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PART A 1. Define Management. It is an are of getting things done through people. 2. Define Organization. "Organizations are Social inventions for accomplishing goals through group efforts" - G·ARYJHONS. 3. Define Organizational Behaviour "It is an academic discipline concerned with understanding and describing human behaviors is an Organizational environment" -KEITH DAVIS. 4. Give any four Reasons for the study of OB • • • • To learn about normal and abnormal ranges of behavior To know what causes behavior and how it can be controlled To develop individual work interactions To analyze Group interactions
5. Who are the players of Organisation? An organization consists of Top level, Middle level and Lower level. The players of Organization are as follows:People P - Customers, competitors, Supplies and Financial Institutions Top Management - President, Vice President, Managing Director, General Manger, Chairman's, Vice-Chairman, Board of Directors, Chief-executive officer etc., Middle level Management - Departmental heads, Managers and Executives. Low level Management - Supervisors, Lab ours. 6. Define Psychology It is a science that seeks to measure, explain and sometimes change the behaviors of human. It focus the intrapersonal dynamics of human behaviors like learning, Perception, Attitudes, Opinion, Feelings, Belief, Ideas, Emotions, Training, Motivational forces, Needs, wants, Decision Making, Job satisfaction and stress.
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7. Define Sociology It is the study of people in relation to their fellow human beings. It focus to understand .group dynamics, formation of groups, Communication, Formal and Informal group formulation, power and conflict. 8. Define Anthropology Anthropology is the Study of Societies to learn about human beings and their activities. It helps to analyze the differences in fundamental values, attitudes and behavior between people in different regions and organizations. It also focuses organization culture, organization environment and natural culture. 9. Define Social Psychology: It is an area within psychology with blending concepts from both psychology and sociology. It focus the influence of people on one another It also focus the understanding, changing attitudes and group decision making process. 10. Define Political Sciences It studies the behavior of individuals and groups within a particular environment. It focus on group conflict, allocation of power and individual self interest. 11. What are models of OB Models are explanations, why do people behave as they do at work. There are different types of models. They are as follows: e Autocratic Model • Custodial Model • Supportive Model • Collegial Model 12. Define Cause - Effect model Behaviour of one individual serves as cause for another's behavior, human reiations and managerial effectiveness in the organization.
13. Who is the Father of Personnel Administration? Robert Owen is the father of personnel Administration. 14. Who is the Father of Scientific Management Frederick Winslow Taylor is called as the Father of Scientific Management.
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15. Who conduct Hawthorne Studies and where Hawthorne Experiments: 1. (1924 - 27) to find out the effect illumination on worker productivity. 2. Relay assembly test room experiments: • (1927 - 28) to find out the effects of changes in number of work hours related working conditions on worker productivity. 3. Experiments in interviewing workers:• (1928 - 30) to find out workers attitudes and sentiments toward work. 4. Bank wiring room Experiments: • (1931 - 32) to find out social system of an organization. 16. Define Individual Behaviour: The behaviour of an individual within an organization reflects in his performance andjob satisfaction.
Unit II PART A 17. List the Biographical factors of Individual Behaviou r AGE: It plays a vital role in the behavior of Individual with in organization. As said by many managerial exports job performance declines with increasing job". GENDER: Individuals behavior also influenced by Gender (i,e)male or female General opinion says 'women never perform as well as job mendo'. MARITAL STATUS: Many research said that material status plays a good role in productivity.
Tenure means experience or seniority. Tenure and absenteeism are the negative facts.
18. List the Psychological factors of Individual behaviour Psychological factors refer to an individual's mental characteristic and attributes that are not always observable. But these too affect human behavior in a considerable way. Among the several psychological factors, the important ones having their profound impact on behavior are perception, personality, attitudes, values and learning.
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19. List the environmental factors of Individual behaviour a. Economic factors b. Political situations c. Cultural values 1) economic factors: Through economic factors include several ones, the prominent among them are employment level wage rate, economic outlook, and technological change. These greatly affect human behavior at work. 2) political situations: The political climate hovering in a country in which an individual lives affects the individual behavior in one way or other. 3) cultural values: Culture is made up of the factors like basic beliefs, vales, work-ethic, need for achievement that have behavioral implications. 20. Define personality: According to Hilgard personality may be understood as the characteristic pattern of behavior and modes ofthinking that determines a person's adjustment to the environment. According to Ruch personality can be described as how a man understands and behave him and the pattern of inner and outer measurable traits". 21.What are the determinants of Personality: 1. Heridity: Physical stature, facial attractiveness, sex, muscle composition and temperament are influenced by the parents. 2. Environment Early conditioning, family norms, friends and social groups playa role in personality formation. 3. Situation: Situation exents an Important press on the individual to behave in a particular manner.
Many originations select their employees by testing their personality based on situation. 22. Different between type A & B personality: Type A TypeB Hard working Easygoing Highly achievement oriented Sociable Impatient Have patience They have sense of time Free from urgency of time
1. 2. 3. 4.
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I Non competitive.
23. Different between Introvert Introvert & Extrovert Personality. Extrovert. They like variety and action Often atquickly sometimes without thinking
They Iike quite for concentration Like to think before they act Work alone Have problems in communicating Dislike Telephone interruptions Likes long projects between judging Judging
Work with other people Have free communication Often do not mind interruptions Dislikes long slow projects type & perceptive Personality. Perceptive Adapt well to changing situations Do not mind leaving things open for alterations May have trouble making decisions May start too many projects and have difficulty in finishing them Want to know all about their work.
Work best when they can plan work and follow the plan Like to get things settled Many decide things too quickly May not notice new things that need to be done Want only essential things needed to begin their work
25. Define ID, EGO and super Ego. ID: It is innate and the source of psychic energy. It seeks immediate graffic for the need. It's unconscious part of human personality. EGO: It is conscious part of human personality. It's associated with reality. It checks ID through logic and intellect, SUPER- EGO: It represents system of values, norms and condition that guide & govern a person to behave properly in society. 26. Define Social Learning Theory Learning can be defined as any change in one's behavior that occurs as a result of experience Social learning theory emphasizes given situation. Learning by observing others is also called 'vicarious learning' Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur on how an individual behaves or acts in a
events and situations by manipulating the system to their advantage. pragmatic. Stimuli: It's the objects that exist in the environment in which a person lives. They are primary energizers of human behavior. The strength of response and tend to induce repetitions of the behavior. Motive: It's the drive which makes people to act. Extinction: Learning which fagotence an overtime is 31. response. They are primary energizers of human behavior they represent mental feeling of human beings they arise continuously and determine the general directions of an inciividual behavior. 30. An individual high in Machiavellianism tends to be cool. Re enforcement: Anything that both increases. According to Stephen P. Define Machiavellianism Machiavellianism refers to an individual's propensity to manipulate people for solving his\her interest. logical and assessing the system around him. Response: The result of stimuli is response. 28. Retention: Remembrance learned behavior over time.Organization Behaviour 6 It occurs to two ways. and retention. stimuli. 27. Define the determinants of Learning The important factors that determine learning are motive. reinforcement. Define Learning Learning is a change in behavior as a result of experience. • Experience may be acquired directly through practice or observation and indirectly through reading • Learning is the life long process. try to control people. By observing others. • The change in behavior must be relatively permanents • Only change in behavior acquired through experience is considered as learning.. maintains emotional distance. Re enforcement 2. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . Define the Components of Learning • Learning involves change either good or bad. 1. Define Motive It is the drive which makes people to act.Robbins "Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience" 29.
Define classical conditioning Theory? Classical conditioning theory in developed by Iran Parlos He is a Russian psychologist. 34. Re enforcement process Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . Define Response The stimulus results in response-be these in the physical form or in terms of attitudes or perception or in other phenomena. • Generalization. 33.Organization Behaviour 7 32. ~ Continuous reinforcement ~ Intermittent reinforcement ~ Fixed ratio ~ Variable ratio ~ Fixed interval ~ Variable interval 37. This theory is also called as stimuli-Response relationship. Motor Reproduction process 4. • Discrimination. 36. What are the schedules of Reinforcement? Following are some main types of reinforcement schedules. he develop a concept if there is a stimuli there wiII be a response. Define Reinforcement Any thing that both increases. Define Extinction Learning which is forgotten overtime is called extinction. 35. Define Stimuli It is the objects that exist in the environment in which a person lives. Define the stages of social learning theory? The stages of social learning theory are 1. Eg: Dog began to salirate on hearing the bell. When the response the strength returns after extinction without any intervening reinforcement 37. 38. Attention process 2. The strength of response and tend to induce repetitions of the behavior. There are two types of stimuli. Define Retention Retention means remembrance of learned behavior over time. Retention process 3.
Social learning Direct Experience:One's direct experience with an object of person serves as a powerful source for his her attitude formation. Define Organizational commitment? Organizational commitment is an attitude about employees for his loyalty to the organization. How attitudes are formed? The formation of attitudes is broadly classified in to two sources. It is an attitude about employees by the employs for providing job satisfaction It is the process through which employees and employer identity with the organization and want to maintain life long membership. 1. Job Involvement 3. towards objects and events. opinion either favorably or un-favorably to persons. service or institutions". aspects of our environment. refers to an individual's pleasurable of positive emotional state toward his or her job. Sociallearning:The process of defining attitude from family peer groups. religious organizations and culture in called social learning 41. Organizational Commitment 42. Define attitudes? One's feelings. supervision and 43. . the work itself. "Attitudes are learned predispositions They are positively or negatively directed towards certain 40. What are the types of attitudes? The types of attitude are. Define Job Satisfaction? The term job satisfaction dimensions co-workers. 2.Organization Behaviour 8 39. According to Munn-et-ar. Job satisfaction of the job: pay. invest time and. people. 1. Job Satisfaction 2. promotion is related with the fire specific opportunities. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur (. in the degree to which employees immerse themselves in their jobs. energy in their work and consider work has part of theirs 44. Direct Experience. ideas. Define Job involvement? Job involvement life.
Both influence each other and. 50. 48. Define terminal values? Terminal values represent the desirable end-states of existence. are used interchangeab Iy. Both affect cognitive process and behavior of people 3. the goals an individual would like to achieve during his life time .Organization Behaviour 9 45. 2. Rokeach identified another set of 18 instrumental values./ Direct observation technique . Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . and event./ Self-Report . these represent preferable modes of Behaviour or means of achieving one's term inal values. Define Values? General beliefs tinged with moral flavor containing on individual's judgmental ideas about what is good. How will you measure attitude? The attitudes are measured by. • Filling the information gap • Use of fear • Resolving discrepancies • Impact of pears • Co-opting approach 47. good or bad is called as values. right or wrong is called as values. 4. object./ Indirect . Explain the similarities between attitudes and values? The similarities between attitudes and values are 1. The answers to the questions what is good of bad. In other words. How to change the attitudes in and organization? The attitudes are changed by. Both are endurable and difficult to change.Rokeach identified 18 terminal values. Define Instrumental values? Instrumental values reflect the way to achieving goals. . more often than not. The basis conviction that gives us a sense of right or wrong. right of desirable.test ./ Psychological Reaction technique 46. 49. Both are learned or acquired from the same sources-experience with people.
Define Perception:"Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organized and interpret their sensory impression in order to give meaning to the environment".Robbins. data collected and organized do not make any sense without interpretation 56. 55. organizing interpreting. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur l_ . It means of achieving one's terminal values. 54. Define Closure: When people face with incomplete information they tend to fill the gaps themselves to make it more meaningful tendency to form a complete and understandable or meaningful message from incomplete information is known as closure. In other words. Instrumental value:It reflects the way to achieving goals. The goals would like to achieve during his/her life time. The process of receiving.Stephen P.Organization Behaviour 10 51. Define interpretation:The data collected and organized remain meaning less for the perceiver till these are assigned meanings assigning meanings to data is called interpretation thus interpretation of. may be rated as bad in one trait but good in other traits. based on halo effect. checking and reacting to sensory stimuli or data 53. selecting. But it has an important implication for understanding or evaluating an employee is the organization an employee. data forms one of the most important element in the endure perceptual process strictly speaking. Define figure ground principal We select stimuli for further processing that we consider important for us or which we cannot study the meaningful bits and pieces of stimuli are called the "figure" and the meaningless ones are leveled as "ground" more attention is given to figure and less to ground. Difference between terminal values and instrumental values? Terminal values:It represents the desirable end states of existence. 52. Define halo effect Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristics or trait is called halo effect.
group behaviour and the behaviour of organization itself. training. It focus the intra personal dynamics of human behaviour like learning. Informal group formulation. formation of groups. in turn creates peace and harmony in the organizations. needs. formal and conflict. It is men working in the organization make all the difference. the most popular reason for studying OB is to learn how to predict human behaviour and then. Sociology: It is the study of people in relation to fellow human beings. development Contributing Disciplines to organizational behaviour: Organizational behaviouris an applied behavioral science. Finally.It is the science that seeks to measure. Behaviour of Organization: • Profit or service oriented • Rules and regulations • Organizational structure. apply it in same useful way to make the organization more effective. job satisfaction and stress. • psychology • sociology • Anthropology • Other social sciences Psychology: The discipline that has had the greatest influence on the field of organizational behaviour is psychology . ideas. wants. change • Effectiveness. sociology and anthropology. all organization are run by men. decision-making. opinion. explain and sometimes change the behaviour of human. perception. motivational forces. attitudes. communication. Fourthly. It focus to understand group dynamics. power and conflict Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . belief. DISCIPLINES CONTRIBUTING TO OR: Organizational behaviour: It is a study of to understand the human behaviour in an organization and it is concerned with individual behavior. It has drawn heavily from a number of other applied interdisciplinary behavioral disciplines of psychology. It enables managers to inspire and motivate employees towards higher productivity and better results. 2. emotions. feelings.Organization Behaviour 21 employees as human beings enables the managers to maintain cordial industrial relations which.
In focus on group conflict. and behaviour between people in different regions and organizations. It helps to analyze the differences in fundamental values. Social psychology: It is an area with in psychology with blending concepts from both psychology and sociology. changing attitudes and group decision making process. attitudes. It focuses the influence of people on one another. Sociology Organisational Psychology Organisational Sociology Organ izational Culture Oraganisational behaviour Power History of organization and man Q111ent Decision theory Political Science History Political Science It studies the behaviour of individuals and groups within a political environment. allocation of power and individual self interest. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . It also focuses the understanding.Organization Behaviour 22 Anthropology: It is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
Perceiving oneself accurately Improving one's self-concept Be Empathetic Having positive attitudes Avoiding perceptual distortions Communicating openly 61. Define stereotyping. Robbins "motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals. conditioned by the effort ability to satisfy some individual need" Motivation is the concept of inner feeling or interest towards any thing in order to achieve any thing. Define attribution Explaining human behaviour in terms of cause and effect is called 'attribution' however attributing causal explanation to a particular human behaviour sometimes tends to distort perception for example if a prosperous worker does overtime on any day. The word stereotype was first in 1922 applied by Walter lip Mann to perception since then. 58. 59. How to improve perception 1. List the internal and external factors that affect perception Internal Factors Needs and desires Personality Experience External Factors Size Intensity Frequency / Repetition Contrast 60. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . 5. 2. it has become a frequently used term to describe perception. When individuals are judged on the basis of the characteristics of the group to which they belong this is called 'stereotyping'. 4.Organization Behaviour II 57. Define Motivation According to Stephen P. it is perceived that he has done it in the interest of organization but if a poor worker also does the same. 6. 3. the action or behaviour is perceived as being for money.
It is the inner feelings of the employers towards management. 63. 66. What is the need for Motivation? Organizations are run by people hence. these are at the very heart of motivation process motives provide an activating thrust toward reaching a goal. He developed long list of motives & manifest needs used in his early studies of personality Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . managers cannot afford to avoid a concern with human behaviour at work. Then term self"> actualization was coined by kurt Goldstein and means to become actualized in what one is potentially good at 65. Define self Actualization This level represents the culmination of all the lower intermediate. It enables managers to understand why people behave as they behave. but getting a hair cut does motives prompt people to action hence. 64.conscious then apathetic ones. . Define Morale High satisfa~tion leads to make towards employers. Define Motives Almost all human behaviour is motivated it requires no motivation to grow hair. This is because the motivated employers are more productive and quality . Explain Motivation The theories are Theories Theories Theories Theories? classified into three categories] based on human needs based on human nature based on expectancy of human being Maslow's Theory by Hierarchy He classified all human needs into a hierarchical manner from the lower to the higher order Hertzberg's Motivation Theory Hertzberg labeled the jog satisfier motivators and the called job so dissatisfies hygienic or maintenance factor Mc Clelland's Need It is opposed to hierarchy of needs or satisfaction .dissatisfaction. Motivation as a pervasive concepts and is also affected by a host of factors in the organizational milieu.Organization Behaviour 12 62.actualization this refers to fulfillment. the final step under the needs hierarchy model is the need for self . and higher needs of human beings in other words.
smeIl taste a toch things it is a physiological Selections. He is a American Psychologist. hear sounds. Explain learning theories? Classical Conditioning theories:It is developed by iran partor. It is developed by B. The concept in behaviour is a function of its consequences He have response creates stimulate it is also called as response . & direct experience from the evict is called as Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur .People in their everyday life are bombarded by my riads of stimule. They cannot assimilate all they select some stimule for further processing to attach meaning to them while the rest are screened out Organization:organ izati on Organizing the bits of information into a meaningful concept is called Interpretation:-Assigning as interpretation.Organization Behaviour 13 67. We see things aspect of objects. precipitation.F. Explain perception Stimulate Selection process in detail? around as Perception mean perceiving (ie) giving meaning to the environment Organization Interpretati on Action Stimulate:The stimulate & received from the various sources. He developed the concept ifthere is a stimulate there will be a response this theory is called stimulate Operant Learning Theories:which may be either positive or negative. Action:-Action means to organized data in a understandable form is called is the resultant behaviour of individual emerging from the perceptual process the action may be positive or negative. Cognitive theory:Cognition An individual's thoughts knowledge interpretation.stimulate. 68. He is a Russian Psychologist. understanding or views about oneself and his environment 'Social Learning theory Learning through observation social learning.Skinner.
70. It change in behaviour acquired though experience is considered learning The experience may be acquired directly through practice or observation or indirectly Finally learning is not confined to our schooling only. Learning involves change be it good or bad. If is refers to general attitudes towards works by an individual worker.They respond one's feeling either favorably or unfavorab1y to persons object something. According to him lob satisfaction is a combination of psychological. 71. service or institution. Physiological &environmental factors that makes a person to admit It is refers to the attitudes of the workers of relates to group while lob-Satisfaction is an individual feeling which could be caused by a variety of factor.Robbins' Learning is any relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience'. It change in behaviour must be relatively permanent for that matter a temporary change in behaviour as a result of fatigue adaptations are not considered learning. Rokeach: "A specific mood of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence". 3) Attitudes affect behaviour either positive or negative. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . According to Munn 'According are learned predispositions towards aspects of our environment they be positively or negative directed toward certain people. Explain attitudes Values in detail? Attitudes are evaluating statement . Features of attitudes: 1) Attitudes are related to the feelings beliefs of people. Explain Learning-in Detail: Learning is a change in behaviour as a result of experience According to Stephen P. Explain job-Satisfaction in Detail? The term lob-Satisfaction was brought to limit light by Hoppock-1935. 4) Attitudes undergo changes. Values: Values are one of the sources of individual Values are general beliefs tinged with moral favorer containing in individuals judgmental ideas about what is good right or desirable. 2) Attitudes respond to person's objects or events.Organization Behaviour 14 69. Eg: Professor kolter says 'I like teaching' he is expressing his attitudes about his work.
73. 2) Tract theory: Tract is an enduing characteristic of a person in which he differs from another. 2. 4) Social learning theory: Any change in ones behaviour that occurs as a result of experience The social learning theory emphasis given situation. -- 74. feelings and opinions. 1) Type theory: The Theory clearly states that human personality can be classified into two. Personality type Outgoing More intelligent Dominant Happy-go-lucky Venture some Sensitive I 3. Explain types of Personality in detail? Personality type 1.EGO. Explain Personality Theories in detail: Many managerial experts have derived theories for personality. I) Body build 2) Psychological factors. 6. He said that human behaviour that human personality is is forces He desired determined by 3 elements like. ID.SUPER-EGO.'Personality may be understood as the characteristic pattern of behaviour &modes of thinking that determine the persons adjustment to the environment' -It is derived from Latin word 'person are' it means-to speak Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvath ur . Hilgaud:. 4. Explain Personality in detail? Personality: through. ideas. Reserved Less intelligent Submissive Serious Timed Tough-minded .Organization Behaviour 15 72. 3) Psycho analytical Theory: It is derived by Sigmund influenced more by unseen fraud. 5. on how an individual behaves or acts in a 5) Self Theory: It is derived by 'carl rogees' It studies individual subjective experience.
Explain Individual behaviour in detail: The behaviour of an individual with in a organization reflects in his performance and job satisfaction. autonomy &interactions. Define MBE. In job rotation a worker moves from one job to another at the same level that has similar skill requirements.Organization Behaviour 16 Personality is the quality by which an individual reacts and interacts with others and environment personality includes both internal &external aspects of a person. and use these measures as guide for operating the unit is assessing the contribution of each of its members".Quality of working life is an "Internationally designed effort to bring to about increased labour management co-operation tojointly solve the problem of improving organizational performance &employee satisfaction". (2) Job rotation becomes less useful as specialization. Ability. Define MBO? Management by Objective: According to peter Druckee-1954 According to ordained "MBO is a process where by the superior and subordinate manager of an organization jointly identify common goals. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . 76. define each individuals major areas of responsibilities in terms of the result expected of him. 1. 77. 78.Define Job design? A job can be defined as a grouping of tasks with in a prescribed unit or units of work Job design is a deliberate attempt made to structure the tasks social relationship of a job to create optimal level of variety responsibility. Define QWL? Cohen &Rosenthal: . 80. 75. Define Job Specification? Job Specification is that the specified jobs can be done by a particular employee is an organization 79. The basis foundation for the individual behaviour is determined by two factors. Define Job Rotation? It is a Motivational strategy. Biographical Factors. (1) Work suffers from obvious disruption caused by change in job. 2.
Organization Behaviour 17 81. Types of Motivation: a) Financial Motivation b) Non-Financial a) Financial Motivation: Bonus Incentives Rewards Motivation b) Non-Financial Motivation facilities Transfer with promotion Infra-structural Insurance Schemes Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur .
B? Definition of OB: OB is directly concerned with the understanding. it is not that OB is not normative at all. thus. and productive. the latter concentrates on applied researches. a discipline is an accepted science that is based on a theoretical foundation.Organization Behaviour 18 PARTB 1. not based on a specific theoretical background Therefore. <. OB prescribes how the findings of applied researches can be applied to socially accept organizational goals. Thus. OB has a multi-interdisciplinary orientation and is. Psychology. prediction and control of human behavior in organizations. A Normative Science: OB is a normative science also. In fact. It tries to integrate the relevant knowledge drawn from related disciplines like. As OB involves both applied research and its application In organizational analysis. SCOPE OF O. and anthropology to make them applicable for studying and analysis organizational behaviour An applied science: The very nature of OB is applied what OB basically does is the application of various researches to solve the organization problems related to human behaviour. Sociology. creative. OB is based on the belief that people have an innate desire to be independent. An inter disciplinary approach OB is essentially an inter disciplinary approach to study human behaviour at work. hence OB can be called both science as well as art. It also realizes that people working in the organization can and will actualize these Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . While the positive science discusses only cause effect relationship. Yes. The basic line of difference between pure science and OB is that while the former concentrates on fundamental. But.researches. A Humanistic and optimistic Approach: OB applies humanistic approach towards people working in the organization. NATURE & NEED. OB deals with what is accepted by individuals and society engaged in an organization. Nature of OB: A separate field of study and not a discipline only: By definition. OB is normative as well that is well underscored by the proliferation of management theories. feeling human beings. it is better reasonable to call OB a separate field of study rather than a discipline only. It treats people as thinking.
Total System Approach: The system approach is one that integrates all the variables affecting organizational functioning. polities. 1) Individuals. Man's socio-psychological frame work makes him a complex one and the systems approach tries to study his\her complexity and find solution to it. The systems approach has been developed by the behauourial scientists to analyze human behavior in view of his\her sociopsychological frame work. SCOPEOFOB OB is the study of human behaviour at work in o. attitudes. Accordingly. leadership. The study of individuals. includes aspects such as personality. culture. The study of organization structure includes aspects such as formation of organization structure.. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Mel maruvath ur . communication. power. 3) Organisation\ structure: . 2) Group of individuals: Groups include aspects such as group dynamics.Organization Behaviour 19 potentials if they are given proper conditions and environment. values. Individuals differ in many respects. groups and organization\ . learning and motivation. Organizations are the associations of individuals. As stated earlier. perception. and the like. therefore. change and development. job satisfaction. group conflicts. environment affects performance of workers working in an organization. the scope of OB includes the study of individuals.ganizations . structure. The scope of OB depicted in the following figure.
Firstly.treating Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur .Organization Behaviour 20 INDIVIDUALS Personality perception attitudes Motivation Job satisfaction clearing values Organizational behavior. Thus. Friendly and cordial relations between employees and management and also among the employees create a congenial work environment in organization. .It helps understand the cause of the problem. It helps manager apply appropriate motivational techniques in accordance to the nature of individual who exhibit glaring difference in many respects. Thirdly. OB tackles human problems humanly . the study of OB helps us understands ourselves and others in a better way this helps greatly in improving our inter. predicts its future course of action and controls its evil consequences. Group dynamics Group conflicts Communication Structure culture charge development STRUCTURE NEED FOR STUDYING ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The study of benefits as in several ways A few are mentioned here. the knowledge ofOB helps the manager know individual better and motive employers to work for better results. Secondly.personal relations in the organization. one of the basic characteristics ofOB is that it is human in nature.
Yes it is not Organizational behaviour is not normative at all in fact Organizational behaviour is nonnative as well that is underscored by the proliferation of management theories. feeling human Adhiparasakthi Engg College MeImaruvathur . Science: Organizational Behaviour is a Normative Science also while the positive Science Discusses only causes Effect Relationship. organizational Behaviour prescribes how the findings of Applied Researched can be applied to socially Accepted Organizational goals. As organizational Behaviour Involves both Applied Research and its Application in Organizational Analysis. The basic line difference between pure science and organizational behaviour is that while the former concentrates on fundamental Researches. sociology and anthropology to make them applicable for studying and Analyzing Organizational Behaviour. What organizational Behaviour basically does is the application of various Researches to solve The Organizational Problems related to Human Behaviour. hence organizational Behaviour can be called science as well art. 2. A Humanistic and optimistic approach: Organizational behaviour applies humanistic approach towards people working is in the organization. "It is an Accodamic Decipline concerned with understanding and describing human Behaviour in an organizational Environment". Thus organizational Behaviour Deals with what is accepted by Individuals and society engaged in an organization. An Interdisciplinary Approach: Organizational Behaviour is Essentially an Interdisciplinary Approach to study human behaviour at work. It tries to integrate The Relevant knowledge drawn from related Disciplines like psychology. NATURE OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR: 1. 4. A normative. 3. But organizational Behaviour has a Multi inter disciplinary orientation and is thus not based on a specific Theoretical background a separate field of study rather than a discipline only. It treats people as thinking. An Application science: The very nature of organizational behaviour is applied.Organization Behaviour 23 3. S. That is based on a Theoretical foundation. A separate field of study and not a Discipline: By definition a discipline is an accepted science. MODELS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR DEFINITION:According to Keith Devis.
(Ex.) government employers Supportive Collegial (Ex. Mans socio-psychological framework makes him a complex one and the system approach tries to study hislher complexity and find solution to it Models of Organizational Behaviour Models are frameworks or possible explanations why do people behave as they do at work there are so many models as many as organization varying a results across the organizations are substantially caused by differences in the models of organizational behaviour. However its principal weakness is its high human cost. The combination of emerging knowledge about the needs of the employees and ever changing societal values and norms suggested managers to adopt alternative and better ways to manage people at work.Organization Behaviour 24 beings.. All the models of organizational behaviour are broadly classified into four types. Some employees give higher performance either because of their achievement drive or their personal linking to the boss or because of some other factors Evidences such as the industrial civilization of the United States and organizational crises do suggest than the autocratic model produced results. Organizational behaviour is based on the belief that people have an innate desire to be independent creature and productive. The system approach has been developed by the ..) infosys THE AUTOCRATIC MODEL In case of an autocratic model the managerial orientation is dictorial the managers exercise their commands over employees. Autocratic. It also realizes that people working in the organization can and will actualize these potentials if they are given proper conditions and' environment as stated "earlier environment affects performance of workers working in an organization. 6. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur .) military Custodial (Ex. T managers give orders and the employees have to obey the orders. This gave genesis to the second type of models of organizational behaviour. behaviouaral scientists to analyze human behaviour in view of his/her sociopsychological framework. Thus the employees orientation towards the managers/bosses is obedience under autocratic conditions employees usually give minimum wages. A Total system approach: The system approach is one that integrates all the variables affecting organizational functioning..
They certainly think bad about the system such employees filled with frustration and aggression vents them on their co-workers families and neighbors. IGNOU in the beginning provided its employees facilities like house-lease facility. The welfare programmers for employees started by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (JGNOU) New Delhi are worth citing in this context. While studying the employees the managers realized and recognized that although the employees managed under autocratic style do not talk back to their boss. However the supportive model of organization behaviour is found more useful and effective in developed nations and loss effective in developing nations like ours because of employees more awakening in the former and less one in the latter nations Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . The quest for a better w ay provided a foundation for evolvement to the next type of model of organizational behaviour THE SUPPORTIVE MODEL The supportive model is founded on leadership. The managers recognize that the workers are not by nature passive and disinterested to organizational needs but they are made so by a un appropriate leadership style. These made employees dependent on IGNOU which in tum became custodian of its employees. The managers believe that given due and appropriate chances. They are also not motivated to increase their capacities of which they are capable. In fact it is the managerial leadership style that provides an atmosphere to help employees grow and accomplish their tasks successfully. day-time child care centre in the campus etc. Thus under supportive approach the managements orientation is to support the employees job performance for meeting both organizational and individual goals. This made the managers think how to develop better employee satisfaction and security. This is in conformity with the research findings that the happy employee is not necessarily the most productive employee consequently managers and researchers started to address yet another question is there better approach /way to manage people. Employees produce any where near their capacities. Though the employees are satisfied. Such provision for an on-site day-care centre for quality child care is an example of such welfare programmed meant for employees.Organization Behaviour 25 THE CUSTODIAL MODEL. not on money or authority. still they do note feel motivated or fulfilled in their work they do. It was realized that this can be done by dispelling employee's insecurities frustration and aggression. welfare programmers lead to employee dependence on the organization starting more accurately employees having dependence on organization may neat afford to quit even there seem greener pastures around. This called for introduction of welfare programmers to satisfy security needs of employees. The workers became ready to share responsibility develop a drive to contribute their mite and improve themselves. Although the custodian approach brings security and satisfaction it suffers from certain flows also.
collegial managerial approach produced improved results in situations where it is appropriate. Scientific Management: . imparting them adequately and remunerating perfectly • It increased the productivity and Job satisfaction • Because of anti-social. Job displacement. an for ventilation and sickness payments to the workers. The basic foundation of the collegial model lies on managements building feeling of partnership with employees. employee children. Many management experts have given a wide explanation regarding the evaluation of organization Behaviour. Robert Owen young factory owner. The collegial model is an extension of the supportive model as the literal meaning of the word 'COLLEGE' means a group of persons having the common purpose. 1. Under collegial approach employees feel needed and useful. medical treatment.W.Tata implement OB aspects to his workers such as N installation of pension funds payment for accident compensation 2. Implemented new behaviour aspect like. Thus he is called as "Father of scientific management". 4.Organization Behaviour 26 THE COLLEGIAL MODEL. This made many factory owners to provide not tea. Evaluation of OB: Organizational behaviour is emerged only in the beginning of 19th century.Thus he was called as "Father of personal Administration" • In 1835. adult works &clean environment . • He advocated the selection of right for Jobs. They analyzed and said 08 can be presented inter various stage. Taylor implemented scientific through in management. Its greatest benefit is that the employee becomes self-discipline creates a feelings of team feel. The research studies report that compared to traditional management model The more open participative. educating. 1 . The collegial model relates to team work / concept.. Andrew are. discipline. Human Relation movement: Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur -.In 1900. • In India J. work inter dependence • It increased production and Job satisfaction • In 1800. F. . published a research which said to focus on Human factor. Industrial Revolution: • 1776 is the beginning of industrial Revolution which brought 08 aspects such as materialism. anti-demorocratic and pshologically unfair criticized and his concepts failed alteast 3. They consider managers as joint contributors to organizational success rather than as basses.
Chicago * The co . The basic foundations for the individual behavior is determined by two factors 1) Bio Graphical Factors 2) Ability Bio Graphical Factors: Specifically analyzed factors are taken into consideration for Bio Graphical concepts. a team of Researchers headed by Elton mayo from Howard Business school of USA begin investigating into the human aspects of work 2 working conditions at Haw throne plant of western Electric co. many employee practiced management By objective (MBO). the workers are distinguished from non-human factors like. They are .Organization Behaviour 27 • • • • • • • • • • • • • Failure of scientific management give birth to human relation movement It just focused more on workers co-operation and morale By this approach. EXPLAIN INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR IN DETAIL? Individual Behavior: The behavior of an individual with in an organization reflects in his performance and job satisfaction.(ie) allowing the employee in decision making process. The experiments are illumination experiments (1924-27) Relay assembly test room experiments (I 927-28) Experiments in interviewing workers (1928-30) Bank wiring room experiment( 1931-32) 5. In November 1924. capatual. As said by many managerial experts "Job performance declines with increasing job" Age effects an individuals skills such as speed.was producing belts and other electric equipments for telephone industry The team conducted 4 experiments over a period of 7 years. opinions. Remarkable theories have been given by Elton mayo and his followers in the year 1924 related to human relation approach It is called Hawthorne studies. building etc This approach listed that workers are their own feelings. machine. Strength control and coordination • Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . Age: • It plays a vital role in the behavior of individual with in organization. ideas & sentiments After this approach.
Organization Behaviour 28 Gender • Individual's behavior also influenced by gender (ie) mole or female.s turnover and are satisfied with their work • This is because." • Risk taking control. Inductive Reasoning Descriptions Ability to speedy & accurate & arithmetic Ability to understand what in reed sheared and the relationship of words to each other Ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately Ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve Job Accountant. control are the negative facts for employing women. Precision making are some of the positive factors which makes to select male employees Absenteeism. 3. General opinion says 'women never perform as well as job as mendo. co-ordination. Prospected speed 4.NO 1. les.MAT GMAT. Dimenstions Number Aptitude Verbal comprehension 2. • Turnover and absentecision are the negative facts Ability: An individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in the job Intellectual Ability: • Ability needed to perform mental activities are called intellectual ability • Tests like intelligence quotient (IQ). is the negative fact • Tum over. marriage imposes increased responsibility that may make a steady job more valuable and important. Plant Manager Fire Investigator Market Researches Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . • Decision making and situation handling are the positive facts. Tenure: • Tenure means experience or seniority. situation Handing and patience are the positive facts Marital Status: • Many research said that marital status plays a good role in productivity. etc are used to assertion one's general intellectual abilities Dimensions of Intellectual Ability S. • Generally married employees have fewer absences. Risk taking.
Strength Factor Dynamic strength Trunk strength Description Ability to enter muscular force repeatedly over time Ability muscles to enter muscular strength using the trunk flenibility factors. Spatial visualization Interior Decorator 7. Ability to move the trunk and back muscles possible as for as 5. Memory Ability to retain and Sales personnel recall past experience Physical Ability Physical obilities gain importance for successfully doing less skilled jobs physical abilities refer to are's strength factor. 4. Deductive Reasoning Ability to use logic& asses the implications of an argument Ability to imagine how an object would look if its pesition in space were changed Supervisor 6. External flexibility 6. stamina.Organization Behaviour 29 the problem 5. Static strength Explosive strength Ability to exert force against external objects Ability to expand minimum of energy in one or series of explosive acts Flexibility factors. Nine Basic Physical Abilities Ability I. Boby co-ordinations 2. Balance Engg College Ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off Melmaruvath Adhiparasakthi lIT . 3. Body co-ordination Ability to co-ordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body 8. Dynamic flexibility Ability to make rapid repected flexing movements Other factors 7. Balance.
Personality includes both internal and external aspect of a person.It means 'To speak through' Definition:According to Hilgard "Personality may be understand as the characteristic pattern of behavior and modes of thinking that determines a person's adjustment to the environment". Plays a major role in shaping personal ity c) Situation: Situation exerts an important press on the individual to behave ina particular manner. organizational structure 6. Generally we say "personality is the quality. by which an individual reacts with others and environment. It has a family environment and social environment. reward system. attitudes and values that are passed along from generation to generation. Political situations. According to Ruch "Personality can describe as how a man understand and behave him and the pattern of inner and outer measurable traits". Many organizations select their employees by 'testing their personality based on depending on the situation. 30 balance 9. family norms. sex. cultural values ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS: Infrastructure. Personality: Desired from the Latin word 'personality' . Stamina Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged efforts over time ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: Economy. Evidences are available to believe that the cultural environment in which people is raised. leadership. facial attractiveness. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . muscle composition and temperament are influenced by the parents b) Environment: Early conditioning. a) Heredity: It refers to biological factors It is the transmission of qualities from the parents to the children's through a biological mechanism lying in the chromosomes of the germ cells. Determinants of Personality: There are three determinants of personality.Organization Behaviour. friends and social groups play a role in personality formation. • Physical stature. Culture establishes the norms. EXPLAIN PERSONALITY IN DETAIL WITH TYPES.
4. 11. 7. 16. 3.No L Introvert They like quite for concentration Tend to be careful with details. dislike complicated procedures Extrovert 2. personality is classified into 16 types. 8. 3. " 4. Type A and Typ_eB Personality:- 2. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . 7. S. 2.No Personality Types Reserved Less Intelligent Affected by feeling Submissive Serious Expedient Timid Tough-minded Trusting Practical Forthright Self-assured Conservative Group dependent Uncontrolled Relaxed Outgoing More Intelligent Emotionally stable Dominant Happy-go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Personality Types I. 4. . dislike sweeping statement Like to think before they act Work alone Have problems in communicating Dislike Telephone interruptions Likes long projects Type A Hardworking Highly achievement oriented Impatient They have sense of time urgently Aggressive TypeB Easy Going Sociable Have Patience Free from urgency of time Non competitive They like variety Tend to work faster. According to Groups Personality can be Classified into. S. 5. 9. 10. 6. 15. 5. 6.). Introvert Personality Extrovert Personality S.No 1. Sensitive Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprechensive Experimenting Self sufficient Controlled Tense I 1") 13. 8. 5.Organization Behaviour 31 TYPES OF PERSONALITY: There are so many personalities as manyare persons personality differ in traits According to cattell. 14. .
Heavy muscular body was noisy and callous. 2. All port personality is the dynamic organization with is the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment. make decisions and need only that what is essential for their work.conscious. THEORIES OF PERSONALITY Definition: Hilgard personality may be understood as the characteristics patterns behaviour and modes of thinking that determines the person's adjustment to the environment. Fudging Work best when they can plan work and follow the plan Like to get things settled May decide things too quickly May not notice new things that need to be done Want only essential things needed Perceptive Adopt well to changing situations Do not mind leaving things open for alterations May have trouble making decisions May start too many projects and have difficulty in finishing them Want to know all about their work 3. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . Theories of Personality: Many managerial expects have delivered theories for personality and as:Type Theory: This theory clearly states that human personality can be delivered in to two • Body build • Psychological factors I. 4.Organization Behaviour 32 Fudging and perceptive personalitiesiFudging personality:People with fudging personality types like to follow 'a plan. According to this theory at the basis of body build short or plumb body were sociable and relaxed is nature. Perceptive Personality These are the people who adapt well to change want to know all about a job and at times may get over committed after going through the following table it is easy to understand. 3. 5. 7.No 1. This and tall were restrained and self . 2. S. Rich personality can be described as how a man understands and behave himself and his pattern of inner and outer measurable traits.
It leads to dangerous decision which is harmful to themselves and other. Super Ego: It represents systems of value norms and conditions that guide and govern a person to behave properly in society. intellectual and sensitive. It checks 0 therapy logic and intellect. Shy aggressive. I) Extraversion . Traits are relatively stable. Trait theory Trait theory is an enduring characteristic of a person is which believe differ from others.colm. Cattel: Identified 171 traits later be reduced to 16 traits. John has identified a personality need named the big 5 model.who is take their sociable and assertive talkative. Individuals but very its absolute between the individuals. It provider norms & values to EGO to determine what is wrong or right is a situation Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . Psycho . Unconscious part of mind It is incate and the source of psychic energy. 3) He derived. Ego: It is conscious part of human personality. Traits are common to many. sub missive timid loyal ambition are some of the common traits of human. They are c1assified in to introvert extravert. that human personality is determined by 3 elements like: 10 EGO & SUPER EGO. It is associated with personality. in secured. 2) Emotional stability .analytical theory: I) Derived by Sigmund Fraud: 2) He said that human be heavier is influenced more by insane factor or forces. It is unconscious part of human personality. 3) Openness to experience .Organization Behaviour 33 Psychological factor: On the basic of psychological factors is' based.Imaginative. It seeks immediate gratification for the biological needs. One's traits can to is feruled (know) by maturity his behavioral indicator. Trait theory is based on 3 assumption on life. Aiport: The managerial expert has identified 17953 trait of human being. on interacting people. enthusiastic.
Self . that is the way one thinks people perceive about him and not the way people actually see him. emphasizes on the totality and interrelatedness of all behavior. Looking glass-self: The looking glass self is the perception of a person about how others perceive his qualities and character is tics. This is the perception of other perception. Organizational behaviors frame work: Top management Middle management Low level management Models of Organizational behavior: Auto creates Custodial Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . A person's self-concept giver him a sense of meaning fullness and consistency The self-concept plays a very significant role. The ideal self differs from self image is the fact that the self image indicator the reality of a person as perceived by him. Every person has certain beliefs about who or what he is : taken to gathers. Reinforcement By observing others Self theory The psychoanalytic social-psychological and trait theories of personality represent the more traditional approaches to explaining the complex human personality. It occurs through two ways. The real self is what one really is.Organization Behaviour 34 Social Learning theory: Learning can be defined as any change is one's behavior that occurs as a result of experience the social learning theory emphasis on how as individual behave or acts is a given situation.Self: The ideal self denote the way one would like to be. A person perceives a situation depending upon his self-concept which has a direct influence on his behavior. Real-self. Hertzberg. these beliefs are a person's self image or identity. Ideal . Self theory alsoi termed as organism or field theory. Though there re many contributors notably mallow. the most important contribution comes from cal rages there are foul factors is self concept. Levin etc.image: Self image is the way one sees one self.
It under go charges: Attitudes are acquired or learn by the people from the environment in which they interact.Job involvement O. Job Satisfaction: An individual's pleasurable or positive emotional state toward his job is called as job satisfaction salary. objects and events Munn Et. Work has part of their life. work. It responded to persons. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . promotional opportunity. objects.Job satisfaction J. welfare scheme. ATTITUDES & VALVES IN DETAIL Attitudes: Ones felling. it is an attitudes about employees by the employer for providing job satisfaction. or events It affect behaviour either positively or negatively. They are positively or negatively directed towards certain people service or institution The Characterstics of Attitudes: It is related to there feelings and beliefs of people. Formation of Attitudes: Direct experience Social learning Types of Attitudes J. ideas. supervisor. Job Involement: It is the degree to which employees inverse themselves in their jobs. Ar The famous managerial experts attitudes are learned predisposition towards aspects of our environment. either favorably or unfavorably to persons. Organisation Commitment: It is an attitude about employee's loyalty to their organization.T .C . benefits.Organizational commitment. invest time and enrages their work and consider. and co-workers.S . It is the process through which employees and employer identify with the organization and want to maintain life membership. opimon.Organization Behaviour 35 Supportive Collegiate 8.
d. A definite sale is assigned to each answer (E. b.The answer to the question . Filling the information gape Use offear Resolving discrepancies Impact of peers Co-opting approach People who are not performing and dissatisfied with a certain work or situation are taken to make them involved in improving things.J ~ .'N a. _S_tr_o_ng_l_y_. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . c.Organization Behaviour 36 MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES: Self-report Indirect test Direct observation technique] Psychological reaction technique 1. e. good and bad is called us values... The basic conviction that views as a scene of right and wrong.what is right or good or bad is called as values..g) is your superior assist in your performance. to be answered by the employees..agree L___j Undesired I Disagree I Strongly disagree Attitude scaling for the statements Strongly agree 5 Agree4 Undecided3 Disagree2] Strongly disagree I CHANGE OF ATTITUDES WITH IN AN ORGANISATit.. It is carried out by attitudes services it contains set of statement or questions. VALUES: General belief tinged with morale flavor contain an individuals judgmental ideal about what is good right or desirable .. SELF REPORT: It exposes responses from employees through questionnaires dealing with their feelings their work and related matters.
UNIT III & IV ] .
It refers to several beliefs relating to It represent single beliefs focused on specific objects or situations objects and are situation.Organization Behaviour 37 CHARACTERISTICS OF VALVE: a. Both affect the behavior of people c.. d.world peace 2. 2. TERMINAL VALOE l. and individual like to achieve during this life time INSTRUMENTAL VALVES: It reflects the way to achieve the goal it represent the preferable modes of behavior in achieving one's terminal values.Family security 8.Happiness 3. objects and events. TYPES OF VALVES: Only two types of values according Rakeachs Terminal values Instrumental values TERMINAL VALUES: It represents the desirable goals. It is derived from social and cultural modes. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN VALVES AND ATTITUDES: ATTITUDES VALUES 1. It exhibits pre-dispositions to responds It represent judgmental ideal like what is right what is wrong.Beauty nature 7.Equality 4.Self-respect 9 salvation [preventing from loss] Adhiparasakthi Engg College INSTRUMENTAL VALUE Honesty Forgiving nature Helpfulness Self-control Independence Obedience Ambition Openmindness Cleanness Melmaruvathur . Both are difficult to change. Values change as individual grow &matured c. b. Both influence each other and are used inter changeably. Values change the behavior of an individual VALUES AND AITITUDES SIMILARITIES VALVES & ATTITUDES: a. Both are tern or acquired experience of people. These are one's personal experiences. Values are learn b. 3.1nner peace 6.Achivement 5.
REELIG1' lUS VALUES: Have cons Oren with unity of experience and understanding of the world has a whole. e. f. THEORITICAL VALOES: It agrees high importance on the discovery of through a critical and rational approach.60% Restive learned an acquired through experience with parents. POLITICAL VALUES It assigns importance to the acquisition of power and influence. AESTHESTIC VALOES: It places the top most importance on form and harmony.National security 17social respect 18. Disciplines contributing the organizational behavior: Psychology Sociology Anthropology Social psychology Political science Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur .friendship l. d.prospority 16.wisdim IS. schoolmates.Mature love J 2. SOCIAL VALOES It agrees the highest value to the love and affection of mankind. FORMATii}N OF VALUES: 40% of values are genetically determine. ECONOMIC VALOES: It emphasis on the usefulness and practicability c. b.pleasure 13.Organization Behaviour 38 IO.Exiting life Love and affection Politeness Rationality Responsibility Courage Competitiveness Cheerfulness Intelligence Imaginations TYPES VALVES BY ALLPORT: a. red model. organization and culture.Freedom 14. teachers.l.
reinforcement. a temporary change is behaviour as a result of fatigue or temporary adaptation are not considered learning. 1.Organization Behaviour 39 9. disease. Be it good or bad. The change is behaviour must be relatively permanent for that matter. Some form of experience is necessary for learning. Learning is not confined to our schooling only. Only change is behaviour acquire through experience is considered learning. 3. Learning involves change. They arise continuously and determine the general direction of an individual's behaviors. Stimuli increase the probability of eliding specific response from a person. or physical damages would not be considered learning. if accompanied by no change is behaviour. Robbins Learning is any relatively permanent change is behavior that occurs as a result of experience. would not be learning. . Thet are largely subjective and represent the mental feelings of human beings. LEARNING AND LEARNING THEORIES Definition: Stephen P. They are the ways of behaviour and mainsprings of action. Types of stimuli Generalization Discrimination Adhiparasakthi Engg CoIIege Melmaruvathur . response. stimuli. MOTIVE: Motive also called drives prompt people to action. STIMULI: Stimuli are objects that exist is the environment is which a person lives. 2. Experience may be acquired directly through practice or observation or indirectly as through reading. They are the primary energizers of behaviour. As a matter of fact. and retention. the ability to work that is based on maturation. 5. 2. For example. by what he does and the consequences of his action (or) by what he observes COMPONENTS OF LEARNING: (characteristics) 1. Munn atAL: The process of having one's behavior modified more or less permanently. They are cognitive variables. Therefore a change in individual's thought process or attitudes. 4. learning is a lifelong process DETERMINANTS OFLEARNING: The important factors that determine learning are motive.
Skinner. learning which is forgetter over time is called extinction when the response strength returns after extinction without any intervening reinforcement. It is called as response stimuli (RS)relationship. RETENT of the behaviour that precede the i. He is an American psychologist. an MBA student may learn to respond to video teaching but not to the oral lecturing by his professor. This theory is called as developed to each dog to salivate 2. Classical conditionlng theory: It is developed by Ivan Pavlov. concept is "behaviour is a function of its consequences stimuli.Organization Behaviour 40 GENERALISAT! i IN: The principle emblazonment of generalization has important implication for human learning. Operant Learning: It is developed by B. Generalization takes place when the similar new stimuli repeat is the DESCRIMINATi<iN: In case of discrimination. responses very to different stimuli for example. occurs.F. it is called spontaneous recovery. Learning & Learning Theories The most widely recognized theories of learning are four: Classical conditioning theory Operant conditioning theory Cognitive theory 1. RESPONES: The stimulus results is responses be these is the physical form or is terms of attitudes or perception or is other phenomena 4. "If there is stimuli there will be a response" stimuli -response relationship.iN. 3. Learning converse is forgetting.(SR) eg: Dog began to salivate on hearing the bell. The which may be create Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . REINFOREMENT: It can be defined as anything that both in creases the strength of response and tends to induce repetitions reinforcement. He is a Russian psychologist classical conditioning theory based on his experiments in response to the ringing of a bill.. Retention means remembrance of learned behaviour over time.
and his her environment It is developed by Koehler. interpretations."According to Stephen P. Attention process: People can learn from these models provided they recognize and pay attention to the critical features 2. Now. superiors. Reinforcement process: Individuals become motivated to display the modeled action if incentives and rewards are provider to them. understandings (or) views about oneself. Retention process:A models influence depends on how well the individual can remember on certain in memory the behaviour faction displayed by himlher when the model is no longer readily available. motion pictures and television this learning through bath observation and direct experience has been called social learning theory. 4. pears. 10. Much of what we have learned so far carne from watching over models like parents. This process evinces how well an individual can perform the modeled action. Cognitive theory: An individuals thoughts Knowledge. Motor Reproduction process.Organization Behaviour 41 3. It is direct experience form the environment is called as social learning theory. the individual needs to convert the models action into his/her action.Robbins defines perception as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Base concept is organizing bits of is formation in a new meaner perceive inside the mind this status that based on interest 4. teaches. Social learning theory: Individuals also learn by observing their models that they admire." Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . PERCEPTION PROCESS AND ITS THEORIES Definetion. 3. Process» 1.
3. the more likely it is to be perceived. that the larger the object. EXPERIENCE: Experience and knowledge serve as basis for perception while one's successful also heaps perceiver understand stimuli with more accuracy. MOVEMENT: The movement principle says that people pay more attention to a moving abject than the stationery ones. FREQUENCYIREPET1Ti. EXTERNAL FACTORS: The external factors relate to what is to be perceived and situation. 1. NEEDS AND DES1RES: Perception varies depending upon variations in his/her needs and desires from time to time. 4. All these factors are of two kinds: Internal factors External factors INTERNAL FACTORS: The factors reside in person concern. INTENSITY: lntensity is closely related to size . 1. People will be attracted more by a running train than one standing on the platform Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . STATUS: Status held by an individual also influences his/her perception about things or events. the more is the probability that it is perceived size attracts the attention of the individual. PERSONALITY: Closely related to needs and desires is the personality of the perceiver which affects what is attended or perceived in the given situation.iN: The repetition principle states that a repeated external stimulus is more attention getting than a single one. These include the following details. 2. the external stimuli which stands out against the background will receive more attention. CONTRAST: As per contrast principle. The size establishes dominance and enhances perceptual selection 2.The intensity principle of attention states that the more intense the stimuli. 6.Organization Behaviour 42 FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPITH . Researches suggest that people with status often exert more influence on the perception of an individual as compared to those holding low status . SIZE: The principle of size says.i'N: Factors that influence perception relate to the perceiver. 5. 3.. perceived and situation.
will improve person's perception about the problem. Perceiving oneself accurately In order to perceive others accurately. will improve one's perceptual ability.Organization Behaviour 43 IMPROVING PERCEPITH iN Perception can be improved by making various attempts following are the important ones that can help one improve his/her perception 1. Sincere and continuous efforts should be made to guard oneself against such biases. 6. This will enable to know the problem in a better perspective which. Improving one's self concept: When people successfully accomplish what they want. Communicating openly: Experience suggests that sometimes perception gets distorted due to communication gap and inadequate communication. One needs to improve more awareness about himself7herself open and free communication with others and mutual trust are some commonly adopted practices for perceiving oneself more accurately 2. It also indicates that correct perception about oneself helps perceive others also more accurately 3. Avoiding perceptual distortions: Some factors such as halo effect. it develops a sense of self-regard and self -esteem. INTERPRET AION OUTPUTS ACTION Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . 4. PERCEPITij)N INPUTS STIMULT ~ PROCESS THROUGHPUTS SELECTIO~ ORGAN ISATION_. Be Empathetic: Empathy means' to be able to see a situation as it is perceived by other people. forts impression etc. in turn. Having positive attitudes: -Positive attitude makes one's perception positive or more accurate: 5. This is tum. Effective communication needs to be developed to ensure that true and right message reaches at the right place and at the right time. distort one's perception about things or problems. stereotyping attribution. one first needs to perceive oneself accurately.
hunches. TWO PRINCIPLES OF SELECTIVE PERCEPTH . The tendency to group stimuli people or things appearing similar in certain ways has been a common means of organizing the perception. 2.Organization Behaviour 44 STlMUL T: The perception process starts with the reception of stimuli the stimuli are. Stereotyping: When individuals are judged on the basis of the characteristics of the group to which they belong this is called stereotyping. INTERPRETATION The data collected and organized remain meaningless for the perceiver till these are assigned meanings assigning meanings to data is called interpretation.N: • Figure Ground principle • Relevancy 3. received from the various sources. Personality: 1. ORANISATH1N OF STIMULT: Organizing the bits of information into a meaningful whole is called organ ization. 3. we see things/objects hear sounds. what they do is to subtract less salient information and concentrate on important ones only 4. 2. In this process. they try to simplify to make it more meaningful and understandable. Closure: When people face with incomplete information they tend to fill the gaps themselves to make it more meaningful. smell. guess or past data Simplification: When people find themselves overloaded with information. SELECTHJN OF STIMULT: People selectively perceive objects or things which interest to them most in a particular situation and avoid those for which they are different. RECEIVING Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . Through the five organs. Attribution Explaining human behavior in terms of cause and effect is called attribution. taste and touch things. Grouping: Grouping is based on the similarity or proximity of various stimuli perceived. They may do it on the basis of their experience. Factors influencing Interpretation: I. 4. Halo Effect: Drawing a general impression about an individual based in a single characteristics or trait is called halo effect.
The action may be positive or negative depending open favorable perception held by the perceiver. direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. EVOLUTION OF OB: Industrial revolution Scientific management Human relations movement Hawthorne studies. 7. 6. Deferent approaches applied by them have resulted in a number of theories concerning motivation. motives." Theories of Motivation: Various thinkers have tried to find out the coinsurer to what motivates people to work. Perceiver: The perceiver's attitudes. past experience and expectations are among the moire relevant personal factors that affect perception. interests. 5. 11. Situation: The situation or context in which we observe or see things also . "Motivation is an individual's intensity. influences our perception about them. Action: ' Action is the last phase in the perceptual process.Organization Behaviour 45 These also imply that persons being insecure and no accepting themselves are less likely to perceive others around them. Action is the resultant behavior of individual emerging from the perceptual process. MOTIVATION AND ITS THEORIES: It is the concept which is the inner feeling or interest towards anything in order to achieve anything. These all theories are classified there categories Marlow's need hierarchy theory: Marlow's theory is based on the human need hee classified all human need into a hierarchical manner from the bower to the higher order Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur .
2. Physiological Needs: These needs are basic to human's life and hence. These needs relate to survival and maintenance of human life. External factors like status and recognition 5.Organization Behaviour 46 Marlow hierarchy of need Self Actualization Esteem Needs Social Needs Safely Needs Physiological Needs I 1. include food. autonomy. 4. Self Actualization Needs: The final slip under the need in hierarchy model is the needs for self . 3. achievement. Social Needs: Man is social being he is there fore interested in social interaction companionship belongingness etc.: actualization this refers to fulfillment "" Me Gregors theory of x & y There are two theories. e) They never have stable mind f) They are not very bright g) There are job securities Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . Safely Needs: The next needs are safely and security needs. clothing shelter. They are x theory & y theory. air and other necessities of life. These needs find expression in such derives as economic security and protection from physical dangers. Esteem Needs: It refers to internal esteem factors self respect. I) Theory X a) Employees are not interested in work b) They usually avoid responsibility c) Employees are mahout ambition d) Employees should be threatened to due the duty.
The two factors are Maintenance an hygiene factors It these factors are not present and proper it tends to dissatisfaction it is not necessary that the performance must be good. f) Personal life. g) Working conditions h) Status . So that the objectives can be easily achieved It guise "Job satisfaction". He concluded as two factors influences the performance of the employees in an organization it is called two factor theory. a) Company policy b) Technical supervision c) Interpersonal relationship with superior subordinate and collogues d) Salary e) Job security.. 5 . gave punishment for bad performance. In this they treat the employees showing the benefits and of he does not achieve you may take the stick 6.Carrot and stick theory: In this theory it offers reward for good performance. Reward theory: It is to offer some reward and good working condition.Organization Behaviour 47 2) Theory y a) Employees are very much interested in their work b) There are with positive attitude c) They are very bright' d) They accept the responsibility e) They have stable mind t) They lave great ambition 3. Two factors of hygiene theory It was developed by foredeck hauberk in 1950.) Motivational factors a) If factors are present it builds high level of motivation b) Achievement c) Recognition d) Personal growth e) Responsibility. If refers to the "the line or have the job" and "Do or Die" 4. Fear & punishment theory: In this theory the people work for money and security in this the employees are threatened to get the work done. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur .
Process of Motivation: 1. Employees calculate their outcomes.. 6.Organization Behaviour 48 7.e. 3. Nature of Organizational behaviour: 1. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . 7. From individual point of view A proper study of individuals related to their personality. 5. It is balance human and technical balance at work Scope of Organizational Behaviour: 1. Equity Theory: It is developed by Adam called as social comparison theory or inequity theory. It is both science and art 6. Unsatisfied Tension Drives Search Behaviour Goal Achievement Need satisfaction Reduction of Tension need 2. 4. attitude perception values Helvetian & learning.) individual group and organizational system 3. behaviour is goal & action oriented process It is national thinking and not emotional falings about the people. Organizational 2. It is a part of social sciences. Need for Affiliation: It derives for friendly and closely inters related relationship Need for Power It is drive to make other behave in a way as commanded by a person.. It states that "A major input into job performance and sales faction is the degree of equity or inequity that people perceive in their work situation". Achievement motivation theory: Three major movies plays virtual role by motivation of employees (1) Need for achievement (2) Need for affiliation (3) Need for power Need for achievement It is a standard to achieve the objectives it's a drive to succeed. 5. 4. sociology and antholo~y and social philology. It exist in multiple level (i. 8. It integrates philology. such as pay status promotion with the input such as effort.
3. communication leadership and power and politics. From group point of view: It is related to group dynamics group conflicts. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur .Organization Behaviour 49 2.. . From organizational structure point of view: It is related to organization climate culture development and change .
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Explain the need for organization structure? It facilitates management It encour-agesgrowth and diversification It facilitates the optimum uses of technological improvement It encourages proper use of human resources It stimulates creativity 4. Define Departmentation? Once jobs are divided into specialized parts these now need to be grouped together so that common tasks can be co-ordinated. 7. Define division of labour? The term 'division of labour' refers to the process of dividing the total task of an organization or unit into successively smaller jobs Another term .Organization Behaviour 50 UNITIJI PART-A 1. and co-ordinated" 2. Define the elements of organization structure? Division of labour Departmental ization Span of control Delegation of Authority Centralization and Decentralization Formalization 5. The basis by which jobs are grouped together is called departmentation. grouped.related to the division of labour is 'Job specialization'. Define Organization chart? Organisation chart is established pattern of relationships among various components or parts of the organization. 3. Adhiparasakthi Engg CoJIege Melmaruvathur . Define organization structure? According to Robbins "An organization structure defines how job tasks are formally divided. Explain the characteristics of organization? Co-ordination Common Goal Division oflabour Integration Continuing system Structure 6.
organization sand control. Define Responsibility? A leader also must be of sense of responsibility for the task assigned to him. Define Formation? Formation refers to the degree to which jobs within the organization are standardize Formalization is done through written policies rules and regulations 13.Organization Behaviour 51 8. 11. 9. Define group? A group is a collection of two (or)more individuals. delegates authority to his subordinates. 15. Define Standardization? Standardization is to fix at a standard the correlate of centralization and decentralization. However. Decentralization: It is systematic effort to delegate authority to the lower levels of organization. Define span of control? The term 'span of control's also known as 'span of management' (or)'span of authority' In simple words span of control refers to the number of subordinates individuals a manager can effectively supervise knowing span of control is necessary because manager's executives have limited both time and ability. Define Authority? The rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect the orders tobe obeyed it helps in co-ordination. Define centralization and Decentralization? Centralization: It refers to the degree) to which decision making is concentrated at a single point I in the organization. In other words a leader must discharge his responsibility throsted upon him willingly and cheerfully. interacting and interdependent who have come together to achieve particular objectives Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . 12. 14. 10. 16. Define delegation of authority? Delegation of authority bears a unique dual characteristic A manager superior . the superior at the same time still retain authority.
Organization Behaviour 52 17.e his likes or dislikes approval or disapproval. What is Committee? Committee are usually created outside the usual command group structure to solve recurring problem the life of committee may be relatively long or short. State the stages of group Development? Orientation forming Confrontation stroming ~ Differentation norming '__' Collabration 22. They try to maintain a symmetrical relationship between the att45raction and common attitude and values as and when their relationship becomes unbalanced both try to restore balance however if balance cannot be restore then their relationship gets dissolved thus you will appreciate that both attraction and interaction playa significant role in balance theory. relakedness or belonging esteem power and identity. Explain Homan's theory of group? It is based on 3 elements namely activities interaction and sentiment according to humans these three elements are directly related to each other the required activities are the assigned task to people to work the required interaction takes place when any person's activity takes place or is influence by activity of any other person as regards sentiments these are the feelings or attitudes of a person towards others i. 18. What is common and Task Group? Common Group: It is composed of a supervisor and subordinates who reports directly to that supervisor A command group is determined by organizational chart Task Group: A Task group comprises of person working together to complete a common task however a task group can cross command relationship. 21. Wby group in organization? The most popularreason for group in organization are related to our needs for safety and secun'ty. 23. 19. Define Formal and Informal Group? Formal Group: Group establish by organization to achiere organizational goal is called Formal group: Groups are natural formation in the work environment that appear in response to the need for social contract. 20. Explain Balance Theory of Group? According to this theory group are formed on the basis of attraction of people towards each other having similar attitude and values. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur .
Define group Dynamics:The study to reveal how individuals influence groups and group influences individuals is formed as group dynamics 27. e that tells the individual how to behave in a group Group CohesionsIt is a degree of which the group members are attracted and interacted to each other and remain within the group.Organization Behaviour 53 24. Define organizational conflicts According to change and muggings the struggle between the opposing needs wishes interest of the people is termed as organizational conflicts 29. _It binds all the group members to work as one team to achieve the goals. Define group Behavior Behavior of individuals with in a group in an organization is known as group behaviour 28. Explain the elements of group behaviour Group Nouns A set of rules and regulations policies procedures and standard i. Distinguish Team and group? Are work teams and group something? Not necessarily work teams are formal group made up of interdependent individual responsible for the attainment of a goal so all work team are group but not formal group can be work teams. 25. Define job Stress Job stress in general is an adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical psychological and behavioral deviations for organizational employees According to Ivanisevitch and mettession "stress in the interaction of the individual with the environment 31. Adhiparasakthi Engg College Melmaruvathur . Define job frustration Blocking or slowing down a goal directed activity it is a sort of appointment that people face in their everyday work life It is the resultant feeling caused by a sense of privation deprivation or conflict in relation to goal dissected activities. 26.are formed to complete a specific project The life of the project group normally coincides with length of the project. What is Project group? Project group . 30.
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