Imaginary County Public Schools

Instructional Design Plan Report 2011

Table of Contents
Identifying the Need Purpose: Organizational Context, Vision, Mission and Goals…………….................................………………….4 Process: Learner and Context Analysis...………………………………………………………………………………………….… 6 Needs Identification…..................................................................................................................................7 Recommendation: ISD Needs Summary.....................................................................................................8 Needs Analysis and Focused Design Goal ISD Goal Statement……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….10 Analysis Graph……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….10 Assessment: Podcast Assessment Rubric………………………………………………………………………………….............11 Task Analysis Schedule………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….12 Instructional Strategies Objectives Grouped into Module Format……………………………………………………………………………………………..13 Planning Chart………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………16 Media Selection The Delivery System (Instructional Environment)…………………………………………….……………………………………17 Media Options, Description and Support………………………………………………………………….…………………………..18 Link for Online Lesson Model (Module 2)……………………………………………………………………………………………..20 Contribution Paragraph…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………….20 References.................................................................................................................................................21

List of Tables
Table1. Podcast Assessment Rubric………………………………………………………………………………………………………10 Table 2. The ISD Analysis Schedule………………………………………………………………………………………………………..11

Table 3. Planning Chart for Modules……………………………………………………………………………………………………..15 List of Figures Figure 1. Task Analysis Graph…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..9

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Organizational Context, Vision, Mission and Goals The target school for this distance learning ISD team project is located in southwest Florida with a population of approximately 570 students and 44 teachers. It is an urban school built in the mid-1950s and located within an older neighborhood. The school student population consists of 42% Caucasian, 38% African-American, and 18% Hispanic, and 2% Asian. The target school district uses a school choice assignment procedure allowing parents to choose their child‘s school from within large areas or zones. The district technology plan for each school in the district is comprised of the following: The District Stated Technology Mission The district technology plan mission mirrors the overall district mission, to be a worldclass school system. District Technology Vision To provide leadership and supportive services that promote teaching and learning through the advancement of effective use of instructional technology by all stakeholders in the learning community. District Instructional Technology Goals: In order to improve student achievement and proficiency based on National and State requirements, we will… 1. Provide a data-driven approach to instructional technology professional development, planning, equipment acquisition and implementation at the school and district levels to insure the needs of all learners-both teachers and students. 2. Encourage teachers to deliver instructional units that integrate a variety of software, applications and learning tools.

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3. Model instructional lesson development that reflects effective grouping and assessment strategies considerate of any diversity- cultural, socioeconomic or students with special needs. 4. Establish an effective bridge between data-driven instruction, assessment and technology use. District Instructional Technology Model Using the ACOT (Apple Classroom’s of Tomorrow) Five Stages of Technology Model as technology instruction, teachers can be observed using technology in various stages within instruction: • Entry Stage-becoming familiar (teacher computer literacy, and familiarity with basic computer applications, instructional games, content-related software) tested by ITTS. •Adoption Stage-technology as added convenience (classroom technology used by teachers to primarily support traditional teaching models and strategies) • Adaptation Stage-individual skills/learning (productivity software-word processor, database, spreadsheet, other software used by teachers to create, individual writing/PowerPoints. Student assignments completed using technologies. •Appropriation Stage-focus on collaborative projects by teacher and students toward learning goals (use of various technologies and applications as tools) • Invention Stage-creative purposing of technologies (using technologies to promote higher level thinking skills, using technology to do things otherwise not possible, solve real-world problems using authentic tools, and providing opportunities to demonstrate learning beyond standardized tests through performance based assessments. Our goal is to bring students, teachers, staff, and administration into the Invention Stage for teaching and learning. This process begins at the elementary level for students and continues throughout their educational years.

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Learner and Context Analysis This year the school, through their school improvement plan, has targeted math achievement as a primary goal based on last year’s drop in student math achievement and missing their adequate yearly progress goal in four subgroups in mathematics. The district implemented a new math series last year and, while unfamiliarity of the materials by teachers is one possible factor, district and school math committees have raised some concern over particular vulnerabilities with the program. These concerns focus on two issues: (1) that content lessons often assume prerequisite conceptual understanding in chapter lessons and (2) the scope and sequence of skills is not aligned to state test content coverage, namely, early spring test dates. The concern is compounded as the new curriculum intertwines problem-solving concepts in a sequence that is disrupted if sections are skipped. The target school’s yearly school improvement committee at the study school, identified the need to provide alternative strategies to better meet the needs of teachers and students. The school staff met to review the committee findings and unanimously agreed on their evaluation. The ISD group selected a way to identify specific areas of need technologically based on teachers’ own selections. This would initially set the stage for Knowles (1984) adult learning considerations and theory of andragogy, (adult learning) by establishing self-selection/direction of the training needs, autonomous in customizing their own school and personal training goals and taking responsibility for their own learning by identifying relevant topics related to instruction in their classrooms and in expanding their classroom to the internet via Blackboard. By identifying their own areas of need from a selection of technology areas, both the committee and test identified math needs and technology training improvement goals will align with teacher-approved topics. The teachers at the target school are familiar with Blackboard as a

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learning medium; however, they are not familiar with its use as an instructor. The school district offers a brief overview course on how to teach using Blackboard. Each teacher was willing to register for this course at the staff meeting. The school is looking for ways to provide supplemental math support and instruction while following the prescribed instruction in the new series. Needs Identification Determining educational technology training needs should include input from the instructional stakeholders (teachers and administrators) to develop a context for decision making comparing what resources are available to what is needed based on the technology plan and perceived user need (National Center, 2005). Further consideration of need confirms that district teachers, not administrators or outside source documents, should identify such instructional needs. Airasian (2008) suggests that outside experts seek advice from K-12 teachers in dealing with students with special needs and desired ways of incorporating technology into instruction when determining what district teachers need to teach effectively with technology. The school committee and ISD team agreed to an online teacher survey. Surveying the Stakeholders For the purpose of the ISD needs assessment an online survey was given to teachers at the target school to be reviewed by the technology specialist and administrative team. The survey was designed to: (1) identify perceived training needs, (2) report teacher perception of current technology adoption levels with use of technology, (3) establish the most convenient times for training to be offered and (4) determine how teachers and students are using technology in the classroom. The design of the survey provided a ranking by percentage in each of the four general categories, which assisted the school administrative team in prioritizing the training need. The school district provided a training coordinator to come to the school and act as a

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facilitator for the administrative/faculty meeting to determine what training was most needed. The administrative team, focused on the school improvement goal and the teachers, agreed on three areas of training need based on the survey results. The Survey Results Forty-one of the forty-four teachers responded to the survey. The data was aggregated to complete the following categorical responses toward district technology: Strengths – What are the current strengths? Not necessarily reported in the survey but important is that the school has supporting technology available for lesson planning that integrates technology into lessons. This includes network and Internet access; a student computer ratio in every classroom of 3:1, teacher computer/presentation stations including LCD projectors and document cameras; a supplied student response systems for every classroom; and an interactive whiteboard solution in classrooms including portable units in technology labs and media centers. A home to school computer checkout program and school to home recycling program provides checkout of laptops as well as a way for students to acquire a refurbished/recycled school computer for their home. Additionally, the school is staffed with a full-time technology specialist supporting equipment use, modeling classroom instruction and teaching, and training students and teachers. This would indicate that the design would have minimal cost to the school. Over half of the surveyed teachers (59%) stated that they would be more favorable to online training rather than face-toface meetings. Teachers also indicated that they are already knowledgeable using office products, District training opportunities provide specific training on equipment at schools and strategies on implementing technology within lessons. Weaknesses – What are the current weaknesses?

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Much of the foundational instructional content does not include effective integration of instructional technology. Fifty-four percent of the 41 teachers surveyed indicated that they needed training on how to integrate technology in lessons. Considering what teachers use technology for in the classroom, 93% said that they do not use it to podcast, 93% also stated that they do not videoconference and 66% do not utilize any type of desktop video production. Additionally, while teachers have access to Blackboard and other online tools, they are not using any strategies outside the scheduled face-to-face class sessions. Sixty-one percent said they do not use forums and sixty-eight percent do not use blogs. These percentages would indicate that teacher usage of technology includes minimal Internet integration/use. Opportunities – What are the future opportunities? The priority areas emerged relating to podcasting, video conferencing and desktop video production. The school group then presented these to the ISD group for review with the question as to how these might relate to their overall goals of (1) training teachers to use the technology, (2) integrating the activity into instructional activities involving both teacher and students, and (3) consideration of how one or more of these identified technology areas may be combined if possible. The ISD committee plans to initiate a 16 hour training divided into four hour sessions (Figure 1, Table 3) on the use of podcasting as a video forum for developing instructional materials and supportive references for students as shown in the ISD Task Analysis Schedule (Table 2). Threats – What threatens those future opportunities? Currently there are no known threats to the plan. The schedule is during a planned teacher-training period requested by the school for teacher training during sessions 2-4 with no planned distractions and 100 percent commitment by teachers.

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The ISD Goal Statement Following a series of training sessions, a teacher will be able to take a lesson and create a podcast of a mathematical concept that combines video content and desktop publishing.

Following a series of training sessions, a teacher will be able to take a lesson and create a podcast of a mathematical concept that combines video content and desktop publishing.

Choose Content Standard

Create Desktop Publishing Artifact

Create Video Screen Capture Content

Produce Podcast

Figure 1. ISD Analysis Graph Objective 1: Given a copy of the Common Core Standards, teachers will be grouped by grade level and choose an individual standard that will be used as the learning content for their podcast. Objective 2: Given desktop publishing software, teachers will create and upload two artifacts, containing a graphic and text, pertaining to their chosen learning objective. Objective 3: Given video screen capturing software and a web camera, teachers will create and upload an audio/visual track, lasting no longer than 90 seconds, describing their learning objective. Objective 4: Given video screen capturing software, a web camera, and desktop publishing software, teachers will create and upload a video presentation, lasting no longer than 150

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seconds, containing instruction related to their chosen learning objective which will contain an audio/visual track and at least two desktop publishing artifacts. Table 1 Podcast Assessment Rubric Item Content
The purpose of the podcast and its content Does it address a mathematical skill?

Outstanding (5)
•Evidence of originality in format introduces accurate information in a way that keeps audience engaged •Information based on variety of researched referenced sources or expert quotes and is appropriate •Contains all the required elements •Establishes one clear theme and consistently maintains focus •Introduces who is speaking and context of session and vocabulary is emphasized. • Uses understandable vocabulary • Appropriate audience and purpose in mind • Title describes topic and purpose – creative use of words. • Well-rehearsed, smooth delivery •Highly effective enunciation, expression, and rhythm to keep the audience listening •Consistent use of correct grammar •Volume enhances presentation

Good (3-4)
• Presents information to keep audience attention •Information or theme is nearly accurate & appropriate. Evidence of outside sourcing •Contains the required elements •Reasonably maintains theme • Includes most of the important vocabulary and uses common words minimal topic introduction- no leading question or reason given • Generally, the audience and purpose are addressed • Title names topic, now purpose given, may not be creative

Needs Work (0-2)
•Does not sustain the interest of the appropriate audience-reading script. •Information inaccurate or confusing • Does not include all required elements

Opening
Opening captures attention and shows relevance to the listener.

• Does not Clarify purpose and/or theme • Not enough content • Missing some vocabulary - Does not use common words and content is not appropriate for the audience • No opening or title to indicate relevance or to get attention

Delivery & Continuity
Has one major theme or subject and sticks with it. Content does not drag on

•Well-rehearsed and mostly smooth delivery •Adequate enunciation, expression, and rhythm with minor disruptions in flow • Generally uses correct grammar •Volume sufficient, but could be improved.

• Sounds like reading. • Poor rhythm • Awkward pace • Noticeable errors in grammar • Sound uneven, poor, or has interference

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Sounds, Images, & Music
These enhance, the program

• Enhance the quality and message of the podcast – sound clear and undistorted with good balance of voice to music/effects

•Enhance the podcast’s message, but are somewhat distracting – sound balance off or some image selection concerns

•Interfere with the message of the podcast – sound distorted, no images or images that are poorly chosen. Background overpowers voice.

Technical Production
Total effect of the work, Is the lesson delivered effectively and correctly? Does everything work together?

• Good transitions, no outside noise or interference, no dead space, logical presentation of the lesson, graphics support the lesson, total podcast is short enough to be interesting but long enough to cover the topic.

• Reasonable transitions, little outside noise or interference; limited dead space. Reasonably logical presentation of the lesson, graphics provide some support for the lesson. Podcast may have length issues. May miss part of the topic or wander from the topic.

• Poor transitions, noise or interference is obvious or distracting. Lesson may not be in logical order or may jump around the topic. Few graphics or unrelated graphics, or graphics and sounds for their own sake. Topic may not be covered sufficiently.

Table 2 The ISD Task Analysis Schedule TASK NEEDS ASSESSMENT IDENTIFY LEARNERS IDENTIFY INSTRUCTION AVAILABLE WRITE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES DESIGN EVALUATIVE CRITERIA PLAN SESSIONS CONTENT RESPONSIBILITY SURVEY TEAM P.D. TEAM P.D. TEAM; CURRICULUM DIRECTOR; TECH DIRECTOR P.D. TEAM TARGET DATE OCTOBER, 2011 NOVEMBER 5, 2011

NOVEMBER 10, 2011

NOVEMBER 13, 2011

P.D. TEAM

NOVEMBER 18, 2011

INSTRUCTORS; P.D. NOVEMBER 18, 2011 TEAM; TECH DIRECTOR

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ACQUIRE MATERIALS & RESOURCES

INSTRUCTOR; TECH DIRECTOR P.D. TEAM; PRINCIPAL; CURRICULUM DIRECTOR; INSTRUCTORS INSTRUCTORS; LEARNERS
LEARNERS LEARNERS; INSTRUCTORS

NOVEMBER 25, 2011

SCHEDULE SESSIONS & ATTENDANCE

NOVEMBER 25, 2011

BEGIN SESSIONS
STUDENTS SHARE WORK WITH PARTNERS PRESENTATION OF FINAL PROJECT TO CLASS PROJECT EVALUATION AND FEEDBACK

DECEMBER 1. 2011

DECEMBER 5, 2011

DECEMBER 8. 2011 ONGOING; FINAL EVALUATION DECEMBER 10. 2011

ALL

Instructional Strategies The ISD project will define one particular lesson within the planned unit. For the podcasting lessons teachers will have taken the district Instruction using Blackboard course prior to taking the podcasting training online. The content of this workshop will be establishing a set of skills that will enable the learner to produce an educational set of materials, which will teach mathematics skills instruction and enable students to meet core curricular standards. Each module will provide opportunities for independent practice with audio, video, and podcasting software so that learners will gain practical experience in the use of these resources as they develop their online course. Periodic review by the instructor and fellow learners will provide checkpoints along the way to assist the student in perfecting these skills. A final presentation will be given by each teacher-learner using one of their own created podcasts and will be evaluated by the use of the podcast assessment rubric provided. Kirkpatrick and

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Kirkpatrick (2010) report that it is critical that adult learning provide ongoing reactive feedback during sessions of learning to confirm whether or not session content is valuable to learners and for adaptation of concurrent sessions to meet learner needs. Each session will include a brief reactive survey. Module 1: Objective: Given a copy of the Common Core Standards, teachers will be grouped by grade level and choose an individual standard that will be used as the learning content for their podcast. An instructional unit will be designed that indicates the activities for the first module. Teachers will communicate with their fellow grade level instructors to choose a learning objective from the common core standards upon which to base their final podcast project. Three to five podcasts of comparable length to the expected final product will be provided to give teachers ideas on how to go about constructing their podcast. Teachers will be asked to choose a favorite podcast among the examples and give their reasoning for saying so on the course discussion board. Internet links to external sources for developing instructional podcasts will be provided. Choosing common core standard – 10 minutes; Viewing podcasts – 15 minutes; Discussion board – 5 minutes; External study – 30 minutes; complete reactive survey – 5 minutes Total time – 65 minutes. Module 2: Objective: Given desktop publishing software, teachers will create and upload two artifacts, containing a graphic and text, pertaining to their chosen learning objective. A brief review of session one- 5minutes; video introduction to PowerPoint, Mimio Notebook, Photo Story 3 and Camtasia- 30 minutes; Read building a mini lesson from scratch- 1 hour; create an introduction script- 45 minutes; Complete reactive survey – 5 minutes. Learners

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will also review and select a type of digital production software available from the course list. Total time – 140 minutes. Module 3: Objective: Given video screen capturing software and a web camera, teachers will create and upload an audio/visual track, lasting no longer than 90 seconds, describing their learning objective. a) Students will research the Audacity software (http://audacity.sourceforge.net/) – 30 minutes Introduction: Audacity is free, open source software for recording and editing sounds, recording presentations and can be used by teachers and students. Set for lesson: Students need a relatively quiet work environment, Equipment/Technical Needs: Headset and microphone User guide - http://audacity.sourceforge.net/help/documentation b) Students will view a presentation about Audacity – 10 minutes. c) Students will research samples of Audacity presentations – 30 minutes d) Students will prepare a three-minute sound presentation with background – 60 minutes e) They will post this on the class Web page and evaluate a peer's work (Table 1). – 1 hour. f) Complete reactive survey – 5 minutes Total time – 195 minutes.

Module 4: Objective 4: Given video screen capturing software, a web camera, converter software and desktop publishing software, teachers will create and upload a video presentation, lasting no longer than 150 seconds, containing instruction related to their chosen learning objective which will contain an audio/visual track and at least two desktop publishing artifacts.

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A Brief review of last session – 5 minutes; Video creation of podcast using procedural cheat sheets- 90 minutes; Self-evaluation of video creation using rubric– 20 minutes. Complete the conversion of video to podcast format using procedural cheat sheet – 15 minutes; upload of assignment- 5 minutes; Complete reactive survey – 5 minutes. Total time – 140 minutes. Planning Chart Goal: Following a series of training sessions, a teacher will be able to take a lesson and create a podcast of a mathematical concept that combines video content and desktop publishing. Table 3 Planning Chart for Modules
OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT MEDIA TO BE USED
COMMON CORE STANDARDS

DELIVERY SYSTEM
Face-to-face meeting

INSTRUCTIONAL START
December 1, 2011

Given a copy of the Common Core Standards, teachers will be grouped by grade level and choose an individual standard that will be used as the learning content for their podcast and begin review of supportive software materials. Given desktop publishing software, teachers will create a script, storyboard and upload two artifacts, containing a graphic and text, pertaining to their chosen learning objective.

Objective submitted by the learners

Printed copy. Also available on State DOE site

Working with partners; partners will provide formative assessment

Desktop video publishing software Camtasia PowerPoint Mimio Notebook PhotoStory 3

Blackboard Learning System

Upon completion of the first objective. Target date December 5, 2011

Given video screen capturing software and a web camera, teachers will select a prescribed media software process that aligns with their instructional goal, create and upload an

Working with partners; partners will provide formative assessment; instructor offers input for ongoing assessment

Screen Capture Software Camtasia PowerPoint/Camtasia Mimio Notebook/Audacity

Blackboard Learning System

December 8, 2011

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audio/visual track, lasting no longer than 90 seconds, describing their learning objective. Given video screen capturing software, a web camera, and desktop publishing software, teachers will create and upload a video presentation, lasting no longer than 150 seconds, containing instruction related to their chosen learning objective which will contain an audio/visual track and at least two desktop publishing artifacts. Rubric PhotoStory 3

Video screen capturing software prescriptions: Camtasia PowerPoint/Camtasia Mimio Notebook/Audacity PhotoStory3

Blackboard Learning System

December 10, 2011

Media Selection Delivery System The chosen delivery system is Blackboard. Blackboard contains all the necessary capabilities to work with the selected media for each learning module and is already familiar to the teachers who will be participating in the training. The teachers have several options depending on what their instructional goals are. Camtasia Studio is available for screenshots, web video and integration of any or all other recording types. Mimio Notebook software is appropriate if the teacher wants to provide a written or sample write up like, how to work a specific math problem. In this case, the teacher would also use Audacity, an audio recording program in conjunction with the mimio notebook software to provide a video and crisp audio presentation. A third option would be for teachers that wish to use still shots of screens or photos to create a narrated demonstration using Photo Story 3.

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A fourth option is for a teacher to use PowerPoint and its slide creation method to provide a playable slideshow with audio. During the training teachers are shown how to incorporate their PowerPoint into Camtasia’s formatting since the built in movie making capabilities of PowerPoint only provide WMV formatting which is not universal to podcasting formats. Learners may also choose to combine any of the mentioned programs. As a special note. The school computers also have installed a free program called Quick Media Converter which provides a way to convert saved files to a desired format for podcasts or screen played videos. Media Options podcast viewing and storage: screencast.com.  Initial podcasts will be hosted on screencast.com with a direct link provided in the instructional unit for Module 1. Screencast.com will also be the podcast storage location for those who choose to do their project using Camtasia Studio.   Students will need a computer with Internet access. Screencast.com allows a free account with 2 GB of storage and 2 GB of bandwidth and also has a pro account option that allows storage of 25 GB and 200 GB of bandwidth for $9.95/month.  Initial example podcasts will be created by or chosen by the course developer. The instructor will be given leeway to adjust the initial example podcasts as they see fit. Tutorial videos for Camtasia, including uploading finished podcasts to Screencast.com, are included at the following link: Camtasia Tutorials Link  Instructors and students will use previously acquired knowledge of Blackboard to access materials and follow links.

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digital production media artifact creation considerations: PowerPoint, Audacity, Mimio Notebook or Photo Story 3 (select one).  Classrooms computers are equipped with PowerPoint, Audacity, Mimio Notebook and Photo Story 3 applications.   Students will need a computer with Internet access. Bandwidth requirements should be negligible as the assignment will be a small file uploaded through Blackboard.  Students will create the media themselves. Students participating in these modules likely have sufficient PowerPoint skills to create a useful media artifact for the desktop publishing. Quick demonstration “how-to” clips are provided for straightforward procedural support on Photo Story 3, PowerPoint, Audacity and Mimio Notebook.  Students will be provided with a link to the PowerPoint page on Lynda.com if they wish to participate in further practice activities to refresh or further hone their skills. initial podcast planning: scripting and storyboarding. •  Students will need a headset and microphone for audio recording in. Due to the length of the podcast products, bandwidth demands are small and Screencast.com allows for hosting of podcasts created in Camtasia for free.  Students will create a script. Learners will need to connect the headset and microphone, and know how to use the audio software or integrated recording tools in their program of choice.  Students will map out their visual plan that aligns with the script to complete a storyboard visual layout.

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Students will be given a link to several short instructional videos provided by Camtasia to gain a basic understanding of how to use the software if they are already not familiar with it and select it as an option.

final podcast creation: using the selected media for product creation.   All previous instructions in place for access, computer requirements and bandwidth. Students will create a podcast including at least two media artifacts created using a prescribed and supported process of choice that best suits their instructional objective: PowerPoint/Camtasia creation, a Mimio Studio/Audacity screen recording, Photo Story 3 or using Screen/Webcam video in Camtasia.  Camtasia Studio has a PowerPoint plug-in that will allow students to integrate screen recording, audio, and creation of media artifacts in PowerPoint into one exercise. PowerPoint also provides built-in movie making. The learner may use one production application or a combination of applications. The purpose for the varied options is to allow a process that provides for different goals within the eLearning environment. While there are certainly other ways to provide different instructional methods, the ISD course provides supportive elements for learners on the four tested options given. Online Lesson example is available for Module 2 www.rwinkler.com/rwinkler.com/LearnLots_(ISDHomepage).html ISD Contribution Paragraph – Joseph C. Greene I collaborated with Rodney Winkler and Tony Lavinder. Considering both of my partners have a great deal of experience in the educational technology field, and I have none, I tried to stick to my strengths while taking their experience into account. My biggest area of strength is seeing the big picture so I contributed heavily in the idea forming stages and setting

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down the general idea of what the project would be. Working off of the survey that Rodney provided, I helped narrow the focus to the topic area that we finally went with. I wrote the Goal Statement and developed the flowchart and objectives. I also helped write the instructional strategies introduction and wrote the detailed objective for module 2 which we turned into the online portion of the project. I contributed to the media options with Camtasia, Screencast.com, PowerPoint, and Lynda.com information. With the online lesson, I helped research and link information related to the podcasts and found the Camtasia sample podcast.

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References Airasian, P. (2008, September 8). What College Professors Can Learn from K-12 Educators about Instructional Design. Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/instructional-design/what-college-professors-canlearn-from-k-12-educators-about-instructional-design/
Kirkpatrick, J. & Kirkpatrick, W. (2010). Training on Trial: How Workplace Learning Must Reinvent Itself to Remain Relevant. New York: AMACOM.

National Center for Education Statistics (2005). Determining your technology needs. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2005/tech_suite/part_2.asp Knowles, M. (1984). Andragogy in Action: Applying Modern Principles of Adult Learning. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.

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