Contents

CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLWDGEMENT ABSTRACT Chapter-1 ............................................................................................................................................ 13 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 13 1.1. Aim Of Study: ........................................................................................................................... 13 1.2. Introducton To The Mapped Area ........................................................................................... 13 1.3. Accessability Of The Mapped Area .......................................................................................... 13 1.3.1 The Salt Range.................................................................................................................... 13 1.3.2. Khewra Town .................................................................................................................... 14 1.3.3. Khewra salt Mine .............................................................................................................. 14 1.3.4 .Stay at Choa Saidunshah ................................................................................................... 15 1.3 Inhabitate Of The Assigned Area .............................................................................................. 16 1.4.Previous Work ........................................................................................................................... 16 Chapter- 2 ........................................................................................................................................... 18 PHYSIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................................................... 18 2.1. Relief .................................................................................................................................... 18 2.2. Climate .................................................................................................................................... 18 2.3. Vegetation Cover .................................................................................................................. 18 2.4. Weathering ............................................................................................................................... 19 2.4.1. Mechanical Weathering .................................................................................................... 19 2.4.2.Frost Action ........................................................................................................................ 20 2.4.3. Chemical Weathering ........................................................................................................ 20 2.5. Hydrology ................................................................................................................................. 21 2.5.1.Ratna Nala .......................................................................................................................... 21 2.6.Stream Load .............................................................................................................................. 22 2.7.Drainage Pattern ....................................................................................................................... 22 2.7.1.Dendritic Drainage Pattern .................................................................................................... 22 2.7.2.Sub Parallel Drainage Pattern ............................................................................................ 22 2.8. Mass Wasting ...................................................................................................................... 22

2.9. Main Khewra Nala .................................................................................................................... 23 2.9.1.Bifurcaton Ratio Of Main Khewra Nala: ............................................................................. 23 2.10..Choa Saidan Shah –Pidh Nala ................................................................................................ 26 2.10.1.Bifurcaton Ratio Of Choa Saidan Shah-Pidh Nala: ........................................................... 26 Chapter- 3 ........................................................................................................................................... 29 STRATIGRAPHY ..................................................................................................................................... 29 3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 29 • STRATIGRAPHIC TABLE OF THE ASSIGNED AREA .......................................................................... 30 Table 3.1: Stratigraphic succession of Eastern Salt Range (Khewra Gorge) ............................... 30 3.2. Stratigraphy.............................................................................................................................. 31 3.2.1 Salt Range Formation ............................................................................................................. 31 3.2.2 Khewra Sandstone ................................................................................................................. 33 3.2.3. Kussak Formation .................................................................................................................. 36 3.2.4. Jutana Formation .................................................................................................................. 38 3.2.5. Baghanwala Formation ......................................................................................................... 40 3.2.6 Tobra Formation .................................................................................................................... 42 3.2.7.Dandot Formation.................................................................................................................. 44 3.2.8. Warchha Sandstone .............................................................................................................. 46 3.2.9. Namal Formation .................................................................................................................. 48 3.2.10 Sakesar Limestone ............................................................................................................... 50 Chapter- 4 ........................................................................................................................................... 54 SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES .................................................................................................................. 54 4.1. Cross Bedding:- ........................................................................................................................ 55 4.2. Ripple Marks:- .......................................................................................................................... 56 4.3. Worm Tracks:- .......................................................................................................................... 57 4.4. Nodule Structures: ................................................................................................................... 58 4.5. Salt Pseudomorphs:- ................................................................................................................ 59 4.6. Karen Structures:- .................................................................................................................... 60 Chapter- 5 ........................................................................................................................................... 61 DEPOSI'I'IONAL ENVIRONMENTS ............................................................................................................. 61 5.1. Salt Range Formation ............................................................................................................... 61 5.2. Khewra Sandstone ................................................................................................................... 62 5.3. Kussak Formation ..................................................................................................................... 62

5.4. Jutana Formation ..................................................................................................................... 63 5.5. Baghanwala Formation ............................................................................................................ 64 5.6. Tobra Formation ...................................................................................................................... 64 5.7. Warcha Sandstone ................................................................................................................... 65 5.8.Namal Formation ...................................................................................................................... 66 5.9. Sakaser Limestone ................................................................................................................... 66 Chapter- 6 ........................................................................................................................................... 67 GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES..................................................................................................................... 67 6.1. Faults: ....................................................................................................................................... 67 6.1.1.Reverse Fault: .................................................................................................................... 67 6.1.2. Normal Fault ..................................................................................................................... 67 6.1.3. Grangul Thrust fault: ......................................................................................................... 67 6.2. Unconformaties: ...................................................................................................................... 67 6.2.1. Disconformity: .................................................................................................................. 68 6.2.2. Permian unconformity ..................................................................................................... 68 6.2.3. Unconformity ................................................................................................................... 68 6.2.4. Pidh Graben ...................................................................................................................... 68 Chapter- 7 ........................................................................................................................................... 69 HYDRO CARBON POTENTIAL OF THE MAPPED AREA .................................................................................. 69 7.1.Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 69 7.2.Energy Resources ...................................................................................................................... 69 7.2.1.Petroleum Play ................................................................................................................... 69 Table 7.1 :Source Rocks ,Reservoir Rocks and Seal Rocks distribution in the Stratigraphy Column of the Assigned area along with possible timing of hydrocarbon maturation and Formation of the traps. ............................................................................................................... 70 7.3. Source Rocks ....................................................................................................................... 70 Maturation ............................................................................................................................... 72 Generation and Migration ................................................................................................... 72 7.4.Reservoir Rocks ..................................................................................................................... 73 Traps and Seals ........................................................................................................................ 74 Chapter- 8 ........................................................................................................................................... 75 ECONOMIC GEOLOGY ............................................................................................................................. 75 8.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 75

8.2.Coal ........................................................................................................................................... 75 8.3.Economic Industrial Raw Materials and Minerals .................................................................... 76 8.3.1. Rock Salt ............................................................................................................................ 76 8.3.2. Gypsum ............................................................................................................................. 77 8.3.3. Limestone.......................................................................................................................... 78 8.3.4. Dolomite............................................................................................................................ 80 8.3.5. Sandstone ......................................................................................................................... 80 Chapter- 9 ........................................................................................................................................... 82 REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................................... 82

ACKNOWLWDGEMENT
All Praise To All Mighty ALLAH Who Gave Us Knowledge ,Education And Learning To Work To The Best Of Our Abilities, Courage And Patience To Obligation .We Are Able To Complete Our Field Work And Are Eventually Presenting This Field Report. We Are Thankful To Dr Ibrahim Baloch Chairman ,Geology Department , And Also Our Supervisor For Organizing The Field Program , Which Was Not Possible Without Him..We Offer Our Sincere Thanks To Assistant Prof.Mr. Rahum-U-Din, Assistant Prof. Ahmed Shah Kakar And Last Not Least Assistant Prof. Syed Haroon Ali For Their Supervision In Field And Gaudiness For Preparation Of This Field Report . We Had Some Difficulties In Doing This Task ,But They Taught Us Patiently Until We Knew What To Do . Last But Not Least ,Our Group Who Were Doing This Field Work Sharing Ideas ,Helping Each Other And We Combined And Discussed Together ,We Had This Task Done.

ABSTRACT
A comprehensive geological Map of Khewra Gorge and its surroundings area Jhelum and Chakwal districts of Punjab Province, Which is prepared on the scale of 1:50000 about 60 square Kilometer area was mapped which was lying on latitude 30o 43/ 04// to 32o 38/ 48// and longitude of 73o 00/ 25// to 72o 59/ 21// and the Toposheet No 43 D/14 of Geological Survey of Pakistan. This report describes the stratigraphy Structural geology, economic Geology and geological history of the studied area. The rock units in studied area range from Precambrian to the Eocene age. The Stratigraphic Succession of the area: Salt Range Formation (PreCambrian), Khewra Sandstone (Early Cambrian), Kussak Formation (Early Cambrian), Jutana formation (Middle Cambrian), Baghanwala Formation (Late Cambrian) Tobra formation (Early Permian) Dandot Formation (Early Permian) Warcha Sandstone (late Permian) Namal Formation (Early Eocene) and Sakesar Limestone (Early Eocene) Detail study of Stratigraphy of the area is carried out including the Characters of each rock unit. Shale , Limestone, Sandstone and marls the major Lithologies of Sedimentary rocks. These formations were deposits under shallow to moderately deep marine and fluvial and glacial environments. The assigned area tectonically active and the rocks units’ thruster over Punjab plain and highly deformed. Geological Cross section were prepared for better understanding of the structures of the assigned area along with their symbols and abbreviations also studied the potential hydrocarbons of the rocks and economic rocks of the area.

Chapter-1

INTRODUCTION
1.1. Aim Of Study:
The geological Fieldwork and thesis writing is an essential Requirement for Ms.c degree in Geology .Students of Ms.c (Final) have done field work for three weeks in the Eastern Salt Range Around Khewra Gorge in the Jhelum –Chakwal district of Punjab Province, Which was carried out In the month of February-March 2012 . The main purpose of field work was to learn the geological mapping, recognition of the geological feature ,proper collection of geological data in the field work and with student point of view they are trained for all sort of geological structures ,tectonics and stratigraphy of the mapped area observed in field .

1.2. Introducton To The Mapped Area
The area around the vicinity of Khewra gorge to Choa saiden shah (Jhelum district) was our assigned area, which lies in eastern part of salt range, Pakistan. The area is covered in Toposheet no 43D/14 of the survey of Pakistan .The location of the salt range is such that the potwar plateau lies in its north ,Punjab plain is In south ,while in the east and west .it is bounded by Jhelum and Indus rivers ,respectively.

1.3. Accessability Of The Mapped Area
1.3.1 The Salt Range Most of the tourists to the Punjab tend to follow the beaten track .they go to well known places with developed infrastructures of accommodation and other facilities .among the places ,which one tends to over look ,is Jhelum , the recruiting ground of the former British Army and now to Pakistan Army .It is also the starting point of the famous salt Range ,a name given to two lines of low rugged hills and the fertile land sandwiched between them.

FIG 1.1 Map is showing Location of the Field Area.

1.3.2. Khewra Town
Khewra is a town of Pind Dadan Khan Tehsil in Jhelum District, Punjab province, Pakistan.the population of Khewra is 1,00.000 and the world second largest salt deposits are located in Khewra .

1.3.3. Khewra salt Mine
The Khewra salt mine also known as Mayo Salt mine named in the honor of Lord Mayo, who visited the mine as Viceroy of IndiaThe salt mine is a part of salt range originated about 800 million years

ago after a shallow sea evaporated and following geological movements salt range

stretched to about 300 kilometers was formed It is said that the salt reserves at Khewra were discovered when Alexander visited South Asia, coming across the Jhelum and Mianwali region, during his Indian campaign. The discovery of the mine, however, was not made by Alexander nor his "allies", but by his horse. It is stated that when Alexander's army stopped here for rest, the horses started licking the stones. One of his soldiers took notice of it and when he tasted the rock stone, it was salty thus leading to the discovery of the salt mine. During Mughal era the salt was made available commercially by exporting it to different markets including far away region of Central Asia With the downfall of Mughal empire, the mine was taken over by Sikhs. Hari Singh Nalwa the Sikh ruler shared the management of mine with the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, Gulab Singh. The salt quarried during Sikh rule was not only a source of general consumption but also a source of revenue After Britishers took over the territory from Sikhs, they developed the mine further in 1872. Britishers found the mining carried out in an inefficient way with irregular and narrow tunnels, entrances, which made the movement of laborers dangerous and difficult. The supply of water inside mine was poor and there was no storage facility for the mined salt. The only road to Khewra mine was a rocky road on difficult terrain. Addressing these problems the then government leveled the road, built go-downs, provided supply of water, improved the entrances and tunnels, introduced better mechanism for excavation of salt.

1.3.4 .Stay at Choa Saidunshah
Our stay during the field work was in a small town and Union Council of Chakwal District in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. It is the one of the seven Union Councils of Choa Saidan Shah Tehsil This town is named after the saint Saidan Shah Shirazi. The legend goes that the area was a desert until the holy man arrived, when he struck the ground with his staff and sweet water sprang up ("Choa" means "spring"). The saint’s shrine is set back from the main bazaar in a courtyard, and the annual urs is held in April. Choa Saidan Shah is located in the south of Chakwal about 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the town centre on the Chakwal-Khewra road, in the east of Kallar Kahar, about 27 kilometres

(17 mi) from the M2 motorway, about 10 kilometres (6 mi) north of Khewra and about 6 kilometres (4 mi) from Katas.The town is placed in a bowl shaped valley, surrounded by hills. It is surrounded by trees and orchards, and is famous for its roses and perfumes.

1.3 Inhabitate Of The Assigned Area
The study area false administratively within Jhelum-chakwal District and most of its population live in small towns Khewra .Tobar Village Choa Saidanshah,Dandot Village and Pidh village are the major localities where most of the population of mapped area habitats.khewra and choa Saidanshah are generally more populated . All agricultural activities are confined to the big plains which run parallel in between the mountains . Rain water is generally used for irrigation in addition to tube –wells,which are also the major source of irrigation particularly in valleys and depressions.

1.4.Previous Work
In the past the salt Range has attracted geologists from all over the world to study Cambrian Stratigraphy .the Permian –Triassic boundary,and Lower Territary foraminiferal biostratigraphy .Particular note is the pioneering work of E.E.GEE(1935,1945) ,who dedicated almost his entire geological career to study of the Salt Range .His initial work related to solving the controversy regarding the age of the “Saline Series”,a burning Topic of that time ,and he made a great contribution by producing a geological map (more recently six sheets on a scale 1:50,000 have been published by the Geological Survey of Pakistan excluding the Trans-Indus Surghar Range). DAVIES and PINFOLD (1937) completed a comprehensive study of Lower Teritary Larger foraminifera of the Salt Range.WAAGEN (1882-1885,1895) worked on the brachiopods of the permian of the Salt Range and FATIMI (1973) studied the ceratitids of the Triassic of the Salt Range and Trans-Indus Surghar Range.He also worked on stratigraphic nomenclature on the Salt Range as did SHAH (1977).KUMMEL and TELCHERT (1966,1970) illustrated Permian brachiopods and described the detailed stratigraphy of the Permian rocks while GRANT (1966)described trilobites.HAQUE (1956) described the amaller foraminifera from the Teritiary formations of the western Namal Gorge ,Salt Range .AFZAL (1997) completed his doctoral thesis on the planktonic foraminifera of the paleogene and

established a planktonic biostratigraphy for the patala formation of the Salt Range and Surgher Range (AFZAL and VON DANIELS ,1991;AFZAL and BUTT ,2000). SAMEENI(1997) completed his doctoral thesis on paleogene biostratigraphy of the Salt Range under UNESCO IGCP-286 , headed by Prof .Lukas HOTTINGER o Basal University , Switzerland ,and established an alveolinid biostratigraphy for the Eocene succession of the Salt Range (SAMENI and BUTT ,1996,2004;SAMEENI and HOTTINGER , 2003).

Chapter- 2

PHYSIOGRAPHY
2.1. Relief
The Mapped Area lies between the Eastern Plateau in southeast and the Potwar Plateau in north. The highest elevation from sea level is 3687 feet and is called Tobra Peak . . The lowest elevation from sea level is I500 near Khewra town in south of the Mapped Area. Thus the absolute relief is 1987 feet.

2.2. Climate
The Mapped Area lies within the semi arid region. The local climate is more towards the humid because the area experienced Potwar, Kussak and Khewra. Thick cover of vegetation reduces the intensity of hot summers. The altitude has significant effect which produced precipitous slopes against the Monsoons. more rainfall than the adjacent areas of

2.3. Vegetation Cover
Dense vegetation cover conceals the geology of certain parts of the area .Two rakhs (jungles) are present in the Project area These are Rak.h Karangal and Rak.h Drengan. These rakhs presented serious difficulties in traversing and geological studies. In Southern part, the south facing slopes are generally warmer than adjacent north facing slopes due to direct fall of sunrays. At lower latitudes these sunny slopes are unable to preserve moisture content. The nearby north facing slopes retain moisture content and hence better vegetation cover is there. (Plants and Ecosystems by W.D. Billing). The names of various herbs, shrubs and trees present in the area are as follow: Oleacuspidata (Kaoo) • • Acacia modesta (Phulai) Acacia arabica (Kiker)

• • • • • • •

Capparis dicidua (Kundair) Dodonea viscosa (Snutha) Ipomea viscosa (Bhaikar) Gnmda Saghar Dhaman Gogair

2.4. Weathering
Weathering is the total effect of all the various sub aerial processes that cooperate in bringing about the decay and disintegration of the rocks. Weathering of rocks depends upon following factors: • • • • • • • • Mineral composition and structure of the rock Climatic conditions Presence and absence of vegetation Topography of the area Weathering is of three types Mechanical or Physical Weathering Chemical Weathering Biological Weathering

2.4.1. Mechanical Weathering
Mechanical changes may be brought about by changes in the temperature of the rock body itself or it may be due to the Formation of ice within the interstices or within the joints of the rock. mechanical weathering break up rocks into smaller and smaller fragments by physical forces without involving appreciable chemical decomposition.

In the Mapped Area following processes of mechanical weathering could be observed.

2.4.2.Frost Action
Mechanical disintegration of rocks depends to a large degree upon the presence of water in the interstices or joints. Rocks are disintegrated by repeated freezing and thawing of water in these joints and voids etc. Water fills the crevices and joints present in the rocks, on fall of temperature it freezes and expands because of increase in volume. This volume increase exerts a lot of pressure upon the sides of joints and voids. Repeated freezing and thawing resulted in the shattering of rock into angular fragments. These angular fragments can be seen on the slopes formed by sandstone and limestone etc, in Tobra upper portion of gorge and Pind saiden shah.

2.4.3. Chemical Weathering
The Mapped Area is predominantly covered by Sakaser Limestone ,Khewra sand stone ,salt range Formation ,Namal and Warcha .Main type of chemical weathering active in these carbonate rocks is solution weathering. Rain water with dissolved carbon dioxide together with humus acid from the surface of rocks attacks the carbonate rocks and removes them in the form of solution. Following evidences of solution weathering are reported from the Mapped Area.

• Karen structures
Miniature ridges formed on the surface of Sakesar Limestone.Karen structures are also present in salt of salt range Formation.

• Solution cavities
Solution cavities in the Sakesar Limestone exposed and Namal Formation.

• Widened joints
In Sakesar Limestone, Khewra sand stone ,warcha sand stone and Jutana Formation, joints are widened due to solutioning.

• Honey comb weathering
It is present in Khewra sand stone in Khewra Gorge..

• Plant Wedging
With the growth of plants and their roots, joints and crevices are extended due to which rocks become loose. Plant wedging effect in the Mapped Area is noted from roots of banyan tree.

2.5. Hydrology
The area is drained by two permanent and a lot of aphermal streams. Permanent source of water are springs of fresh water suggesting shallow reservoir rocks. The parental streams are;

2.5.1.Ratna Nala
A Nala flowing in front of Karangal Ridge between the "Sarai" and Karangal Peak (3511). Springs are the permanent source of water. All the streams reduced in volume during winter. Springs were observed in Ratna Nala. Numerous wells have been dug through the Wahali valley and Basharat area to irrigate cultivated land. Ground water level is very low during dry season. A number of water ponds are present. Rainwater is stored by building small bunds around the ponds. All the streams of the Mapped Area drain into "Kus Surar" which joins the River Bunha. Karangal Ridge extending north or northeast, Wahali Section extending eastwest and Chail Ridge striking northeast act as water divide. Locals have built protective bunds to save their cultivated land from erosion in rainy seasons.

2.6.Stream Load
The load carried by streams at higher altitude is composed of large boulders and angular fragments of rocks whereas in main streams at lower level, the load mainly is pebbles, gravels and silty sand etc.

2.7.Drainage Pattern
In the Mapped Area, two types of drainage pattern have been observed. Dendritic drainage pattern developed in northeastern half of the area. Fig 2.1 Subparallel drainage pattern developed on the dip slopes of Sakaser Limestone around the saidan shah and pidh area . Fig 2.1

2.7.1.Dendritic Drainage Pattern
This type of drainage pattern is characterized by irregular branching of the tributaries in many directions and at almost any angle usually less than right angle. This type of drainage pattern is developed on the rocks of uniform resistance and structurally non controlled rocks. In the Mapped Area special dendritic pattern, the pinnate drainage pattern is observed. The tributaries are sub parallel to the main stream and join it at acute angles. This effect is particularly due to steep slopes on which the tributaries developed streams in Karangal area and Choa Ganj Ali Shah area.

2.7.2.Sub Parallel Drainage Pattern
Sub parallel drainage pattern is an intermediate type between dendritic and parallel drainage patterns. It may develop on steep slopes because run off find the shortest line in parallel streamlets, perpendicular to the strike of scarp. Nearly parallel tributaries join the main stream at an angle. In Wahali Section ofthe Mapped Area, the streams flowing at ihe dip slope ofSakaser Limestone exhibit this type of drainage pattern.

2.8. Mass Wasting
Due to effect of physical and chemical weathering rocks become weak and produce loose material. The down slope movement of loose material purely under gravity is termed as

mass wasting. The results of following processes of mass wasting were observed in the area.This mass wasting is well observed in salt range Formation.

• Rock Creep
The down slope movement of the individual rock blocks is called rock creep. In Jutana Formation, Khewra Sandstone and Sakaser Limestone of the Mapped Area, mass movement of this type is observed in Karangal area as well as along the Chail Ridge.

• Debris Slide
Debris slides are common in Sakesar Limestone, Jutana Formation and Khewra Sandstone. Rock debris fall dov..n along slopes in rolling motion under the influence of gravity.

2.9. Main Khewra Nala

The drainage pattern in the mapped area is dendritic drainage pattern .this drainage pattern was developed along the anticlinical axes of the Khewra anticlines .the drainage was developed after the deFormation of the anticline.the Khewra gorge which denotes the main stream in the area is basically the anticlinal axis of the Khewra anticline but after faulting and deFormation the present day drainage pattern was developed. the main stream in the area is “MAIN Khewra NALA”. In this drainage pattern water flows from upper northern area to down ward in to the main Khewra nala towards the south. The bifurcation ratio (Rb) for main Khewra nala is determined such as:

2.9.1.Bifurcaton Ratio Of Main Khewra Nala:

STREAM ORDER Stream of 1st order (a)

VALUES 50

Stream of 2nd order (b) Stream of 3rd order (c) Stream of 4th order (d)

16 4 1

FORMULA USED

Stream of 1st order (a) +Stream of 2nd order (b) +Stream of 3rd order (c) Rb= Stream of 2nd order (b)+ Stream of 3rd order (c)+ Stream of 4th order (d)
Mean

OR

a b

+b + c c Mean d

Rb=

By putting the values Rb =
50/16 + 16/4 + 4/1 64 3

Rb =

200+256+256

64 3 Rb =11.25 = 3.7 3 Bifurcation ration of the main Khewra nala is 3.7.

2.10..Choa Saidan Shah –Pidh Nala
This drainage pattern is of sub-parallel type .different large and small scale tributaries were connected near choa-saidan shah city and around pidh area . Here the channels of the water were less as compare to gorge nala.

2.10.1.Bifurcaton Ratio Of Choa Saidan Shah-Pidh Nala:

STREAM ORDER Stream of 1st order (a) Stream of 2nd order (b) Stream of 3rd order (c) Stream of 4th order (d)

VALUES 20 6 2 1

FORMULA USED

Stream of 1st order (a) +Stream of 2nd order (b) +Stream of 3rd order (c) Rb= Stream of 2nd order (b)+ Stream of 3rd order (c)+ Stream of 4th order (d)
Mean

OR

a b

+b + c c Mean d

Rb=

By putting the values Rb =
20/6 + 6/2 + 2/1 6 3

Rb =

20+18+12 6 3

Rb =8.33 = 2.7 3 Bifurcation ration of the Choa saidan Shah –Pidh Nala is 2.7.

FIG 2.1

Chapter- 3

STRATIGRAPHY
3.1 Introduction
In the assigned area ,the rocks are mainly of sedimentary origin, ranging from pre Cambrian to Eocene The rock units exposed in the mapped area are as follow: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Recent to Sub Recent alluvium Early Eocene Sakesar Limestone Early Eocene Namal Formation Unconformity Early Permian Warchha Sandstone Early Permian Dandot Formation Early Permian Tobra Formation Unconformity Late Cambrian Baghanwala Formation Middle Cambrian Jutana Formation Early Cambrian Kussak Formation Early Cambrian Khewra Sandstone precambrian Salt Range Formation

in Nilawahan group sardhi Formation is absent. There are three unconformities .there is unconformity between Khewra sand stone and kussak Formation and a well known major unconformity present between Cambrian and Permian period , and the third unconformity is present between warcha sand stone and Namal Formation . The stratigraphic table is shown below .

• STRATIGRAPHIC TABLE OF THE ASSIGNED AREA
No. 10. 9. Age. Early Eocene Early Eocene Formation. Sakesar Limestone Namal Formation Lithology. Massive and Nodular Limestone’s, with Marls , Chert in upper part Light Gray Calcareous Shales and Limestone’s Unconformity 8. 7. 6. Early Permian Early Permian Early Permian Warcha Sandstone Dandot Formation Tobra Formation Red and Light Colored Sandstones and Grits ,in part Arkosic, Clay Interbeds Olive green and Gray Sandstones and Shales , occasionally Carbonaceous Conglomeratic Sandstones and Shales, Boulders mainly Igneous or Metamorphic Unconformity 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. Late Cambrian Middle Cambrian Early Cambrian Early Cambrian Pre Cambrian Baghanwala Formation Jutana Formation Kussak Formation Khewra Sandstone Salt Range Formation Blood Red Shales and Flaggy Sandstones<with Salt Pseudomorphs Massive Light colored Dolomite and Dolomitic Sandstone, Subordinate Shales Gray and Purplish Shales and Glausonitic Sandstones ,Pebble bed at base Massive maroon line-textured Sandstones , Maroon Shales and Flags below Red Gypseous mad with tock salt, Gypsum dolomite above, Occasional Oil shales

Base is Not Exposed

Table 3.1: Stratigraphic succession of Eastern Salt Range (Khewra Gorge)

3.2. Stratigraphy 3.2.1 Salt Range Formation Nomenclature and Type Locality
The term “Salt Range Formation” has been introduced by Asrarullah (1962) after the Salt Range in the Punjab Province. Previously it was named as "Saline Series” by Wynne (1878) and “Punjab Saline Series” by Gee (1945). Khewra Gorge (lat. 32°40’N; long. 73°00’30” E) in the Eastern Salt Range, Jhelum district, Punjab Province, has been designated as the type section (Shah,1977).

Lithology
In the Mapped Area the Formation is composed of gypseous marl in the lower part .The marl is massive and includes gypsum, dolomite and clay. Quartz crystals of variable sizes are also present in this marl. It is white to light grey in color. It is massive and is associated with bluish grey clay. The dolomite is light in color. It is flaggy and cherty in nature. It is associated with dolomitic shales, bituminous shales. The oil shales when freshly broken give off oily smell. Oil shales are of dark brown color and weathering color is very dark. There are elongated nodules containing bituminous material. They show cavities filled with calcite.

Distribution and Thickness
Salt Range Formation is widely distributed in the southern parts of the area, but it is only restricted in the nalas. Its thickness was not measured because base of the Formation is not exposed.

Contacts
Base of the Formation is not exposed anywhere including the study area. The upper contact with the Khewra Sandstone is transitional.

Age
The Salt Range Formation is devoid of fossils. Due to its position below Lower Cambrian

sediments and above the metamorphic Precambrian basement, it is considered as Late Neoproterozoic. This is in accordance with the results of sulphur-isotope measurements carried out on gypsum samples from the top of Salt Range Formation which indicate an age of about 600 m.y. (H.A. RAZA)

FIG 3.1 : Field Photograph Showing Salt Range Formation in the Khewera Gorge at (Long 73o 00/ 11// , Lat 32o 39/ 41// )

3.2.2 Khewra Sandstone Nomenclature and Type Locality
The “Khewra Group” of Noetling (1894) is formalized as Khewra Sandstone after the Khewra town in the Punjab Province. Other terms were "Purple Sandstone Series” of Wynne (1878), "Khewra Group” of Noetling (1894) and “Purple Sandstone” of most subsequent authors. Khewra Gorge (lat.32°40’N; long. 73°00’E) in the Eastern Salt Range, Jhelum district, PunjabProvince, is designated as the type locality.

Lithology
Khewra Sandstone dominantly consists of sandstone with minor amount of shale. The basal part consists of thin-bedded, fine to medium-grained sandstone, partly shaly, passing upward into massive, thick-bedded, purple, occasionally buff-colored, jointed sandstone with thin bands of clay. Upper part is dominantly reddish brown and yellowish brown sandstone, becoming pale towards the top. The sandstone is well sorted, cross bedded and has abundant ripple marks and mud cracks and also shows convolute bedding in the lower part . The Khewra Sandstone can be divided into 4 units: (Saqib et. al 2009) 1. The lower unit, often called the “Maroon Shale Group”, consists of thin bedded, dark red to brown, argillaceous siltstone, with intercalations of dark purple shales. Occasionally argillaceous sandstones are present. 2. The middle unit is a thin bedded to flaggy, purple to brick red sandstone. It is generally micaceous, fine grained and silty at the base; the grain size increases towards the top. Sedimentary structures like ball and pillow, climbing ripples, parting lineation, tabular and trough cross bedding are present. 3. The upper unit consists of light red to yellowish white sandstone which is medium hard to friable. It gets coarser towards the top. Wedge planar cross bedding, large scale trough cross bedding, honey comb weathering are prominent feature of this.

4. The topmost unit of the Khewra sandstone is yellowish white, friable, medium grained, sandstone which shows high percentage of quartz. The sandstone is ferruginous; cross bedded and contains calcareous lenses.(FIG 3.2)

Distribution and Thickness
Khewra Sandstone is widely distributed in the southern parts of the area, but it is only restricted in the nalas. More than 200 m in Khewra gorge.

Contacts
The contact of Khewra Sandstone with the underlying Salt Range Formation is conformable and gradational. Its upper contact with Kussak Formation is sharp .

Age
The Khewra Sandstone does not contain well-preserved fossils but possesses evidence of organic remains and trace fossils which have been interpreted as “diggings of trilobites” (Schindewolf and Seilacher, 1955).Because of its position between the Late Proterozoic Salt Range Formation and the fossiliferous Early Cambrian Kussak Formation, in the Eastern Salt Range the Khewra Sandstone is thought to represent the basal part of the Lower Cambrian.(Schmdewalf and seilachaclass)

FIG 3.2 Field Photograph of Khewera Sandstone in the Khewera Gorge at the (Long 73o 00/ 02// E and Lat 32o 39/ 44 // N)

3.2.3. Kussak Formation Nomenclature and Type Locality
The "Kussak Group" ofNoetling (1894) is formalized as Kussak Formation after Kussak Fort in Eastern Salt Range. Obolus or Siphonotreta Beds of Wynne (1878), Neobolus Beds of Waagan (1884) and Kussak Stage of Pascoe (1959). Kussak Fort eastern Salt Range, District Jhelum, Punjab.

Lithology
Kussak Formation contains shale with thin bands of glauconitic sandstone. Shale 1s grey, greenish grey and purplish in color. Sandstone is micaceous.(FIG 3.3) In the Mapped Area were were observed. found greenish grey shales and thinly bedded micaceous

sandstone. In the upper part sandstone becomes calcareous. Ripple marks worm tracks

Thickness and Contacts
At type locality it is thick while in Mapped Area its thickness is 10 feet. It is outcropped along west facing scarp in Khewra gorge. It has sharp, conformable contact with Khewra Sandstone while upper contact with Jutana Formation is transitional.

Fossils and Age
The Formation is fossiliferous, especially in the upper part. Schindewolf, Seilacher (1955) and Pascoe reported following fossils. Neobolus Warthi, Lingulella wanniecka, Hyolithes Wynni and Redlichia noetlingi. Age of the Formation is Early Cambrian.(Schindewolf and seilacher 1955)

FIG 3.3 Field Photograph of Vertical Bioturbation in Kussak Formation along the Choa Saidan Shah Road (Long 72o 53/ 21// E and Lat 32o 41/ 01// N)

3.2.4. Jutana Formation Nomenclature and Type Locality
The Jutana Group of Noetling (1894) is formalized as Jutana Formation after Jutana Village in eastern Salt Range.Magnesium Sandstone of Fleming (1852) "Jutana Group" ofNoetling (1894)".Jutana village, District Jhelum Eastern Salt Range, Punjab Province.

Lithology
Jutana Formation is composed of dolomite, shale and sandstone. In the Mapped Area this Formation can be divided into three units, lower sandy dolomite, middle shaly portion (similar to Kussak) and upper pure dolomite characterized weathering. (FIG 3.4) by chop board

Thickness and Contacts
The Formation is widely distributed in southern part ofthe Mapped Area. Typical cliffs of Jutana Formation can be seen in Khewra gorge. At type locality the thickness is 240 ft whereas it is 300 feet thick while in Mapped Area it is about 60 m thick. The contact with underlying Kussak Formation is transitional and with overlying Baghanwa!a Formation is sharp.

Fossils and Age
The Formation contains tracks and burrows of Trilobite. Early Cambrian or Early Middle Cambrian age is assigned to the Formation on the basis of faunal record.(Techert 1964)

FIG 3.4 Field Photograph of Jutana Formation showing the thick beds of dolomites along Choa Saidan Shah road at ( Long 72o 53/ 25// E and Lot 32o 41/ 12// N)

3.2.5. Baghanwala Formation Nomenclature and Type Locality
Baghanwala Group of Noetling (1894) is formalized as Baghanwala Formation after the villageBaghanwala, Jhelum districPunjab Province.Wynne (1878) named as Pseudomorphic Salt Crystal Zone. Holland (1926) called it Salt Pseudomorphic Beds. Pascoe (1959) "Baghanwala Stage". Baghanwala village Eastern Salt Range, Jhelum District.

Lithology
It is composed of claystone,. Mud stone , Siltstone and thin bedded flaggy sandstone. The flags are purple, grey or blue green. Primary sedimentary structures such as wave ripple marks and mud cracks are present. Mud stone to silt stone (Upper lower part) are in blood red color and characterized by pseudomorphic casts of salt crystals along the bedding planes.(FIG 3.5 ) Presence of salt pseudomorphs, wave ripple marks mud cracks etc. indicate that Formation was deposited under lagoonal envirorunent and arid climatic condition.

Thickness and Contacts
The Formation is mainly developed in Eastern Salt Range. Good exposures of Baghanwala Formation can be seen in the Mapped Area. At type locality the Formation is 300-350 feet thick. In the Mapped Area, the thickness is 20 feet due to erosion. The upper contact with Tobra Formation is unconformable whereas lower contact is conformable with Jutana Formation.

Fossils and Age
No fossil record and Formation is Middle Cambrian in age.

FIG 3.5 Field Photograph showing Thin interbedded of sandstone and shale of Baghanwala Formation at (Long 72o 49/ 13// E and Lat 32o 30/ 21// N)

3.2.6 Tobra Formation Nomenclature and Type Locality
The term Tobra Formation has been introduced by Gee (written communication, 1964), for the lowest unit of the Nilawahan Group. "Talchir Series" of Blanford (1856), "Talchir Conglomerate", "Talchir Stage" of Gee (in Pascoe, 1959), "Talchir Boulder Beds" of Pascoe (1959), "Salt Range Boulder Bed" of Teichert (1967) were known in previous literature. Tobra village (lat.32°40’N; long. 72°50’E) Eastern Salt Range, Jhelum district, Punjab Province

Lithology
The Formation includes following units from base to top • • • • • Boulders which are mainly pink granites and grayish quartzite. Red pebble bedded sandstone. Grayish cross bedded siltstone White massive sandstone. Black shale with grit lenses

Distribution and Thickness
It is only present in the southern part of the Mapped Area, along nalas. The Formation has a thickness of 10m. (FIG 3.6)

Contacts
The lower contact of the Tobra Formation is a widespread unconformity with baghanwala Formation while The upper contact with the Dandot Formation is (gradational) conformable. The contact can be recognized with change in lithology from black and dark brown shale to greenish sandstone of Dandot Formation

Age
The Tobra Formation contains ostracizes, and fresh water bivalves, pollen, spores, microplanktons as well as flora remains including Glossopteris and Gangamopteris (Reed 1936). On the basis of fauna the age is considered as Early Permian (Shah, 1977).

FIG 3.6 Field Photograph Showing Contact b/w Tobra Formation and Dandot Formation along the Choa Saidan Shah Road at (Long 720 45/ 21// E and Lat 32o 30/ 21// N )

3.2.7.Dandot Formation Nomenclature and Type Locality
The “Dandot Group” of Noetling (1901 a, b) is formalized as Dandot Formation after the village Dandot in Eastern Salt Range, Jhelum district, Punjab Province. "Olive Series", "Conularia Beds", "Erydesma Beds” of Wynne (1878), "Speckled Sandstone" of Waagen (1879), and "Dandot Group" of Noetling (1901) were different names assigned for this Formation. East of Dandot (lat. 32°39’N; long. 72°58’E) Jhelum district, Punjab Province. The Khewra-Choa Saiden Shah road section is designated as the principal reference section.

Lithology
In the Mapped Area the lithology consists of light-grey to olive green sandstone with occasional pebbly beds and subordinate shale Distribution and Thickness. The Formation is well exposed toward the Dandot village, in the Mapped Area it is not well exposed. The thickness of this Formation in the mapped area is 12m.(Fig 3.7)

Contacts
The Dandot Formation has a gradational contact with the underlying Tobra Formation. The upper contact with Warchha Sandstone is conformable and sharp

Fossils
The Formation contains rich fauna of brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, pteropods, bryozoans and ostracodes, as well as spores (Kadri, 1995).

Age
On the basis of the stratigraphic position of the Formation above the Tobra Formation, and the presence of fauna in the Formation, Early Permian age has been assigned. (Telchert 1967)

FIG 3.7: Field Photograph Showing Contact b/w Dandot Formation and Warcha Sandstone the Khewera Gorge at (Long 72o 59/ 49// E and Lat 32o 33/ 21// N)

3.2.8. Warchha Sandstone Nomenclature and Type Locality
The name “Warchha Sandstone“ was coined by Hussain (1967), prior to this other terms were “Warchha Group“ by Noetling (1901) after the Warchha Gorge in the Salt Range in Mianwali district, Punjab Province. "Middle Speckled Sandstone" of Waagen (1889-91) and "Speckled Sandstone" of Gee (1945) were also prevalent in literature. The type section of Warchha Sandstone is Warchha Gorge (lat. 32°27’N; long. 71°58’E), in Central Salt Range, Punjab Province.

Lithology
This Formation consists predominantly of sandstone. The sandstone is red,purple or lighter shades of pink color. It is medium to coarse-grained and is pebbly, friable and arkosic. The pebbles are of mostly of pink granite, quartzite and feldspar. The sandstone is thick bedded. It is highly jointed and is locally speckled. (Fig 3.8)

Distribution and Thickness
The Formation is widely distributed in the southern and south western part of the mapped area. It is mainly present along the nalas; Khewra gorge upper portion of the Khewra scarp.. It is 57m thick in the Mapped Area.

Contacts
The lower contact with Dandot Formation is conformable and sharp. The upper contact with the Sardhai Formation is transitional which is placed at the top of the highest massive sandstone.

Fossils
No diagnostic fossils are known from this Formation except from worm- casts and petrified wood (Fatmi, 1973).

Age
On the basis of stratigraphic position, Early Permian age has been assigned to this Formation.(Hussain 1967)

FIG:3.8 Field Photograph Showing Warcha Sandstone in the Khewera Gorge (Long 72o 49/ 59// E and Lat 32o 33/ 21// N)

3.2.9. Namal Formation Nomenclature and Type Locality
The "Namal Limestone and Shale" of Gee is formalized as Namal Formation after the Namal Gorge, in the Western Salt Range, Mianwali district of Punjab Province. Prior to this other terms were "Namal Limestone and Shale" of Gee (1935), and "Namal Marl" of Danilchik and Shah (1967). Namal Gorge, Western Salt Range, Punjab province, is type locality of this Formation.

Lithology
In the mapped area, lithology of this Formation consists of limestone in the upper part and marl below. Limestone and marl is almost is equal parts but marl becomes dominant in the basal part. The limestone is whitish to medium grey, argillaceous hard, dense, medium to thick bedded. It is nodular in part. Crystallization of calcite was noted in the joints. Foraminifera are seen as small whitish specks on the weathered surface. Marl is whitish to medium grey calcareous claystone which becomes silty at places. (FIG 3.9)

Distribution and Thickness
This Formation is widely distributed in the northern part of the Mapped Area. It forms continuous escarpments. It is 20 -30 m thick in the Mapped Area.

Contacts
The lower contact of Namal Formation is placed at the top of gentle slope formed by underlying warcha Formation. The contact is conformable with a thin transitional zone of grey marl and shales. The upper contact with the Sakesar Limestone is conformable, sharp and distinct

Fossils
The Formation contains mollusks and foraminifera. Some important foraminifera include Nummulites atacicus, N. subatacicus, N. mamillatus, N. irregularis, Assilina granulose, A. laminosa, A. spinosa, A. subspinosa, A. daviesi, Lockartia tipperi, L. hunti, L. conditi and Discocyclina ranikotensis (Kazmi and Abbasi, 2008).

Age
On the basis of the above fauna, Late Paleocene to Eocene age has been assigned to this Formation.

FIG 3.9 Field Photograph Showing Nodules of LimeStone in the Namal Formation at Choa saidan shah Road (Long 72o 58/ 22// E and Lat32o 41/ 34 // N)

3.2.10 Sakesar Limestone Nomenclature and Type Locality
The term "Sakesar Limestone" has been introduced by Gee after the peak Sakesar in the Central Salt Range. Sakesar Peak (lat. 32°31'30"N; long. 71°36'E), Central Salt Range. Principal reference section is Bhadrar village (lat. 32°41'N; long. 72°31'E) in Eastern Salt Range, Jhelum district, Punjab Province.

Lithology
The Formation consists predominantly of limestone with subordinate marl. The limestone throughout its extent is cream colored to light grey, nodular, usually massive with considerable development of chert in the upper part. In the mapped area, the Sakesar limestone is composed of dense homogeneous limestone which varies from light grey to dark grey in color. It is massive too thick bedded and is highly fossiliferous at places. (FIG 3.10)

Distribution and Thickness
It is widely distributed in the northern part of the mapped area. It is not measured in the Mapped Area.

Contacts
The Formation conformably overlies the Namal Formation.

Fossils
The Sakesar Limestone has a sporadic capricious distribution of fossils. Foraminifers are most abundant followed in numbers by mollusks and echinoids.

Age
On the base of fauna, Early Eocene age has been given to this unit(Kazmi and Abbasi, 2008)

FIG 3.10 Field Photograph of Sakesar Limestone showing Chert Nodules near Choa saidan shah City (Long 72o 59/ 21// E and Lat32o43/4//N)

Chapter- 4

SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES
Following sedimentary structures were observed from the Mapped Area. 4.1.Cross Bedding 4.2. Ripple Marks 4.3. Worm Tracks 4.4. Nodule Structure 4.5. Salt Pseudomorphs 4.6. Karen Structure

4.1. Cross Bedding:we observed Cross bedding in the mapped area these structures are present in Khewera Snadstone in the Khewera Gorge.

FIG 4.1 : Field Photograph Showing Cross Bedding in Khewera Sandstone.

4.2. Ripple Marks:In the mapped area Oscilatory ripple marks were present at the base of KUssak Formation, Baghanwala Formation and Warcha Sandstone .The ripples preset in the Kussak Formation is Cross Ripple.

FIG 4.2 : Field Photograph Showing Ripple Marks in Kussak Formation.

4.3. Worm Tracks:We have observed worm Tracks and burrows in the Kussak Formation which were of the vertical and horizontal type .the shally Portion of Jutana Formation was also Contain the Burrows .

FIG 4.3 : Field Photograph Showing Worm tracks and Burrows in Kussak Formation.

4.4. Nodule Structures:
We observed large Nodules in the Namal Formation .These werw Chert Nodules .The nodules of Namal Formation are longer than the Nodules of Sakesar Limestone.

FIG 4.3 : Field Photograph Showing Chert Nodules in Sakesar Limestone and Namal Formation

4.5. Salt Pseudomorphs:Salt Pseudomorphs were present in the Baghanwala Formation pf the mapped area .Great exposure of Pseudomorphs was seen in the Baghanwala Formation near Pidh and Khewera Gorge.

FIG 4.5 : Field Photograph Showing Salt Pseudomorphs in Baghanwala Formation near Pidh .

4.6. Karen Structures:Well Preserved Kurn Sedimentary Structure were found In the salt Range Formation in the Khewera Gorge.

FIG 4.6 : Field Photograph Showing Kurn Structure in Salt Range Formatuion.

Chapter- 5

DEPOSI'I'IONAL ENVIRONMENTS
5.1. Salt Range Formation
The Saline deposits are formed by the precipitation of salts from concentrated solutions or brines. Because the concentration is brought about by evaporation, the saline deposits have been termed as evaporites. Rock salt (halite) gypsum and anhydrite are deposited in this way. The Salt Range Formation consists of salt marl, clay, gypsum, anhydrite, dolomite and rock salt (halite). The ultimate source of the Salt Range Formation is normal sea water. The deposition of Salt Range Formation took place in an enclosed, shallow water and partially isolated basin during Late Pre Cambrian . An arid climate prevailed resulting in the deposition of evaporite deposits under oxidizing conditions. The elastics were derived from Indian Shield (Peninsular India). The Salt Range Formation was deposited in arid region, enclosed basin received large quantities of dust from atmosphere and by streams during rainy seasons. The terrigenous material settled to the bottom and gave rise to layers of clay which later on changes into marl by the reaction of acid vapors and solutions (Oldham). Red color of marl indicates arid oxidizing conditions at the time of deposition. Lack of stratification in the Formation is due to the diaprism of salt. High salinity was responsible for the absence of life.

Provenance
Fineness of material and good sorting indicate prolonged transportation from the'Peninsular India. Continuous subsidence of the basin and incoming of water resulted in huge accumulation of evaporitic deposit.

5.2. Khewra Sandstone
The Formation predominantly consists of purple color, shaly, thinly bedded at base and thickly to massively bedded at upper part. Presence of oscillatory ripple marks suggests shallow water marine conditions. After the deposition of Salt Range Formation, free supply of water began in the basin. Numerous streams charged with the sediments from the Indian Shield drained into the basin. The arid climatic conditions were prevailed at the time of deposition. The lower reddish, purplish portion indicate high temperature and oxidizing conditions. The light colored upper portion suggests less intensity of oxidation and relatively low temperature. Lack of fossils and organic remains indicate high salinity and silica content suggests acidic medium. (Pattijohn)

Origin and Provenance
Quartz grains are fine to medium, sub angular to sub rounded. Well sorting of quartz grains show that the sandstone is texturally and mineralogically mature. Well sorting and maturity of sandstone indicate a long transportation before deposition. It also suggests dilute depositing medium with very mild subsidence of the basin during deposition.The source rocks were possibly of granitic composition in the Southern India.

5.3. Kussak Formation
At the contact of Kussak Formation and K.hewra Sandstone a gritty conglomerate band is present which shows a change in environment. The Formation contains greenish grey glauconitic sandstone and greenish grey shale deposited altematingly. The sandstone is micaceous. Alternation of shale and sandstone suggests cyclic deposition i.e. during rainy season flooded streams were able to carry greater loads of coarser sediments while during dry seasons load carrying capacity of streams reduced and only fine materials were supplied and deposited.

Green color of the Formation is due to the presence of mineral glauconite. Glauconite is a potassium iron silicate which is formed under conditions of slow sedimentation in a partially restricted environment. Glauconite was derived from biotite by sub marine weathering (GaJlihar1935). Glauconite is formed in marine environment at a moderate depth from 200 fathoms to 300 fathoms. According to Cloud (1955) glauconite is formed under marine waters of normal salinity. It requires slightly reducing conditionsThe presence of oscillatory ripple marks at the base also indicates shallow water marine conditions..Salinity of the sea water was normal because fossils are present.

5.4. Jutana Formation
Jutana Formation in the Mapped Area is composed of massive light cream to white hard sandy dolomite at basal part, Kussak like fossils bearing shales in the middle and pure massive dolomite in upper part. Lithology of Jutana Formation and presence of sedimentary structures like ripple marks indicate a shallow water marine environment and arid climatic conditions. The basin was partiall y isolated and became rich in Mg by continuous evaporation and inflow of water. By the precipitation of CaC03, Mg rich sea water attacks the CaC03 and replaces it by forming MgC03. The dolomitization of CaC03 resulted in a decrease of volume by 12.30% hence the porosity of rock increased. But the Jutana Formation is hard and compact so the replacement of CaC0 3 by MgC03 took place before lithification. Sandy basal part and shaly intercalations indicate a continuous supply of detritus during early stages of deposition. During the deposition of pure dolomite, the supply of detritus was ceased or reduced. The rate of deposition is thought to be very slow so continuous stirring of bottom by wave action in shallow marine environment helped in replacement. Salinity was not too high to flourish life as fossils are present.

5.5. Baghanwala Formation
The Formation consists of shale with intercalations of thin bedded flaggy sandstone. The flags are pink, blue green or grey in color while shale is green and red in color. Shales of the Formation are characterized by pseudomorphic casts of salt crystals which indicate sufficiently high salinity in the water of depositional basin to form cubic crystals of rock salt. Latter on these crystals were dissolved by the water and removed. The empty spaces of the crystals were filled with silt or clay and were preserved. Green color of shale changing to red is due to the oxidation of Fe+2 into Fe+3 Intercalations shale and sandstone is an evidence of cyclic deposition which indicate that alternating wet and dry seasons were prevailed. In short Baghanwala Formation was deposited in restricted basin of shallow depth where oxidizing and arid climatic conditions were present. Salt pseudomorphs with absence of life show the high salinity in the basin.

Provenance
Quartz and feldspar are the main constituent of the sandstone well sorting and fineness shows a long transportation before deposition. The source of the sediments was same as Khev..Ta Sandstone i.e. igneous rock but the sediments suffered a longer transportation due to the shifting of shore line in retreating sea.

5.6. Tobra Formation
We noted glacial striations on faceted boulders of pink granite in the mapped area.. Striated boulders suggest a glacial origin of the Formation. Tobra mark an unconformity in the area. In the Mapped Area tilltic facies is present. It consists of boulders and fragments of pink granite, quartz, phyllite and magnetite. The matrix is clayey and sandy. Tobra Formation is very heterogeneous both in component material and in assortment or stratification. Boulders of the Formation were transported from distant sources by glaciers. These boulders are striated and faceted.

Provenance
The provenance was first local and then changed to distant. At the base of Tobra Formation, boulders of Khewrite and Khewra Sandstone represent local contribution of material while the boulders and fragments of igneous rocks indicate a source lied in south i.e. Rajputana. Nagar Parker pink granite is an evidence of this.

5.7. Warcha Sandstone
Light red or purplish color sandstone intercalated with sandy shales of dark purple color comprised the warchha sandstone in the Mapped Area This sandstone is heterogeneous coarse grained and pebbly. Cross bedding and ripple marks are observed. Pebbles embedded in sandstone are of pink granite and quartz. Warchha Sandstone was deposited in shallow water, fluvial environment. After the deposition of Tobra Formation subsidence of the basin took place. The subsidence of the Western and the Central Salt Range was earlier and more rapid than Eastern Salt Range because Dandot Formation is present there. Purplish and red color of sandstone and shales indicate shallow water, oxidizing environment of deposition. Darker color of shale than the sandstone is due to the even distribution of coloring matter (iron oxide). Poor sorting suggests rapid deposition by dilute depositing medium. Presence of pebbles in sandstone show high velocity of water and high relief of provenance.

Origin and Provenance
Composition of Warchha Sandstone shows that the material was derived from igneous rocks. Coarse unsorted and angular grains indicate a short transportation by rapidly flowing dilute medium. Deposition took place in a wide depression of shallow water.

5.8.Namal Formation
Marly limestone of Namal Formation exhibits nodularity. It is richly fossiliferous and contains both pelagic and benthonic fossil shells. The transitional contact between Patala and Namal Formations indicate that transgressional sea changed swampy conditions into purely shallow water marine environment. Deposition of nodular limestone suggests high temperature and alkaline medium of normal salinity in which life can flourish well that is why, the Formation is richly fossiliferous. Marl was deposited as elastics by the streams flowing from land into the basin. Nodularity •may be developed by the process of sedimentation or may be formed due to shearing stress.

Provenance
Limestone is pure and fine grained. It is formed by direct extraction of CaC03 from sea water by organic as well as inorganic means whereas marl is deposited mechanically by the incoming streams.

5.9. Sakaser Limestone
Sakaser Limestone was deposited in shallow water marine environment. Hard compact and fine •limestone indicate relatively deeper water conditions than Narnmal Formation. Fairly constant lithology and high lime content show calm and stable conditions of deposition. Like Namal Formation, the limestone of Sakaser Formation also formed by direct extraction of CaC03 from sea water by organic as well as inorganic means. Pelagic and benthonic fossils support shallow water marine environment. Grey color is due to slightly reducing conditions. Absence of marl indicates that stream action was ceased. Chert was formed by the post depositional replacement of host rock by silica.

Chapter- 6

GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES
6.1. Faults:
There are three local and small scale local faults • • • Reverse Fault Normal Fault Grungal Thrust Fault

6.1.1.Reverse Fault:
The fault is a reverse fault in which hanging wall moved upward. the fault is near to the Khewra George.

6.1.2. Normal Fault
In the mapped area there is another normal fault near Khewra Gorge in which Hanging wall has been moved down of relative to Foot Wall .

6.1.3. Grangul Thrust fault:
As we know that salt Range is thrusted over Punjab Plain on the large scale while there is also local and small scale thrusted fault .This fault is near Choa Siden Shah City , and the Namal Formation and sakesar Limestone has been thrusted and they formed a thrusted fault Which is also known as Grangul Fault.

6.2. Unconformaties:

In the mapped area two major unconformities and one minor unconformity is present.

6.2.1. Disconformity:
A disconformity is found in the Early Cambrian Khewra sandstone and kussak Formation micro conglomerate was present in the disconformity..

6.2.2. Permian unconformity
A well known unconformity is present between late Cambrian bgahanwala Formation and Permian tobra Formation .tobra Formation mainly contains conglomerate which is a well evidence of the unconformity.

6.2.3. Unconformity
There is another unconformity is present between a warcha sand stone and Namal Formation in the mapped area.

6.2.4. Pidh Graben
Near the pidh area we observed a Grabon in the Nmal and Sakesar Limestone .The Graben two sde were dipping equally about 40o .

Chapter- 7

HYDRO CARBON POTENTIAL OF THE MAPPED AREA
7.1.Introduction
Geological explorations are basically concern with the hunting of new economic minerals and natural resources present within the earth. Minerals and rocks have a role in the economic uplift of a country and Pakistan is no exception in this regard. Their geological investigation, evaluation and reserve estimation would be helpful for the user industry. In addition, the possibility of discovering petroleum in commercial quantities from the Potwar Plateau cannot be ruled out. The east central fraction of the Salt Range (Mapped Area) is important due to its diverse economic potential. The area is prosperous in varieties of industrial raw materials, construction materials and economic industrial minerals. The exposed stratigraphic sequence suggests important petroleum system elements including potential source, seal and reservoir rocks for oil and gas generation and accumulation.

7.2.Energy Resources
7.2.1.Petroleum Play
There are several individual petroleum systems in this area. Each element of petroleum play is described separately. Table 7.1 shows the source, reservoir and seal rocks distribution in the stratigraphic column of the Mapped Area along with the possible timing of hydrocarbon generation and Formation of traps. Table Petroleum system and events chart for the east central Salt Range (Mapped Area).

Table 7.1 :Source Rocks ,Reservoir Rocks and Seal Rocks distribution in the Stratigraphy Column of the Assigned area along with possible timing of hydrocarbon maturation and Formation of the traps.

The stratigraphy of Salt Range has its subcrop extension under the Potwar Plateau. Therefore, the study of outcrop units in Salt Range is very important and helpful to define the subsurface petroleum plays in Potwar which is one of the onshore oil-prone areas in the world.

7.3. Source Rocks
There are several potential source rocks exposed in the mapped area. Among these are the well known late Proterozoic Salt Range Formation. The oldest potential source rocks are in the Salt Range Formation with a Total Organic Carbon (TOC) of upto 36% (Bender and Raza, 1995) and oil yields of more than 20% (Kadri, 1995). The oil shales are

present in the upper part of the Formation and are associated with dolomite and gypsum. Silled and reducing basin conditions were favourable for the preservation of organic matter at that time. The oil shales of Salt Range are equivalent to the Precambrian oil source rocks of India, Oman and North Africa. The oil shales were observed and sampled from Khewra Gorge Kadri (1995) described the presence of coal in Cambrian rocks in these words: “Shales of Khewra, Kussak and Jutana Formations are of lacustrine to marine origin and contain woody, coaly to variously amorphous kerogene which are capable of generating paraffinic to normal crude and gas. The maturity level for these strata is very high for their present depth, indicating their original deep burial and then removal of the overburden by up thrusting along the boundary faults of Salt Range. There are indications that hydrocarbons were generated in Cambrian source rocks”. Baqri and Baloch (1991) also reported lenticular, deltaic coal beds in upper part of Khewra Sandstone at Nilawahan Gorge. The International Committee for Coal Petrology (1963) defines coal as, “a combustible sedimentary rock formed from plant remains in various stages of preservation---temperature and Pressure”. Vascular land plants only appeared during Middle Silurian (Stewart, 1983 and Taylor and Smoot, 1984). Therefore, the presence of woody and coaly beds in Cambrian strata is not sound. Starting in the Precambrian till the Devonian, the sole primary producer of organic matter was marine phytoplankton (algae and fungi) that made black, organic matter rich, open marine shales (Tissot and Welte, 1984). Therefore, only algalmatter derived organic matter may be present in the Cambrian rocks (Yasin, A.R., 1993). Rocks of lower Permian sequence (Tobra, Dandot and Warchha Formations) are the possible source of gas discovered in the Punjab Platform. Organic richness varies from 0.3 to 4.75%. The hydrogen index ranges from 29 to 165 mgHC/gTOC. On the average it is fair to good. The organic petrography and limited rock-eval data suggest that source is a mixture of Kerogene type II, type III and type IV (Ahmad et al., 2007). Shales of Dandot Formation with some coaly partings are good source rocks (Kadri, 1995). Paleocene presents and overall low energy and anoxic environment favoring the abundance and preservation of organic matter. Upper Paleocene Patala Formation is considered to be the major source rock of this region .TOC ranges from 0.5% to more than 3.5%, with an average of 1.4 percent, and are type-II and -III kerogens (Wandrey et al., 2004). It has EOM/TOC ratio partly more than 150 and HI mostly more than 200. The Formation was deposited in shallow marine to deltaic environment accounting for the interpretation of both terrestrial and marine organic material. The latter gives rise to the generation of normal crude oil while the former generates gas and paraffinic crude.

Maturation
The source rock maturity is mainly related to the geothermal gradients and the thickness of overburden. The geothermal gradient of Potwar region ranges between 1.5°C and 2.6°C/100 m. Post Eocene sediments have played a very important role in maturity of younger source rocks in depression areas. This period accounts for rapid clastic sedimentation at the expense of Himalayan uplift and subsequent erosion of uplifted rocks. The organic matter preserved in the Salt Range Formation did not get the maturity until the Permian. Because, the thickness of Cambrian rocks was not sufficient for the deep burial and maturation of organic matter. Maturity level of Permian rocks also appears to be very high since they have undergone tremendous change on account of their burial through both time and temperature (Kadri, 1995). The most important source rock reached the oil window during Pliocene (Bender and Raza, 1995). A basin profile indicates vitrinite reflectance equivalent maturities of 0.62 to 1.0 percent for Tertiary rocks in the productive part of the Potwar Basin (Wandrey et al., 2004).

Generation and Migration
Petroleum generation is directly related to the scale of time and the thermal regime, the strata is subjected to.Rapid burial of Eocene and older rocks have placed them in petroleum generation window in the basinal areas. Generation of hydrocarbons most likely began in Late Cretaceous time for Infracambrian and Permian source rocks and again from Pliocene time to the present for younger source rocks. Even though there were probably two distinct periods of generation from two different groups of source rocks, sufficient source-to-reservoir correlation data were not available to clearly define separate petroleum systems. Migration is primarily over short distances updip and vertically into adjacent reservoirs and through faults and fractures associated with plate collision and thrusting (Wandrey et al., 2004).

7.4.Reservoir Rocks
Reservoir rocks include Khewra Sandstone, Jutana Formation, Baghanwala Formation, Tobra Formation and Sakesar Limestone. More than 60 percent of the producing reservoirs (by field) are of Cenozoic age in Potwar Plateau, with the majority of those being Eocene carbonates. Fractured dolomite in the Salt Range Formation can form a suitable reservoir in the right setting with a cap or seal to prevent migration. Possibility of entrapment of hydrocarbons in the overlying Formations also exists, provided the hydrocarbons have not been destroyed during the hiatus of Ordovician to Carboniferous times (Kadri, 1995). Khewra Sandstone is the main potential Cambrian reservoir. The uniform grain size of sandstone and sorting indicates its excellent reservoir character. The upper and middle units of the Formation are moderately porous and display intergranular primary porosity which ranges from 10-15%. The sandstone also shows fractures and jointing which may contribute to increase the effective permeability. Oil is produced in Potwar area from Khewra Sandstone at Adhi, Chak Naurang and Rajian Oil Fields. Kussak Formation is generally tight. However, hydrocarbon shows are reported on both ditch sample (fluorescence) and logs (Kadri, 1995). The Jutana Formation is a good potential reservoir and hydrocarbon indications are reported in some wells in the Potwar. It shows good porosity at outcrops, for example, honey-comb and fenestral porosity). Upper part of the Formation has been proved as a good reservoir in the southeastern Potwar area and oil is produced from Jutana Formation at Rajian Oil Fields. Baghanwala Formation also has reservoir potential. Lower part of the Formation is a very well sorted, medium grained quartz arenite which can act as an excellent reservoir .The visual porosity found by dye injected thin sections is upto 15% . The reservoir potential of the Permian rocks is also good. In the wells of the Potwar basin the Permian sequence is very compact with very low porosity and permeability. At places Tobra Formation

depicts very good reservoir characteristics with presence of primary and development of dissolution porosity (matrix porosities between 10% and 13%). Moreover, sandstones of the Formation are fractured in vertical and horizontal directions. However, Tobra Formation has flowed oil in Adhi Field (Kadri, 1995).

The Dandot Formation displays more shales than siltstones and sandstones. The siltstones and sandstones are well sorted and possibly develop into local reservoirs. The Warchha Sandstone is medium hard to friable, highly porous, and can be reservoirs for migrated oil. The chances of source in the Warchha Sandstone are very poor (Kadri, 1995). The Eocene carbonates exhibit excellent reservoir characteristics. They are producers in many Oil Fields of Potwar Plateau. These limestones have very low matrix porosity (2-4%) and fractures (along the crests of structures) provide most of the voidage (15-25%) which provide the higher fluid flow potential. The intensity and orientation of fractures are controlled by the tectonic style of the area which is governed by Himalayan Orogeny (Bender and Raza, 1995).

Traps and Seals
The major structural deFormation in the Potwar region developed during the Neogene, more or less simultaneously with the maturity processes. The migration of Paleogene hydrocarbons could therefore have led to accumulations in suitable structural traps. Hydrocarbons generated earlier could have been accumulated also in pre-Neogene traps. Most of the fields discovered in the Potwar province to date are structural traps. They consist of mainly doubly plunging anticlines, anticlines bounded by thrusts on their flanks, popup structures, or fault-block traps. In this area, anticlinal features strike generally east-northeast to west-southwest and are approximately parallel to the plate-collision zone . Salt intrusions resulting from halokinetic movements add to the trap possibilities. Many of the folded structures are amplified, or they are only present above a detachment zone in Eocambrian salts. Cap rocks are developed as shaly sequence in the Kussak Formation of early Cambrian age and as intraFormational shales within the Permian Dandot Formation. The main sealing cover above the Eocene reservoir rocks is provided by claystones developed in the Miocene molasse sediments (Bender and Raza, 1995).

Chapter- 8

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY
8.1. Introduction
Geological explorations are basically concern with the hunting of new economic minerals and natural resources present within the earth. Minerals and rocks have a role in the economic uplift of a country and Pakistan is no exception in this regard. .

8.2.Coal
Coal has been mined for several decades from the Salt Range. Numerous coal mines are working and feeding thousands of the people in the study area. In the Mapped Area patala Formation is not exposed ,which is present between warcha and Eocene deposits and lower part of Patala Formation of late Paleocene age is productive horizon for coal. coal seem ranges in thickness from a few inches to a maximum of 10 feet. The average mineable thickness is 1 m. there are several mines in the Mapped Area,the coal is carried out by the help of small trellis. Coal is not at high depth in the mapped area .the average depth of the coal mine is about 900 feet. The rank of the coal ranges from high volatile C to B bituminous. Chemical analysis indicates that: hydrogen is 3.6-5.3%, carbon is 36.7-61.1% and oxygen is 11.4-17.5% (Bender and Raza, 1995). An average analysis of the coal from the mapped area is as such: Moisture Volatile material Fixed carbon Ash Calorific value 5.20% 37.70% 44.80% 12.30% 10,900 calories

Small Trollies get the coal out of mines. Coal is further carried by Trucks locally called as “Guttoes”.

FIG 8.1 : Field Photograph Showing coal Mine .

8.3.Economic Industrial Raw Materials and Minerals
This group includes rocks and minerals, which can be utilized as such or after some processing in various industries. Bountiful reserves of the industrial raw materials exist throughout the mapped area. Deposits of several industrial raw materials of great importance have been present that include limestone, dolomite, rock salt, gypsum, silica sand and sandstone.

8.3.1. Rock Salt
In eastern Salt Range, the salt bearing evaporites occur in the Eocambrian Salt Range Formation (Billianwala Salt Member) and this unit crops out extensively along the southern faulted escarpment of the Salt Range (see Lithostructural Map). Salt in this area was first noticed as back as 327 B.C. by Alexander the Great. It was also mentioned during Akbar’s time. Since 1872, the Khewra Salt Mine has been working regularly. The salt is mined by room-and-pillar method. The salt reserves at Khewra Salt Mine are calculated as 80 million tones proved and 100 million tones inferred. The NaCl % at Khewra is 97.87.

Salt is a dietry necessity, a seasoning and preservative for food, and a protector of the human body from the effects of desert heat. It is a basic raw material for the chemical industry to produce a multitude of products such as caustic soda and soda ash.

FIG 8.2 : Field Photograph Showing Salt in Salt Range Formation in Khewera Salt Mine .

8.3.2. Gypsum
Economically viable gypsum deposits are present in the Bandar Kas Gypsum Member of Salt Range Formation of Eocambrian age. The gypsum deposits were known since a long time ago, but economic interest in them developed much later when the mineral was required by the industries in that area. The thickness of these deposits is greater than 80 m. It is used in cement industry as a raw material. Besides, it can be used for carving, decorations, ornamental purposes and soil conditioner.

FIG 4.5 : Field Photograph Showing Gypsum in Salt Range Formation Khewera Gorge .

8.3.3. Limestone
Limestone is widely exposed in the Mapped Area with clay and sand as common impurities. A number of lime quarries are present that are mining limestone. There are two lime stone bearing Formations in the area: Namal Formation and Sakesar Limestone. Namal Formation is composed of marl and nodular lime stone of light grey color while Sakesar Limestone is fossiliferous, light color, nodular limestone with cherty nodules. Analysis of Sakesar Limestone shows that it is good quality limestone with more or less 50% CaO and very little silica. Alumina and iron oxide, magnesia content is also less than 1%. Specific gravity of limestone varies between 2.67-2.73. The average composition of the Sakesar Limestone in the area is as follows:

Cao MgO Al2O3 and Fe2O3 Loss on ignition Sp. Gravity

52% 0.15 – 4.40% 1% 41% 2.7

Limestone is used in manufacturing of lime (CaO). Four cement factories namely “Dandot Cement Factory”, “DG Cement”, “Bestway Cement” and “Pakistan Cement Corporation” are present in the vicinity near the mapped area and using Sakesar Limestone as raw material. They are providing employment opportunities for the locals. Sakesar Limestone is also used as, building stone for local constructions. The stones are cut into suitable slabs, which are then used as building stones for local construction. Sakesar Limestone is also used in lime-kilns for the preparation of lime Besides, limestone can also be used for construction purposes, chemical work and in glass industry.

FIG 8.3 : Field Photograph Showing Sakesar Limestone in Crushing Machine at “Best way Cement Factory” Chakwal District .

8.3.4. Dolomite
Dolomite is also of great interest because of its economic worth. Huge deposits of dolomite have been mapped throughout the map extension. Dolomite reserves are found mainly in the Jutana Formation and partly in the Kussak Formation of Cambrian age. Dolomite in Jutana Formation is sandy at the basal part of the Formation, while in upper portion it changes into somewhat pure form. MgO content ranges from 15.32% to 18.55% (Mujtaba et al., 2007). The impure dolomite of Mapped Area is used as building stone by the locals. No production at commercial scale is reported from the Mapped Area. It can also be used in building, statuary, monumental and ornamental purposes as a source of magnesia and refractory material.

8.3.5. Sandstone
Khewra Sandstone has been used as a building stone since long. It is also used in the construction of Islamic Summit Minar of Lahore. For this purpose large slabs of Khewra sandstone were being cut. Large thick slabs of Khewra Sandstone are also used locally in the mapped area for making walls, pathways over small streams and water courses. Khewra sandstone is taken out for other places and finds its use as ornamental and facing stone due to its fine grained texture, hard nature, purple color, ease of splitting and dressing. Tiles of Khewra Sandstone made by the locals with in the hills carried on the donkeys back on the road and then transported to the other areas.

FIG 8.4 : Field Photograph Showing Khewera Sandstone Tiles which were used in Building of Badshahi Mosque Lahore and Lal Qilla Dehli. .

Chapter- 9

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