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Published by: Djoko Untoro Suwarno on May 23, 2012
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deduced from (6.12) does not have real eigenvalues. In contrast, the determinant of
A deduced from (6.11) has minima which correspond to the wavenumbers such that
Jn(ka) = 0, the eigenvalues of the interior problem with a Neumann condition.
Figure 6.2 presents the total pressure, computed for the eigenvalue k such that
ka = 3.8317. The dotted curve corresponds to the pressure obtained from the
Green's representation (6.11). The solid curve corresponds to the representation
(6.12). It is quite similar to the curve obtained from the exact representation in
a series of Bessel functions for the exterior problem. The curves are drawn
versus kx, and x is the distance from the centre of the obstacle to the observation

6.3. Singularities

6.3.1. Singularity of the kernel

All the integral equations deduced from the Helmholtz equation correspond to a
Green's kernel which is singular: G(M, P) tends to infinity when distance r(M, P)
tends to zero. For this reason, all the numerical computations must be carried out
with care. For the collocation method, this difficulty appears when computing the
diagonal terms of matrix A.
The integrals corresponding to a simple layer potential are well defined because
the kernel is integrable. For example, in two dimensions, the Hankel function
Ho(kr) behaves as In r. For numerical computations, the kernel can then be
approximated by the first terms of its asymptotic behaviour when r tends to zero.
This leads to an integral which can be analytically evaluated.
The integrals corresponding to a double layer potential are defined as Cauchy
principal values (see chapter 3). A presentation of the numerical procedure and
some examples can be found in [10].
The integrals corresponding to a derivative of a double layer potential can only
be defined as the finite part of an integral following Hadamard's works. This leads
to the difficulty of an intrinsic definition of the limit. The theory of pseudo-
differential operators is a good tool for defining this limit and proving that the
techniques used in the case of diffraction by a thin screen, for example [11], are

6.3.2. Domains with corners, polygons

The singular behaviour of the solutions of boundary value problems in polygonal
domains has been studied by Grisvard [12], among others. For example, let 9t
denote a polygonal domain in the plane (0, y, z) and let p(y, z) be the solution of the

Ep - 0

inside 9t


on Fj,j-- 1, ...,N










Fig. 6.3. Domain ft.

where the sum of the intervals Fj is equal to the boundary F of f~. E is a differential
operator, of degree 2, with constant coefficients. The operators Bj are defined on
the boundary and correspond to the boundary conditions. The gj are functions
defined and known on Fj.
The existence and uniqueness of the solution p are proved. Around each corner, p
has a singular behaviour and is written p = ps + pr where ps is a singular function
which is explicitly given and Pr is a regular rest.
The number and the behaviour of the singular functions depend on the values of
the angles wj and on the type of the boundary conditions. Similar results have also
been obtained in three dimensions.

Discontinuous boundary conditions, cracks. Problems described by partial differ-
ential equations and mixed discontinuous boundary conditions have been studied
by Eskin [13]. For example, let p be the solution of the following two-dimensional
problem in the half-plane (z i> 0):

Ep(y, z)= 0

if z > 0

Blp(y, z) =f(y)

if y < 0 and z - 0

B2p(y, z) - g(y)

if y > 0 and z = 0

conditions at infinity

where E is a differential operator. B1 and B2 are boundary operators. The functions
f and g are defined respectively on (y < 0, z = 0) and (y > 0, z = 0).
This problem is similar to those presented in chapter 5 where the Wiener-Hopf
method is described. The proofs of the existence and the uniqueness are partly based
on the Wiener-Hopf method. The discontinuity of the boundary conditions implies
that p has a singular behaviour around (0, 0) which can be obtained explicitly.

Example." Let (y<0, z-0) be described by a Neumann condition and
(y > 0, z- 0) be described by an impedance condition. It can be shown [14] that

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