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Transformer

Transformer

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Published by Vaibhav Sharma

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Published by: Vaibhav Sharma on May 23, 2012
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TRANSFORMER

A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF), or "voltage", in the secondary winding. This effect is called inductive coupling. If a load is connected to the secondary, current will flow in the secondary winding, and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp) and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows:

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus enables an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making Ns greater than Np, or "stepped down" by making Ns less than Np. The windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core, air-core transformers being a notable exception.

TYPES OF TRANSFORMER
Step up transformer Step down transformer

called crystal radios. Rectifiers have many uses. Historically. A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter. even synchronous electromechanical switches and motors have been used. silicon-controlled rectifiers and other siliconbased semiconductor switches. The simple process of rectification produces a type of DC characterized by pulsating voltages and currents (although still unidirectional). mercury-arc valves. The heavy threaded stud helps remove heat. but are often found serving as components of DC power supplies and high-voltage direct current power transmission systems. this type of DC current may then be further modified into the type of relatively constant voltage DC characteristically produced by such sources as batteries and solar cells. A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC). The process is known as rectification. which flows in only one direction. Early radio receivers. As noted. Rectification may serve in roles other than to generate direct current for use as a source of power. to direct current (DC). rectifiers take a number of forms.RECTIFIER A rectifier diode (silicon controlled rectifier) and associated mounting hardware. . solid-state diodes. Physically. which periodically reverses direction. In gas heating systems flame rectification is used to detect presence of flame. Depending upon the type of end-use. detectors of radio signals serve as rectifiers. including vacuum tube diodes. used a "cat's whisker" of fine wire pressing on a crystal of galena (lead sulfide) to serve as a point-contact rectifier or "crystal detector".

) are widely used. where variable output voltage is needed. while the other half is blocked. employ silicon semiconductor devices of various types.Rectifier devices Before the development of silicon semiconductor rectifiers. Half-wave rectifier The output DC voltage of an ideal half wave rectifier is:[1] . semiconductor diodes of various types (junction diodes. or three in a three-phase supply. etc. Other devices which have control electrodes as well as acting as unidirectional current valves are used where more than simple rectification is required. half-wave rectifiers produce far more ripple than full-wave rectifiers. Schottky diodes. either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed. vacuum tube rectifiers became obsolete. With the introduction of semiconductor electronics. Half-wave rectification requires a single diode in a single-phase supply. and much more filtering is needed to eliminate harmonics of the AC frequency from the output. mean voltage is lower. except for some enthusiasts of vacuum tube audio equipment. such as are used in high-voltage direct current power transmission. High power rectifiers. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output. For power rectification from very low to very high current.. e. These are thyristors or other controlled switching solidstate switches which effectively function as diodes to pass current in only one direction Half-wave rectification In half wave rectification of a single-phase supply. Rectifiers yield a unidirectional but pulsating direct current. vacuum tube diodes and copper(I) oxide or selenium rectifier stacks were used.g.

and four-diode bridges. unlike an ideal rectifier.A real rectifier will have a characteristic which drops part of the input voltage (a voltage drop. or four diodes in a bridge configuration and any AC source (including a transformer without center tap). in general non-linear). . of typically 0. and at high frequencies will distort waveforms in other ways. double diodes with common cathode or common anode. are manufactured as single components. it will dissipate power. This is a widely used configuration. Single semiconductor diodes. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct current). are needed. Full-wave rectification A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Bridge Rectifier A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full-wave rectification. both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally. Two diodes and a center tapped transformer. for silicon devices. and yields a higher mean output voltage.7 volts plus an equivalent resistance.

there is a forward path through the diode bridge. the other set is reverse biased and effectively eliminated from the circuit. . accomplishing full-wave rectification. While one set of diodes is forward biased.Current Flow in the Bridge Rectifier For both positive and negative swings of the transformer. Both conduction paths cause current to flow in the same direction through the load resistor.

showing the square shaped semiconductor crystal (black object on left). .Diode Figure 1: Closeup of a diode.

In most diodes. the terminal that conventional current flows out of when the diode is conducting. the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. Bottom: A bridge rectifier. is a vacuum tube with two electrodes. and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. . or more commonly (as shown here). a white or black painted band identifies the cathode terminal. that is. The filament may be bare. a diode is a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric transfer characteristic.Figure 2: Various semiconductor diodes. while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). now rarely used except in some high-power technologies and by enthusiasts.[1] A vacuum tube diode. and is used to convert alternating current to direct current. is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p-n junction connected to two electrical terminals. with low (ideally zero) resistance to current flow in one direction. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction). embedded within and insulated from an enclosing cathode In electronics. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification. Thus. A semiconductor diode. a plate (anode) and cathode. Figure 3: Structure of a vacuum tube diode. including extraction of modulation from radio signals in radio receivers—these diodes are forms of rectifiers. the most common type today.

These are exploited in special purpose diodes that perform many different functions. then two diodes back-to-back (cathodeto-cathode or anode-to-anode. Tunnel diodes exhibit negative resistance. depending upon output polarity required) can form a full-wave . Semiconductor diodes do not begin conducting electricity until a certain threshold voltage is present in the forward direction (a state in which the diode is said to be forward-biased). but other semiconductors such as germanium are sometimes used. The first semiconductor diodes. to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor diodes). For single-phase AC. and is a function of temperature. diodes are used to regulate voltage (Zener diodes). this effect can be used as a temperature sensor or voltage reference. Diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. Semiconductor diodes' nonlinear current–voltage characteristic can be tailored by varying the semiconductor materials and introducing impurities into (doping) the materials. if the transformer is center-tapped. which makes them useful in some types of circuits. For example. to generate radio frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes. Today most diodes are made of silicon. to protect circuits from high voltage surges (avalanche diodes). Gunn diodes. The discovery of crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874. called cat's whisker diodes.[2] Graetz bridge rectifier: a full-wave rectifier using 4 diodes. IMPATT diodes). The voltage drop across a forward-biased diode varies only a little with the current. diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple on–off action.However. were made of mineral crystals such as galena. and to produce light (light emitting diodes). developed around 1906.

with vacuum tube having two anodes. Twice as many turns are required on the transformer secondary to obtain the same output voltage than for a bridge rectifier. . but the power rating is unchanged. The 5U4 and 5Y3 were popular examples of this configuration. a Full-wave rectifier. Full-wave rectifier using a center tap transformer and 2 diodes.A very common double-diode rectifier tube contained a single common cathode and two anodes inside a single envelope. achieving fullwave rectification with positive output.rectifier.

while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). now rarely used except in some high-power technologies and by enthusiasts. Some commercially available double diodes have all four terminals available so the user can configure them for single-phase split supply use. is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p-n junction connected to two electrical terminals. A semiconductor diode. In electronics. half a bridge. half & full-wave rectified DC output waveforms For three-phase AC. or three-phase rectifier. six diodes are used. a diode is a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric transfer characteristic. is a vacuum tube with two electrodes. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification. a plate (anode) and cathode.[1] A vacuum tube diode. Thus. are manufactured as a single component for this purpose. the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. the most common type today.3-phase AC input. Double diodes in series. with low (ideally zero) resistance to current flow in one direction. and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. and is used to convert alternating current to . with the anode of the first diode connected to the cathode of the second. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction).

and is a function of temperature. and to produce light (light emitting diodes). which makes them useful in some types of circuits. Diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. These are exploited in special purpose diodes that perform many different functions.[2] . The first semiconductor diodes. Today most diodes are made of silicon. including extraction of modulation from radio signals in radio receivers—these diodes are forms of rectifiers. developed around 1906. to generate radio frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes.direct current. Semiconductor diodes' nonlinear current–voltage characteristic can be tailored by varying the semiconductor materials and introducing impurities into (doping) the materials. For example. this effect can be used as a temperature sensor or voltage reference. were made of mineral crystals such as galena. to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor diodes). to protect circuits from high voltage surges (avalanche diodes). However. Gunn diodes. The discovery of crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874. but other semiconductors such as germanium are sometimes used. IMPATT diodes). diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple on–off action. Semiconductor diodes do not begin conducting electricity until a certain threshold voltage is present in the forward direction (a state in which the diode is said to be forward-biased). Tunnel diodes exhibit negative resistance. The voltage drop across a forward-biased diode varies only a little with the current. called cat's whisker diodes. diodes are used to regulate voltage (Zener diodes).

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