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India Struggle for Freedom

India Struggle for Freedom

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Published by: Piyush Yadav on May 23, 2012
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Page 1 Class 10th History



The revolt of 1857 was a significant event in the history of India. It changed the course of India in history. It marked the end of the cast India Company’s era and the beginning of the direct British rule in India. The revolt began at Meerut on 10 May 1857, with the uprising of Indian sepoys of the British armies in India: the cartridges incident sparked of this revolt. This revolt was inspired by noble ides of Nationalism and independence. That is why the Indian Historian calls it the first war of independence. CAUSES OF THE REVOLT The revolt of 1857 was a result of man u cause viz; political, social, economic, religious and military. The following were the causes of there revolt.
i) Political causes : The British followed the policy of Annexation of Territories . Lord Dolhouse

applied the doctrine of Lapse widely. According to this doctrine, he took over all the territories whose rules had died without leaving any natural male heir. This led to annexation of Jhansi, Avadh.
ii) Economic cause : As a result of Industrial revolution, the English flooded the Indian markets with

cheap products. It affected the Indian market badly. The British made huge profits at the expense of the people of India. Customs duty was imposed on Indian goods being exported to England and this ruined Indian business. Heavy taxes were being levied on the Indian people were thus compelled to rise in a revolt.
iii) Social causes :The reforms made by the British were not taken well by the people . Prohibition

OF practice of sati, legalizing widow remarriage, forbidding infanticide and polygamy, the Indian looked upon spread of western education and civilization with suspicion. The Christains talked ill about Indian customs. The Indians couldn’t tolerant it and became angry with the British.
iv) Religious causes : The British Missionaries tried to convert Indian people by promising privileges.

The reforms introduced buy Lord Beatnik like stoppage of child marriage and the people as interference in religion took abolishing of sati system.
v) Military causes : The Indian soldiers in the British Army were not treated with par their British

counterparts. The India soldiers were paid low salaries. this shook their loyalty to the British , the discipline becomes loose. The Indians were not given higher posts in the army. This led to discontentment among the soldiers. They were looking for an opportunity to revolt.
vi) The Immediate causes : The immediate cause of the revolt was the cartridges incident. The

cartridges for the newly introduced rifle were greased with fat and had to be bitten with teeth before being fitted to the rifle. The rumour that the cartridges were greased with the fat of cows and pigs soon spread and many Indian soldiers refused to use them. But the English pressed for its use, the Indian soldiers rose in a revolt. MAIN CAUSES OF THE REVOLT The revolt of 1857 started at Meerut on May 10, 1857. Indian soldiers of the British Army started it. The soldiers then marched to Delhi. The revolt they spread to Avadh, the Rohlkand, the doab, Bundelkhan, central India and large parts of Bihar. The main centers of the revolt were Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bareilly and Jhansi. MAIN LEADERS OF THE REVOLT

The other hand poured immense supply of men. money and arms in India. Nan Saheb (Kanpur). Begum Hazrat Mahal (Luknow). Luxmi Bhai (Jhansi). The Sikhs. The Mughal emperor had neither the wisdom nor the courage to organize the revolt. the central point of the revolt disappeared. The viceroys replaced the governor-general . they develop the feeling of oneness and patriotism for the one and the same country where they reside. ii) The revolt lacked unity. It was not embraced by every part of India. The essential features of nationalism are uniformity of laws and the same political.they stood them in good stead in suppressing the revolt. NATION By the term “Nation” we mean the people who reside in a particular state having definite boundaries who share common aspirations and who live under the same political. All the groups and classes of India society did not join it. Tantia Tope (Central India) FAILURE OF REVOLT OF 1857 The British ruthlessly crushed the revolt of 1857. social and economic system for the people inhibiting the state and sharing the common Aspirations. RESULTS OF REVOLT The revolt of 1857 marked a turning point in the history of India. The other leaders involved in the revolt were Bahadur shah Zafar (Delhi).the British government promised no it to annex any more Indian states. The Indians were promised high positions in the govt. iii) The revolutionaries lacked resources both in money and men. the Nizam and many others rulers and the Zamindars sided with the British. Certain basic weaknesses led to its failure. Queen Victoria was proclaimed the empress of India. The revolt made the Indian people more politically conscious. which appeared in world history after the close of the Middle Ages.the hold off the Indian princes of the Indian people declined. Thus. v) The revolution started much before the fixed date. Bakht Khan (Barreilly) Knawar ingh (Arrah). The British Govt. The main reasons of failure of 1857 were: i) The rising was not widespread. Some parts of Northern India and East Bengal did not take part in the revolt. vi) With the fall of Delhi. which had put an end to feudalism. social and economic systems and in this way. The French revolutions of 1789 added a new element to the phenomenon of nationalism. NATIONALISM Nationalism is a phenomenon. the number of Indians soldiers in the army were reduced. iv) The British controlled the postal and telegraphic system . But the revolt awakened the slumbering spirit of the Indians.Page 2 Class 10th History INDIA STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM The revolt was started by Mangal Pandey at meerut. The result was that the whole plant remained disorganized and the British got sufficient time to organize their forces. The rule of the British East India Company came to an end and the control passed to the British crown. Nationalism was the result of new social and economic forces. The Indians were given an assurance that they would not be forced to convert. The Indian rulers were given the authority to declare their adopted sons as their legal heirs. . the revolt of 1857 failed. It identified the nation with the people. It roused the national feeling s among the people and paved the way for the rise of the national movement. The reform and modernization movement gained momentum . the Rajputs.

They stirred the Indian masses from their deep slumber of slavery and enlightened them about their civilization. 4. The educated class was greatly influenced by English poets like Byron. The unjust actions of the British government forced the Indians to organize themselves on the national scale in order to fight against injustice and to get their demands fulfilled by the government. 6. The educated Indians were not appointed to higher positions.The western education introduced by the British proved to be a blessing in disguise. Racial Discrimination:. 3. By the rediscovery of India’s national heritage. Role of Press:. the Hindu etc.Page 3 Class 10th History INDIA STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM RISE OF INDIAN NATIONALISM The growth of Indian Nationalism started in the 19th century. The press criticized the British administration and popularized the national cause. the Indians sort of unity among the people and it became the basic factor for the rise and growth of nationalism. The religious reform movements also contributed to its development. Administration of Lord Lytton and Ripon:. Milton and Shelley. The British excesses also led to national awakening among the Indians.Socio-religious reform movements created national awakening among the people. 7. The Indians were barred from entering clubs. As a result of this. largely aroused the national consciousness among the people.The Social reformers made the people aquatinted with the great Indian culture. 8. This created political unity in India. English became the common language. 9. 5. They started understanding the sufferings of one another . The English did nothing to improve the lot of Indian. This created bitterness and frustration among the educated Indians. the Kesari. Swami Vivekanand. Dayanand etc. Western thought and education:. The reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy. journals and books were published in Indian and English languages.The administration changes brought about by the British made India a Nation. They created a strong central Government. some Indians developed a sense of pride and patriotism. the beginning of modern trade and industry and the rise of new social classes laid the basis of nationalism. The newspapers like the Amrit Bazar Patrika. Social reform movement:.The British spread a network of roads and railways to promote the commercial interests and to maintain an efficient administrative control over India . which brought the people of different areas together. Economic Exploitation:.People read the works of great revolutionaries of the west and it made them to understand the evil effects and read the works of great revolutionaries of the west and it made them to understand the evil effects and exploitation of the foreign domination. Cultural Revival:. infused a new life in the people.The Acts passed by Lord Lytton’s and Lord Ripon aroused discontentment among the Indians. . They exported raw materials to England and poured finished goods into India. This also helped in the growth of nationalism. hotels and many other public places. 2. This helped to bring them together against the British. Political unification of the country’s destruction of India’s old social and economic system. It ruined the Indian trade. The growth of the press played an important role in the awakening of the people.During the second half of the 19th century .The English exploited the economic resources of India for their own interests. Political Unity of India:. The main factors that led to the growth of Indian Nationalism is:1. a number of newspapers. Means of Transport and communication:.The British soldiers looked down upon the Indians and considered them racially inferior. The artisans and craftsmen lost their jobs.

The miserable condition of the Indian farmers and the native Industries should be improved. The objectives of the INC as stated in its first meeting were: i. To remove all possible prejudices of race. High posts should be given to the Indians in accordance with their ability. religion and region. nationalism and unity among the people ii. their. their problem and their viewpoints. The government accepted several demands of the congress. Lord buffering also blessed the congress. The party demanded reform and expansion of the legislative councils in a constitutional manner. The government should pay a special attention to the work of public welfare in the country. But latter they were debarred from attending the congress sessions and congress began to be considered as a seditious organization. EARLY FHASE OF CONGRESS (1885-1905) The period from 1885 to 1905 is generally described as being moderate phase of congress. 5. Some of the demands of the congress were: 1. The programme of congress was based on the solution of the political problems. 72 delegates attended the meeting 28th December to 30th 1885. Banerjee.Page 4 Class 10th History INDIA STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM They also set up postal and telegraph services. The modern means of transport and communication unified the people and promoted nationalism. It was for the first time in Indian History that a number of rules had come together to fight a foreign force. Persons attending the session belonged to different religions faiths. 4.the send petitions to the British every year. some British officials also attended the congress sessions. Taxes should be opened for the spread of the primary education. The aim of the congress was to enable the workers in the cause of national progress to become personally known to each other and to unite the people of India for common political ends. country. 2. iv. The congress leader put before the government every demand of the people. INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS A retired laid the foundation of the Indian National Congress. They had full faith in the British sense of justice so they were friendly towards the British. To stimulate the feelings of patriotism. iii. 3. 10. But the congress grew in popularity and ended in getting freedom for India. their nation. The first meeting of the INC was held at Bombay under the president ship of U. The British government paid little head to the demands of the congress. Schools should be opened for the spread of the primary education. . The swift means of transport and communication brought people closer and enabled them to know each other. The then governor general of India.Created national feedings and political consciousness among the people of India. To discuss important probl3esm facing the country. To train and organize public opinion in the country. In the beginning. 6. The people fought for one cause liberation of motherland.C. The Revolt of 1857:. v. The congress adopted peaceful means to achieve their aims. It led to a national awakening. To formulate demands and place them before the government. They believed in constitutional reforms . The British began to use the policy of divide and rule to curb the activities of the congress.

Dutt. Partition of Bengal :. policies in a bitter language.C. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MODERATES AND EXTEMISTS The main differences between moderated\s and extremists were as follows: i. Tilak. S. G . M. B. iv. Benerjee. Chandavarkar.N.Page 5 Class 10th History INDIA STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM IMPORTANT LEADERS OF CONGRESS U. They openly criticized the British govt. By now. Banerjee. Badrudin Tyabji. The revolutions in other countries like France and Russia inspired the Indians to rise in a revolt and decided to use extremist methods. Subramanya Aiyer. ii. They imbibed in the people a sense of self-respect and to rise up in arms rather than to be subdued. Maulana Azad etc. iii. a new trend called extremism. The government committed untold excesses and cruelties on the extremists. Huge public meeting and massive demonstrations were held in different towns.Bengal was the largest province of British India. Pal. paid no attention to these demands by 1905. Dada Bhai Naroji. Bipin Chandra pal and Lal Lajpat Rai. But. v. C. They adopted new radical ways of political agitation.they attacked the foreign government‘s right to rule India and demanded ‘Swaraj’. Gokjole. It had a population of over 78 million people. These for their country and love for their country and thsus prepared the people for scarify for the motherland. . Ranada.C. popularly known as Bal. M. They proceed further relying on their own strength. it led to a wave of indignation throughout Bengal. They were beaten.Gandhi. Chandra Bose etc. Nehru. These leaders included Bal Ganga dhar tilak. These atrocities inflamed the people and gave rise to extremism in the country. The extremists came closer to the masses and were treated as heroes by the people because of their sacrifices. RISE OF EXTREMISM IN CONGRESS The congress was established in1885 and worked peacefully for the fulfillment but the govt. Some Indian leaders preached that the economic. several new younger members had emerged as leaders of the congress. The Indians Boycotted on the people in order to crush the movement. R.G. developed within the congress. The British was not heeding to the demands of the moderate congress leaders. Every where the people consigned to the flames the foreign goods. political and cultural growth is necessary to get freedom. S. which could be obtained by struggle and sacrifice these ideas also promoted extremism. These leaders wanted complete Swaraj from the British. The moderates believed in the adoption of the constitutional and peaceful methods for the realizations for their objectives where as the extremists favored the use of force and revolutionary methods of achieving their aims. POPULARITY OF THE EXTREMISTS The extremists inspired the people with a spirit of nationalism. The object of the measure was given out as administrative convenience. The English carried the economic exploitation of Indian artisans and workers were rendered Jobless their resentment led to the rise of extremism. jailed and hanged. Pal Lal. Behramji Malbari. J. Lord Curzon decided to break it up. the extremists group consisted of B. But the reason behind it was to weaken the Nationalist movement and to sow seeds of disunity among the Hindus and the Muslims. They looked to India’s past for the solution of their present problems .L. G. The popular sympathy shifted towards the extremists. The causes of the Rise of extremism were: i.K.P. Lala Lajpat Rai.

He extremists’ methods included boycott. the congress turned it in a national movement.the Indian leaders started the swadesi and the Boycott Movement on August 7. The two movements were supported by the congress also. SECOND WORLD WAR AND THE CONGRESS The Second World War started in 1939. It launched the civil disobedience movement to press it s demands. The British government declared India as a party to the war without consulting any of the Indian leaders. These movements played an important role organizing the public opinion against the British rule and contributed lot in binding the Indian masses into a common bond of unity. The moderates’ methods included petitions. sugar and other goods. The people burnt British cloth. The shopkeepers stopped selling British goods.Page 6 Class 10th History INDIA STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM ii. The moderates had ever y praise of the western culture whereas the extremists were more concerned in having pride in the Indian culture. The congress passed the quit India Movement on August 8. THE GADDAR PARTY The Gaddar party was a revolutionary party that arose in the first decades of the 20th century. iv. In October 1940. iii. The heroism and self-sacrifice of these revolutionaries were a source of inspiration to the people and helped in the growth of popular nationalist feelings. The working committee in a resolution stated that India could not associate herself in a war. The moderates wanted to continue their struggle by remaining loyal to the British while as the extremists’ chose to be hostile towards them. vii. Consequently. BOYCOTT AND SWADESHI MOVEMENT The partition of Bengal came into effect on October 16. The British wanted to create a wedge between the Muslims and the Hindus. The British government refused to promise Independence even after the end of the war. But the extremists had no faith in the British and doubted their integrity. resorted to oppressive measures and arrested Gandhiji and many other congress leaders. economic and social reforms while the extremists’ aims included the object of swaraj. The moderates’ aims were confined only to the political. passive resistance etc. at Bearas in 1905 and in Calcutta in 1906. They send arms and men to India to start and uprising with the help of soldiers and local revolutionaries. Its leaders were mostly educated Hindus and Muslims. These movements aimed at forcing the Britsih to end the partition of Bengal. and annual resolutions for the redressal of their demands. . the Congress launched the individual Satyagraha movement.tey were imprisoned several times. Huge public meeting were launched . swadeshi. The congress in its Ramgarh session in 1940. vi. The Indian revolutionaries in the united stated of America and Canada established the Gaddar party. 1905. The Quit India movement spread all over India and it exploded mass upheavals and disorders. It led to a wave of indignation throughout Bengal. The moderates had faith in the justice of the British. The congress condemned the aggression for the fascist countries and expressed its sympathy with the victims of aggression. the British treated the extremists harshly. The students played an active part in these movements. In 1942. demanded complete independence. the congress rejected the proposal of the Cripps mission which was sent by British parliament.1905 to oppose the partition of Bengal. 1942 to invigorate the national movement the British Govt. deputations. The congress demanded that a national government should be immediately formed and that British should promise that India would become independence as soon as the war was over. The moderated believed in peaceful ways so the British never persecuted them on the other hand. v. The Gaddar party was pledged to wage revolutionary war against the British in India.

The British officials told the Muslims that the congress was the party of the Hindus. They asked the govt. the All India Muslim League was formed. The objects of the league were: i. The main points of the reform scheme were: i) To make a united demand for self-Government ii) To join hands in asking he British that a majority of the members of the govt. the religious head of a sect among Muslims and Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka. In 1913. ii. it adopts the goal of self-government for India. that the legislative councils be invested with wider powers than before. that a majority to the members of the legislative councils be elected and that the latter be invested with wider powers than here before. It tried to keep Muslims away from the congress. The Muslim league and the congress had parted ways in 1906 and rejoined at this session. A joint reform scheme was sent to the viceroy. under the leadership of M. iii) To ask the govt. To protect and advance the political rights and interest of Muslims of India and respectfully to represent their needs and aspiration to the government. To promote amongst the Muslims of India feelings of loyalty to the British government and to remove any misconceptions that may rise as to the intentions of the government with regard to any of its measures. The Muslim league at its Lahore session in 1940. in 1906. The Muslim league demanded that the areas in which the Muslims were in a majority should be grouped to constitute independent state. iii. They were encouraged to sart separate organization like congress.A. Jinnah asked for the formation of a separate state of Pakistan. This demand of the Muslim league resulted in the partition of India in 1947. that the legislative councils be invested with wider powers that than before. formed the league. POLICIES OF MUSLIMS LEAGUE The Muslim league persuaded the Indian Muslims to remain loyal to the British government. In 1916 the league signed the Lucknow pact with the congress according to which the congress and the league were to join their efforts to demand of the government. ** ***** . They began favouring upper class Muslims to wean them away from the nationalist Movement. It was based on the two-nation theory. Thus. iv) To make a common demand that at least half that seats in the viceroy do the Indian fill executive council. Agha Khan.Page 7 Class 10th History INDIA STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM FORMATION OF MUSLIM LEAGUE The British adopted the policy of divided and rule to divide the Muslims and the Hindus. To prevent the rise among Muslims of India of any feelings of hostility towards other communities without prejudice to the other objects of the league. THE LUCKNOW PACT The Lucknow pact was signed by the congress and the Muslim league in the Lucknow session of the congress in 1916.

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