions the visual experience. namely to design projects purposely removed from reality and thus embracing a different logic. Some aim to design projects close to reality. Digital Surrealities The digital promises: images more real than nature itself. For the latter. but also an essential part. reminds us of the unprecedented characteristic that Aragon was referring to when analyzing the surrealist artworks. which consists of rendering an athletes spatial and vectorial dynamics juxtaposes athletic performance with visual performance. Actually. This operating mode functions based on the figurative capacities of the representational tool employed. the Indetermination Principle and Random Processes The approach of the projects which tackle the field of surreality share with the surrealist conceptual adventure the same desire to dismiss 61 . contemporary architects and designers consider the digital tool not only a simple representational device. initialized a new vision of the space. by the dim light and absence of any object or individual. Surreality. due to its features. Each designer has a different relationship to the digital image. It invites designers to dismiss the imitation of reality and invent a new one. may enable the creation of new identities. according to Yve-Alain Bois15. by the bluish reflections.
networks). based on mathematical models and the generative and dynamic possibilities of the software.the permanence of the known world. provided by the computer and which consequently eludes the designer. demonstrate that digital means. despite their mathematical expression. by associating data in an original manner in order to espace pre-established outcome. The computation level. website construction. becomes. Even if reality is still the main guideline. can produce. becomes for him a means of escaping from pure intentionality and predetermination. Greg Lynn FORMs works (the complexity theory)17. paradoxically. inversely. But. the creative and conceptual models are updated. or Oosterhuis. 62 . While designers of digital spaces borrow concepts from architecture and urbanism (website architecture. as opposed to the surrealists. In architecture. oneiric. architects tend to borrow principles of organization from the digital field (ramification. the designer using digital tools within his creation in order to enhance the quality of reality. there are many who orient their research towards the programmatic indetermination. in spite of any preconceptions spaces in permanent interaction with the humans. This way of creating. If the surrealists overtook reality by means of guided writing. the designers who work with digital tools also work to overtake them and thus emphasize the surrealist expression. focuses less on a the process of introspection and searches inside the machine the means of stimulating his imagination. contemporary designers find the subjects of a new. digital space. The principle of reality is questioned not by the unconscious but by the way in which the user explores the formative and informing potential of the virtual environment. and creative power within computer programs. e-motional)18. New Processes of Formatting and Manufacturing With the development of 3D imaging. the unconscious and the dreams. mathematical models and algorithms.nls (who aims to produce a live architecture. a means for the designer to determine the evolution of conventional program development methodologies.
stratification, connection, virtuality, etc.). These exchanges are translated into architectural projects through interwoven structures, spatial structures with complex connections (bridges, gateways, embankments), through the stratification of levels and surfaces, and very often through seamless19 spatial and formal continuity. Ensure the Transcription of Distortions and Digital Continuous Forms Rendering digital visions into reality not only involves the research for new materials and new physical properties (acoustic and formal qualities, sizing, wear and shock resistance, thermal and phonic performance, etc.), but also pushes designers to find new ways of modifying the already existing material. The flexible materials, the resins, the linoleum, the textiles, twist, twirl, bend, while the rigid materials are fragmented into facets in order to render the formal continuity and the flexibility of digital projections. The New Fiera Milano exhibition complex, designed by Massimiliano Fuksas and Schlaich Bergermann und Partner, illustrates magnificently the digital strangeness originating from this works transposition of the virtual into reality. Computer Science - Strangeness Factor in Industrial Design In design, the upheavals may be represented, as asserts Frédéric Migayrou, by the emergence of a possible digital continuum20 in the production flow of the project. The projects made through digital production, or the projects using the techniques of stereolithography initially employed in the fast prototyping field (M. Faltasis objects, Skets furniture by Front Design, or Patrick Jouins Solid chair) directly link the conceptual and the manufacturing processes of the object. Actually, the introduction of biological data in the programming of design objects (application of the osteoporotic damages on a plastic 63
garden chair by Robert Stadler), as well as the use of variables in the process of formatting an object (i.e. EZCTs project of computational chair design using genetics and Greg Lynns one-of-a-kind tea & coffee towers designed for Alessi) challenge the fundamental principles of the industrial manufacturing production (serial conception, pragmatic relationship between from & function). They also bestow it an unprecedented strangeness. The digital processes generate paradoxical objects in the field of furniture design. As opposed to the digital continuum mentioned above, they value first the conceptual process over production and manufacturing methods. It is the case of several projects engendered by the computing of the extrusion. The Frédéric Ruyants Mobilier en ligne Radi designers Ray stool, YED Transalpins Living in a box or Marc Newsons extruded furniture series are symbolic for the way in which the computing tool induces the forms. In these four projects, there is no effective extrusion but an imaginary one, virtual, enabled by the representation of digital forms. Thus, the manufacturing method doesnt correspond to the virtual generative process of the project. These projects seem actually to illustrate this difference between the digital visualization, the conceptual approach of and the technical processes of industrial manufacture. As opposed to Alvar Aaltos furniture made of bended glued-laminated timber or Marcel Breuers furniture of metal tubes, which are based on the exploitation of the physical, structural and formal properties of a specific material, the furniture digitally conceived highlights mainly the designing process that has created them. Consequently, with CAD, it is not always the material that dictates the formal and structural identity of the project; it is rather the virtual design that defines the forms the materials need to take. Surreal Experiences While the surrealist experiences tend to reduce the difference between inner life and lived experience, as Marguerite Bonnet says about the surrealist adventure, they tend to weaken the opposition between what is inside us and what is outside us21, the digital projects arent 64
always based on reducing the difference between themselves and reality. Digital projects sometimes seem to come close to the ideal22 existence, as mentioned by Georg Simmel regarding the work of art, reflect a constant tension with the reality. The architects and designers using digital means devote themselves mainly to explore the multiple links between reality and fiction. They search for possible relationships between the two, aware of the the simultaneity between the inside and the outside, to put it in Georg Simmels terms. The computing applied to architectural and design projects is not a tool of extreme rationalization of reality but rather of interpretation, allowing reality and fiction to relate. Front Designs chest of drawers could put into phisical form this complicity between digital design and reality. Andrea Branzis Culture of Surreal The projects using the abstracting power of digital imaging could be integrated into the surreal culture23 invoked by Andrea Branzi. The strangeness of certain images and the fascination induced by them, contribute to the overtaking of the reality by the digital tool. For Branzi, the surreal culture, whose fundaments originate in the Latin culture and start from the international Surrealism including the Dadaism and the Metafisica art movement, employ methods of creation founded on the convergence of heterogeneous elements, which greatly enhance the consistency of reality. This surreal culture which tends to make reality more complex and richer could be continued by digital practices. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLPs24 project of Shanghais Aeroport 3rd terminal, reflects the architects and image creators capacity of producing representations of the project that illustrate an extraordinary degree of strangeness in spite of an entirely rational construction. Multiple white sloping panels compose a roof with no boundaries covering an artificial Eden where luxurious vegetation shelters an idealized population. With the development of new technologies, this surreal culture seems to have gone beyond its Latin origins and to have flourished in international architecture and design. However, the use of 65
computing is not enough to warrant the interest of a production. For Branzi this ability, identical with the one of a master of ceremonies, adorning a reality consumed by others, creates poison or pleasure by skillfully and mysteriously issuing relationships and becomes finally the soul of the banquet, the grey eminence of the encounter.25 4. Hyperreality: Age of Digital Mega-structures If for Andrea Branzi, some artistic manifestations could generate a surreal culture which enhances reality, or its consistency, according to his expression, contemporary architecture and design projects, whose ambition seems to be the enhancement of reality, are easily confronted with the issues of gigantism and excess. This is no longer a spiritual enhancement, sensitive and metaphorical as Andrea Branzi understood it, but a physical and spatial growth serving a political and commercial intention. The many projects effectively executed, as well as the many complexes, as those planned for the Olympic games in Peking, the airport areas, and the different cultural and touristic complexes of Shanghai mark the beginning of an demonstrative age, now more than ever. As it was the case with 19th Century universal exhibitions, the architectural projects and their execution are involved in an eloquent demonstration of the last technical innovations. The excess and the oversizing prolong the tradition of an architecture of power. An Art of Computational Performance The quality of the digital imaging, its hypnotic character, the graphical and constructing potential of digital programs, the resourcefulness of those who make use of the computing equipment, make of the architecture of today an art of the computational performance. The improbable visions that result from it (architectural promenades, dynamic lighting, etc.) attract our curiosity. Design studios and designers employ multiple artifices and effects capable of adorning their projects. The mastering of computer modeling tools can generate projects and achievements that overrule traditional references. The 66
but also illustrate the subjection of the architecture and design to the commercial and political authority. However. The more and more complex building coverings and the multiplication of resin structures are true challenges to the engineering skills. The juxtaposition of projects having in background the sea. aligned and equidistant is grotesque. where big names of architecture (Frank OGehry. Degenerative Amplifications: Apotheostrophical Projects The vast complexe of Abou Dhabi. 67 . the proposed spaces look often immoderate and impracticable for the pedestrian. seem to ignore contemporary ecological problems. Zaha Hadid. if there is such a drama. quantity and importation of raw material. These projects that we may call apotheostrophic. they also may be considered dystopical deviations of digital delusions. the grandiloquence of certain propositions puts into question the interest and the validity of spatial and physical transcriptions of certain virtual designs. is symbolic of this current performative art. The drama of digital utopias. wasteful use of glass surfaces. Often elegant and highly seductive. Even if they have a delightful appearance.). bear inside the signs of a degenerative amplification of the computing potential applied to architecture and to the organization of human spaces. resides in the power of illusion and of bewitchment of their images. etc. these projects display grand formal and spatial qualities. perfection and folly (apotheosis and catastrophe) are emblematic for the beginning of 21st Century.overhangs seem to defy the laws of nature. capable of fascinating whereas their content may be questionable. conception. and building techniques. These projects whose appearance is impeccable. as they assemble contradictory qualities which mix in the same project. the execution of certain projects which need considerable prodigality of means (monumental building sites. Jean Nouvel and Tadao Ando) gave an example of their art. Resulted from the sublime blooming of the design. The gigantic size and the spectacular effects they employ hide sometimes the scarcity of the proposed device and or of the actual service. On the other hand.
This way the simulation of reality and reality itself are not confused anymore but able to generate a new parallel esthetic experience>: a counter-reality. Didier Fiuza Faustinos projects (Corps en transit or The 1m² House) could be called hyperreal. Hyperrealism and Hyperrealities The designers and architects who currently employ figuration digital visualization techniques. as they are based 68 . the arts of design could participate and encourage the elimination of the references mentioned by Jean Baudrillard. the age of simulation opens on a liquidation of all the frames of reference ( ) so this is no longer about imitation. If architecture has always been the place of manifestation of power. they can also be the critical expression of a clear-sighted look as they question the world as well. hyperreality could actually be the that visual quality of digital images which generate a perceptive confusion thus enabling a differentiation from the reality.Computing may be then identified to a hallucinogenic device capable of amplifying reality beyond the reasonable. In this context. Critical Utopias and Counter-utopias: Between Denounciation and Fascination If the projects may create signs and raise questions through images. if certain projects seem to take refuge in an art of simulation and justify this flee from content and finality. The tendency to imitation and the attempts to revive reality via digital reproduction leads precisely to the disappearance of the objects in the process of representation. doesnt forecast a very bright future for the arts of design that use digital means. the digital and virtual images that it employs and that it produces. The critical analysis he makes without concessions. For him. nor about parody. have a seductivity that makes possible the its manipulation. nor about duplication. especially when these arts take the hazardous path of simulation. But. may favor the development of what Jean Baudrillard calls hyperreality26. This is about a substitution of reality with the signs of reality.
there are several possible degrees of relating with reality. the architecture and design projects have seen the digital world amplifying the come-and-go sway between projection and reality. even if is sometimes related to an invocation of the simulation as Jean Baudrillard puts it. between formal ideal and material technical solutions. The counter-utopian characteristic of his digital visions. An Art of F[r]iction Already based on a balance between imaginary projections and reality. Thus. This quality interprets reality through the image and transforms it proposing original forms. The utopia does not represent any longer a finality in itself. as in computing simulation and especially in 3D modeling one can find the search for new experiences and an original interpretation of reality. Hyperreality could represent this visual quality of the projects as related to digital design. Reality does not dissolve into the digital world. and on the constant interpretation of information. beginning with André Breton. or Superstudios Continuous monument) and Anglo-Saxon (Plug-in City and Archigrams Walking City) radical movements.on the power of virtual representation and reflect a possible critical quality of digital images. but the means of a clear-sighted reflection on the functioning of the society and on its possible contradictions. In this relationship between designer and computing environment there are several come-and-goes based on the alternation between reality and fiction. remind us of the reality of Thomas Morus utopia or of the critical utopias of the Italian (No stop-city of Archizoom Associati. 5. It would be a shame then to reduce the content of virtual images to senseless signs. situations and environments. The role of the designer 69 . but instead it multiplies and becomes more complex. close to sci-fi imagination. continuing with Georg Simmel and Andrea Branzi and passing by Jean Baudrillards hyperreality. The neo-figuration produced by contemporary designers and architects by means of digital technologies. it is also marked by a process of remoteness and differentiation from to reality.
but the manifestations of a possible friction between reality and imagination. the 3D modeling seems aimed to go beyond mimicry. If some may be tempted to think that virtual reality may prove to be more desirable than reality and could even replace it. which implies a mutual enrichment. (Text translated from French by Patricia Comãnescu) 70 . Initially stimulated by the search for realism. In resonance with the idea of digital space. could actually enable an endorsement of reality rather than its rejection or negation. The fear of seeing the digital world substituting reality. to guide these intersections and to modify not only his virtual representations so that they elude pure abstraction. we prefer to think that the virtual manifestations do not deny reality but rather highlight differentiated. The arts of design are not only fictional arts. to imagine new horizons and to seek adventure in surreality. but also to translate them into reality in order to so that they become meaningful and find a reason to be. a reciprocity between real space and visualized space is established. we have tempted to prove that different projects which use digital technologies in their conceptual and in their methods of visualization. as they employ computer science according to modern technologies consists in transforming the virtual and the reality alternatively. is replaced by the necessity of accepting its multiplication and fragmentation.is then. The designers and architects work. and the permanent connection of these two universes so that the feasibility of the project and the palpable real world could inspire each other. Of the Necessity of Digital Utopias Not only did digital technologies facilitate the design and conceptual work of designers and architects but it also represented the starting point of a reflection on reality and imagination. It is this conjunction between reality and imagination that is reflected by computer generated projects more than ever. parallel and simultaneous existences. Some theses seem to question the positive qualities of digital imaging.
1997. éditions du Centre Georges Pompidou. mai-juin 2006. n° 354 .129.nl. in Catalogue de lexposition Architecture non standard. 3 Le meilleur des mondes.44-46.Notes We understand by « arts of design ». 2005. collection of Frac centre. long identified in medieval tradition to the earthly paradise of Adam and Eve. 12 Cyrille Simonnet. 1984. 4 to July 9 2000. 2005. Paris. p. Une architecture « e-motive». 1992. 15 Yves-Alain Bois. Rivages poche editions. Paris. directed by Roland Schaer. Bijlmermeer building. 11 We think of Cénotaphe de Newton by Étienne-Louis Boullée or of Plan Obus by Le Corbusier for Alger city. 14 Alain Roger. 1948. 1931.46-47. Aldous Huxleys. Utopia : Latin neologisme quotation from ou-topos (the place of nowhere) and eu-topos (place of hapiness). 8 Marc Augé. 7 The utopia. Saint-AmandMontrond. See the review Architecture dAujourdhui. 4 Metropolis. p. file Pour une Europe durable. in Architectures expérimentales 1950-2000. renovation of the Kleiburg. may still appear in the idealised contemporary visualizations. Back to black. 1927. in Catalogue de lexposition Architecture non standard.96. Non-lieux : introduction à une anthropologie de la surmodernité. 2003. Netherlands. In À vivre n°30. 2001-2005. Petite bibliothèque. 1984. 2002. Concept de boutique Reebok. Imaginaire scientifique. 16 Technique et Architecture n°479.90. Le béton histoire dun matériau. Paris 2003. p. documents et fictions. 10 Project BedZed.septembre 2004 . Orléans. chapter Un matériau sans image. George Orwell. 2 Georg Simmel. éditions Gallimard. p. éditions Centre Georges Pompidou/CCI. in Architecture et numérique. 2003. 5 Catalogue of the exhibition « Utopie. all artistic activities.27. Beddington. p. 17 Greg Lynn. 6 Ibid. Shanghai (Chine). éditions du Centre Georges Pompidou. 1 71 . Court traité du paysage. Seuil editions. proposed by Éric Justman.115. 1988. Variations calculées.Le pouvoir des images. Great Britan. éditions HYX. Avatars de laxonométrie. Cahier pédagogique. through the presence of idealized vegetation and a luxurious and flourishing flora. article Cinématique. Paris. exhibition presented at BNF from April. Fritz Lang. La Tragédie de la culture. 9 Greg Lynn FORM. la quête de la société idéale en Occident ». Paris. 13 Mark Wigley. Parenthèses editions. as architecture and industrial design which are based on design work aimed for usage. p. Amsterdam. p. 18 Oosterhuis. in Images et imaginaires darchitecture. collection Frac centre et SCEREN CRDP académie Orléans-Tours.
1981. traduit de litalien par Christian Paolini. 23 Andrea Branzi. 1991. Wohen Architektur Media Mobil.M. éditions du Centre Georges Pompidou. p. Les ordres du non standard. 1988 José Corti editions.Gilles Delalex. p. Simulacres et simulations. Frédéric Migayrou. 26 Jean Baudrillard.cit. projet du terminal 3 de laéroport de Shanghai par les architectes Skidmore. 19 72 . 2007. Galilée editions. 2007. Owings&Merrill LLP. Catalogue of the exhibition La rue est à nous. 20 Catalogue of the exhibition Architecture non standard. Op..E. Centre Georges Pompidou editions. La rue sans couture. 25 Andrea Branzi. 21 Margueritte Bonnet. Nouvelles de la métropole froide.O.26. Les essais.cit. n°8.59. Paris.. 1975. Paris. 24 Revue H. 22 Georg Simmel. design et seconde modernité. Op. Paris 2003. André Breton et laventure surréaliste.tous !. éditions Au diable vauvert.
as proclaimed by the 1962 Conrads & Sperlichs eponymous book) is. Projective architecture anticipates the houses of the future. new. provocative.EXPERIMENT IN ROMANIAN ARCHITECTURE Augustin Ioan Something in the etymology of the term planning tells us of the necessity to anticipate. the anxiety produced by this projective architecture (considered vanguard in the past. the act of habitation. a fertile one. It seems paradoxical to speak of not being totally home in a philosophical.four blue glass cylinders surrounding a central one . The trendy terms of today are somewhat different: uncanny. Hyatt Atrium 73 . Detroits Renaissance Center . Many sci-fi films are still shot today in buildings belonging to the architectural vanguard. even if it often gets stuck there without the ability to produce real inheritors. for its capacity of allowing the being to reach its essence through active protection which is. now being called experimental as in the book by Peter Cook from 1970 but always fantastic. in fact. or even architectural text that praises the tiny house of the Black Forest mountains (or by extension any traditional culture. unheilmlich or that Heideggerian not-home. to continually pro-pose through the architectural project something permanently innovative. on a long term. And still.is an indisputable star that can be see all too often on the movie screens: the concept of the hotel with an atrium open through the height of the building began in Atlanta. as Mircea Eliade knew well). at the Peachtree Center and still gives vertigo to its visitors.
Hotels are to be found everywhere nowadays, including in Budapest, but the Renaissance Center still remains the star of the genre. On the other hand, there are new buildings in which one can see the past not the future. The socialist realism, and partly the post-modern era have created this type of architecture of the past, aged and on the most part nonfunctional. At the 1939 World Exhibition in New York, while at the Romanian pavilion one could eat grilled meatballs and listen to Maria Tanase, elsewhere one could see the Futurama - an exhibition representing the city of the future, of the kind that have always intoxicated the minds of dreamers. It should be noted that, similarly to what happened with Antonio SantEllias sketches from the beginning of the 20th Century and those form the Futurism era, this type of architecture does not seem to age. The cars, the fashion, the tastes have changed I would hesitate to use the term evolved but that radical architecture continues to fascinate through its otherworldliness, so well defined in English with one word. Deconstructivists decided to inhabit this rejection of the comfortable shelter, and from the beginning, they did it programmatically. Constructivism wanted to be the travel companion of the Russian communism (and if it did not receive the immediate benefits of what Lenin offered them, it certainly shared their faith under Stalin), while Deconstructivism is a cynical demonstration of the intellectual ability invested with the power to manipulate the shapes in ways never seen before. In extreme, with the couple Eisenman Derrida we can speak of the construction as philosophical object of the newest kind; the architecture seemed to come out of a millenary inertia during which it only imported concepts, themes, styles and judgment criteria from everywhere else but itself. Not in Romania. Romanian architecture is, with the exception of Marcel Janco, one that has refused to experiment, to project, to anticipate. Lacking the traditional engine of a respectable avant-garde, it was content to import, copy, vary, or simply stagnate. We discuss influences and reactions to these influences, but never priorities. The source of this lost cause, and especially, the possible solutions for this fight against the wind, are coming soon. 74
Prof. Alexandru Sandu, urbanist and past Dean of the Institute of Architecture in Bucharest, noted often in his interviews that no cultural achievements have been made in Romanian architecture of the past three or four decades. Interestingly, this lack of cultural dimension of our architecture does not imply necessarily a complete lack of theoretical research. On the contrary, the 60s, 70s and even 80s, are periods in which the efforts of architectural research sporadic and individual, but especially without consequence for what was being built at the time are rediscovered only now, after they overlapped almost two post-1989 decades. While doing research for an exhibition (so far remaining virtual) dedicated to the post-war Romanian architecture, I received many drawer documents from my colleagues of the 80s generation because it exists even an unknown 80s national architecture style, of which no one seems to have written, besides my modest attempts to document it. Studies, projects, texts of the times, local exhibitions and participations in international competitions (who knows today that Romania had more participants in the Tête Defénse competition organized by Mitterand then the US? Or that Romanian architects have regularly won prizes and awards at the glass architecture completion in Shinkenchiku, Japan?). Only now, the interdisciplinary experiments of Mircea Enescu from Costineºti gain the importance they deserve, as well as the surfacing of technological experiments with atypical structures viewed also, in an unfavorable light by comparison to modernity - made for the social, cultural, sporting, and industrial projects of the time. This is an exploratory effort that seemed to be a relief valve against the pressure buildup caused by the dysfunctional situation of the Romanian construction industry. Thus, these explorations functioned as an avoidance from reality and not as they should as an engine for the improvement of the current practice. That is why this type of research was one that more often would offer utopias than solutions: those clusters of neo-medieval apartments with workspaces at street level, surrounding communal courtyards for which Florian Biciuºcã received a prize at the International Biennial in Sofia (Bulgaria); how could they be anything but evasions from the ghetto apartment blocks of the last decade of dictatorship? 75
The way the architectural experimentation needs to be discussed is thus tainted by the meanings that the historical avan-garde, especially the Western one, has conferred to it. As a consequence, we discuss the experimentalists as vanguard battalion of the artists, those that detach themselves from the status quo seen without exception as retrograde, academic, historically exhausted in order to leave it behind. Politically, they are radical and excessive: revolutionaries of all kinds regularly found on the left of the political spectrum, practicing a rhetoric of demolishing the status quo - the manifest, the slogan and using its fragmentation as the motif of their art. The rule is to oppose, breaking away from the dominant discourse both in society (from which they break off through a bohemian lifestyle), as well as in art. They want to re-define the society along with the art that it - horribile dictu! - favors. At this point, it would be good to mention, that in the strict sense of the word, the experiment does not exist in the post-war Romanian architecture. Neo-vanguard does not exist, the radical experiment does not exist, and least of all, a complete, open opposition to the dominant discourse. Whenever there is a distancing from the discourse of the establishment, it lacks program and coordination, it is isolated, being hidden inside the realms of the totalitarian society: concealed. I believe though, following the thematic article offered by Dragoº Gheorghiu1, that the key term with which to begin a conversation about the Romanian experiment is context. Thus, we cannot speak only of experiment, without referencing the context that it addresses and to which the experimenting artist is mandatorily referenced against. Dragoº Gheorghiu makes a solid analysis of what, outside context, could be investigated while looking for the experiment; on the other hand, he sees the official discourse as one in perpetual relocation, capable of colonizing those folds of society that might escape its control, which is otherwise complete. Seen, in Deleuzian terms, as spaces of flight, during the dictatorship the artistic genres have been under stricter control than the overall society. As soon as it seemed that an escapist discourse would gel, it was immediately incorporated in the official rhetoric or silenced. The areas of society that could easily be controlled were allowed to 76
and this especially when the power could foreseen any possible gains. embodies even if it seems paradoxical . I understand that it is risky to speak of experimentation in the case of Constantin Gojas work. During the same time. transcendental meditation with Matyla Ghyka and his divine ratios. Still. This would be the case with all those experiments related to folklore. the Masons with the Pythagoreans and the structural paths of the traditional Romanian house with those of Cheopss pyramid via Brâncoveanu and his villas surrounding Bucharest. and as much as it has been. an interesting experimentation device used much more in the past than now were the architecture competitions. was informed by this snobbish. There were mixed: Blaga with Noica. the experiment is defined also as a hybrid of the most resistant traditionalism which is not foreign of past political associations with the extreme right . unchanged. as it has been2. It is a little known fact that there were more Eastern European architects participating in the contest for the Defénse district in Paris than Japanese and American ones. The Romanian postmodernism. especially in regards to its theoretical aspects. they cannot be dissociated. 77 . to the point that it persist to this day. but also from the excessive order of the communist rhetoric. thus it could have become a good chance for an alternative. his studies for the renewal for of artistic expression through a seemingly indirect route: by exploring tradition deserve more. vernacular architecture and that entire field of neo-primitive investigation that has so powerfully impregnated Romanian architecture of the 70s and 80s. At the farthest conservative end of this type of discourse. unfortunately. despite being obsolete and forgotten. Going abroad meant evading the vernacular rhetoric. with all its limitations and risks. with regards to what was going on in the mainstream architectural theroy.and contemporary architecture. The awards received by the Romanian teams at the contest in Schinchenciku (Japan) prove the same interest in escaping geographically. traditionalist discourse which.precisely that different perspective inherently implied by the experiment. During those years (the 80s) the attempt can seem almost heroic.survive as possible release valves both for the artists as well as for their public. along with the nationalist communism from which.
explaining. Consequently. Alexandru Beldiman. It is evident that some of the participants in these obscure contests ended up designing what would become The House of the Republic Victory of Socialism.I place in the same context. the Romanian works abroad were most often a collective product. the client/the state. which in this case was the head of the regime. propose an unusual type of experimentation. because they did not confirm completely the criteria for experimentation: made by state governed enterprises. often to countries with an even harsher totalitarian regime than Romania). on their turn.e. in this ocean of verbal confusion. where the participants were individuals or small teams. Octogon magazine dedicated them a special issue. Romania) as well as on their arrival (i. to sneak in the strictest bofillisms3. explaining Still. Probably devoted comrades or just manipulative people they were convinced of possessing the necessary abilities to manipulate. explaining. Some of them have admitted it. beginning somewhere in the early 50s. were convinced they are experimenting and they really did.e. outside of the state directed theme and without its assistance or control. as it seems to transpire from a series of interviews I have done during the 90s with architects who have worked there. Withdrawing into those areas of architecture that least interested the totalitarian power to monumentalize. some architects practiced their craft in industrial architecture. like poor Anca Petrescu. all post-war years. but with more precaution than when discussing the contests. Some believed themselves to be close to a Faustic pact. contain a significant number of works by Romanian architects. But. they are clearly different from contests. a significant part of the works exuberant. lacking architectural culture and anti-urban. like Mr. The third world. Many more are still perpetuating this belief. Others thought they will have the freedom. strongly controlled both when leaving (i. North Africa or the Arab peninsula. The fact that there is a clear break between the monumental architecture of the administrative or political power and social 78 . retrograde. unknowingly participating in the invention of a new state conformism: anti-modern. the type made by Speer. but especially never executed destined for foreign lands. it later became clear they were terribly mistaken.
these works become blindingly experimental. Of course. or works not yet finished. is an experimental approach that should be revived. on experiments either. the context to which it was parallel to. became theories for experimentation is also well known. secondary to Partys objectives. respectively technical. industrial and especially youth programs. Encouraging only finished works. Similarly. even in the absence of traumatic circumstances. is that after almost two decades4 the experiment has not been practiced or encouraged. In the homonym issue of Arhitext magazine dedicated to Email Barbu Petrescu.architecture. only on the fact that so far they have not been produced. To this lack of social and urban conspicuousness we owe. and the last years seem to have setoff a series of initiatives in this direction. Why? Only the Annual contest organized by ORA6 in Bucharest has opened the door to projects. one that fills the exhibitions rooms and isolates the few remarkable works that exist. parallel architecture. for instance. I leave to the reader the pleasure of discovering them. the fact that some social programs. What should be pointed out though. many of the successes achieved by the successive teams of architects under Emil Barbu Petrescus direction during the 80s in sporting. not all this architecture fulfills the criteria for experimentation. helps in establishing a terrifying conformism. this architecture that escaped (not always completely) the strictest state control. even when it was particularly rigorous and interestingly solved. The use of structures atypical in the Romanian practice of the time. From all the material I was able to collect for this text limited compared to what I know as drawer projects very few confirm the theme. but it doesnt count. This expression remains valid even if we define the missing element. is not a secret to anyone. including tridimensional metal elements (strangely little used in a country with so much steel as Romania during those years) as in the case of Ion Mircea Enescus sports halls. Radu Drãgan called this gentle form of escape. able to produce remarkable works. yet. If we include this context circumstance in our calculations. The school is a favorable space for practicing experimentation. Changes in the curriculum will certainly produce positive 79 . The Biennial of Architecture organized by URA5 does not have to this day a section for projects/experiments.
What could it mean to experiment in a systemic crisis? Case study: Romania Due to globalization. The Romanian participation in architectural contests like Europan or the one in Schinchenchiku. More and more people will leave abroad usually it is the cream of the crop that does it. Maybe. technology. especially when there is a strong component of experimentation and conceptual investigation in architecture. the land of innovation coming from the second and third worlds narrows down more and more. a guild in which only one out of a thousand pushes ahead by himself unknown and/or completely unappreciated at his true value by his colleagues while the others are waiting for the future to go by for the sake of a mediocre present. like architecture it will cease to generate interest. investigation has not been seen as the foremost tendency in architecture. Im afraid. to put itself into discussion repeatedly. The reasons for this are not always. Romanian architecture is. and not totally. What remains between these two opposing colonizations is too little for a long term survival. it is not. Japan remains to be seen. Statistically speaking. their responsibility. I believe that architecture cannot survive without constant attempts to renew itself. some teachers should worry that the students who stood out in the treehouse contest in US were those that received low grades in class for sketches on the same subject. but especially one already conservative. If this self-reflecting dimension lacks in a field of any type. 80 . But. more likely imploding. lacking from the beginning the research gene. Since the work of the National School. a group one should place any bets on. unfortunately for its future. Art survives by getting rid of itself repeatedly. and thus were not considered among the outstanding (according to their instructors). urbanism.effects in a medium term. and material science. precisely those that could have had the ambition to experiment and we will be more and more colonized by architects and corporations lacking any hint of ambition to reform.
in the same process that formed each previous state before. VH allows us another extraordinary thing. Lets imagine such a site. my professor Mr. a 81 . Hancock. At the other end it is obvious that the VH technique could be used most sophisticatedly in research. in the sense that. It is known that there are a number of successive archeological layers. I will not go into all the archeological details. During the following years. My technical contribution to the most effective way of virtually replicating the scanned monuments is minor. But I have given the example of Troy. It is one thing to see the ruins of Micene and another to travel through the virtual rendition of the site (before or after visiting the real site) as it looked when was built or in its subsequent reconstructions. based on varying criteria more than one virtual restoration proposal could be made. On the commercial end would be the tourism industry. each representing a different stage in the development of the city. Virtual Heritage Virtual Heritage (hereafter VH): this is the subject my friend Alexandru Nancu has directed me to in the wake of the project ReSITUS he coordinated. This type of reconstruction has a large array of potential clients. John E. The previous city was used as quarry for the new one. because I have been exposed to the VH concept since 1993. one of the VH projects that were in works in Cincinnati. when I was in Cincinnati. at one of the most important research centers on this subject. What does it mean to restore Troy IV or V? Obviously the two cities are not completely different. how do we decide if a column. which is the ability to experiment with restoration. And so.1. as well as in my subsequent visits in 1999 and 2004 I was able to closely observe the work of one of the frontrunners of this virtual restoration technique. What exactly does VH do? It reconstitutes in virtual reality (VR) those archeological sites and/or monuments that are in an advanced state of degradation or have even disappeared. Through this technique he was able to reconstitute archeological sites of the Hopewell culture that have been partially destroyed by agriculture or urban expansion. when we restore. Ohio. but I do have an advantage over my younger colleagues.
the moment of its scanning. these qualities and limitations could be hard to distinguish from one another. The European colonists have plowed their sacred earth mounds and erased their traces. certainly not Native American Indians.sculpture. Depending on ones point of view. inaccessible. but not from a commercial standpoint. In other words. Contemporary with Jesus. No one knows who they were. Similarly to the quantum physics paradox in which it is impossible to determine the physical position of a 82 . Some have remained under golf courses or under some schools. John Hancock worked for the tourism industry. They knew enough sacred astronomy to be able to orient their temples after the Moon and its natural cycles or after the equinox. and especially why they disappeared completely. Hancocks studies are an introduction for the park visitors to this culture. the virtual image of an object returns the object to mark 0. the Hopewell is a strange and extinct culture. as well as pointing to some of its limitations. A similarly accurate registration done after a certain period of time would differ dramatically from the previous one because time changes the geometry of an object and decomposes its matter. or any other recycled piece belongs to Troy IV or Troy V? To whom do the columns of pagan temples. time-wise. He prepared the VH material for the National Parks that protect the remnants of the Hopewell culture. Too many alternatives of virtual restoration could complicate the decisions in a real restoration case. deliberately brought as symbol of subordination from all over the new Christian empire to support the cupola of Santa Sophia cathedral in Constantinople belong to? To the temples from which they have been removed. to the cathedrals. or to the historical process that led to these temples? Most likely the answer here would be: its impossible to decide. The excess of physical detail is limited by the extremely short period of time registered by the process. ruined place? Furthermore. a high resolution image of a scanned object brings into discussion the concept of immediacy. its range is very short. or they could even hold them back completely: why should we invest in restoring a site or building if we could walk through it via VH as if we would be in that remote. Prof. If our aim is fidelity. done in a way that emphasizes the qualities of the VH technique.
are reconstructed in virtual reality the way they would have looked at some point in their history. I believe that by the time of its inauguration we will be able to experience it via VH. and the archeologists of the future will have the same dilemma: are they looking at a Roman temple that became a church or are they looking at a church? And how will they know that there was a church? Of many basilicas we still dont know if they were meant to spread justice or. A virtual patrimony means that historic castles and buildings .especially when a physical reconstruction is not possible anymore . Could it be a reused fragment from a previous temple. too much detail in a VH project is sabotaged by the short time span it covers. will become a ruin. Another example would be the upside-down tombstone used at the foot of an altar table in a church. not instantaneous events. admirers of Antoni Gaudi. debating how could it be known if a certain stone in a certain building was new. wrote Lee Smolin in a book about quantum cosmology translated in Romanian. after they have been taken over by Christians. as can be seen at the Romanian 83 . It already exists in a kind of finished state. which in time has become quarry for the new buildings? Indeed how could it be known? After a major cataclysm (or after few more decades of neglect). because bringing something into being and its opposite are processes. like me. few or many. I have participated in many study sessions in the Virtual Heritage lab at the University of Cincinnati regarding some building in some archeological layer of Tory. many. or from a previous iteration of the city. It involves as much creativity and decision work as architectural research. I would like to give you hope after my last visit to Barcelona. and not all the processes involved in imagining a house are achievable. meant to offer salvation. one that fits our times so well: as a souvenir of the completed construction. who might be. La Sagrada Familia cathedral will be finished as planned in 2020.sub-atomic particle and know its speed in the same time. the church of Densus. Do you think it is easy to translate architectural plans intro 3D? No. Yes. The houses are processes. available in all the tourist shops in Barcelona. as proved by the VH technique can only exit in virtual reality. For those. The marble is a process not an object.
it is possible to understand the drawings and models of an artist that died more than a century before these discoveries in math and physics. but he has designed it in its completeness. a method of anticipating the final look of a monument or its possible image. or will be seen in the future. Thus. we will maybe discover something about the many changes that a project goes through until it becomes a building. This is how it was possible to execute the light lotuses. we are discussing a projection into the future. of a building7 which the devout architect did not finish. Discovering his atypical geometries. This is precisely what my colleagues at the Foundation for Habitat and Art in Romania. were made. similarly to the geometry surrounding the black holes in contemporary cosmology.Peasant Museum. How should we define it? And from what state of the building process was it removed in order to be incorporated in another? Of course. Lets return to Gaudi. 84 . is it possible to reconstruct through virtual reality something that has not yet been consecrated by being brought into being? While youre thinking of an answer. Consequently. from which have resulted a series of scans of these monuments. VH is in this case. here is another example: there is an online Palladio museum where some of his architectural dreams are made visible. different from the way we see it now. least in architecture. you will note that this type of questions do not apply to Gaudi: in the end. not as they have been build but as the maestro imagined them in his four books on architecture. (IMUAU) at the institute of Opt-Electronics at the University of Piteºti have began to research in the project on the Barbaþia from Cîmpulung Muºcel and the church from Corbii de Piatrã. with the approval of both parties. through virtual reality. I believe this practice of experimenting with the virtual processing of reality. (which represent both cosmic explosions and/or black holes) from the deep seated ceiling of the cathedral. Is this virtual patrimony? Yes. of foreign attractors and of the bending of the time-space continuum. And what does this VH tell us about architecture? If it is to compare the (quite significant) differences between virtual and real villas. the architects that try to understand Gaudis drawings can understand and translate them into stone only now. Gaudi did not build the whole cathedral. Only now! After the discovery of fractals.
has all of a sudden become fashionable. the public discourse. Characterized by a minimalist aesthetic without a social mission and autistic artistic expression lacking aesthetics (i. So far. 2.e. the architecture dedicated to those social segments (that elude the architect whose compensation is a percentage of the projects cost). Experimenting with Sustainable Architecture a) The Poor Architecture Suddenly. 85 . the result of their work tends to be incorporated into mainstream architecture. the few similar aspects can enhance a vanguard approach in restoration: there are many monuments that could be researched. and restored. which we thought could not happen to us. The VH data in Romania is very different form that in the US. But paradoxically. as we can easily observe in the book The Next House8 which proposes this approach as a model for the future. the best answer (as long as the experts. an extreme form of modernism). lawmakers.beginning with visualizing a historic monument and ending with the virtual reconstruction of all its potential restorations is very favorable to our time and space and expected to produce surprising results in the future. poverty has become fashionable. What seems to be evident lately is that more and more nonprofit organizations. modeled. Adding to that. and patrimony administration still remains blind) is Virtual Heritage. the patrimony legislation. moreover. Of course. all of this being the common denominator of the American intellectual resistance. Lagging as well are the policy. the natural disasters. a certain coquettishness with the people exists (Marxist expressions taught by a very prized communist critic of capitalism. Investing in a VH laboratory is significantly less expensive that doing the actual restoration. foundations and other voluntary organizations have become involved in residential architecture. and peoples migrations put us in unimaginable situations. especially in universities. Fredric Jameson). The practice of restoration in Romania is lagging. which are surprisingly effecting us too this year.
These characteristics define some predictable materials like earth and wood. the portability and mobility of such a construction are inversely proportional with its lifespan11. possibly. Moreover. from the premise that not all people in need of a shelter are in this situation against their will. but contemporary architecture has come to favor others even more perishable that these. social activism in the developed Western countries is concerned. portability. Some architects. As an example are to be seen the medical structures designed for catastrophic events like September 11. but there is a an area of concern that unites both the Western developed countries (including here Japan). Labeled extreme housing. because it is more urgently needed that a house. and the developing states in the East. 2001.Today. which use military trucks as structural elements12. that is the emergency shelter. The materials and the construction methods used in emergency architecture bring into discussion the concept of ephemerality and disappearance. The recent earthquakes in Turkey and Greece. 86 . probably. they refer to a certain type of shelter with is less then a house and this is. fixed architecture is by necessity thought of in terms of its durability. needed in large numbers in the aftermath of a natural disaster or war. Emergency architecture needs to take into consideration: speed (that of on-site construction or of assembling prefab parts). like Gans and Jelacic (from New York) work on an even more basic level than that of emergency shelters for the survivors of natural disasters. they have designed a shelter that emphasizes even more its temporary nature. Inversely. inflatable or flexible architecture can be thought of in terms of strength of its components or materials. The answer: shelters being built on hundreds of square miles9. In other words. perhaps. as well as temporality (inherent to its very existence). without any other concern than to provide basic protection. have transformed the drama of suddenly loosing ones home into a major crisis for the respective countries. for instance. Starting. mostly with the narrower problem of creating permanent or temporary shelters for homeless people. This is why a preventive thinking based on which the state would finance the research and construction of a sufficient number of prefab shelters is necessary10.
The strange combinations that I have seen in the 90s. still baring the 87 . give an idea of the confusion that exists regarding the use of materials. with cemented cardboard because the construction funds have been prematurely depleted. The Japanese architects are able to equally relate to both the contemporary space they try to address as well as to its traditional past (the temple in Ise. a new roof material resistant to tornados was conceived by two professors at the University of Delaware. wattles and other temporary materials is still practiced in rural areas of Romania. covered. down. and double-pane windows. and has replaced them with concrete. as it happens with Shigeru Ban. There is an element in this (re)architecture (the term was proposed by ªerban Cantacuzino as a book title regarding conversions) that is concomitantly contemporary and archaic. The use of straw bales. According to Newsweek magazine. I myself have used perfectly intact bricks. as well as his Metabolist predecessors (from whom he redeemed himself at least in terms of his ability to conceive of a movable. The modernization has practically eliminated the use of natural/local materials and the inherent construction techniques from the architecture of the rural house. tin. newspapers and waterproof adhesive. Such an approach would define the Japanese architects as retro-futurists. Sometimes the more or less innocent incentive for recycling abandoned buildings is the inflated price of construction materials (a frequently seen process in Bucharest during the 90s and the predominant source of brick for new residential architecture). with its paper walls is one such example). A city or a building could become the site for a new construction (normally in the aftermath of a natural disaster).The architects who investigate the limits of durability dont always have their own tradition as an inspirational source. at the intersection of archaic and modern. temporary architecture). like a concrete structure covered in bricks of clay and straw. or the proud church in Urziceni (designed by me). in a rush. or could become a quarry for another settlement or building. The final stage of an architecture is often times seen as a great opportunity for the next. a confusion that architects have the responsibility to clarify. They are mostly used for buildings and shelters farm annexes but not for houses. It contains: soy straw.
the situation is solved small-mindedly and without any overall perspective. One of the most serious problems of contemporary Romanian society be it national or local . Instead of a strategic preoccupation for a responsible administration of such construction. while there still is something to take or destroy in the country. especially modern industrial buildings. using it towards a new house as it was free. That is why every catastrophic event catches the government and local builders unprepared. ugly housing.proud stamp of its pre WWII manufacturer. the president of ORA14 has shared his concern regarding this dreadfully irresponsible lack of interest from on the part of authorities. Similarly. meaning housing for those who depend on social services. We have at our disposal whole quarries of such materials. and therell be need for such housing. expensive and.is its complete disinterest in social housing in the true sense of the word. The only class dedicated to extreme housing and emergency architecture is taught by me at IMUAU13. new or recycled. Recently. and their solution is pitiful: building long term. and evidently superior in quality to the mostly broken brick one could purchase as new. In architectural contests. while those afflicted by a catastrophe sit outside without shelter. which should not impede the creative use of any construction materials. I am not aware of any coherent effort on behalf of the state or city authorities to indentify those who could offer a solution from architects and builders to possible donors and the army. There is nothing special in recycling modern buildings. natural or artificial.I would call remarkable. as proved by the project in Cãlãraºi which nostalgically. due to it being exiled from the city . the criterion requested is local character. useless to say. regardless of their previous use. But when natural disasters will come one after another. We are not leaving in times of generosity or of Christian self-sacrifice (or social-democrat for that matter). Now is the time of the wolves and scavenger vultures. I have recycled it from a previous neighboring demolition. we want it to be 88 . there is no preoccupation in researching emergency housing in a country haunted by the specter of devastating earthquakes.
And what does this extreme mean exactly? Does it mean reducing the elements of inhabitation to their minimum. If the temporary shelter the basic form of inhabitation which does not need more then minimal preparation to take place is seen on one extreme of the process of habitation.known that we did not sit when we should have worked. an anguished habitation. like the others. to the point of discussing an inhabitation of crisis. b) Extreme Housing Goal of the Median Inhabitation? The term extreme housing (used by the architects Gand & Jelacic in their project for shelters in Kosovo (see www. that we did not build houses for the nouveau riches while those leaving under the poverty line survive in indescribable conditions. Extreme inhabitation might not mean sheltering from crisis as it could mean inhabitation in crisis. in which the shelter does not protect anymore. and implicitly temporary. then we must meditate on what is to be found in-between. we could safely say that it is the process not its cover that concerns us here. that we have not taken part in the general indifference. or does it mean something more. The temporary shelter questions the very definition of inhabitation. since we are not discussiong the house per se but the act of inhabitation in an extreme form. calming refuge which could divert the attention from the emergency situation. as proposed by Robert Venturi). extreme references the need more than the solution. Extreme housing refers to a certain type of shelter which is less then a house. in the term discussed we are faced with a reversal of meaning: we are expected to know already what it means to inhabit in order to be able to speak about the shelter in its radical form. 89 . but on the contrary. lets try to peel off its layers of meaning and in the process add to them. Instead of defining the architecture of the home as an enhanced shelter (by decorating it with symbols. be it on the left or on the right.architectureforhumanity. Thus. and that is probably because it is more urgently needed than a house.com ) is meant to become part of the theoretical architectural lingo. In other words. maybe a proposal for a new way of habitation? If we were to speculate. being itself affected by the extreme situation in which it exists. not a protective.
the act of habitation evolves towards the full realization of its essence. engagement with the community problems beginning with its close vicinity and ending with its placement in ensemble but in the same time. opening the one towards the many and vice versa opening the community towards the individual. Thinking15. invoking the Latin term colere (culture). For Heidegger. and not passivity. detachment. becomes a nodal point for opening the self towards the other. why should the house be different by retreating from society and refusing to reflect its positives and its negatives? In other words. in and through the process of habitation itself. could extreme housing possibly be a goal for contemporary habitation? The apartment tower proposed by Santiago Calatrava in downtown Manhattan is a type of rise against. Peter Eastman hoped that the housing architecture would resist its seemingly predestined tendency to evade the social anguish particular to its location.Years ago. during the same conversation. as he puts it. 2001. introspection and self redefinition. hiding. If architecture is a mirror image of society. one that transforms the being in an almost agrarian way. resting all actions traditionally and almost unquestionably associated with the duties of the house are questioned by that active habitation exposed by Heidegger in Building. implies a fertile territory for investigation. could we ask that the process of habitation itself be more active rather than reactive/ passive? Retreating. The house. the habitation space is active. in extreme habitation. implies participation. It is hard to imagine a bigger difference between the ways Heidegger saw the problem of habitation and that proposed by Eisenman. almost a manifesto for habitation. and introversion. in a conversation with Christopher Alexander. In this sense. engagement (even physical). opening the self towards the world. 145-6). Dwelling. The radical quality of this type of habitation continually engaged in a complex socio-economic net. openness. Still. something profound ties these two perspectives together: the idea that habitation implies action. 90 . (Heidegger. different from that practiced by Neemia in the reconstruction of Jerusalem. Through an active habitation and through building for an active habitation. by extrapolation. Living at such height and in such a charged area (in the proximity of Ground 0) will be a radical act.
the term extreme housing is not something less than a permanent house. but as a form of habitation. the presence of such a space alongside a basic shelter. can help in facing the trauma rather the ignoring it. The shelter is not only a) individual. Maybe because in their understanding. But glass will never behave as well as the 91 . The church is a privileged space of shelter for individual or collective psychological dramas. On the contrary. The house becomes then. in such situations). in the context of extreme housing. and by analogy the public space becomes the center of our worlds. the term I propose here is that of hyper-housing. mobile shelter. and of course that glass has reached the strength of many materials with good thermal variation. Of course. We thought it important. as the charity night-shelters dont do it either. in which the home is more than a house. c) Extreme Architecture in Romania Due to the modern construction technology we are able to detach the architectural design from the materials involved. On the contrary. located openly. of the church. for example. as a sanctuary and as a right to the comfort of the sacred space. but exists as b) community/collective shelter (in the care of the community. it includes the social. a space for the healing prayer (or just comforting prayer. and not of the states social services). but it does not solve the lack of shelter. of the community as a site and as a universe. we can build glass towers in Dubai. but something more then a temporary. to propose for the pilot project done with Habitat and Art in Romania foundation (HAR) in Bujoreni/Vâlcea not only a house for crisis situations but a spiritual space as well. the center of my world. a church. sacrificing comfort for a powerful image. the way it was described so far. The world is full of famous buildings that push the limits of materials. On its own.The shelter proposed by Gans & Jelacic does not solve the problem of those without a home. economic. not as a symbol of personal/collective drama that needs to be treated or healed through blame or pity. it creates a situation in which it attracts attention to itself. such a shelter may bring fame to its designers who show it in a gallery or on the web. and spiritual trajectories of the neighborhood as a unit.
from the beginning. In conclusion. but generates energy. The forests. have provided thermal resistance similar to a solid wall. because good policy cannot be implemented through the benevolence of the investors or by force. where they still exist. Not only does the Ministry for the Environment need to support this inevitable process. On the other hand. Abroad. but through an intelligent taxation system. or at least for those over a certain size (and for all public ones). It is inadmissible that in places blessed with good exposure to wind and sun power plants still burn heavy oil in order to produce thermal energy.materials that. Principles of Planning We know that even in Romania the climate is changing towards extremes. we even have as lifestyle model the house that not only uses. but so does the Finance Ministry. can be renewed only through political decisions (which. The South of the country is becoming dryer. We already know that our energy resources are limited and. Houses that are completely independent of the electrical system are more and more common and better designed. because we have long since crossed the limit of natural self-renewal for this living resource. increasing the taxes on the already prohibitive price of gas and electricity should encourage a faster transition to the use of alternative energy. do not exist). For example. Only a few days ago the Ministry for the Environment has discovered that the sources for renewable energy are not easily available to the consumers and will propose legislation to encourage their use. the use of at least one alternative energy source needs to be mandatory by law for all buildings in Romania. for now. finally. Reducing the taxes for those that comply should also be mandatory in order for the use of green technology to be cost effective compared to the traditional sources of energy (because we also have bad traditions that have killed the independent thinking of pre-modern architecture). even the architects need to reconsider their planning models. with sudden variations in temperature. solar energy and the heat pump are the norm. they come with heavy political agendas. at this point. Claiming that we are designing based on the models of Western architecture does not apply anymore: please look at 92 .
The solid space conserves more than the empty space. And especially. the volumetric articulation of the buildings themselves needs to change. We should maintain a well balanced ratio between the solid and the glassed surfaces or walls. A well designed house. I feel its obvious that we should stop using terraces only for their modern look (meaning stylistically obsolete. from the tall office buildings to the villas are still built based on the pre-WWII and immediately post war architecture. and how expressive these consoles could be. and all its adjacent units (i. Intelligent facades that collect and store solar energy are doubling their positive impact on the site. using the vertical movement of the air through ventilation wells between the basement of the building (which could even contain a body of water) 93 . we need to use internal courtyards. we are constantly told is harmful to our health). think of the architecture of the traditional dirt hut. We should. perhaps. We need shade and coolness. for example) but as a form of contemporary eco-architecture as well. not only as a form of poor architecture (as it is seen at the Village Museum. Greece. and Turnkey can teach us how to design an extended awning supported on wood consoles.the current Western architecture and you will see that in Romania everything. apartments). we need to follow the time tested architectural models of the South.e. The solution is not the air conditioning system that avidly consumes electrical power at prohibitive prices. towards at least two cardinal points. for the absence of walls make these buildings a vessel for conserving the internal energy of the building. for lack of a better argument) and that the awnings need to be designed in such a way as to provide appropriate shade based on the sun exposure of the house. does not need the artificial cool air (which. In conclusion. often poorly assimilated. A good ventilation of the interior is achieved if we orient the building. besides their traditionally use. In the Middle East are used other forms of air circulation. which are still remembered and used by traditional architects. even in desert conditions. A simple look over the border at the traditional architecture of Bulgaria. If climatically speaking we are migrating South.
and colors could be. as well.and the levels above. gathering more buildings into one block surrounding a courtyard. their textures. The facades of apartment buildings could be transformed from radiant heat sources into lungs of the city. They are waiting for us. The viaducts near the Bastille opera in Paris offer one such solution. just that we seem to be looking only at old architecture books not the most recent examples! A viable garden is not necessarily tied to the ground. the keys of an instrument that the architect could play a cooling music. If we end up using terraces. which should also extend to facades as sun protectors. shade and cooler temperatures for the interior spaces. The light-well courtyards of our pre-WWII buildings play this useful role to the day. Interior gardens have long been used in office building architecture. Interior courtyards offer. to the independent house with smaller and smaller plots and to give a chance to the surrounding-building. waiting for our awakening. Maybe we should give up. from the unfired clay to ceramics. Gardens can also be vertical surfaces (facades and fences but also multi level structures traversed internally by promenades). Natural materials first of all the earths. in the urbanization plans proposed. Germany where covering the terraces of apartment buildings with vegetation is deliberate are another. to cease to be salesmen for a dumb-down industry that poisons our air in order to 94 . on the one hand. the architects. conserves more energy. We need vegetation. Already existent surfaces can be covered with vegetation and recovered as parks for the city unlike anything built so far. If we deplore the loss of green spaces. The Roman villa knew already all these principles and it is not at all shameful to admit that it was right. while the urban policies practiced in Bonn. and on the other hand more intimacy from the public space. we should act not by limiting construction but by intelligently using the construction site. or the house-garden ensemble with internal shade. The construction materials. the introverted building. it would be a good idea to use them as green surfaces. but also the stone and the wood are all here. and the architecture of today is not. and thus we should not automatically reduce it to the available size on the construction site. as opposed to the building with four external walls. In any case.
almost against the will of those who feel that such experiments reveal their own traditions. discussing the experimentalism as a hidden aspect of post-WWII Romanian architecture. that the architecture needs to change in Romania too in order for it to fit or not. taught us slowly. For this volume though. in the absence of Ciprian I thought it fit to present this site-specific text. (Text translated from Romanian by Barbara Bartos) 95 . I also know with what awe my colleagues discover the forming qualities of the earths. I hope that such a project does not seem outdated compared with the most recent experiments of my other colleagues represented in this publication. to which communism was only its gangrenous stage. poses the same questions I am posing here after two thousand years of proud endurance. In a way. If the place and the climate become extreme. for the last few summers. I know what resistance anyone can encounter when it undermines a tradition wrongly built on the idea of modernization. Why does the Danube delta need to be covered in concrete when we could built good houses on stilts and stone like always? Why does the mountain need to be covered in concrete when stone and wood are all there. it needs to be reinvented. If critical thinking succumbed under the fascination with producing a maddening technology. and how the simple proximity of a castle. and to all those who. I have given a talk together with Ciprian Mihai about the inherent complexities of philosophy and architecture. this text is an indirect homage to the Foundation for Habitat and Art in Romania. These are the premises of the text I proposed to Tincuþa Heizel: a synoptic map of the post-WWII Romanian experimentalism. when necessary the place and the climate. respectively after 1989. similarly our built environment needs to rethink itself.make the concrete and asphalt from which we ultimately end up running from. followed by a panorama of the experimental potential in contemporary Romanian architecture. As one who has written the architectural norms for the Danube Delta area. like the one from Argamum (Capul Doloºman. under our eyes burned by the light of a dying modernity? All these questions would be rhetorical but in Romania and some tropical countries. During the conference in Sibiu. Jurilofca). which is the source of the present volume.
the wood church that accompanies the pilot housing in Bojoreni had been promised by Sen. I could see the fury with which the local authorities of Vâlcea (county and city) have responded to such a project on the day of the opening (the fall of 2001). but from my experience working with the Foundation for Habitat and Art in Romania. Portable Architecture. 9 The neverending forest of houses between Istabul and Ankara was a postapocalyptic sight for the professors and the students of Ion Mincu University of Architecture with whom I was travelling on this route in 2001. 8 by Lola Gomez & Cristina Montes (translators note). For details about this incredible episode. Of course. and where the reconstruction costs have been much more than the sum granted to the HAR Foundation. 5 Architects Union of Romania (translators note). not even the publication of this project in mainstream media had any effect on the MLPTL. fact that would have transformed a project financed by EU money in one of fiscal evasion.Notes Context and Experiment in Architecure in Experiment in Romanian Art after 1960 (Bucharest. On the other hand.108-112.simple apartment buildings identical with those built before 1989 at much higher prices that they would go for on the market! 11 For more detials see Robert Kronenburg. and which strangely has forgotten to built an Orthodox church in an Orthodox country. which led to the denigration of the project by the bullied employees of the city hall for the remainder of the evening. CSAC. p. 4 Since 1989 (translators note). Alexandru Nancu and I have vehemently denied our opposition to the ex-commissioner of PUR announced donation during the opening. 2000). claiming that it misrepresents the efforts of the government to engage with a similar problem in the county specifically the collapse of a settlement situated over a abandoned salt mine. 2003. We have been lectured in cosmopolitanism and false orthodoxy and other 50s accusations. 2 I am sending the reader the a text dedicated to this subject in my book: Bizatium after Bizatium after Bizatium (Constanþa: Ex Ponto. Oxford: Elsevier/Architectural Press. non only this way of thinking does not exist at an official level. Adrian Paunescu to a community in Serbia that had previously offered him an award. the company that builds this social housing . 3rd edition. 7 La Sagrada Familia (translators note). see the magazine Ianus/2002. 1997). 10 In Romania. 3 Reference to Ricardo Bofill (translators note). I do not know how much did this sight change since. 6 The Order of Romanian Architects (translators note). 1 96 .
pp. 14 The Order of Romanian Architects (translators note). 13 Ion Mincu University of Architecture and Urbanism. 12 97 . Building. 48-62. Bucharest (translators note). volume 56. 15 Martin Heidegger. isue 3. February 2003. 1976. Thinking in Poetry. Journal of Architectural Education. London: Harper Perennial. Thought translated by Albert Hofsadter.Stephen Verderber. Compassionism and the Design Studio in the Aftermath of 9/11". Dwelling. Republished in 2001. Language.
Mobile phones. in reciprocal co-production with the social and the technological. PLACES AND SPACES: TOWARDS A FRAMEWORK FOR LOCATIVE MEDIA ARTWORKS Gemma San Cornelio. Geomatics. have delivered new forms of representing the space as much as new forms of perception of that space through tools and techniques used in land surveying.ON FLOWS. Pau Alsina Abstract Information and communication technologies have redefined our understanding and relationship with space as much as (far from techno-deterministic approaches) the other way around. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) or Global Positioning Systems (GPS). New forms of cultural production and consumerism are being explored in association with those new spatial practices. or GPS technologies have made possible the instantaneous connection between location dependent information and physical spaces. remote sensing. wireless networks. The use that artists make of media technologies in relation to space interventions suggest a stimulating 99 . The networked society and its specialization on information flows have brought us new territorial configurations through processes that are being constantly recreated by the variable geometry of global information flow. the incessant tagging of objects and the world itself.
and by extension. The main positions can be summed up as follows: space was understood as position of objects. or in other words. and as field. The nature of space Throughout history. as enclosure of objects. including social sciences. The aim of this chapter is two-fold: first of all. Secondly. through the study of different locative media artworks. We will focus on such theories and interpretations in order to highlight different layers of space-related concepts in relation to the practice of art. being approached from very distinct disciplines: from philosophy to architecture. Through the analysis of these theories and practices we will further seek to outline a proper and useful theoretical framework for the current practice of locative media art. such as anthropology. particularly initiating a discussion about its objective nature.way of approaching the study of how these technologies shape and affect our everyday life. the creative practice. as case studies for the use of information and communication technologies. sociology or geography. locative media artworks. Western philosophers raised different questions about space. should be regarded as a set of emerging practices that deal with our relationship with space in varied forms and that may be challenging current and previous theoretical approaches to space. The question of experiencing and representating space has been at the heart of many debates on technological developments in our contemporary societies. we want to dig into an archaeology of space-related concepts throughout history. 100 . 1. the concept of space had different interpretations in the Western philosophical tradition. or even media studies. we will investigate the transformation of the subjective perception of space. In this context. art practices using what has been defined as locative media. establishing connections between theoretical sources and artistic interpretations of space.
against Newtonians. who said that being-there. by its own nature without relation with anything external. Epicurus. We can find this concept in Aristotle. But both are identical. This position was supported by the old Atomism that believed in the existence of the void and its infinity. and therefore there is no possible void. also by Descartes in his Geometry. For Newton the absolute space. Descartes defines it in a more expressive way than by size and figure. Lucretius.1 This concept almost disappeared in Western philosophy. Zeno. is always the same and immobile. and that is commonly considered as immobile space.2 Absolute space is then the measure of all dimensions of space. and we end up thinking more on the lines of the latter definitions when we think of space. and have just a nominal difference. against Leibnizs arguments. regarding the nature of space as a place. is unique in its nature through its relationship with things. extended this notion in science as did Kant. determined by our senses through its position respective to our bodies. The second position considers that space is the enclosure. with the exception of Heidegger. Spinoza and Leibniz argued against the existence of the void. This notion became established through some authors of the Renaissance and then. as Aristotle explained in his Physics. which was identical with the notion of space for Plato. Then Newton.The first one to be considered was space as a positional quality of the material objects in the world. Descartes. and later Giordano Bruno followed this concept. as the immobile limit that embraces a body. an affirmation made in order to find a particular way to solve the problem of the nature of space. There is no space without material objects. The limited empty space. said if space is a property or an attribute. The relative space is a mobile dimension or measure of all absolute spaces. the human reality. whose defendants believe exists between two bodies. would be the property of which substance?. Leibniz. then it must be the property of a substance. 101 .
For example artists and architects as Le Courbusier and Ozenfant (through their magazine LEsprit Nouveau). represents a return to the notion of space as place. As the space is wrinkled by gravitational fields. as well. But the non-Euclidian geometries of Lobachevsly or Rienman also captured the attention of artists. Laszlo Moholy Nagy (through his art and 102 . During Renaissance artists like Leonardo da Vinci or Alberti used the system of geometric perspective as a tool for the representation of space in their artworks. The forth dimension adds time to the traditional three-dimensional understanding of space. the De Stijl group and Theo van Doesburg (with his design for a house in the 4th dimension of space-time). as a way to visualize and measure the space. as a new way of explaining the universe and the nature of space and reality. as it did for Kants philosophy and its Euclidean geometry. especially when Einstein and his Theory of General Relativity were used to explain the physical space. the expressive force of a particular notion of space completely different from the modern concepts. This way of representing space also had a tremendous impact on German idealism.The third understanding was the concept of space as field. or the undulatory mechanics of Schrödinger for example. It is illogical to think of space without implying a field. Therefore the notion of field paradoxically substitutes the notion of space. as Panofsky explains. Artists around the world tried to inspire their work on these ideas. we could think of many artists being inspired by Euclidean geometry. generated by massive stars and galaxies. as it also represents a totally different conception of the world itself. when the possibility of measuring it through non Euclidean geometries exists. In art history. Nowadays it still is the most comprehensive notion of space applied to contemporary physics. The mathematization of the representational space is. in the cosmic space the shortest distance between two points is not a straight line anymore. and the fusion between space and time as a continuum makes its appearance in the Physics of Minkowski. which in some way. the Theory of Relativity.
got inspired by these ideas generated by the Theory of Relativity and the non-Euclidean understanding of space. the main lever which also pulled space away from place4. This separation involves. and differentiates them from the spatial practices of ordinary users (the citizens). social theories on space focus on the conventional understanding of space provided by institutions (states and governments)3. the development of an empty dimension of time. above all. the clock. as linked to the different notions of space mentioned above. For example. in Modernity and Self-identity. Kazimir Malevich (with his Suprematist Machine) . time and space were connected through the circumstances of place. Anthony Giddens. Social space and its dualities We could also consider space through social theory. and its separation from institutional or panoptic consideration. Naum Gabo (with his kinetic sculptures) André Breton and Marcel Duchamp (and the ideas of mathematician Poincairé) or Salvador Dalí (through many of his artworks like The Persistence of Memory) amongst others. Max Bill (in his art and math series as the Moebius strip). 2. distinguishes three elements to describe the dynamic character of modern social life: the first one is what he defines as the separation of time & space. In this sense.design classes). one of the most prominent contemporary theorists. but in the late capitalist societies there is a separation of these two spheres. honoring Lobachevsky). The accent on the personal and subjective experience of space. is one of the most important features that define the diverse concepts on space in social theory. Giddens states that in the pre-modern society. a universal dating system (the calendar). and maps are just some elements that have contributed to the separation of time and space. so that it provides a basis for their recombination in ways that coordinate social activities 103 . and Pangeometry. El Lissitzky (with his Proun artworks and his manifesto of A.
the space is 104 . and accumulate one above the other. on the contrary.without necessary referencing the particularities of place. Anthony Giddens. as McLuhan initially proposed. The mediated practice of space. regarding a social and economic model. unitary space. and more recently by Manuel Castells. living body7. the concept visuality recalls the space perceived by the detached. In haptic space. the when of these actions is directly connected to the where but not. one of the most relevant consequences of the separation of space and time is that. it is not essential to overlap in space and time in order to share a (collective) experience. exemplified in the primitive systems of representation. Gergen. This duality is expressed by some authors. like David Clarkes or Alois Riegl. via the mediation of place6. In the optical space. is facilitated. Thus. the objects are isolated inside the visual field.5 In this way. there is another result of the transformation of space: the coexistence of what has been labeled as globality and locality. who defined the artistic evolution in the visual Western arts in terms of a shift from haptic space to optical space. the experience of space through media points to one of the most relevant questions regarding space in contemporary art and culture: the distinction between the visual and the corporeal understanding of space. without being organized in a homogeneous and. The scenes are formed as links to the objects. to Clarke. Related to this. David Clarke talks about visuality and hapticality in cinema. by all the different media that have emerged during the twentieth century. as he points out: Modern social organization presumes the precise coordination of the actions of many human beings physically absent from one another. voyeuristic eye. The coexistence of locality and globality. or partially caused. actually. one of the important authors in the modern aesthetic theory. and hapticallity defines the space perceived by the mobile. as in the pre-moderns era. that is. This thesis has been later supported by K. Haptic space is also a central concept in Alois Riegls writings. two concepts originally introduced by Giddens and used very commonly nowadays by scholars.
a graspable image. In the authors words. but not paying attention to small things or particularities.represented using the perspective system. defined by the Renaissance painters. The walker is a person who practices and lives the space from the inside. As proposed by San Cornelio11. and sometimes distorted. the city is offered up to the voyeur as a whole. elaborates a theoretical model where he distinguishes two types: voyeurs and walkers. applying these theories to film analysis throws light on the particularities of the image and shifts from the voyeurs to the walkers perspective as it is shown in the following examples. thus. 105 . De Certeau describes the city experienced by either voyeurs or walkers9. Visuality. while hapticality would refer to the body. this distinction (argued elsewhere by San Cornelio8) it is not only due strictly to the different systems of representation. and the other senses of the human being. and used until today. particularly by means of photography or films. in a way that an image (a shot) taken from a very close distance may appear incomplete. Clarkes concept of hapticality would recall that of Riegl. unorganized. The voyeur point of view is defined as gazing at the city from above. but also to how images allude to sensuality and evoke emotions. holistic. analyzing spatial practices in the city. Considering this approach. walkers are practitioners that make use of spaces that cannot be seen10. is the anonymous person walking and experiencing the city. would refer to an optical and pretended objective way of understanding the human experience. in contrast with the messy city that one moves through down below. Michel de Certeau. The voyeur would be the figure representing an optical point of view. in The Practice of Everyday Life. a representation with perspective. In our view. From this vantage point. Borrowing from Baudelaires notions the voyeur and flaneur. Following a similar duality. That is the way Walking in the City begins: the author is standing at the top of the World Trade Centre gazing over Manhattan. transformed into a solar eye and looking down like God. The walker. hence.
talks about production of space and distinguishes between absolute and abstract space. 4 the shift from voyeur to walker perspective in Wings of Desire © reverse-angle pictures Finally. For instance. forming a texture that encloses them both. the same 106 . rather than a representation of space. absolute space is a representational space. Absolute space defines the space as lived. in which space is conceived rather than lived.Fig. Following Lefebvre. Henry Lefevbre. Greek temples are absolute spaces because they imply notions of divinity. in other words. agricultural. 2 walker perspective Caresses © Els Films de la Rambla. Absolute space has dimensions. S. 3 and Fig. as Lefebvre defines it. but not the dimensions of the abstract or Euclidean space12. Absolute space (pastoral.voyeur perspective People from Rome 2003 © Istituto Luce y Roma Cinematografica Fig.1. as opposed to abstract space. the representational space is more related to nature and fertility. or space in origin) shows the relationship between urban space and its surroundings: the nature. and the representations of space are geographic or transportation and communication route maps.A Fig.
but after a closer look it becomes illusory because it is defined through empirical metaphors13. in fact.as it is commonly understood . punishments. eliminating differences. emotions) In absolute space people inhabit nature. but the body (threats. On first impression it appears homogeneous. while the 107 . governed by the logic of capitalism. but retaining a bond with their severed surroundings. Google map from aerial perspective. abstract space is political. related to power (for example the northern hemisphere is situated at the top of terrestrial globes. both in social and art practices. the empirical representation of space has been critically observed. Fig. which aims to achieve objectivity . Absolute space addresses not the intellect.occurs with tombs and funerary monuments that also belong to the absolute space. The main assumption of such critical approaches is that conventional cartography. On the other hand. instituted by state. influenced by a subjective view. 5. representing Lefebvres abstract space Actually.is.
Thus. with constant currents. the place is a symbolic space. Within the category of non-places. 3. Particularly. In this sense. Dérive would be connected with psychogeography. In an anthropological sense. It is also a rhetoric territory where the practitioners share signs and have things in common. This experience consisted of a rapid passage through varied environments of the city by a group of people. as well as other art practices related to space. to some extent. such as feminist geography (D. and history of its practitioners can not be read. This way. spaces where the identity. letting themselves be drawn by the attractions of the terrain and the encounters they found there. partially or totally. This position is overtly represented by Marc Augé definition of non-places. the study of the effects of geography on individuals14. that is. thanks to location-based technologies. petrol stations ) spaces of consumerism (super markets. Thus. the basis of Augés theorization of non-places is based on their contrary conditions. fixed points and vortexes that strongly discourage entry into or exit from certain zones.developing countries are at the bottom). relationship. substitution and disappearance of place Some other contemporary authors go a step further and point to the transformation or possible disappearance of the notion of place. hotel chains ) and spaces of 108 . where one can read. many appropriations and personalization of maps are currently taking place. he includes three types of spaces: spaces of circulation (motorways. a response to the theories previously drawn. Furthermore. there have been some alternative responses. proposed the Derive as a method for exploring space. Transformation. as an alternative to journeys and maps. Chance is a less important factor in this activity than one might think: from a derivés point of view cities have psychogeographical contours. such us performances and interventions (installations) in public buildings and open spaces. the identity of its inhabitants15. or the situationist movement in the Fifties of the Twentieth Century. that is. it could be stated that Situationist practises are. Massey). Guy Debord. airports.
he criticises the notion of domesticity or dwelling. For him. the opposition between places and non-places is relative. have been extensively inspired by these ideas. in a process of never ending self-destruction and renewal. Marcus Novak is another architect directly inspired by the ideas of Deleuze and Guattary. which is defined as a uniform model of a city where the skyscraper is the definitive typology. which could be conveyed in terms of heterotopia. The manifold spaces are folded in many ways as the model for the material sciences is the origami or the art of folding20 as Deleuze and Guattari affirm. or in other words. thus denying the category of place as source of identity. breaking up a given space into fragments. Many artists or architects. time. it depends on the place and the moment of the day17. and place. exploring the 109 . as much as by the non-Euclidean parameters hidden inside them. cables. This leads to a non-unified final form. For him. Auge draws on Rem Koolhas idea of generic city 18. Immutability gives way to fluidity. without layers. he claims the dissolution of epistemic coherence. This way. Concretely.communication (screens. superficial like a film studio. or a manifold space without a common measure. although with different arguments. Poststructuralist geography emerges from the deconstruction of pointilistic articulations of space. such as Lyotard. as for example Peter Eisenman. Other post-structuralist authors. they can be turned into places. These places have empirical existence and they are spreading towards the suburbs (peripheries) and characterizing what he defines as super-modernity. and the poststructuralist space is broken up into discontinuous elements that are branching without an unifying frame of reference. and heterogeneous moments of subjectivity that do not cohere into an identity19. In a more general perspective. it is a product of the market. deny the category of place. narrative elements disintegrate into clouds of linguistic combinations. waves ) 16. This assertion opens the possibility that through an intense experience of these spaces by its practitioners. It is a city without history. these are not places where long-term social relationships can be inscribed. Augé states that in a first level of analysis. the notion of place is a nostalgic response to the conditions of late capitalism. Nevertheless.
wireless networks. strongly determined also by the technological developments of Virtual Reality. interaction takes place in real time across very large distances and is shaping and shaped by the flow of information. thus living in a continuum of simulated experiences. and created by the constant movement of people. and GPS technologies have introduced the possibility to instantly connect ubiquitous information with physical spaces.immense possibilities of the folds and multiplicity as key factors for his creations.21 As many authors have already stated. it is becoming possible to be geographically distributed and still act as a unit in real time. people. flow of information. In this space. flow of organizational 110 . Castells writes: Our societies are constructed around the concept of flow: flow of capital. As Felix Stalder affirms. What logically belongs together no longer needs to be in one place in order to function as a single unit ( ). His work has been extremely influential not only in sci-fi or futuristic films like the Matrix trilogy. 4. For the first time ever. virtually indistinguishable from departure. as he explains broadly in his work. The opening and the ubiquity of place In recent years. and information over large distances. arrival becomes elusive. but to keep them moving around. the space of flows: a space that is organized for. The space of flows is not so much organized to move things from one place to another. and goods. goods. Baudrillard points to a spatial representation and experience based on the idea of simulacrum. in Manuel Castells words. From an aesthetic point of view. the empirical information and descriptions of space have increased spectacularly: mobile phones. ITC and the transportation systems have defined a new space for social interaction. His work is based on the prominence of the image in our society up to the point that images substitute reality. Simulacra and Simulation (1981). In the space of flows. the effects are dramatic and are still unfolding. but also in the conceptualization of the cyberspace as a disembodied space. in the last decades. flow of technology. It is.
and symbolic life. it would seem at first sight that the conceptualization of space of flows is a suitable framework for locative 111 . as Massey defines them: places should be thought of as not so much bounded areas. Moores considers that they are not opposed because place is not self-contained. Castells is quite right to begin by identifying the relation between flows and places as central to any social theory of space in the network society.interactions. but quite wrong to think of the space of flows and the space of places as diametrically opposed forms with completely separate logics25. The meaning of the term stresses particularly the idea of flows. because. places are open. The flow is not just one element of social organization: it is the expression of the processes dominating our economic. This position has been criticized by other authors. In other words. 5. he recalls also Rem Koolhas generic city. for considering it the architectonic expression of the space of flows in the information age23. Castells proposes a new spatial model that characterizes what he defines as the network society. livings ). and she points to the openness of places in global times26. (as Castells suggests) but has extensions outside (emotions. he is still supporting the idea that places have lost their identity due to the use of technologies and have become a sort of abstract places not linked to a particular location. political. flow of images. and symbols.22. repetitive. where flows are understood a purposeful. in a way.24 Castells defines the space of flows in relation to the space of places. programmable sequences of exchanges and interactions between social actors holding spatially discontinuous positions. sounds. In this model. In his own words it is a new spatial form characteristic of social practices that dominate and shape the network society: the space of flows. which is considered a previous paradigm where the physical localization was a determinant factor. For Moores. Defining a theoretical framework for locative media artworks Recalling the last theories.
Although there is not an official definition of the term locative media its initial use is attributed to Karlis Kalnins in 2003 and it was the 2006 topic of a special issue of the Leonardo Electronic Almanac. which are constantly sending and receiving data flows. Ben Russell puts it in other words: Locative media is many things: a new site for old discussions about the relationship of consciousness to place and other people. although place-based arts have long and rich histories. Nevertheless. critical or personal (memory) background in relation to the notion of space and place. or interventions in the public space. and would leave aside their aesthetic and conceptual components. locative media is closely related to augmented reality (reality overlaid with virtual reality) and pervasive computing (as in ubiquitous computing). Hence. a context within which to explore new and old models of communication. as far as they deal with space. They are digital media applied to real places and thus triggering real social interactions. laptop computers. only based on the technological side of these artworks. the novelty of locative projects seems to be in the way they include technological agents to express and index spatial relationships. such as land art. such as mobile phones. through technological devices. from a conceptual point of view many locative media projects have a social. which links them with other contemporary practices. PDA. GPS. locative media concentrates on social interaction with a place and with technology28. and mobile phones enable locative media.media projects. 112 . a name for the ambiguous shape of a rapidly deploying surveillance and control infrastructure. or computers. community and exchange. whereas augmented reality strives for technical solutions and pervasive computing is interested in embedded computing. As Manovich points out29. they are not the goal for the development of projects in this field. While mobile technologies such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). and shape a rapid set of technological developments. critique. this would be a shallow approach. Yet.27 In a technical sense. In the Wikipedia the term is summarized as media of communication functionally bound to a location. in order words. a framework within which to actively engage with. these projects have the possibility to augment or enhance the notion of space.
For Manovich the context for exploring new aesthetics of space is provided by augmented reality techniques.31 This way. the difference between the Locative Media approaches to space and that of other non-technologically-mediated interventions in public spaces would be the interchangeability and dynamics of data. ( ) it is crucial to see it as a conceptual. One of the key notions where these aesthetics can be explored is public space. Thus. in other words. to locative media: the common idea is that when the user is in the vicinity of objects. For Manovich. for Manovich. and they can be regarded as the same aesthetic paradigm. Moreover. buildings or people. in consequence. 113 . all the action is done in a virtual space. ( ) substituting them with electronic displays makes possible to present dynamic images.has become replaced by a new image: a person checking email. to mix images ( ) and to change the content at any time. In contrast. in a way. the information about them is delivered to the user32. augmented space and locative media are absolutely related. so that physical space becomes unnecessary and its vision is completely blocked. rather than just a technological issue. [Although] physical space was always augmented by images. or making a phone call ( ) while in the airport. opposed to Virtual Reality because in a typical Virtual Reality system.an aesthetic paradigm: The previous image of the computer era VR user traveling in a virtual space.beyond its technological side . in a street. graphics and type.30 With the previous assertion Manovich describes what he understands as a shift from the Virtual Reality paradigm to the Augmented Reality paradigm. Overlaying dynamic and contextual data over a physical space is a particular case of a general aesthetic paradigm: how to combine different spaces together. Augmented Reality systems help the user to do the work in a physical space by augmenting this space with additional information. constituting .and commercial branding such as Pradas .what kind of strategies are more suitable to provide an extensive use of these public spaces. car. as something that already was often a part of other architectural and artistic paradigm33. Augmented Reality becomes. Manovich proposes to learn from architecture . or in other actually existing space. Augmented Reality is conceptually very similar to wireless location services.
tagging specific spots into Google or other online maps. their own nature reveals an absolute immersion with the spaces that the spectators experience. its theoretical source of inspiration being Situationism. The importance of the place. on the one hand. the audio walks by Janet Cardiff may one attempt to include narratives (in this case fictional) in the experience of walking along a city. to be used as the basis of walks which navigate urban space in a new and unexpected way. and other types of data.leads the action. One of the pieces is The Missing Voice (Case Study B). The project was initially presented in 2004 at FutureSonic in Manchester UK. These narrations are listened by earphones connected to a CD player or iPod. GPS card and custom software. and on the other. Trying to establish a temporary perspective. combine instructions to the user (go down the stairs.In the following paragraphs we provide some examples illustrating. look through the window ) with fragments of a story. Utilizing a Tablet PC. how these projects are related with previous reflections on space. that is. cannot be denied in this project. 114 . Although technologically these are not complex projects. how locative media artworks are dealing with this aesthetic paradigm. inspired by different sources or motivations was the premise of the project 1000 Joyce Walks34 . as far as every point in the narrative is conditioned by the very spatial coordinates the spectator is covering. Another project which is also based in exploring and augmenting the experience in the city is Interurban by Jeff Knowlton and Naomi Spellman. The project. Walking in the city. sound effects. It was a participatory global intervention aiming to create a day of psychogeographical exploration with 1000 interventions in 24 hours across the globe. performed initially on June 16th 2008 (Bloomsday) aimed to remap routes from James Joyces Ulysses to any city in the world cited in the novel. commissioned in 1999 and continues to run. The technique used in this project is what is commonly known as geotagging. Generally audio walks are pieces that suggest to follow a trajectory through spaces where a narration recorded in an audio track .
so that its exploration connects interactions between the two spaces. The project is at the moment being tested in different sites Fig. and then. 6) of a simulation of Time Square in New York. Clara Boj and Diego Diaz. These images will be seen through a device of augmented reality visualization.InterUrban plays back pre-recorded narrative elements read by voice actors to weave a story structure in Manchesters historical city center. and between present and past35 the project more evidently linked to Manovichs suggestion to learn from architecture and commercial strategies is The Artvertise. between vision and hearing. heading and proximity to hypothetical or historical events determine how the narrative unfolds. 6 Simulation of The Artvertiser 115 . distance traveled. as depicted in the following image (fig. The procedure will consist of training a computer to recognize billboard advertisements. thus providing a mixed experience to the participant. The discontinuities on the reception of this information have to do with specific points of wireless connection. Environmental factors such as time of day and user/ participant location. replace them with alternative material. Although the previous examples illustrate the aesthetic potential of overlaying information over a physical space. This location aware narrative unfolds as the user/participant moves through real space. logos and other commercial images. a project that is currently being developed by Julian Oliver. currently a kind of binoculars. The main idea is taking sites dense with advertisements as an exhibition space.
This project started in 2001 and it has been performed in many different locations. in two different places: the place of the event itself and that in which it is watched and heard. As they navigate the virtual city they are chased by members of the Blast Theory team who appear as avatars in the virtual world. the player is seen and is out of the game. is there someone you havent seen for a long time that you still think of?. and can chose to exchange text messages with them and hear the verbal commentary of the Blast Theory runners via audio-stream and via 116 . the Blast Theory victor takes a digital photo of the real space where the participant was seen and this photo is displayed on the webpage38. The remote participants must avoid the Blast Theory chasers. 7 Test of the Artvertiser in Madrid In order to complete this framework it would be useful the recall the idea of place duplication suggested in the work of Scannell36. if a chaser gets within five meters of an online player. 7) which is a test in Madrid. The place duplication is at the heart of the experience in the project Can You See Me Now? by Blast Theory.and its appearance would look like in (fig. Broadcasting mediates these two sites37. A loose narrative framework is established requiring players to answer the question. Participants can then access an online virtual environment constructed to replicate the actual streets of the selected city. simultaneously. Participants are also able to see the avatars of other players and runners. Fig. When it occurs. By this concept he meant that public events now occur.
but also elsewhere in the real world39 In a sense the project Can You See Me Now makes more evident the colliding of the two spaces at the same time by connecting both the experience in the physical space with the online space. there is still a tendency to separate virtual space from the so-called real space. rather than treating the Internet as continuous with other social spaces. as Townsend and others suggest. Much of the early academic literature in this area has tended to focus on the nature of spaces or places apart from the rest of social life. Klitch describes her own experience in the game this way: I have the uncanny realisation that I am running alongside these performers. whereas the experiences on both sides are equally real. In contrast. Conclusions As implied above. As Miller and Slater state. only understanding this connection we will be able to understand that the openness or the possibilities of being interconnected are part of the same experience40.walkie-talkie. 6. as it has been argued along this chapter. As previously said. in our view. I have become a material-informational entity that exists not only in the virtual world. locative media projects propose a complete fusion between places and. it does not make sense any more to believe in this concept since the Internet is full of geographical information. constitute a very complex and diverse set of artistic practices that are currently emerging. this idea is highly influenced by the notion of simulation but also of simulacrum as a paradigm of a detached representation of reality. One of the main reasons. and consequently there isnt much research done on them. because despite the fact that there has been a lot of research based on the Internet in the last years. This is not a trivial observation. Furthermore. the different examples of locative media introduced in this chapter. there is no doubt that their experience should be considered as a whole and not separately. or approached them in an interdisciplinary way. as we intended in this 117 . and as part of everyday life. is that they can be examined by many different disciplines and points of view and consequently put in different frameworks. in our view.
We definitely believe that locative media allows the rethinking of some artistic practices. 118 . land art. and analysing some individual projects in depth we will be able to come to more conclusions and critical understandings not only of locative media art. rather than its disappearance. This is another line of research we are currently exploring. (2007). and drawing on Manovich insights. Related to this.chapter. but at the same time. as Massey or Scanell have suggested. they are framed in the augmented space aesthetics. their practical and evocative approach would suggest the opening of the place. happenings. London / NewYork: Verso. but there are other aspects to be explored (Manovich proposition on archaeology could be one approach) in the current media practices. the truth is that there are many references to both space theories and contemporary art practices in them: from a historical and conceptual point of view they are related to public space interventions. We have tried to shed some light on these projects and to demonstrate how artistic practices can contribute or can reflect on the social experience of place through (new) media. M. these artworks provide scholars with the opportunity to explore suitable frameworks in order to analyse them from diverse perspectives. References Augé M. constituting a new paradigm of space experience based on the interconnection of physical spaces and virtual data. these practices although they are close (or part of) the conceptualization of space of flows. Del mundo de hoy al mundo de mañana. Furthermore. and performance art. bringing together theories from social and aesthetic perspectives. Augé. In this broad framework. from a theoretical and social point of view. Sobremodernidad. trying to overcome technological determinism. Although precisely their technological orientation would suggest that we are facing a new body of art practices. (1995). Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity. but also of contemporary and media art in general.
J. The Production of Space.php?journal_id=91> Koolhas. (1958). [Last accessed: 10 February 2008 http://www.net> Massey. p. (2006). Understanding. D. Media.. [Last accessed: 20 May 2008] http://www. Mau. p. Barcelona: Kairós. Berkeley: University of California Press. Coverley. (eds. Cultures and Globalization. (1992). Leibniz. The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach.leoalmanac. The Practice of Everyday Life. Modernity and Self-Identity. (1997). Oxford: Blackwell. 3) [Last accessed: 5 august 2007] http://www.. Stanford: Standford University Press. (ed. no.L. K. Paris: Seuil. (1991).lse. S. L. (2006). Descombes. Hemment. En: Massey D. 101-107). Media and Urban Space. 8. (1978). London: Pocket Essentials. Sigler.net. Leonardo Electronic Almanac. Giddens. [Last accessed: 10 may 2008] http://scan. (2001). (1989). Psychogeography. Flows and Places. A Place in the World? Places. Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Londres: London School of Economics. 14. New York: Vintage. 2). Madrid: Paidós. The Conceptualization of Place. Scan Journal (vol.. En: Inhuman. Cultura y simulacro. (1991). (2004). Philosophie par gros temps. Paris.. J. Auflage: Frank & Timme. Foucault.org/journal/vol_14/lea_v14_n03-04/guested.L. The Cinematic City.asp> Klich. 756).pdf> 119 . Performing Posthuman Perspective: Can You See Me Now?.manovich. Internationale situationniste (no. Certeau. (1995). (2003). Investigating and Approaching Mediacity.M. P.Contrastes: Revista cultural (nº 47. Reflexiones sobre Internet. no. Baudrillard. J. Locative Media Special Issue.XL: The Generic City. (op. Lefebvre. R. 2). (1995). Lyotard. S. New York: Routledge. MEDIA@LSE Electronic Working Papers. Oxford: Berghan. IV Lettre à Clarke. J. La galaxia Internet.) (2007). (2000). 4. El pliegue: Leibniz y el Barroco. Slater D. (vol. Domus and Megapolis. Gergen.au/scan/journal/display. H. Clarke. G. Moores. Ed. New York: Basic Books. B. (August 2007).ac. Manovich. Oxford: Oxford University Press/Open University. A. (1989). M. Erdmann. Eckardt F. Jess P. G. Deleuze. D. Michel de (1984). (1997). V.uk/collections/media@lse/pdf/Media@lseEWP6. Castells.W. Miller D. Barcelona: Plaza & Janés Editores. R. M. (2002).). Cambridge: Polity Press. The Poetics of Augmented Space: Learning from Prada. The Monacelli Press. D. The Saturated Self Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary Life. empresa y sociedad. M. Debord.
Op. Stalder.wordpress. Leonardo (vol. Erdmann. p.. F. 1995).) Cambridge: Cambridge Scholar Press. nº 4. Notes 1 2 Michel Foucault (Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison. 1984). 357-363). scol. (2006). Radio. (1996).html> Sennet.L. Locative-Media Artists in the Contested Aware City. 1995) are just some references. Tuters. 5th International PlaNet Congress. P. R. Conferencia en c I T y: reload or shutdown?. Beyond Locative Media: Giving Shape to the Internet of Things. B. 8. (1991) Modernity and self-identity.. 5 Giddens. 6 Giddens. Henri Lefebvre (The Production of Space. p. I. whom he considers to be very important in the portrait of the modern scol. New York: Routledge. Leibniz. whereas the flaneur is a person who walks among the people in the street and in contact with them (he is quite interested in prostitutes and beggars. ed. cit. (2008) Live Cities: Film and Media Approaches to European Cities. 3 120 . Michel de Certeau (The Practice of Everyday Life.com/html/space_of_flows. I. in Shifting Landscapes. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica. 18 7 Clarke D. New York / London: W. p. 8-9 8 San Cornelio G. M. (1687). Op. [Last accessed: 10 July 2007] http:/ /felix. def 8.openflows.com/2006/07/25/tcm-locative-reader/> Scannell. 39. 2004) or Marc Augé (Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity. Oxford: Blackwell. A. Personal Identity and City Life. K. M. Russell. Norton. p 756 Newton. (2006). I. nº 4. 345-347). Forms of Representation in Alois Riegls Theory of Art. Television and Modern Life: A Phenomenological Approach.. (2004).. Christensen and Erdogan (eds. Cambridge: Polity Press p. [Last accessed:: 15 August 2007] http://parth. 9 Baudelaires voyeur is a sort of distant observer who is not concerned with the life of the city. (vol. pp. IV Lettre à Clarke. Varnelys. A. p. Transcultural Media Online Reader Introduction. Towsend. Characteristics and Possible Impact on Physical Space. (2001). 39. 198-220. TCM Online Reader 2004. pp. Leonardo. I (1687) Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica.Newton. The Space of Flows: Notes on Emergence. (1992). University Park. A. A. cit. def 8. 4 Giddens.Op.W. 17. W. Olin. (1997) The Cinematic City. 16. (1992).
Op. 101-107 16 Augé. M. S. M. Del mundo de hoy al mundo de mañana. empresa y sociedad. (2005) The poetics of augmented space: Learning from Prada. Oxford: Blackwell.wikipedia. P.. R. 105 17 Augé.L. (2004) Transcultural Media Online Reader Introduction. no. F. Oxford: Oxford University Press/Open University. 421 24 Castells. p. characteristics and possible impact on physical space [online document] see references. M. Barcelona: Plaza & Janés Editores p. (1995) The Conceptualization of Place. 121 . G. p. op. p. F. J. M. (2001) The Space of Flows: notes on emergence. M. (2008) op. cit. B. 106 18 Koolhas. 14 Coverley. in D. B. P. pp. 15 Augé. (2003). op.. J. TCM Online Reader 2004. & Mau. The Monacelli Press. 59 27 Russell. Media. Londres: London School of Economics. 4. 10 Certeau. cit. 22 Castells. 20 Deleuze. 1 30 Manovich L. 6 21 Stalder. 235-236. P. op. (1989) El pliegue: Leibniz y el Barroco. London and New York are becoming more integrated ( ) its a indication how the space of flows connects places to one another that are similar and thus how the space of flows is actively reconfiguring the space of places. Reflexiones sobre Internet. (2004) The production of space. Cit. Some decades later Walter Benjamin also talks about the flaneur. 13 Lefebvre. p. (1997) S.. p. (1992) Domus and Megapolis in Inhuman. Madrid: Paidós. p. L. 93. (2007) Sobremodernidad. both figures (voyeur and flaneur) are essential in the description of his notion of modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press. Cultures and Globalization. Cit. 201 12 Lefebvre. Stalder. 47. Stanford: Standford University Press. Stalder also points to the influence of the spaces of flows on the space of places. London: Pocket Essentials. 19 Lyotard. Op. In fact. [online document] see references 28 http://en. Cit. 23 Castells. H. Sigler..XL: The Generic City. Jess (eds) A Place in the World? Places. op. 412 25 Moores. 412. p. G.org/wiki/Locative_media 29 Manovich. Cit..city). M. (2006) Psychogeography. 11 San Cornelio. 285. MEDIA@LSE Electronic Working Papers. Contrastes: Revista cultural. Massey and P. p. Cit. p.(1984) The Practice of Everyday Life. D. p. p.M. 1. 2001 (see references) 26 Massey.. (2001) La galaxia Internet. Flows and Places.
. 6 34 http://www. pp. op. 4-7 32 31 122 .. 37 Scannell. op.. op. 38 Klich.. 4 33 Manovich. Oxford: Blackwell.stunned. cit.. cit. P. (1996) Radio.cit. cit. p.. Television and Modern Life: A Phenomenological Approach. vol. p. op. 4 number 2. op. 76. L. p 7 36 Scannell. (2000) The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach..Manovich L. D. cit.org/walks/bloomsday. R. P. op. Scan Journal. p.cit. Oxford: Berghan. & Slater D. August 2007 39 Klich. L. p.html 35 Manovich.. Rosemary (2007) Performing Posthuman Perspective : Can You See Me Now?. 40 Miller. 2 Manovich L.
works in public places. Each production in the series is an archive. installations. experiments with new technologies. Beyond a mode of preservation and beyond producing important databases about a whole body of work. the project aims to incourage artists to develop new works through the use of digital technologies. approaching artworks from new perspectives. by allowing access and commentary their own archives. This research which belongs yet to archeology. 1999) 123 .DIGITAL ARCHIVES ON CONTEMPORARY ART Anne-Marie Duguet anarchive is a series of DVDs and Internet projects designed to explore an artists overall oeuvre via diverse archival material. The artists contribute to the creation of the DVD at different levels. meaning. and mainly by assuming the art direction of the project.Muntadas Media Architecture Installations by Antoni Muntadas (Centre Pompidou. is also an original art project. The project is an historical and critical research whose main purpose is to record and to increase public awareness on some of the most important developments in contemporary art such as performances. Types of Memory ANARCHIVE . and trying to uncover unprecedented relationships between the works. video.CHAPTER III. The titles in the anarchive series published so far: . but its mainly an anarchive.
anarchive aims to develop new approaches for describing works by using. but to offer new perspectives on a work or body of work. Norman White. Each work is based on the individual 124 . and critical study based on the existing works. Peter Campus.. Jim Campbell. Joan Jonas.Digital Snow by Michael Snow (Centre Pompidou. Mona Hattoum. which without pretending to be exhaustive. supplement. theoretical. or by producing a kind of equivalent simulation of to an interactive action. social. The research aims not just to establish chronologies or to reinforce already established categorizations. for example 3D simulation to explore and understand how installation elements are displayed and function together. in order to complete and synthesize them. Jochen Gerz. Victor Burgin. and mainly between the projects and their diverse historic. Bill Viola. Nantes. 2007). often quite extensive. Each DVD includes an important database.Title TK by Thierry Kuntzel (Anarchive/Musée des Beaux-Arts. Gary Hill and others. 2006) .On the Concile of Nicea by Jean Otth (Anarchive. It has to preempt the loss of information as well as. An historical and critical approach The archives of these artists. 2002) . An original work Experimentation with interface design and systems interactivity plays an important role in the series. Paul de Marinis. Masaki Fujihata. represents a significant part of the artists work. Sometimes new documents have to be produced with the artists precious collaboration. provide the opportunity for an historical. The series will continue with: Fujiko Nakaya. incomplete or poor quality documentation. The software allows the interweaving of multiple relationships between the works. economic contexts. which would not allow for an accurate estimation of the different elements involved in a work and their relationship.
facilitate an original approach and a multimedia production exploring all its possibilities. The involvement of such high caliber artists and the quality of the teams working with them. A reference and educative tool These computer archives. The DVD also presents these manuscripts. light and sound. video production. First known for his work as a film theorist. computer programming. That is why. and since has created installations with projected images. Schools of art. graphic design. The fundamentally pluridisciplinary nature of such a project requires expertise in many fields: art history and theory. libraries. a precious source of documentation for researchers. The developers involved in the project will be inspired by such approaches to engage in research in their own field. which aim to expose the general public to topics and questions in contemporary art. writing. more than a half of them translated into English. Through video excerpts of the works that are revealed 125 . art departments in universities. Anarchive n°3 . some of them being read by Kuntzel. media and art centres constitute the major audience of this project. etc. as well as. The book (648 pages) includes the transcription of about 600 of his working notes. these authors are more likely to suggest non-convetional proposals.approach of artists who have developed personal conceptual frameworks and guidelines throughout an entire career. is the third volume of the anarchive series. a team has been assembled to assist the artist for each DVD. Thierry Kuntzel is one of the most important artists working in France today. critics and curators.Title TK Book (648 pages) + DVD TITLE TK by Thierry Kuntzel. are also an educational tool. both a new work and a database covering all of artists works. For this reason. He produced most of his videotapes between 1979 and 1980.
and time. several theoretical texts by Kuntzel being collected here for the first time. but also a face erased by too much light. At any moment along the way. either written or read aloud.The body and its distortion.interactively by the reader. also can be accessed in the database. the DVD offers three ways of approaching the work. beneath a sheet. representation. four functions can be activated in the four corners of the screen: beginning on path. the futility of any attempt to hold on to an image. A selection of texts referring to his works by authors such as Raymond Bellour. In addition. transparent. Each path has two entries. the fragility of all images. artists biography and access to the database. the caress of a gaze. Here we find skin and detail. Through images and sounds taken from his videos and installations. there are main possible paths: body. The variations in light and the changes in the speed of interaction. leaves. 2 Using as background the last visualized documents. and imperceptibly guide the viewer to other themes. the viewer can set off on a new path. reduplicated. 1 . Fig. start another path. This DVD-ROM is both a database of Thierry Kuntzels entire oeuvre and an artwork in itself. A few connecting points along the way lead from one path to another. interspersed with some of his notes. 1 Fig. the multiplicity of points of view and the place of the viewer. 126 . behind a frame. highlighting some of its key aspects. exit. the description of nearly forty works. the apparition and disappearance of traces. highlight the processes of memory and perception. the body split in two.
colourful variations.of the camera or in the processing of the image . or seen from behind.the blue of one merges with the ocre of another. 2 . never returning to the same place. or simply the light that filters through a door ajar to perhaps reveal some secret. perspective. as a child. Entry 1: the body present. Time and memory. Here we see the horizon. a hand touching a naked arm (Spring). framing. they transform a studio as they do the landscape. Unaccompanied by reference notes or commentary. Entry 2: light-traces of what must have been another arm. unhurried: smoking. reading. of desiring. attract our gaze. Clouds of colour take shape and form an image as we pay attention to them (for example if we hover over them or click on them to accelerate the appearance of the image emerging). or on the emphases particular to Thierry Kuntzels work. the tension between movements . contemplating. extreme slow-motion. Projected light. Entry 1: The flutter of a heart and of a light on the inscription Nevermore (Edgar Allan Poes Tomb) Entry 2: the flicker of projected light (Still) The association of these fragments is based on thematic or formal affinities. Discovery is the guiding principle: elements appear. It is left to the. each image appears in an almost random way on the screen.and stasis. waves and surf (The Waves) Entry 2: the sea once again. another space. The view and its obstruction. with the laguna and Venice on the horizon (Venises) 3 . often caught in an electronic disturbance.glimpsed. the series. the tomb. Between dazzlement and darkness. tracking light. The activity of thinking. a hand holding a cigarette (Nostos 1).Speeds. At times a self-portrait. blurred. windows.Landscape and representation. foliated. All activity is minimal. sometimes takes shape. between acceleration and freeze-frame. but it is up to the viewer to seize them to make the image truly appear. it seeps from the edge or the interior of another image . the intermittence. Entry 1: the sea. a panorama of San Francisco or Tampico. passing by. This would be the flutter. viewer to free the image from the 127 .
The page gives access to the database which includes documents related to the artists works. Operating procedures: Four functions can be found at the four corners of the screen: Right-hand top: go back to the beginning of a path. no click. Left-hand top: exit. start another one. Fig. the images simply continue their interaction and incredible unfolding.matter of the screen. video installations and other projects. 3 Screenshot with one of the artists sketches for Ete installation.documents about Kuntzels installations. If the viewer doesnt intervene. The database gives access to: . Right-hand bottom: database. his writings. Theres nothing excessive here. videos. Left-hand bottom: Thierry Kuntzels biography. some critical texts related to his work and a list of exhibitions. no menu. 128 .
a variety of resource materials are available: .a commentary that may be a note by the artist.additional documents: scores. all his theoretical essays on cinema and video. When opening the DVD. the Tombeaux. Working notes read by the artist.several descriptions of the installations based the artists sketches. Language options (French or English) must be selected at the beginning. . 129 . an excerpt from a review or another short text.which directly refer to a specific work or are related it. . .a selection of texts about his work. .works that are linked to it. .a list of exhibitions. an entry allows to hear the voice of Thierry Kuntzel reading 67 of his working notes. compiled for the first time.a collection of 600 of the artists notes. . .one or several excerpts from the video.a brief technical description. drawings. .a few reviews or criticism or excerpts from essays directly related to the work in question. the Saisons..handwritten (that can be enlarged) and transcribed .. . handwritten or transcribed. or photos of the installation.the artists notes .. Thierry Kuntzel often creates series: the Nostos. photos. For each work.
The losses were obvious and everybody could immediately see and understand what happened to the physical objects of a precious archive.SEARCH AND REPAIR. DIGITAL HERITAGE AND TIME BASED ART. Heike Helfert On the evening of September 2nd 2004. Today the library runs a database of the Catalogue of lost and damaged books. and attic were totally destroyed. But what if the object is no longer physical and information is transformed into data? As long as information is decipherable by humans the access to the resources is 131 . Literary and musical manuscripts and artworks from the 16th and 17th Centuries up to the 20th Century were completely destroyed or seriously damaged. was damaged by fire and water. With the great help of the public. a disastrous fire broke out in the original building of the Herzogin Anna Amalia Library in Weimar and developed into the largest library fire in Germany since WW II. huge parts of the historical building were restored and in October 2007 the library was officially reopened. the third floor. which belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage.1 It seems that this physical connection between the object and the information is easy to understand. This tragic loss of cultural and historical inheritance in a spectacular fire attracted a great deal of public attention. The historical building.
Like most projects on cultural heritage 40yearsvideoart. and mediating the cultural heritage of video art. This complex project was carried out by five museums in the Federal Republic of Germany: the institutions responsible for the overall project were the ZKM Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe and the K21 Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen Düsseldorf. maintaining. organizing a project on digital heritage that archives German video art from 1963 to the present.de we are preparing now the memory of the future. and therefore the piece of art is hidden in some electronic coffin. Machines must be used to get access to the artworks. regardless if it is digital or not. Digital heritage This is where 40yearsvideoart. it has no physical presence anymore and becomes machine-readable only. But more and more. Stored on reels or cassettes. Video art. And of course it has to be the right machine for each of the diverse formats. Lenbachhaus Munich. But when the essence of information is separated from its carrier or medium in form of data. in its physical presence. Memory is an important term in the field of heritage. lies somehow in between. The project consists (or consisted) of three major features: a symposium. and the Museum der bildenden Künste Leipzig.de2 comes in. the magnetic tapes are not readable by human eyes. 132 .de is designed to store or even re-store objects from the past. They worked together with three partners Kunsthalle Bremen. In creating an archive or a compilation like 40yearsvideoart. the technical equipment for playing back the tapes is no longer available. an exhibition and a research edition of video art in Germany from 1963 to the present. But we are also talking about memory in terms of recollection and time.direct and can be followed by everyone. Memory is used in a technical sense as storage of data or as a reservoir for the images that have to be remembered. The project focuses on saving. to combine them with current pieces and to prepare them for future use. which has become one of the most influential art forms of the Twentieth Century.
This initial. it turns out that a video work is just as ephemeral as its time-related perception. it is the magnetic information of the image. the works have to be transferred to another physical format. The progressive destruction of video works poses an acute threat to a significant element of 20th Century art. Typical examples of the process of deterioration are the loss of magnetic signals or the sticky-tape-syndrome. 133 . The project was carried out over the course of two years from 2004 to 2005 as an initiative of the German Federal Cultural Foundation. What came out was an exemplary selection of works.3 Today. an independent jury met to highlight the works that represent the diverse aspects and decades of video art in Germany. However as simple and easy the presentation of video art might seem to the public. numerous works of art are preserved only in a damaged form. it will have to be digital or it wont be visible anymore in the future. and storage have to take place. In order to save the content. Down in the archives and cellars. restoration. This process of decline affects. and continue to disappear because their support materials decomposes more and more quickly. tirelessly points out. because of its apparent immateriality. Sometimes. What is carried into the future is not the physical tape or the reel containing the signal. the early original tapes. During this time a lot of decisions had to be made. You will find it in most contemporary art shows or biennales.Saving the cultural heritage of video art what does this mean? Video art nowadays is one of the most popular forms of expression in contemporary art. videotapes require professional help (at the latest 20 years after their origination). this genre has its inherent troubles. Due to their physical condition. like Rudolf Frieling. this means digital storage. First of all. head of the project. a panorama of 59 historic but also current works ranging from 1963 up to the present. a dramatic decay of historical works of video art is constantly taking place. above all. One may raise the question: can our heritage be digital? In the case of video art. In order to save great parts of the genre of video art. the urgent steps of digitization. Today.
as well as. It includes more than 28 hours of historic. to store the works in the best possible quality. as well 134 . sub-masters. but rather to develop a strategy with many complementary options. etc. In most cases the tapes were cleaned and digitized at ZKM by the laboratory for antiquated video systems before the restoration process took place. new archive masters. A research edition in DVD format was produced as an overview of video art in Germany. to store uncompressed data in order to be ideally prepared for a future change of format. But the aim of the current research will be. if not necessary. In the meantime. we have learned to no longer rely solely on the hypothetically best possible archiving medium. A special software named DIAMANT (by HS-Art. copies of copies.6 Another important concern of the project was not only to assemble and store an overview of German video art and to maintain it. This was realized image by image in the digital state. as far as possible. Graz. The aim was to restore or. As soon as the selection was made. and can be found on the website. but also to make it accessible to the public. masters. Major problems in teaching video art history are the problems of unavailable or illegal copies of the video works.4 Concerning the practical. This process was documented with the assistance of the project conservator Patrícia Falcão. a symposium was held in Düsseldorf in order to bring together international experts in the field.5 To bring up one issue that turned out clearer and clearer while dealing with these questions Id like to quote Rudolf Frieling: The field of technologies has always been a dynamic one. Austria) was specifically modified for the particular problems of early magnetic videotapes. the research for the original master tapes begun in a confusing field of copies.overview-oriented selection is now traveling around the world with the help of the Goethe-Institute. Another objective was to try out and find an exemplary method of restoring video material and preparing it for long-term storage. It also tried to analyze todays technical possibilities and future perspectives of maintaining archives. restoration and archiving of video art. the theoretical issues of preservation. however.
the set can only be ordered by institutions from the fields of research and education for internal viewing. current works by 59 artists.as. The attempt to exhibit early video art leads to another question of preservation of time based artworks: The question of experience and authenticity In a way the notion of work and original stands against the concept of version and occurrence. Nowadays these operating systems are outdated and obsolete and only historic computers. Due to copyright restrictions. schools etc. each museum presented its own perspective as an extension and contextualization of these videotapes. To give an example I want to mention two CD-ROM archives that were also realized at ZKM by Dieter Daniels and Rudolf Frieling. If one tries to run the CD-ROMs on a current computer the speed would be too fast and the menu wouldnt be navigable anymore. We are talking about the ambivalence between the historicity of the work and the need for protective processing to enable its adequate experience. The spectrum of these exhibitions embraced the 1960s (Bremen). The first was Media Art Action and the other Media Art Interaction. and with regard to the existing collection of video art and restoration practices (Karlsruhe). To keep the material accessible anyway. at least from the year 2000 are able to display the CD-ROMs properly. Apart from this. Held in two locations was a revision of the selection in light of the chosen artists from the former GDR (Leipzig). universities. 135 . The DVD research edition is directed to the study and discussion of video art in academies. distributed as a box set of 12 DVDs. They were released on CD-ROM. designed to run on computers with specific operating systems and programs. Finally the overview of the works was exhibited at the same time by the five participating museums. the 1980s (Düsseldorf) as well as the present Update 06 (Munich). it was migrated and incorporated into the follow-up project MediaArtNet7 which is an online project.
And of course there is no general solution to these questions but the attempt to find individual solutions for specific projects..Store. . in their 2003 publication. how far [can] time based projects be preserved not only as documentation but also as potential for actual experience? Could an actualization..Research: . researchers. or translation of the work to the contemporary context and technology provide a more adequate experience of the work than the extensive documentation of its historic presentation and reception contexts? How do artists... The Variable Media initiative8 appropriatly calls this process. reinterpret are the catchphrases for the preservation of media or time-based art. migrate. curators. Or. Recently there was a conference on exactly these topics in the frame of the re:place conference in Berlin organized by LBI. and archivists balance the quest for historical authenticity and contemporary readability? Which role can digital archives and platforms play within this context?10 These are questions which are currently discussed by people who have to handle time based art. what are the meaningful criteria? What different kinds of additional information do exist. Another strong issue is the question of contextualization.Art. re-enactment. Permanence Through Change9. Although this project is not meant to be an archive in terms of collecting artworks but rather their depictions in documents and excerpts. emulate. to outline the field currently questioned by the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media. There have been extended discussions about the information a media art database should contain in order to provide thorough information about often unstable and hybrid types of works.What additional information is necessary in order to describe the socio-cultural and institutional framework of art-production and presentation? Is it useful to save and add as much further details as possible? Do we have to make strict choices in order to avoid information excess? And if so. and what can we achieve by adding them to the content of a media art database?11 All these questions were also lively discussed when developing MediaArtNet12. 136 .
endless questions about the inner and outer structure of the project have arisen. What is the focal point of the content? How can this be specified and at the same time kept open for future expansions? This must be taken into consideration already during the design of the interface or the online appearance. Editorial supervised links. but presents them audio-visually if possible. which is linked to the text. the intention was to make resources of media art accessible. Again. What is the additional advantage of an online resource like MediaArtNet? It is not only the online accessibility and the attempt of a proper way of representing media art. as well as. During the process of development. and to transform in order to 137 . It also carries the potential of creating additional content references. other connections can be originated from this context. How can these cross-references be generated and displayed? We decided to work with different layers of information. MediaArtNet does not only offer information on audio-visual material in text form. Dealing with archives is acting within a paradox. These layers are displayed in different windows in order to be able to get back to the base text as easy as possible. So we decided to give space to future amplifications in a very early state of the development. and the other concentrates on the artwork and the artist. MediaArtNet is an online platform that tries to give an overview of media art while using means of presentation adequate to the specific source medium.it deals with the question of contemporary re-presentation of time-based art. A useful balance between necessary and unnecessary information has to be found. But the condition to achieve a function like the creation of semantic relations is to have reasonable metadata of all the material that you hold in the database. It means to look backwards and forwards simultaneously. A basic level is showing the scientific text of a specific topic. automatically created semantic relations can be placed. item. or technique you have to explicate. Thanks to the fact that a database supplies the information at the work-artist level. You can never be sure if a future theme or chapter will not bring up a new keyword.
Wulf Herzogenrath. 1.org Fig.de .mediaartnet. Cover of the book 40yearsvideoart.Fig.Digital Heritage: Video Art in Germany from 1963 to the Present (Edt. Ostfildern 2006) 138 . Screenshot of the welcome page of MediaArtNet with random image from www. 2. Rudolf Frieling.
The science-fiction author and founder of the Dead Media Project13 Bruce Sterling notes: Curators..they physically touch .de/ main.. New York.de/DB=2.mediaartnet. . New York. Franklin Furnace.de 3 Magnetic tape construction consists of a thin binder layer comprised of iron oxide or metal particles that records the magnetic signal and is supported by a thicker film backing or substrate. Science.com/tape. and archivists are much closer to the future than most of us mortals.2/SET=1/TTL=1/START_WELCOME http://www.40jahrevideokunst. Degradation of the binder occurs whether or not the tape has ever even been used or recorded on. catalog and preserve .the objects of the past and present that people in the future will see. Normal humidity in the air seeps into the binder and weakens its physical characteristics .php?p=2&n1=5 5 for documentation of the symposium see: http://www. Guggenheim Foundation.videointerchange. 9 Permanence Through Change: The Variable Media Approach.14 Notes http://opac.40jahrevideokunst. and Technology. but much like soaking the labels off of a glass bottle). Daniel Langlois Foundation for Art. Walker Art Center.uni-weimar. 2003.a process known as hydrolysis (bad analogy.ub. The phenomenon is known as sticky-tape-syndrome see: http://www.htm 4 see: http://www. see documentation: http://www. Performance Art Festival + Archives. The magnetic layer (or top coat) consists of magnetic particles suspended in a polymer binder. Minneapolis). The binder holds the magnetic particles in place. The Solomon R.40yearsvideoart. Cleveland. New York. Guggenheim Museum.org.org 8 http://variablemedia. and binds them to the substrate layer. Berkeley.maintain.php?p=2&n1=4&n2=25 7 http://www. Thats because they store. 2 1 139 .de.de/main. Rhizome.de/main.net (Founding Members of the Variable Media Network include Berkeley Art Museum/Pacific Film Archives. Montreal. and The Daniel Langlois Foundation for Art. conservators. Science. When this occurs (its just a matter of time).php?p=2&n1=4 6 Rudolf Frieling at the symposium on 40yearsvideoart. New York. It implies to be strict in order to keep a consistent structure and to be flexible in order to adjust to future requirements at the same time.40yearsvideoart. Montreal. and Technology. the binder delaminates from the substrate and turns into (for lack of a better technical term) a gooey sticky mess.
php?iMenuID=3&iEventID=91 11 ibid.lbg. in Permanence Through Change: The Variable Media Approach. 12 http://www.deadmedia.mediaartnet.at/en/veranstaltungen.11.org 13 http://www.ac.org 14 Bruce Sterling: Digital Decay. p. 10 140 . 2003.quoted from the conference program of Online Archives of Media Art: http://media.
Uro Indihar Abstract Mediarc (Media Archive) is an Open Source archiving system that functions as a library of the list of files. which gives everybody an opportunity to define his/hers files. Its applicability is very wide. public and private legal bodies and individuals. digital camera and digital video camera. while it is a completely open system. subfiles and attributes according to his/hers own needs and adapting to his/hers own activities. some of them related to education and culture. We have implemented several projects that were based directly on open source systems. 1. and have developed a number 141 . It is aimed at various organisations. small and medium sized enterprises. institutions. since its establishment in 1996. Archiving As a Consequence of Celebration KIBLA Association for Culture and Education (ACE KIBLA) has been using and developing open source software from its very beginnings. into which we can enter new contents and tables from a scanner or other peripheral units.MEDIARC OPEN SOURCE MULTIUSER CENTRAL ARCHIVING SYSTEM: WEB APPLICATION FOR THE ELECTRONIC MANAGEMENT OF DOCUMENTS AND OTHER FILES Peter Toma Dobrila. companies. foundations.
a great deal of material was saved on Kibla server. both analogue and digital. from newspaper and magazine articles and clippings to music. VHS and beta video cassettes. slides and in recent years predominantly digital recordings. This was followed by managing the exceptionally large.of software solutions and system applications. In 2006 at the occasion of 10th anniversary of Kibla Multimedia Centre (MMC KIBLA) the webpage (URL: http://www. Figure 1: Mediarc a screenshot displaying the range of possible selections 142 . integrating the complete system of the Narodni dom Maribor Cultural and Event Centre public institute. i. photographs. materials stored by Kibla.e. In the past year after the webpage was redesigned. CD-ROMs and DVDs. has also been based on open source software and GNU/Linux operation system. These are kept in the form of various media. from photographs and mini DV cassettes to CDs. The Kibla server system and computer network. and especially diverse archive. films. which made it available to public.si/) has been redesigned based on state-of-the-art standards and open source software.kibla.
2. Archiving as a consequence of quantity Considering the fact that archiving is one of the most current as well as troublesome issues within the digital reality field, we have decided to create software for archiving the materials owned by Kibla. Archiving being the central topic of numerous debates and conferences, and also being discussed in Slovenia at various levels, we are certain that this solution can be a tool or the basis for developing such software. It is primarily intended for public use by organisations and institutions that wish for and need such software. However, they must also be able to use it and integrate it in their operations, and their computing system must be compatible with the applicative solution.
Figure 2: Mediarc a screenshot displaying a range of possible inputs
The archive of Kibla, based on open source software, might present an example of digital archiving, which is undoubtedly the easiest and most economic way. Besides the high level of safety this method ensures an integrated technical reliability of archiving and system stability, a user-friendly updating process, as well as high public accessibility and easy overview of the data. 3. Archiving as a consequence of ecology Since no additional media are required, we can undoubtedly consider this solution economical and particularly environmentally friendly. It is also rational in terms of space and can be easily expanded with additional system memory, peripheral units, or further developed, based on current user experience, new findings, or the needs of both archivists and computer experts.
Figure 3: Mediarc - a screenshot displaying showing possible ways entering data
Mediarc (Media archive) is an open source archiving system, functioning as the file list library. New content and tables from the scanner or other peripheral units can be entered, such as from the digital or video cameras.
Figure 4: Mediarc - a screenshot displaying the list of possible data groups
When working with a scanner, the document to be saved must be placed on it. The person scanning the file puts it in the common folder, from where it is then processed by the media archive administrator, who moves it into a specific folder from the folder list. So far the subfolders foreseen within the list have been Letters, Contracts, Photo Album, Files; and Documents. Additional subfolders with new contents can be added to the list upon choice, existing subfolders can be deleted if not related to the needs or definitions of the working environment. The principle is the same for acquiring data through other peripheral units (camera, video camera). 145
author and a comment from which project or program the photo originates and whom it is intended to. a numeric code. and the subject. The program also enables arranging and editing the submitted data. place. e. and similarly the chosen attributes of each individual subfolder can be added or removed. which includes statutes or rules of engagement. Figure 5: Mediarc . For the section of Letters these are: the title. in case a mistake occurred or somebody realized the archive would have been more transparent or accurate if the data was defined and classified in another way. as well as the type of company. date. address. Files relate to documents that are of key importance and historical significance in a certain company. All the key data that is needed and indispensable in archiving must be entered as well. subfolders can be created or deleted. possibly also a comment on what the letter is about. the contracting parties and legal representatives.4. Order as consequence of archiving Data is entered into Mediarc by title and that is how the software arranges it. registration. for Documents is necessary to include record and fiscal data about a certain company and its status. number. place. sole proprietor. For Contracts these are all the information about the contract. time. limited liability company. The Photo Album requires the address.g. public company. statistical classification etc. such as the registration and tax status. For the purposes of each company or person.a screenshot displaying possible document search 146 .
foundations. If searching for all documents related to one client. as well as on its technologically available and innovative open source solution.kibla. We use it to inform the experts and the general public 147 . It can be found on the Internet at: http://www. as well. which enables the user to review the complete picture of a business. files to contracts etc. contracts. courses and workshops. files. This program is available to all potential users for free on the Kibla server. any personal developments. large and medium-sized companies and other corporate entities. We are certain that this software solution by Kibla can be of great help to everybody. meaning that letters are linked to contracts. files. 5.si/). public and private legal entities as well as individuals. Archiving presents in public Upon completion of the project. contracts to letters. a public presentation was organised in MMC KIBLA and KIT KIBLA Communication and Information Point (URL: http://kit. all the documents are linked. Archiving for all The Mediarc open source multiuser archiving system is therefore intended for a variety of organisations. also fuelling further discussion on how to deal with archiving and particularly how to accomplish it. Unquestionably. the latter featuring a multimedia classroom to implement free computer education programs. photos to files. Its applicability is very wide.org/mediarc/ 6. Even more. small. institutions.Mediarc also features an integrated search function. photos. The name of the document must be entered in the browser. one of its best features being the fact that the system is completely open. it can serve as an example based on direct user experience. the chosen client must be clicked and the program displays all the documents related to them letters.kibla.. photographs etc. or project. enabling anybody to define its folders. subfolders and attributes according to their own needs and adapt them to their own activities.
2007 at the Grand Hotel Bernardin Congress Center in Portoro.kiblix. which is now completed and available for use. 148 . organised in cooperation with LUGOS Linux Users Group of Slovenia (URL: http://www. Types of Memory. program and system solutions. A presentation took place at the 14th Days of Slovenian Informatics with the headline With Informatics to New Business Opportunities. which took place from 11th to 13th April. space and technology in the digital era. (URL: http:/ /www. 7. 4th October 2007.org/). The open source archive was also presented at the conference Areas of Conflu(x)ence .lugos. The last presentation was organised in January 2008 in Ljubljana as part of the SCCA symposium on Digital archives within a European project supported by the e-ContentPlus program. panel.and integrate it in the program of KIBLIX IT. the Kibla festival related to open source. Archiving says thanks To implement the open code archiving system. as well as. KIBLA Association for Culture and Education (ACE KIBLA) has received support from the Ministry of Education.Art. in the Romanian city of Sibiu within the European Capital of Culture 2007 program.si/). Science and Technology Information Society Directorate pertaining to the Open Source Based Software.
Tincuta Heinzel is currently PhD candidate at Paris1 University Panthèon-Sorbonne under the direction of Pierre-Damien Huyghe. theoretician. Bogdan Ghiu is a philosopher and writer. Leiris. Porto. Duras. He has translated Bataille. Faculty of Letters. and professor at the University of Bucharest. poet. Currently he is member of the Administration Council of Romanian Society for Radio Communications. Since 2004. Germany. Emmanuel Nunes. and curator. Paul Veyne. in Romanian. He studied composition in Lisabona (with Constança Capdeville). Since 1998 he is artist in residence and researcher at ZKM | Center for Art and Media. He received his PhD from Paris VIII University (2004). he has been the director of CITAR .AUTHORS BIOGRAPHIES Tincuþa Heinzel (editor) is an artist. in Paris (with Horacio Vaggione. Deleuze. Karlsruhe. She is the recipient of the French Government Grant (2002-2003) and of the DAAD research grant (2005) at ZKM | Center for Art and Media. media analyst. Baudelaire. He is the recipient of the French Government Grant (1996).Sibiu in 2007. In 1997 Paolo Ferreira-Lopes was awarded the composition prize at Documenta X in Kassel. Germany. Didier Anzieu. Bourdieu. She initiated and coordinated the Areas of Conflu(x)ence project organized as part of the program European Capitals of Culture. Bergson. He is the author of several books of philosophy and media theory. Paolo Ferreira-Lopes is a composer and theoretician. Karlsruhe. Artaud. Luxembourg .Research Center for Science and Technology in Art and Professor at the Catholic University. Louis Calaferte. 149 . Annie Le Brun. Cluj. After studying visual arts at Arts and Design University Cluj and cultural anthropology at Babes Bolyai University. Antoine Bonnet and Curtis Roads) and in Darmstadt (with Karlheinz Stockhausen). He is also a contributor at Luceafarul and IDEA art + society magazine (Cluj Napoca). Sarah Kofman. Derrida. Foucault.
Holding a MSArch degree (with honors) from the University of Cincinnati. Woody and Steina Vasulka founded The Kitchen. Her last publications are: Locative Media and art practice: explorations on the ground Artnodes (2008) and Arte e identidad en Internet (Barcelona.Woody Vasulka is an artist and curator. OH. He taught at the Center for Media Studies at the New York State University. He received the American Film Institute Maya Deren Award in 1992 and the Siemens Media Art Prize in 1995. Barcelona. Saint-Etienne in 2006. together with Andreas Mannik. OH (1994). France in the Art and Industrial Creation department. After working with the Rutt/Etra Scan Processor. 2008). Gemma San Cornelio is a lecturer at the Communication Department at Open University of Catalonia (Barcelona. Sacred Space (2002). Former senior Fulbright Scholar at the University of Cincinnati. She participated in Le Temps des Appareils seminar coordinated by Pierre-Damien Huyghe and earned accolades at the fifth edition of the Design Biennial. lecturer in the Department of Arts and Humanities at University Oberta de Catalunya. Romania. and the US. Augustin Ioan is an Associate Professor at the University of Architecture and Planning in Bucharest. Sophie Fetro graduated from Ecole Supérieure de Cachan. In 1971. and researcher 150 . Together with Steina Vasulka he began experimeting with video in the 60s. He has published extensively in Romania. Sophie Fetro is a teacher of applied arts and PhD candidate at Paris1 University Panthèon-Sorbonne. Woody Vasulka studied metal technology and hydraulic mechanics at the School of Engineering in Brno and filmmaking at the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague. the author also has two PhD degrees in History of Architecture (1998) and Philosophy (2002). Hungary. Spain). She holds a PhD in Audio-visual Communication (2003) and a degree in Fine Arts (1999) by Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain). Augustin Ioan is currently Head of School of Advanced Studies at the University of Architecture and Planning in Bucharest. where his latest book. He lives in USA since 1965. appeared at the same time he was winning the competition for the Orthodox Patriarchal Cathedral back home. she coordinates a research project focused on contemporary art practices related to new media. funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (HUM2006-02317). a non-profit interdisciplinary organization. Currently. Pau Alsina is a philosopher. in 1976 Vasulka collaborated with Don MacArthur and Jeffrey Schier to build a computer controlled personal imaging facility called The Digital Image Articulator.
ZKM | Center for Art and Media and the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media. During 2005-2007. actively participating in EVA (Electronic Imaging the Visual Arts & Beyond) and Echilot Conference in Moscow. Edith Russ Site for Media Art. Slovenia. La mémoire au Poing. Heike Helfert is a cultural scientist working in the field of media art. He is the director of Artnodes. Maribor.org. During the last few years she has worked for institutions like Expo2000. For the ZKM she worked on mediaartnet. Maribor. Anne-Marie Duguet is a professor at Paris1 University Panthèon-Sorbonne and Professor/Researcher at the iCinema Research Center. which provides a comprehensive record of the works of Muntadas.Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume (Paris. www. She has also curated exhibitions like: Jean-Christophe Averty collages/ découpages . Nam June Paik. University of New South Wales. Peter Tomaz Dobrila has worked intensively in the New Media Art filed. video and new technologies.de. Michael Snow. Sydney. In 1996 he co-founded the Multimedia Centre KiberSRCeLab KIBLA (MMC KIBLA).org and 40yearsvideoart. science and technology. Slovenia. Uro Indihar is a system administrator and IT supervisor at KIBLA Association for Culture and Education. 2007). He managed MMC KIBLA and ACE KIBLA until 2004. Since then he has participated in numerous congresses and conventions on Internet and multimedia and information culture. Thierry Kuntzel among others. and the author of several books (Vidéo. 1991) and Thierry Kuntzel . Published in 2002. She is the Director of Centre de Recherche en Esthétique du Cinéma et de lAudiovisuel (CRECA). 151 . He acts as consultant and advisor in cultural matters and is a fellow of the European Academy for Digital Media (EADIM).Research. Peter Toma Dobrila is an electronic and IT engineer and a musician who focuses on the creative use of the new technologies.IN3. her most recent book is titled Déjouer limage: créations électroniques et numériques. Jean-Christophe Averty) and articles about television. being adviser for many ART festivals (Ars electronica festival 2005.artnodes.at the Internet Interdisciplinary Institute . an e-journal promoted by the University Oberta de Catalunya which analyses the intersection between art.Art. Two years later he co-founded the Association for Culture and Education KIBLA (ACE KIBLA) and became its president.Espace Electra (Paris. 1993). She is Editor in Chief of the Anarchive DVD series.
... places and spaces: towards a framework for Locative Media Artworks ........Search and Repair.Digital Surrealities................ CHAPTER II.. ............. .................................PAULO FERREIRA -LOPES.................... ................................................................................. ..... ................... Design and Architecture: Arts of f[r]iction ............... ............. .................. ......Imperceptible....... ................... Digital Heritage and Time Based Art.. Types of Memory....... ........................... ...................................... .. CHAPTER III................................. HEIKE HELFERT.AUGUSTIN IOAN....... .. Spatial Forms............ TINCUÞA HEINZEL....................... Authors biographies ..Experiment in Romanian Architecture .......CONTENTS Introduction TINCUÞA HEINZEL .......... . Interview with Woody Vasulka.... ................................SOPHIE FETRO..... Real Time in Music Several Paradigms and Models.....................Video Between Utopia and History........ANNE-MARIE DUGUET...................................GEMMA SAN CORNELIO and PAU ALSINA.................A Gnosseological Approach of the Concept of Interaction.. Hyperceptible: the New Hodological Condition BOGDAN GHIU........ .....On flows................. ................ CHAPTER I........ Types of Imagery and Sound and Their Interaction ...................................... ...........MEDIARC Open Source Multiuser Central Archiving System: Web Application for the Electronic Management of Documents and Other Files .....Anarchive (Digital Archives on Contemporary Art) ............PETER TOMA DOBRILA and URO INDIHAR................... .......... ..... 5 15 15 29 45 57 57 73 99 123 123 131 141 149 152 ...........................................
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