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Published by: Djoko Untoro Suwarno on May 23, 2012
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the first mode, whatever the dimensions al and bl. The diffraction around the
pistons is only described by attenuated modes.
It is possible to observe experimentally the decreasing resistance of radiation and
the increasing reactance by examining the complex currents in the electrical circuit
of the transducers when changing the phase of one of the pistons.

7.3.6. Impulse response in a duct

The impulse response plays a similar part in the time domain to that of the Green's
function in space. With these two functions, it is possible, at least from a theoretical
point of view, to solve any kind of problem. Because the phase velocity of the
guided waves depends on frequency, the propagation of a transient signal depends
on the modes excited. If P(z, ~) denotes the transfer function for the pressure in a
duct, and Po(w) is the Fourier transform of the excitation signal po(t), the time
dependent pressure p(z, t) is written

1 j+~

p(z, t) = m

Po(a;)P(z, ~)e -twt dw

27r -oo

For a mode n (n can stand for one or two indices):

1 I +~176

Pn(z, t) -~ Cn(X, y) ~

-~ p0(w)e-~ZVG2-(ck,) 2 - ,ot dw

If po(t) = 6(0, P0(aJ) = 1 and

Pn(z,t)--~2n(X,Y)[6(t-Z-c) -

where Y is the Heaviside function.



Jl(knV/C2t2-z 2)

Y t -- -



v/c2t 2 -- z 2



If it were possible to describe the propagation of a Dirac function with one mode
only, the signal observed far from the source would be similar to the curves
presented in Fig. 7.10. This kind of theoretical response can be observed by using
two loudspeakers (to simulate the pistons of Section 7.3.5) and sending them an
impulse. It is then possible, for a sufficiently low frequency, to excite the mode
(0, 1). Functions 6 and Y are replaced by smoother functions. In the general case,
several modes must be taken into account. The final result is that, at the
observation point, there arrive successively several impulses and the higher the
mode, the shorter the duration.


(1) The experiment discussed in Sections 7.3.5 and 7.3.6 is easier to carry out if
the width b of the duct is small. This corresponds to a duct with only one transverse
dimension a (b ~ a).

(2) Adding the contributions of the modes can be cumbersome. It is easier to add
the contributions of the images of the source through the perfectly reflecting walls.








t = z/c

t = z/c

Mode (0,0)

Mode (1,0)

Fig. 7.10. Impulse responses for the modes (0,0) and (1,0).


If b is quite small, the source and its image are close to line sources. Their radiation
is of the form H~ol)(kz cos 0). The previous integration (7.8) of P, is then easier [2]:

P--f(x, t)

cos (k~c/c2t2 - z 2)

V/C2t 2 _ ,7, 2

The curve is then quite similar to the curve previously obtained since J(a)/a is
similar to (cos a)/a.

(3) One way to explain the presence of the Dirac function in the exact solution
(7.9) is the following: for high order modes, the group velocity is close to c. Adding
all these contributions leads to a Dirac function. The curve corresponding to the
attenuated oscillating part (with the Y term) depends on the curve c~(w). For ducts
with 'sharp' interfaces, Cg is a monotone function which increases from zero to c.
Then as the observation time (t + At) increases, c~ decreases and w tends to zero.
Indeed at time (t + At), the angular frequencies w observed correspond to the group
velocity cg = z/(t + At). This result no longer holds for an interface between two
fluids (shallow water case).

7.4. Shallow Water Guide

7.4.1. Properties of the shallow water guide

Underwater measurements show that the velocity of the acoustic waves depends on
the depth. More precisely, it depends on the salinity, the temperature and other
local parameters. Let us call cj(z) this velocity in a medium j.
A very simple case is that of a shallow layer of water with depth H (H must be
compared with A(w)) where cj and the density pj are assumed to be constant. The

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