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Acoustics

Acoustics

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Published by: Djoko Untoro Suwarno on May 23, 2012
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By summing all the diffracted rays, the total diffracted pressure is obtained as

pd/f (M) =

Ao

/pip;

e ~k(pl + t, + P")~(P1)~(Q1 )

][1

• exp -

a(7-) tiT- 1 - exp -

a(7") tiT" + LkT

+ A0

!

e,k(p2 + t2 + P2 )~(P2)~(Q2)

V/p p;

(4.21)

7-0 = 1.855 7571 e LTr/3

and

71 = 3.244 6076 e ~7r/3

Co = 0.910 7193

and

C1 = 0.694 2728

It must be noted that this expression for Pdif becomes infinite when pl or p~ tends to
zero, that is for S or M on the obstacle, but later results have been obtained to

b(Q) is the radius of curvature at point Q. The coefficients Cn are given in [19]. The
first coefficients are

A0e~Tr/12

kl/3e~k(pl + tl + P")(b(P1)b(Q1))1/6

2kp '

lPl

x ~~0= C~ exp l, Tn kl/3

b-2/3(T) aCT

1

[(So )]-

• 1 - exp t~kT + t, Tnk 1/3

b-2/3(7) aCT

+ analogous terms for the rays passing through P2 and Q2

(4.22)

Pdif(M) ~--

Keller [19] uses the term 'cylinder mode' for each diffracted field corresponding
to one value an. For each an, the expression 5~, 5~, is obtained. It is proportional to
an Airy integral.

The total diffracted field is then the sum of all these modes for all the rays passing
along Q1P1 and all the rays passing along Q2P2. Finally

where index 2 corresponds to the ray SQzP2M. T is the length of the boundary of the
obstacle. The next step is to determine ~ and a. They are obtained by comparing, for
the canonical case of a disc, the expansion (4.21) and the asymptotic expansion for
large k of the exact solution obtained by the separation method.
For a, there exists an infinite number of solutions a. =-t, k l/3b-Z/3Tn with

Tn = 89

[37r(n + 3/4)]2/3e~Tr/3

for n i> 0

CHAPTER 4. OUTDOOR SOUND PROPAGATION

143

avoid these drawbacks ([20], U.T.D., etc). G.T.D. can similarly be used to describe
the diffraction (in 2 or 3 dimensions) of a wave by a convex or concave obstacle, a
half-plane, a wedge, etc. (see [21], for example).

4.2.4. Diffraction by screens

Many studies have been devoted to this problem, since screens and barriers are useful
tools against noise. The aim of these studies is to evaluate the efficiency of the screen,
which is defined as the difference of sound levels obtained with and without the screen.
A priori, the laws of geometrical optics imply that a region will be well protected
against noise if it is located in the shadow zone of the screen. In practice, this
shadow zone phenomenon exists but it is not so sharp.

Diffraction by a thin screen

Most studies have been devoted to the infinitely thin screen since it is the simplest
case. The term 'infinitely thin' means that the thickness of the screen is small
compared with the acoustic wavelength.

(a) Comparison between a boundary &tegral equation method and analytic
approximations.
The example chosen here is diffraction by an infinitely thin
screen on a perfectly reflecting plane (see [22]). For simplicity, only the two-
dimensional model is considered.
The sound pressure satisfies the following system:

(A + k2)p(M) -- ~Ss(M)

in ((y > 0)- E0)

Op(M)

Off

= 0

on E0 and on (y- 0)

(4.23)

Sommerfeld conditions

where S - (x0, y0), E0 represents the screen and ff is the unit vector normal to E0 or
to the axis (y = 0) (see Fig. 4.14).

Sx

O !

Eo

xM = (~,y)

Fig. 4.14. Geometry of the problem.

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