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COURSE SUBJECT OIL AND GAS TECHNOLOGY MERCAPTANS REMOVAL
Objectives: Upon completion of this course the trainee should be able to:
• • • • • Describe the mercaptans. Explain the Merox process. Describe the process chemistry. Explain the process flow. Describe the mechanical equipment
1. Introduction 1.1. What is mercaptan? 1.2. Merox process overview 1.3. Merox process description 1.4. Merox extraction 2. Process chemistry 2.1. Chemistry of the prewash 2.2. Chemistry of the Merox process. 2.3. Merox reactions. 2.4. Extraction chemistry. 2.5. Water solubility 2.6. Ionization constants 2.7. Overall extraction coefficient 2.8. Sulfide oxidation 3. Process flow and description 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Extraction section 3.3. Regeneration section 4. Mechanical equipment 4.1. Combination column 4.2. Prewash stage 4.3. Extraction stage 4.4. Water wash stage 4.5. Caustic surge drum 4.6. Catalyst addition tank 4.7. Oxidizer 4.8. Air separator 4.9. Disulfide oil separator
Prepared by Behzad Yousefian Date 16 July .2000
Checked by Date
Yeganeh Larijani 10 Aug. 2000
Approved by Date
SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL
1.1. What Is Mercaptan? The most important thing to know about mercaptan is that it stinks. It doesn’t smell slightly. It stinks. In a concentrated form, its smell is almost unbearable. And it takes only a few parts per million of mercaptan for the average person to wrinkle a nose and say, “what is that smell?” Mercaptans, or thiols, are known for their extremely obnoxious and nauseating odor, the intensity of which is related to their vapor pressure, being more intense in the lower boiling, higher vapor pressure members of the series. Elimination of mercaptans, specifically the lower boiling, most odoriferous species, is a necessity for product acceptance, unless the product is used in a closed system as in the case of LPG for home heating. Mercaptans appear to be naturally present in crude oil, but a considerable amount of meracptan results from the decomposition of other sulfur compounds during crude distillation and cracking operations. Mercaptans can also occur as a result of the combination of hydrogen sulfide with olefins and diolefins. Meracaptans occur in all fractions from methane and heavier, cannot be removed by distillation and, therefore, require chemical treatment for removal. Concentrations generally range from a few ppm to several thousand ppm. Aryl mercaptans, commonly called thiophenols, seem to be peculiar to catalytically cracked fractions. They are seldom, if ever, found in virgin fractions or natural gas. Tertiary alkyl mercaptans occur in greatest concentrations in thermally cracked fractions but are not expected in natural gas. Higher boiling mercaptans, such as those found in the last distillation out of gasoline or kerosine, are of such low vapor pressure that they do not impart a seriously objectionable odor to a product. However, product specifications which limit total mercaptan sulfur do not distinguish between the odoriferous and non-odoriferous types, so all must often be treated. Natural gas include H2S, CO2 and other sulfur components such as mercaptans. Mercaptans are with overall formula RSH, that R in it is the base of saturated hydrocarbons. Mercaptans are the organic component of sulfur and as well as have a bad smell and corrosive properties in pipeline transmission. Therefore, if the value of mercaptans very much present in natural gas, must be removed from natural gas and reduce the value to acceptable. For us to separate the mercaptans from natural gas in the sweetening plant, we use Merox process.
TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. 1. The name “Merox” is an acronym derived from MERcaptan OXidation.2.3. The extracted mercaptans are catalytically oxidized to disulfides. Merox Process Description The Merox extraction process is based on the ability of a catalyst or catalysts to compose iron group metal chelates in an alkaline environment to promote the oxidation of mercaptans to disulfides using air as the source of oxygen. For mercaptan extraction of natural gas and fuel gas. The process relies on a special catalyst to accelerate the oxidation of mercaptans to disulfides at or near economical product rundown temperature. Merox Process Overview The Merox process is an efficient and economical catalytic process developed for the chemical treatment of petroleum distillates for removal of sulfur present as mercaptans (Merox extraction) or conversion of mercaptan sulfur to another much less objectionable form (Merox sweetening). the Merox process can remove virtually all the mercaptans. The reaction proceeds at an economically practical rate at normal temperatures for refinery rundown streams.T.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. Merox extraction The extraction version of the Merox process removes custic-soluble mercaptans from hydrocarbon feedstocks. Figure 1-1 3 .MR/001 1.4. 1. which are sent to appropriate disposal.
We may have been remiss in using the name “Merox” to designate a variety of application of a single catalyzed chemical reaction.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. It is useful to review the chemical reactions. Chemistry of the Merox Process The Merox process can be applied to a broad range of treating problems. however. Since H2S and CO2 are much stronger acids than mercaptans. In the common system used by the petroleum industry.2. 2. Thus. The Merox process in all of its applications is based on the ability of an organo-metallic catalyst to accelerate the oxidation of mercaptans to disulfides at or near ambient temperatures and pressures. namely the conversion of mercaptans by oxidation. 2.MR/001 2. by the common system. the strict formal name is “methanethiol”.T. MERcaptan OXidation The word “mercaptan” is a descriptive name applied to organic compounds with a sulfhydryl function (-SH) and derived from the Latin mercurium captans. However. this project will be devoted solely to natural gas treatment. 2.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. Atmospheric air is used as a source of oxygen. is methyl mercaptan just as one would name an alcohol having the formula CH3OH methyl alcohol.1. Merox Reactions The name “Merox” originates from the function of the process itself. mercaptan absorption will be reduced and offspecification product may result. CH3SH. which may take place. these acid gases will immediately begin to spend the caustic used in the mercaptan absorption section of the column.3. assigns the word “thiol” for this functional group. mercaptans are named after their analogous alcohol counterparts. due to their mercury-seizing properties. PROCESS CHEMISTRY The natural gas is to be treated in a Merox process unit for the removal of H2S. CO2 forms a stronger acid than H2S. Today’s literature. The use of a single name to designate what may appear to be a multiplicity of processes has unfortunately been the cause of some confusion in understanding the various applications of the process. The overall reaction can be written: 4 RSH + O2 2 RSSR + 2 H2O (3) 4 . Chemistry of the Prewash Both hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are acidic and will neutralize or “spend” Caustic Soda according to the following reactions: H2S + 2NaOH CO2 + 2NaOH Na2S + 2H2O Na2CO3 + H2O (1) (2) If the prewash is not operated properly. CO2 and mercaptan sulfur. The reaction will proceed only in an alkaline environment.
The following equation illustrates the mechanism of mercaptan extraction: RSH + NaOH Oil Aqueous Phase Phase NaSR + H2O Aqueous Phase (4) The ability of the Merox process to completely regenerate Caustic Soda for reuse will be discussed later but. the disulfides. Water Solubility Mercaptans are slightly soluble in water as indicated by the following table: Table 2-1 Mercaptan CH3SH C2H5SH n-C3H7SH n-C4H9SH t-C4H9SH Solubility g/liter at 25°C ° 23. we are concerned only with extraction in which the mercaptans are more or less completely removed from the hydrocarbon using caustic soda solution as the extraction solvent. Extraction Chemistry Extraction is applied to both gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon streams. which may be straight. branched. solubility in the alkaline solution decreases and. That.96 5 . which are insoluble in the caustic. depends primarily upon the following: Molecular weight of the mercaptan Degree of branching of the mercaptan molecule Caustic soda concentration Temperature of the system As the molecular weight of the mercaptan increases. The caustic soda is then regenerated by bringing it into contact with air and catalyst to bring about oxidation of mercaptans to disulfides. it depends on the following equation: 4 NaSR + O2 + 2H2O 4 NaOH + 2 RSSR (5) In order to fully understand the extraction mechanism given by equation (4).F CODE P/TM/TRG/P.4.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. as chain branching increases.57 0. but for natural gas treatment. There are two principal divisions in the application of this reaction. in turn.MR/001 R is a hydrocarbon chain.3 6. The chains may be saturated or unsaturated. 2. 2. it is necessary to examine some of the physical properties of mercaptans. as will be shown. Finally. are separated from the regenerated (lean) caustic. The interrelation of these properties will directly affect the theoretical degree of extraction attainable.5. The degree of completeness of mercaptan extraction depends upon the solubility of a mercaptan in the alkaline solution. or cyclic.7 1.96 0. extraction and sweetening. solubility decreases.T.
F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. 2. As summarized in the following table. can be calculated as follows: Ka = [RS − ][H+ ] [RSH] (7) The value of Ka depends on the type or class of mercaptan. an ionization constant. the value of Ka in the case of alkyl mercaptans is approximately 10-11. 2. This procedure has definite limitations. these values should only be used for comparison: Table 2-2 Acid Alkyl mercaptans Acetic acid Hydrogen sulfide Carbonic acid Ionization Constant. The partition coefficient.5 10-6. but the effect is not major. two materials often removed by extraction with caustic solutions. For comparison purposes. K. since temperature also affects the degree of ionization.8 10-6. they ionize to a small degree in a water solution to give a mercaptide anion and a proton: RSH RS. Ka.6. Ionization Constants Mercaptans are acidic compounds. Overall Extraction Coefficient One possible mean of extracting mercaptans from gaseous or liquid hydrocarbon phase is the use of an immiscible solvent such as water.MR/001 The table shows that the mercaptan solubility decreases as the molecular weight of the mercaptan increases. K= [RSH] aqueous [RSH] hydrocarbon (8) 6 . ionization constants for various compounds are presented in the following table but.T. Ka 10-10.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T.4 These data shows that alkyl mercaptans are weak acids.6 10-4.+ H+ (6) As with acids in general. the Ka values for H2S and H2CO3 are listed. it is to be expected that extraction with water is ineffective. The structure of the alkyl group does have some effect on the ionization contant.7. From the water solubility data. For comparison.
These physical properties. is soluble in water.003845 These data establish the high hydrocarbon solubility and low water solubility for the alkyl mercaptans. Since mercaptans are weak acids. Second.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. reversibly.045 0.18 0. NaSR.T. This is illustrated by the extraction of an iso-octanc solution of mercaptan with an equal volume of 0. The above equilibria reveal the limitations of the caustic extraction system. an aqueous solution of strong base can be used to extract mercaptans from the gaseous phase. with strong bases such as sodium hydroxide: RSH + NaOH NaSR + H2O (4) Since the sodium mercaptide.01 0. ionization of the mercaptan to the mercaptide is quite low as illustrated by the weak acidity of the mercaptan.5 N solution of NaOH at 20°C (68°F).MR/001 For removing mercaptans from iso-octane with an equal volume of water are as follows: Table 2-3 Mercaptan CH3SH C2H5SH nC3H7SH n-C4H9SH t-C4H9SH Coefficient 0.0023 0. the low solubility of most mercaptans in water does not favor a shift to the right in the above system. Depends on the ionization constant of the mercaptan (Ka) and on the concentrations of free hydroxide and water. therefore. The entire reaction thus involves two equilibria as follows: (1) RSH Hydrocarbon 1.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. permit removal of low molecular weight mercaptans but prohibit the application of caustic extraction for effective removal of the higher molecular weight mercaptans. (2) RSH aqueous RSaqueous (9) 7 . they react. the presence of dissolved caustic further decreases the solubility of mercaptan by the “salting out effect” whereby the presence of a more soluble material tends to suppress the solubility of a less soluble material. In order for the above reaction to take place. First. Depends on solubility 2. the mercaptan must dissolve in the aqueous phase.
MR/001 Table 2-4 Mercaptan CH3SH C2H5SH n-C3H7SH n-C4H9SH t-C4H9SH % Extracted 99.T. These conditions are enumerated as follows: 1. nothing can be done to control either the amount or the molecular weight of the mercaptan present.7 98. the salting out effect becomes significant. 8 . Kq. the reverse reaction begins to take place. Kq = [RSH] aqueous + [RS − ] aqueous [RSH] hydrocarbon (10) therefore. Since it is the forward reaction that is desired. in turn. for a mercaptan of the same molecular weight. but the ionization constants are essentially constant (for normal mercaptans) or vary only slightly (for branched chain). as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the mercaptan molecule for several caustic concentrations.1 71. note that the reaction proceeds both in the forward and reverse directions as indicated by the arrows. This symbolism indicates that.2 shows the structure of the three mercaptan types. it is important to improve conditions that will favor the forward reactions. there is no further net increase in either direction in the amount of reaction products formed and a condition of equilibrium is reached.0 The solubilities of mercaptans in water vary greatly. Referring to the mercaptan extraction equation. as this is a function of the natural gas source. after the reaction has proceeded to some extent.7 93. Low temperature 4. Low molecular weight mercaptan 2. equation (4). At higher concentrations. depends almost entirely on the water solubility of the mercaptan and the caustic strength. primary mercaptan will be most completely extracted. Finally.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. secondary mercaptan will be less completely extracted. The overall extraction coefficient. It shows that increasing the caustic strength above about 8% has no beneficial effect for mercaptans having more than four carbon atoms. Freedom from branching 3. Absence of interfering ions (contamination) 5. However. Optimum caustic concentration Of course. and tertiary mercaptan will be the least completely extracted. Figure 2-1 shows the overall equilibrium coefficient Kq.0 78. is a function of the molecular weight of the mercaptan. Figure 2. Water solubility.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P.
F CODE P/TM/TRG/P.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T.MR/001 Figure 2-1 9 .T.
Figure 2-2 10 .F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. Hydrogen sulfide cannot normally be tolerated in Merox unit feedstocks in concentrations exceeding about 5 wt.MR/001 Because of these factors.8. C3/C4 fractions.T. it will react with caustic to form sulfide. Sulfide Oxidation If hydrogen sulfide is present in the feed to a Merox unit. and light gasolines. 2.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. which are most amenable to mercaptan extraction. fuel gas. which contain low molecular weight mercaptans. ppm. mercaptan extraction is used mainly for low boiling range petroleum fractions such as natural gas. and where a reduction in sulfur content is needed or desired. which are also most likely to contain H2S. H2S + 2NaOH Na2S + 2H2O (11) Sodium sulfide can then be expected to oxidize according to the following reactions to form sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfate: 2Na2S + 2O2 + H2O Na2S2O3 + 2NaOH + 2O2 Na2S + 2O2 Na2SO4 Na2S2O3 + 2NaOH 2Na2SO4 + H2O (12) (13) (14) This formation of sodium sulfate or sodium thiosulfate is most common in Merox extraction units because it is those feedstocks.
which was designed for mercaptan oxidation. as sodium thiosulfate slowly reacts to form sodium sulfate as the product. The oxidation kineties are significantly slower for sulfide than for mercaptide. which deplete alkalinity needed for mercaptan extraction and increase the salting out effect. Caustic is consumed irreversibly. thereby reducing the mercaptan extraction coefficient.25 wt-ppm NaOH consumed for each wt-ppm of H2S sulfur.T. the regenerated lean solvent is recycled back to the extractor. as a source of oxygen. thus produced. It is thus necessary to essentially completely oxidize the sulfide before reasonable mercaptide oxidation rates can be attained. The disulfides are subsequently separated from the solvent by coalescing. each mole of H2S sulfur consumes one mole of sodium hydroxide. They are neutral salts. is sent to a regeneration section where air.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. remains in the aqueous phase. and decanting.MR/001 Exceeding this maximum concentration of H2S poses the following four problems: 1. The mercaptan-rich solvent. one is the extraction section and the other is the caustic regeneration section (see Figure 3-1) 11 . 3. or theoretical. is injected and the mercaptans are oxidized to disulfides. solubility limits could be exceeded leading to crystalline precipitation and possible plugging. gravity settling. This is equivalent to 1. 3. This means that often the equipment. the caustic consumption doubles. Introduction This version of the Merox process utilizes gas-liquid contacting to extract low molecular weight mercaptans from the gas with a strong aquenous alkali solvent. inadequate facilities for air injection can quickly become the limiting factor in caustic regeneration.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. The unit consists of two sections.1. 4. If left to accumulate. which also contains the dispersed Merox catalyst. The presence of sulfide suppresses mercaptide oxidation. Sodium sulfate or thiosulfate. The stoichiometric. Thus. affords insufficient residence time for sulfide oxidation. 2. and eight times that of sodium mercaptide oxidation when sodium sulfate is produced. However. PROCESS FLOW AND DESCRIPTION 3. oxygen requirement for sodium sulfide oxidation is four times that of sodium mercaptide oxidation when sodium thiosulfate is produced. When sodium thiosulfate is produced.
F CODE P/TM/TRG/P.MR/001 Figure 3-1 12 .T.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T.
then enters the Merox extractor stage of the combination column.” although in conversation. The natural gas.074. the more efficient is the stage of contact. the natural gas in this case.” “contactor column” or similar terminology may be occasionally used. The density of solvent caustic in this stage is also 10°Be. the natural gas is treated in a three stage contacting column consisting of 33 trays overall. 13 .” “extraction column. references to “caustic prewash and absorber. This type of arrangement results in an approach to equilibrium favorable to the least possible amount of mercaptan in the hydrocarbon leaving the top of the extractor stage of the column. The gas then enters the prewash below tray 33 and flows upwards. This caustic enters on tray number 19 and is made up of caustic circulated by pump from the bottom of the column augmented with a lean stream of partially spent Merox caustic drawn from the Merox extraction caustic regeneration section. all the H2S (if any) and CO2 are removed from the gas by contact with caustic soda solution of 10 degrees Baume (°Be) density.. the “dirtiest” hydrocarbon will be in contact with the richest caustic. that is. usually described simply as “caustic” in a “prewash” stage to remove H2S and CO2 contaminants. At conditions of dynamic equilibrium. In this stage of the column.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. Within the combination column. Throughout this course. dynamic equilibrium would be reached. During the intimate mixing. there is no further net transfer of mercaptans from the hydrocarbon to the caustic. Therefore. In any real or actual stage of contact. The natural gas containing mercaptans (RSH). the gas is first contacted with circulating caustic soda solution.e. the column will be described as the “combination column. The closer the approach to true equilibrium.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. where caustic soluble mercaptans are transferred from the gas to the caustic phase. the “cleanest” hydrocarbon will be in contact with the leanest coustic. mercaptans transfer from the natural gas to the caustic solution. true or complete equilibrium is not reached. at the first stage of contact.9 weight percent sodium hydroxide. it will be in contact with leaner and leaner caustic. Extraction Section In the extraction section. which is flowing countercurrently across the trays and down the column.2. which contains 15 valve trays. The concept of the countercurrent principle is that as the gas or hydrocarbon proceeds upward stage by stage. the rate of mercaptan transfer from the hydrocarbon to the caustic equals the rate of mercaptan transfer from the caustic back into the hydrocarbon. contacting caustic. specific gravity = 1.MR/001 3. Conversely. i. hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) is initially contacted with a circulating caustic stream in the line immediately upstream of the combination column. This is equivalent to 6. free of H2S and CO2. In a prefect or theoretical stage of contact. consisting of 15 valve trays. at the last stage of contact. Separation of caustic from gas occurs within the column.T.
The lean caustic from the break tank is pumped to high pressure and fed on flowrate control to tray number 4 in the extraction stage of the combination column. The lean caustic is pumped from the bottom of the disulfide oil separator to a circulation caustic break tank. A portion of this rich caustic is circulated to the catalyst addition tank when needed to prepare a new batch of catalyst. Regeneration Section The mercaptide-rich caustic is withdrawn from a liquid trap below tray 18 of each combination column and fed to one of the Merox caustic regeneration sections. Air. Downstream of the air separator. The circulation caustic break tank is final vessel in the low pressure caustic regeneration system. In the regeneration section.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. and to prevent excessive water dilution in the prewash section. also on flowrate control. a source. after disengagement. The increase in temperature is found desirable to favor to oxidation reaction.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. it provides makeup caustic to the prewash stage. The water and caustic addition points for all stages are integrated to minimize transfer lines and operations.3. 14 . the excess air is directed to the steam generation boiler fireboxes after addition of natural gas. The rich caustic stream.T.MR/001 Finally. the liquid phases enter the disulfide oil separator where disulfide oil and the lean caustic pass through an anthracite coal bed and become coalesced into separate phases. Merox catalyst in a solution of caustic is continuously injected into the rich caustic stream at the outlet of the surge drum. The water wash stage consists of the three topmost valve trays across which the water is circulated and added continuously. 3. is injected continuously into the rich caustic and the mixture enters the “oxidizer” where the mercaptides are converted to caustic-insoluble disulfides. is heated to 43°C in a heat exchanger described as the caustic heater. A small slipstream. is diverted to tray number 19 to minimize the amount of dilution occurring as a result of mercaptide oxidation chemistry. and enables a steady-state flow rate for the subsequent caustic regeneration train of equipment. which permits some dissolved gas to disengage. The small injection pump allows this catalyst addition to proceed smoothly. The oxidizer effluent enters air separator and. which will follow although the actual temperature may vary slightly as operational results are optimized. During startup or when the boiler firebox is out of commission. now augmented with fresh catalyst. the mercaptan-free gas flows to the water wash stage where entrained caustic is removed.” is diverted to atmosphere via the vent tank. The disulfide oil is withdrawn continuously and burned in a special incinerator. simultaneously preventing build-up in the bulk of the circulating extraction caustic of contamination caused by carbon dioxide that enters with atmospheric air at the oxidizer. the excess air often described as “spent air. the first stage is a caustic surge drum. The gas exits the top of the column and flows to the compressor suction drum. Additionally. of oxygen.
Valve trays have been installed throughout the column to achieve better efficiencies at turndown (see Figure 4.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. extraction.1) The combination column is a vertical vessel consisting of three stages: prewash.1.MR/001 4.T.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. Vertical downcomers are provided to transfer caustic from one tray to the tray immediately below. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT 4.2). and water wash. Combination Column (Figure 4. Figure 4-1 15 . A brief description of each stage follows.
F CODE P/TM/TRG/P.T.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T.MR/001 Figure 4-2 16 .
a stainless steel wire mesh blanket.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. To minimize caustic carryover to the extractor section. The bottom of the column is provided with a vortex breaker and a level controller.MR/001 4. Prewash Stage (Figure 4.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P.2.T. 17 . is located at the top of the prewash.3) This stage is at the bottom of the combination column to neutralize hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. 150mm thick. The natural gas feed distributor is located below the bottom tray of the column.
TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P.MR/001 Figure 4-3 18 .T.
An accumulator tray. located between the prewash and the water wash stages. Extraction Stage (Figure 4.T. which allows the withdrawal of the rich caustic.3.MR/001 4.4) This stage. Figure 4-4 19 . consists of 15 valve trays.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. The extraction stage efficiency can be assessed by comparing the mercaptan sulfur content in the raw untreated gas fed to the combination column with the treated gas leaving the water wash stage since on-line analyzers are installed.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. A stainless steel wire mesh blanket is placed between the extraction and the water wash to minimize caustic carryover.
F CODE P/TM/TRG/P.4.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T.5) The water wash stage. removed entrained caustic from the treated gas.MR/001 4. A stainless steel wire mesh blanket is mounted at the top of the combination column to minimize water carryover into the natural gas product routed to the booster compressor suction drum. comprised of three valve trays through which water is circulated and added continuously.T. Figure 4-5 20 . Water Wash Stage (Figure 4. Water is circulated from the accumulator tray to the top tray.
MR/001 4. Figure 4-6 21 . the vapor outlet line directs flow to the flare header on pressure control. Internally.1 bars pressure to remove entrained gas and to correct surges in the rich caustic stream leaving tray number 18 of the extraction stage of the combination column.T. At the top of the drum.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T.6) This vertical vessel is operated at approximately 4.5. Caustic Surge Drum (Figure 4.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. a distributor pipe is fitted to create uniform dispersion of the incoming caustic.
T. 22 .7) This is an atmospheric tank that allows continuous addition of Merox catalyst into the rich caustic stream. Electric motor driven mixers are installed at the bottom of the tank to mix condensate.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. rich caustic and catalyst together.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P.MR/001 4. Catalyst Addition Tank (Figure 4. accessible by ladder and platform. A catalyst-loading hatch is provided in the roof of the tank.6.
F CODE P/TM/TRG/P.MR/001 Figure 4-7 23 .TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T.T.
T. containing catalyst.7. the loading should be done with the vessel filled with water. A caution is added that the vessel should be completely full of rings. Oxidizer (Figure 4. ring attrition will occur as a result of the abrasive contact caused by subtle shifting action. Carbon is used because it is inert to the strong caustic and the severe oxidizing environment encountered. flush with the top manway.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. with air for regeneration. packing is provided in the form of carbon Raschig rings. otherwise.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. Figure 4-8 24 .MR/001 4.8) The oxidizer is a vertical vessel designed as a mixer to contact rich caustic. Because these rings are subject to breakage. Since this vessel will contain mixed vapor /liquid phase.
MR/001 4. Figure 4-9 25 . The spent air flows upward into a packed area. These rings are susceptible to corrosion.9) The air separator is a vertical vessel.F CODE P/TM/TRG/P. The mixture of caustic.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T.8.T. disulfide oil and spent air enters through a special distributor pipe which is slotted top and bottom to aid both disengaging and distribution. Air Separation (Figure 4. This packing consists of carbon steel Raschig rings. especially during periods of sustained operation at high oxygen contents in the vent gas.
F CODE P/TM/TRG/P.MR/001 4. Figure 4-10 26 .9.10) The disulfide oil separator is a horizontal settler vessel with an inlet at the midpoint of one end.TSP-POGC-NIGC SUBJECT MERCAPTANS REMOVAL T. This is zone is packed with anthracite coal which acts as a coalescer to aid in the separation of disulfide oil from the regenerated caustic.T. Disulfide Oil Separator (Figure 4. The caustic disulfide mixture passes through a packed zone.
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