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R A FT Freely downloadable from www.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.5. Bengt Lundborg.1415926 and Web2C 7.uu. Electromagnetic Field Theory ISBN 978-0-486-4773-2 D The cover graphics illustrates the linear momentum radiation pattern of a radio beam endowed with orbital angular momentum. generated by an array of tri-axial antennas.plasma. Also available ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY EXERCISES by Tobia Carozzi. Anders Eriksson.6 Copyright ©1997–2009 by Bo Thidé Uppsala. Sweden All rights reserved.plasma.se/CED . Bo Thidé and Mattias Waldenvik A This book was typeset in L TEX 2" based on TEX 3.uu. This graphics illustration was prepared by J O H A N S J Ö H O L M and K R I S T O F F E R PA L M E R as part of their undergraduate Diploma Thesis work in Engineering Physics at Uppsala University 2006–2007.se/CED/Book Sheet: 6 of 262 .

uu.se/CED/Book Sheet: 7 of 262 . To the memory of professor L E V M I K H A I L OV I C H E RU K H I M OV (1936–1997) dear friend. D R A FT . great physicist.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma. poet and a truly remarkable man.

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. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .1 Ampère’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . CONTENTS Contents List of Figures Preface to the second edition Preface to the ﬁrst edition ix xv FT . . . . . . . .plasma.2 Maxwell equations in Majorana representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Axiomatic classical electrodynamics . .4 Faraday’s law of induction . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. . .2. 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The microscopic Maxwell equations . . . . . . . .2. .4 Bibliography . . . .2. . . .3 The wave equations for E and B . ix xvii xix 1 2 2 3 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 15 18 19 19 20 21 22 24 27 30 1 Foundations of Classical Electrodynamics D 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . .2 The magnetostatic ﬁeld .4 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1 The time-independent wave equations for E and B 2. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .se/CED/Book Sheet: 9 of 262 . . . .1 The indestructibility of electric charge . . . . . .1. . . . . .2 The electrostatic ﬁeld .3. . . . . . . .uu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations 1. . . . . . . . . . .3 Electromotive force . . . . .3. 1. . . 1. . . . . . .1 Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . 2 Electromagnetic Fields and Waves 2. . . . . . . 1.2 Magnetostatics . . . . . . . 2.3. . . .1 Physical observables and averages . R A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Coulomb’s law . . . . 2. . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .2 Complex notation and physical observables . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electrodynamics . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Maxwell’s displacement current . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . 1. . .

The magnetostatic vector potential The electrodynamic potentials . . . . .1 Radiation of linear momentum and energy . . . . . . . . .5 Conservation of angular momentum . . x CONTENTS 3 Electromagnetic Potentials and Gauges The electrostatic scalar potential . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Electromagnetic virial theorem . . . . . . 6. . . . . . .3. 4. . . . . . . 3. . .3 Velocity gauge . . . .2 Coulomb gauge . . . . .3 Conservation laws . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .4. .3. . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . 4. . Gauge conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .1 Charge. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . 4 Fundamental Properties of the Electromagnetic Field . . . . .4 Conservation of linear momentum .se/CED/Book Sheet: 10 of 262 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and time inversion symmetries 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R A 4. . . . . . .uu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge . . . space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.3 The radiation ﬁelds . . . . . . .3 Conservation of energy .3. .6 Conservation of centre of energy . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Conservation of electric charge . . .4. . . 6. . . . . .1 The magnetic ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . .3 Radiation from a localised source volume at rest 6. . . . . . . . 4. . . . 31 31 32 35 36 37 40 42 42 42 47 49 49 51 54 55 55 56 59 62 68 69 69 71 73 75 77 81 82 83 84 85 86 86 88 91 95 97 5 Fields from Arbitrary Charge and Current Distributions 5. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Other gauges . . . . . . . . .5 Gauge transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FT . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Monochromatic signals . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .5 Electric quadrupole radiation .2 Electromagnetic duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The electric ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Magnetic dipole radiation .2 Conservation of total electric current . . . . . . . . . . . .plasma. . . . . . . . . .1 3. .4 Bibliography . 6 Radiation and Radiating Systems 6. . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.3 Electric dipole radiation . . .2 Finite bandwidth signals . . .2 Radiation of angular momentum . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .3 3. . . .1 Electric multipole moments . . . . .2 The Hertz potential . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .1 The special theory of relativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L 9. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . 8.1 The Lorentz transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Constitutive relations . . .4 Cyclotron and synchrotron radiation . . . . . . . .3 Covariant classical electrodynamics . . . . . . . . . .3 Radiation from charges in a material medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetic waves in a conducting medium 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . 9. . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Covariant equations of motion . . . . .1 Lagrange-Hamilton formalism for ﬁelds and interactions 8. . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Minkowski space . 7. . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 98 105 105 107 118 123 131 133 133 134 135 140 143 144 144 145 148 151 153 153 153 160 160 168 169 170 170 171 173 174 175 176 180 181 183 191 193 7 Relativistic Electrodynamics 7. . 6. . . . .5 Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Polarisation and electric displacement . . .2. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 7. . .1 Maxwell’s macroscopic theory . . . R A 8 Electromagnetic Fields and Particles 9 Electromagnetic Fields and Matter 9. . . . 7. . . .se/CED/Book Sheet: 11 of 262 . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials 7. . . . . . .1 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . 7. . . . . .1 The four-potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .1 Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation . . . . . . . . . .2 Phase velocity. . . . . . . . . . .3 Bibliography . . . .5 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . .4 Bibliography .1 Charged particles in an electromagnetic ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D F Formulæ FT . . . . . . .3. . . .2 Lorentz space .2 Covariant ﬁeld theory . . . . .3 The electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor 7. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . 9. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 9.1. . . . . . . .6 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Electromagnetic waves in a medium . . . . . .2 Radiation from an accelerated point charge . . .1 Radiation from a one-dimensional current distribution 6. . . . . . . .3 Bremsstrahlung . . . .1. . . . . .1. 9. 9. . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .uu. 9. . . .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. . . . . . . . .plasma. . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Radiation from an extended source volume at rest .3 Macroscopic Maxwell equations . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS xi 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . group velocity and dispersion . . . . . . . . . . .2 Magnetisation and the magnetising ﬁeld . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Covariant classical mechanics . . . . . . .

. .3. . . . . . . . . . . 193 Fields and potentials . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetic radiation . . . . . . 195 The ﬁelds from a point charge in arbitrary motion . . .3. . . 196 Four-velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii CONTENTS F . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Invariant line element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .2 F . . . . .plasma. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 197 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The microscopic Maxwell (Lorentz) equations . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . .2 F . . . . . . . . . . . .3 M . 193 F . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Vector relations . . . . 194 Relationship between the ﬁeld vectors in a plane wave . . . . . .5 M Mathematical Methods M . .3 Vector algebra . . 227 Hamilton’s equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .uu. . . . . . . . . . . . . vectors and tensors . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 195 The far ﬁelds from a magnetic dipole . . . . . . . . . . .3 Special relativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .se/CED/Book Sheet: 12 of 262 . . . . . . . . 215 Vector analysis . . . . . . .7 F . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 198 Vector and tensor formulæ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 M . . . . . .6 F . . .2. . 199 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . .5 F . . . . . . . . 197 Four-momentum . . . . . . . . . . .3. .1 F .1. 228 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 R A F . . .1. . .3 F . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Four-current density . . . . . .2. . 197 Spherical polar coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .2 M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 F . . . . . . . .2 M . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . .2 F .6 F . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 M . . . . .2. . . . . . . .4 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 F . . . . . . . . .2. . . . 206 D M . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Force and energy . . . . . 220 Analytical mechanics . . . .9 F . . . .2. . . . . . . 195 The far ﬁelds from an electric quadrupole . . . . 194 The far ﬁelds from an extended source distribution . . . . . 195 Metric tensor for ﬂat 4D space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 194 F . . .3 F . . . . . . . . . . 197 Four-potential . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Vectors .1 The electromagnetic ﬁeld . .8 F . . . 196 Covariant and contravariant four-vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 The far ﬁelds from an electric dipole . . . . . 196 Lorentz transformation of a four-vector . . . . 227 Lagrange’s equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 M . . . . .1 F . . . . 197 Field tensor . . 205 Fields .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . 202 203 Scalars. . 228 FT . . . . . . . . . .1 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

uu. CONTENTS xiii Index 231 D R A FT .plasma.se/CED/Book Sheet: 13 of 262 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

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. . . . . . . . . . . Angular distribution of radiation during bremsstrahlung Location of radiation during bremsstrahlung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .se/CED/Book Sheet: 15 of 262 . . . . . . .10 6. . Electric dipole antenna geometry . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron-electron scattering . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. LIST OF FIGURES 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 7. Synchrotron radiation lobe width . . . . . . . . . . Radiation from a moving charge in vacuum . .5 6. . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Minkowski diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Vavilov-Cerenkov cone . . . FT xv 1. . . .1 7. . . . Linear antenna . . . 3 5 7 13 79 89 92 99 100 102 106 108 118 120 124 126 128 130 D M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. . . . Electric dipole geometry . . . . . . .uu. 142 8. . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .plasma. . . . . . . . . An accelerated charge in vacuum . . . . . .4 6. . . . . 160 L 9. . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Tetrahedron-like volume element of matter . . . . . .9 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coulomb interaction for a distribution of electric charges Ampère interaction . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Coulomb interaction between two electric charges . . . . . . . . .1 Linear one-dimensional mass chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Multipole radiation geometry . . . . Moving loop in a varying B ﬁeld . .6 6. . Radiation from a charge in circular motion . .1 Radiation in the far zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Rotation in a 2D Euclidean space . . . . The perpendicular electric ﬁeld of a moving charge . . . . . . . . . . .12 6. .1 Relative motion of two inertial systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 7. . . . . Loop antenna . . . . . . . . . . .11 6. . . . 211 R A . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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in chapter 9. D R A xvii FT . stronger emphasis is now put on the axiomatic foundation of electrodynamics as provided by the Maxwell-Lorentz equations. this approach is preferable as it avoids the formal logical inconsistency of discussing. the macroscopic Maxwell equations are introduced. we describe the properties of electromagnetism when the charges and currents are located in otherwise free space. the presentation of the theory of electromagnetic angular momentum and other observables (constants of motion) has been substantially expanded and put on a more ﬁrm basis.uu.se/CED/Book). and beginning post-graduate/doctoral level. In appendix M. have been derived from ﬁrst principles. In the author’s opinion.se/CED/Book Sheet: 17 of 262 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma. In addition to the Maxwell-Lorentz equations. at the last-year undergraduate. this means that the book will ﬁnd new uses in Academia and elsewhere. chapter 1 also introduces Dirac’s symmetrised equations that incorporate the effects of magnetic charges and currents. including conductors and dielectrics. Hopefully.. chapter 9 is a complete rewrite that combines material that was scattered more or less all over the ﬁrst edition. Only when the fundamental properties of the electromagnetic ﬁelds in free space have been establised with sufﬁcent rigour and completeness do we go on to show how the ﬁelds interact with matter. Chapter 4 is new and deals with symmetries and conserved quantities in a more rigourous. before constitutive relations and physical models for the electromagnetic properties of matter. In chapter 2. Curved-space effects are not treated.plasma. the effect on the electric and mangetic ﬁelds when conductors and dielectrics are present (and vice versa). The main reasons for trying to improve the presentation and to add more material is that this new edition is now being made available in printed form by Dover Publications and is to be used in an extended Classical Electrodynamics course at Uppsala University. When. the treatment of dyadic products and tensors has been expanded. PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION This second edition of the book E L E C T RO M AG N E T I C F I E L D T H E O RY is a major revision of the ﬁrst edition that was published on the Internet (www. profound and detailed way than in the ﬁrst edition.g. The revision includes a slight reordering of the chapters. It also contains new material on wave propagation in plasma and other media. First. a space that is free of matter (vacuum) and external ﬁelds (e. very early in the book.uu. gravitation). which postulate the beaviour of electromagnetic ﬁelds due to electric charges and currents on a microscopic classical scale. the inherent approximations in the derived ﬁeld quantities are clearly pointed out. For instance. master. The collection of formulæ in appendix F has been augmented quite substantially.

humble way to further these. astronomy and science as we know it today. Italy February. I would like to mention B RU N O S T R A N D B E R G. S TA F F A N R Ö S B Y . Thanks are also due to J O H A N S J Ö H O L M . mind-boggling—and even dangerous—ideas of intellectual freedom and enlightment. F I L I P and O S K A R .uu. particularly F A B R I Z I O TA M B U R I N I . University of Padova. for stimulating discussions and the generous hospitality bestowed upon me during several shorter and longer visits in 2008. It is hoped that this book may contribute in some small. In this breathtakingly beautiful northern Italy. xviii P R E FAC E TO THE SECOND EDITION D R A Padova. K R I S T O F F E R PA L M E R . once upon a time. and 2010 that made it possible to prepare the current major revision of the book. who have been exposed to various draft versions of this second edtion.physics.se/ bt . by sweeping away Aristotelian dogmas. 2009.irfu.plasma. Galileo’s new ideas transformed society and mankind forever. and my fellow members of the C A P E L L A P E DAG O G I C A U P S A L I E N S I S . my four grandsons M A X . misconceptions and mere superstition.se/CED/Book Sheet: 18 of 262 . This book is dedicated to my son M AT T I A S . A L B I N . my daughter K A RO L I NA .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. and J O H A N L I N D B E R G who during their work on their Diploma theses suggested improvements and additions and to H O L G E R T H E N and S TA F F A N Y N G V E for carefully checking some lengthy calculations and to the numerous undergraduate students. M A R C U S E R I K S S O N . at the Department of Astronomy. BO THIDÉ www. intellectual titan G A L I L E O G A L I L E I worked for eighteen years and gave birth to modern physics. 2011 FT I want to express my warm gratitude to professor C E S A R E B A R B I E R I and his entire group. thus most profoundly changing our conception of the world and our place in it. In the process. In particular. my high-school physics teacher.

summarised in Lorentz’s microscopic formulation of the Maxwell equations. Emphasis has been put on modern electrodynamics concepts while the mathematical tools used. are essentially the same kind of vector and tensor D R A xix FT .uu. some twenty odd years after I experienced the ﬁrst encounter with the subject. together with gravitation. with the preparation of a new version of his lecture notes on the Theory of Electricity. E L E C T RO M AG N E T I C F I E L D T H E O RY . I took my ﬁrst advanced course in electrodynamics at the Department of Theoretical Physics. electromagnetic waves and their propagation. The ﬁrst chapter is.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. In the autumn of 1972. and electromagnetic—the latter has a special standing in the physical sciences. This opened my eyes to the beauty and intricacy of electrodynamics and I simply became intrigued by it.se/CED/Book Sheet: 19 of 262 . Intended primarily as a textbook for physics and engineering students at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level. Soon I joined the research group there and took on the task of helping the late professor P E R O L O F F RÖ M A N . These equations are used as an axiomatic foundation for the treatment in the remainder of the book. a description of how Classical Electrodynamics was established by J A M E S C L E R K M A X W E L L as a fundamental theory of nature. tested on scales running from sub-nuclear to galactic. It aims at providing a thorough treatment of the theory of electrodynamics. classical electrodynamics. permanently make itself known to all of us in our everyday lives. thesis adviser. which includes modern formulation of the theory. Uppsala University. which tries to give a modern view of classical electrodynamics. strong. This book. some of them presented in an Appendix. and covariant Lagrangian/Hamiltonian ﬁeld-theoretical methods for electromagnetic ﬁelds. it is hoped that the present book will be useful for research workers too. Electrodynamics is also by far the most accurate physical theory known. Not only does it. particles and interactions. PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION Of the four known fundamental interactions in nature—gravitational. momentum and energy. and electromagnetic ﬁeld theory is the prototype of all other ﬁeld theories. radiation phenomena.plasma. is the result of a more than thirty-ﬁve year long love affair. weak. plus other fundamental properties of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. who was to become my Ph. electromagnetic potentials and gauge transformations.D. It does so by introducing electrostatics and magnetostatics and demonstrating how they can be uniﬁed into one theory. The teaching of a course in Classical Electrodynamics at Uppsala University. by and large. mainly from a classical ﬁeld-theoretical point of view. provided the incentive and impetus to write this book. analysis of symmetries and conservation laws describing the electromagnetic counterparts of the classical concepts of force.

uu. and M AT T I A S WA L D E N V I K . comments and historical notes on plasma physics. and for numerous deep discussions over the years. are gratefully acknowledged. to become the ﬁve-credit course Classical Electrodynamics in 1997. it seems that the book serves as a frequently used Internet resource. parts of those notes were based on lecture notes prepared. Uppsala University. Condensed Matter Physics. for pointing out a couple of errors and ambiguities. To judge from WWW ‘hit’ statistics. but A also some of the delicate aspects of typesetting in TEX and LTEX. Lund Unversity. two-credit course called Electromagnetic Radiation at our faculty. Astrophysics. and Wireless Communications. By making an electronic version of the book freely downloadable on the Internet. This turned out to be a rather successful move. Department of Physics and Astronomy. This way it is hoped that it will be particularly useful for students and research- D R A FT . Thanks are due not only to Bengt Lundborg for providing the inspiration to write this book. by my friend and Theoretical Physics colleague B E N G T L U N D B O R G . but also to professor C H R I S T E R WA H L B E R G . University of Hawaii. Lindau. to professor G E R A R D U S T ’ H O O F T . both at the Department of Physics and Astronomy. for decisive encouragement at the early stage of this book project. who not only taught me the practical aspects of the use of high-power electromagnetic radiation for studying space. Optics. thereby trying to ensure its quality and scope to make it useful in higher university education anywhere in the world.se/CED/Book Sheet: 20 of 262 . Antenna Engineering. as well as more applied subjects such as Plasma Physics. In an attempt to encourage the involvement of other scientists and students in the making of this book. it was produced as a World-Wide Web (WWW) project. Thanks are also due to the late H E L M U T K O P K A . for his many fascinating and very elucidating lectures. Helpful comments and suggestions for improvement from former PhD students T O B I A C A RO Z Z I . for more than twenty-ﬁve years a close friend and space physics colleague working at the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie. electromagnetic radiation and cosmic electrodynamics while cruising up and down the Volga and Oka rivers in Russia at the ship-borne Russian-Swedish summer schools that were organised jointly by late professor L E V M I K A H I L OV I C H E RU K H I M OV and the author during the 1990’s. which in turn was an outgrowth of the lecture notes that the author prepared for the four-credit course Electrodynamics that was introduced in the Uppsala University curriculum in 1992.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. The current version of the book is a major revision of an earlier version. xx P R E FACE TO THE FIRST EDITION analysis methods that are used in intermediate level textbooks on electromagnetics but perhaps a bit more advanced and far-reaching. To some extent. R O G E R K A R L S S O N .plasma. developed and taught an earlier. in Swedish. and professor C E C I L I A J A R L S KO G . The aim has been to write a book that can serve both as an advanced text in Classical Electrodynamics and as a preparation for studies in Quantum Electrodynamics and Field Theory. who created. I am particularly indebted to the late professor V I TA L I Y L A Z A R E V I C H G I N Z B U R G . and professor G Ö R A N F Ä L D T . as well as A N D E R S E R I K S S O N at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics in Uppsala and who have all taught Uppsala students on the material covered in this book. comments have been received from fellow physicists around the world. for recommending this book on his web page ‘How to become a good theoretical physicist’. to professor J O H N L E A R N E D . Germany. for insightful suggestions.

Uppsala.physics. Sweden December. P R E FAC E TO THE FIRST EDITION xxi ers working under ﬁnancial or other circumstances that make it difﬁcult to procure a printed copy of the book.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 21 of 262 . I would like to thank all students and Internet users who have downloaded and commented on the book during its life on the World-Wide Web.uu.plasma.irfu. 2008 BO THIDÉ www.se/ bt D R A FT .

D R A FT .uu.se/CED/Book Sheet: 22 of 262 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma.

formulated in its full extent by A L B E RT E I N S T E I N in 1905. F R I T Z R O H R L I C H writes ‘To what extent does it make sense to talk about an electron.uu. say. he also paved the way for the development of quantum electrodynamics (QED ) for which R I C H A R D P H I L L I P S F E Y N M A N . including magnetic as well as electric charges. in classical terms? These and similar questions clearly indicate that ignoring philosophy in physics means not understanding physics. crudely speaking.plasma. However. Early in the 20th century. and S I N -I T I RO T O M O NAG A were R A 1 D FT 1 FOUNDATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS Accepting the mere existence of an electrically charged particle requires some careful thinking. In his excellent book Classical Charged Particles.se/CED/Book Sheet: 23 of 262 .’ .1 Clearly. this is in contradistinction to electromagnetism on an atomistic scale. and to realise that optics is a sub-ﬁeld of this super-theory. This presupposes that the concepts of localised electric charges and currents assume the validity of certain mathematical limiting processes in which it is considered possible for the charge and current distributions to be localised in inﬁnitesimally small volumes of space. J U L I A N S E Y M O U R S C H W I N G E R . For there is no theoretical physics without some philosophy. electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics (CED). the limiting processes used in the classical domain. assume that an elementary charge has a continuous distribution of charge density. which. small or large. not admitting this fact would be selfdeception. In the 1930’s PAU L A D R I E N M AU R I C E D I R AC expanded electrodynamics to a more symmetric form.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. H E N D R I K A N T O O N L O R E N T Z took the electrodynamics theory further to the microscopic scale and also laid the foundation for the special theory of relativity. The classical theory of electromagnetism deals with electric and magnetic ﬁelds and interactions caused by distributions of electric charges and currents. where charges and currents have to be described in a nonlocal quantum formalism. will yield results that agree perfectly with experiments on non-atomtic scales. It took the genius of J A M E S C L E R K M A X W E L L to consistently unify the two distinct theories electricity and magnetism into a single super-theory. With his relativistic quantum mechanics and ﬁeld quantisation concepts.

This theory is described by a system of coupled dynamic ﬁeld equations—the microscopic Maxwell equations introduced by Lorentz—which we take as the axiomatic foundation for the theory of electromagnetic ﬁelds. Whereas not not identiﬁed unambiguously as free entitied in experiments yet. Besides.1 Electrostatics 1.2 It has been found experimentally that in classical electrostatics the interaction between stationary.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. and Thermodynamics. and S T E V E N W E I N B E R G were able to unify electrodynamics with the weak interaction theory. magnetic charges and currents make the theory much more appealing. magnetic currents have proved to be a very useful concept. We shall make use of these symmetrised equations throughout the book. Around the same time. The theory which describes physical phenomena related to the interaction between stationary electric charges or charge distributions in a ﬁnite space with stationary boundaries is called electrostatics. electrostatics. . physicists such as S H E L D O N G L A S H OW . Mechanics. For a long time. . simplicity and order. In the simple case depicted in ﬁgure 1. . in practical work.1 Coulomb’s law awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965. Then we see how the conservation of electric charge and its relation to electric current leads to the dynamic connection between electricity and magnetism and how the two can be uniﬁed into classical electrodynamics. 2j 1 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 24 of 262 .1. The modern theory of strong interactions. quantum chromodynamics (QCD ). creating yet another super-theory. This whole fully satisﬁes the reason of a French physicist and his taste for clarity.’ D R A 1. such as in antenna engineering. formulated in the clear and concise language of geometry and algebra. an achievement which rendered them the Nobel Prize in Physics 1979. In this introductory chapter we start with the force interactions in classical electrostatics and classical magnetostatics and introduce the static electric and magnetic ﬁelds to ﬁnd two uncoupled systems of equations for them.1 on the facing FT . electroweak theory. was considered an independent physical theory of its own. for instance by allowing for duality transformations in a most natural way.plasma.uu. A B D U S S A L A M . under the name electricity. electrically charged bodies can be described in terms of twobody mechanical forces. is heavily inﬂuenced by QED. alongside other physical theories such as Magnetism. Optics. and connected with one another by the rules of strict logic. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS 2 The physicist and philosopher P I E R R E D U H E M (1861–1916) once wrote: ‘The whole theory of electrostatics constitutes a group of abstract ideas and general propositions. At the end of this chapter we present Dirac’s symmetrised form of the Maxwell equations by introducing (hypothetical) magnetic charges and magnetic currents into the theory.

The notation c for speed comes from the Latin word ‘celeritas’ which means ‘swiftness’. "0 D 1=. and the length jx x0 j in metres (m). This notation seems to have been introduced by W I L H E L M E D UA R D W E B E R (1804–1891).3 This law postulates that F is directed along the line connecting the two charges. electric charge in statcoulomb. the force F acting on the electrically charged particle with charge q located at x.4 / and the force is measured in dyne. the electric charges q and q 0 in Coulomb (C) or Ampere-seconds (A s). The constant "0 D 107 =.1). formula (F.plasma.2 The electrostatic ﬁeld Instead of describing the electrostatic interaction in terms of a ‘force action at a distance’. located at a point x relative to the origin O.uu.1: Coulomb’s law describes how a static electric charge q. In SI units.x/ D 4 "0 jx x0 j3 Ã Ã Â Â qq 0 0 qq 0 1 1 D r r 4 "0 4 "0 jx x0 j jx x0 j (1. R A F q!0 q D Estat Á lim def 1.4 In CGS units. .1. repulsive for charges of equal signs and attractive for charges of opposite signs. A L B E RT E I N S T E I N (1879–1955) used c to denote the speed of light in vacuum.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. and R U D O L F K O H L R AU S C H (1809– 1858) and c is therefore sometimes referred to as Weber’s constant. q0 x0 O page.1. experiences an electrostatic force from a static electric charge q 0 located at x0 . the force F is measured in Newton (N). from a net electric charge q 0 on the test particle with a small electric net electric charge q. in the last step. 1.119) on page 201 was used.4 c 2 / 8:8542 10 12 Farad per metre (F m 1 ) is the vacuum permittivity and c 2:9979 108 m s 1 is the speed of light in vacuum.1) where. Since the FT 3 4 C H A R L E S .se/CED/Book Sheet: 25 of 262 . which we shall use throughout. and therefore can be formulated mathematically as qq 0 x x0 D F . In all his works from 1907 and onward. Therefore we describe the electrostatic interaction in terms of a static vectorial electric ﬁeld Estat deﬁned by the limiting process (1.AU G U S T I N D E C O U L O M B (1736–1806) was a French physicist who in 1775 published three reports on the forces between electrically charged bodies. it turns out that for many purposes it is useful to introduce the concept of a ﬁeld. is given by Coulomb’s law. Electrostatics j3 q x x x0 Figure 1. and length in centimetres (cm). as deﬁned in equation (1.2) where F is the electrostatic force. due to the presence of the charge q 0 located at x0 in an otherwise empty space.

ﬁrst published in 1873. Using equation (1. James Clerk Maxwell describes this in the following almost poetic manner: ‘For instance. but classically this nonlinearity is negligible.x/ D (1. and formula (F. we ﬁnd that the electrostatic ﬁeld Estat at the observation point x (also known as the ﬁeld point). 4j 1 .x /r 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j Z 0 1 .1) on page 3 and equation (1.x0 / x x0 dEstat . at 0 0 0 the point x0 within the volume element d3x 0 D dx1 dx2 dx3 (measured in m3 ).x / D r d3x 0 4 "0 jx x0 j V0 FT purpose of the limiting process is to assure that the test charge q does not distort the ﬁeld set up by q 0 .x/ D (1. This means that we can say that any net electric charge produces an electric ﬁeld in the space that surrounds it.5) 4 "0 jx x0 j3 By introducing the electric charge density . we can. assume that the total charge q 0 from an extended volume to be built up by local inﬁnitesimal elemental charges dq 0 . each producing an elemental electric ﬁeld dq 0 x x0 dEstat . respectively. regardless of the existence of a second charge anywhere in this space. in an otherwise empty space. : : : . in his mind’s eye. 3. measured in C m 3 in SI units. i D 1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x0 / 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 Â Ã Z 1 1 3 0 0 D d x . Faraday.4) ˇ 4 "0 ˇx x0 ˇ3 i i D R A If the discrete electric charges are small and numerous enough. we obtain Z 1 x x0 stat E . located at the points x0 . 6 In the presence of several ﬁeld producing discrete electric charges qi0 .5 However. the i assumption of linearity of vacuum6 allows us to superimpose their individual electrostatic ﬁelds into a total electrostatic ﬁeld 1 X 0 x x0 i Estat .’ In fact.x/ D 4 "0 jx x0 j3 4 "0 4 "0 jx x0 j jx x0 j (1.2) on the previous page. the elemental charge can be expressed as dq 0 D d3x 0 . vacuum exhibits a quantum mechanical non-linearity due to vacuum polarisation effects manifesting themselves in the momentary creation and annihilation of electron-positron pairs.118) on page 201. must be introduced.uu. 2.6) 4 "0 jx x0 j3 Integrating this over the entire source volume V 0 . F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS 5 In the preface to the ﬁrst edition of the ﬁrst volume of his book A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.x/ D qi ˇ (1. a second (test) charge that senses the presence of the ﬁrst one. in order to experimentally detect a charge.7) . and the elemental electrostatic ﬁeld as d3x 0 . saw lines of force traversing all space where the mathematicians saw centres of force attracting at a distance: Faraday saw a medium where they saw nothing but distance: Faraday sought the seat of the phenomena in real actions going on in the medium. due to a ﬁeld-producing electric charge q 0 at the source point x0 .x0 /. is given by Â Ã Â Ã q0 1 q0 1 q 0 x x0 0 stat D r D r E . in a continuum limit. the expression for Estat does not depend explicitly on q but only on the charge q 0 and the relative position vector x x0 .plasma.3) (1.se/CED/Book Sheet: 26 of 262 .x/ D d3x 0 . they were satisﬁed that they had found it in a power of action at a distance impressed on the electric ﬂuids.

We emphasise that under the assumption of linear superposition.8 Taking the divergence of the general Estat expression for an arbitrary electric charge distribution.plasma.z 0 zi / D 1 is dimensionless. including discrete charges. Since.2: Coulomb’s law for a distribution of individual charges 0 qi localised within a volume V 0 of limited extent.x0 x0 / i R A 1 x x0 d3x 0 .1.4) on the preceding page.x0 / D X i qi0 ı. equation (1. one ﬁnds that r Estat .121) on page 201.se/CED/Book Sheet: 27 of 262 . (1. by deﬁnition. and using the representation of the Dirac delta distribution given by formula (F.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x0 x0 / i V0 Z 0 Á d3x 0 ı.y 0 yi /ı.x0 / r 2 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j Z 1 . as we should.x0 x0 / must have i the dimension m 3 . a well-behaved vector ﬁeld is completely known if one knows its divergence and curl. and x has the dimension m.x 0 xi / V0 0 0 ı. According to Helmholtz’s theorem. r Œr ˛. Electrostatics j5 q x x x0 i Figure 1.x/ D r D which is the differential form of Gauss’s law of electrostatics.107) on page 201.x0 / does not depend on the unprimed (ﬁeld point) coordinates on which r operates. Inserting this expression into expression (1.7) on the facing page is valid for an arbitrary distribution of electric charges. ranging from electrodynamics to ophthalmology.x x0 / D "0 V 0 "0 Z as illustrated in ﬁgure 1. equation (1.2. in which case is expressed in terms of Dirac delta distributions:7 .x/ Á 0 for any FT 7 (1. 1.x/ D d3x 0 .118) on page 201 and the fact that . qi0 x0 i V0 O where we used formula (F.9) . the integral Z d3x 0 ı.uu. 8 H E R M A N N L U DW I G F E R D I N A N D VO N H E L M H O LT Z (1821– 1894) was a physicist.x0 / 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 Â Ã Z 1 1 D d3x 0 . physician and philosopher who contributed to wide areas of science. according to formula (F.7) on the facing page.7) on the facing page we recover expression (1.8) Since. the 3D Dirac delta distribution ı.x0 / ı.x0 /r r 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j Ã Â Z 1 1 D d3x 0 .

electrostatics can be described in terms of two vector partial differential equations r Estat .. Here we shall discuss this theory in some detail.13) . i.x/ D dl dl0 4 jx x0 j3 C C0 (1. with tangential line element dl0 . located at x0 and carrying a current I 0 in the direction of dl0 in otherwise empty space.11a) (1.11b) representing four scalar partial differential equations.x/. 1. we immediately ﬁnd that in electrostatics Â Z Ã .se/CED/Book Sheet: 28 of 262 .plasma.x0 / 1 3 0 stat r r dx D0 r E .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.e.x/ "0 (1.10) i. magnetostatics deals with static electric currents. From the deﬁnition of "0 and 0 (in SI units) we observe that D 107 (F m 4 c2 1 FT ) 4 10 7 (H m 1 ) D 1 2 (s m c2 2 ) (1. presented a paper to the Académie des Sciences in Paris. located at x and carrying a current I in the direction of dl. introducing the law that now bears his name. To summarise. electric charges moving with constant speeds.2 Magnetostatics Whereas electrostatics deals with static electric charges. that Estat is an irrotational ﬁeld. 6j 1 . ANDRÉ-MARIE AMPÈRE (1775–1836) was a French mathematician and physicist who.x/ D 4 "0 jx x0 j V0 (1. 9 D R A 1.uu. let F denote such a force acting on a small loop C .1 Ampère’s law "0 0 Experiments on the interaction between two small electric current loops have shown that they interact via a mechanical force.e. much the same way that electric charges interact. In ﬁgure 1. 0 D 4 10 7 1:2566 10 6 H m 1 is the vacuum permeability.3 on the next page. According to Ampère’s law this force is given by the expression9 ÂI Ã 0 I x x0 0 II F. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS R3 scalar ﬁeld ˛. with tangential line element dl.2.x/ D r Estat . and the interaction between these currents. due to the presence of a small loop C 0 .. only a few days after he learned about the ﬁndings by the Danish physicist and chemist H A N S C H R I S T I A N Ø R S T E D (1777– 1851) regarding the magnetic effects of electric currents.x/ D 0 .12) ÄI Â Ã I 0 1 0 II 0 D dl dl r 4 jx x0 j C C0 In SI units.

experiences a magnetostatic force from a small loop C 0 .x/ D 0 II 0 I dl I I C0 C 0 I dl r C Â jx x x 0 1 4 0 II 0 x0 j Since the integrand in the ﬁrst integral is an exact differential.x/ D 0 II 0 R A 4 C0 jx x0 j 3 dl dl0 I I C x x0 4 C0 jx x0 j 3 dl dl0 which clearly exhibits the expected interchange symmetry between loops C and C 0.12) on the facing page.15) x jx x0 x0 j3 (1.3: Ampère’s law describes how a small loop C .14) (1.2. 1. O which is a most useful relation. equation (1. D dBstat . The loops can have arbitrary shapes as long as they are simple and closed.12) as F . in the following symmetric way F .x/ Á def 0 1.se/CED/Book Sheet: 29 of 262 . At ﬁrst glance.2 The magnetostatic ﬁeld In analogy with the electrostatic case.2. formula (1. carrying a static electric current density element dj at x. by applying the vector triple product ‘bac-cab’ formula (F.73) on page 200.12) on the facing page may appear asymmetric in terms of the loops and therefore be a force law that does not obey Newton’s third law.uu. we may attribute the magnetostatic interaction to a static vectorial magnetic ﬁeld Bstat .16) . we can rewrite (1. Magnetostatics j7 C dj x C0 x0 x x0 dj 0 Figure 1. carrying a static electric current density element dj 0 located at x0 .plasma. However. this integral vanishes and we can rewrite the force expression. The elemental Bstat from the elemental current element dI 0 D I 0 dl0 is deﬁned as 4 dI 0 x jx x0 x0 j3 D 0I 0 4 dl0 FT Ã (1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

If we generalise expression (1.16) on the previous page to an integrated steady state electric current density j.x0 / 0 D r d3x 0 4 jx x0 j V0 .118) on page 201.18) In order to assess the properties of Bstat . sometimes called the magnetic ﬂux density or magnetic induction.x0 / r 2 4 jx x0 j V0 Â Ã Z 1 0 C d3x 0 Œj. r . With the use of the operator ‘bac-cab’ rule. equation (1. 8j 1 . formula (F.17) above can be written Â Ã Z 0 0 stat 3 0 j.x0 / 4 jx x0 j3 V0 Ã Â Z 1 0 3 0 0 (1. Comparing equation (1. and the fact that j.97) on page 200.17) above.x0 / 0 r Bstat . the curl of equation (1. measured in A m 2 in SI units.x/ D r r dx 0 4 jx x0 j Â V Ã Z 1 0 (1. we can write I 0 dl D dI 0 D d3x 0 j 0 .x / r 4 jx x0 j V0 Z j.106) on page 201.x/ D d3x 0 j.plasma. is Tesla (T).106) on page 201. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS D R A C where we used formula (F.x/.x/ D r r d3x 0 D0 (1.se/CED/Book Sheet: 30 of 262 . formula (F.17) D d x j.20) D d3x 0 j. we obtain Â Ã Z j.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. we see that there exists a close analogy between the expressions for Estat and Bstat but that they differ in their vectorial characteristics.x / r B . With this deﬁnition of Bstat . Taking the divergence of both sides of equation (1.uu.x0 /.19) 4 jx x0 j V0 since.x0 / r 0 r 0 4 jx x0 j V0 FT which expresses the small element dBstat .r a/ vanishes for any vector ﬁeld a.12) on page 6 may we written I F.103) on page 201.x/. The SI unit for the magnetic ﬁeld. according to formula (F.x/ of the static magnetic ﬁeld set up at the ﬁeld point x by a small line current element dI 0 D I 0 dl0 of static current I 0 directed along the line element dl0 at the source point x0 .x0 / does not depend on the unprimed coordinates on which r operates.7) on page 4 with equation (1. we determine its divergence and curl.17) above and utilising formula (F. and we obtain Biot-Savart’s law Z x x0 0 stat B .x/ (1.x/ D I dl Bstat .

plasma.x x0 / D 0 j. vanishes when integrated over a large sphere far away from the localised source j. The net result is simply Z stat r B .x/ D r .21) jx x0 j V0 Ã Â Z @ 1 O O D xk d2x 0 n0 j.se/CED/Book Sheet: 31 of 262 .x0 / 0 @xk jx x0 j S0 Â Ã Z 1 d3x 0 r 0 j.x/ FT In the ﬁrst of the two integrals on the right-hand side.x/ D 0 B stat Estat .24b) r Since there is nothing a priori which connects Estat directly with Bstat .x/ "0 (1. obtained by applying Gauss’s theorem.121) on page 201. we use the representation of the Dirac delta function given in formula (F. namely the equations of classical electrostatics r Estat .x/ D 0 d3x 0 j. R A .x0 / r 0 jx x0 j V0 .23a) (1.3.x0 /.x0 / 0 @xk jx x0 j V0 Â Ã Z 1 3 0 0 0 0 d x r j. uncoupled partial differential equations.x0 / r 0 r 0 jx x0 j V0 Â Ã Ä Z 1 @ O D xk d3x 0 r 0 j.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.94) on page 200.x0 /ı. utilising formula (F. Electrodynamics j9 We note that the ﬁrst integral in the result.x/ D 0 and the equations of classical magnetostatics (1.uu.23b) D r Bstat .24a) (1.x/ (1. as follows: Â Ã Z 1 d3x 0 Œj.22) V0 1.x / r (1. and that the second integral vanishes because r j D 0 for stationary currents (no charge accumulation in space).x/ D 0 j.3 Electrodynamics As we saw in the previous sections. the laws of electrostatics and magnetostatics can be summarised in two pairs of time-independent. and integrate the second integral by parts. 1. we must consider classical electrostatics and classical magnetostatics as two separate and mutually independent physical theories.

e.3.t. the inﬂux of charge. A change in the magnetic ﬂux through a loop will induce an electromotive force electric ﬁeld in the loop.t. x/ denote the time-dependent electric current density.1 The indestructibility of electric charge 10 A more accurate model is to assume that the individual charge elements obey some distribution function that describes their local variation of velocity in space and time. x/ D 0 d3x 0 j. set r j. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS However. This uniﬁcation of the theories of electricity and magnetism can be inferred from two empirically established facts: 1.x/ D 0.t. x/ C r j. x/ D 0 @t (1. we must.10 The electric charge conservation law can be formulated in the equation of continuity for electric charge @ . in accordance with the continuity equation (1. D R A which states that the time rate of change of electric charge . 1. x/ C 0 "0 E. 2. Let j.t.25) above.x x0 / 0 V Â Ã Z 1 0 @ (1.3. in the last step. As we shall see. classical electrodynamics.uu. when we include time-dependence.7) on page 4 to time-varying ﬁelds allows us to make the identiﬁcation11 FT . x/. x/=@t. Doing so.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 32 of 262 . 1. In the simplest case it can be deﬁned as j D v where v is the velocity of the electric charge density . we have assumed that a generalisation of equation (1.t.22) on the preceding page that there we used the fact that in magnetostatics r j. x/ is balanced by a divergence in the electric current density j. x0 /r 0 4 @t V 0 jx x0 j @ D 0 j.t.t. Electric charge is a conserved quantity and electric current is a transport of electric charge.22) on the preceding page.25) 11 Later.2 Maxwell’s displacement current We recall from the derivation of equation (1. x0 /ı.t. these theories are uniﬁed into a single super-theory.t. x/ @t where. this fact manifests itself in the equation of continuity and.plasma. in Maxwell’s displacement current.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t. x/ D @ . This is the celebrated Faraday’s law of induction. In the case of non-stationary sources and ﬁelds. we would obtain the formal result Z r B. and formally repeating the steps in the derivation of equation (1. i.26) C d3x 0 . we will need to consider this generalisation and formal identiﬁcation further.t. 10 j 1 . as a consequence.

x/ D 0 j.3.28) In semiconductors this approximation is in general applicable only for a limited range of E.t.3 Electromotive force D j. in a stroke of genius.1 on page 170. and angular momentum can be transmitted over very long distances. x/ will be set up in this medium. where is the electric conductivity (S m 1 ).t.29) above.t. one can sometimes assume that a linear relationship exists between the electric current density j and E. Under certain physical conditions. hydrodynamical and chemical processes can give rise to electric currents.t. x/ is assumed to represent the density of the total electric current.t. linear momentum. But also mechanical.uu. as the ﬁrst term in a Taylor expansion of a general law jŒE. x/ @t (1. x/ 0j @t 4 "0 @t jx x V0 dx Ä 3 0 0 0 Â 1 Ã (1. This general law incorporates non-linear FT 12 The result is Maxwell’s source equation for the B ﬁeld Â Ã @ r B. We can view Ohm’s law.t. even through empty space.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma. The displacement current behaves like a current density ﬂowing in free space. x/. at the time. a current density j.29) R A where "0 @E.t. unobserved current was introduced by Maxwell. x / @ D r d3x 0 D E. is a tensor. x/ D 0 j.t. its existence has far-reaching physical consequences as it predicts that such physical observables as electromagnetic energy.t. x /r D @t 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j Ä Z 0 @ 1 . This. In the case of an anisotropic conductor.t. x/=@t is the famous displacement current. This will be discussed in subsection 9. x/ D E.27) 1.t. x/ is applied to a conducting medium.t. and for certain materials. 1. polarisation currents and magnetisation currents.t.t. As we shall see later. x/ If an electric ﬁeld E. in order to make also the right-hand side of this equation divergence-free when j. x /r jx x0 j Â Ã Z 1 1 @ 3 0 0 d x . This total current which can be split up into ‘ordinary’ conduction currents. . x/ C "0 E.3.se/CED/Book Sheet: 33 of 262 . Electrodynamics j 11 1 @ 4 "0 @t Z V0 .t. equation (1.t. This approximation is called Ohm’s law:12 (1. x/ C @t 0 "0 @ E.

This is formulated in Faraday’s law which. Examples of media which are highly non-linear are semiconductors and plasma. x/ dt S @t S .e. reads I d E.t/ dt C Z Z (1. 13 where dl is a tangential line element of the closed loop C .t. Stationary currents therefore require that an electric ﬁeld due to an electromotive force (EMF ) is present.2 we derived the differential equations for the electrostatic ﬁeld. In the presence of such a ﬁeld Eemf .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.33) d @ O O D d2x n B.Estat C Eemf / C (1.. unless the medium is superconducting. If the current is caused by an applied electric ﬁeld E. in general. The time rate at which this energy is expended is j E per unit volume (W m 3 ). The conductivity is. x/ D ˆm . time-dependent (temporal dispersive media) but then it is often the case that equation (1. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS j D . we still have to use Ohm’s law with care.13 1.31) D R A C The term ‘electromotive force’ is something of a misnomer since E represents a voltage. its SI dimension is V.t. Ohm’s law. j will decay away with time.10) stating that r Estat D 0 and hence that Estat is a conservative ﬁeld (it can be expressed as a gradient of a scalar ﬁeld). equation (1.t. We draw the attention to the fact that even in cases when the linear relation between E and j is a good approximation. there will be some energy loss.se/CED/Book Sheet: 34 of 262 .1. This implies that the closed line integral of Estat in equation (1.4 Faraday’s law of induction In subsection 1.29) on the preceding page is valid for each individual Fourier (spectral) component of the ﬁeld. 12 j 1 .t / D dl E. Speciﬁcally.30) The electromotive force is deﬁned as I E D dl .31) above vanishes and that this equation becomes I E D dl Eemf (1. x/ D d2x n B. on page 6 we derived equation (1.plasma. i.t.Estat C Eemf / FT effects such as frequency mixing and frequency conversion.uu. in Maxwell’s generalised form. If E is irrotational (conservative).29) on the previous page. takes the form (1.3. this electric ﬁeld will exert work on the charges in the medium and.32) It has been established experimentally that a non-conservative EMF ﬁeld is produced in a closed circuit C at rest if the magnetic ﬂux through this circuit varies with time. x/.

x/ v Figure 1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. transforms it into the differential equation @ B.t//. Let us therefore consider the case. v is the ﬂuid velocity.t. Here.35) dt @t dt which follows immediately from the multivariate chain rule for the differentiation of an arbitrary differentiable function f .37) dt S @t S S D R A FT . C dl where ˆm is the magnetic ﬂux and S is the surface encircled by C which can be interpreted as a generic stationary ‘loop’ and not necessarily as a conducting circuit. 1. x. The total time derivative is evaluated according to the well-known operator formula d @ dx D C r (1. equation (1.t. in a continuum picture.4: A loop C which moves with velocity v in a spatially varying magnetic ﬁeld B. Application of Stokes’ theorem on this integral equation. when the ‘loop’ is moved in such a way that it encircles a magnetic ﬁeld which varies during the movement.v r /B (1. x/ (1.x/ will sense a varying magnetic ﬂux during the motion.4. dx=dt describes a chosen path in space.plasma. Electrodynamics j 13 B.33) on the preceding page. We shall choose the ﬂow path which means that dx=dt D v and d @ D Cv r (1. illustrated in ﬁgure 1. Applying the rule (1.se/CED/Book Sheet: 35 of 262 . the convective derivative dx=dt is usually referred to as the material derivative and is denoted Dx=Dt . we obtain Z Z Z d @B O O O E.36) to Faraday’s law.t/ D d2x n B D d2x n d2x n .36) dt @t where. Any change of the magnetic ﬂux ˆm will induce an EMF.34) r E.x/ O d2x n B.t.uu. For this particular choice.3. x/ D @t which is valid for arbitrary variations in the ﬁelds and constitutes the Maxwell equation which explicitly connects electricity with magnetism.

41) @B O O D d2x n d2x n r . we ﬁnd that r .46) corresponding to an ‘effective’ electric ﬁeld in the ‘loop’ (moving observer) Eemf D E C v B (1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. during spatial differentiation.38) @t @t where in the last step formula (F.98) on page 200.34) on the preceding page. Since this is true 8t.B v / D . in the moving system.se/CED/Book Sheet: 36 of 262 . we ﬁnally get I Z I @B O E. This allows us to rewrite equation (1. x/ D r Œr E.45) D and an observer in the moving frame of reference measures the following Lorentz force on a charge q F D qEemf D qE C q.Eemf v B/ D (1. taking the divergence of equation (1. Using this result and formula (F.B v / (1.v B/ (1. we conclude that for a stationary observer.37) on the previous page in the following way: I Z d O E.40) R A E D Eemf v B since. i.t.43) @t C S where Eemf is the ﬁeld which is induced in the ‘loop’. The application of Stokes’ theorem ‘in reverse’ on equation (1.t. FT . this is in fact one of the Maxwell equations.. I Z @B O dl .v r /B (1. rearranging the terms.e.t / D dl Eemf D d2x n B dt S C Z Z (1.uu.42) @t C S C or. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS Furthermore.43) yields @B r .47) Hence. x/ D 0 (1.t / D dl Eemf D d2x n dl . v is to be considered as constant. x/ D r B.t.44) @t An observer in a ﬁxed frame of reference measures the electric ﬁeld (1. we conclude that r B. 14 j 1 . x/ D 0 (1.39) also for time-varying ﬁelds.t. the Maxwell equation @B r ED (1.B v / @t S S With Stokes’ theorem applied to the last integral.Eemf v B/ D d2x n (1. we see that @ @ r B.48) @t is indeed valid even if the ‘loop’ is moving.106) on page 201 was used.plasma.

Together with the appropriate constitutive relations.t.49c) 0 r BD0 r BD in Heaviside-Lorentz units (one of several natural units) r ED ED 1 @B c @t 1 1 @E jC c c @t C "0 0j C R A In these equations D . Electrodynamics j 15 1. electric current density.15 With these new hypothetical physical entities included in the theory.3. x/.49d) r r r r 15 @E D @t 1 @E c 2 @t r BD0 BD and in Planck units (another set of natural units) r ED4 ED @B @t @E @t r BD0 BD4 jC JULIAN SEYMOUR S C H W I N G E R (1918–1994) once put it: ‘.6 Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations If we look more closely at the microscopic Maxwell equations (1. They were ﬁrst formulated by Lorentz and therefore another name often used for them is the Maxwell-Lorentz equations.3. with contributions from conduction currents (motion of free charges) as well as all atomistic (polarisation and magnetisation) currents.49).t. there are strong theoretical reasons to believe that magnetic charge exists in nature. 1.49a) (1. and the initial and boundary conditions pertinent to the physical situation at hand. possibly both time and space dependent. x/ represents the total. The magnetic monopole was ﬁrst postulated by P I E R R E C U R I E (1859–1906) and inferred from experiments in 2009. x/ and B.plasma. and with the electric charge density denoted e and the electric current density denoted j e . the equations therefore incorporate the classical interaction between all electric charges and currents. x/. in the system and are called Maxwell’s microscopic equations. The equations are. electric charge density. emphasising that electromagnetism is very far from being a closed object’. . in SI units.uu. we see that they exhibit a certain. x/ represents the total. Dirac therefore made the ad hoc assumption that there exist magnetic monopoles represented by a magnetic charge density.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. symmetry.t. which we denote by j m D j m .t.5 The microscopic Maxwell equations We are now able to collect the results from the above considerations and formulate the equations of classical electrodynamics valid for arbitrary variations in time and space of the coupled electric and magnetic ﬁelds E. x/. the Maxwell equations will be symmetrised into the following two scalar and .t. and a magnetic current density.14 r ED 14 In CGS units the microscopic Maxwell equations are r ED4 r ED 1 @B c @t 4 1 @E jC c c @t "0 @B r ED @t r BD0 r BD 0j (1. j D j. Searches for magnetic charge continue at the present time. possibly both time and space dependent.49b) (1.t. which relate and j to the ﬁelds. As they stand.3. which we denote by m D m . D 1. free or bound. albeit not complete. FT (1. Likewise. . with contributions from free as well as induced (polarisation) charges. and may have played an important role in the development of the Universe. they form a system of wellposed partial differential equations which completely determine E and B.se/CED/Book Sheet: 37 of 262 .

54) Z m .50a) @B @t @E @t (1.1 (I NDESTRUCTIBILITY OF MAGNETIC CHARGE ) Magnetic charge exists and is indestructible in the same way that electric charge exists and is indestructible. according to formula (F. we ﬁnd that r . The assumption of the existence of magnetic charges suggests a Coulomb-like law for magnetic ﬁelds: Â Ã Z Z x x0 1 0 0 Bstat .t.50d) We shall call these equations Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations or the electromagnetodynamic equations. In other words. equation (1.7) on page 4 for Estat ] and.se/CED/Book Sheet: 38 of 262 .plasma.50b) (1.50c) C "0 0 r BD r BD (1. a Biot-Savart-like .x0 / D d3x 0 m . equation (1.52) which has the same form as that for the electric charges (electric monopoles) and currents. 16 j 1 .r A FT E/ D @ .t. the divergence of a curl always vanishes.uu.x/ D d3x 0 m . x/ D 0 (1. if magnetic currents exist.1 Faraday’s law derived from the assumed conservation of magnetic charge R @ m .51) where we used the fact that.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.53) D Use this postulate and Dirac’s symmetrised form of Maxwell’s equations to derive Faraday’s law.x0 / 0 3 0 D r dx 4 jx x0 j V0 [cf. E X A M P L E 1. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS two coupled vectorial partial differential equations (SI units): e r ED r ED "0 0j 0 0j m e m (1.x0 /r 4 4 jx x0 j jx x0 j3 V0 V0 (1. Using (1. we obtain the equation of continuity for magnetic charge @ m C r jm D 0 @t (1.r B/ @t 0r jm Á 0 (1.25) on page 10. we postulate that there exists an equation of continuity for magnetic charges: @t C r j m . Taking the divergence of (1.50c) to rewrite this relation.106) on page 201.50b). x/ P O S T U L AT E 1.

the equation of continuity for magnetic charge. and assuming a direct extension of results from statics to dynamics. equation (F. This analysis is left to the reader.55) above is valid also for timevarying magnetic currents. thereby letting j m tend to zero.55) Taking the curl of the latter and using the operator ‘bac-cab’ rule. x/ 0 j . we have been able to replace Faraday’s experimental results on electromotive forces and induction in loops as a foundation for the Maxwell equations by a more fundamental one.x/ D 0 0 j . Z r E. we ﬁnd that Â Z m 0 Ã 0 stat 3 0 j .x/ D dx D 4 jx x0 j V0 Ã Ã Â Â Z Z 1 1 0 0 D d3x 0 j m .56) Comparing with equation (1. the Faraday law in the ordinary Maxwell equations.50b) on the preceding page. at least formally. Therefore a more detailed analysis of it is required.x/ V0 by analogy.17) on page 8 for Bstat ]: Z Z x x0 0 0 D Estat .x0 / 0 r D d3x 0 4 jx x0 j V0 Â r jx 1 x0 j Ã (1.3.t. this result seems to be in conﬂict with the concept of retardation. we obtain.x / r r r E . and the assumption of the generalisation of equation (1.x0 / d3x 0 j m .se/CED/Book Sheet: 39 of 262 .26) on page 10] which we recognise as equation (1. Electrodynamics j 17 law for electric ﬁelds [cf.x0 /r 2 d3x 0 Œj m .20) on page 8 for Estat and the evaluation of the integrals there.e.1 R A It is intriguing to note that if we assume that formula (1.x x0 / D (1.54) on the facing page to time-dependent magnetic charge distributions. equation (1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma. A transformation of this electromagnetodynamic result by rotating into the ‘electric realm’ of charge space. formula (F.50b) on the facing page. equation (1.x0 / ı. yields the electrodynamic equation (1. equation (1. dual to the electric displacement current [cf. i. This process would also provide an alternative interpretation of the term @B=@t as a magnetic displacement current.t.t.28) on page 11].x x0 / 0 V0 Â Ã Z 1 0 @ (1. with the use of the representation of the Dirac delta function. then. x/ @t FT . 1.t.t. we realise that Z m d3x 0 j m .98) on page 200.x0 / r 0 r 0 4 4 jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 V0 (1. equation (1. At ﬁrst sight. D [cf.121) on page 201..52) on the preceding page. x/ D d3x 0 j m . End of example 1.x/ D d3x 0 j m .58) d3x 0 m .57) r Estat . By postulating the indestructibility of a hypothetical magnetic charge.x0 / 4 4 jx x0 j3 V0 V0 Z j m . x0 /r 0 4 @t V 0 jx x0 j @ m D B. x0 /ı.uu.

Inc.. ISBN 0-387-94799-X. New York. MA . Springer-Verlag. NY . 2. Inc. K.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. vol. H UANG. John Wiley & Sons. Chapman & Hall. London. Beijing. 1975. . 1995.. [11] D. H. London. . Classical Electricity and Magnetism. H ALLÉN. New York. Cambridge University Press. Electromagnetic Theory. Advanced Electromagnetism. John Wiley & Sons. Foundations. New York. R.. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] D R A [9] [10] J. .. L OW. [13] F. Pergamon Press. Dover Publications. . 2007. ISBN 13-978-981-250-654-4 (pbk). Heidelberg. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. BARRETT AND D.se/CED/Book Sheet: 40 of 262 . New York. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1993. L ANDAU AND E. M AXWELL.. E. Inc. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. ISBN 981-02-2095-2. World Scientiﬁc Publishing Co. J. New York. . G REINER. 1953. NY . ISBN 0-471-57269-1. Dover Publications. W. 1954. Toronto. . 1962. Classical Charged Particles. ROHRLICH. A. . Hong Kong. 18 j 1 . 2007. D. ISBN 0-201-48300-9. Classical Field Theory. 1954. J. ISBN 0-471-59551-9. Cambridge .. . 1996. New Jersey. New York. . Shanghai. C. . Classical Electrodynamics. Ltd. . Classical Electrodynamics. and Chennai. Inc. [15] J. Reading. ISBN 0-486-64290-9. L. Oxford . Ltd. vol.. B. F OU N DATIONS OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS 1.. Inc. Classical Electromagnetic Theory. Inc. vol. NY and London. London.4 Bibliography [1] T. New York. G RIMES. World Scientiﬁc Publishing Co. K. L IFSHITZ. Theory and Applications. .. NY. Berlin. M ELROSE AND R.. . third ed. New York. Brisbane. B ECKER. 1962... ISBN 0-201-05702-6.. and Singapore. 1982. S TRATTON. C. [12] W. D. . fourth revised English ed. ISBN 07-062150-0. . FT . M.plasma.. [14] J. Singapore. E. Pte. Electromagnetic Theory. 1999. Fundamental Forces of Nature. 2 of Course of Theoretical Physics. John Wiley & Sons. C. F. M C P HEDRAN. 1997. M. Dover Publications. The Story of Gauge Fields. Electromagnetic Processes in Dispersive Media. . ISBN 0-486-60637-8. 1991. VANDERLINDE. ISBN 0-486-60636-8. PANOFSKY AND M. Pte. JACKSON. Inc. third ed. Ltd. Singapore. .. Taipei. NY.. The Classical Theory of Fields. 1. NY. ISBN 0-521-41025-8. World Scientiﬁc Publishing Co.. M AXWELL. Chichester. W. Singapore. third ed. P HILLIPS. second ed. third ed. ISBN 0-08-025072-6. Inc. Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions. New Jersey. . Ltd. ISBN 0-471-30932-X.uu. .

1 But before deriving these alternatives to the Maxwell-Lorentz equations. we shall discuss the mathematical techniques of making use of complex variables to represent real physical observables in order to simplify the mathematical work involved. It turns out that these second-order equations are wave equations for E and B. which simpliﬁes the algebra. we shall in this chapter. In this chapter we will also describe how to make use of the single spectral component (Fourier component) technique. J A M E S C L E R K M A X W E L L (1831–1879) himself said: ‘We have strong reason to conclude that light itself—including radiant heat and other radiation. if any—is an electromagnetic disturbance in the form of waves propagated through the electro-magnetic ﬁeld according to electromagnetic laws. in scalar and vector-differential-equation form. is a logical structure based on assumptions and deﬁnitions which permits one to predict the outcome of a maximum number of different experiments on the basis of a minimum number of postulates. and even elegance.2 As such.’ . in the narrow sense of the word.plasma.uu. beauty. they describe. as alternatives to the ﬁrst-order MaxwellLorentz equations. at the same time as it clariﬁes the physical content.e. the behaviour in time t 2 R1 and in space x 2 R3 of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds FT 2 1 In 1864. i. as the axiomatic foundation of classical electrodynamics.. D 2. From now on we shall consider these equations as postulates.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 41 of 262 .’ F R I T Z R O H R L I C H writes in Classical Charged Particles that ‘A physical theory. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES R A 19 As a ﬁrst step in the study of the dynamical properties of the classical electromagnetic ﬁeld. in a lecture at the Royal Society of London. indicating that electromagnetic wave modes are very natural and common manifestations of classical electrodynamics.1 Axiomatic classical electrodynamics In chapter 1 we described the historical route which led to the formulation of the microscopic Maxwell equations. One usually desires the postulates (or axioms) to be as self-evident as possible. one demands simplicity. derive a set of second-order differential equations for the ﬁelds E and B.

2 C.. they are considered microscopic in the sense that all charges and currents. of course. x/ 2 R3 and B. i. also the imaginary part corresponds to a physical observable. are included (but macroscopic in the sense that quantum effects are neglected). stating explicitly when we do not. the magnitude can be written j jD.49) on page 15]: 2 R1 "0 @B r ED 2 R3 @t r B D 0 2 R1 r ED r BD 0j (Gauss’s law) (Faraday’s law) (No magnetic charges) 2 R3 (Maxwell’s law) (2. be described by real-valued quantities. 4 D R A 2. Therefore. we shall in the following regularly use—and tacitly assume—complex notation. This is at variance with quantum physics. respectively.t.e. Letting denote complex conjugation. at least in principle. the mathematical expression for the observable under consideration must also be real-valued to be physically meaningful. x/ and j. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES E. and other physical quantities to be analytically continued into the complex domain. as the geometric mean of and .t. Similarly. one ˚ « makes the identiﬁcation observable D Re mathematical . as the arithmetic mean of and its complex conjugate ... equations (1. it is always understood that one must take the real part of a complex mathematical variable in order for it to represent a classical physical observable. In other words. These charge and current densities may have prescribed arbitrary time and space dependencies and be considered the sources of the ﬁelds.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. as well as magnetisation currents in magnetic material.1d) C "0 0 @E @t 3 A physical observable is something that can. C /. One convenient property of the complex notation is that differentiations often become trivial to perform.1b) (2. care must always be FT We reiterate that in these equations . However. the charge and current densities.4 For mathematical convenience and ease of calculation.se/CED/Book Sheet: 42 of 262 . such as bound charges in atoms and molecules.e. Despite these dual rôles. /1=2 . including the intrinsic ones in matter. respectively [cf. i. x/ 2 R3 .1a) (2.t. If a physical scalar variable. then in classical electrodynamics (in fact. real-valued.uu. in classical physics as a whole). Under certain conditions. Hence. when we use such a complex notation we must be very careful how to interpret the results derived within this notation. the real part can be written 1 Re f g D 2. i.plasma. we shall refer to them as the source terms of the microscopic Maxwell equations and the two equations where they appear as the Maxwell-Lorentz source equations.2 Complex notation and physical observables In order to simplify the mathematical treatment.3 Consequently. 20 j 2 . be ultimately reduced to an input to the human sensory system. we shall frequently allow the mathematical variables representing the ﬁelds. where ˇ ˇ observable D ˇ mathematical ˇ. x/ are the total charge and current densities. by deﬁnition.1c) (2. However. . but they may also be generated by the ﬁelds. or a component of a physical vector or tensor.e.t. is represented mathematically by the complex-valued number . physical observables quantify (our perception of) the physical reality and as such they must. This is because every physical observable is.

x/ e i!t C a0 .x/ ei!t ı Œb0 . for instance.x/ e i!t C b0 . the vector product operator ( ).t.t.t. 2.2. by vectors in (a domain of) 3D complex space C3 . Furthermore.t. representing classical physical observables.t. . A typical situation being when products of two or more quantities are calculated since. We use the notation h i t . or the outer tensor operator (˝).x/ exp.t. for such an average D FT « ˚ ı Re b0 . x/ ı b. Then we make the interpretation ˚ a. is ˚ « ˚ « a.x/ exp. Hence.t.1 Physical observables and averages As just mentioned.plasma.x/ e i!t 1 1 D Œa0 . 1 2 / D 1 2 . 2. i. x/ D Re a0 . the dyadic product operator (juxtaposition). i!t/. x/ ı b.t. Complex notation and physical observables j 21 exercised. it is important to be aware of the limitations of complex representation of real observables when evaluating products of mathematical variables that represent physical quantities. consider two physical vector ﬁelds a. for two complex-valued variables 1 and 2 we know that Re f 1 2 g ¤ Re f 1 g Re f 2 g.x/ e i!t ı Re b0 .x/ ei!t 2 2 1 D a0 ı b0 C a0 ı b0 C a0 ı b0 e 2i!t C a0 ı b0 e2i!t 4 « 1 1 ˚ D Re fa0 ı b0 g C Re a0 ı b0 e 2i!t 2 2 « 1 ˚ « 1 ˚ i!t D Re a0 e ı b0 ei!t C Re a0 e i!t ı b0 e i!t 2 2 1 1 D Re fa.4) In physics. x/ and b.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/ ı b .e.t.x/ ei!t (2.uu. x/ D Re fag ı Re fbg D Re a0 . Let us. representing either the scalar product operator ( ).3) .x/ e i!t « (2.x/ e i!t R A « D 1 Œa0 . let ı be a binary operator for these vectors.. a0 .2. On the other hand.se/CED/Book Sheet: 43 of 262 . we are often forced to measure the temporal average (cycle average) of a physical observable.2) C a0 . x/ ı b. x/ that are represented by their Fourier components.x/ e 2 i!t and similarly for b. x/g C Re fa. for example.t. i!t / and b0 . the physically acceptable interpretation of the scalar product of two complex vectors.x/ e i!t We can express the real part of the complex vector a as ˚ Re fag D Re a0 . x/g 2 2 (2.

therefore.1) on page 20 transform into R A "0 r G D ic 0j r GD FT 2.8a) (2. x/ D E.t. x/ ı b.se/CED/Book Sheet: 44 of 262 . x/ C icB. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES and ﬁnd that the average of the product of the two physical quantities represented by a and b can be expressed as ha ı bi t Á hRe fag ı Re fbgi t D 1 1 Re fa ı b g D Re fa ı bg 2 2 1 1 D Re fa0 ı b0 g D Re fa0 ı b0 g 2 2 (2.t. x/i t gives no contribution.2 Maxwell equations in Majorana representation (2. Expressed in this vector.6) where G 2 C3 even if E. 22 j 2 .plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 2i!t/ in equation (2. B 2 R3 .2. also known as the Riemann-Silberstein vector G.5) This is because the oscillating function exp.9) D can be rewritten y p GD0 @G D ciy p @t G (2.uu.10a) (2. and. ha. It is sometimes convenient to introduce the complex-ﬁeld six-vector. y pD i r (2.t. the help of the linear momentum operator.t.8b) r i @G c @t which. the Maxwell equations (2.4) on the preceding page vanishes when averaged in time over a complete period 2 =! (or over inﬁnitely many periods).7a) (2.7b) C 1 @G Á c 2 @t In regions where r GD0 GD D 0 and j D 0 these equations reduce to (2. x/ (2.10b) i The ﬁrst equation is the transversality condition p D k ? G where we anticipate the quantal relation between the ﬁeld momentum p and the wave vector k and the second equation describes the dynamics. .t.

The inner (scalar) product deﬁned as G scalar multiplied with itself G G D . The inner (scalar) product deﬁned as G scalar multiplied with the complex conjugate of itself G G D . One may say that Majorana used the other branch of p 1 as the imaginary unit. to which the Riemann-Silberstein vector G D E C icB belongs. as a Schrödinger/Pauli/Dirac-like equation. As with any vector. the inner (scalar) product in C3 can be deﬁned in two different ways.e.E C icB/ D E 2 c 2 B 2 C 2icE B (2.uu.88) on page 200.6). as discussed in example M.E C icB/ . we ﬁnd that D E2 R c 2 B 2 D Const E B D Const One fundamental property of C3 . assuming that E 2 R3 and B 2 R3 .plasma. This formulation of the freespace electromagnetic ﬁeld equations is known as the Majorana representation of the Maxwell-Lorentz equations or the Majorana formalism.11) where 0 0 0 B S D @0 0 0 i 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 i 0 C B C B O O iA x 1 C @ 0 0 0 A x 2 C @ i 0 i 0 0 0 1 i 0 C O 0 0A x3 0 0 (2.15) Since ‘length’ is a scalar quantity that is invariant under rotations. we can rewrite equation (2. Complex notation and physical observables j 23 Using formula (F. is that inner (scalar) products in this space are invariant under rotations just as they are in R3 . this quantity is proportional to the electromagnetic ﬁeld energy density. 2. B 2 R3 1.17) which is also an invariant scalar quantity.5 Products of Riemann-Silberstein vectors with themselves for E.13) It so happens that E T T O R E M A J O R A NA (1906-1938) used the deﬁnition G D E icB.16a) (2. 3.12) By introducing the Hamiltonian-like operator the Maxwell-Lorentz equations can be written as i @G y D HG @t i.se/CED/Book Sheet: 45 of 262 . As we shall see in chapter 4..2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.E C icB/ .1 (2.E icB/ D E E C c 2 B B Á E 2 C c 2 B 2 (2. but this is no essential difference from the deﬁnition (2.4 on page 215. we have the following possibilities of deﬁning various products of G with itself: 2.14) 5 y y H D cS p (2. E X A M P L E 2. the cross product of G with itself vanishes: A FT (2. Considering the special case of the scalar product of G with itself.16b) . However.10b) on the preceding page as i @G y D c S pG @t (2.

18) c B D 0 C 0 C ic.1d)].E ECc B ic.23) R A G G D EE C c 2 BB C ic.E ic.21) 6. in component form.19) 2ic.GG/ij D Ei Ej c 2 Bi Bj C ic. not vanish. and we D . 24 j 2 .1a) and equation (2. Two of the equations are scalar [equation (2. The cross product of G with the complex conjugate of itself does.B B/ D 0 E/ (2.E C icB/ DE E 2 .Ei Bj C Bi Ej / FT ic.E B/ ic. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES G G D .uu. However.EB C BE/ D .E C icB/ DE 2 . The dyadic product of G with itself is GG D EE c 2 BB C ic. It turns out that in our case we will obtain one second-order differential equation for E and one second-order differential equation for B.EB C BE/ (2.E B B/ icB/ ic. .E C icB/ B C ic.20) or. as we shall see.22) 7.GG/ ic. which sometimes become decoupled in the process.1b) and equation (2.E B/ C ic.1 2. the Maxwell equations represent eight (1 C 1 C 3C3) scalar coupled ﬁrst-order partial differential equations. and two are in 3D Euclidean vector form [equation (2. however.EB BE/ BE/ D .1c)]. wave equations.se/CED/Book Sheet: 46 of 262 . The dyadic product of G with itself is G G D EE c 2 BB (2. 5.GG / (2.EB (2. These secondorder partial differential equations are.E B/ C ic. to be introduced in chapter 4. it is well known from the theory of differential equations that a set of ﬁrst-order.3 The wave equations for E and B The Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2.E 4. representing three scalar equations each. coupled partial differential equations can be transformed into a smaller set of second order partial differential equations. Instead it is G G D .1) on page 20 are four ﬁrst-order coupled differential equations (both E and B appear in the same equations).E D0C0 that is proportional to the electromagnetic energy ﬂux.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.24) End of example 2. The dyadic product of G with its own complex conjuagte from the right is GG D EE C c 2 BB and from the left it is (2.plasma. Hence.B B/ D E/ B/ (2.

recalling that "0 0 D 1=c 2 where c is the speed of light in free (empty) space.28b) @ .r E/ D B/ D 0 0r @j @t j "0 "0 0 @2 E @t 2 @2 B 0 @t 2 Using to the operator triple product ‘bac-cab’ rule equation (F. For certain media.103) on page 201.uu. x/ and j. deﬁned according to formula (M.r @t E/ (2.plasma. assuming that our physical quantities vary in such a regular way that temporal and spatial differentiation commute. These are the general wave equations for the electromagnetic ﬁelds. Simple everyday examples of such regions are electric conductors (e.27) when applied to E and similarly to B. these second-order partial differential equations still appear to be coupled.1b) and equation (2.26a) (2.g.. The wave equations for E and B j 25 shall discuss the implications of them.r .26b) (2.28a) (2. 2.25a) As they stand.t. we obtain the two inhomogeneous vector wave equations 2 D 1 @2 E c 2 @t 2 1 @2 B 2 BD 2 2 c @t ED R A r 2E D r "0 0 @j @t r 2B D 0r j where 2 is the d’Alembert operator. However. Gauss’s law equation (2. In FT (2.r @t 0r B/ j C "0 0 (2. by using the Maxwell equations once again we can formally decouple them into r r .1a) on page 20.r . of course. To bring the ﬁrst-order differential equations (2. the B wave ﬁeld can be easily obtained from the solution of the E wave equation but in general this is not the case.1d). we obtain the second order differential equations r r . If we apply the curl vector operator (r ) to both sides of the two Maxwell vector equations. and then rearranging the terms. to operate on them with ﬁrst-order differential operators.r E/ D B/ D @ . which gives r . x/ of any kind.g.3.. the Sun and its surrounding corona). generated in regions where there exist sources .109) on page 223.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. equation (2.r E/ r 2E (2. radio and TV transmitter antennas) or plasma (e.25b) .t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 47 of 262 .1) on page 20 into second order one needs.r E/ D r .

kx3 O x2 e i.!t O kx3 C ı2 / x2 (2. a transmitting antenna.. x/ D E1 cos. x/ D E0 ei..e. be described as E.kx3 !t / i. This is called linear wave polarisation. the electric ﬁeld oscillates along a line directed at an angle arctan . In reality.e.. homogeneous wave equations 1 @2 E c 2 @t 2 1 @2 B c 2 @t 2 r 2E D 0 r 2B D 0 (2.e. given axis or a plane. the inhomogeneous wave equations (2.31) O x1 C E2 e iı0 iı2 D O D E1 x1 C E2 e O x2 e where ı0 D ı2 ı1 . the coupling is not removed. For the special cases ı0 D ˙ =2 and E1 D E2 D E0 the wave can.32) As shown in example M . superpositions of a (possibly inﬁnite) number of individual plane waves with different properties.kx3 !t Cı1 / !t / These equations describe how the ﬁelds that were generated in the source region.28) on the previous page.se/CED/Book Sheet: 48 of 262 .28) on the preceding page simplify to the well-known uncoupled. a receiving antenna or other electromagnetic sensors.30) In complex notation we can write this as E. this describes a rotation.. a radio beam from a transmitting antenna is a superposition (Fourier sum or integral) of many plane waves with slightly different angles relative to a ﬁxed.29a) (2. propagate as vector waves through free space.plasma. but in many important situations this is not the case. the electric and magnetic ﬁeld vectors are restricted to a two-dimensional plane that is perpendicular the propagation direction. Let us choose this to be the x1 x2 plane and the propagation vector (wave vector) to be along the x3 axis.28b) is a function of E.t.kx3 !t / A FT O x1 C E2 eiı2 ei.g.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. When this phase ı0 vanishes. e. if the current density in the RHS of equation (2. the sources and j can still cause the wave equations to be coupled.kx3 !t Cı1 / O x1 ˙ iO 2 x (2. in free space where D 0 and j D 0. When ı0 ¤ 0 the wave is in general in a state of elliptical wave polarisation. a wave appears as a building block of wave packets.29b) E X A M P L E 2.t. Let us consider a single plane wave that propagates in free space7 i. O x2 (2.1 on page 207.g. as is the case if Ohm’s law j D E is applicable. A generic temporal Fourier mode of the electric ﬁeld vector E with (angular) frequency ! is given by the real-valued expression E.!t O kx3 C ı1 / x1 C E2 cos. i. 6 principle.E2 =E1 / relative to the x1 axis. Since electromagnetic waves are vector waves they exhibit wave polarisation. Once these waves impinge upon another region which can sustain charges and/or currents for a long enough time. x/ D E1 eiı1 ei. in complex notation. This rotation is called .. the ﬁelds interact with the charges and the currents in this second region in accordance with equations (2.uu. E.t.6 We notice that outside the source region.2 7 Wave polarisation R D E1 e iı1 A single plane wave is a mathematical idealisation. e.g. 26 j 2 .. i. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES Clearly.

33) 8 which are ﬁxed unit vectors.34) O O We use the convention that hC represents left-hand circular polarisation and h right-hand circular polarisation.2 In physics. A wave containing only a ﬁnite number of temporal FT 0 cr Wave equations expressed in terms of Riemann-Silberstein vectors E X A M P L E 2. x/ D 2E0 ei.t. 2. The helical base vectors 1 O O x h˙ D p x1 ˙ iO 2 / 2 (2.7) on page 22.kx3 !t Cı1 / h˙ (2. a temporal spectral component is identiﬁed uniquely by its angular frequency !n .t. one can perform similar steps as was used in deriving equations (2. implying that the general solution is obtained by a weighted linear superposition (summation) of the result for each such spectral component. as expected. En . End of example 2.3. where the weight of each spectral component is given by its Fourier amplitude.x/. N 1g.3 2. The wave equations for E and B j 27 circular wave polarisation.35) « Á En .x/. respectively.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x/Re e ˚ B. i.!n t / D Bn .36b) « i!n t Á Bn . allow us to write equation (2.plasma. either when viewed as the wave propagates away from the observer or toward the observer.1 The time-independent wave equations for E and B Often one can assume that the temporal dependency of E and B and of the sources and j is well-behaved enough that it can be represented by the sum of a ﬁnite number N of temporal spectral components (temporal Fourier components). 2. x/ D En . The handedness refers to the rotation in space of the electric ﬁeld vector.. two different conventions are used. and Bn .3 j (2.3.x/ cos.32) on the preceding page p O E. in other words. equations (2.e. t 2 R1 is assumed.x/Re e where En . i.8 Left-hand (right-hand) circular polarised waves are said to have positive helicity (negative helicity).!n t / D En . In a physical system.se/CED/Book Sheet: 49 of 262 ..e.t. End of example 2.x/e i!n t i!n t (2. R A i!n t D ˚ E. x/ D Bn . Using the Maxwell equations expressed in the Riemann-Silberstein vector G D E C icB. 1. Bn 2 R3 and !n . In such situations it is sufﬁcient to study the properties of one arbitrary member of this set of spectral components f!n W n D 0. assuming that E. B 2 R3 .x/ cos. we recover the wave equations (2. or.x/e .36a) (2. : : : .28) on page 25 and one ﬁnds that 2 GD 1 @2 G c 2 @t 2 r2G D r "0 0 @j Ci @t Taking the real and imaginary parts of this equation.uu. in the form of a temporal Fourier series.26) on page 25. This is because the MaxwellLorentz equations are linear.

x/ (2.5 billion years. x/ ei!t 1 i! D dt E. the complete solution of the original wave equation is obtained.t. spectral components is called a time-harmonic wave. no signals in the Universe can be observed to have a spectral width that is smaller than the inverse of this age.40) 2 „ 2 ƒ‚ … 1 D0 since E!0.t.t. intrinsic line broadening.28a) on page 25 one ﬁnds that for an arbitrary component the following time-independent wave equation is obtained: r 2 En e i!n t C 2 !n En e c2 i!n t C i!n 0 jn e i!n t D r n e "0 i!n t (2. x/ D d! E! . N 1 present in the sources.t. n D 0. one ﬁnds that all emissions suffer an unavoidable.39a) 2 1 and the corresponding inverse Fourier transform Z 1 E. In the limit when only one single frequency is present. 28 j 2 .x/ and that.x/ D dt E. x/ Z 1 1 E! .38) R A 1 and similarly for B. Also.9 By inserting the temporal spectral component equation (2. Solving this equation.37) After dividing out the common factor exp. the Fourier sum goes over into a Fourier integral . We see that the Fourier transform of @E. x/ ei!t (2. and hence in the ﬁelds.39b) D where the amplitude E! . this becomes r 2 En C 2 !n En C i!n c2 0 jn D r n "0 (2. In the limit of very many frequency components. i!n t / and summing over all N such Fourier (spectral) components with frequencies !n . i!n t/. : : : .t. To illustrate this generic case. x/ i!t dt e 2 @t 1 Z 1 1 1 1 E.t.36a) on the previous page into equation (2. Strictly speaking.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. t!˙1 D i! E! . simply because the Universe has existed for only about 13.plasma. let us introduce the Fourier transform of E.se/CED/Book Sheet: 50 of 262 . 1. consequently. purely monochromatic waves do not exist. Ã Z 1 Â 2 1 @ E.uu. x/=@t becomes Ã Z 1 Â 1 @E. x/ ei!t (2. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES 9 When subtle classical and quantum radiation effects are taken into account.t. This is a consequence of the superposition principle which is valid as long as nonlinear effects can be neglected.t. we talk about a monochromatic wave.41) . multiplying the solution obtained by exp.x/ e i!t FT ! 2 E! .x/ 2 C3 is a continuous function of (angular) frequency ! 2 R1 and of x 2 R3 . which is a ﬁnite time. x/ i!t dt e D 2 @t 2 1 (2. 2.

x/ e ik x (2.2 /3 1 Z 1 E. The wave equations for E and B j 29 Fourier transforming equation (2. Hence.x/ D e0 Re eik0 x D E!.t. x/ D d3k Ek .45b) which is mathematically identical to equation (2.se/CED/Book Sheet: 51 of 262 . since D i!e i!t R A Since we always assume that the real part shall be taken (if necessary).44).42) 1 D @ e @t i!t respectively. temporal and spatial differential operators turn into algebraic operations according to the following FT (2.t/ D d3x E. 2. A subsequent inverse Fourier transformation of the solution E! of this equation leads to the same result as is obtained from the solution of equation (2.43b) .uu.41). respectively.plasma.45a) (2.28a) on page 25 and using (2.36b) on page 27.t / eik x (2. denote the members of this pair by E0 and B0 . where k0 is the wave vector (measured in m 1 ) of mode 0.t.k eik x (2. by considering just one temporal Fourier component we obtain results which are identical to those that we would have obtained by employing the machinery of Fourier transforms and Fourier integrals. we thus obtain r 2 E! C !2 E! C i! c2 0 j! D r ! "0 (2. and then represent them as the Fourier modes ˚ « E0 . What was said above in general terms about temporal spectral components is true also for spatial spectral components (spatial Fourier components) only that we must use a three-dimensional Fourier representation Z 1 1 Ek .k eik x (2. Now. Hence. in the last step we introduced a complex notation and also dropped the mode number since the formulæ are valid for any mode n.36a) and equation (2. we can pick an arbitrary pair samples of the spatial amplitudes in equation (2.x/ D b0 Re e 0 D B!.38) on page 28.38) on the facing page.44b) and O r eik x D xi @ ikj xj O e D xi ikj ıij eikj xj D iki xi eikj xj D ikeik x @xi we see that for each spectral component in equations (2.44a) ˚ ik x « B0 . under the assumption of linearity (superposition principle) there is usually no need for the formal forward and inverse Fourier transform technique.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.43a) .40) and (2.3.

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30 j

2 . E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND WAVES

scheme: @ ! i! @t r ! ik r r ! ik ! ik

(2.46a) (2.46b) (2.46c) (2.46d)

We note that r E D ik E D ik Ek r r E D ik B D ik E D ik B D ik E? B? r B D ik B D ik Bk r D ik r j D ik j D ik (2.47a) (2.47b) (2.47c) (2.47d) (2.47e) (2.47f) (2.47g)

r j D ik j D ik jk

Hence, with respect to the wave vector k, the r operator projects out the spatially longitudinal component, and the r operator projects out the spatially transverse component of the ﬁeld vector in question. Put in another way, .r /? D 0 r E? D 0 r Ek D 0 (2.48a) (2.48b) (2.48c)

D

R A

2.4 Bibliography

and so on for the other observables. As seen from equations (2.46) above, the Fourier transform of a function of time t is a function of angular frequency !, and the Fourier transform of a function of the position vector x is a function of the wave vector k. One says that ! is a reciprocal space to t and that k spans a space that is reciprocal to x.

[16] J. D. JACKSON, Classical Electrodynamics, third ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY . . . , 1999, ISBN 0-471-30932-X. [17] W. K. H. PANOFSKY AND M. P HILLIPS, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, second ed., Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, MA . . . , 1962, ISBN 0-201-05702-6. [18] C. H. PAPAS, Theory of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1988, ISBN 0-486-65678-0.

FT

j?

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ELECTROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES

D

As described in chapter 1, the concepts of electric and magnetic ﬁelds were introduced such that they are intimately related to the mechanical forces between charges and currents given by Coulomb’s law and Ampère’s law, respectively. Just as in mechanics, it turns out that in electrodynamics it is often more convenient to express the theory in terms of potentials rather then in terms of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds (Coulomb and Ampère forces) themselves. This is particularly true for problems related to radiation and relativity. As we shall see in chapter 7, the potentials pay a central rôle in the formulation of relativistically covariant electromagnetism. At the quantum level, electrodynamics is almost exclusively formulated in terms of potentials rather than electric and magnetic ﬁelds. In this chapter we introduce and study the properties of such potentials and shall ﬁnd that they exhibit some remarkable properties that elucidate the fundamental aspects of electromagnetism, lead naturally to the special theory of relativity and pave the way for gauge ﬁeld theories.

3.1 The electrostatic scalar potential

As we saw in equation (1.10) on page 6, the time-independent electric (electrostatic) ﬁeld Estat .x/ is irrotational. Hence, it may be expressed in terms of the 31

R A

FT

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32 j

3 . E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES

**gradient of a scalar ﬁeld. If we denote this scalar ﬁeld by Estat .x/ D r
**

stat

stat

.x/, we get (3.1)

.x/

**Taking the divergence of this and using equation (1.9) on page 5, we obtain Poisson’s equation r2
**

stat

.x/ D

r Estat .x/ D

.x/ "0

(3.2)

A comparison with the deﬁnition of Estat , namely equation (1.7) on page 4, shows that this equation has the solution Z .x0 / 1 stat d3x 0 C˛ (3.3) .x/ D 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j where the integration is taken over all source points x0 at which the charge density .x0 / is non-zero and ˛ is an arbitrary scalar function that is not dependent on x, e.g., a constant. The scalar function stat .x/ in equation (3.3) above is called the electrostatic scalar potential .

3.2 The magnetostatic vector potential

Consider the equations of magnetostatics (1.24) on page 9. According to formula (F.106) on page 201 any vector ﬁeld a has the property that r .r a/ Á 0 and in the derivation of equation (1.19) on page 8 in magnetostatics we found that r Bstat .x/ D 0. We therefore realise that we can always write

D

R

Bstat .x/ D r

A FT

Astat .x/

(3.4)

where Astat .x/ is called the magnetostatic vector potential . We saw above that the electrostatic potential (as any scalar potential) is not unique since we may, without changing the physics, add to it a quantity whose spatial gradient vanishes. A similar arbitrariness is true also for the magnetostatic vector potential. In the magnetostatic case, we may start from Biot-Savart’s law as expressed by equation (1.17) on page 8. Identifying this expression with equation (3.4) above allows us to deﬁne the static vector potential as Z j.x0 / 0 Astat .x/ D d3x 0 C a.x/ (3.5) 4 jx x0 j V0 where a.x/ is an arbitrary vector ﬁeld whose curl vanishes. According to formula (F.107) on page 201 such a vector ﬁeld can always be written as the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld.

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3.2. The magnetostatic vector potential

j 33

Multipole expansion of the electrostatic potential The integral in the electrostatic potential formula Z 1 .x0 / stat .x/ D d3x 0 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j

E X A M P L E 3.1

(3.6)

where is the charge density introduced in equation (1.9) on page 5, is not always possible to evaluate analytically. However, for a charge distribution source .x0 / that is well localised in a small volume V 0 around x0 , a series expansion of the integrand in such a way that the dominant contributions are contained ˇ the ﬁrst few terms can be made. E.g., if we in ˇ Taylor expand the inverse distance 1= ˇx x0 ˇ with respect to the point x0 D x0 we obtain 1 jx x0 j D 1 j.x x0 / .x0 x0 /j

3 X in D1

nD1

i1 D1

@n

1 jx x0 j

@xi1 D 1 jx x0 j

@xin C

0 Œ .xi1

1 X

X

nD1 n1 Cn2 Cn3 Dn ni 0 0 .x1

1 x0 j n n n @x1 1 @x2 2 @x3 3

@n jx

**Inserting this into the integral in formula (3.6), we obtain the expansion " Z 1 X X . 1/n 1 1 stat d3x 0 .x0 / C .x/ D 4 "0 jx x0 j V 0 n1Šn2 Šn3 Š
**

nD1 n1 Cn2 Cn3 Dn ni 0 0 x02 /n2 .x3 1 x0 j n n n @x1 1 @x2 2 @x3 3

@n jx

Z

V0

**Clearly, the ﬁrst integral in this expansion is nothing but the static net charge Z qD d3x 0 .x0 /
**

V0

R

V0 V0

0 d3x 0 .x1

D

@ jx

1 x0 j

If we introduce the electrostatic dipole moment vector Z d3x 0 .x0 x0 / .x0 / d.x0 / D with components pi , i D 1; 2; 3, and the electrostatic quadrupole moment tensor Z Q.x0 / D d3x 0 .x0 x0 /.x0 x0 / .x0 / with components Qij ; i; j D 1; 2; 3, and use the fact that D xi jx x0i x0 j 3

@xi

A FT

x0i /

1

1 3 X 1 X 1 D C nŠ jx x0 j

0 Œ .xin

x0in /

(3.7)

. n1 Šn2 Šn3 Š

1/n

0 x01 /n1 .x2

0 x02 /n2 .x3

x03 /n3

(3.8)

#

0 x01 /n1 .x2

x03 /n3 .x0 /

(3.9)

(3.10)

(3.11)

(3.12)

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34 j

3 . E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES

and that @2 jx

1 x0 j

@xi @xj

D

3.xi

x0i /.xj jx

x0j / x0 j 5

jx

x0 j2 ıij

(3.13)

then we can write the ﬁrst three terms of the expansion of equation (3.6) on the previous page as " 1 q x x0 1 stat .x/ D d C 4 "0 jx x0 j jx x0 j jx x0 j2 # 3 .xi x0i / .xj x0j / 1 Á 1 Qij C ıij C : : : 2 jx x0 j jx x0 j 2 jx x0 j3 (3.14)

from which we draw the conclusion that if q ¤ 0, it is always possible to choose the moment point x0 such that d D 0, and if q D 0, then d is independent of the choice of moment point x0 . Furthermore, one can show that 1 3.xi ˛ ıij 2 x0i /.xj x0j / jx x0 j2 ıij D0 (3.16)

R D

or

Q0 D Q

where ˛ is an arbitrary constant. Choosing it to be Z ˇ ˇ2 1 ˛D d3x 0 ˇx0 x0 ˇ .x0 / 3 V0

A FT

V0

where Einstein’s summation convention over i and j is implied. We see that at large distances from a localised charge distribution, the electrostatic potential can, to the lowest order, be approximated by the (Coulomb) potential from a single point charge q located at the moment point x0 . We also see that Z Z Z d3x 0 .x0 / d3x 0 x0 .x0 / x0 d3x 0 .x0 x0 / .x0 / D d.x0 / D V0 V0 V0 Z d3x 0 x0 .x0 / x0 q (3.15) D

jx

x0 j5

(3.17)

**we can transform Qij into Z 0 Qij D Qij ˛ıij D d3x 0
**

V0

0 .xi

0 x0i /.xj

x0j /

1ˇ 0 ˇx 3

ˇ2 x0 ˇ ıij

Á .x0 / (3.18)

Z

13 ˛ D

V0

d3x 0

.x0

x0 /.x0

x0 /

13

1ˇ 0 ˇx 3

Á ˇ2 x0 ˇ .x0 /

(3.19)

0 O O where 13 D xi xi is the unit tensor. It follows immediately that Qi i D 0 (Einstein summation), i.e., that Q0 is traceless. Rotating the coordinate system, it is possible to diagonalise the tensors Q and Q0 . For any spherical symmetric distribution of charge, all components of Q0 vanish if the moment point x0 is chosen as the symmetry centre of the distribution.

If the charge distribution .x/ is made up of discrete point charges qn with coordinates xn ,

x/ Let us now generalise the static analysis above to the electrodynamic case.20c) 1 jxn 3 x0 j2 (3. x/ @t @ A.t.22) D E.t.t. the case with temporal and spatial dependent sources .23) becomes equivalent to (3.1) on page 20. d. According to the non-source Maxwell-Lorentz equation (2.t.t. x/ D (3. x/ C A.t. If.plasma. x/ and j. i.20a) (3. x/ D @t r . x/ D r R A A.21) Inserting this expression into the other non-source Maxwell-Lorentz equation..t.xn qn . x/ C or.t. x/. x/ D 0 @t As before we utilise the vanishing curl of a vector expression to write this vector expression as the gradient of a scalar function.e. Â Ã @ r E. In other words.t. rearranging the terms.1b) on page 20.t. equation (3.xn x0 / x0 /. x/ and B.1c). x/.t.uu. x/ D r @ A.t.and space-dependent magnetic ﬁeld. as described the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2. equation (2.t.xn x0 / x0 / 13 X n (3. x/ and A.3. x/ @ Œr @t A. we can express it as the curl of an electromagnetic vector potential : (3.t.1 X n 3. 3. in analogy with the electrostatic case.20d) End of example 3.t. viz. Q and Q0 become X qD qn n (3. we obtain r E.24) FT (3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.23) . The electrodynamic potentials j 35 the deﬁnitions above of q. r B D 0 also in electrodynamics.3 The electrodynamic potentials B. x/.xn x0 /.xn qn .se/CED/Book Sheet: 57 of 262 . x/.20b) dD QD Q0 D X n qn . and corresponding ﬁelds E. Because of this divergence-free nature of the time. let us study the electrodynamic potentials . we introduce the electromagnetic scalar potential function .t.t.

x/ @t (3.26b) D Subtracting .13) on page 6 the equations (3.21) on the preceding page and equation (3. 3 of A) are completely equivalent to the formulation of electrodynamics in terms of Maxwell’s equations. after some simple algebra and the use of equation (1.21) on the previous page.t. representing in all four scalar equations (one for and one each for the three components Ai .4 Gauge conditions R A r2 D r 2A .t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/. or in terms of the ﬁelds E.t. x/ r r A C 2 (3. x/ from formula (3. Hence. these equations turn into the following symmetric general inhomogeneous wave equations Â Ã 1 @2 . the treatment becomes signiﬁcantly simpler if we use the potentials in our calculations and then. coupled.uu. E. FT 0 j. coupled.t.1=c 2 /@2 =@t 2 from both sides of the ﬁrst equation and rearranging. x/ @ . x/ D r .21) on the preceding page into Maxwell’s equations (2. there is an important difference between the two approaches: in classical electrodynamics the only directly observable quantities are the ﬁelds themselves (and quantities derived from them) and not the potentials.26a) C 1 @ r c 2 @t (3. it is a matter of convention (or taste) whether we want to express the laws of electrodynamics in terms of the potentials .t. we obtain. On the other hand.25) 3.25) above to calculate the ﬁelds or physical quantities expressed in the ﬁelds. .t. which represent eight scalar ﬁrstorder.25) and (3. x/.se/CED/Book Sheet: 58 of 262 .t. partial differential equations. partial differential equations.t. use equation (3.1) on page 20.r A/ "0 @t 1 @2 A r .t. 36 j 3 . 2.plasma. at the ﬁnal stage. i D 1. x/ and B.t. E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES This means that in electrodynamics.t.r A/ D c 2 @t 2 Inserting (3. This is the strategy we shall follow. x/ @ A.27b) c 2 @t 2 c @t These two second order. x/ @ 1 @ r2 D C r AC 2 (3.t. x/ and B. x/ is calculated from the potentials according to the formula E.t. x/ and A. However.27a) c 2 @t 2 "0 @t c @t Â Ã 1 @2 A 1 @ 2 r A D 0 j.

32b) ‰! . .32a) 1 Z 1 1 dt ‰. x/ D d! ‰! .29a) c 2 @t 2 c @t "0 Â Ã 1 @2 1 @2 A def 2 AÁ r2 A D 2 2 r 2 A D 0 j.t. if we write equation (3. However. was not the original discoverer of the gauge condition (3.se/CED/Book Sheet: 59 of 262 . this fact has sometimes been overlooked and the condition was earlier referred to as the Lorentz gauge condition.21) on page 35 in the form r A.8 on page 223.31a) 1 Z 1 1 f! . Gauge conditions j 37 As they stand.t. 3. x/ R A where ‰ denotes for either or one of the components Ai of the vector potential A.27) on the preceding page look complicated and may seem to be of limited use.t. equations (3.plasma. x/="0 or 0 ji . x/ ei!t (3.t. We assume that our sources are well-behaved enough in time t so that the Fourier transform pair for the generic source function f Z 1 f .uu. In the literature.t.1 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge 1 @ r AC 2 D0 (3. (3. x/ 2 def 2 Á r D 2 2 r2 D (3. x/ we can consider this as a speciﬁcation of r A. x/ D B.28).4.t. Each of these four scalar equations is an inhomogeneous wave equation of the following generic form: 2 ‰.t. we must also specify r A.x/ D dt f .t.30) .t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. It had been discovered by the Danish physicist L U DV I G VA L E N T I N L O R E N Z (1829-1891) already in 1867. we are free to choose r A in whatever way we like and still obtain the same physical results! This illustrates the power of the formulation of electrodynamics in terms of potentials. But we know from Helmholtz’ theorem that in order to determine the (spatial) behaviour of A completely. who in 1903 demonstrated the covariance of Maxwell’s equations.4.28) c @t the coupled inhomogeneous wave equations (3. discussed in example M.t.31b) 2 1 exists. respectively. and that the same is true for the generic potential component ‰: Z 1 ‰. and f is a shorthand for the pertinent generic source component.x/ e i!t (3. Since this divergence does not enter the derivation above. x/ D d! f! . x/.t.29b) c 2 @t 2 c @t where 2 is the d’Alembert operator. x/ (3.27) on page 36 simplify to the following set of uncoupled inhomogeneous wave equations: Â Ã 1 @2 1 @2 .t. the Dutch physicist HENDRIK ANTOON LORENTZ (1853-1928).x/ D 2 1 D FT 1 If we choose r A to fulﬁl the so called Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition 1 In fact. x/ D f .x/ e i!t (3.26) and equations (3. x/ ei!t (3. 3.

E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES Inserting the Fourier representations (3.37) Away from r D jx takes the form x0 j D 0. and using the vacuum dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves relating the angular frequency !. As postulated by Huygens’s principle.x x0 /. x0 / D G.36) (plus boundary conditions) where f! .33) the generic 3D inhomogeneous wave equation (3.38) . x0 / (3.30) on the previous page.se/CED/Book Sheet: 60 of 262 .34) can therefore be expressed as a weighted sum of solutions of an equation where the source term has been replaced by a single point source (3. 38 j 3 . the speed of light c.34) which corresponds to the frequency ! is given by the weighted superposition Z ‰! .35) above. Furthermore.31) and (3.rG/ C k 2 . i.2 /= where is the vacuum wavelength . away from the source point x0 .rG/ C k 2 .x/ (3.x0 /G.rG/ D dr 2 (3. If we interpret r as the radial coordinate in a spherically polar coordinate system.x x0 /. and recall the expression for the Laplace operator in such a coordinate system.x.35) becomes d2 .x/ D f! . A new wave front is formed by a linear superposition of the individual weighted wavelets from each of the point sources on the old wave front.e. turns into r 2 ‰! . and the wave number k D .x. in equation (3. which represents the point source.32a) into equation (3. the solution can only be dependent on r D jx x0 j and not on the direction of x x0 . The solution of (3.r/ which is the 3D inhomogeneous time-independent wave equation. often called the 3D inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation.x/ C k 2 ‰! . this equation d2 .34) r 2 G.x. depends only on x x0 and there is no angular dependence in the equation. Due to translational invariance in space..x x0 / rı. equation (3.plasma. Hence. G.rG/ D 0 dr 2 (3. the Dirac generalised function ı.x.x/ D d3x 0 f! .x. x0 / is called the Green function or the propagator. ! D ck (3.uu. The function G.x0 / is the wavelet amplitude at the source point x0 . x0 / C k 2 G.35) D R A V0 and the solution of equation (3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x0 / D FT ı. each point on a wave front acts as a point source for spherical wavelets of varying amplitude (weight).30) on the preceding page.

plasma.se/CED/Book Sheet: 61 of 262 .x/ into equation (3.39) above.CC C C / dx r jx x0 j V0 Z Z (3.32a) on page 37: h Ái 0 Z Z 1 exp i! t kjx! x j ‰.4.42) Insertion of the general solution equation (3.35) on the facing page and integrate over a small volume around r D jx x0 j D 0.39) where C˙ are constants.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. into equation (3. equation (3.x0 / jx x0 j V0 1 h Ái (3.35) on the preceding page can be approximated by Â Ã Z 1 3 0 2 .ˇx ˇ x 0 ˇ/ CC 1 jx x0 j CC 1 jx x0 j . we insert the general solution. 3.39) above into equation (3.CC C C / dx jx x0 j V0 V0 d3x 0 f! .x/ D CC d3x 0 f! . we ﬁnd that the integrand in the ﬁrst integral can be written as 4 ı.x0 / jx x0 j V0 1 FT Z V0 the volume integrated equation (3.40) CC C C D R A 1 4 Z V0 In virtue of the fact that the volume element d3x 0 in spherical polar coordinates is proportional to r 2 D jx x0 j2 [see formula (F.t.41) ˇ ˇ 1 3 0 ˇ 0ˇ 2 3 0 D d x ı.121) on page 201. the second integral vanishes when jx x0 j ! 0. x/ D CC d3x 0 d! f! .jx x0 j/ and. hence.x0 / eikjx x j CC jx x0 j 0 D The inverse Fourier transform of this back to the t domain is obtained by inserting the above expression for ‰! . x x / C k . from equation (F.52) on page 198].44) 0 Z Z 1 exp i! t C kjx! x j CC d3x 0 d! f! . ˇ ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ ! 0 (3.uu. Since ˇ G. that (3. Gauge conditions j 39 with the well-known general solution e ikr eikjx x j e ikjx x j eikr CC Á CC CC G D CC r r jx x0 j jx x0 j 0 0 (3.43) 0 . In order to evaluate the constants C˙ .x0 / e ikjx x j jx x0 j (3. Furthermore.36) on the facing page gives ‰! .

tret /j Z 0 0 j tret . according to equation (3. one chooses r A D 0 so that equations (3.2 Coulomb gauge r2 D r 2A . inspired by ideas put forward by PAU L A D R I E N M AU R I C E D I R AC (1902– 1984). x/ D C a. the electrodynamic potentials in free space can be written Z 0 0 tret . a consistent electrodynamics based on both the retarded and the advanced potentials.t.42) on the preceding page.t. x0 / f .t. However.46) above set C D 0 and therefore.46) ‰.t. and a is a time-independent vector ﬁeld that has vanishing curl. x/ D CC d3x 0 jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 V0 This is a solution to the generic inhomogeneous wave equation for the potential components equation (3. if we discard the advanced potentials.45a) tret D tret .se/CED/Book Sheet: 62 of 262 . CC D 1=.45b) ! c and use equation (3.4.5 on page 42.e. ˇx x0 ˇ/ D t ! c ˇ ˇ k jx x0 j jx x0 j 0 0 tadv D tadv . ˇx x0 ˇ/ D t C DtC (3.31) on page 37.48a) C 1 @ r c 2 @t (3.tret / 1 A. They are therefore valid in the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge but may be gauge transformed according to the scheme described in subsection 3. at .30) on page 37.plasma. according to formula (3. often employed in quantum electrodynamics.2 From the above discussion about the solution of the inhomogeneous wave equations in the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge we conclude that.uu.27) on page 36 become (3. x/ D d3x 0 C˛ (3.. we shall use them frequently in the sequel.47a) 0 4 "0 V 0 jx.t.33) on page 38]: ˇ ˇ k jx x0 j jx x0 j 0 0 Dt (3.x/ (3. x0 /. x0 .t.4 /. As they stand. we obtain Z Z 0 0 f . in 1945. 0 0 If we introduce the retarded time tret and the advanced time tadv in the following way [using the fact that k=! D 1=c in free space. J O H N A R C H I BA L D W H E E L E R (1911–2008) and RICHARD PHILLIPS FEYNMAN (1918–1988) derived. x0 .t/ x0 . In Coulomb gauge.tret /j where ˛ is a scalar ﬁeld depentdent on time at most and therefore has a vanishing gradient.t.t/ x0 .tret / 1 . if we assume that causality requires that the potential at .26) or equations (3. x/ "0 2 1 @ A D c 2 @t 2 0 j. E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES 2 D R A 3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.tret . x0 / CC d3x 0 (3. we must in equation (3. These retarded potentials were obtained as solutions to the Lorenz-Lorentz equations (3.47b) d3x 0 0 4 "0 c 2 V 0 jx. x/ is set 0 up by the source at an earlier time.tadv .t. We note that the solution at time t at the ﬁeld point x is dependent on the behaviour at other times t 0 of the source at x0 and that both retarded and advanced t 0 are mathematically acceptable solutions. i. x/ In fact. 40 j 3 .tret .29) on page 37.48b) FT .

which is the solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation (3. The retarded solution is [cf.49) Ä @ @ C r jk D @t @t "0 r 2 C r jk D r Furthermore.3) on page 32. We see that in the scalar potential expression.52) C 0 jk where ˛ may vary in time but has a vanishing (spatial) gradient.48b) on the preceding page. and note that the equation of continuity.t/ jx x0 j (3. 3. has the solution . j? . The retardation (and advancement) effects therefore occur only in the vector potential A.t. x0 / C a. x0 / C ˛. equation (3.t. In order to solve this equation.47a) on the preceding page]: Z d3x 0 0 j? .53) (3. in analogy with equation (3.t.plasma. x/ D 0 which shows that in Coulomb gauge the source of the vector potential A is the transverse part of the current. the charge density source is evaluated at time t . equations (2. FT ÄÂ "0 r @ @t Ã C jk D 0 (3.51) (3.uu. equation (1. The longitudinal part of the current jk does not contribute to the vector potential. one splits up j in a longitudinal (k) and transverse (?) part. one ﬁnds that According to Helmholtz’ theorem.4.54) . The Coulomb gauge condition is therefore also called the transverse gauge or radiation gauge.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 63 of 262 . so that j Á jk C j? where r j? D 0 and r jk D 0 [cf. x/ D 1 4 "0 Z V0 d3x 0 .x/ has vanishing curl.48) on page 30].tret .48b) on the facing page thus becomes r 2A C 1 @ r D c 2 @t 0j D A. Gauge conditions j 41 The ﬁrst of these two is the time-dependent Poisson’s equation which. this implies that "0 r @ D jk @t R A 1 @2 A D c 2 @t 2 0j The inhomogeneous wave equation (3. since r ÄÂ r "0 r @ @t Ã r D 0 and r C jk D 0 jk D 0.x/ jx x0 j 4 V0 where a.25) on page 10 becomes D 0 j? (3.50) (3.

corresponding to an imaginary speed v D ic. 3 we obtain the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition in the limit v D c.3 Velocity gauge If r A fulﬁls the velocity gauge condition.56a) (3. x/ D d B. x/ C c2 @t 1 (3.57b) The Weyl gauge. c 2 @t ˛D c2 v2 (3. ˛ D 1.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 64 of 262 .t.e.t. E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES 3.. respectively. Hence.t.uu. In fact. to pick suitable forms for the potentials and still get the same physical result.e.2 on page 32 that in electrostatics and magnetostatics we have a certain mathematical degree of freedom. published already in 1857 by G U S TAV R O B E RT K I R C H H O F F (1824–1884). the velocity gauge is a generalisation of both these gauges.56b) 3. up to terms of vanishing gradients and curls. i.4 Other gauges Other useful gauges are R A 0 The Poincaré gauge (or radial gauge) where Z 1 .t. x/ "0 ˛ @ @ @t @t 1 ˛ @ r 0 j. the way the electromagnetic scalar . deﬁned by D 0.3 Inserting equation (3.4.57a) (3. x/ 0 Z 1 A.55) into the coupled inhomogeneous wave equations (3. 3. The axial gauge. and the Coulomb gauge condition in the limit v ! 1. also known as the temporal gauge or Hamilton gauge.t. deﬁned by A3 D 0. D The process of choosing a particular gauge condition is known as gauge ﬁxing. ˛ D 0.4. x/ x (3.1 on page 31 and in section 3.27) on page 36 they become 1 @2 D c 2 @t 2 1 @2 A D c 2 @t 2 . gives the Kirchhoff gauge.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.55) r2 r 2A FT c2 The value ˛ D 1. x/ D x d E. r AC˛ 1 @ D 0.plasma. sometimes referred to as the complete ˛-Lorenz gauge. i. 42 j 3 ..5 Gauge transformations We saw in section 3. where v is the propagation speed of the scalar potential.

t. It is only those quantities (expressions) that are gauge invariant that are observable and therefore have experimental signiﬁcance.25) on page 36 for the electric ﬁeld and into equation (3.60a) 2 @t 2 2 @t 2 c @t c "0 Â Ã 1 @2 1 @2 A r 2A r r 2 D 0 j. introduced in 1954. x/ and A0 .28) on page 37. Gauge transformations j 43 potential . can be gauge transformed according to (3.29) on page 37. x/ and the vector potential A.t.t.t. If. in particular. x/ D .r / @t @A @. x/ is an arbitrary.21) on page 35 for the magnetic ﬁeld.t. sufﬁciently differentiable scalar function called the gauge function. x/ 7! 0 . Trivially. and hence Maxwell’s equations. 4 @A0 D @t . x/ and A. x/ (3. 3. these equations will be transformed into Â Ã 1 @2 @ 1 @2 .t.58).t. x/ 7! A0 . x/ D A. x/ (3. and apply the gauge transformation (3.26) on page 36.t.uu.t.58).t. x/ calculated from equations (3.61) FT r @A @t (3. we obtain the transformed ﬁelds E0 D B0 D r r 0 r r @. x/ are related to the physical observables gives leeway for similar manipulation of them also in electrodynamics. x/ C A.t. x/ 2 2 r C r D (3.5. This theory has had a profound impact on modern physics. We see that the ﬁelds are unaffected by the gauge transformation (3. once again equation (F.t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.4 As just shown.58a) (3.plasma.t. A transformation of the potentials and A which leaves the ﬁelds. x/ according to the scheme . If we simultaneously transform both .r / D r D 1 @2 c 2 @t 2 r 2 D 0 where.t. the potentials .se/CED/Book Sheet: 65 of 262 .t.60b) c 2 @t 2 c 2 @t 2 R A We notice that if we require that the gauge function . we choose r A according to the LorenzLorentz condition. x/ @.58) on the resulting Lorenz-Lorentz potential equations (3. with an arbitrary choice of r A.t. and insert the transformed potentials into equation (3.t.59b) A very important extension is the Yang-Mills theory. Any physical law that does not change under a gauge transformation is said to be gauge invariant.t.58b) where . x/ into new ones 0 .r / C D @t @t A A0 D r A . invariant is called a gauge transformation. equation (3.107) on page 201 was used. x/ @t r . x/ itself be restricted to fulﬁl the wave equation (3. x/ and A. the electromagnetic ﬁelds and the Maxwell-Lorentz equations themselves are gauge invariant and electrodynamics is therefore a gauge theory and as such the prototype for all gauge theories.59a) (3.t.t.

62).62b) (3. E X A M P L E 3. one derives the inhomogeneous wave equations for the usual ‘electric’ scalar and vector potentials .63) above into equations (3. these formulæ reduce to the usual Maxwell theory formula (3. x/ D "0 Â Ã 1 @ e r Ae C 2 D 0 j e . e . equivalently for m Á 0 and Am Á 0.. The set of potentials which have been gauge transformed according to equation (3.50) on page 16]: r ED r ED A FT "0 0j m e m e (3. x/ A .62c) (3. Am / by assuming that the potentials are related to the ﬁelds in the following symmetrised form: ED BD r @ e A . as they should.64c) (3. equations (3.29) on page 37 are invariant. x/ c @t (3.63a) (3. x/ (3. 44 j 3 .62a) (3. Ae / and their ‘magnetic’ counterparts .64d) By choosing the conditions on the divergence of the vector potentials as the generalised .2 Electromagnetodynamic potentials In Dirac’s symmetrised form of electrodynamics (electromagnetodynamics). x/ 1 @2 Am c 2 @t 2 "0 m . x/ r Am @t 1 1 @ m r m .plasma. in other words. respectively.t.t.t.t.64b) (3.25) on page 36 and formula (3.t.64a) (3. one obtains [cf.62d) @B @t r BD r 0 BD 0j C "0 @E 0 @t In this theory. those gauge transformed potentials for which the equations (3. or.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 66 of 262 .uu.61) on the preceding page.21) on page 35.t.t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.63b) Ae D R r2 e In the absence of magnetic charges.26) on page 36] @ r Ae @t @ r Am r2 m C @t 1 @2 Ae r 2 Ae C r c 2 @t 2 C D e . or.t. x/ C r c2 c 2 @t e . x/ restricted to fulﬁl equation (3. comprise the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge.58) on the previous page with a gauge function . m . Maxwell’s equations are replaced by [see also equations (1. x/ c @t Â Ã 1 @ m r 2 Am C r r Am C 2 D 0 j m . Inserting the symmetrised expressions (3. E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES these transformed Lorenz-Lorentz equations will keep their original form.

t. x/ to new potentials ! 0 . x/.t.t.t. i r D @t 2m A !A0 .69) E X A M P L E 3.t. so that the transformed A FT End of example 3.5. where the wave function 2 C solves the Schrödinger equation i @ y DH @t (3.plasma.67b) (3.t. x/ @t r . x/ where p is the linear momentum. x/ C (3.65) (3. Gauge transformations and quantum mechanics As discussed in section 2.71) (3.se/CED/Book Sheet: 67 of 262 . H D 1 .uu.t.t.t.3 . In non-relativistic quantum mechanics.t. x/ exhibiting. 3. x/ and A.t.67c) (3. x/ "0 0j m . is D i @ 1 .67a) (3. x/ D .66) these coupled wave equations simplify to 1 @2 e r2 e c 2 @t 2 1 @2 Ae r 2 Ae c 2 @t 2 1 @2 m r2 m c 2 @t 2 1 @2 Am r 2 Am c 2 @t 2 D D D D e . the striking properties of Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell theory. x/ m . x/ The non-relativistic Hamiltonian for a classical particle with charge q in an electromagnetic ﬁeld.t.2 (3.p 2m R qA/2 C q qA/2 Cq @. x/.67d) .70) The idea is to perform a gauge transformation from the potentials . the physical observable probability density is D j j2 . Gauge transformations j 45 Lorenz-Lorentz condition [cf. x/ "0 0j e (3.68) y and H is the Hamilton operator. once again. expressed in the gauge function .t. equation (3.72) and then ﬁnd a Â.28) on page 37] 1 @ c 2 @t 1 @ r Am C 2 c @t r Ae C e m D0 D0 (3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/ D A.2 on page 20 quantum theory requires that we take the magnitude rather than the real part of our mathematical variables in order to turn them into physical observables.t. This gives the Schrödinger equation (3. which is called minimal coupling. The corresponding quantal Hamilton operator is obtained y by replacing p by the operator p D i r . described by the scalar potential and vector potential A.

means that we are dealing with a local gauge transformation. the gauge transformed Hamilton operator is unchanged iff .t.r Â/ Clearly.71) on the previous page W O L F G A N G PAU L I introduced the notation gauge transformation of the second kind whereas he called a wavefunction phase change.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.70) transforms into i 1 @ 0 Œ i r D @t 2m qA C .plasma.t.qr / Œ i r qA C .qr / h i D i .qr /2 (3.qr /e iÂ i Œ i r i . x/ D q.r Â/e iÂ i e iÂ r qAe iÂ C .t.70) on the preceding page.qr /e iÂ qA C .75) we see that DŒ i r D Œ i r qA C . This has as a consequence that i @ 0 @t q @ @t @Â iÂ e @t 0 q. We conclude that for a gauge transformation of the potentials and A and using the minimal coupling as in equation (3.t. setting 0 . x/ (3.se/CED/Book Sheet: 68 of 262 .70).qr /2 0 D Œ i r qA C .76) De Œ i r i .e /C e @t @t @t @t @Â iÂ @ @ C i e iÂ C e D e iÂ i @t @t @t (3.qr /2 0 Cq 0 Cq @ @t 0 (3. or. x/= . expression (3. 46 j 3 .qr / iÂ Œ i r qA C .t.75) a gauge transformation of the ﬁrst kind . iff Â.73) Under the gauge transformation. This means that the non-relativistic quantum physical observable j j2 is unaffected by a gauge transformation of the classical potentials and A that appear in the Hamilton operator. i r 2m qA/2 e iÂ C q e iÂ (3.74) Now. x/ is coordinate dependent.3 .qr / h i e iÂ .r Â/ A FT qA C . E L E C T ROMAGNETIC POTENTIALS AND GAUGES Schrödinger equation can be written i @e iÂ @t D 1 . but that the wave function changes from to e iÂ where the phase angle is real-valued.r Â/ qA C .uu. For the gauge transformation given by formulæ (3.r / i e iÂ .x/ . the Schrödinger equation is invariant.r /.74) we recover the untransformed Schrödinger equation (3.qr / e iÂ Œ i r i .77) Inserting this into the transformed Schrödinger equation (3. x/ D e iÂ.r Â/ qA C .qr / e iÂ qAe iÂ C . the Schrödinger equation (3.r Â/ D equivalently. Di D R Di 2 @ 0 @Â 0 @ iÂ @Â iÂ C Di . The fact that Â. End of example 3.t.

1962. F EYNMAN. .t / 7! A0 . .80a) (3.3. Gauge Fields: Introduction to Quantum Theory.6 Bibliography [19] L. Gauge Field Theories: An Introduction with Applications. . Classical Electricity and Magnetism. the gauge transformation equation (3. . 1991.se/CED/Book Sheet: 69 of 262 . G UIDRY. FADEEV AND A. John Wiley & Sons. . D. Interaction with the absorber as a mechanism for radiation.. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. 17 (1945). . a law (expression) that depends on A only through its transverse component A? is gauge invariant. ISBN 0-471-63117-5. Reviews of Modern Physics. NY . W HEELER AND R. .plasma. H. P HILLIPS.. . ISBN 0-471-30932-X.1. P. [21] J. Reading. [23] W. For the electric and magnetic ﬁeld the following then applies: Ek D E? D rˆ @Ak @t @A? @t B D r A? 3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.58b) on page 43 becomes Ak .-D. . John Wiley & Sons.uu. No. A. whereas a law that depends on the longitudinal component Ak is in general not gauge invariant and therefore does not represent a physical observable. S LAVNOV.. Reading. The Physical Basis of The Direction of Time. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. R A FT (3. 1999.. . 1920.. second ed. ISBN 0-80539016-2.. Classical Electrodynamics. pp. 3. . Inc.t/ k ikk . NY . Inc.t/ (3. Inc. ISBN 0-201-05702-6.79b) Hence. Bibliography j 47 Longitudinal and transverse components in gauge transformations If we represent the vector potential A. K. x/ in the reciprocal k space as described at the end of subsection 2. [22] H. New York.80b) (3.79a) (3.6.t. D. A. . . MA . Cambridge . third ed. SpringerVerlag. [20] M. 1980. MA . D [24] J. fourth ed. 157–. JACKSON. Inc. .78) E X A M P L E 3. NATURE.80c) End of example 3.4 . . ISBN 3-540-42081-9.4 we can separate it into its longitudinal and transverse components A0 D Ak k A0 ? D A? r (3.. PANOFSKY AND M. 50 in Frontiers in Physics: A Lecture Note and Reprint Series. New York.

uu.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. D R A FT .se/CED/Book Sheet: 70 of 262 .plasma.

e. a change of sign 49 R A FT FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD .e. the current density j.. Intimately related to symmetries are conserved quantities (constants of motion) of which our primary interest will be the electromagnetic energy. translation. called C symmetry. i. D In this chapter we will explore a number of fundamental properties of the electromagnetic ﬁelds and their sources. and centre of energy. reciprocity). To derive useful mathematical expressions for the physical observables that we want to study. 4. where this relation is perhaps less straightforward. linear momentum. These conserved quantities can carry information over large distances and are all more or less straightforwardly related to their counterparts in classical mechanics (indeed in all ﬁeld theories).Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 71 of 262 .. and the ﬁelds E and B behave under charge conjugation. rotation) and intrinsic symmetries (duality. under space inversion. as well as of the physical observables constructed from them. But we will also consider other conserved quantities. we once again take the microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2.1) on page 20 as our axiomatic starting point. i. Of particular interest are symmetries since they have a striking predictive power and are essential ingredients of the physics.1 Charge.plasma. angular momentum. a change of sign of charge q ! q 0 D q. space. and time inversion symmetries Let us ﬁrst investigate how the charge density .uu. This includes both discrete and continuous geometric symmetries (reﬂection.

3b) B. the Maxwell-Lorentz equations are invariant under charge conjugation. x/ D 0 0 E.2a) (4. x/ D "0 D "0 D and r E0 . x/ D B . F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD of the space coordinates x ! x0 D x. Recalling that /q and dx (4. x: (4. x/ D @ @ Œ B0 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 72 of 262 .1b) dt the transformation properties follow directly from the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2.t. CHARGE CONJUGATION q ! q 0 D ! 0 (4. jD vD C SYMMETRY.e. and under time reversal . called parity transformation and P symmetry. implying that E0 . x/ D r respectively. 50 j 4 . x/ D B.1) on page 20 we ﬁnd that they become R A r E0 .1) on page 20.3a) (4.t.4c) (4.t.t. Let us study them one by one.t. x / D dt 0 j ! j0 D r ! r0 D dx D dt j (4.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t. x/ FT dx D dt 0 dx D dt j r E.plasma. x/ Œ E.t.2d) @t @t @t When inserted into the two ﬁrst of the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2.uu. No violation of this invariance has yet been found experimentally.2c) D 0 dx 0 j ! j0 D dt D r ! r0 D r @ @ @ ! 0 D (4. i.2b) (4. called T symmetry.t. x/ @t @t (4..4d) @ @ @ ! 0 D @t @t @t . x/ D Consequently.4b) (4. a change of sign of the time coordinate t ! t 0 D t .t. SPACE INVERSION x ! x0 D ! 0 D dt r D d.t.1a) q: (4.4a) 0 dx 0 P SYMMETRY.

t. x/ Á B.8e) e cB ! ! m e c ! cj ! j j ! m R A E c m m e We see that E is even and B odd under time reversal.t.8c) (4.2 on page 217.50) on page 16 exhibit the following symmetry (recall that "0 0 D 1=c 2 ): (4.uu. t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 73 of 262 .t.6a) D j @ @t 0 r !r Dr @ @ ! 0 D @t @t implying that 0 E0 . t.8b) (4. t. 4.t. ="0 is an ordinary scalar.t. x/ D B. x/ (4.3. cj FT (4.5a) (4. The Universe as a whole is asymmetric under time reversal. TIME REVERSAL t ! t 0 D ! 0 t: (4.t. x/ B . No violation of this law has been observed so far.5b) B . Electromagnetic duality j 51 implying that E0 . consequently.6b) . whereas B is a pseudovector (axial vector) as described in subsection M. x/ Á E.1. x/ The CPT theorem states that the combined CPT symmetry must hold for all physical phenomena.6d) (4. we note that j and E are ordinary vectors.8a) (4. x/ D B.t.t. by assumption.t. and that the position vector x is the prototype of all ordinary (polar) vectors. x/ D E. x/ Á B. and "0 are ordinary scalars and that.8f) j ! j0 D (4.t. On quantum scales this is exhibited by the uncertainty principle and on classical scales by the arrow of time which is related to the increase of thermodynamic entropy in a closed system. T SYMMETRY. x/ Since. 4.6c) (4.7a) (4.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.8d) (4.7b) (4. x/ D 0 E. x/ Á E.plasma.2 Electromagnetic duality D E ! cB e We notice that Dirac’s symmetrised version of the Maxwell equations (1.2.

electromagnetodynamic Maxwell-Lorentz equations (Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations). invariant.10) .1 R r ? This transformation leaves the symmetrised Maxwell equations. also known as the Heaviside-Larmor-Rainich transformation (indicated by the Hodge star operator ? in the upper left-hand corner of the symbol in question) ? E D E cos Â C cB sin Â E sin Â C cB cos Â e (4. and hence the physics they describe (often referred to as electromagnetodynamics). must be pseudoscalars1 and j m a pseudovector.9). equations (1. 52 j 4 . we conclude that the magnetic charge density m and Â .plasma.9f) c BD c ? e ? Dc D cos Â C e m sin Â m ? m c sin Â C cos Â c ?j e D cj e cos Â C j m sin Â ? m j D cj sin Â C j cos Â e m 1 Recall that the Taylor expansion for cos Â contains only even powers of Â whereas the expansion for sin Â contains only odd.9d) (4. as long as we assume that this fraction is the same for all particles. ﬁxed ratio between the two types of charges is a matter of convention. which behaves as a mixing angle in a two-dimensional ‘charge space’. Such particles are referred to as dyons. Explicit application of the transformation yields e 0 A FT E D r .9e) (4.9b) (4.9) means that the amount of magnetic monopole density m is irrelevant for the physics as long as the ratio m = e D tan Â is kept constant.50) on page 16. By varying the mixing angle Â we can change the fraction of magnetic monopoles at will without changing the laws of electrodynamics. B a pseudovector (axial vector). Since E and j e are true (polar) vectors.9a) (4. Duality of the electromagnetodynamic equations Show that the symmetric. e a (true) scalar. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD which is a particular case (Â D =2) of the general duality transformation.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. So whether we assume that the particles are only electrically charged or have also a magnetic charge with a given.9c) (4.E cos Â C cB sin Â/ D cos Â C c "0 Â Ã ? e 1 1 m e D cos Â C sin Â D "0 c "0 m sin Â (4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 74 of 262 . D E X A M P L E 4. The invariance of Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations under the duality transformation (4.uu. For Â D 0 we recover the usual Maxwell electrodynamics. are invariant under the duality transformation (4.

4. End of example 4.17c) .11) BDr .16) (4.14) (4. Electromagnetic duality j 53 r ? EC @?B Dr @t D D r ? Ã 1 E sin Â C B cos Â c 1 @E @B m cos Â C c 0 j e sin Â C sin Â 0 j cos Â @t c @t 1 @E @B m e sin Â C cos Â D 0 j cos Â C c 0 j sin Â c @t @t e m ? m 0 . we see that spatial and temporal differentiation of ?G leads to @?G D i.cos Â R A iE sin Â C icB cos Â i sin Â/ D . D 0 cos Â (4.@ t Â/e iÂ G C e iÂ @ t G @t @ ?G Á r ?G D ie iÂ r Â G C e iÂ r G GÁr GD ie iÂ rÂ GCe iÂ r which means that @ t ?G transforms as ?G itself only if Â is time-independent.cos Â i sin Â/ C icB.6) on page 22. and that r ?G and r ?G transform as ?G itself only if Â is space-independent.uu. x/.17b) G (4. cj sin Â C j cos Â/ D 0 j .2 FT QED End of example 4.E cos Â C cB sin Â / E sin Â C B cos Â/ c c 2 @t 1 @B 1 @E m cos Â C 0 j e cos Â C 2 cos Â 0 j sin Â C c @t c @t (4.9) on the preceding page become from which it is easy to see that ˇ ˇ2 ? G ?G D ˇ?G ˇ D Ge iÂ G eiÂ D jGj2 whereas ? G ? G D G Ge D @ t ?G Á @ ? Furthermore.E cos Â C cB sin Â/ C @ @t e 1 E sin Â C B cos Â/ D sin Â C c c"0 c e sin Â C m cos Â D 0 ? m 0 m Â (4.12) r ? B Duality expressed in Riemman-Silberstein formalism ? G D ?E C ic ?B D E cos Â C cB sin Â D E.2.2 D Ge iÂ (4. introduced in equation (2. E X A M P L E 4.plasma. the duality transformation equations (4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 75 of 262 .13) 1 @E 1 @B cos Â sin Â 2 c @t cÂ @t Ã 1 m D 0 j sin Â C j e cos Â D 0 ?j e c . assuming that Â D Â.15) (4.t.1 iÂ 1 @?E Dr c 2 @t 1 D c 1 1 @ .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.E C icB/e 2iÂ ? Expressed in the Riemann-Silberstein complex ﬁeld vector.17a) (4.

e.uu.e. where dxi and dxj are two coordinates that span the local tangent plane of the surface O and n is a unit vector. in 3D space. orthogonal to the tangent plane and pointing outward. electric charge.se/CED/Book Sheet: 76 of 262 . i. the task is to ﬁnd the conservation laws for the physical system under study. which states that any differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law. it is usually referred to as the control sphere. if s D 0.. If there is no production of the ‘substance’ in V .plasma. 2 (4. and the production of the ‘substance’ in the volume enclosed by the surface.3 Conservation laws It is well established that a deeper understanding of a physical system can be obtained by studying the system’s conserved quantities (constants of motion).20) which expresses. the equation describes the constancy of the amount of ‘substance’. This increase is quantiﬁed by the source density s. those observables that do not change with time. ﬁxed in space and enclosed by a perfectly permeable surface O O S with a inﬁnitesimally small directed area element d2x n D dxi dxj n..t. this balance equation can be rewritten Z d3x @% C r . that ﬂows. the balance between the explicit temporal change of the density of the ‘substance’. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD 4. is considered to be a fundamental tool of theoretical physics.19) V D Since this equation must hold for an arbitrary volume V . Recalling that the normal vector O n points outward. this inward ﬂow will increase the amount of ‘substance’ in V . x/ and its ﬂow velocity by v . in differential form.t.%v / D s @t (4.%v / @t Á s D0 (4.18) With the help of Gauss’s theorem. which.e.126) on page 202.g. 54 j 4 . The property or ‘substance’ ﬂows into the volume V at the rate %v per unit area. . the integrand must vanish and we obtain the continuity equation @% C r . In the special case that the volume V is spherical. according to Noether’s theorem. Let us also introduce a closed volume V . In other words. in a time-dependent way. Her (ﬁrst) theorem.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Let us denote the volume density of this ‘substance’ by %. formula (F. Clearly. Consider a certain physical property or ‘substance’. i. the ﬂow of it across the surface of a closed volume. the following balance equation must hold: Z d d3x % dt V „ ƒ‚ … D Z O d2x n %v C d3x s V … „ ƒ‚ … „ S ƒ‚ Flow into V R A I Total change within V FT Production inside V AMALIE EMMY NOETHER (1882–1935) made important contributions to mathematics and theoretical physics.2 is closely related to ﬁnding the symmetries of the system. x/. We also allow for an increase due to the production of the ‘substance’ inside V .

equation (1. dependent on t and x.1) on page 20. indestructible.3.x x0 / v . since r ..1d) on page 20 can be rewritten r (4. of course. Conservation laws j 55 In fact. and one of the founding fathers of the United States of America. inventor. i. This result is.uu.25) describes the fact that electric charge is conserved. we can generalise equation (4. .%v / D %r v C v r % we can rewrite the equation of continuity as d% C %r .36) on page 13]. consistent a posteriori with the fact that these axiomatic laws were formulated with the a priori assumption that the continuity equation (1.20) on the preceding page to @% C r . since the time derivative d=dt operating on a scalar. statesman.%v C r @t a/ D s (4.21) Furthermore.20) on the preceding page is the electric charge density . a is an arbitrary. again.25) on page 10 was valid. is @ d D Cv r dt @t according to the chain rule [cf..e. i.3 4. 4.t. scientist.2 Conservation of total electric current If we use the notation j c for the electric current associated with electric charge transport and j d for the displacement current @. vector or tensor ﬁeld. and since r . x/ C r j.e.e.t.23) (4.1 Conservation of electric charge @ .g. i.26) FT (4.24) This was postulated in 1747 by B E N JA M I N F R A N K L I N (1706– 1770). differentiable vector ﬁeld a. and interpret v as the electric current density j. x/ D 0 @t R A B D jc C jd When the ‘substance’ density % in equation (4. printer.25) D 1 0 This is our ﬁrst conservation law derived from the microscopic Maxwell equations (2. we exclude any charge-generating mechanisms.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 4.3.. equation (2.se/CED/Book Sheet: 77 of 262 .22) where. differentiable pseudovector ﬁeld with dimension m2 s 1 .t /. 3 .v C r dt a/ D s (4. Then the continuity equation takes the form (4. the moment of velocity with respect to x0 .r a/ D 0 for any arbitrary. The continuity equation (4."0 E/=@t.plasma. philosopher.3. e. we assume that s D 0..

EA/ C .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 78 of 262 .r A/ E 1 0 1 0 A C .31a) (4. Using the Maxwell equations (2. Usually it is written as in equation (2.31d) 1 0 .27) This is a rather unusual way of writing the wave equation for the electric ﬁeld vector Er. Let us introduce the electromagnetic ﬁeld energy density ) (4.r D D B 0 @B @E "0 0 E 0E j @t @t Á @ "0 E E C c2B B C j E @t 2 FT E/ E .r E/A r .E B/ D B .31c) (4.95) on page 200 was used.29) and the electromagnetic energy ﬂux or the Poynting vector B D "0 c 2 E B (Wm 2 ) (4.28) R A uem D "0 . F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD Differentiating this with respect to time t and using the Maxwell equation (2.21) on page 35.uu. let us study the divergence of E B.3.110) on page 201.r A/ E .25) on the previous page contains the divergence of the ﬁrst-order vector quantity j.plasma.31b) (4.30) D that can also be viewed as the electromagnetic energy current density. the Poynting vector S can be expressed in terms of the vector potential A vector as SD D D D 1 0 E .r A/ E .r B/ (Jm 3 The continuity equation (4.28a) on page 25.1b) on page 20 and formula (F.r Á E/ D 0 (4.r A/ r .EA/ (4. 56 j 4 .E E C c 2 B B/ 2 SD 1 E 0 where formula (F.1) on page 20 we obtain the balance equation (4. As one example of the divergence of a second order vector quantity.r A/ E . 4. Employing formula (3. we obtain the following conservation law for the total current @j c @j d C Cr @t @t 13 1 0 .3 Conservation of energy r .

35) @umech @uem C Cr S D0 (4.EA/? (4. It is known as the Lorentz power density and is equivalent to the time rate of change of the mechanical energy density (Jm 3 ) of the current carrying particles (4. we conclude that E represents force per unit volume (Nm 3 ) and that E v therefore represents work per unit volume or.uu.32c) (4.1a) on page 20.r E/A? r .100) on page 201 in the ﬁrst step.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.r A? / E . as a continuity equation with a source density sD j ED E v (4.e.32d) 1 0 . R Expressing the Lorentz power.33) above can therefore be written R A From the deﬁnition of E.r A? / E . where Z "0 Ue D d3x E E (4. Conservation laws j 57 where we used formula (F. V d3x j E. as the time rate of change of the mechanical energy: Z dU mech D d3x j E (4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 79 of 262 .r A? / E 1 0 1 0 With the help of these deﬁnitions we can write the balance equation (4.32b) (4.33) @umech Dj E @t Equation (4. with the result that SD D D D 1 0 E . 4.38) 2 V FT (4.28) on the facing page as @uem Cr S D j E @t i.34) A? C .96) on page 200 in the second step and the Maxwell-Lorentz equation (2.3.37) dt V D and introducing the electromagnetic ﬁeld energy U em D U e C U m .32a) (4.36) @t @t which is the energy density balance equation in differential form.plasma.r A? / E . in other words.1 to resolve A into its longitudinal and transverse components Ak and A? . formula (F.3.r A/? r .EA? / C . For each spatial Fourier component. power density (Wm 3 ). we can use the results in subsection 2.. respectively.

42) we obtain the relation Z Z j2 d3x j E D d3x V V (4.3 . i.45) 2 2 V is conserved.E C Eemf / FT Z d3x j Eemf V Radiated power Supplied electric power (4.44) d3x j Eemf dt V S V „ƒ‚… „ ƒ‚ … „ ƒ‚ … „ ƒ‚ … This shows how the supplied power (left-hand side. by explicit calculation.E E C c 2 B B/ (4. or.. Ohmic losses in the system (right-hand side. radiated electromagnetic power. also known as Poynting’s theorem. and Joule heat power. LHS) is expelled in the form of a time rate change of electric and magnetic ﬁeld energy.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. equivalently.40) dt dt S where This is the energy theorem in Maxwell’s theory.e.40) above and use is made of equation (4. Conservation of energy Show.43) D E X A M P L E 4.41) is a valid approximation. we can write the integral version of the balance equation (4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 80 of 262 . Allowing for an EMF and assuming that Ohm’s law j D .37) on the preceding page.36) on the preceding page as I dU mech dU em O C C d2x n S D 0 (4.plasma.uu.3 R A Supplied electric power Field power which. when inserted into equation (4. 58 j 4 . End of example 4. that the total energy H of a closed system comprising charged particles of mass mi and speed vi and pertinent electromagnetic ﬁelds E and B Z 1 "0 2 H D mi vi C d3x . that ED j Eemf (4.39) is the magnetic ﬁeld energy. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD is the electric ﬁeld energy and Z Z "0 1 d3x B B D d3x c 2 B B Um D 2 0 V 2 V (4. RHS). yields Z I Z dU em 3 emf 2 O d xj E D C d xn S (4.

100).r B/ c2j B A combination of formulæ (F. (F.r E/ D r E E D D E rE D 1 r . x/ D %m . x/v where %m is the (volumetric) mass density (kgm 3 ). and (F.33) on page 57 introduced the Poynting (energy ﬂux) vector S.50) (4. Conservation laws j 59 4.3.t. that @E @B Á @S D "0 c 2 BCE @t @t @t (4. x/. we can write equation (4.E E/ 2 E rE 1 r .t.t.4 Conservation of linear momentum The derivation of the energy conservation formula (4.t. we introduce the electromagnetic linear momentum density em g by making the identiﬁcation (4.48) c 2 @t 2 The polar vector f has the dimension Nm 3 and we therefore identify it as a force density and call it the Lorentz force density.EE/ C r .1) on page 20.91). and formula (F.r E/E 2 Á 1 r EE 13 . x/ c2 and similarly for B. and rearranging terms.3.uu. S D gem c 2 gmech .49) (4.E E/ C E 2 where f D ECj R A B BD S. In the same vein.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. this mechanical force density must equal the time rate change of the mechanical linear momentum density D gem .52) .plasma. Euler’s ﬁrst law). x/ D "0 E or. allows us to write E .se/CED/Book Sheet: 81 of 262 .E E/ C .51) FT (4. According to classical mechanics (Newton’s second law.1) on page 20 once more. Dividing out c 2 .47) (4. using the Maxwell equations (2.46) as h1 i 1 @S C "0 r 13 E E C c 2 B B EE C c 2 BB C f D 0 (4.r E/ C c 2 B .46) D "0 c 2 E . 4. using the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2. We now seek a balance equation involving the time derivative of S and ﬁnd.110) on page 201. alternatively.96) on page 200.t.

53) "0 E E C c2B B 2 "0 EE C c 2 BB (4. where E is energy and m is mass. we see that this relation forebodes the relativistic relation E D mc 2 . In tensor component form. Nm 2 .53) above over the entire ﬁnite volume V .58) This is the linear momentum theorem in Maxwell’s theory which describes how the electromagnetic ﬁeld carries linear momentum.54) Tij D ıij uem "0 Ei Ej FT 1 Bi Bj 0 is the electromagnetic linear momentum ﬂux tensor (the negative of the Maxwell stress tensor).se/CED/Book Sheet: 82 of 262 . it can be written (4. Integration of equation (4.57b) Z V Force on the matter d xf „ ƒ‚ … 3 d C dt Z V d x "0 . 60 j 4 . yields the conservation law for linear momentum I dpmech dpem O C C d2x n T D 0 (4. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD Since the LHS of this equation is (energy density) (velocity) and the RHS is (mass density) (velocity) c 2 . We are now able to write down the linear momentum density balance equation (4. measured in Pa.plasma.uu.29) on page 56.56) dt dt S Z D d xg 3 mech Z D d3x %m v (4.46) on the previous page in differential form. enclosed by the surface S. .e.57a) V V and D or p em Z D V d xg 3 em Z D V d3x "0 ..E „ ƒ‚ 3 I B/ C … EM ﬁeld momentum Linear momentum ﬂow O d2x n T „ ƒ‚ … S D0 (4. i.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. The component Tij is the electromagnetic linear momentum in the ith direction that passes a surface element in the j th direction per unit time. The tensor T is the electromagnetic linear momentum current density of the electromagnetic ﬁeld.55) R A where p mech where the electromagnetic energy density uem is deﬁned in formula (4. per unit area. It is @gem @gmech C Cr TD0 @t @t where T D 13 (4.E B/ (4.

and applying the divergence theorem.8) on page 5.63) . 4.uu. the evaluation of the ﬁrst integral in equation (4.32d) on page 57 to ﬁnd the manifestly gauge-independent expression I Z Z 3 em 3 O (4.58) on the preceding page shows that the force on this single charged particle is Z Z F D d3x f D d3x . Conservation laws j 61 If we assume that we have a single localised charge q.65) trans 2! V FT S S which is the Lorentz force.e. see also equation (1.59) above follows directly from a conservation law.5) on page 22. the Lorentz force does not have to be presupposed.E C v B/ (4. E C j B/ D q. yielding Z I i"0 i"0 em 3 O ptrans D Re d x .. In complex tensor notation with Einstein’s summation convention applied. i.64) trans 2! V where we used formula (2.31d) on page 56 in formula (4.plasma. that the charge density is given in terms of a Dirac distribution as in equation (1. Note that equation (4.59) V V V V For each spatial Fourier component we use equation (4.62) which allows us to replace A by iE=!. Using formula (4.1a) on page 20. Hence.3.60) (4.4 on page 47 we ﬁnd that ED @A D i!A @t (4.r E/ E (4. where the sum is over one particle only.46) on page 14. we can discard the surface integral term and ﬁnd that the cycle averaged linear momentum of the transverse ﬁeld is Z i"0 pem D Re d3x .1) on page 20.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 83 of 262 .r A/ E "0 d2x n EA (4.r E/ E C Re d2x n EE 2! V ! S R A V V D If EE falls off sufﬁciently rapidly at large distances. and therefore is a consequence of a symmetry of the microscopic Maxwell equations (2.57b) on the facing page. the Maxwell-Lorentz equation (2. we can write the electromagnetic linear momentum of the ﬁeld as Z Z I em 3 3 O p D d x A C "0 d x .61) p D d x A? C "0 d x .r A/? E "0 d2x n EA? If we restrict ourselves to consider a single temporal Fourier component of the transverse component and use the results in example 3. this can be written Z i"0 pem D d3x Ei r Ei (4.

plasma.5 Conservation of angular momentum Already 1776 it was shown by L E O N H A R D E U L E R that the most general dynamical state of a mechanical system is the sum of its translational motion. e.x0 / D † mech C Lmech . as a quantum expectation value where the components of the electric ﬁeld vector behave as wavefunctions..E B/ (4.68) V is conserved. that the linear momentum p of a closed system comprising charged particles of mass mi and velocity vi and pertinent electromagnetic ﬁelds E and B Z p D mi vi C "0 d3x . 4 R A J mech .e. D Rational mechanist C L I F F O R D A M B RO S E T RU E S D E L L I I I (1919–2000) wrote several excellent accounts on how this result was arrived at by Euler in the latter half of the 18th century. In the special case of a classical rigid body for which the contribution from internal angular momenta cancel the angular momentum around x0 is given by the pseudovector J mech . by explicit calculation.66) we see that we can write the expression for the linear momentum of the electromagnetic ﬁeld in terms of this operator as Z "0 y pem D d3x Ei pEi (4.4 Conservation of linear momentum Show.67) trans 2 ! V i. E X A M P L E 4. (4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 84 of 262 . described by the system’s mechanical moment of momentum. described by the linear momentum mechanical linear momentum pmech . For a closed system of rotating and orbiting bodies..g.x x0 / pmech . a spinning planet orbiting a (non-rotating) star. and Lmech is the extrinsic mechanical orbital angular momentum.x0 / D .x0 / 4.x0 / about the moment point x0 .4 . 62 j 4 . and its rotational motion. and that these two momenta are in general independent of each other 4 . describing the spin of the planet around its own axis.3.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the total mechanical angular momentum of the system is the vectorial sum of two contributions. or mechanical angular momentum J mech . F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD If we recall that the quantal linear momentum operator is y pD i r (4. describing the motion of the planet in an orbit around FT End of example 4.69) where † mech is the intrinsic mechanical spin angular momentum.uu.

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4.3. Conservation laws

j 63

the star. As is well known from mechanics, J mech of a closed mechanical system is conserved and to change it one has to apply a mechanical torque .x0 / D dJ mech .x0 / dt (4.70)

Starting from the deﬁnition of the mechanical linear momentum density gmech , formula (4.50) on page 59, and suppressing the obvious dependence of x, we deﬁne the mechanical angular momentum density about a ﬁxed moment point x0 as hmech .x0 / D .x x0 / gmech (4.71)

hem .x0 / D .x

x0 /

gem

where, according to equation (4.52) on page 59, gem D "0 E B D S=c 2 . Now, if f is the Lorentz force density as deﬁned in equation (4.49) on page 59, then @hmech .x0 / @ D .x @t @t C.x x0 / x0 / gmech D dx dt gmech f

R A

@gmech D .x @t x0 / x0 / gem D dx dt gem C .x D "0 .x x0 / @ .E @t 1 B/ D 2 .x c x0 / x0 /

T

is the Lorentz torque density. Furthermore, @hem .x0 / @ D .x @t @t

By introducing the electromagnetic angular momentum ﬂux tensor

D

K.x0 / D .x

where T is the electromagnetic linear momentum ﬂux tensor given by expression (4.54) on page 60, the differential form of the balance equation for angular momentum density can be written @hmech .x0 / @hem .x0 / C C r K.x0 / D 0 @t @t (4.76)

where the pseudotensor K.x0 / represents the electromagnetic angular momentum current density around x0 .

FT

(4.72) (4.73) x0 / @S @t @gem @t (4.74) (4.75)

Analogously, we deﬁne the electromagnetic moment of momentum density or electromagnetic angular momentum density about a moment point x0 as the pseudovector

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4 . F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

Integration over the entire volume V , enclosed by the surface S , yields the conservation law for angular momentum I dJ mech .x0 / dJ em .x0 / O C C d2x n K.x0 / D 0 (4.77) dt dt S where the mechanical and electromagnetic angular momentum pseudovectors are Z mech J .x0 / D d3x hmech .x0 / (4.78a)

V

and

FT

V

J em .x0 / D

**d3x hem .x0 / D V Z D "0 d3x .x x0 /
**

V

Z

Z

d3x .x

x0 /

gem

(4.78b)

.E

B/

**respectively. We can formulate—and interpret—this conservation law in the following way: Z Z d d3x .x x0 / f C "0 d3x .x x0 / .E B/ dt „ V „V ƒ‚ … ƒ‚ …
**

Torque on the matter Field angular momentum

D

R A

I C

V

(4.79)

Angular momentum ﬂow

O d2x n K.x0 / D 0 S „ ƒ‚ …

This angular momentum theorem is the angular analogue of the linear momentum theorem, equation (4.58) on page 60. It shows that the electromagnetic ﬁeld, like any physical ﬁeld, can carry angular momentum. For a single localised charge q, i.e., for a charge density given by equation (1.8) on page 5 with summation over one particle only, the evaluation of the ﬁrst integral in equation (4.79) above shows that the mechanical torque on this single charged particle is Z Z 3 .x0 / D d x .x x0 / f D d3x ..x x0 / . E C j B// V V (4.80) D .x x0 / q.E C v B/

We call it the Lorentz torque. If we study formula (4.78b) a little closer, we see that it can be written Z J em .x0 / D J em .0/ x0 "0 d3x E B D J em .0/ x0 pem (4.81)

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4.3. Conservation laws

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where use was made of equation (4.57b) on page 60. With the help of equation (4.31) on page 56 we can write Z Z 1 em 3 d3x x S (4.82) J .0/ D "0 d x x .E B/ D 2 c V V Z Z (4.83) D "0 d3x x Œ.r A/ E "0 d3x Œx E .r A/

V V

**Partial integration of this yields Z Z em 3 J .0/ D "0 d x E A C "0 d3x x Œ.r A/ E V V Z Z 3 "0 d x r .Ex A/ C "0 d3x .x A/.r E/
**

V V

(4.84)

A

V

and Lem .0/ D "0 Z

V

d3x x

Z Œ.r A/ E C

V

d3x x

D

b †j k D i O ij k xi b †D

S

If there is no net electric charge density in the integration volume, the second integral in the RHS of equation (4.85b) vanishes, and if Ex A Á E.x A/ falls off sufﬁciently fast with jxj, the contribution from the surface integral in equation (4.86) above can be neglected. Furthermore, for a single Fourier component and in the complex notation, we obtain the expressions Z "0 † em D i d3x .E E/ (4.87a) 2! V Z "0 Lem .0/ D i d3x Ei .x r /Ei (4.87b) 2! V

Recalling that in quantum mechanics the spin angular momentum operator is (4.88)

which, with the help of the matrix vector expression (M.27) on page 210 can be written (4.89)

R A

S

applying Gauss’s theorem, formula (F.126) on page 202, and using the MaxwellLorentz equation (2.1a) on page 20, we ﬁnd that expression (4.84) above can be written I em em em O J .0/ D † C L .0/ "0 d2x n .Ex A/ (4.86)

FT

(4.85a) A (4.85b)

By introducing Z em † D "0 d3x E

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4 . F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

and the orbital angular momentum operator is y LD i x r D i O ij k xj @k xi (4.90)

**we can write Z "0 b † D d3x Ej †j k Ek 2 ! V Z "0 y d3x Ei LEi Lem .0/ D 2 ! V
**

em

(4.91a) (4.91b)

Hence, under the assumptions made above, we can interpret † em as the electromagnetic spin angular momentum and Lem as the electromagnetic orbital angular momentum.

E X A M P L E 4.5 Conservation of angular momentum

Show, by explicit calculation, that the total angular momentum J of a closed system comprising charged particles located at xi , of mass mi and velocity vi and pertinent electromagnetic ﬁelds E and B Z J D xi mi vi C "0 d3x Œx .E B/ (4.92)

V

is conserved.

E X A M P L E 4.6

Spin angular momentum and wave polarisation

Consider a generic temporal Fourier mode of the electric ﬁeld vector E of a circularly polarised wave with (angular) frequency !. According to equation (2.34) on page 27 it can be written

R

where E.t; x/ D p and

O E.t; x/ D E.t; x/ h˙

A FT

2E0 ei.kx3

!tCı1 /

End of example 4.5

(4.93)

(4.94)

D

1 O O h˙ D p x1 ˙ iO 2 / x 2

(4.95)

O O As before, we use the convention that hC represents left-hand circular polarisation and h right-hand circular polarisation. Noting that O .h˙ / O h˙ D ˙iO z (4.96)

we see that E O O E D ˙i jEj2 z D ˙iE 2 z (4.97)

When this is inserted into equation (4.87a) on the preceding page one ﬁnds that the spin

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4.3. Conservation laws

j 67

angular momentum of a circularly polarised wave is Z "0 U em em O O † D˙ d3x E 2 z D ˙ z 2! V !

(4.98)

where U em is the ﬁeld energy. Considering the wave consisting of N photons, then U em D N ! which means that the spin of the wave is N ! O O z D ˙N z (4.99) ! Hence, each photon of a right-hand or a left-hand circular polarised wave carries a spin angular momentum of or , respectively. † em D ˙ End of example 4.6 Orbital angular momentum y The Cartesian components of the quantal orbital angular momentum operator (OAM) L as given by expression (4.90) on the preceding page are @ @ Á y Lx D i y z (4.100a) @z @y @Á @ y (4.100b) x Ly D i z @x @z Á @ @ y Lz D i x (4.100c) y @y @x In cylindrical coordinates . ; '; z/ they are Ä @ @Á z @ y Lx D i sin ' z C cos ' @ @z @' Ä @Á z @ @ y sin ' Ly D i cos ' z @ @z @' @ y Lz D i @' and in spherical coordinates .r; '; Â/ they are @ Á @ y C cos ' cot Â Lx D i sin ' @Â @' @ @ Á y Ly D i cos ' sin ' cot Â @Â @' @ y Lz D i @' E X A M P L E 4.7

R

i @E0 .t; x/ ˆ' @' E0 .t; x/ @ˆ.'/ Á @'

D

E D E0 .t; x/ˆ.'/ we ﬁnd that y Lz E.t; x/ D

For an electric ﬁeld E that depends on the azimuthal angle ' in such a way that (4.103)

If E0 .t; x/ is rotationally symmetric around the the z axis, so that E0 D E0 . ; z/ in cylindrical coordinates , E0 D E0 .r; Â/ in spherical (polar) coordinates etc., and if the azi-

A FT

(4.101a) (4.101b) (4.101c) (4.102a) (4.102b) (4.102c) (4.104)

as can be shown by direct calculation based on the Maxwell-Lorentz the following conservation law holds in free space (vacuum): (4.r B/ XDE @E C c2B @t @B @t is the chirality ﬂow. Furthermore.87b) on page 65.108) D FT which means that for a rotationally symmetric beam with an azimuthal phase dependence given by exp.t. 68 j 4 .'/ D we see that y Lz E.m'/ one deduces.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.109) is the chirality density. For instance.3.6 Conservation of centre of energy E X A M P L E 4.r E/ C c 2 B .106) i. In analogy with the existence of a centre of mass in a classical mechanical system.8 .e.se/CED/Book Sheet: 90 of 262 . there exists a centre of energy in electrodynamics. End of example 4. according to formula (4.uu. that E is a weighted superpostion of OAM eigenstates Em D E0 eim' . linear momentum and angular momentum.107) 4. It can be shown that this vectoral quantity is also conserved. that the z component of the orbital angular momentum of each photon in this beam is m . and the pseudovector (4.. a large number of other electromagnetic conservation laws can be derived. x/ D 1 X mD 1 1 X mD 1 cm eim' (4.plasma. y Lz Em D m Em (4.8 R A Examples of other conservation laws @ Cr XD0 @t where the pseudoscalar D E . In addition to the conservation laws for energy.105) cm m E0 eim' D 1 X mD 1 cm m Em (4.110) End of example 4. F U N DA M E N TA L PROPERTIES OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD muthal part is expressed in a Fourier series ˆ.7 (4.

x x0 / gem is the electromagnetic virial density. the following differential balance equation is obtained: @ .uu. 4.3. . When integrated over space and time averaged.111) This is the electromagnetic virial theorem.. 1999. Classical Electrodynamics. . third ed. Cambridge University Press.x x0 / T D uem (4. The quantity .se/CED/Book Sheet: 91 of 262 . NY . we scalar multiply. 1991. . Chicago Lectures in Physics. 4. ISBN 0-471-30932-X. JACKSON.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.. Electrodynamics. ISBN 0-226-51957-0.plasma.. Inc.g. e.7 Electromagnetic virial theorem If instead of vector multiplying the linear momentum densities gmech and gem by the position vector relative to a ﬁx point x0 as we did in subsection 4. John Wiley & Sons.x x0 / gmech @ . D R A FT . New York. Cambridge and London. this theorem is a statement of the partitioning of energy in electrodynamics and ﬁnds use in.4.x C @t x0 / gem Cr @t . analogous to the virial theorem of Clausius in mechanics. Bibliography j 69 4. D. plasma physics.4 Bibliography [25] J. [26] F. M ELIA.5 on page 62.3.

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D

R A

FT

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That such transform pairs exist is true for most well-behaved physical variables which are neither strictly monotonically increasing nor strictly monotonically decreasing with time.1 For charge and current densities varying in time we can therefore, without loss of generality, work with individual Fourier components ! .x/ and j! .x/, respectively. Strictly speaking, the existence of a single Fourier component assumes a monochromatic source (i.e., a source containing only one single frequency component), which in turn requires that the electric and magnetic ﬁelds exist for inﬁnitely long times. However, by taking the proper limits, we may still use this approach even for sources and ﬁelds of ﬁnite duration. 71

D

R A

While, in principle, the electric and magnetic ﬁelds can be calculated from the Maxwell equations in chapter 1, or even from the wave equations in chapter 2, it is often physically more lucid to calculate them from the electromagnetic potentials derived in chapter 3. In this chapter we will derive the electric and magnetic ﬁelds from the potentials. We recall that in order to ﬁnd the solution (3.46) for the generic inhomogeneous wave equation (3.30) on page 37 we presupposed the existence of a Fourier transform pair (3.31) on page 37 for the generic source term Z 1 f .t; x/ D d! f! .x/ e i!t (5.1a) 1 Z 1 1 f! .x/ D dt f .t; x/ ei!t (5.1b) 2 1

FT

1

FIELDS FROM ARBITRARY CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS

An example of a physical quantity that cannot be represented in Fourier form is white noise.

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5 . F I E L D S F RO M A R BITRARY CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS

This is the method we shall utilise in this chapter in order to derive the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in vacuum from arbitrary given charge densities .t; x/ and current densities j.t; x/, deﬁned by the temporal Fourier transform pairs Z 1 .t; x/ D d! ! .x/ e i!t (5.2a) 1 Z 1 1 .x/ D dt .t; x/ ei!t (5.2b) ! 2 1 and j.t; x/ D d! j! .x/ e i!t 1 Z 1 1 j! .x/ D dt j.t; x/ ei!t 2 1 Z

1

(5.3a) (5.3b)

under the assumption that only retarded potentials produce physically acceptable solutions. The temporal Fourier transform pair for the retarded scalar potential can then be written Z 1 .t; x/ D d! ! .x/ e i!t (5.4a)

1

1 ! .x/ D 2

Z

1 1

dt .t; x/ ei!t D

FT

1 4 "0 Z d3x 0

V0 0 ! .x /

e ikjx x j jx x0 j

0

(5.4b)

R A

1

where in the last step, we made use of the explicit expression for the temporal Fourier transform of the generic potential component ‰! .x/, equation (3.43) on page 39. Similarly, the following Fourier transform pair for the vector potential must exist: Z 1 A.t; x/ D d! A! .x/ e i!t (5.5a) 1 A! .x/ D 2 Z

1

dt A.t; x/ ei!t D

0

Z

V0

1

4

d3x 0 j! .x0 /

e ikjx x j jx x0 j

0

(5.5b)

D

Similar transform pairs exist for the ﬁelds themselves. In the limit that the sources can be considered monochromatic containing only one single frequency !0 , we have the much simpler expressions .t; x/ D .t; x/ D

0 .x/e i!0 t i!0 t i!0 t i!0 t

(5.6a) (5.6b) (5.6c) (5.6d)

j.t; x/ D j0 .x/e

0 .x/e

A.t; x/ D A0 .x/e

where again the real-valuedness of all these quantities is implied. As discussed above, we can safely assume that all formulae derived for a general temporal

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5.1. The magnetic ﬁeld

j 73

Fourier representation of the source (general distribution of frequencies in the source) are valid for these simple limiting cases. We note that in this context, we can make the formal identiﬁcation ! D 0 ı.! !0 /, j! D j0 ı.! !0 / etc., and that we therefore, without any loss of stringency, let 0 mean the same as the Fourier amplitude ! and so on.

Let us now compute the magnetic ﬁeld from the vector potential, deﬁned by equation (5.5a) and equation (5.5b) on the preceding page, and formula (3.21) on page 35:

B.t; x/ D r

A.t; x/

The calculations are much simpliﬁed if we work in ! space and, at the ﬁnal stage, inverse Fourier transform back to ordinary t space. We are working in the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge and note that in ! space the Lorenz-Lorentz condition, equation (3.28) on page 37, takes the form

r A!

R A

i k c

!

D0

D

B! .x/ D r

which provides a relation between (the Fourier transforms of) the vector and scalar potentials. Using the Fourier transformed version of equation (5.7) and equation (5.5b) on the preceding page, we obtain

A! .x/ D

0

Z r

V0

4

d3x 0 j! .x0 /

FT

(5.7) (5.8) e ikjx x j jx x0 j

0

5.1 The magnetic ﬁeld

(5.9)

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5 . F I E L D S F RO M A R BITRARY CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS

R A

Induction ﬁeld

From this expression for the magnetic ﬁeld in the frequency (!) domain, we obtain the total magnetic ﬁeld in the temporal (t ) domain by taking the inverse Fourier transform (using the identity ik D i!=c): Z 1 B.t; x/ D d! B! .x/ e i!t 1 hR i (Z 0 1 d! j! .x0 /e i.!t kjx x j/ .x x0 / 1 0 3 0 dx D 4 jx x0 j3 V0 hR i ) 0 1 Z d! . i!/j! .x0 /e i.!t kjx x j/ .x x0 / 1 1 C d3x 0 c V0 jx x0 j2 Z Z 0 0 P 0 .x x0 / j.tret ; x0 / .x x0 / 0 0 3 0 j.tret ; x / D dx C d3x 0 4 4 c V0 jx x0 j3 jx x0 j2 V0 „ ƒ‚ … „ ƒ‚ …

Radiation ﬁeld

FT

Utilising formula (F.97) on page 200 and recalling that j! .x0 / does not depend on x, we can rewrite this as " !# Z 0 e ikjx x j 0 3 0 0 d x j! .x / r B! .x/ D 4 jx x0 j V0 "Z Â Ã x x0 0 0 3 0 0 d x j! .x / D e ikjx x j 0 j3 0 4 jx x V # Â Ã Z x x0 ikjx x0 j 1 3 0 0 C d x j! .x / ik e (5.10) jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 "Z 0 j! .x0 /e ikjx x j .x x0 / 0 D d3x 0 4 jx x0 j3 V0 # Z 0 . ik/j! .x0 /e ikjx x j .x x0 / C d3x 0 jx x0 j2 V0

(5.11)

D

where

def P 0 j.tret ; x0 / Á

Â

@j @t

Ã (5.12)

0 tDtret

0 and tret is given in equation (3.45) on page 40. The ﬁrst term, the induction ﬁeld , dominates near the current source but falls off rapidly with distance from it, is the electrodynamic version of the Biot-Savart law in electrostatics, formula (1.17) on page 8. The second term, the radiation ﬁeld or the far ﬁeld , dominates at large distances and represents energy that is transported out to inﬁnity. Note how the spatial derivatives (r ) gave rise to a time derivative (P)!

15) ! . and also using the fact that k D !=c.x x0 / e ikj! .se/CED/Book Sheet: 97 of 262 .uu.x0 /.x0 / D C d3x 0 j! .14) 0 x0 j Ã (5.x/ D dx 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 Ã ikjx x0 j # Â 0 Z 1 e j! .x 0 /D0 D The last vector-valued integral can be further rewritten in the following way: Â 0 Ã ikjx x0 j Z Œr j! .x / xl 0 @xm jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 x0 j But. 5.x x0 / 0 3 0 Œr ikj! . since Â 0 xl xl ikjx @ e j!m 0 @xm jx x0 j2 R A Ã D Â @j!m 0 @xm Ã xl 0 xl we see that we can express ! in terms of j! as follows i 0 0 r j! .x ik d3x 0 c jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 r ! .x / D ! Doing so in the last term of equation (5.13) (5.2.x0 / i! ! .x x0 / ! .17) Ã Â Z 0 0 x xl e ikjx x j 0 3 0 @j!m l O D dx ikj!l .13) above.18) .x0 / 0 4 "0 4 jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 "Z V 0 ikjx x0 j 1 .5b) as the explicit expressions for the Fourier transforms of and A: E! .x /e D d3x 0 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 # Â Ã Z 0 0 x0 / j! . inserting equations (5.25) on page 10 r 0 j! .16) e ikjx x j jx x0 j2 Â 0 xl xl ikjx @ C j!m 0 e @xm jx x0 j2 FT (5.x/ Using the Fourier transform of the continuity equation (1.x0 /. we can rewrite this equation as "Z 0 ikjx x0 j 1 . The electric ﬁeld j 75 5.2 The electric ﬁeld In order to calculate the electric ﬁeld.plasma.25) on page 36.x/ D C i!A! .x0 / I! D d3x 0 0 jx x0 j jx x0 j V (5.x / dx c V0 jx x0 j jx x0 j „ ƒ‚ … I! (5.x0 / e ikjx x j ! . we use the temporally Fourier transformed version of formula (3.4b) and (5.x/ Z Z 0 0 e ikjx x j 1 i 0! e ikjx x j r d3x 0 ! .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x /e E! .x /.x x0 / 3 0 ! .x0 / (5.

x0 / d3x 0 j! . at last.x0 / 0 4 "0 4 jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 "Z V 0 ikjx x0 j 1 .x x0 / C d3x 0 c V0 jx x0 j4 # Z 0 ikjx x0 j ik .x x0 /. Further evaluation of the derivative in the ﬁrst term makes it possible to write FT e ikjx x0 j Z I! D V0 dx Z ik V0 3 0 j! jx x0 j2 jx C 2 ! ikjx x0 j jx x0 j4 j! . according to Gauss’s theorem.x/ D Using the triple product ‘bac-cab’ formula (F.uu.x0 /e ikjx x j .x x0 / . 76 j 5 .73) on page 200 backwards. and inserting the resulting expression for I! into equation (5.x x0 / .20) D R A E! .x x / .se/CED/Book Sheet: 98 of 262 .x x0 / .21) Taking the inverse Fourier transform of equation (5. we arrive at the following ﬁnal expression for the Fourier transform of the total E ﬁeld: Z Z 0 0 1 i 0! e ikjx x j e ikjx x j C r d3x 0 ! .x x0 / 3 0 Œj! .x0 /e ikjx x j .x x0 / C d3x 0 c V0 jx x0 j4 Z 0 1 Œj! .16) on the previous page.19) where.x x0 j3 x0 / e ikjx x0 j e ikjx x j C j! jx x0 j ! (5.x x0 / ! . the last term vanishes if j! is assumed to be limited and tends to zero at large distances. the expression in time domain for the .x /e D d3x 0 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 Z 0 1 Œj! . we ﬁnd. once again using the vacuum relation ! D kc.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x /e dx c V0 jx x0 j3 (5. F I E L D S F RO M A R BITRARY CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS we can rewrite I! as # Â Ã 0 0 xl xl e ikjx x j @ ikjx x0 j O C ikj! I! D d x j!m 0 xl e @xm jx x0 j2 jx x0 j V0 Â Ã Z 0 xl xl @ 0 O C d3x 0 0 j!m xl e ikjx x j 0 j2 @xm jx x V0 Z " 3 0 (5.plasma.21).x 0 x /e 0 0 dx 3 0 Œj! .

x x0 / D d3x 0 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 „ ƒ‚ … 1 Z 1 E.tret .x Intermediate ﬁeld ƒ‚ 1 C 4 "0 c 2 „ Z V0 d3x 0 P 0 Œj.tret . We shall therefore make the assumption that the observer is located in the far zone. With this we have achieved our goal of ﬁnding closed-form analytic expressions for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds when the sources of the ﬁelds are completely arbitrary.3.x x0 /. prescribed distributions of charges and currents. x0 / . those parts of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds.uu. x/ D Retarded Coulomb ﬁeld C 1 4 "0 c „ 1 4 "0 c „ Z V0 d3x 0 0 Œj.plasma. i.x x0 j4 x0 / … (5. The radiation ﬁelds j 77 total electric ﬁeld: d! E! .3 The radiation ﬁelds In this section we study electromagnetic radiation. x0 /. calculated above..e. From equation (5. which are capable of carrying energy and momentum over large distances.se/CED/Book Sheet: 99 of 262 ..22) x0 / … jx ƒ‚ 0 Œj.tret . x0 / Intermediate ﬁeld Z V0 C d3x 0 .22) above. the ﬁrst term represents the retarded Coulomb ﬁeld and the last term represents the radiation ﬁeld which carries energy over very large distances.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.e.tret .x x0 / x0 j 3 … . very far away from the source region(s). 5. The ﬁelds which are dominating in this zone are by deﬁnition the radiation ﬁelds. x0 / ƒ‚ . The only assumption made is that the advanced potentials have been discarded. i.x jx x0 / x0 j 4 . FT x0 / .46) on page 40 in chapter 3.11) on page 74 and equation (5.t. recall the discussion following equation (3. The other two terms represent an intermediate ﬁeld which contributes only in the near zone and must be taken into account there. which give the R A Here.x jx Radiation ﬁeld D 5.x/ e i!t Z 0 1 .

23b) above were included in equation (5.x/ D ! D D D jx Z 0 j! .x0 / k .x/ D Instead of studying the ﬁelds in the time domain.x x0 /= jx x0 j.t.tret .25b) O where we used the fact that k D k k D k.x x0 / .x x0 j 2 x0 / e ikjx x0 j (5.x / k ikjx x0 j 0 i d3x 0 e 0 4 jx x0 j V Z 1 1 dt Efar .se/CED/Book Sheet: 100 of 262 .plasma. x/ ei!t 2 1 Z k Œj! . we obtain Bfar . x0 / Á Z 1 1 d! Efar .t. respectively and are explicitly given by 1 2 Z 1 dt Bfar .x/ e ! Z V0 i!t 1 4 "0 c 2 d3x 0 P 0 Œj. A superposition of all these components and a transformation back to the time domain will then yield the complete solution. The Fourier representation of the radiation ﬁelds equation (5. If the source is located near a point x0 inside a volume V 0 and has such a limited spatial extent that sup jx0 x0 j jx x0 j. x/ D D where def P 0 j. has a large enough radius jx x0 j sup jx0 x0 j. we can often make a spectrum analysis into the frequency domain and study each Fourier component separately.25a) 1 D D Efar .tret . 78 j 5 .23b) Â @j @t Ã FT j! . x0 / . x/ ei!t d3x 0 (5.x0 / .x x0 j2 x0 / (5.x/ e i!t D 0 Z V0 4 c d3x 0 P 0 j.21) on page 76.t.23a) Efar . and the integration surface S.uu. centred on x0 .tret . x0 / jx .x0 / . F I E L D S F RO M A R BITRARY CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS total electric and magnetic ﬁelds.x x0 / ikjx x0 j i e d3x 0 4 "0 c V 0 jx x0 j2 V0 i k 4 0 Z x0 j (5.x jx x0 / x0 j3 . we see .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x x0 / (5. x/ D Z 1 1 far d! B! .10) on page 74 and equation (5.23a) and equation (5.x x0 / ikjx i d3x 0 e 4 "0 c V 0 jx x0 j3 Z 1 Œj! .24) 0 tDtret R A far B! .t.

26) the expressions (5.50) and formula (F.x x0 / 0 d3x 0 Œj! . we see that we can approximate O k dS jx x0 j 2 Á d2x x0 j2 O O k n d (5. 5. O from ﬁgure 5.x0 x0 / i d x Œj! .x x0 / Á k .27) Both these approximations will be used in the following.51) on page 198 that dS D jx O O and noting from ﬁgure 5.1 that we can approximate ˇ ˇ k ˇx x0 ˇ Á k .x x0 / k jx x0 j k .3.x/ i e ikjx x0 j d3x 0 e ! 4 "0 c jx x0 j2 V0 Z 1 e ikjx x0 j .uu. The radiation ﬁelds j 79 O n O k S.25b) for the radiation ﬁelds can be approximated as Z j! .x0 / k e ik . normal to the surface S which has its centre at x0 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 101 of 262 . Within approximation (5. and the O unit vector k of the radiation k vector from x0 are nearly coincident. the unit O vector n.x0 x0 / 1 Efar .28a) ikjx x0 j Z 0 e 3 0 0 ik .x x0 / ik .x / k e 4 jx x0 j V 0 Z Œj! .x0 / k ik .1: Relation between the surface normal and the k vector for radiation generated at source points x0 near the point x0 in the source volume V 0 .1 that k and n are nearly parallel.28b) D R A x0 j2 d D jx x0 j2 sin Â dÂ d' jx FT k .x0 x0 / 0 ikjx x0 j far B! .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x0 / k .x0 x0 / (5.plasma.26) .25a) and (5.x0 / x x x x0 x0 x0 x0 x0 V0 x0 Figure 5.x/ i e d3x 0 e 4 jx x0 j V0 (5.x 0 x0 / Recalling from Formula (F.x x0 / i 0 4 "0 c jx x0 j jx x0 j V (5. At distances much larger than the extent of V 0 .

se/CED/Book Sheet: 102 of 262 . D R A FT .e.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. F I E L D S F RO M A R BITRARY CHARGE AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTIONS I. if sup jx0 x0 j jx x0 j.uu. 80 j 5 .plasma. then the ﬁelds can be approximated as spherical waves multiplied by dimensional and angular factors.. with integrals over points in the source volume only.

1 However. This consequence of Maxwell’s equations. including electromagnetic radiation sources in the Universe. . Radiation processes are irreversible in that the radiation does not return to the radiator but is lost from it forever. In chapter 4 we showed that the electromagnetic energy. with the displacement current included. and angular momentum are all conserved quantities and in this chapter we will show that these quantities can be radiated all the way to inﬁnity and therefore be used in wireless communications over long distances and for observing very remote objects in Nature. wireless communications. linear momentum. of course.uu. the radiation can.se/CED/Book Sheet: 103 of 262 . The only limitation in the calculation of the ﬁelds was that the advanced potentials were discarded on—admittedly not totally convincing—physical grounds.plasma. In chapter 3 we were able to derive general expressions for the scalar and vector potentials from which we later (in chapter 5) derived exact analytic expressions for the total electric and magnetic ﬁelds generated by completely arbitrary distributions of charge and current sources that are located in certain regions. be sensed by other charges and currents that are located in free space. from extremely distant stars and galaxies.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. possibly very far away from the sources. was veriﬁed experimentally by H E I N R I C H R U D O L F H E RT Z about twenty years after Maxwell had made his theoretical predictions. and even more so radio signals. Hertz’s experimental and theoretical studies paved the way for radio and TV broadcasting. radio astronomy and a host of other applications and technologies. R A 81 D FT 1 RADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS This is referred to as time arrow of radiation. radar. This is precisely what makes it possible for our eyes to observe light.

one can. be it classical or quantal. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Thus. falls off as 1=r 2 and is purely radial there. linear momentum and angular momentum. Let us consider the linear momentum and energy that is carried in the far ﬁelds Bfar . However. Today’s wireless communication technology. and Efar . when Sfar is integrated over a large spherical shell (centred on the source) for which the dirO O O ected area element is d2x n D r 2 d r D r 2 sin Â dÂ d' r [cf. 82 j 6 . This is the physical foundation of the well-known fact that pem and U em can be transmitted over extremely long distances. one has to resort to approximations.uu.1 Radiation of linear momentum and energy We saw in chapter 5 that at large distances r from the source. it is often difﬁcult to evaluate the source integrals unless the charge and current densities have a simple distribution in space. showing that energy U em and electromagnetic linear momentum pem is carried all the way to inﬁnity and is irreversibly lost there. as well as other electromagnetic observables at any time at any point in space for an arbitrary charge and current density of the source. at least in principle.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the leading order contributions to the E and B ﬁelds are purely transverse and fall off as 1=r. Sfar .25b) on page 78. the dominating component of the Poynting vector. in practice.40) on page 58. In the general case. tends to a constant at inﬁnity. The force action (time rate of change of pem ) on charges in one region in space can therefore cause a force action on charges in a another region in space. Hence. calculate the radiated ﬁelds. D R A FT . We shall consider both these situations in this chapter.51) on page 198]. ﬂux of energy. equation (5. is based almost exclusively on the utilisation of this translational degree of freedom of the charges (currents) and the ﬁelds. the total integrated power.25a). equation (5. 6. Signals with limited lifetime and hence ﬁnite frequency bandwidth have to be analysed differently from monochromatic signals. at large distances r.plasma. as given by the surface integral in equation (4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 104 of 262 . formula (F. Consequently.

plasma. Hence. as expected.x0 x0 / ˇ d2x D jx x0 j2 d D jx x0 j2 sin Â dÂ d' .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.1 Monochromatic signals If the source is strictly monochromatic.1 on page 79 that k and n are nearly parallel.1) From formula (F.3) "0 ˇ2 ˇ x ˇ jx x0 (6.5) ˇ 2 0ˇ d 32 V0 D This formula is valid far away from the sources and shows that the radiated power is given by an expression which is resistance (R0 ) times the square of the supplied current (the integrated current density j! ).j! k/e ik . Radiation of linear momentum and energy j 83 6.28a) and (5.1. 6.28b) for the ﬁelds and the p fact that 1=c D "0 0 .4) x0 j Consequently.B! e i!t / hE Bi D hSi D 2 0 2 0 0 ˚ « 1 1 D Re E! B! e i!t ei!t D Re fE! B! g 2 0 2 0 (6. we can approximate O O k d2x n jx x0 j2 Á d2x jx x0 j2 O O O O k nÁd k n d (6.1.uu. the integral in formula (6. even in vacuum.x0 x0 / ˇ D R (6.2) for the vacuum resistance R0 . The possibility to transmit electromagnetic power over large distances. the amount of power per unit solid angle d that ﬂows across an inﬁnitesimal surface element r 2 d D jx x0 j2 d of a large spherical shell with its origin at x0 and enclosing all sources. is ˇZ ˇ2 ˇ ˇ dP 1 ˇ d3x 0 . simply by averaging over one period so that ˚ « 1 1 1 Re fE B g D Re E! e i!t .5) above also determines the angular distribution. and also introducing the characteristic impedance of vacuum r def 0 R0 Á 376:7 (6. is the physical foundation for the extremely important wireless communications technology.50) on page 198 and formula (F. Besides determining the strength of the radiated power.51) on page 198 we see that O O We also note from ﬁgure 5. we can obtain the temporal average of the radiated power P directly.j! S D R 2 ˇ 2 0 32 jx x0 j V0 R A k/e Using the far-ﬁeld approximations (5.se/CED/Book Sheet: 105 of 262 . FT ik . we obtain ˇZ ˇ ˝ far ˛ 1 1 ˇ d3x 0 . We note that the emitted power is independent of distance and is therefore carried all the way to inﬁnity.

!C! /t 0 1 1 1 FT If we carry out the temporal integration ﬁrst and use the fact that Z 1 0 dt e i.7) R A 0 0 equation (6. To calculate the total radiated energy we need to integrate over the whole bandwidth.2) into equation (6. We insert the Fourier transforms of the ﬁeld components which dominate at large distances.plasma. introducing the spectral energy density U! via the deﬁnition Z 1 def U Á d!U! (6.10) 0 .E! B ! / 0 1 ÂZ0 1 Ã Z 1 2 D d! .6) Z 1 Z 1 Z 1 1 0 D d! d! 0 dt . is ˇZ ˇ r I Z 1 ˇ 1 j! k ikjx x0 j ˇ2 O 0 ˇ k O U D d2x n d! ˇ d3x 0 e (6.E! B! C E! B! / (6.!C! /t D 2 ı.E! B ! / 0 0 ÂZ0 1 Ã Z 1 2 D d! .t / D dt .E B/ 0 1 1 (6. the far ﬁelds (5.E! B ! / C d! .26) and (6. The total energy transmitted through a unit area is the time integral of the Poynting vector: Z 1 Z 1 1 dt S.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS 6.E! B ! / C d! . after integration over the area S of a large sphere which encloses the source volume V 0 .E! B ! C E ! B! / D 0 0 Z 1 2 D d! .25a) and (5.E ! B! / 0 0 0 Z 1 2 d! .E! B ! / d! .uu.E! B! 0 / e i.e.2 Finite bandwidth signals A signal with ﬁnite pulse width in time (t ) domain has a certain spread in frequency (!) domain.8) D where the last step follows from physical requirement of real-valuedness of E! and B! .E! B ! / 0 1 1 ÂZ 1 Ã Z 0 2 D d! .9) above. 84 j 6 .1. i.25b)..t / D d! .! C ! 0 / 1 (6. The result.se/CED/Book Sheet: 106 of 262 .9) ˇ 0 ˇ 4 "0 S jx x0 j 0 V Inserting the approximations (5.6) can be written Z 1 Z 1 2 dt S.

After lengthy calculations.cq C In /I g C (6. i. Z I.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.12) jx x0 j3 where.. based on the results obtained in chapter 5. This means that the amount of energy that is being radiated is independent on the distance to the source (as long as it is large).11) which.t 0 . The use of this rotational degree of freedom of the ﬁelds has only recently been put to practical use even if it has been known for more than a century.14) . the angular momentum density hem falls off as 1=r 2 . one ﬁnds that the complete cycle averaged far-zone expression for a frequency component ! of the electromagnetic angular momentum density generated by arbitrary charge and current sources can be approximated by ˚ « Â P O n Re .plasma.uu.2 Radiation of angular momentum Not only electromagnetic linear momentum (Poynting vector) can be radiated from a source and transmitted over very long distances.e.x0 /i D 32 2 "0 c 3 c jx x0 j2 Ã O n Re f. Radiation of angular momentum j 85 and recalling the deﬁnition (6.2. at large distances.13) (6. is a good approximation to the energy that is radiated per unit solid angle d in a frequency band d!. in complex notation.t 0 . there. we obtain ˇ2 ˇZ ˇ ˇ 1 dU! 0 d! R0 ˇ d3x 0 . It is important to notice that Formula (6. x0 / V0 and P I.t 0 / D We see that at very large distances r.11) includes only source coordinates. it has precisely the same behaviour in the far zone as the linear momentum density and can therefore also transfer information wirelessly over large distances.t 0 / d3x 0 j. but the same is also true for electromagnetic angular momentum J em . 6.cq C In /I 1 em hh . The only difference is that while the direction of the linear momentum (Poynting vector) becomes purely radial at inﬁnity.e. x0 / V0 R A Z P d3x 0 j.se/CED/Book Sheet: 107 of 262 . the angular momentum becomes perpendicular to the linear momentum.j! k/e ik .x x0 / ˇ d! ˇ ˇ 0 d 4 V (6. 6. purely transverse. Then torque action (the time rate of change of J em ) in one region causes torque action on charges. i. FT (6.3) on page 83.

15) (6.uu. j D 1. The source volume is so small that internal retardation effects can be neg0 lected.tret . 2.t / D V0 0 d3x 0 . x/ D C d .tret .t.x0 x0 /. Here we use Hertz’s method .plasma. x0 / D d3x 0 .x0 (6.x x0 /i . i D 1. 86 j 6 . x0 / D d3x 0 .t. and when we are interested in evaluating the radiation far from a source at rest and which is localised in a small volume. Then 0 t D t .16b) V0 with components di . which focuses on the physics rather than the mathematics.t. example 3. is the electric quadrupole moment tensor.se/CED/Book Sheet: 108 of 262 .x x0 /i .t. i. x0 / 2 i 4 "0 jx x0 j jx x0 j jx x0 j # Â Ã 3 .x0 0 x0 / .3. x0 / (6. 3 is the electric dipole moment vector. and Z V0 D Q. x0 / Let us assume that the charge distribution determining the potential in equation (3. i. x0 / (6.t/ 1 . to a good approximation. Z d. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS 6.x x0 /j 1 1 Qij . one can then. that we can set tret t jx x0 j =c. At a large distance jx x0 j.t.1 on page 33] " 1 q. 6. approximate the potential by the Taylor expansion [cf.47a) on page 40 has such a small extent that all the source points x0 can be assumed to be located very near a point x0 . 2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.. x0 / C ıij C : : : 2 jx x0 j jx x0 j 2 jx x0 j3 R A where Z q. 3 (Einstein’s summation convention over i and j is implied).e.17) .16c) with components Qij .3 Radiation from a localised source volume at rest In the general case. we can introduce an approximation which leads to a multipole expansion where individual terms can be evaluated analytically.tret / 0 tret C Const (6.16a) is the total charge or electric monopole moment. to obtain this expansion.1 Electric multipole moments FT 0 x0 / .tret .

t 0 .3. x/. x0 / d3x 0 (6. x/ D 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j3 Ã Â Z 1 1 3 0 0 0 D d x P . we can rewrite this expression for the potential as follows: ÄZ Â Ã Z 1 P .t 0 .t. x/. x0 / d .t 0 .t.t. x/. In the subsequent ana0 lysis in this Subsection we shall use t 0 to denote this approximate tret .t 0 .t. can be neglected. x0 / r 0 P .uu. x / r (6. Particularly important is the dipole moment.15) on the preceding page. unit: C m 2 ). which describes the effects of the induced. Doing so.t .19) 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j Ã Â Z 1 1 D d3x 0 P . Let P denote the electric dipole moment density (electric dipole moment per unit volume.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t. x0 / O D d2x 0 n0 d3x 0 4 "0 S 0 jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 (6.20) where the ﬁrst term. the electric potential from this volume distribution P . x / r P . also known as the electric polarisation.113) on page 224 and applying the divergence theorem. the major contributions to the electrostatic interactions come from the net charge and the lowest order electric multipole moments induced by the polarisation due to an applied electric ﬁeld. the effective charge density becomes .t. unless there is a O discontinuity in n P at the surface. x0 / r 0 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j . in some medium. D R A FT 0 Hence the transformation between t and tret is a trivial. x0 / 3 0 0 dx r d3x 0 d .t . we see that r P .se/CED/Book Sheet: 109 of 262 .t 0 . In analogy with the second term in the expansion equation (6.t 0 . non-cancelling dipole moment on the surface of the volume.47a) on page 40for the potential from a charge distribution .plasma.t. x/ has the characteristics of a charge density and that.t. x0 / of electric dipole moments d at the source point x0 can be written Z 1 x x0 d3x 0 P . in which the second term is a polarisation term that we call pol . Radiation from a localised source volume at rest j 87 where Const D jx c x0 j (6. x/ D 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j Comparing this expression with expression equation (3.18) Using expression (M. x/ r P . to the lowest order.t.21) d . x/ D 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j jx x0 j V0 ÄI Z 0 0 0 1 P . For a normal medium. we ﬁnd that the contribution from the electric dipole moments to the potential is given by Z 1 r 0 P . 6.

t. As we see. x/.se/CED/Book Sheet: 110 of 262 .26a) (6.plasma. expression (1. that the Hertz vector must satisfy the inhomogeneous wave equation 2 D …e D 1 @2 e … c 2 @t 2 r 2 …e D "0 (6. Since in the microscopic MaxwellLorentz equation (2. …e acts as a ‘super-potential ’ in the sense that it is a potential from which we can obtain other potentials. We now introduce a further potential …e with the following property r …e D e (6.1a) on page 20. using (6. It is called the Hertz vector or polarisation potential . respectively. x/ C r j true .26). in a form where all the charges are considered to be polarisation charges. the equation of continuity for ‘true’ charges and currents [cf. 88 j 6 . it treats also the ‘true’ (free) charges as polarisation charges. one ﬁnds..26b) 1 @… DA c 2 @t where and A are the electromagnetic scalar and vector potentials. x/ D @t (6. satisfy their inhomogeneous wave equations.uu.3.25) on page 10] is satisﬁed: @ true .27) .25) i.23) and (6. we can write this equation r ED "0 D C "0 D r r P "0 (6.1 we introduced the electric polarisation P . Requiring that the scalar and vector potentials and A. x/ such that the polarisation charge density pol D r P (6.t.t.24) R A true The vector is called the polarisation vector because. formally. but such that true def Á r (6.e. equations (3.2 The Hertz potential In section 6.t.t. x/.22) If we adopt the same idea for the ‘true’ charge density due to free charges and introduce a vector ﬁeld .27) on page 36. analogous to P .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.23b) As a consequence. respectively.23a) which means that the associated ‘polarisation current’ now is the true current: FT @ r @t Cr @ D0 @t pol @ D j true @t (6. the charge density must include all charges. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS 6.3.

x x0 /j eikjx x j Á 0j jx x j.32) on the next 0 page.1.cos Â/ eim' 4 .1: Geometry of a typical multipole radiation problem where the ﬁeld point x is located some distance away from the ﬁnite source volume V 0 centred around x0 .29) Assume that the source region is a limited volume around some central point x0 far away from the ﬁeld (observation) point x illustrated in ﬁgure 6.cos ‚/ is the Legendre polynomial of order n ˇ ˇ jn . in a formal series. Radiation from a localised source volume at rest j 89 x x x x0 x0 x0 ‚ x0 V0 x0 x0 Figure 6. due to the presence of non-vanishing .cos ‚/ D n X mD n According to the addition theorem for Legendre polynomials m . Under these assumptions.k ˇx0 x0 ˇ/ is the spherical Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind of order n h. O eikj. 6. expression (6.cos Â 0 /eim.tret .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.cos Â /Pn m .x0 x0 /j 1 X ˇ D ik .28) (6.x x0 / .' '0/ R A x0 m where Pn is an associated Legendre polynomial of the ﬁrst kind .k ˇx0 nD0 0 0 where (see ﬁgure 6.Â.2n C 1/Pn .k jx n x0 j/ (6. then the radiation at x is well approximated by a few terms in the multipole expansion.n m/Š m m Yn .3.x x0 / . x0 / in the vicinity of x0 . '/ D P .1) 0 eikjx x j is a Green function or propagator jx x0 j ‚ is the angle between x0 x0 and x Pn .plasma.1/ .se/CED/Book Sheet: 111 of 262 .k jx n x0 j/ is the spherical Hankel function of the ﬁrst kind of order n D Pn .n C m/Š n FT ˇ x0 ˇ/h. For this purpose we recall from potential theory that .uu. If k jx0 x0 j 1 k jx x0 j.1/ .cos ‚/jn . we can expand the Hertz vector. related to the m spherical harmonic Yn as s 2n C 1 . 1/m Pn .

a long distance from the source region. Â 0 .x/ D d3x 0 ! 4 "0 V 0 If we introduce the help vector C such that CDr …e FT 0 ikjx x0 j ! .k jx x0 j/ Pn .cos Â/ eim' n 4 "0 nD0 mD n Z ˇ ˇ 0 d3x 0 ! .jx x0 j . We are interested in the case where the ﬁeld point is many wavelengths away from the well-localised sources.ˇx0 x0 ˇ .tret . together with formula (6.x /e jx x0 j (6.29) on the previous page.35) We notice that there is no dependence on x x0 inside the integral. the last equation is valid only if r E D 0 i.e.31) d3x 0 4 "0 V 0 jx x0 j with Fourier components Z 1 …e .34b) D R A …e D ! V0 EDr Clearly.28) on the preceding page.uu. the integrand is only dependent on the relative source vector x0 x0 . ' 0 / x x0 D .1/ . respectively. '/ (6.cos Â 0 / e im' (6. when the following inequalities ˇ ˇ k ˇx 0 x 0 ˇ 1 k jx x0 j (6. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS and. this is no essential limitation..k ˇx0 x0 ˇ/ Pn m . into equation (6. ˇ ˇ x0 x0 D .t.. i.32) (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 112 of 262 . 1/m h.x0 / jn .34a) (6.plasma. if we are outside the source volume.33) we see that we can calculate the magnetic and electric ﬁelds.32). 90 j 6 . Since we are mainly interested in the ﬁelds in the so called far zone.2n C 1/.30) on page 37.30a) (6. x0 / e … . we can in a formally exact way expand the Fourier component of the Hertz vector as 1 n ik X X m . and has therefore the retarded solution Z 0 1 . Â.36) . x/ D (6.e. Inserting equation (6. in spherical polar coordinates.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. as follows BD 1 @C c 2 @t C (6.30b) This equation is of the same type as equation (3.

Then we may to a good approximation replace h.2n/Š Z ˇ d3x 0 ! .29) on page 89. The resulting expression can then in turn be inserted into equations (6. 6. 6. however.x0 / . For a linear source distribution along the polar axis. Radiation from a localised source volume at rest j 91 hold. we obtain Z eikjx x0 j 1 eikjx x0 j …e .k ˇx0 ˇ x 0 ˇ/ ˇ 2n nŠ k ˇx 0 . the expansions of the spherical ! Hankel and Bessel functions used above may not be consistent and must be replaced by more accurate expressions.cos Â / gives the angular distribution of the radiation.1/ .37) on page 91 are not unique.35) on the preceding page.n/ D . and Pn . i/n ! 1 eikjx x0 j 2n nŠ 4 "0 jx x0 j .37) and replace jn with the ﬁrst term in its power series expansion: ˇ jn .34) on the preceding page in order to obtain the radiation ﬁelds.n/ ! (6.3 Electric dipole radiation Choosing n D 0 in expression (6. Taking the inverse Fourier transform of …e will yield the Hertz vector in ! time domain.39b) (6.39b). which inserted into equation (6. Let us now study the lowest order contributions to the expansion of the Hertz vector.cos ‚/ (6. asymptotic expansions as the one used in equation (6.38) Inserting these expansions into equation (6.uu.3.39a) .k jx n x0 j/ .40) …e ! 1 X …e . Furthermore.1/ with the ﬁrst term in n its asymptotic expansion: h.0/ D d3x 0 ! .x0 / D d! ! 4 "0 jx x0 j V 0 4 "0 jx x0 j R A FT ˇ x0 ˇ/n Pn . if many …e .n/ terms are needed for an accurate result.se/CED/Book Sheet: 113 of 262 . ‚ D Â in expression (6.33) on the facing page will yield C. In the general case. the angular distribution must be computed with the help of formula (6. i/nC1 eikjx x0 j k jx x0 j (6.k ˇx0 V0 D This expression is approximately correct only if certain care is exercised. we obtain the multipole expansion of the Fourier component of the Hertz vector nD0 where …e .plasma.3.39b).2n C 1/Š ˇ x0 ˇ n (6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

t .0/ are ! O …e Á …e .uu.42a) (6.0/ ™ D ! Â def D O …e Á …e . Â.r.41) [cf.0/ C!. by deﬁnition.0/ inserted. 92 j 6 . d! D V 0 d3x 0 ! . we obtain directly the Fourier . ') is chosen such that the electric dipole moment d (and thus its Fourier transform d! ) is located at the origin and directed along the polar axis. O k x3 x Efar Bfar Â d O r x2 x1 Since represents a dipole moment density for the ‘true’ charges (in the same R vein as P does so for the polarised charges).Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.34) on page 90.' 1 O ®D 4 "0 Â jx 1 x0 j Ã ik eikjx x0 j O d! sin Â ® jx x0 j (6. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6.42) of …e . equation (6.42b) (6.x0 / is.t 0 . with the spherically polar components (6.0/ ® D 0 ' ! Evaluating formula (6. If a spherical coordinate system is chosen with its polar axis along d! as in ﬁgure 6.2.33) on page 90 for the help vector C.t.0/ r D r ! def 1 eikjx x0 j d! cos Â 4 "0 jx x0 j 1 eikjx x0 j d! sin Â 4 "0 jx x0 j (6. the Fourier component of the electric dipole moment R A d. the calculations are simpliﬁed. we obtain ! C! D .16b) on page 86].x0 V0 x0 / .43) Applying this to equations (6.2: If a spherical polar coordinate system . x0 / D dx 3 0 V0 Z .42c) def O …e Á …e . x / D FT 0 0 ' Z d3x 0 .plasma. the components of …e . x0 / (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 114 of 262 .

oscillating at the angular frequency !. d! . Linear and angular momenta radiated from an electric dipole in vacuum The Fourier amplitudes of the ﬁelds generated by an electric dipole. the physically observable ﬁelds are found to be R ! 4 0 Â D E.kr !t 0 / C 2 sin.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma.44a) jx x0 j Ã x x0 ik cos Â jx x0 j jx x0 j # Ã ikjx x0 j ik 2 O e k sin Â ™ d! jx x0 j jx x0 j (6.d! jx x0 j k/ (6. Inverse Fourier transforming to the time domain.kr !t 0 / cos.t.t.45b) E X A M P L E 6.44) above.se/CED/Book Sheet: 115 of 262 .46) above. Â. we can now write down the Fourier components of the radiation parts of the magnetic and electric ﬁelds from the dipole: eikjx x0 j . are given by formulæ (6. x/ D where t 0 D t B. Applying formula (4.r. '/.46a) ! .3. x/ D d! sin Â 1 sin. 6.46b) 2 "0 r3 r 1 dw sin Â 4 "0 r=c is the retarded time.51) on page 59 for the electromagnetic linear momentum density to the ﬁelds from a pure electric dipole.x x0 /= jx x0 j where k D !=c.kr r Ã O !t 0 / ® (6. also known as E1 radiation.45a) k 1 eikjx x0 j Œ.44b) far B! D ! 4 0 eikjx x0 j O d! k sin Â ® D jx x0 j Efar D ! 1 eikjx x0 j O d! k 2 sin Â ™ D 4 "0 jx x0 j These ﬁelds constitute the electric dipole radiation.kr r2 1 k k2 O cos.1 !t 0 / k cos.kr !t 0 / C 2 sin.uu.kr !t 0 / r (6.d! 4 "0 jx x0 j k/ (6. equations (6. Radiation from a localised source volume at rest j 93 components of the ﬁelds ! i 4 0 Â jx x0 j " Â 1 1 E! D 2 4 "0 jx x0 j2 Â 1 C jx x0 j2 B! D 1 Ã ik eikjx x0 j O d! sin Â ® (6. one obtains A FT ! 4 0 Keeping only those parts of the ﬁelds which dominate at large distances (the radiation ﬁelds) and recalling that the wave vector k D k.kr !t 0 / ™ 3 r r r Â Ã 1 1 k O C dw cos Â cos. and using a spherical coordinate system .

x0 / V0 (6. this can be put in the form Ä ! 0 2 1 k gem D d! sin Â cos Â 5 sinŒ2.t 0 .72) on page 63 for the electromagnetic angular momentum density with the momentum point chosen as x0 D 0. and hence the Poynting vector.e. hem D x (6.kr r cos2 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.kr 16 2 r r k2 sinŒ2. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS gem D "0 E C C BD ! 8 0 2 d 2 ! sin Â cos Â cos2 .kr r3 !t 0 / 2 k2 sin.52) and the total electromagnetic angular momentum is (cf. formula (4.48) which shows that the linear momentum density.kr !t 0 / 8 2 ! r R or hem D !t 0 / cos.kr ! 16 C sin2 Â 1 sin. formula (4.51) 2 k cosŒ2.kr !t 0 / cos. we ﬁnd that for a pure electric dipole Ä ! 0 2 1 em h D d sin Â cos Â 4 sin.plasma.kr r5 !t 0 / O !t 0 / r !t 0 / cos.kr !t 0 / (6.kr r2 O !t 0 / r gem C k sin2 .uu.kr r4 !t 0 / 2 k2 sinŒ2.kr r5 !t 0 / !t 0 / cos.kr r3 !t 0 / k2 sinŒ2.kr r3 0 2 d 2 ! !t 0 / A FT O !t 0 / ™ C ! 32 sin2 Â Ä 1 sinŒ2. i. is strictly radial only at inﬁnity.53) V0 .50) Ä sin Â cos Â D 1 sinŒ2.kr r2 The total electromagnetic linear momentum is (cf.57b) on page 60) Z em p D d3x 0 gem . x0 / (6.kr r3 !t 0 / cos.kr r4 0 2 d 2 ! !t 0 / k2 sin.kr r2 ! 16 0 2 d 2 ! (6.kr !t 0 / O !t 0 / ™ k sin2 . 94 j 6 .kr !t 0 / k2 sin.kr !t 0 / cos.kr r4 k3 C 2 cos2 .kr O !t 0 / ® (6. Applying formula (4.kr 1 sin.t 0 .kr !t 0 / 2 4 cosŒ2.78b) on page 64) Z em J D d3x 0 hem ..kr r5 !t 0 / C !t 0 / 2 k cosŒ2.kr r4 !t 0 / O !t 0 / ® (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 116 of 262 .kr r3 k3 1 C cosŒ2.49) and using equation (6.47) Using well-known trigonometric relations.kr r3 !t 0 / cos2 .kr !t 0 / k sin2 .48) above.

kr !t 0 /® D 16 2 ! r 2 O !t 0 /® respectively.kr and hem.39b) on page 91 for the expansion of the Fourier transform of the Hertz vector is for n D 1: …e .x / cos ‚ (6.uu.58b) .56) ! .40) on page 58].x0 and introducing Ái D xi Á0 i D xi0 x0. the last term in the LHS of formula (4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 117 of 262 .3. Perhaps the most common conﬁguration yielding a total net J em is two orthogonal co-located dipoles with =2 phase shift between them.kr 8 2 ! r2 ! 0 2 k2 O d sin Â cos Â sinŒ2.far .x 0 x0 / / / (6.3.i 1 eikjx x0 j ik 4 "0 jx x0 j2 x0 / .t.. We note that in the far zone the linear and angular momentum densities tend to gem.x ! . the term Œ.i x0.1/ D ! i eikjx x0 j 4 "0 jx x0 j Z ˇ d3x 0 k ˇx0 3 0 R A V0 D D Here.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.kr !t 0 / cos.plasma.1 ˇ x0 ˇ 0 ! .xi0 FT (6. x/ ! 16 ! D 32 3 0 2k d! 2 2 r 3 0 2k d! 2 2 r sin2 Â cos2 .54) sin2 Â 1 C cosŒ2. there is a net ﬂux so that the integrated momenta do not fall off with distance and can therefore be transported all the way to inﬁnity. 6.x0 ! .55) End of example 6. Radiation from a localised source volume at rest j 95 In order to get a total net J em .far . I.58a) (6. to leading order.x x0 / .kr !t 0 /O r O !t 0 / r (6.x Œ. This means that when they are integrated over a spherical surface / r 2 located at a large distance from the source [cf.x 0 Z d x Œ.i / ! . x/ ! 0 2 k2 d sin Â cos Â sin.xi / can be rewritten x0.x 0 x0 / .i /. both the linear momentum density gem and the angular momentum density hem fall off as 1=r 2 far away from the source region. it is convenient to superimpose several individual dipoles of (possibly) different strengths and relative phases.x 0 V0 x0 / / D .x 0 x0 / x0.57) (6.e.4 Magnetic dipole radiation The next term in the expression (6.t. 6.

and the fact that we are considering a single Fourier component. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS the j th component of the integrand in …e .Ái Á0 / Áj . x/ D !e i!t FT x0 / m! 1 0 Œ !.t.x0 / (6.x x0 / .uu.i Áj The utilisation of equations (6.i Áj i.61) allow us to express ! ! in j! as R A Di j! ! (6.23) on page 88. .1/ can ! be written …e.x0 x0 / 2 V0 Z 1 (6.x0 x0 / j! .Á Á0 / Á0 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 118 of 262 .56) on the previous page as Z 1 .x0 x0 / ! .62) Hence. as the sum of two parts.e.x0 x0 / 2! V0 1 D i . We note that the antisymmetric part can be written as 1 Ái 2 0 !. the ﬁrst being symmetric and the second antisymmetric in the indices i.Ái !.x0 x0 / j 2 D (6.i Áj (6.j Ái C 0 !. part of …e .i / i 2 1 D Œ ! .j Ái 0 !. magnetic dipole.x0 / .63) D i .x0 / . we can write the antisymmetric part of the integral in formula (6.x x0 / m! ! D where we introduced the Fourier transform of the magnetic dipole moment Z 1 m! D d3x 0 .1/ D eikjx x0 j k .65) ..x x0 / Œ ! . j .1/ can be broken up into ! fŒ.x 0 /gj D 1 Ái 2 1 C Ái 2 0 !. 96 j 6 .x 4 "0 ! jx x0 j2 (6.60) (6.x x0 / d3x 0 j! .plasma.x x0 / d3x 0 ! .59) 0 !.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.j .Á ! /j 2 « 1˚ D .j Ái 0 !.64) 2 V0 The ﬁnal result is that the antisymmetric. antisym ! .

The components of the ﬁelds that dominate in the far ﬁeld zone (wave zone) are given by eikjx x0 j .4 Radiation from an extended source volume at rest Certain radiating systems have a symmetric geometry or are in any other way simple enough that a direct (semi-)analytic calculation of the radiated ﬁelds and energy is possible. FT k .x0 x0 /.66b) Efar .m! 4 jx x0 j 0 k/ k k (6. we obtain far B! .k Q! / 8 "0 jx x0 j i k This type of radiation is called electric quadrupole radiation or E2 radiation. x0 / D d3x 0 .67) V0 far B! . but fairly straightforward algebra (which we will not present here). Discarding.1/ The symmetric part …! of the n D 1 contribution in the equation (6. Tedious.33) on page 90 to calculate the ﬁelds via equations (6. yields the resulting ﬁelds.68b) 8 Efar .66a) (6. we insert this expression into equation (6. 6. all terms belonging to the near ﬁelds and transition ﬁelds and keeping only the terms that dominate at large distances. This is for instance the case when the radiating current ﬂows in a ﬁnite.5 Electric quadrupole radiation e.t.33) on page 90 to evaluate C.68a) (6.x/ D R A i 0! Again we use this expression in equation (6. D 6. Radiation from an extended source volume at rest j 97 In analogy with the electric dipole case.x/ D eikjx x0 j .plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x/ D ! eikjx x0 j Œ.se/CED/Book Sheet: 119 of 262 . 6. sym . which is deﬁned in accordance with equation (6.x/ D ! k eikjx x0 j m! 4 "0 c jx x0 j which are the ﬁelds of the magnetic dipole radiation (M1 radiation).uu.tret . as before.x0 x0 / .39b) on page 91 for the expansion of the Hertz vector can be expressed in terms of the electric quadrupole tensor.34) on page 90. conducting medium of simple geometry at rest such as in a stationary antenna.3.34) on page 90 then gives the B and E ﬁelds. with which equations (6.4.k Q! / jx x0 j k (6. x0 / (6.16c) on page 86: Z 0 Q.

x0 / D ı. the charges in this thin wire of ﬁnite length L are set into linear motion to produce a time-varying antenna current which is the source of the EM radiation.t 0 . conducting wire across a very short gap at its centre. of course. At the midpoint.71) sin.x0 / D ı. For simplicity.t 0 .x2 /J. When the antenna is short we can approximate the current distribution formula (6.x1 /ı. i..70) D This second-order ordinary differential equation with constant coefﬁcients has the well-known solution ˇ 0ˇ sinŒk.plasma.x1 /ı.x3 / of the antenna current fulﬁls the time-independent wave equation (Helmholtz equation) (6. linear. Such a current can be set up by feeding the EMF of a generator (e. in complex notation.71) above by the ﬁrst term in its Taylor expansion.t 0 .L=2 ˇx3 ˇ/ 0 I. straight. x0 / D j0 . we assume that the conductor resistance and the energy loss due to the electromagnetic radiation are negligible.5) on page 83 to calculate the radiated EM power from a one-dimensional.4.x3 / D 0 .0/ D I0 (6. 98 j 6 . the antenna current is. assumed to be constant and supplied by the generator/transmitter at the antenna feed point (in our case the midpoint of the antenna wire) and 1= sin.kL=2/ is a normalisation factor.x3 / D I0 (6. thin.L=2/ D 0 .x0 / exp. L=2/ D I.69) 0 and where the spatially varying Fourier amplitude I. time-varying current. by I0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Due to the applied EMF. x3 / can 0 0 be written as I. Choosing our coordinate system such that the x3 axis is along the antenna axis. by 0 0 0 0 O j. the antenna current must vanish at the endpoints L=2 and L=2.kL=2/ where I0 is the amplitude of the antenna current (measured in A). equations (5.uu.x3 / x3 R A d2 I 0 C k 2 I.1 Radiation from a one-dimensional current distribution Let us apply equation (6.3 on the facing page.e.1 . The antenna current forms a standing wave as indicated in ﬁgure 6.x3 / exp.x2 /I. Linear antennas of this type are called dipole antennas. where the antenna is fed across a very short gap in the conducting wire. I. a transmitter) onto a stationary. the antenna current J. i!0 t / so that the antenna current density can be represented as j. x3 / is the current (measured in A) along the antenna wire. i!0 t 0 / [cf.se/CED/Book Sheet: 120 of 262 .t 0 . equal to the supplied current.t 0 .. x3 / x3 (measured in Am 2) where J. 0 For each Fourier frequency component !0 . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS 6. 02 dx3 FT I. Since we can assume that the antenna wire is inﬁnitely thin. the antenna current density can be represented.g.6) on page 72] where 0 0 0 O j0 .

x2 / cos.kx3 / R A ˇ 0ˇ 2 ˇx3 ˇ =L/ while for a short antenna (L ) it can be approximated by 0 0 j0 .L=2 ˇ 0ˇ ˇx ˇ/ 3 L 2 j.kx3 / In order to evaluate formula (6.5) on page 83 with the explicit monochromatic current (6.uu. arbitrary length L directed along the 0 x3 axis.75) . the Fourier amplitude of the antenna current density is j0 .t 0 .kx3 /.x / D 0 0 0 sinŒk.4.3: A linear antenna used for transmission.x0 / D I0 ı.71) 0 on the facing page simpliﬁes to I0 cos. The current in the feeder and the antenna wire is set up by the EMF of the generator (the transmitter). At the ends of the wire.72) inserted.x0 / D I0 ı.x2 / exp.kL=2/ For a half-wave dipole antenna (L D =2). x0 / L 2 Figure 6. kL D ) formula (6.x1 /ı. Radiation from an extended source volume at rest j 99 sinŒk. in which one end of the antenna is connected to ground via a resistance so that the current at this end does not vanish. 0 2jx3 j=L/. inﬁnitely thin antenna of ﬁnite.plasma. the current is reﬂected back with a 180ı phase shift to produce a antenna current in the form of a standing wave.x1 /ı. we use a spherical polar coordinate system as in FT (6. Hence.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the Fourier amplitude of the antenna current density is 0 0 0 j0 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 121 of 262 .1 D In the case of a travelling wave antenna.L=2 I0 ı. the antenna current density is simply 0 0 0 j0 .x2 / ˇ 0ˇ ˇx ˇ/ 3 O x3 sin. in the most general case of a straight. For a half-wave antenna (L D =2 .74) (6.x1 /ı.x0 / D I0 ı.x1 /ı.73) (6.72) (6. 6.x2 /.

kL=2/ (6.x0 x0 / ˇ ID ˇ ˇ ˇZ ˇ ˇ D ˇ ˇ L 2 k sin Âe e sin.4 to evaluate the source integral ˇZ ˇ2 ˇ ˇ ˇ d3x 0 j0 k e ik .77) One can show that lim P .plasma.kL=2/ cos Â cos. we ﬁnd that the total radiated power from the antenna is 2 P .x / 0 O k x2 x1 R A V0 ﬁgure 6. ') and arrange it so that the linear electric dipole antenna axis (and thus the antenna current density j! ) is along the polar axis with the feed point at the origin.kL=2/ cos Â D 4I0 sin Â sin.kL=2/ 2 cosŒ.se/CED/Book Sheet: 122 of 262 .5) on page 83 and integrating over Â . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6.kL=2/ ˇ2 ˇ ˇ ˇ2 ˇ Z L ˇ 2 2 2 ˇ 0 0 0 2 k sin Â ˇ ikx0 cos Â0 ˇ ˇ dx3 sin.L/ D Â Ã2 L 12 2 R0 I0 kL!0 (6.78) .kx3 cos Â/ˇ D I0 2 L ˇe ˇ ˇ2 ˇ ˇ 0 sin .4: We choose a spherical polar coordinate system .L=2 0 dx3 I0 D Inserting this expression and d D 2 sin Â dÂ into formula (6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.k 2 / Â Ã2 cos.76) L 2 sinŒk.kL=2/ Ã2 sin Â (6. Â.kL=2 kx3 / cos. 100 j 6 .r D jxj . O r x3 D z L 2 O ® x O ™ Â j! .uu.kL=2/ sin Â sin.L/ D R0 I0 1 4 Z dÂ 0 FT L 2 ' ˇ 0ˇ ˇx ˇ/ 3 0 ikx3 cos Â ikx0 cos Â0 ˇ ˇ2 ˇ ˇ ˇ Â cosŒ.

For the technologically important case of a half-wave antenna.uu. u/ 1 1 1 C cos.80) Z 0 cos2 R 1:22 Z 1 cos Â cos2 2 u dÂ D Œcos Â ! u D du D sin Â u2 1 1 Ä Á 1 C cos.2 The integral in (6. According to equation (5. =2/ D 2 R0 I0 1 4 Z dÂ 0 cos2 cos Â 2 sin Â (6.1 C u/ Z 1 2 1 cos v 1 D dv D Œ C ln 2 Ci.1 u/ Z Z 1 1 1 C cos.80) above we obtain the value Rrad .28a) on page 79 the Fourier component of the radiation part of the A FT (6.L/ D 2 D 1 2 D R0 6 Ieff I 2 0 rad Â Ã2 L 197 Â Ã2 L (6.2 / 2 0 v 2 2 D where in the last step the Euler-Mascheroni constant D 0:5772 : : : and the cosine integral Ci. u/ cos2 u D 2 2 Z 1 1 1 C cos.L/ R . u/ vi D du D 1 C u ! 2 1 .L/ P . But.1 C u/ 4 1 . for L D =2 or kL D . We choose the Cartesian coordinate system x1 x2 x3 with its origin at the centre of the loop as in ﬁgure 6. it can in fact also be evaluated analytically as follows: . Radiation from an extended source volume at rest j 101 where is the vacuum wavelength.4.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.81) E X A M P L E 6.77) on the facing page reduces to P .x/ were introduced. Radiation from a two-dimensional current distribution As an example of a two-dimensional current distribution we consider a circular loop antenna of radius a and calculate the far-zone Efar and Bfar ﬁelds from such an antenna.se/CED/Book Sheet: 123 of 262 . Inserting this into the expression equation (6..5 on the following page.1 u/ Z h 1 1 1 C cos.79) is called the radiation resistance. u/ D du C du 4 1 .plasma. The quantity P .1 C u/.80) can always be evaluated numerically. u/ D du 2 1 . 6. =2/ 73 .e. formula (6. i.

x0 / ' d3x 0 e ik x0 j! k (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 124 of 262 .82) R j! D I0 cos ' 0 ı.r.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. monochromatic current source is far B! D A FT x0 x1 '0 O ®0 O ¡0 i 0 eikjxj 4 jxj Z V0 j! .uu. we recall from subsection F. '/ describes the ﬁeld point x (the radiation ﬁeld) and the cylindrical coordinate system .4.1 on page 198 that the following relations between the base vectors hold: O O O O r D sin Â cos ' x1 C sin Â sin ' x2 C cos Â x3 O sin Â x3 O O sin ' x1 C cos ' x2 D O O O ™ D cos Â cos ' x1 C cos Â sin ' x2 O ®D and O O O x1 D sin Â cos ' r C cos Â cos ' ™ O O x3 D cos Â r O sin Â ™ O sin ' ® O O O O x2 D sin Â sin ' r C cos Â sin ' ™ C cos ' ® With the use of the above transformations and trigonometric identities. The circumference of the loop is chosen to be exactly one wavelength D 2 c=!. z 0 / describes the source point x0 (the antenna current). Â. 0 . O r x3 D z D z 0 O ® x O ™ Â O k x2 O z0 magnetic ﬁeld generated by an extended. we obtain for the . 102 j 6 . ' 0 .plasma.83) For the spherical coordinate system of the ﬁeld point. This means that the antenna current oscillates in the form of a sinusoidal standing current wave around the circular loop with a Fourier amplitude O a/ı. 0 In our case the generator produces a single frequency ! and we feed the antenna across a small gap where the loop crosses the positive x1 axis.5: For the loop antenna the spherical coordinate system . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6.z 0 /®0 (6.

6.' 0 O '/ cos ' 0 d' 0 ™ (6. Radiation from an extended source volume at rest j 103 cylindrical coordinate system which describes the source: O O O ¡0 D cos ' 0 x1 C sin ' 0 x2 D sin Â cos.' 0 O '/™ C sin.88) .84) (6.uu. 2 .91) O ®0 k D kŒcos.' 0 '/O C cos Â cos.' 0 and '/ (6. the source integral becomes Z Z 2 0 0 O d3x 0 e ik x j! k D a d' 0 e ika sin Â cos. the second integral in the RHS of (6. and utilising standard trigonometric identities.90) Â cos.89) can be rewritten Z 2 00 e ika sin Â cos ' sin ' 00 cos.' 00 C '/ d' 00 0 D 1 sin ' 2 Z 0 2 e Z 0 2 ika sin Â cos ' 00 1 sin ' 2 e ika sin Â cos ' 00 A FT D cos.' 0 '/ Utilising the periodicity of the integrands over the integration interval Œ0.' 0 O '/® (6.4.' 0 O '/® O '/® O O sin ' 0 x1 C cos ' 0 x2 (6.plasma.' 0 r '/O r O sin Â ™ cos Â sin.' 0 '/ Z C I0 ak cos Â 0 2 e ika sin Â cos.' 0 O ®0 D D sin Â sin.' 0 O '/ cos ' 0 d' 0 ® cos2 ' 00 d' 00 C a vanishing integral 1 1 C cos 2' 00 2 2 d' 00 Ã d' 00 (6.' 00 C '/ d' 00 0 D cos ' D cos ' D R e 0 Z 2 ika sin Â cos ' 00 Z 2 e ika sin Â cos ' 00 0 1 cos ' 2 C Z 2 e ika sin Â cos ' 00 0 D 1 cos ' 2 Z 2 e ika sin Â cos ' 00 0 Analogously.' 0 O '/™ C cos Â sin. recalling that in cylindrical coordinates d3x 0 0 d 0 d' 0 dz 0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.2' 00 / d' 00 d' 00 cos 2' 00 d' 00 (6.89) can be rewritten Z 2 00 e ika sin Â cos ' cos ' 00 cos.se/CED/Book Sheet: 125 of 262 .85) (6.86) O O O z0 D x3 D cos Â r O O This choice of coordinate systems means that k D k r and x0 D a¡0 so that k x0 D ka sin Â cos. introducing the auxiliary integration variable ' 00 D ' 0 '.87) With these expressions inserted.' '/ I0 cos ' 0 ®0 k V0 0 Z D I0 ak 0 2 e ika sin Â cos. the ﬁrst integral in the RHS of (6.' 0 O '/™ C cos.89) sin.

2 .92) cos n' d' which means that Z 0 2 ika sin Â cos ' 00 e Z 0 2 d' 00 D 2 J0 .x/ D i ikr 0e 4 r O O IÂ ™ C I' ® (6.94) O C I0 ak cos Â sin ' ŒJ0 .ka sin Â/ (6.93) cos 2' d' D 00 00 e ika sin Â cos ' 00 2 J2 .ka sin Â/ (6. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS As is well-known from the theory of Bessel functions.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/ D Re D far 4 r 0 D 4 r I0 ak D 4r sin.uu.ka sin Â/ C J2 .ikr !t 0 / 0e B . Jn . End of example 6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 126 of 262 . / D .ka sin Â/ ® so that.kr 0 Á O O !t 0 / IÂ ™ C I' ® Â sin. R A far B! . we ﬁnd that Z V0 d3x 0 e ik x0 j! O O k D IÂ ™ C I' ® FT O J2 .t.ka sin Â/ ™ D I0 ak cos ' ŒJ0 .ka sin Â/ (6. 1/n Jn .ka sin Â/ ™ Á O O IÂ ™ C I' ® ) Á O J2 .ka sin Â/ Putting everything together.96) Ã O C cos Â sin ' ŒJ0 .ka sin Â/ ® From this expression for the radiated B ﬁeld. 104 j 6 .ka sin Â/ C J2 .95) To obtain the desired physical magnetic ﬁeld in the radiation (far) zone we must Fourier transform back to t space and take the real part: ( i . Jn .plasma. / Z i n /D e i 0 cos ' cos n' d' D i n 2 Z 0 2 e i cos ' (6. in spherical coordinates where jxj D r. we can obtain the radiated E ﬁeld with the help of Maxwell’s equations.kr !t 0 / cos ' ŒJ0 .

x0 / dS 0 dr 0 0 . r 0 C dr 0 / and the net amount of charge in this radial interval is 0 dq 0 D . can be thought of as a localised.tret .se/CED/Book Sheet: 127 of 262 .t / x ret V0 0 0 j tret .97b) 6. we R 0 cannot say that the charge and current to be used in (6.t. x.97) is V 0 d3x 0 .t t 0 /.tret /j V0 Z d3x 0 (6.98) 4 .5 Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion The derivation of the radiation ﬁelds for the case of the source moving relative to the observer is considerably more complicated than the stationary cases that we have studied so far. x0 / v 0 . because in the ﬁnite time interval during which the observed signal is generated.6 on the following page.5.t / x0 . x/ D 1 4 "0 Z 0 0 0 tret . Since dt 0 D dr 0 =c FT (6. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 105 6.t 0 / D dx0 =dt 0 . Speciﬁcally.t 0 / on a sphere with radius r D jx x0 j D c.tret .6 on page 106 which contributes to the ﬁeld at x.97a) (6.r 0 .1 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials D The charge distribution in ﬁgure 6.47) on page 40 in chapter 3 . t 0 C dt 0 / is .tret / 0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. The radius interval of this sphere from which radiation is received at the ﬁeld point x during the time interval .t 0 /j jx. we start from the retarded potentials (3. we consider a charge q 0 . x/ D A.5.tret . Since we assume that the electron (or any other similar electric charge) moves with a velocity v 0 whose direction is arbitrary and whose magnitude can even be comparable to the speed of light. The part of this ‘charge distribution’ dq 0 which we are considering is located in dV 0 D d3x 0 in the sphere in ﬁgure 6. for instance an electron. 6. x0 / R 3 0 0 and V 0 d x v . part of the charge distribution will ‘leak’ out of the volume element d3x 0 . respectively.t 0 / 0 0 dS dt jx x0 j where the last term represents the amount of ‘source leakage’ due to the fact that the charge distribution moves with velocity v 0 . ﬁnite radius.t 0 . which. x0 /.uu.t/ is located at x0 . classically.tret .t. x0 . In order to handle this non-stationary situation.tret / d3x 0 0 jx.x and consider a source region with such a limited spatial extent that the charges and currents are well localised. unstructured and rigid ‘charge distribution’ with a small. x0 / R A .plasma.

x/ D 1 4 "0 Z 0 Z jx jx dq 0 x0 j v 0 dq 0 x0 j . x/ D 4 . x0 / d3x 0 D . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6.tret . x0 / d3x 0 c jx x0 j Â Ã .uu. as time increases.t.t 0 / dq 0 dr 0 dV 0 and dS 0 dr 0 D d3x 0 we can rewrite the expression for the net charge as R A or 0 .plasma.x x0 / v 0 3 0 0 0 dx .97) on the previous page for the retarded potentials. The source charge element moves with an arbitrary velocity v 0 and gives rise to a source ‘leakage’ out of the volume dV 0 D d3x 0 .tret . with velocity c D c.t. x0 / dq 0 D .x x0 / v 0 c (6. x.6: Signals that are observed at time t at the ﬁeld point x were generated at time t 0 at source points x0 on a sphere.t 0 / dS0 x0 .x x0 /= jx x0 j outward from the centre.x x0 / v 0 0 D .102b) A.102a) (6.t / x x0 v 0 .tret . The result is (recall that j D v ) .x x0 / v 0 cjx x0 j (6. centred on x and expanding.se/CED/Book Sheet: 128 of 262 .x x0 / v 0 c (6. x0 / 1 d3x 0 c jx x0 j FT c (6. 106 j 6 . x0 / 3 0 dx D jx x0 j jx dq 0 D x0 j .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.100) which leads to the expression 0 .tret .x x0 / v 0 c .99) dq 0 1 .tret .101) This is the expression to be used in the formulæ (6.

x/ D r E. x/ @A.uu.x x0 / v 0 4 "0 s c Z q0 1 v0 v0 dq 0 D A.t.t 0 /j ˇ x0 .t 0 /j Â Ã x x0 .5.3.105b) D x0 D x0 .105a) (6. and we shall now study such emission problems.t 0 / v 0 .103a) 4 "0 jx x0 j .x x0 / and v ! c. This was ﬁrst pointed out by A R N O L D J O H A N N E S WILHELM SOMMERFELD (1868–1951) in 1904.t.106) FT (6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 107 For a sufﬁciently small and well localised charge distribution we can.t. as we shall see later in the covariant derivation.plasma. the observer is in a coordinate system which has an ‘absolute’ meaning and the velocity v 0 is that of the localised charge q 0 . two reference frames of equal standing are moving relative to each other with v 0 . The potentials (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 129 of 262 .t.2 on page 145 we shall derive them in a more elegant and general way by using a relativistically covariant formalism.t 0 / c jx x0 .103) are the Liénard-Wiechert potentials. the potentials become singular. assuming that the integrands do not change sign in the integration volume.t 0 / x0 .t 0 . x/ D R A A. x/ D (6.t 0 / x0 . x/ @t is the retarded relative distance.t 0 / c Â Ã ˇ x x0 .t 0 /ˇ Œx ˇ D ˇx D Œx B. .2 Radiation from an accelerated point charge Consider a localised charge q 0 and assume that its trajectory is known experimentally as a function of retarded time (6.t 0 / v 0 .104c) 2 ˇ s D s.t 0 / 6.103b) v0 D 2 c where x0 . The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are calculated from the potentials in the usual way: (6.104b) (6. x/ D ˇx These results were derived independently by A L F R E D M A R I E L I É NA R D (1869–1958) in 1898 and E M I L J O H A N N W I E C H E RT (1861–1928) in 1900.x x0 / v 0 4 "0 c 2 s c (6.t. It should be noted that in the complicated derivation presented above.5.t. 6. use the mean value theorem to evaluate these expressions to become Z q0 1 1 1 dq 0 D . When v 0 k .t 0 / v 0 . whereas.t.t 0 /ˇ 1 c jx x0 . x/ D 4 "0 c 2 jx x0 j .2 In section 7.104a) (6. x/ r . The Liénard-Wiechert potentials are applicable to all problems where a spatially localised charge in arbitrary motion emits electromagnetic radiation.

at t ) unknown trajectory.. .t 0 /j c (6.t 0 / D P v 0 .t 0 / x x x 0 x0 x. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6. This means that we know the trajectory of the charge q 0 .t.t 0 / dx0 dt 0 FT x0 .t 0 / D dv 0 d2 x0 D 02 0 dt dt d Œx dt 0 x0 .e. 108 j 6 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 130 of 262 .e.t 0 / The retarded time t 0 can. Because of the ﬁnite speed of propagation of the ﬁelds.t 0 /. Extrapolating tangentially the trajectory from x0 .108a) (6. be calculated from the implicit relation t 0 D t 0 .108b) D d2 Œx dt 0 2 x0 .. After this time t 0 the particle.t 0 / D v 0 .7: Signals that are observed at time t at the ﬁeld point x were generated at time t 0 at the source point x0 .t / (in the interest of simplifying our notation.107b) As for the charge coordinate x0 itself. deﬁnes the virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 . we drop the subscript ‘ret’ on t 0 from now on).t / Â0 v 0 . x/ D t jx (6.uu. x0 .t 0 / D v 0 . which moves with nonuniform velocity. ? q0 x0 .t 0 /.t 0 /. we have in general no knowledge of the velocity and acceleration at times later than t 0 . has followed a so far (i. the application of (6.t /. The retarded velocity and acceleration at time t 0 are given by R A v 0 . i.t 0 / Â0 jx x0 j 0 v c x0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.109) and we shall see later how this relation can be taken into account in the calculations. for all times up to the time t 0 at which a signal was emitted in order to precisely arrive at the ﬁeld point x at time t . the trajectory at times later than t 0 cannot be known at time t .107) to the relative vector x x0 yields (6.107a) (6.t 0 / D P a0 . based on the velocity v 0 . at least in principle.plasma. and deﬁnitely not at the time of observation t ! If we choose the ﬁeld point x as ﬁxed.

t 0 /=c R A We introduce the convention that a differential operator embraced by parentheses with an index x or t means that the operator in question is applied at constant x and t . the electric and magnetic ﬁelds are determined via differentiation of the retarded potentials at the observation time t and at the observation point x. respectively.t 0 .@t 0 =@t /x that we can solve to obtain Â 0Ã @t jx x0 j jx x0 j D D @t x s jx x0 j .x x0 / v 0 .5. O the spatial derivative differentiation operator r D xi @=@xi means that we differentiate with respect to the coordinates x D .t. are expressed in the charge velocity v 0 .5.1 The differential operator method D Furthermore.110) . which in turn is expressed implicitly in t via equation (6.109) on the preceding page we ﬁnd that Â 0Ã Â Ã @t @ jx x0 . Despite this complication it is possible.105) on page 107.x1 . x/ is the retarded relative distance given by equation (6. This means that the expressions for the potentials and A contain terms that are expressed explicitly in t 0 . as we shall see below.x x0 / v 0 . In these formulæ the unprimed r .t 0 / given by equation (6. by applying the operator . to determine the electric and magnetic ﬁelds and associated quantities at the time of observation t .t 0 .104) on page 107. x//j D1 @t x @t c ÄÂ x Ã Â 0Ã @ @t jx x0 j D1 (6. Making use of equation (6. we need to investigate carefully the action of differentiation on the potentials.112) According to formulæ (6.@=@t/x to equation (6. 6.plasma.111) @t 0 x c @t x Â Ã .uu.104) on page 107.109) on the facing page. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 109 6. we obtain the following useful FT (6.t 0 /ˇp Dp x x x x0 . x3 / while keeping t ﬁxed. we ﬁnd that Â Ã Â Ã 0 ˇ ˇ @ @ ˇx x0 . To this end.se/CED/Book Sheet: 131 of 262 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.107a) on page 108 and the retarded relative distance s.x x0 / v 0 .103) on page 107.2. equations (6.112) above. x2 .t 0 .t 0 / @t 0 D1C c jx x0 j @t x This is an algebraic equation in .t 0 / D p jx x0 j2 p where s D s. But the Liénard-Wiechert potentials and A. i.e. With this convention. x/ given by equation (6.. .t 0 / 0 0 j2 p @t x @t 0 x jx x (6. and the unprimed time derivative operator @=@t means that we differentiate with respect to t while keeping x ﬁxed.

uu.103) on page 107. x/ @t " q0 Œx x0 .r t 0 / t D r D r .t.t 0 / jx x0 .t 0 . we obtain @ A.r t / t C .t / Á D @t @t x @t 4 s x Ä Â Ã ˇ ˇ 0 0 ˇ ˇ q0 ˇx x0 ˇ s v . x//j .t 0 /j v 0 .116) @t 0 x cs @t 0 x With the help of the rules (6.t 0 / @s P D 4 "0 c 2 s 3 @t 0 x Utilising these relations in the calculation of the E ﬁeld from the Liénard-Wiechert potentials.t 0 / D C .se/CED/Book Sheet: 132 of 262 . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS operator identity Â Ã Â 0Ã Â Ã Â Ã @ @t @ jx x0 j @ D D @t x @t x @t 0 x s @t 0 x (6. x/ and.113) Likewise.r t 0 / t with the solution .118) .113) we are now able to replace t by t 0 in the operations that we need to perform. x/ jx x0 .r / t D .r / t 0 (6.114) x x0 . x/ @t 0 x # 0 0 0 0 P jx x .t / ˇx x0 ˇ v 0 .r / t 0 D C .t 0 /j Â Ã Œx x0 .x x0 / v 0 .r / t to equation (6.r / t is acting on an arbitrary function of t 0 and x: Â Ã Â Ã @ x x0 @ 0 . for instance.t.t 0 /=c @s.103b) on page 107 and equation (6. x/ cs.t 0 /j v 0 .r t 0 / t D x cs x0 (6.t 0 / jx x0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. from equation (6.109) on page 108 we obtain Â Ã x x0 jx x0 .x x0 / t c c jx x0 j t (6.t 0 . by applying .t 0 / x x0 @s x x0 q D 4 "0 s 2 jx x0 j c cs @t 0 x R A D E. 110 j 6 .113).t /j v .r / t D r 4 "0 s t Ä Â Ã (6.116) and (6.t / c2 FT (6.117a) 0 v 0 .r t 0 / t c jx x0 j c jx x0 j This is an algebraic equation in .t. that Â Ã 1 q0 r Á . equations (6.t 0 /=c D 4 "0 s 2 .t 0 .t 0 .plasma.115) which gives the following operator relation when .117b) (6. We ﬁnd.) Â Ã Ä Â 0 0 0 Ã @A @ @A 0 q v . x/ D r .t.

we interpret x x0 .t 0 / jx x0 . Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 111 Starting from expression (6.t / jx Velocity ﬁeld (tends to the Coulomb ﬁeld when v ! 0) ƒ‚ 0 R A Acceleration (radiation) ﬁeld ÄÂ Œx x .121) D FT x0 . respectively.t / D @t 0 x Ã Â 0 0 Ã ÄÂ 1 @Œx x0 . the acceleration ﬁeld . x/. is radiated into the far zone and is therefore also called the radiation ﬁeld .t / 0 … (6.@s=@t 0 /x in the following way Â @s @t 0 Ã x Â 0 0 0 Ã ˇ @ ˇ ˇx x0 ˇ .t 0 / q0 C 4 "0 s 3 .119) Ä D where equation (6.t // a .plasma. Since the time it takes for a signal to propagate (in the assumed free space) from x0 .x x / v .t / . The second part of the ﬁeld.t / .t 0 / c2 Ã … 0 x0 .t.t 0 .t/. x/ „ ( x x0 . Hence.t 0 / c jx ÃÂ 1 v 02 . 6.t 0 /j v 0 .t 0 .t 0 / to x is jx x0 j =c. During the arbitrary motion.120) .5.t / ƒ‚ 0 The ﬁrst part of the ﬁeld.110) on page 109 and equations (6.t 0 / c (6.7 on page 108 we see that the position the charged particle would have had if at t 0 all external forces would have been switched off so that the trajectory from then on would have been a straight line in the direction of the tangent at x0 . tends to the ordinary Coulomb ﬁeld when v 0 ! 0 and does not contribute to the radiation.uu.t 0 / is x0 .t/ as the coordinate of the ﬁeld point x relative to the virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 .t 0 .x x .t 0 /j v 0 .t / C D c c jx x0 .t / v 0 . the electric ﬁeld generated by an arbitrarily moving localised charge at x0 . we see that we can evaluate .t / D x x0 .t /. this relative vector is given by x x0 .t / @t 0 c x Ã Â ˇ @ ˇ 0 0 ˇ ˇx x .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t 0 /j v 0 .t 0 / c @t 0 @t 0 x x 02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 v .107) on page 108. x/ c2 „ 0 0 x . x/ D Œx 4 "0 s 3 . From ﬁgure 6.104a) on page 107 for the retarded relative distance s.se/CED/Book Sheet: 133 of 262 .t 0 / C Œx x0 .t // v .t 0 / c Ã ) a . the velocity ﬁeld . the virtual simultaneous coordinate.t 0 / @v . were used.t 0 /j (6.t 0 / is given by the expression Â q0 E.x x .

113) on page 110.t/ c2 a0 .t 0 / c2 x Ã # (6.t/ x .124) t R A B. x/ D 4 "0 s 3 " x C x x0 .t 0 /g Ã a0 D x0 .123) where we made use of equation (6.x 4 "0 c 2 s 3 q0 D Œx 4 "0 c 2 s 3 far x/ 0 ÄÂ .125) above.t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x/ D x x0 .t. x/ (6.t / 0 0 Â 1 v 02 .121) on the preceding page.120) on the previous page as q0 E . x/ D Ä Â Ã x x0 @A r t 0j c jx x @t x 0 0 x x . x/ D .120) on the preceding page in the following way q0 E.117a).t.t.t/ (6. the radiation part of the magnetic ﬁeld can be written Bfar .t 0 /j (6.125) The electric far ﬁeld is obtained from the acceleration ﬁeld in formula (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 134 of 262 .122) x0 .x fŒx x/ 0 jx x0 j v 0 c a0 .t. x x0 c jx x0 j so that r D x q0 2 s 2 jx 4 "0 c x0 x0 j v0 (6.t / E. according to (6.t 0 / x0 . x/ D c jx x0 .plasma.t.t 0 / c jx x0 . x/ Á r q x 4 "0 c 2 s 2 jx 0 A 0 t D r A 0 x t0 x0 Â FT v 0 x x0 j x x c jx x0 j Â cs Ã @A @t x @A @t 0 Ã x (6.127) .t. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS This allows us to rewrite equation (6.uu.t 0 / The magnetic ﬁeld can be computed in a similar manner: B.126) where in the last step we again used formula (6. 112 j 6 .t 0 /j Efar .t.103) on page 107 and formula (6. But. Combining this formula and formula (6. x/ D r D A.

x x0 / v 0 2 . the square of this retarded relative distance can be written ˇ s 2 .t 0 / 2 c ˇ 2 ˇx x0 .x x0 / c c Â 0 Ã2 .t 0 / v 0 . x/.x x0 / v 0 jx x0 j v 0 D .t 0 .130).t 0 / v 0 D Œx x0 .121) on page 111.t /j2 c (6.t 0 .t / v0 (6.t 0 /ˇ Œx ˇ Œx x0 .uu. when inserted into equation (6.2 The direct method An alternative to the differential operator transformation technique just described is to try to express all quantities in the potentials directly in t and x.t 0 / v 0 . An example of such a quantity is the retarded relative distance s.se/CED/Book Sheet: 135 of 262 .plasma.x x0 / v 0 2 2 ˇx x0 ˇ2 2 ˇx x0 ˇ .133) D FT (6.128) above for s 2 .x x0 / v 0 2 C c c .t 0 / 2 Á jx x0 .t / v 0 .128) D D jx jx x0 j2 v 02 jx x0 j2 v 02 2 0 cos2 Â 0 C sin Â c2 c2 x0 j2 v 02 jx x0 j2 v 02 .t 0 / c (6. According to equation (6.x x0 / v 0 2 .x x0 /2 c Â Ã Œx x0 .x x0 / v D .t 0 /ˇ Ã x0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x Inserting the above into expression (6. x/ D ˇx Â C ˇ2 x0 .5. from equation (6.104) on page 107.130) (6. this expression becomes Â Ã 0 0 0 2 02 ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ . 6. yields the relation Â Ã Â Ã .131) which.x x / v C jx x j v s D c c2 c Â Ã2 Â Ã2 .x x0 / v 0 2 jx D c Â .132) If we use the following handy identity Â Ã Ã Â .x x0 / v 0 2 jx x0 j2 v 02 D c c2 c R A we ﬁnd that Â Ã . Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 113 6.129) x0 / c v0 Ã2 (6. we obtain the identity Œx x0 .2.5.cos2 Â 0 C sin2 Â 0 / D c2 c2 x0 j2 v 02 c2 Furthermore.

Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.134) for s will not be dependent on t 0 .t/j2 s Â Œx x0 . Using equation (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 136 of 262 . shown that all quantities in the deﬁnition of s.t /.134b) (6.x x0 / C . We have. when the motion of the charge is somehow known. we obtain the following alternative ﬁnal expressions for the retarded relative distance s in terms of the charge’s virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 . in this special case we are able to express the retarded relative distance as s D s.x x0 / 2 c c Ä Â 0 Ã v0 v D 2 .t 0 . we obtain " Â Ã Â Ã # v 02 .t/j jx v 02 . viz.103) can be expressed in terms of the virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 .. expression (6.t/ c2 Â Ã Â v 02 .t/ c v 0 . be expressed in terms of the time t alone.e. can. and hence s itself.134c) D R If we know what velocity the particle will have at time t .t. 114 j 6 ..3 on the facing page for a uniform.135) D 2 ..t 0 / Ã2 D jx s D x0 . x/ and we do not have to involve the retarded time t 0 or any transformed differential operators in our calculations. and in the ﬁeld coordinate x D x.t 0 / c Ã2 where in the penultimate step we used equation (6.plasma. the retarded distance s in the Liénard-Wiechert potentials (6. unaccelerated motion of the charge.t/ and velocity v 0 . R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS s.121) on page 111.t/ v 0 . the point at which the particle will have arrived at time t . where we make our observations. in other words.x x0 / v 0 2 2 2 r s D r jx x0 j 1 C c2 c Ä Â 02 Ã 0 0 v vv (6.133) on the previous page.t 0 / 2 sin Â0 .t 0 / Œx 2 x0 .t 0 /: (6. I. x/ D A FT s jx x0 .e. .x x0 / c c We shall use this result in example 6.uu. Taking the square root of both sides of equation (6.134c) above and standard vector analytic formulae.t/j 1 C 2 c 1 x0 .x x0 / 1 C 2 . i.t/. What we have just demonstrated is that if the particle velocity at time t can be calculated or projected from its value at the retarded time t 0 . when we obtain the ﬁrst knowledge of its existence at the source point x0 at the retarded time t 0 .134a) (6.

i.e. any physical observable f .7 on page 108. x0 . x C v 0 dt/ (6. This gives us the possibility to extrapolate its position at the observation time.t C dt. f .140b) .t.t C dt.105) on page 107.t 0 /. v 0 Á 0.103) on page 107 as follows: ED @A 1 @v 0 v0 @ D r D r 2 @t @t c c 2 @t Ã Â 0 Â v0 0v 0 Ã v v D r C r D 1 r c c c2 Â 0 0 Ã vv D 13 r c2 Â 0 Ã v v0 v0 BDr ADr Dr D r 2 2 c c c2 ÄÂ 0 Ã 0 Â 0 0 Ã v0 v v v0 vv D 2 r r D 2 13 r c c c c c2 v0 D 2 E c r R D O O Here 13 D xi xi is the unit dyad and we used the fact that v 0 v 0 Á 0.t/. from its position at the retarded time.3 3 This problem was ﬁrst solved by O L I V E R H E AV I S I D E in 1888. we obtain f . Taylor expanding f . i.t C dt.135) on the facing page we ﬁnd A FT (6. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 115 The ﬁelds from a uniformly moving charge In the special case of uniform motion. As depicted in ﬁgure 6. In the case of uniform velocity v 0 .137) (6.dt/2 @t From this we conclude that for uniform motion @f D @t v 0 rf Since f is an arbitrary physical observable. isolated space and we know that it will not be affected by any external forces. with the potentials given by equations (6. x/ has the same value at time t and position x as it has at time t C dt and position x C v 0 dt . Hence.140a) (6. keeping only linear terms in the inﬁnitesimally small dt. the E and B ﬁelds can be obtained from formulæ (6.138) (6. x0 .t/ [cf.uu.5.se/CED/Book Sheet: 137 of 262 . From equation (6. What remains is just to express r in quantities evaluated at t and x. It will therefore move uniformly in a straight line with the constant velocity v 0 . the angle between x x0 and v 0 is Â0 while then angle between x x0 and v 0 is Â 0 .. the virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 will be identical to the actual simultaneous coordinate of the particle at time t.t.t/. x C v 0 dt ). x/ D f .t / D x0 .136) E X A M P L E 6.103a) on page 107 and equation (6.plasma. x/ C @f dt C v 0 rf dt C O .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t. the time and space derivatives must be related in the following way when they operate on any physical observable dependent on x. a velocity that does not change with time.. Since the particle is not accelerated. x C v 0 dt/ D f .36) on page 13]: @ D @t v0 r (6. P x0 .e. equation (1. 6.139) Hence.3 the localised charge moves in a ﬁeld-free.

Of course.141) When this expression for r following result Â E.t/ to the ﬁeld (observation) coordinate x. sin Â0 0 ) E ! .122) on page 112 with P v 0 Á 0 inserted. we can discern the following cases: 1. In a similar way.x x0 / C . v 0 ! c ) E becomes dependent on Â0 4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 138 of 262 . the magnetic ﬁeld can be calculated and one ﬁnds that v 02 c2 1 (6. the FT ! v0 .1 1 ) E ! .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. v 0 ! c.x Ã x0 / (6.uu. x/ D 4 0 0q 3 s obtains. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS that r Â Ã q0 1 q0 r D r s2 4 "0 s 8 "0 s 3 Ä Â 0 q0 v0 v D . v 0 ! 0 ) E goes over into the Coulomb ﬁeld ECoulomb 2. sin Â0 5.x x0 / c c ! q0 v 02 .t. From equation (6. x/ D D v 0v 0 c2 Ã is inserted into equation (6. v 0 ! 0 ) B goes over into the Biot-Savart ﬁeld 3.x x0 / .x x0 / c c 4 "0 s 3 Ä 0 Â 0 Â Ã Ã ) v v0 v0 v 0v 0 v .x x0 / 2 3 c c 4 "0 s c Ã# 0 Â v0 v . the same result also follows from equation (6.142) R A B.x x0 / C c c 4 "0 s 3 D .x x0 / D 1 0 v c2 E v 02 =c 2 /ECoulomb v 02 =c 2 / 1=2 ECoulomb D D Â 0 0 Ã q0 vv r D r s2 13 13 8 "0 s 3 c2 ( Â 0 Ã q0 v0 v .x x0 / c c c c c2 " Â Ã v0 v0 v 02 q0 . 116 j 6 .143) D From these explicit formulae for the E and B ﬁelds and formula (6.3 .t/.x x0 / .140a) on the previous page.t.plasma.1 End of example 6.x x0 / 1 4 "0 s 3 c2 (6. v 0 ! c.142) above we conclude that E is directed along the vector from the simultaneous coordinate x0 .x x0 / C .134b) on page 114 for s.

The total radiated power (integrated over a closed spherical surface) becomes P D 0q P . formula (6.151) Efar .t.uu.x x0 / v 0 c ˇ ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ .145) so that the radiation ﬁeld equation (6.plasma.147) d D q 0 x0 .125) on page 112.144) and formula (6. formula (6.121) on page 111 x x0 D . v0 c (6. v0 c (6.126) on page 112 can be approximated by x0 j 3 4 "0 c 2 jx from which we obtain. v0 c (6.t 0 / R A ! 2 d! x0 0q 02 It is interesting to note the close correspondence that exists between the nonrelativistic ﬁelds (6.146) and (6.v 0 /2 q 0 2 v 02 P D 6 c 6 "0 c 3 02 FT (6.148) and at the same time make the transitions R P q0v 0 D d ! x x Dx 0 D Sfar D 16 2c The energy ﬂux in the far zone is described by the Poynting vector as a function of Efar and Bfar .45) on page 93 if we introduce the electric dipole moment for a localised charge [cf.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the magnetic ﬁeld Bfar . We use the close correspondence with the dipole case to ﬁnd that it becomes P .x x0 / jx x0 j v 0 c x x0 . 6.x x0 / P v 0 .41) on page 92] (6.5.150) jx P where Â is the angle between v 0 and x x0 .147) and the electric dipole ﬁeld equations (6. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 117 6.3 Small velocities If the charge moves at such low speeds that v 0 =c page 107 simpliﬁes to ˇ s D ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ .149a) (6.149b) (6.104) on (6. x/ D q0 . v0 c 1.x x0 / Œ.v 0 /2 x0 j2 sin2 Â x jx x0 x0 j (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 139 of 262 . with the use of formula (6.5.2. x/ D q0 4 "0 c 3 jx x0 j2 P Œv 0 .t.146) .x x0 /.

dependent on the instantaneous position of the charge at x0 .plasma. v D 0:5c v D 0:25c v vD0 R A 6. yields Efar . The angular distribution is that which is ‘frozen’ to the point from which the energy is radiated.5. An important special case of radiation is when the velocity v 0 and the acceleraP P tion v 0 are collinear (parallel or anti-parallel) so that v 0 v 0 D 0. P v0 k v0 (6.uu. with the use of formula (6.146) on the previous page and equation (6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.1 v cos Â=c/5 during bremsstrahlung for particle speeds v 0 D 0. P v0 k v0 (6. and the expressions for the Poynting ﬂux and power derived from them.x x0 /. instead we must use the correct expression (6.3 Bremsstrahlung which is the Larmor formula for radiated power from an accelerated charge. and v 0 D 0:5c. the magnetic ﬁeld Bfar . x/ D q0 . The angular FT .t. v 0 D 0:25c.t.144) on the previous page for s is no longer valid.147) on the preceding page. Note that here we are treating a charge with v 0 c but otherwise totally unspeciﬁed motion while we compare with formulæ derived for a stationary oscillating dipole. respectively. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6.8: Polar diagram of the energy loss angular distribution factor sin2 Â=. 118 j 6 . equation (6.104) on page 107.125) on page 112.152) D from which we obtain.se/CED/Book Sheet: 140 of 262 .126) on page 112 for the radiation ﬁeld. This condition 0 (for an arbitrary magnitude of v ) inserted into expression (6.153) The difference between this case and the previous case of v 0 c is that the approximate expression (6. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds.x x0 / P v 0 . x/ D q 0 jx x0 j 0 P Œv 4 "0 c 3 s 3 .t 0 /. are here instantaneous values.x 4 "0 c 2 s 3 x0 / Œ.

Â / d dt 0 2 02 sin2 Â v0 c 1 cos Â 6 d (6.x ˇ x 0 / ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ d D On the other hand.158) above. 2 1 D FT v P 2c 16 0q dU rad .t 0 C dt 0 / D x0 .157) (6. We must be careful when we compute the energy (S integrated over time). The radiated power into a solid angle element d .t 0 . the radiation loss due to radiation from the charge at retarded time t 0 : Â Ã dU rad dU rad @t d (6.155) (6. for three different particle speeds.9 on the following page this energy is at time t located between two spheres.x x0 /s d D v P 2c 16 0q 0 2 02 Using formula (6.155) with expression (6.158) . Comparing expression (6. Let us explain this in geometrical terms. As shown in ﬁgure 6.t t 0 /.5.t 0 / and radius c.154) It is interesting to note that the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds are P the same whether v 0 and v 0 are parallel or anti-parallel. one outer with its origin at x0 .uu.157).t 0 C dt 0 / D c. measured relative to the particle’s retarded position. is given by the formula D S .plasma. t 0 C dt 0 / and within the solid angle element d the particle radiates an energy ŒdU rad .112) on page 109.t t 0 dt 0 /.se/CED/Book Sheet: 141 of 262 . we obtain Inserting equation (6. The Poynting vector is related to the time t when it is measured and to a ﬁxed surface in space.Â /=dt 0 dt 0 d .156) d D dt 0 dt @t 0 x dU rad d dt 0 R A D dU rad s d dt jx x0 j D S . and one inner with its origin at 1 x0 . we see that they differ by a factor 1 v 0 cos Â=c that comes from the extra factor s= jx x0 j introduced in (6. During the interval . 6.157). we obtain the explicit expression for the energy loss due to radiation evaluated at the retarded time dU rad . Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 119 distribution of the energy ﬂux (Poynting vector) far away from the source therefore becomes Sfar D 0q 0 2 02 v P sin2 Â v0 c 16 2c jx x0 j2 1 cos Â 6 x jx x0 x0 j (6. are plotted in ﬁgure 6.154) for S into (6.Â / d dt 0 sin2 Â v0 c 1 cos Â 5 d The angular factors of this expression.t 0 / C v 0 dt 0 and radius cŒt .8 on the preceding page.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

uu.104) on page 107 was used in the last step.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t 0 .159) R A ˇ d3x D d2x dr D ˇx ˇ2 x0 ˇ d dr 2 ˇ dr D ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ C c dt 0 2 ˇ ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ 2 FT x x0 2ˇ ˇ v 0 dt 0 ˇx x 0 ˇ 2 „ ƒ‚ … 0 v cos Â cs ˇ dt 0 x0 ˇ 2 ! v0 dt 0 D ˇ ˇx ˇ d2x cdt 0 x0 ˇ 2 (6. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 142 of 262 .161) D D c x ˇ ˇx x0 2ˇ x0 ˇ 2 where formula (6.160) Here. t 0 C dt 0 / is located in a volume element whose size is Â dependent.t 0 .162) We see that the energy that is radiated per unit solid angle during the time interval . the volume element under consideration is d3x D d2x dr D ˇ ˇx s (6.plasma. 120 j 6 .9: Location of radiation between two spheres as the charge moves with velocity v 0 from x0 to 1 x0 during the time interval . dS dr x d Â q0 0 x0 vdt x0 2 ˇ ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ C c dt 0 2 1 From Figure 6.9 we see that the volume element subtending the solid angle element d is Dˇ ˇx d2x ˇ2 x0 ˇ 2 (6. Hence. t 0 C 2 dt 0 /. This . dr denotes the differential distance between the two spheres and can be evaluated in the following way (6. The observation point (ﬁeld point) is at the ﬁxed location x.

Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.166) (6. be denoted U rad .155) on page 119 and expression (6. q 0 sin Â 0 v 0 ı. D ED BD E c From the general expression (6.164) (6.t0 / D dt 0 v 0 1 and. According to the ‘bremsstrahlung expression’ for Efar . according to formula (6. integrated over .168) above A FT (6. Q Let the radiated energy.t 0 /. After tedious. moving at a non-relativistic speed. free-free radiation).158) on page 119.121) on page 111. E X A M P L E 6.t 0 t0 / which means that Z 1 P v 0 .158) on page 119.plasma.169) If we know v 0 . but relatively straightforward integration of formula (6. we can integrate this expression over t 0 and obtain the total energy radiated during the acceleration or deceleration of the particle.uu.152) on page 118. x x0 x x0 R Also. is accelerated or decelerated during an inﬁnitely short time interval.167) (6.163) Bremsstrahlung for low speeds and short acceleration times Calculate the bremsstrahlung when a charged particle. Often. equation (6.t 0 / D v 0 ı. We approximate the velocity change at time t 0 D t0 by a delta function: P v 0 . 6.4 . Fourier transforming expression (6.5. according to formula (6. an atomistic treatment is required for obtaining an acceptable result.125) on page 112 we conclude that E ? B and that it ˇ ˇ sufﬁces to consider E Á ˇEfar ˇ. we assume v=c ˇ ˇ s ˇx x0 ˇ 1 so that.se/CED/Book Sheet: 143 of 262 .t 0 t0 / 4 "0 c 2 jx x0 j ˇ ˇ In this simple case B Á ˇBfar ˇ is given by (6. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 121 explains the difference between expression (6. one obtains Q dU rad D dt 0 0q v P 6 c 0 2 02 1 1 Â 2 q 0 2 v 02 P 1 Á3 D 3 4 "0 c 3 v 02 c2 v 02 c2 Ã 3 (6.168) Beacuse of the Dirac ı behaviour in time. This way we obtain a classical picture of bremsstrahlung (braking radiation.165) (6.104) on page 107.

175) which expresses that the highest possible frequency !max in the spectrum is that for which all kinetic energy difference has gone into one single ﬁeld quantum (photon) with energy !max . all spectra have ﬁnite widths.t0 /j 0 (6. a divergent integral would result.171) According to Parseval’s identity [cf. 122 j 6 .t 0 t0 / i!t 0 E! D dt 0 e jx x0 .!.172) 1 0 which means that the radiated energy in the frequency interval . equation (6. we ﬁnd that (6.t0 / e i!t0 D 2 " c 2 jx 8 x0 . with an upper cutoff limit set by the quantum condition (6.v 0 /2 Q rad d2x 0 d! U! d! D 3" c3 16 jx x0 j2 0 S0 Z Z q 0 2 .8) on page 84] the following equality holds: Z 1 Z 1 dt 0 E 2 D 4 d! jE! j2 (6. This means that if we would integrate it over all frequencies ! 2 Œ0. This is a consequence of the inﬁnitely short ‘impulsive step’ ı.170) We note that the magnitude of this Fourier component is independent of !.170) above. ! C d!/ is ÂI Ã Q rad U! d! D 4 "0 c d2x 0 jE! j2 d! S0 A FT 1 m.t 0 t0 / in the time domain which produces an inﬁnite spectrum in the frequency domain. we obtain I sin2 Â 0 q 0 2 .173) D R !max D Q rad U! d! D dN! ! For our inﬁnite spectrum. equation (6. In reality.t 0 /j 4 "0 c 2 2 1 q 0 sin Â 0 v 0 . yielding Z 1 q 0 sin Â 0 1 v 0 ı.v 0 /2 2 D d' 0 dÂ 0 sin Â 0 sin2 Â 0 d! 16 3 "0 c 3 0 0 Â 0 Ã2 q02 v d! D 3 "0 c c 2 (6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.174) Q rad We see that the energy spectrum U! is independent of frequency !. If we adopt the picture that the total energy is quantised in terms of N! photons radiated during the process. 1/.176) . The total radiation energy is given by the expression Â Z 1 I Z 1 Q dU rad Q O D dt 0 d2x 0 n0 E U rad D dt 0 dt 0 1 S0 1 I I Z 1 Z 1 1 D d2x 0 dt 0 EB D d2x 0 0 S0 0c S 0 1 I Z 1 D "0 c d2x 0 dt 0 E 2 S0 1 B 0 1 1 Ã dt 0 E 2 (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 144 of 262 .plasma.v 0 C v 0 /2 2 1 02 mv 2 (6.uu. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS for E is trivial.

e.O 2 sin ˛ C x3 cos ˛/ x where ˛ is the angle between x x0 and the normal to the plane of the particle orbit (see Figure 6. i.t / D x .178a) (6.179) .plasma.t / D a!0 Œ x1 sin '. where e is the elementary charge.180a) ˇ P x0 ˇ v 0 cos Â (6.125) and formula (6.178f) (6.x . End of example 6. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 123 or. A very important special case is circular motion.178d) (6.5.4 6. without loss of generality. valid for any kind of motion of the localised charge. Ã2 d! ! 1 2 137 3 Â v 0 c Ã2 d! ! 1=137.t / ˇ 0ˇ 0 ˇv ˇ D a!0 v D P v .t / Because of the rotational symmetry we can.178e) (6.4 "0 c/ Even if the number of photons becomes inﬁnite when ! ! 0. for an electron where q 0 D dN! D e2 2 4 "0 c 3 Â v 0 c jej.180b) where in the last step we simply used the deﬁnition of a scalar product and the P fact that the angle between v 0 and x x0 is Â .. 6. From the above expressions we obtain ˇ ˇ x0 / v 0 D ˇx x0 ˇ v 0 sin ˛ cos ' ˇ ˇ ˇ P x0 / v 0 D ˇx x0 ˇ v 0 sin ˛ sin ' D ˇx P (6.t / C x2 sin '. i. With the charged particle orbiting in the x1 x2 plane as in ﬁgure 6.t / D v D P 0 0 0 2 R x .t / D aŒO 1 cos '.t / C x2 sin '.10 on the next page.178b) (6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t / C x2 cos '.x x ˇ x 0 D ˇx ˇ O x0 ˇ ..t / D a!0 ŒO 1 x ˇ 0ˇ 2 ˇv ˇ D a! P 0 0 0 0 0 R A 0 O cos '.177) where we used the value of the ﬁne structure constant ˛ D e 2 =. an orbit radius a. (6.4 Cyclotron and synchrotron radiation (magnetic bremsstrahlung) Formula (6.126) on page 112 for the magnetic ﬁeld and the radiation part of the electric ﬁeld are general.178c) (6.uu.5.e. rotate our coordinate system around the x3 axis so the relative vector x x0 from the source point to an arbitrary ﬁeld point always lies in the x2 x3 plane.t 0 / D !0 t 0 O x .se/CED/Book Sheet: 145 of 262 . FT (6.t / x 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P O O v . D . we obtain '. the case P v 0 ? v 0. and an angular frequency !0 .10). these photons have negligible energies so that the total radiated energy is still ﬁnite.

The x1 x2 axes are chosen so that the relative ﬁeld point vector x x0 makes an angle ˛ with the x3 axis.183).plasma.uu.t 0 / x1 x3 The energy ﬂux is given by the Poynting vector.˛. With the radiation part of the electric ﬁeld.184) In equation (6. '/ jx x0 j s D jEj2 0 dt c 0 Inserting this into equation (6.t 0 / along the tangent and constant acceleration P v 0 . so that Â refers to a moving coordinate system.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. one ﬁnds.180a) and (6.182) where the retarded distance s is given by expression (6.157) on page 119. expression (6.˛.t. But we can parametrise the solid angle d in the angle ' and the angle ˛ so that d D sin ˛ d˛ d'. with the help of formula (6. inserted. we obtain (6. which is normal to the plane of the orbital motion.10: Coordinate system for the radiation from a charged particle at x0 .183) The angles Â and ' vary in time during the rotation. after some cumbersome algebra.180b) on the preceding page. two limits are particularly interesting: . can be written SD 1 0 .t 0 / toward the origin.E B/ D 1 c FT 0 jEj2 x jx x0 x0 j (6. '/ P c 0q v D 5 0 2c v0 dt 16 1 sin ˛ cos ' c D (6.126) on page 112.181) R A dU rad . after some algebra. x/ x v a ˛ 0 Â P v q0 0 0 .183) above over this d gives. the angular integrated expression Q dU rad D dt 0 0q v P 6 c 0 2 02 1 1 v 02 c2 Á2 (6. The radius of the orbit is a. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6. and using (6.104) on page 107. x / x x0 '.se/CED/Book Sheet: 146 of 262 . 124 j 6 . which.t 0 / in circular motion with velocity v 0 . Integration of equation (6. that Á2 Á 02 v0 rad 0 2 02 1 sin ˛ cos ' 1 v 2 sin2 ˛ sin2 ' c dU .t .125) on page 112. x2 .

1 Cyclotron radiation For a non-relativistic speed v 0 reduces to 0 2 02 dU rad .187) and equation (6.183) on the preceding page sin2 ˛ sin2 '/ (6. =2.187) (6.plasma.1 dt 0 16 2 c c.183) on the preceding page becomes 0 2 02 dU rad .˛. '/ P c 0q v D (6.5. =2.188) above are very important results since they can be used to determine the characteristics of the particle motion both in particle accelerators and in astrophysical objects where a direct measurement of particle velocities are impossible.189) 5 0 0 2c dt 16 1 v cos ' D FT 0 2 02 v P 2c sin2 Â (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 147 of 262 .5. by a much weaker pulse. v 0 =c 1 which corresponds to cyclotron radiation. the denominator in equation (6.10 on the preceding page. v 0 =c 2.2 Synchrotron radiation which means that an observer near the orbit plane sees a very strong pulse followed.1 dt 0 16 2 c cos2 Â / D 0q 16 Consequently. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 125 1. v 0 c.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. ' 0). 0/ P 1 0q v D 0 0 2c dt 16 1 v c 3 R A c 6. This means that we can write 0 2 02 P dU rad .5. according to equation (6. a ﬁxed observer near the orbit plane (˛ =2) will observe cyclotron radiation twice per revolution in the form of two equally broad pulses of radiation with alternating polarisation.4.183) on the facing page becomes very small if sin ˛ cos ' 1. which deﬁnes the forward direction of the particle motion (˛ =2. 6.186) where Â is deﬁned in ﬁgure 6.uu.183) on the facing page gives Á2 Á 02 v0 rad 0 2 02 1 1 v 2 sin2 ' cos ' c dU . In the orbit plane (˛ D =2). 1 which corresponds to synchrotron radiation. When the particle is relativistic. 6.180b) on page 123 sin2 ˛ sin2 ' D cos2 Â (6.188) . equation (6. equation (6. The two cases represented by equation (6.Â / 0q v D . half an orbit period later.4. '/ P 0q v D . The equation (6.185) But.

194) . the angle '0 is a measure of the synchrotron radiation lobe width Â . if ˛ D =2.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.193) This angular interval is swept by the charge during the time interval t 0 D Â !0 (6.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 148 of 262 . x/ x Â x0 x2 v a 0 q0 0 0 Â .11: If the observation point x is in the plane of the particle orbit.t .191) c2 02 v 1 c2 D 1 (6. i.190a) R A one can approximate s '0 sin '0 D v 02 c2 (6. x / P v '.uu. .plasma. For ultra-relativistic particles.e. synchrotron radiation from ultra-relativistic charges is characterized by a radiation lobe width which is approximately Â 1 (6.190b) Hence. (6.. Ds 1 1. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6.t 0 / x1 x3 This vanishes for angles '0 such thati cos '0 D sin '0 D v0 c s 1 FT v 02 1 D c2 (6. deﬁned by s 1 v 02 1. 126 j 6 .192) Hence. the lobe width is given by Â . see ﬁgure 6.11.

plasma. 3. Then the relative phase differences of the individual electric and magnetic ﬁelds radiated are negligible and the total radiated ﬁelds from all individual particles will add up to become N times that from one particle. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 127 during which the particle moves a length interval l 0 D v 0 t 0 D v 0 Â !0 (6. which is subject to thermal ﬂuctuations. carried initially by evenly distributed charged particles. This means that the power radiated from the N particles will be N 2 higher than for a single charged particle. D 2. The charged particles are somewhat unevenly distributed in the orbit. 6. The charged particles are perfectly evenly distributed in the orbit.195) in the direction toward the observer who therefore measures a compressed pulse width of length Â Ã v 0 t 0 v0 l 0 D t 0 D 1 t 0 t D t 0 c c c Á Á 0 0 Â Â 0Ã 0Ã 1 v 1C v c c v Â 1 v 1 D 1 1 D v0 c !0 c !0 !0 1C (6. In this case the phases of the radiation ﬁelds cause a complete cancellation of the ﬁelds themselves.5. This is called coherent radiation. All N radiating particles are spatially much closer to each other than a typical wavelength. N say.se/CED/Book Sheet: 149 of 262 .197) 2 . No radiation escapes. the spectral width of a pulse of length t is ! 1=t . In the ultrarelativistic synchrotron case one can therefore expect frequency components up to A spectral analysis of the radiation pulse will therefore exhibit a (broadened) line spectrum of Fourier components n!0 from n D 1 up to n 2 3 . This happens for an open ring current. contribute to the radiation. When many charged particles.uu. From statistical mechanics R A !max 1 D2 t 3 !0 FT (6.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.196) … „ ƒ‚c Â Ã 1 1 1 v 02 D 3 1 2 c 2 !0 2 !0 „ ƒ‚ … 1= 2 Typically. we can have three different situations depending on the relative phases of the radiation ﬁelds from the individual particles: 1.

198) D Integration over the solid angle Q dU rad D dt 0 0q gives the totally radiated power as v P 6 c 0 2 02 1 1 v 02 c2 v c2 sin2 Á3 02 (6. As a result. This means that out of the N particles. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6. This expression in equation (6. vt q0 b jx B O E? x3 Â0 x0 j O v D v x1 we know that this happens forp open systems and that the particle densities all exhibit ﬂuctuations of order N .Â. . and we speak about incoherent radiation.se/CED/Book Sheet: 150 of 262 .5.x x/ 0 jx x0 j v 0 c Ã 2 P v0 (6. we get bremsstrahlung.plasma.199) P where is the angle between v 0 and v 0 . which corresponds to cyclotron radiation or synchrotron radiation.126) on page 112. sin D 1.182) on page 124 yields the general formula jx x0 j . Examples of this can be found both in earthly laboratories and under cosmic conditions. For P v 0 ? v 0 .4. the radiated power will be proportional to N .uu.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 128 j 6 .x 16 2 cs 5 02 0 FT x/ ÄÂ .3 Radiation in the general case We recall that the general expression for the radiation E ﬁeld from a moving charge concentration is given by expression (6. 0 0 P If v is collinear with v . p N will exhibit deviation from perfect randomness—and thereby perfect radiation ﬁeld cancellation—and give rise to net radiation ﬁelds which are p proportional to N .12: The perpendicular electric ﬁeld of a charge q 0 moving O O with velocity v 0 D v 0 x is E? z. so that sin D 0. R A dU rad . '/ D dt 0 0q 6.

? 0 bmin 0 (6.4. b ! v0 1 0.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t / ei!t D K1 (6.203b) Œ.142) on page 116 and ﬁgure 6. the total ﬁeld energy can be written Z bmax Z 1 Z 2 2 Q U D "0 d3x E? D "0 db 2 b dt v 0 E? (6.203a) (6.204) bmin 1 where the volume integration is over the plane perpendicular to v 0 .? D 2 4 2 "0 bv 0 v0 v0 1 Here.4 Virtual photons Let us consider a charge q 0 moving with constant.134) on page 114 and simple geometrical relations.? E!. approaching the ﬁeld of a plane wave. b! v0 . formula (6.t 0 / along the x1 axis. The passage of this ﬁeld ‘pulse’ corresponds to a frequency distribution of the ﬁeld energy. With the use of Parseval’s identity for Fourier transforms.201) . high velocity v 0 . we obtain ÄÂ Ã Â Ã Z 1 q0 b! b! 1 dt E? .v 0 /. According to formula (6.5. Due to the equipartitioning of the ﬁeld energy into the electric and magnetic ﬁelds.plasma. we can rewrite this as E? D q0 4 "0 b 2 This represents a contracted Coulomb ﬁeld. b! v0 .x x0 / x3 (6.205) Z v0 =! Z 1 q 02 db d! 2 2 "0 v 0 1 b bmin FT 1 (6. the perpendicular component along the x3 axis of the electric ﬁeld from this moving charge is Â Ã q0 v 02 O E? D E3 D 1 .? R A q0 4 2 " bv 0 0 .200) 4 "0 s 3 c2 Utilising expression (6.se/CED/Book Sheet: 151 of 262 .202) E!. 6.uu.v 0 t 0 /2 C b 2 = 2 3=2 (6. Fourier transforming. Radiation from a localised charge in arbitrary motion j 129 6. we can rewrite this as Z bmax Z 1 Z 1 2 Q Q U D d! U! D 4 "0 v 0 db 2 b d! E!. b ! v0 D V showing that the ‘pulse’ length is of the order b=.12 on the preceding page. K1 is the Kelvin function (Bessel function of the second kind with imaginary argument) which behaves in such a way for small and large arguments that E!.8) on page 84.5.

plasma.uu. Then we ﬁnd that Â Ã 2˛ c d! N! d! ln (6. In quantum theory. . p2 p1 A FT 2˛ ln c ! ˇ ˇp1 ˇÁ d! p0 ˇ 1 ! from which we conclude that Â 0 Ã v q 02 Q! ln U 2" v0 2 bmin ! 0 ¡ p0 2 p0 1 (6. it is intriguing to quantise the energy into photons [cf.4 "0 c/ 1=137 is the ﬁne structure constant.176) on page 122].209) 0 m0 c 2 E1 E1 ! a formula which gives a reasonable semi-classical account of a photon-induced electron-electron interaction process. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle gives bmin = ˇp1 p0 ˇ 2 1 so that the number of photons exchanged in the process is of the order R N! d! (6.208) D 0 Since this change in momentum corresponds to a change in energy ! D E1 E1 and E1 D m0 c 2 . equation (6. 130 j 6 . this process is known as Møller scattering.13: Diagrammatic representation of the semi-classical electron-electron interaction (Møller scattering). As in the case of bremsstrahlung.13. R ADIATION AND RADIATING SYSTEMS Figure 6. including only the lowest order contributions.206) where an explicit value of bmin can be calculated in quantum theory only.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Let us consider the interaction of two (classical) electrons. The result of this interaction is that they change their linear momenta from p1 to p0 and p2 ˇ1 ˇ to p0 . A diagrammatic representation of (a semi-classical approximation of) this process is given in ﬁgure 6. respectively. we see that ˇ ˇ! 2˛ E1 ˇcp1 cp0 ˇ d! 1 N! d! ln (6.207) bmin ! ! where ˛ D e2 =.se/CED/Book Sheet: 152 of 262 . 1 and 2.

. ISBN 0-471-30932-X.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 1962. JACKSON. Classical Electrodynamics. . Classical Electromagnetic Theory. . NY and London. . B ECKER. D R A FT . 78 (1950). NY. H. second ed. Chichester. ISBN 3-540-42081-9. K. [30] V. 1982. 1993. p. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. Reading. ISBN 0-08-026481-6. Principles of Optics. Dover Publications. Inc. Montreux. [32] H. 1989. Inc. Tokyo and Melbourne. P HILLIPS. 1920. [34] J. . ..-D. Inc.. . John Wiley & Sons. Paris. New York. Electromagnetic Theory. [35] J. Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions. New York. . sixth ed. ISBN 0-471-57269-1. Revised third ed. New York. 1980. A.plasma..se/CED/Book Sheet: 153 of 262 . PANOFSKY AND M. 616. 1999. NATURE. 6. Classical Electricity and Magnetism. John Wiley & Sons. [29] M. . MA . .. London. B ORN AND E. [31] J. Cambridge . Inc. Oxford. Brisbane. ISBN 2-88124-719-9. Inc.. New York. A LFVÉN AND N. [33] W.. [28] R. . fourth ed. H ERLOFSON. Interference and Diffraction of Light. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. and Singapore. 1953. The Physical Basis of The Direction of Time. NY .6. VANDERLINDE. Cosmic radiation and radio stars.. L. W OLF.. ..uu. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. Pergamon Press. Toronto.. G INZBURG. S TRATTON. Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation. ISBN 07-062150-0. third ed. Bibliography j 131 6. Applications of Electrodynamics in Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics. ISBN 0-486-64290-9. .6 Bibliography [27] H. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. SpringerVerlag. D. Physical Review.

plasma.uu. D R A FT .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 154 of 262 .

within which that concept can be given its full meaning. whereas for the general theory of relativity it becomes more complicated. the mathematics is quite simple.1 The special theory of relativity An inertial system. opens with the following paragraph: ‘The theory of relativity is not merely a scientiﬁc development of great importance in its own right. It turns out that this theory of Riemannian spaces. R A 133 7. in a most natural way.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. requires a treatment of electrodynamics in a relativistically covariant (coordinate independent) form.1 The technique we shall use to study relativity is the mathematical apparatus developed for non-Euclidean spaces of arbitrary dimensions. and which is spreading into other ﬁelds of science. one which holds independently of all conditions.uu. For the simple case of the special theory of relativity. (i. contexts. This is the objective of this chapter. or inertial reference frame. in which the law of inertia (Galileo’s law. the modern trend is away from the notion of sure ‘absolute’ truth. and types of approximation etc. is a system of reference.plasma. It is even more signiﬁcant as the ﬁrst stage of a radical change in our basic concepts.) and toward the idea that a given concept has signiﬁcance only in relation to suitable broader forms of reference. degrees. is ideal for a formal description of relativistic physics. In other words. For as is well known. derived for more or less purely mathematical reasons only. Newton’s ﬁrst law) holds.e. here specialised to four dimensions. D We saw in chapter 3 how the introduction of electrodynamic potentials led.. an inertial system is a system in which free bodies FT RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS 1 The Special Theory of Relativity. and to ensure that our laws of physics be independent of any speciﬁc coordinate frame. and indeed. even into a great deal of thinking outside of science.se/CED/Book Sheet: 155 of 262 . which began in physics. by the physicist and philosopher D AV I D J O S E P H B O H M (1917– 1992). or rigid coordinate system.’ . To take this ﬁnite speed of propagation of information into account. to the existence of a characteristic. ﬁnite speed of propagation of electromagnetic ﬁelds (and related quantities) in free space (vacuum) that p equals the speed of light c D 1= "0 0 and which can be considered a constant of Nature.

z 0 /. The special theory of relativity describes how physical processes are interrelated when observed in different inertial systems in uniform. y 0 . respectively. and t 0 and . y. in the same way.uu. z 0 / in †0 .1 (Relativity principle. At time t .1 The Lorentz transformation Let us consider two three-dimensional inertial systems † and †0 in free space. z/. 1905) All laws of physics (except the laws of gravitation) are independent of the uniform translational motion of the system on which they operate.t.t 0 . A consequence of the ﬁrst postulate is that all geometrical objects (vectors.e. 134 j 7 . D R A P O S T U L AT E 7.. P OINCARÉ . tensors) in an equation describing a physical process must transform in a covariant manner.x 0 . At time t D t 0 D 0 the origins O and O 0 and the x and x 0 axes of the two inertial systems coincide and at a later time t they have the relative location as depicted in ﬁgure 7.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x. x 0 .plasma. x 0 . rectilinear motion relative to each other and is based on two postulates: .1. vt y † † 0 y0 v P .se/CED/Book Sheet: 156 of 262 . 1905) The velocity of light in empty space is independent of the motion of the source that emits the light.t. The times and the spatial coordinates as measured in the two systems are t and . z/ in † is represented by P . y 0 .t 0 . At time t D t 0 D 0 the origin O 0 of †0 coincided with the origin O of †.1: Two inertial systems † and †0 in relative motion with velocity v along the x D x 0 axis. An event represented by P . y 0 . 7. y.2 (E INSTEIN .x.1. x. y. FT move uniformly and do not experience any acceleration. They are in rectilinear motion relative to each other in such a way that †0 moves with constant velocity v along the x axis of the † system. i. z 0 / O z x z0 O0 x0 P O S T U L AT E 7. the inertial system †0 has been translated a distance vt along the x axis in †. RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS Figure 7. referred to as the standard conﬁguration. z/ P .

plasma.3a) and the square of (7.3b) we ﬁnd that c 2 t 02 x 02 D c 2 t 2 2xcˇt C x 2 ˇ 2 x 2 C 2xvt v 2 t 2 Ã Â Ã Ä Â v2 v2 1 x2 1 c2t 2 1 D c2 c2 v2 1 c2 2 2 Dc t x2 2 From equations (7. The special theory of relativity j 135 For convenience.x.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. we shall make frequent use of these shorthand notations.2) Dq where v D jv j.3c) (7.se/CED/Book Sheet: 157 of 262 . z/ at time t in † and an observer at .1. In the following. the speed of light in † and †0 is the same. y.ct xˇ/ (7.3b) (7.x 0 . y 0 .3d) (7.uu.5) D which means that if a light wave is transmitted from the coinciding origins O and O 0 at time t D t 0 D 0 it will arrive at an observer at . As shown by Einstein. Using this fact.1. Hence.2 Lorentz space Let us introduce an ordered quadruple of real numbers.x y Dy z0 D z 0 0 vt / Taking the difference between the square of (7. respectively.1) (7. 7. enumerated with the help of upper indices D 0.4) ct 0 D . A linear coordinate transformation which has this property is called a (homogeneous) Lorentz transformation. let us introduce the two quantities ˇD v c 1 1 ˇ2 (7. we ﬁnd that we can generalise the result in equation (7. 2.3a) . z 0 / at time t 0 in †0 in such a way that both observers conclude that the speed (spatial distance divided by time) of light in vacuum is c. are connected by the following transformation: x D . where the zeroth component is ct (c is the speed R A FT (7.4) to c2t 2 x2 y2 z 2 D c 2 t 02 x 02 y 02 z 02 (7.3) above we see that the y and z coordinates are unaffected by the translational motion of the inertial system †0 along the x axis of system †. the two postulates of special relativity require that the spatial coordinates and times as measured by an observer in † and †0 . 3. 1. 7.

uu. I do not apologise. The vector dual to x is the covariant vector x . . Things are what they are.ct. is.se/CED/Book Sheet: 158 of 262 . a vector in contravariant component form). a metric space where a ‘distance’ and a scalar product are deﬁned. This summation process is an example of index contraction and is often referred to as index lowering.1.2 We require that this four-dimensional space be a Riemannian space.’ 2 In order that this quadruple x represent a physical observable. . x 1 . x/. into a convenient mathematical framework. x 3 / D . RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS of light and t is time). x 1 . x 2 . x.3 Metric tensor In L4 one can choose the metric tensor g 8 ˆ1 if D D 0 ˆ < g DÁ D 1 if if D ¤ ˆ ˆ :0 to take the simple form FT D i D j D 1.2. linear.8) D This scalar product acts as an invariant ‘distance’. also known as the fundamental tensor. or norm.9) . x 2 . In order to put the physical property of Lorentz transformation invariance.ct.e. The scalar product of x with itself in a Riemannian space is deﬁned as (7. 136 j 7 . by deﬁnition. obtained as x Dg x (7. and the remaining components are the components of the ordinary R3 position vector x deﬁned in equation (M.6). 2. i. say. 7. which we denote by g .7) R A 7. . in this space. four-dimensional vector space. x/ (7. y. because I am really not responsible for the fact that Nature in its most fundamental aspect is four-dimensional.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. z/ Á . more accurately.1 Radius four-vector in contravariant and covariant form The position four-vector x D .1) on page 205: x D .6) The British mathematician and philosopher A L F R E D N O RT H W H I T E H E A D (1861–1947) writes in his book The Concept of Nature: ‘I regret that it has been necessary for me in this lecture to administer a large dose of fourdimensional geometry.2 Scalar product and norm g x x Dx x where the upper index in x is summed over and is therefore a dummy index and may be replaced by another dummy index . it must transform as (the component form of) a position four-vector (radius four-vector) in a real.ct.1.. described by equation (7. we perceive this invariance as the manifestation of the conservation of the norm in a 4D Riemannian space.x 0 . x 3 / D .5) on the previous page. as deﬁned in equation (7. 3 (7.plasma.1.x 0 . 7. To every such vector there exists a dual vector.2. the prototype of a contravariant vector (or.2. In this space we therefore deﬁne a metric tensor.

x/ x x D . C.e. will have an indeﬁnite norm.13) which indeed is the desired Lorentz transformation invariance as required by equation (7.9) on the facing page.se/CED/Book Sheet: 159 of 262 . Cg. This means that we deal with a non-Euclidean space and we call our four-dimensional space (or space-time) with this property Lorentz space and denote it L4 .ct. The L4 metric tensor equation (7. the index lowering operation in our ﬂat 4D space L4 becomes nearly trivial: In matrix representation the lowering of the indices of x becomes 0 1 0 1 10 1 0 x0 x0 x0 1 0 0 0 Bx C B0 1 0 0 C Bx 1 C B x 1 C C B 1C B CB C B (7. the zeroth component is referred to as the time component. we see that this tensor has a trace Tr Á D 2 D FT (7. or signature. x/ D c 2 t 2 R A x2 y2 z2 Hence. Note that our space. in matrix representation. These components are referred to as the space components. . g seems to be the most commonly used one.ct. a matrix with a main diagonal that has the sign sequence. C. fC. . for this particular choice of metric. As we see. x/ . this can be written x DÁ x D .10) I four-tensor notation. the covariant position four-vector x is obtained from the contravariant position four-vector x simply by changing the sign of the last three components. regardless of signature chosen. while it will introduce some annoying minus signs in the theory. a norm which can be positive deﬁnite. the scalar product of x with itself becomes (7. A corresponding real.11) DB C B C CB C D B @x2 A @0 0 1 0 A @x 2 A @ x 2 A x3 0 0 0 1 x3 x3 .e. negative deﬁnite or even zero.13) above. if the metric tensor is deﬁned according to expression (7.uu. one can alternatively choose a signature f .Á / D B C @0 0 1 0A 0 0 0 1 (7. .plasma. the signature fC.ct. i.9) on the facing page has a number of interesting properties: ﬁrstly. 7.. 1 0 1 0 0 0 B0 1 0 0C C B ..12) i.1. The latter has the advantage that the transition from 3D to 4D becomes smooth. Without changing the physics.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. linear 4D space with a positive deﬁnite norm which is conserved during ordinary rotations is a Euclidean vector space. g. The special theory of relativity j 137 or. We denote such a space R4 . In current physics literature. .

1. as in any vector space with deﬁnite norm. covariant and mixed forms of the metric tensor hold: Á Á Ä DÁ DÁ Ä (7. RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS whereas in R4 .14a) (7. Secondly.14c) (7.ı / D B C @0 0 1 0A 0 0 0 1 i.14b) (7.vx /2 C .vy /2 C . As we see.dx 0 /2 .e.uu.14d) Á ÄÁ DÁ Dı Á ÁÄ D Á D ı Clearly.dx 1 /2 . the matrix representation of this tensor is 1 0 1 0 0 0 B0 1 0 0C C B . given by the quadratic differential form dx dx D dx dx D .dx 3 /2 (7. a mixed four-tensor of rank 2 that fulﬁls ( 1 if D ı Dı D (7. 138 j 7 .4 Invariant line element and proper time The differential distance ds between the two points x and x C dx in L4 can be calculated from the Riemannian metric.2. that the following relations between the contravariant. the 4 4 unit matrix. the trace equals the space dimensionality.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. FT .17) D where the metric tensor is as in equation (7.16) R A ds 2 D Á 7.plasma.dx 2 /2 s 1 v2 c2 Here we have introduced the 4D version of the Kronecker delta ı .. The square root of this expression is the invariant line element 2 !2 !2 !2 3 1 2 3 dx dx 1 4 dx 5 C C ds D c dt 1 c2 dt dt dt q r D c dt D c dt q 1 1 1 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 160 of 262 . we ﬁnd.18) .vz /2 D c dt c2 dt ˇ2 D c D c d (7.9) on page 136.15) 0 if ¤ (7. this form is indeﬁnite as expected for a non-Euclidean space. after trivial algebra.

5 Four-vector ﬁelds Any quantity which relative to any coordinate system has a quadruple of real numbers and transforms in the same way as the position four-vector x does.e.a0 .e. The time-like. As equation (7..19) shows.5) on page 135 in terms of the differential interval ds and comparing with equation (7. during a Lorentz transformation.x Ä /. remains unchanged.2. Expressing the property of the Lorentz transformation described by equations (7.7) on page 136. A vector which has a light-like interval is called a null vector.24) FT (7. D a .19) Since d measures the time when no spatial changes are present.plasma. space-like or light-like aspects of an interval ds are invariant under a Lorentz transformation.1. we may say that every coordinate transformation which preserves this differential interval is a Lorentz transformation. it is not possible to change a time-like interval into a spacelike one or vice versa via a Lorentz transformation. One may say that moving clocks go slower than those at rest.23) ds 2 D c 2 dt 2 dx 2 dy 2 dz 2 (7. it is called the proper time. but if dx 2 C dy 2 C dz 2 > c 2 dt 2 (7. I. the proper time of a moving object is always less than the corresponding interval in the rest system. for such an arbitrary four-vector yields the dual covariant four-vector ﬁeld (7. we may also say that in this case we are on the light cone. i.22) (7. Conversely. we ﬁnd that is invariant..Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.e. a/ for a general contravariant four-vector ﬁeld in L4 and ﬁnd that the ‘lowering of index’ rule. If in some inertial system dx 2 C dy 2 C dz 2 < c 2 dt 2 ds is a time-like interval . 7.17) on the facing page. formula (7..21) ds is a space-like interval . i. whereas dx 2 C dy 2 C dz 2 D c 2 dt 2 R A a . The special theory of relativity j 139 where we introduced d D dt = (7.uu.a0 .1. is called a four-vector.x Ä / D .x Ä // is a light-like interval .20) .x Ä / D Á 7. a.se/CED/Book Sheet: 161 of 262 . In analogy with the notation for the position four-vector we introduce the notation a D . by a clock that is ﬁxed relative the given frame of reference.

The trajectory for an event as a function of time and space is called a world line. can be written x0 D ƒ x (7. i.ct. the coordinate transformation x ! x 0 D x 0 . x 2 .1. However tempting. For FT .2. x 1 . x 1 . an invariant scalar quantity ˛. 7.2. Such a point is therefore called an event.e. i.x 0 .25) which is a scalar ﬁeld .x Ä / is Á a . y.plasma.1. from one inertial system † to another inertial system †0 in the standard conﬁguration. x. x 2 .x 0 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 162 of 262 . as described by x Ä D .b 0 . x 2 . by means of direct algebra.7 The Lorentz group R A ˇD ˇ1 C ˇ2 1 C ˇ1 ˇ2 It is easy to show.x Ä / which depends on time and space. z/. that two successive Lorentz transformations of the type in equation (7.6 The Lorentz transformation matrix Introducing the transformation matrix 1 0 ˇ 0 0 B ˇ 0 0C C B ƒ DB C @ 0 0 1 0A 0 0 0 1 (7. we shall not make any further use of group theory.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.27) above. Furthermore. y.1. correspond to a single transformation with speed parameter (7.x 1 ..26) the linear Lorentz transformation (7. this set of Lorentz transformations constitutes a mathematical group. and deﬁned by the speed parameters ˇ1 and ˇ2 . respectively. b/ D a0 b 0 a b (7.x Ä /b . a/ . x 3 /’.x. x 3 / in 4D space-time is a way of saying that ‘something takes place at a certain time t D x 0 =c and at a certain place .3 Minkowski space Specifying a point x D .27) 7.a0 . one can show that this set possesses at least one identity element and at least one inverse element. RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS The scalar product between this four-vector ﬁeld and another one b . In other words. z/ D .x Ä / D . x 3 /.e. 7..3) on page 135.28) D This means that the nonempty set of Lorentz transformations constitutes a closed algebraic structure with a binary operation (multiplication) that is associative. 140 j 7 .uu.

the world line for a light ray that propagates in vacuum (free space) is the trajectory x 0 D x 1 . strictly speaking. it sufﬁces to consider the simpliﬁed case where the relative motion between † and †0 is along the x axes.uu.17) on page 138 transforms into (7. every interval is invariant under a rotation of the X 0 x 1 plane through an angle Â into X 00 x 01 : (7.dx 1 /2 and we consider the X 0 and X 1 D x 1 axes as orthogonal axes in a Euclidean space.dX 0 /2 C . X 0 D ict / to .x 01 .x 1 .1.dX 1 /2 D . FT (7.2: Minkowski space can be considered an ordinary Euclidean space where a Lorentz transformation from . X 0 D ix 0 D ict X 1 D x1 X Dx X Dx 3 2 2 3 dS D ids where i D p dS 2 D .dX 0 /2 C .dX 3 /2 R A x 1 sin Â C X 0 cos Â 1 0 1.29b) (7.se/CED/Book Sheet: 163 of 262 . we see that equation (7.29d) 3 instance. X 00 D ict 0 / corresponds to an ordinary rotation through an angle Â. into a 4D differential form that is positive deﬁnite just as is ordinary 3D Euclidean space R3 . 7.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Introducing The fact that our Riemannian space can be transformed in this way into a Euclidean one means that it is.e.31) . a pseudo-Riemannian space..30) i. As in all Euclidean spaces. (7.29e) (7.29a) (7.dX 0 /2 C . The special theory of relativity j 141 X0 X 00 Â x Â x1 01 Figure 7.32a) (7.dX 2 /2 C .3 As before.dX 1 /2 C .29c) (7. We shall call the 4D Euclidean space constructed in this way the Minkowski space M4 . This rotation leaves the Euclidean distance x 1 X0 2 2 C D x2 c 2 t 2 invariant.2.32b) x D x cos Â C X sin Â See ﬁgure 7.plasma. Then D X 00 D 01 dS 2 D .

3) on page 135 if we let (7.33b) x D x cosh ' R A sinh ' D ˇ cosh ' D tanh ' D ˇ which are identical to the original transformation equations (7. at best.34a) (7. 142 j 7 . Such a rotation in M4 corresponds to a coordinate change in L4 as depicted in ﬁgure 7. to an observer at rest in the primed system. including O 0 D O.34b) (7. if we leave the ﬂat L4 space and enter the curved space of general relativity. Here w denotes the world line for an event and the line x 0 D x 1 . the ‘ict ’ trick will turn out to be an impasse. and transform back to the original space and time variables by using equation (7. be illustrative.uu. we obtain ct 0 D 0 x sinh ' C ct cosh ' ct sinh ' FT Figure 7. equation (7. including the origin O.28) on page 140 for successive Lorentz transformation then corresponds to the tanh addition formula tanh. Besides. which is simultaneous with all points on the x 0 axis.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. may. is not simultaneous with O in the unprimed system but occurs there at time jP P 0 j =c. † x D ct 0 w x 00 x0 D x1 ' P0 ' O D O0 P ct x1 D x x 01 (7. Let us therefore immediately return to L4 where all components are real valued.3: Minkowski diagram depicting geometrically the transformation (7.34c) D It is therefore possible to envisage the Lorentz transformation as an ‘ordinary’ rotation in the 4D Euclidean space M4 . which leads to the interpretation of the Lorentz transformation as an ‘ordinary’ rotation.33) from the unprimed system to the primed system. . The event P 0 .3.plasma. often called the rapidity or the Lorentz boost parameter.33a) (7.se/CED/Book Sheet: 164 of 262 . Note that the event P is simultaneous with all points on the x 1 axis (t D 0). but is not very physical. RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS If we introduce the angle ' D iÂ . x D ct the world line for a light ray in vacuum.35) The use of ict and M4 .29) on the preceding page backwards.'1 C '2 / D tanh '1 C tanh '2 1 C tanh '1 tanh '2 (7.

we interpret cp 0 as the total energy E. u/ . when multiplied with the scalar invariant m0 yields the four-momentum 0 1 . equation (7. v / D B s .c. Multiplying the zeroth (time) component of the four-momentum p by the scalar invariant c.p 0 . cp D . 7.38) (7.41) FT (7.cp 0 .E. A better way to look at this is that p D mv D m0 v is the covariantly correct expression for the kinetic three-momentum. Hence. v / D B C 2 2 A @ v v 1 1 c2 c2 (7. and the associated differential proper time d [see equation (7. p/ D m0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. we obtain D m0 c 2 cp 0 D m0 c 2 D s D mc 2 v2 1 c2 Since this component has the dimension of energy and is the result of a Lorentzcovariant description of the motion of a particle with its kinetic momentum described by the spatial components of the four-momentum. cp/ (7.s D .36) p D m0 dx d B C B m0 c m0 v C C D .uu.plasma.18) on page 138] allows us to deﬁne the four-velocity 0 1 dx u D d B C B C v Bs c C D . cp/ D .c.2.u0 . Covariant classical mechanics j 143 7.s B C @ v2 v2 A 1 1 c2 c2 From this we see that we can write p D mv where m D m0 D s m0 v2 c2 R A 1 We can interpret this such that the Lorentz covariance implies that the mass-like term in the ordinary 3D linear momentum is not invariant.37) (7.se/CED/Book Sheet: 165 of 262 .2 Covariant classical mechanics The invariance of the differential ‘distance’ ds in L4 .37) above.40) which.39) (7.

E. respectively.8 on page 223.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.45) is the four-current. the d’Alembert operator is invariant and. c. we obtain cp cp D c 2 Á p p D c 2 Œ. x/ D 0 is Lorentz covariant.p 1 /2 .p 3 /2 (7.m0 c 2 /2 1 D . this equation holds in any inertial frame.43) 7.44) R A D 0 2 (7. the d’Alembert operator is the scalar product of the four-del with itself: D@ @ D@ @ D 1 @2 c 2 @t 2 r2 (7.E.t.42) D .uu.p 0 /2 .A c (7. the homogeneous wave equation 2 f . 7.se/CED/Book Sheet: 166 of 262 .p 2 /2 .1 The four-potential If we introduce the four-potential Â Ã A D .46) D Since it has the characteristics of a four-scalar.3.3 Covariant classical electrodynamics Let us consider a charge density which in its rest inertial system is denoted by 0 . The contravariant form of the four-del operator @ D @=@x is deﬁned in equation (M. particularly in the frame where p D 0 and there we have E D m0 c 2 This is probably the most famous formula in physics history.47) . v / D .94) on page 221. The four-vector (in contravariant component form) j with D 0 dx d D 0u FT D 0 . hence.93) on page 221 and its covariant counterpart @ D @=@x in equation (M.plasma.m0 c 2 /2 D v2 c2 1 c2 Since this is an invariant. (7. cp/ D E 2 c 2 p2 Â Ã v2 .c. 144 j 7 . RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS Scalar multiplying this four-vector with itself. v / (7. As is shown in example M. cp/ .

45) on the facing page we see that dV D 0 dV0 R A If only one dimension Lorentz contracts (for instance.e.50) (7.2 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials Let us now solve the the inhomogeneous wave equations (3. x 2 .x 0 D ct.uu. x 01 . we can write the uncoupled inhomogeneous wave equations.se/CED/Book Sheet: 167 of 262 .3 on page 35. the covariant form of the equation of continuity. In the rest system we know that the solution is simply Â Ã Â 0 Ã q 1 . due to relative motion along the x direction).0 (7. we can formulate our electrodynamic equations covariantly. 7. We can therefore conclude that the elementary electric charge is a universal constant.29) on page 37. x 1 . D 7. The ﬁeld point (observation point) is denoted by the position four-vector x D .A /0 D .x 00 D ct 0 . equation (1. Covariant classical electrodynamics j 145 where is the scalar potential and A the vector potential.52) dV D d3x D dV0 D dV0 1 ˇ 2 D dV0 1 c2 i. deﬁned in section 3.29) on page 37 in vacuum for the case of a well-localised charge q 0 at a source point deﬁned by the position four-vector x 0 Á .x / where dV0 denotes the volume element as measured in the rest system.25) on page 10 is @ j D0 (7.3. equations (3.49) and the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition. equation (3. x 02 .28) on page 37. a 3D spatial volume element transforms according to s q v2 1 (7.48) With the help of the above. the charge in a given volume is conserved. For instance. then from equation (7. can be written @ A D0 The Lorenz-Lorentz gauge is sometimes called the covariant gauge.51) (7.. x 3 /.3.plasma.A D . in the following compact (and covariant) way: 2 A D 0j (7.54) c 4 "0 c jx x0 j0 vD0 FT (7.58) on page 43 in covariant form are A 7! A0 D A C @ .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. x 03 /. The gauge transformations (3.53) .

x x0 /0 / D c ˇx (7. x x0 / (7.60) (7. Let us introduce the relative position four-vector between the source point and the ﬁeld point: R Dx x 0 D . we see that R R D0 (7.R /0 0 ˇ ˇ ˇ D . which means that we can evaluate it in any inertial system and it will have the same value in all other inertial systems. evaluated in the rest system (signiﬁed by the index ‘0’). 0/ C 2 2 A @ v v 1 1 c2 c 2 vD0 (7. .c.t t 0 /.c. x x0 / .54) on the preceding page.62) .c.c.ˇx x0 ˇ0 .59) Now we want to ﬁnd the correspondence to the rest system solution. x x0 / (7.c.36) on page 143 that in the rest system 0 1 B C B C v Bs c C .x x0 // D c 2 .ˇ x ˇ x0 ˇ . RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS where jx x0 j0 is the usual distance from the source point to the ﬁeld point.s D .se/CED/Book Sheet: 168 of 262 .plasma. u R is invariant. If we evaluate it in the rest system the result is: D .ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ .u /0 D B .57) Inserting this into equation (7.u /0 . 0/ .t t 0 /2 ˇ ˇx ˇ2 x0 ˇ (7.56).61) As all scalar products.t t 0/ FT ˇ x 0 /0 D .x x 0 /0 / ˇ x0 ˇ0 We know that in vacuum the signal (ﬁeld) from the charge q 0 at x 0 propagates to x with the speed of light c so that (7.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.56) ˇ ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ D c.uu.t t 0 /.ˇ x ˇ x0 ˇ0 . we obtain R R D .58) or that equation (7. in an arbitrary inertial system.55) above can be written R A D and ˇ . We note from equation (7. x u R D u R ˇ R D .R /0 D . equation (7.55) Scalar multiplying this relative four-vector with itself. 146 j 7 .t t 0 /. . .

59) on the facing page ˇ ˇ ˇ ˇ u R D .36) on page 143 and equation (7. It is therefore the correct solution. equation (7. the scalar and vector potentials are given by the expressions q0 1 q0 1 D 4 "0 s 4 "0 jx x0 j ˇ . FT (7.66) (7.69) . cs c 2 s Ã u D cu R from which we see that the solution (7.plasma.x we can write u R D cs and R A Â 1 v . we conclude that for a very localised charge volume.70a) (7.65) x0 / (7. was used.c.x x0 / (7.54) on page 145. D .1) on page 135 to vector form: ˇ D ˇv Á O def v c ˇ v .47) on page 144.t.x x0 / q0 v q0 v A. v / ˇx x0 ˇ . to the solution equation (7. Covariant classical electrodynamics j 147 We therefore see that the expression A D q0 u 4 "0 cu R (7.uu. Writing the solution in the ordinary 3D way.x x0 / D c ˇx x0 ˇ v .67) (7. x/ D where in the last step the deﬁnition of the four-potential. .1 on page 105.x x0 / Á ˇx c and introducing def ˇ s Á ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ ˇ x0 ˇ ˇ .se/CED/Book Sheet: 169 of 262 . moving relative an observer with a velocity v .63) can be written Â Ã Â Ã q0 1 v Ä A .63) subject to the condition R R D 0 has the proper transformation properties (proper tensor form) and reduces. According to equation (7. x/ D D 4 "0 c 2 s 4 "0 c 2 jx x0 j ˇ .70b) These potentials are the Liénard-Wiechert potentials that we derived in a more complicated and restricted way in subsection 6.t.68) (7.5.x x0 / (7.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. valid in any inertial system.3.x / D . in the rest system.64) Generalising expression (7.A 4 "0 cs c 2 s c D . 7.

i.76b) i @x @t From this. equation (7. The same is true for the curl operator r operating on a polar vector.73) @t can in this tensor notation be written @Ej @Ei @Bij D (7. For instance.75b) @A @t In component form.76a) i @x @x j @ @Ai Ei D D @i @ t Ai (7. this can be written D @Ai @Aj D @i Aj @j Ai (7.74) i j @x @x @t We know from chapter 3 that the ﬁelds can be derived from the electromagnetic potentials in the following way: r ED R A ED r Bij D BDr A FT In other words.a2 b3 We notice that the kth component of the vector c can be represented as ck D ai bj aj bi D cij D cj i .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.76) above makes it natural to deﬁne the four-tensor @A @A F D D@ A @ A (7.77) c Inspection of (7.71) D . we notice the clear difference between the axial vector (pseudovector) B and the polar vector (‘ordinary vector’) E.47) on page 144: Â Ã A D .77) and equation (7.plasma.a1 b2 x a2 b1 /O 3 x (7. the Maxwell equation (7.78) @x @x . the pseudovector c D a b can be considered as an antisymmetric tensor of rank two.75a) (7. 148 j 7 .uu.A (7.72) @B (7.se/CED/Book Sheet: 170 of 262 .a3 b1 x a1 b3 /O 2 C .3 The electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor Consider a vectorial (cross) product c between two ordinary vectors a and b: cDa bD O ij k ai bj xk a3 b2 /O 1 C . RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS 7.3. Our goal is to express the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in a tensor form where the components are functions of the covariant form of the four-potential. j ¤ k (7.

corresponding to the ﬁrst/leftmost column in the matrix representation of the covariant component form of the electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor.84) which we recognise as the Maxwell source equation for the electric ﬁeld. The covariant ﬁeld tensor is obtained from the contravariant ﬁeld tensor in the usual manner by index lowering F DÁ ÄÁ FÄ D @ A @ A which in matrix representation becomes 0 1 0 Ex =c Ey =c Ez =c B E =c 0 Bz By C B x C F DB C @ Ey =c Bz 0 Bx A Ez =c By Bx 0 @ F R A D 0j 0 Comparing formula (7.79). (7.81) with formula (7.plasma. Covariant classical electrodynamics j 149 This anti-symmetric (skew-symmetric).79) C @Ey =c Bz 0 Bx A Ez =c By Bx 0 We note that the ﬁeld tensor is a sort of four-dimensional curl of the fourpotential vector A .80) (7.F / D B (7. F . FT (7. In matrix representation. i. equation (7.49a) on page 15.3. the contravariant ﬁeld tensor can be written 0 1 0 Ex =c Ey =c Ez =c BE =c 0 Bz By C B x C . equivalently (recalling that "0 D 1=c 2 ). we see that Â Ã @F 10 @F 20 @F 30 1 @Ex @Ey @Ez @F 00 C C C D0C C C @x 0 @x 1 @x 2 @x 3 c @x @y @z (7.81) .82) D r ED "0 is immediately observed by explicitly solving this covariant equation.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. That the two Maxwell source equations can be written (7.se/CED/Book Sheet: 171 of 262 .. 7. equation (1. Setting D 0.e.79) above we see that the covariant ﬁeld tensor is obtained from the contravariant one by a transformation E ! E.83) 1 0 D r E D 0j D 0c c or. four-tensor of rank 2 is called the electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor or the Faraday tensor.uu.

90) D with the further property ? ? F D F (7.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 3. we can introduce the dual electromagnetic tensor ? F D 1 2 Ä FÄ D ? F (7.49d) on page 15. equivalently. is an even permutation of 0.82) on the previous page yields @F 01 @F 11 @F 21 @F 31 C C C D @x 0 @x 1 @x 2 @x 3 D 0j 1 1 @Ex @Bz C0C 2 @t c @y @By @z (7. we can write the result in three-vector @E @t 0 j. Ä.1.3 (7.2. RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS For D 1 [the second column in equation (7.79) on the preceding page]. 150 j 7 . In summary.92) . x/ C "0 (7.2. equation (1.89) which can be viewed as a generalisation of the Levi-Civita tensor. . formula (M.91) In matrix representation the dual ﬁeld tensor is 1 0 0 Bx By Bz BB 0 Ez =c Ey =c C B x C ? F DB C @By Ez =c 0 Ex =c A Bz Ey =c Ex =c 0 (7. is an odd permutation of 0.88) R A Ä which we recognise as the Maxwell source equation for the magnetic ﬁeld.86) or. are equal ˆ ˆ : 1 if .1. equation (7. as .uu.se/CED/Book Sheet: 172 of 262 .87) and similarly for form as r BD D 2. Ä.plasma. With the help of the fully antisymmetric pseudotensor of rank 4 8 ˆ1 if .t. .85) D 0 vx This result can be rewritten as @Bz @y @By @z "0 0 @Ex D @t 0 jx (7.22) on page 209. Ä.r B/x D 0 jx C "0 FT 0 0 @Ex @t (7.3 ˆ < D 0 if at least two of . .

7. O.94) r BD0 can then be written @ ? F D0 (7. 2 of Course of Theoretical Physics. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-12-295250-2. ISBN 0-486-64290-9... D [38] R. The covariant form of the two Maxwell ﬁeld equations r ED @B @t (7. Hence. New York. Classical Field Theory.. D. ISBN 0-08-025072-6. .96) above constitute Maxwell’s equations in four-dimensional formalism. 1980. Inc.95) Explicit evaluation shows that this corresponds to (no summation!) Ä sometimes referred to as the Jacobi identity. Dover Publications. 1982. New York. New York and London. L ANDAU AND E.82) on page 149 and @ ? F D 0 jm where jm is the magnetic four-current.. Bibliography j 151 i.uu.. 1985. . the dual ﬁeld tensor is obtained from the ordinary ﬁeld tensor by the duality transformation E ! cB and B ! E=c. BARUT. Inc. . . [41] F. New York.96) .e. 1997. NY. NY . Electrodynamics and Classical Theory of Fields and Particles. Inc. T. L OW.50) on page 16. second.plasma. New York. 1970. ISBN 0-486-64870-2. R A FT (7. The Classical Theory of Fields. . [39] W. [40] L.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. G RANDY. A HARONI. Academic Press. Oxford .. ISBN 0-471-59551-9.se/CED/Book Sheet: 173 of 262 . NY. . ISBN 0-486-64038-8.. Pergamon Press. equation (7.. 1975. Dover Publications.4 Bibliography [36] J. revised ed.82) on page 149 and equation (7. Dover Publications.93) (7. 7. represent the covariant form of Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations (1. Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions. vol. [37] A. Introduction to Electrodynamics and Radiation. It is interesting to note that equation (7. The Special Theory of Relativity.4. fourth revised English ed.97) @Ä F C@ F C @ FÄ D 0 (7. Inc. B ECKER. Ltd. L IFSHITZ. E. M.

1965. [44] W.. Inc. third ed. [45] J.. Ltd. 1973. S PAIN. The Macmillan Press Ltd. S AKURAI.uu. Inc. . second ed. Advanced Quantum Mechanics. . H. Edinburgh and London..Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 1962. P HILLIPS. ISBN 05-001331-9. M ØLLER.. 1967. ISBN 333-12845-1. 152 j 7 . The Theory of Relativity. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.se/CED/Book Sheet: 174 of 262 . .. K. Classical Electricity and Magnetism. Reading. .. . [43] C.plasma. MA . RELATIVISTIC ELECTRODYNAMICS [42] H.. 1972. Beccles and Colchester. Oliver and Boyd. Tensor Calculus. The Special Theory of Relativity. Reading. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. second ed. . Oxford University Press. . J. ISBN 0-201-06710-2. [46] B. M UIRHEAD. MA . . London. PANOFSKY AND M. Glasgow . ISBN 0-201-05702-6. . D R A FT .

8. The analysis is based on Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods. but prescribed electromagnetic ﬁelds.se/CED/Book Sheet: 175 of 262 .uu. we calculated the electromagnetic ﬁelds and potentials from arbitrary.. We will also show that we can ﬁnd a Hamiltonian-type function in 4D and solve the corresponding 153 R A In previous chapters.plasma.1 Charged particles in an electromagnetic ﬁeld D We ﬁrst establish a relativistically correct theory describing the motion of charged particles in prescribed electric and magnetic ﬁelds. 8. is fully covariant. From these equations we may then calculate the charged particle dynamics in the most general case. viz. Then we go on to consider the general problem of interaction between electric and magnetic ﬁelds and electrically charged particles. and yields results which are relativistically correct.1. the dynamics of charged particles in arbitrary. FT ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES .1 Covariant equations of motion We will show that for our problem we can derive the correct equations of motion by using in four-dimensional L4 a function with similar properties as a Lagrange function in 3D and then apply a variational principle. but prescribed distributions of charges and currents.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. In this chapter we ﬁrst study the opposite situation.

se/CED/Book Sheet: 176 of 262 .125) on page 227 the ordinary 3D Lagrangian is the difference between the kinetic and potential energies.plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.u u / @A D ıu C q A ıu C u ıx d (8. yields Lorentz covariant results which are physically correct. According to formula (M.x . leads to Z 1 Á m0 ıS4 D ı u u C qu A .1. We require that L4 is a scalar invariant which does not contain higher than the second power of the four-velocity u in order that the resulting equations of motion be linear.3) Again drawing inferences from analytical mechanics in 3D.2) with the 4D Lagrangian (8.1 Lagrangian formalism In analogy with particle dynamics in 3D Euclidean space. the variational principle Z 1 ıS4 D ı L4 .1.2) above.18) on page 138. E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES Hamilton-type equations to obtain the correct covariant formulation of classical electrodynamics. As a result.5) 2 @u @x Z 01 D m0 u ıu C q A ıu C u @ A ıx d D 0 0 D . A free particle has only kinetic energy.4) We call this the four-Lagrangian and shall now show how this function.77) on page 148 in the following way (8. If the particle mass is m0 then in 3D the kinetic energy is m0 v 2 =2. u / d D 0 (8. The variation principle (8. 8.x / 2 FT (8. formula (8.x . u / d (8. 1 must be fulﬁlled. together with the variation principle. and L4 acts as a kind of generalisation to the common 3D Lagrangian. This suggests that in 4D the Lagrangian for a free particle should be R A Lfree D 4 1 m0 u u 2 L4 D 1 m0 u u C qu A .1) where d is the proper time deﬁned via equation (7.2) 0 with ﬁxed endpoints 0 .uu.x / d 2 Ä Â Ã Z 10 m0 @. we introduce a generalised interaction between the particles and the electromagnetic ﬁeld with the help of the four-potential given by equation (7. we introduce a generalised 4D action Z S4 D L4 .4) inserted. 154 j 8 .

A change of irrelevant summation index from to in the ﬁrst two terms of the right hand member of (8. we can express dA =d as follows: dA @A dx D d @x d D@ A u (8. Charged particles in an electromagnetic ﬁeld j 155 According to equation (7.5) on the preceding page.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.ıx / C qu @ A ıx d ıS4 D m0 u (8. 8.uu. the expression inside in the integrand in the right hand member of equation (8. the four-velocity is u D dx d (8. In other words.se/CED/Book Sheet: 177 of 262 . the following expression: Ã Z 1Â du dA ıS4 D m0 q C qu @ A ıx d (8.36) for the four-velocity.11) D m0 du D qu d By inserting this expression (8.1.10) d d 0 FT .ıx / C qA . and noting the common factor qu of the resulting term and the last term. we have found an equation of motion for a charged particle in a prescribed electromagnetic ﬁeld: @ A @ A (8. after moving the ensuing common factor ıx outside the parenthesis.ıx / D (8.8) gives Ã Z 1Â dA du ıx q ıx C qu @ A ıx d (8.36) on page 143. according to the variational principle.12) above must vanish.11) into the second term in right-hand member of equation (8. we obtain the ﬁnal variational principle expression Z 1Ä du ıS4 D C qu @ A @ A ıx d (8.9) yields.12) m0 d 0 Since.8) d d 0 Partial integration in the two ﬁrst terms in the right hand member of (8.13) R A where the integrated parts do not contribute since the variations at the endpoints vanish.6) which means that we can write the variation of u as a total derivative with respect to : Ã Â d dx . this expression shall vanish and ıx is arbitrary between the ﬁxed end points 0 and 1 .plasma.7) ıu D ı d d Inserting this into the ﬁrst two terms in the last integral in equation (8.9) ıS4 D m0 d d 0 Applying well-known rules of differentiation and the expression (7. we obtain Ã Z 1Â d d .10).

plasma. FT .1. qi . t / D pi qi L. It is often referred to as the Minkowski equation. qi . As the reader may easily verify. deﬁned in equation (7.17) D With the help of these. To this end we introduce a canonically conjugate four-momentum p in an analogous way as the ordinary 3D conjugate momentum (8.18) on page 138. as given by equation (7. qi is a P P generalised coordinate and pi is its canonically conjugate momentum.1. we can express this equation in terms of the electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor in the following way: m0 du D qu F d (8. the position four-vector x .36) on page 143.qi . 8.se/CED/Book Sheet: 178 of 262 . we introduce the following eight partial differential equations: @H4 dx D @p d @H4 dp D @x d (8. t/ is the ordinary 3D Hamiltonian. We seek a similar set of equations in 4D space. E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES With the help of formula (7. and the invariant line element ds.18a) (8. These six ﬁrst-order partial differential equations are dqi @H D @pi dt @H dpi D @qi dt (8.pi .2 Hamiltonian formalism The usual Hamilton equations for a 3D space are given by equation (M. 156 j 8 .15a) (8. considered as the generalised four-coordinate.15b) R A p D @L4 @u H4 D p u L4 where H.80) on page 149 for the covariant component form of the ﬁeld tensor.uu. to deﬁne the four-Hamiltonian (8.18b) which form the four-dimensional Hamilton equations.136) on page 228 in appendix M.14) This is the sought-for covariant equation of motion for a particle in an electromagnetic ﬁeld. the spatial part of this 4-vector equation is the covariant (relativistically correct) expression for the Newton-Lorentz force equation.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.16) and utilise the four-velocity u .

17) on the preceding page. Hence we require that the component p 0 of the conjugate four-momentum vector deﬁned according to equation (8. we obtain H4 D p u L4 D p u 1 m0 u u 2 qu A . Charged particles in an electromagnetic ﬁeld j 157 Our strategy now is to use equation (8.p H4 D qA / p qA 2 m0 m0 1 . c times a four-momentum has a zeroth (time) component which we can identify with the total energy.x / D m0 u C qA (8.21) to eliminate u .p m0 and if this is used in (8.24) .16) on the facing page and equations (8.x / D 1 m0 u u 2 (8.uu.15) on the facing page. we obtain H4 D m0 u u C qA u 1 m0 u u 2 R A qA / Since the four-velocity scalar-multiplied by itself is u u D c 2 .21) (8.22) However.41) on page 143. we see that Â Ã @L4 @ 1 p D D m0 u u C qu A . equation (8.19) 1 Recall that in 3D.18) on the preceding page to derive an explicit algebraic expression for the canonically conjugate momentum four-vector.20) @u @u 2 Inserting this into (8.16) of the canonically conjugate four-momentum p .16) on the preceding page be identical to the ordinary 3D Hamiltonian H divided by c and hence that this cp 0 solves the Hamilton equations.1 This latter consistency check is left as an exercise to the reader. from the deﬁnition (8. at the same time (8. According to equation (7.20) provides the algebraic relationship D u D 1 . and the expression for L4 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 179 of 262 . Furthermore.21) above that H4 is indeed a scalar invariant.p D qA / p qA 2m0 1 D p p 2qA p C q 2 A A 2m0 FT qu A .23) (8. whose value is simply H4 D m0 c 2 2 (8. equation (8.x / (8. 8.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. we clearly see from equation (8. equations (8.19).plasma. one gets Â Ã m0 1 1 . Using the deﬁnition of H4 .4) on page 154.1. the Hamiltonian equals the total energy.

14) on page 156.p 0 /2 2q 0 p c .A/2 C 2 ƒ‚ … c .se/CED/Book Sheet: 180 of 262 .p/2 „ q2 2qp A C q 2 .plasma.p qA/2 2 m2 c 2 D 0 (8. Rearranging terms.24) on the preceding page.25) du d @A u @x m0 q m0 du D qu d @ A FT @ A D qu F .27a) (8.20) on the preceding page was used. p/.p 0 /2 q 2 . 158 j 8 .A/2 which is identical to the covariant equation of motion equation (8.29) 0 .p A/ .uu. We can therefore safely conclude that the Hamiltonian in question yields correct results.26) R A p p D .23): @H4 D @x D D D q .47) on page 144 for the four-potential.p 0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.18) and using the relation (8. and using equation (7. and representing the canonically conjugate four-momentum as p D .p/2 q2 2 q p 0 C 2q. we obtain the following scalar products: (8.22) on the previous page.27c) Inserting these explicit expressions into equation (8. Recalling expression (7.28) D which is a second-order algebraic equation in p 0 : .p 0 /2 1 0 A p D p c 1 A A D 2 2 c . E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES That this four-Hamiltonian yields the correct covariant equation of motion can be seen by inserting it into the four-dimensional Hamilton equations (8. as derived in equation (8. we obtain the equation m0 c 2 1 D 2 2m0 Ä .A/2 (8. we obtain (8.p m0 q m0 u m0 @A qu @x dp D d qA / @A @x @A @x (8.p A/ C 2 c c 2 where in the last step equation (8. and using the fact that H4 is equal to the scalar value m0 c 2 =2.p/2 .80) on page 149.27b) (8.

Charged particles in an electromagnetic ﬁeld j 159 with two possible solutions q p D c 0 ˙ q .35) . the positive solution in equation (8. we obtain the explicit expression for the ordinary 3D Lagrange function LDp v R A q q c .1.30) above must be identiﬁed with the ordinary Hamilton function H divided by c.p qA/2 C m2 c 2 0 (8. the 4D transformation (8. where the quantity mv is the usual kinetic momentum. we can rewrite this expression for the ordinary Lagrangian as follows: A v/ mc D 2 q C qA v What we have obtained is the relativistically correct (covariant) expression for the Lagrangian describing the mechanical motion of a charged particle in scalar and vector potentials associated with prescribed electric and magnetic ﬁelds.30) Since the zeroth component (time component) p 0 of a four-momentum vector p multiplied by c represents the energy [cf.p 0 qA/2 C m2 c 2 0 (8.uu.31) LDp v H Using the the explicit expressions given by equation (8.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.17) between L4 and H4 ] 1 v2 c2 (8. 8.p qA/2 C m2 c 2 0 m0 v D mv 1 v2 c2 q q c m2 v 2 C m2 c 2 0 2 and if we make the identiﬁcation p qA D s D L D qA v C mv 2 D mv q.34) s m0 c 2 is the ordinary 3D Hamilton function for a charged particle moving in scalar and vector potentials associated with prescribed electric and magnetic ﬁelds. q H Á cp D q C c .plasma. FT (8. The ordinary Lagrange and Hamilton functions L and H are related to each other by the 3D transformation [cf.32).32) (8.31) and equation (8. equation (7. Consequently.se/CED/Book Sheet: 181 of 262 .41) on page 143].33) (8.

or we have derived the equations of motion for charged particles in given. Pi . .se/CED/Book Sheet: 182 of 262 . t / dt D 0 (8.1: A one-dimensional chain consisting of N discrete.t /.i C 1/th mass point.1 Lagrange-Hamilton formalism for ﬁelds and interactions Consider the situation. We shall ﬁrst consider a simple mechanical problem whose solution is well known. the motion of O mass point i will be a one-dimensional oscillatory motion along x.uu. we have considered two classes of problems. i . and . respectively. Either we have calculated the ﬁelds from given. Let us denote the deviation for mass point i from its equilibrium position by i . iC1 . the particles. we apply a similar view on the electromagnetic problem.36) According to equation (M. i 1 i iC1 m k a m k a m k a m k a m x 8.125) on page 227. i . Let us now put the ﬁelds and the particles on an equal footing and present a theoretical description which treats the ﬁelds. x As is well known. ideal springs with spring constants k. After perturbation. of positions of the . distributed evenly with a distance a to their two nearest neighbours so that the equilibrium O coordinate for the i th particle is xi D iax . This involves transition to a ﬁeld picture with an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. Then. with N identical mass points. which we choose to be the x axis. illustrated in ﬁgure 8. identical mass points m.1. 160 j 8 .i 1/th. prescribed ﬁelds. along the x axis.2. connected to their neighbours with identical.plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the solution to this mechanical problem can be obtained if we can ﬁnd a Lagrangian (Lagrange function) L which satisﬁes the variational equation Z ı L. The equilibrium distance between the neighbouring mass points is a and i 1 . each with mass m and connected to its neighbour along a one-dimensional straight line. prescribed distributions of charges and currents.2 Covariant ﬁeld theory D R A 8. i th. the Lagrangian is L D T V where T denotes the kinetic energy and V the potential energy of a classical FT So far.t/O . E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES Figure 8.t / are the instantaneous deviations. by identical ideal springs with spring constants k (Hooke’s law). drawing inferences from this model problem. and their interactions in a uniﬁed way.t /. At equilibrium the mass points are at rest.

40a) (8. .2. Covariant ﬁeld theory j 161 mechanical system with conservative forces. A consequence of this transition is that the number of degrees of freedom for the system went from the ﬁnite number N to inﬁnity! Another consequence is that L has now become dependent also on the partial derivative with respect to x of the ‘ﬁeld coordinate’ . at the same time. . where the inﬁnitesimal mass points were instead identiﬁed O by a continuous real parameter x. as given by equation (8.40c) (8.plasma. iC1 2 i/ i (8. FT (8.39) . in which the mass points were identiﬁed by a discrete integer variable i D 1. in the following way: LD where N X iD1 aLi (8. In our case the Lagrangian is LD 1 X h P2 m i 2 iD1 N k.37) above.t D @t @x 2 @t D Notice how we made a transition from a discrete description. as we shall see. measured in J m 1 .42) 1 Li D 2 " m P2 a i Â ka i C1 i Ã2 # (8.40b) (8. to a continuous description. 8. N .38) a is the so called linear Lagrange density.40d) (8.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. If we now let N ! 1 and.se/CED/Book Sheet: 183 of 262 . But. 2. let the springs become inﬁnitesimally short according to the following scheme: a ! dx dm m ! D a dx ka ! Y i C1 i linear mass density Young’s modulus R A ! @ @x Â Y @ @x Ã2 # a we obtain Z L D L dx where " Â Ã Â Ã @ @ 1 @ 2 L . the transition is well worth the cost because it allows us to treat all ﬁelds. namely their position along x.37) Let us write the Lagrangian. be it classical scalar or vectorial ﬁelds.41) (8.uu. : : : .

spinors and other ﬁelds that appear in quantum physics. @t @x 2 3 (8. It is: @2 @t 2 Y @2 D0 @x 2 (8. If we introduce the functional derivative 0 1 ıL @L @ @ @L A Á D (8.uu.plasma. 162 j 8 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 184 of 262 .43) Â Ã Â Ã ZZ @L @L @L @ @ 5 4 Áı Áı C dx dt D ı C @ @t @x @ @ @ @ @t @x As before. This results in the expression 2 0 1 0 13 ZZ @ @ @L A5 @ @ @L A 4 @L Á Á ı dx dt D 0 (8.44) @ @t @ @ @x @ @ @t @x R A @x where the variation is arbitrary (and the endpoints ﬁxed).46) D or which is the one-dimensional Euler-Lagrange equation. .42) on the previous page.46). Under the assumption of time independence and ﬁxed endpoints.45) ı @ @x @ @ we can express this as 0 1 @ @ @L A ıL Á D0 ı @t @ @ @t FT D0 (8.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the variation principle (8. on an equal footing. Inserting the linear mass point chain Lagrangian density. we obtain the equation of motion for our one-dimensional linear mechanical structure. E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES or wave functions. the last integral can be integrated by parts.47b) . into equation (8.36) on page 160 yields: Z ı L dt Ã Â ZZ @ @ dx dt Dı L .47a) 1 @2 2 v' @t 2 @2 @x 2 ! D0 (8. equation (8. This means that the integrand itself must vanish.

e. x/ D @L @ @t @ Á D @H @ D @ @t ıH @ D ı @t and deﬁne the Hamilton density Â Ã Â Ã @ @ @ @ H . @x 2 0 13 ZZ (8. the one-dimensional wave equation for compression waves which propagate p with phase speed v' D Y = along the linear structure. as usual.plasma.x / D .50) (8.49) @ @x @ @. we differentiate this expression and identify terms.51) (8.53) where the variation ı is arbitrary and the endpoints are ﬁxed.2.@ / @ @ . For this 3D case we get the variational principle Â Ã Z ZZ Z @ 3 d4x ı L dt D ı L d x dt D ı L .52) (8.t.48) @ @ @L A5 4 4 @L Á D ı dxD0 @ @x @ @ @x @x This constitutes the four-dimensional Euler-Lagrange equations.54b) FT (8. we obtain the following Hamilton density equations (8.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. . Introducing the three-dimensional functional derivative 0 1 ıL @L @ @ @L A Á D ı @ @x i @ @ @x i R A @t we can express this as 0 1 @ @ @L A ıL Á D0 ı @t @ @ In analogy with particle mechanics (ﬁnite number of degrees of freedom). i @x @t @t @x If. .uu. Covariant ﬁeld theory j 163 i. This means that the integrand itself must vanish: 0 1 Â Ã @L @ @ @L A @L @L Á D @ D0 (8.. 8.se/CED/Book Sheet: 185 of 262 . we may introduce the canonically conjugate momentum density .54a) (8. i It D L . A generalisation of the above 1D results to a three-dimensional continuum is straightforward.

Expressed in the rest mass density %0 . they describe the dynamics of a continuous system of inﬁnitely many degrees of freedom.1. x/. it comes natural to express L in terms of the four-potential A . The entire system of particles and ﬁelds consists of a mechanical part. It is given by L4 =V where L4 is given by equation (8. If we want to describe the electromagnetic ﬁeld in terms of a Lagrange density L and Euler-Lagrange equations. A convenient expression for this interaction Lagrange density is (8. . With the help of the ﬁeld tensor. the mechanical Lagrange density can be written R A L inter D j A L mech D 1 %0 u u 2 (8. 164 j 8 . However.plasma.3) on page 154 and V is the volume. when we described the mechanical ﬁeld.57) D For the ﬁeld part L em we choose the difference between magnetic and electric energy density (in analogy with the difference between kinetic and potential energy in a mechanical ﬁeld).58) so that the total Lagrangian density can be written L tot D 1 1 %0 u u C j A C F 2 4 0 (8. we used a scalar ﬁeld .1 The electromagnetic ﬁeld Above.uu.x Ä /.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. a ﬁeld part and an interaction part. We therefore assume that the total Lagrange density L tot for this system can be expressed as L tot D L mech C L inter C L em FT F (8.t. E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES The Hamilton density functions are in many ways similar to the ordinary Hamilton functions for a system of a ﬁnite number of particles and lead to similar results. 8. we express this ﬁeld Lagrange density as L em D 1 4 0 F F (8.55) where the mechanical part has to do with the particle motion (kinetic energy).se/CED/Book Sheet: 186 of 262 .2.56) The L inter part describes the interaction between the charged particles and the external electromagnetic ﬁeld.59) From this we can calculate all physical quantities.

@ A / @ @Ä A C @˛ Aˇ @˛ Aˇ / @.uu.60) and the results in Example 8.62) ) (8.@Ä A @ AÄ /.61) Ä / / Á @ F Ä FÄ @.63) Á @ @Ä A @ AÄ D 2@ A @.@ A @ D @Ä A @. 8. we can derive the dynamics for the whole system. @ @Ä A @Ä A @.@ A / @ @ @Ä A C @Ä A @Ä A @.@ A / @ D @Ä A @.@ A / h .60) inserted into the Euler-Lagrange equations. expression (8.@Ä A @Ä A @Ä A Ä Ä @Ä A @ AÄ Ä D But D D 2@ A Similarly. the electromagnetic part of the Lagrangian density L EM D L inter C L em D j A C 1 4 0 F F (8.49) on page 163. equation (8.@ A R A 1 Ä 2 @ 0 @ A @Ä A C @ A @ AÄ @Ä A @ AÄ Á @ @Ä A @Ä A @. For instance.@ A / FT @ AÄ / i (8.2.@ A / 4 0 1 @ D @ 4 0 @.64) .@ A / @ @Ä A C @Ä A ÁÄ˛ @˛ Á ˇ Aˇ / @. yields two of Maxwell’s equations.@ A ( @ 1 D @ 4 0 @.se/CED/Book Sheet: 187 of 262 .@ A @ D @Ä A @.1 that @L EM Dj @A Furthermore.@ A / Á D @Ä A (8. To see this.@ A (8. Ä 1 @L EM @ D @ @.plasma.@ A / @ @Ä A C ÁÄ˛ Á ˇ @Ä A @˛ Aˇ / @.@ A / @. Covariant ﬁeld theory j 165 Using L tot in the 3D Euler-Lagrange equations.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.49) on page 163 (with replaced by A ). we note from equation (8.

71) 2E 2 =c 2 C 2B 2 D 2.66) @A @. Then.uu..1 Field energy difference expressed in the ﬁeld tensor Show. by explicit calculation.68) i.70) R D D0 D D the column number. expression (8.69) (8. 166 j 8 .82) on page 149. according to equation (7.e.@ A / 0 or @ F D 0j (8. is a Lorentz covariant formulation of Maxwell’s source equations. Einstein summation and D F 00 F00 C F 01 F01 C F 02 F02 C F 03 F03 C F 10 F10 C F 11 F11 C F 12 F12 C F 13 F13 C F 20 F20 C F 21 F21 C F 22 F22 C F 23 F23 C F 30 F30 C F 31 F31 C F 32 F32 C F 33 F33 2 Ex =c 2 2 Ey =c 2 2 Ez =c 2 2 2 2 Ex =c 2 C 0 C Bz C By 2 2 2 Ey =c 2 C Bz C 0 C Bx 2 2 2 Ez =c 2 C By C Bx C 0 2 2Ex =c 2 2 2Ey =c 2 2 2 2 2 2Ez =c 2 C 2Bx C 2By C 2Bz (8.plasma.@ A / 0 @ A /D 1 0 @ F (8. E X A M P L E 8.se/CED/Book Sheet: 188 of 262 .79) on page 149 we recall that 0 1 0 Ex =c Ey =c Ez =c BE =c 0 Bz By C C F DB x @Ey =c Bz 0 Bx A Ez =c By Bx 0 and from formula (7.@ A @ @. the difference between the magnetic and electric ﬁeld energy densities.65) This means that the Euler-Lagrange equations.81) on page 149 that 0 1 0 Ex =c Ey =c Ez =c B E =c 0 Bz By C C F DB x @ Ey =c Bz 0 Bx A Ez =c By Bx 0 where denotes the row number and direct substitution yields F F (8. that 1 4 0 F A FT F 1 D 2 B2 0 ! "0 E 2 (8. From formula (7.B 2 E 2 =c 2 / . E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES so that Ä 1 @L EM D @ .67) which.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. for the Lagrangian density L EM and with A as the ﬁeld quantity become Ä @L EM @L EM 1 @ Dj @ F D0 (8.49) on page 163.

With D 1 @ c 2 @t (8.k x R A !t / e mjxj with the solution jxj which describes the Yukawa meson ﬁeld for a scalar meson with mass m. scalar ﬁeld which has the following Lagrange density: L D 1 @ 2 @ m2 2 Insertion into the 1D Euler-Lagrange equation.uu. 8.2.46) on page 162. and not only electromagnetic ones.76) D @ F m2 A D we obtain the Hamilton density 1h 2 2 H D c C .2. Another Lagrangian density which has attracted quite some interest is the Proca Lagrangian L EM D L inter C L em D j A C 1 4 0 F which leads to the dynamic equation 0j FT (8. can be derived from a Lagrangian density together with a variational principle (the Euler-Lagrange equations).E 2 c2B 2/ (8. the dynamic equations for most any ﬁelds. QED End of example 8.2 Other ﬁelds In general.72) where.1. equation (8. consider a real. As a simple example. yields the dynamic equation . 2 m2 / D 0 D ei.79) . in the last step.1 8.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Covariant ﬁeld theory j 167 or [cf.74) (8. Both linear and non-linear ﬁelds are studied with this technique.78) (8.73) (8.plasma. equation (2.se/CED/Book Sheet: 189 of 262 .77) F C m2 A A (8. the identity "0 0 D 1=c 2 was used.16a) on page 23] 1 4 0 F F D 1 2 B2 0 1 c2 0 ! E2 D 1 2 B2 0 ! "0 E 2 D "0 2 .r /2 C m2 2 2 i which is positive deﬁnite.75) (8.

NY. fourth revised English ed.. 1967. 8. Space experiments of this kind on board satellites have led to stringent upper bounds on the photon mass. should be signiﬁcantly modiﬁed from what they ar to yield measurable discrepancies from their usual form. . If the photon really has a mass. ISBN 0-08-025072-6. MA . Pergamon Press. . Reading. Classical Field Theory. ISBN 0-12-295250-2. Paris.. massive photons.uu. T.se/CED/Book Sheet: 190 of 262 . H. London. London. second ed. E. New York. Ltd. P HILLIPS. Reading. MA .. Applications of Electrodynamics in Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics. . Dover Publications. D R A [51] L. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. ISBN 2-88124-719-9. [52] W. L IFSHITZ. . . . Electrodynamics and Classical Theory of Fields and Particles. . 1981.. 1962. The Classical Theory of Fields. Advanced Quantum Mechanics.. 2 of Course of Theoretical Physics. New York and London. Introduction to Electrodynamics and Radiation. including those of the earth and galactic spiral arms. MA .. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. Oxford . ISBN 0-486-64038-8.plasma. New York. Inc. vol. Classical Electricity and Magnetism. O. second ed. Classical Mechanics. 1975. Academic Press. L. M. If massive photons do exist. [53] J. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Montreux.3 Bibliography [47] A. G RANDY. D. [49] H. K. or. . J.. in other words. L ANDAU AND E.. [54] D. Sydney and Toronto. ISBN 0-201-06710-2. BARUT. G OLDSTEIN. New York. Inc. PANOFSKY AND M. John Wiley & Sons. Tokyo and Melbourne. [50] W. Inc. . ISBN 0-201-02918-9. G INZBURG.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 1976. .. large-scale magnetic ﬁelds. Inc. . [48] V. . S OPER. E L E C TROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PARTICLES This equation describes an electromagnetic ﬁeld with a mass. 1970. FT . 1989. it will have an impact on electrodynamics as well as on cosmology and astrophysics.. 1980. S AKURAI. Reading. Inc. ISBN 0-471-81368-0. 168 j 8 . Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Revised third ed.

this theory is beyond the scope of the current book. In a material medium.plasma.se/CED/Book Sheet: 191 of 262 . under certain assumptions. possibly non-local and nonlinear. the electric displacement vector D (measured in C m 2 ) and the magnetising ﬁeld H (measured in A m 1 ). they represent. functions of D R A 169 FT ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MAT TER . are valid on all scales where a classical description is good. is provided by quantum electrodynamics. electric and magnetic ﬁeld quantities in which. A more complete and accurate theory. viz. in an average sense. these derived ﬁelds are complicated. The microscopic Maxwell equations derived in chapter 1. They provide a correct physical picture for arbitrary ﬁeld and source distributions. incorporate intrinsic electromagnetic properties of macroscopic matter. However. ﬂuid or gaseous state or a combination thereof.uu. on macroscopic and. QED gives a consistent description of how electromagnetic ﬁelds are quantised into photons and describes their intrinsic and extrinsic properties. respectively. which in chapter 2 were chosen as the axiomatic basis for the treatment in the remainder of the book.1) on page 20 by the corresponding macroscopic Maxwell equations in which auxiliary. be it in a solid.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. or properties that appear when the medium is immersed fully or partially in an electromagnetic ﬁeld.. derived ﬁelds are introduced. Consequently. the material properties of the substances are already included. In the most general case. microscopic scales. valid also when quantum effects are signiﬁcant. These auxiliary ﬁelds. it is sometimes convenient to replace the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2.

x/ D "0 . x/ is only linearly dependent on the electric ﬁeld E. and the magnetising ﬁeld H. i.t.t. Using this simple model.t. we study certain interesting aspects of the propagation of electromagnetic particles and waves in the medium.t.t.. x/ is split into the charge density for free.t.. x/ C P .1 Polarisation and electric displacement By writing the ﬁrst microscopic Maxwell-Lorentz equation (2. Only simpliﬁed.t.uu. x/.t.t. x/ ) (9. x/.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. explicit linear model for a medium from which we derive the expression for the dielectric permittivity ". ‘true’ charges.1a) on page 20 as in equation (6. 9. x/ of this medium. x/ D "0 E.t.1b) An example of this are chiral media. true . for bound polarisation charges induced by the applied ﬁeld E.3) B D R A total i. as r ED . B/ (9. xI E.t. x/ C "0 pol .e.4) 2 and at the same time introducing the electric displacement vector (C m D. in a form where the total charge density . x/.e.t. and the refractive index or index of refraction n. we may assume that the response of a substance to the ﬁelds can be approximated by a linear one so that D H "E 1 FT true (9.25) on page 88. In this chapter we derive these linearised forms.plasma.t. that the electric displacement vector D. A general treatment of these ﬁelds will not be included here.1a) (9. x/ is only linearly dependent on the magnetic ﬁeld B.t.2) (9.t. and then consider a simple. x/. x/ true D .t. but important and illuminating examples will be given. pol .1. 170 j 9 . and the charge density. xI E.t. x/ "0 (9.se/CED/Book Sheet: 192 of 262 .t.5) . B/ H D H. for instance for small magnitudes of the primary ﬁeld strengths E and B. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER the primary ﬁelds E and B : D D D. the magnetic susceptibility . 9.1 Maxwell’s macroscopic theory Under certain conditions. x/ r P .

e . x/E. x/ D r D. subject to the ﬁeld E. in radio receivers to convert high radio frequencies into lower ones. 9. Another example of the nonlinear response of a medium is the Kerr effect. x/ D "0 e .2 9.t.t.2 Magnetisation and the magnetising ﬁeld An analysis of the properties of magnetic media and the associated currents shows that three such types of currents exist: FT 1 (9. or. was included in the above separation into true and induced charge densities. (9. x/ For an electromagnetically anisotropic medium such as a magnetised plasma or a birefringent crystal .1 Inserting the approximation (9. x/ C P .8) The fact that the relation between the dipole moment per unit volume P and the applied electric ﬁeld E is local in time and space is yet another approximation assumed in macroscopic Maxwell theory.t. x/ where. It is important to remember that only the induced electric dipole moment of matter. x/ D1C "0 e .7) This approximation is often valid for regular media if the ﬁeld strength jEj is low enough.t. is dependent on the direction in space.. x/ (9.t. Maxwell’s macroscopic theory j 171 one can reshufﬂe expression (9.t. In general. the relationship is not of a simple linear form as in equation (9. ". x/ R A D "0 Äe . approximately.6) This is one of the original macroscopic Maxwell equations.t. x/ D "0 Œ1 C e . x/ D true . x/ D ". Contributions to D from higher-order electric moments were neglected.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. .1. we can write the latter D.t.t. x/ D will have to be replaced by a tensor. respectively. are usually on much slower and longer scales than for E itself. as we shall call it.9) (9.5) on the facing page.se/CED/Book Sheet: 193 of 262 .plasma.t.4) on the preceding page to obtain r Œ"0 E. Another approximation is the assumption that there exists a simple linear relationship between P and E in the material medium under consideration P .10) 2 The nonlinearity of semiconductor diodes is used. These techniques are called heterodyning and demodulation. x/E.t.t. or into the audible spectrum.7) above but non-linear terms are important. the susceptibility e or.t. x/ D ". In such a situation the principle of superposition is no longer valid and non-linear effects such as frequency conversion and mixing can be expected. This would still describe a linear relationship between E and P but one where the linear proportionality factor.uu. however. the dispersive property of the medium. e. x/ (9. equivalently the relative dielectric permittivity Äe .7) into equation (9.g.1.t. This is one of the approximations assumed. Here the variations in time and space of the the material dependent electric susceptibility.t.t.

14) . moving the term r M from the right hand side (RHS) to the left hand side (LHS) and introducing the magnetising ﬁeld (magnetic ﬁeld intensity. we may have true currents j true . the Fourier component expression (6. but which may produce net effects at discontinuities and boundaries.x0 x0 / j. Such currents. R A jM D r M j total D j true C Analogously to the electric case.t 0 . formula (6.e. 2. Via the deﬁnition of the vector potential A one can show that the magnetisation current and the magnetisation is simply related: (9.64) on page 96] Z 1 m. corresponding to the electric dipole moment.13) @t One might then be led to think that the right-hand side (RHS) of the r B Maxwell equation (2. 3. a physical transport of true (free) charges. often atomistic. nature that are inaccessible to direct observation. or magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.t / D d3x 0 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. formula (6.plasma. The lowest order magnetic moment. one may.1d) on page 20 should be Â Ã @P RHS D 0 j true C Cr M @t However.12) In a stationary medium we therefore have a total current which is (approximately) the sum of the three currents enumerated above: @P Cr M (9..16b) on page 86.16a) on page 86. M. These magnetisation currents are denoted jM.uu. x0 / (9. In analogy with the electric polarisation P there may be a form of charge transport associated with the changes of the polarisation with time. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER 1. i. are called polarisation currents and are identiﬁed with @P =@t. Ampère-turn density) as HD B 0 D M FT Magnetic monopoles have not yet been unambiguously identiﬁed in experiments. So there is no correspondence in the magnetic case to the electric monopole moment. induced by an external ﬁeld.se/CED/Book Sheet: 194 of 262 . is the magnetic dipole moment [cf. 172 j 9 . In analogy with true charges for the electric case. for a distribution of magnetic dipole moments in a volume. There may also be intrinsic currents of a microscopic.11) 2 V0 (9. describe this volume in terms of its magnetisation.

respectively: (9. Maxwell’s macroscopic theory j 173 and using the deﬁnition for D. x/ D 1 .plasma.t.se/CED/Book Sheet: 195 of 262 . we discussed an alternative way. x/ D 0 Äm . in a way. based on the postulate of conservation of electric charge. x/ where. In the case of anisotropy. x/B. This effect was discovered 1879 by the US physicist E DW I N H E R B E RT H A L L (1855–1938). . x/ true is the relative permeability. by replacing the E and B in the two source equations by using the approximate relations formula (9. the term that. ﬁeld quantities D and H are obtained from the Maxwell-Lorentz microscopic equations (2. orthogonal to this current.5) on page 170. We may.18d) FT (9.t. Denoting it m . x/ D and Äm . .1. equation (9. hence. we can write 3 This term.t. approximately.18c) @D @t (9.3 In chapter 1.t.1. x/ 0 0 Œ1 C m .3 Macroscopic Maxwell equations D r DD r ED @B @t r BD0 r H D j true C Field equations.t. introduce a magnetic susceptibility for the medium. Äm will be a tensor. x/ R A D1C m .18b) (9. x/ D . in the presence of an external magnetic ﬁeld which is likewise perpendicular to the current.t.4 9.15) (9. 9.t. is the basis for radio communications and other engineering applications of the theory.16) (9. and therefore in principle superﬂuous.18a) (9.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. we would pick up a term "0 @E=@t which makes the equation inconsistent: the divergence of the left hand side vanishes while the divergence of the right hand side does not! Maxwell realised this and to overcome this inconsistency he was forced to add his famous displacement current term which precisely compensates for the last term the RHS expression. This is the case for the Hall effect which produces a potential difference across an electric conduction current channel. expressed in terms of the derived. we ﬁnd that LHS D r H @P @D D j true C @t @t "0 @E @t RHS D j true C H.15) above. in this simplistic view. is the one that makes it possible to turn the Maxwell equations into wave equations (see chapter 2) and.t.17) 4 Hence. to introduce the displacement current. which ensures that electric charge is conserved also in non-stationary problems.8) on page 171 and formula (9.uu.1) on page 20. but it is still only a linear approximation. in analogy with the electric case.t.

c D 1= "0 0 is the speed of light. the refractive index becomes negative: nDi D Such negative refractive index materials.19) R A O k Á k k D k v' D O def p where. Therefore. glass and water at optical frequencies). D p jÄe j i p c D Äe . the refractive index is a rank-two tensor ﬁeld. Associated with the phase speed of a medium for a wave of a given frequency ! we have a wave vector.uu. in the material medium that we consider n D Const for each frequency component of the ﬁelds. the phase speed of electromagnetic waves. the refractive index is larger than unity (e.t.22) p jÄm j jÄe Äm j 1=2 is called the refractive index of the medium and describes its refractive and reﬂective properties.se/CED/Book Sheet: 196 of 262 . these equations. should be used with some care. in vacuum. in others.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Under our simplifying assumptions.5 (9.g.t. they describe uniquely (but only approximately) the properties of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in matter and are convenient to use in certain simple cases. If the medium is anisotropic or birefringent. which are the original Maxwell equations (albeit expressed in their modern vector form as introduced by O L I V E R H E AV I S I D E ).. deﬁned as ! v' v' v' (9.6 In general n is a function of frequency. In certain materials. have quite remarkable electromagnetic properties.plasma. x/ v' (9..t.20) The ratio of the phase speed in vacuum and in the medium (9. there exist metamaterials where Äe and Äm are negative. group velocity and dispersion If we introduce the phase velocity in the medium as 1 v' D p " 1 Dp Äe "0 Äm c Dp Äe Äm FT 0 It should be recalled that Maxwell formulated these macroscopic equations before it was known that matter has an atomistic structure and that there exist electrically charged particles such as electrons and protons. Together with the boundary conditions and the constitutive relations. x/Äm . which possess a quantum mechanical property called spin that gives rise to magnetism! This set of differential equations. particularly in engineering applications. For such materials.13) on page 6. plasma and metals at radio and optical frequencies). E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER 5 9.e. are called Maxwell’s macroscopic equations.g. originally derived by Maxwell himself. x/ Á def 6 In fact. the structure of these equations rely on certain linear approximations and there are many situations where they are not useful or even applicable. it can be smaller than unity (e. . However. according to equation (1.. i.2 Phase velocity.21) p c p def D Äe Äm D c " Á n v' where the material dependent quantity n. 174 j 9 .

and. the inﬂuence from matter on the electromagnetic ﬁelds by introducing new. If the medium has a refractive index which.27) (9.!/ D 1 where 2 !p D 2 !p !2 X N q2 "0 m D 9. so that the group velocity @! (9.28) . N D N . x/E D Äe . 9.3.t. hence. one can under certain simplifying assumptions include.23) v' D D n k where.plasma.3 Radiation from charges in a material medium When electromagnetic radiation is propagating through matter. x/ 0H R A is the square of the plasma frequency !p . for each given frequency.25) (9.k/. we used equation (9. x/H D Äm . as is usually the case. x/"0 E B D . In an inhomogeneous plasma.t.20) on the preceding page. vg is always smaller than c. Except in regions of anomalous dispersion. FT (9. the refractive index is given by the expression vg D n2 . As mentioned earlier. If the frequency ! is such that it coincides with !p at some point in the medium.t. respectively. derived ﬁeld quantities D and H according to D D ". on the value of the refractive index n.26) (9. As can be easily seen.se/CED/Book Sheet: 197 of 262 . of charged particle species . In a gas of free charges.!/ and !. dependent on frequency !.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. to some extent. Radiation from charges in a material medium j 175 It is important to notice that depending on the electric and magnetic properties of a medium. we say that the medium is dispersive. Because in this case also k.t. in the last step.24) @k has a unique value for each frequency component.x/ so that the refractive index and also the phase and group velocities are space dependent. and is different from v' . the phase speed in the medium can be smaller or larger than the speed of light: ! c (9. the phase and group velocities in a plasma are different from each other. then at that point v' ! 1 while vg ! 0 and the wave Fourier component at ! is reﬂected there.uu. such as a plasma. Here m and N denote the mass and number density. new phenomena may appear which are (at least classically) not present in vacuum.

which. x/ D Hence. are 1 ˇ 4 "0 ˇ ˇjx 1 q0 ˇD ˇ 4 "0 s ˇ v0 (9. we realise that we obtain the latter in the medium by a simple formal replacement c ! c=n in the expression (6.3.uu.31a) D A. Hence.3.x x0 / c 1 q0v 0 ˇD 2 s ˇ 4 "0 c ˇ (9.140a) on page 115. the speed of propagation of (the phase planes of) electromagnetic waves is less than the speed of light in vacuum. of course. can experience that the particle speeds are higher than the phase L speed in the medium. are below the phase speed in vacuum. see in particular equation (6.plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. rectilinear motion in vacuum does not give rise to any radiation. Let us now consider a charge in uniform. the Liénard-Wiechert potentials in a medium characterized by a refractive index n. Speciﬁcally.103) on page 107. x/ D 1 ˇ 4 "0 c 2 ˇ ˇjx qv x0 j 0 0 n .31b) where now ˇ ˇˇ s D ˇˇx ˇ ˇ x0 ˇ n . in the vacuum case.x x0 / c v0 1 c Dp n " (9. which we know is an absolute limit for the motion of anything. more commonly known in the western literature as Cherenkov radiation. equations (6. consider a medium where " D Const > "0 D 0 (9. rectilinear motion in a medium with electric properties which are different from those of a (classical) vacuum.104) on page 107 for s.t. that we shall now study.1 Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation As we saw in subsection 6. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER L 9. including particles.x ˇ x0 / v 0 ˇ ˇ ˇ c (9. of the retarded (and advanced) potentials in chapter 3 and the Liénard-Wiechert potentials. If we recall the general derivation.t. in this particular medium.29b) This implies that in this medium the phase speed is v' D <c 0 FT q0 x0 j n .30) R A .29a) (9. This is the basis for the Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation. .32) The need for the absolute value of the expression for s is obvious in the case when v 0 =c 1=n because then the second term can be larger than the ﬁrst term.se/CED/Book Sheet: 198 of 262 . entering into the medium at high speeds jv 0 j. A medium of this kind has the interesting property that particles. a charge in uniform. 176 j 9 .

equation (3. During the time interval t t 0 given by expression (9.37) along the direction of v 0 .33a) t t0 D R A jx x0 j n c ˇ v0 D ˇx c ˇ nv 0 ˇ x0 ˇ cos Âc D ˇx c ˇ x0 ˇ c nv 0 t 0 /v 0 so that the usual time interval t t 0 between the time measured at the point of observation and the retarded time in a medium becomes For v 0 =c 1=n.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. if v 0 =c 1=n we recover the well-known vacuum case but with modiﬁed phase speed. the retarded distance s. Radiation from charges in a material medium j 177 x.33b) (9.x x0 / (9.t.34) (9. equivalently.uu.35) or. We also note that the retarded and advanced times in the medium are [cf. ˇx ˇ x 0 ˇ/ D t k jx x0 j jx x0 j n Dt ! c ˇ k jx x0 j jx x0 j n x0 ˇ/ D t C DtC ! c (9.1: Instantaneous picture of the expanding ﬁeld spheres from a point charge moving with constant speed v 0 =c > 1=n in a medium where n > 1.se/CED/Book Sheet: 199 of 262 .36) .plasma. when cos Âc D D l 0 D .3.t / Âc x .t.45) on page 40] ˇ 0 0 tret D tret . FT (9.31) on the facing page. vanish when n. ˇx ˇ 0 0 tadv D tadv . the potentials become singular. the ﬁeld exists within a sphere of radius jx x0 j around the particle while the particle moves a distance (9.t In the direction deﬁned by this angle Âc . 9.t / 0 0 ˛c q0 v Figure 9.34) above. This generates L a Vavilov-Cerenkov shock wave in the form of a cone. and therefore the denominators in equations (9.

41b) D In this manner. In the same year. Vavilov wrote a manuscript with the experimental L ﬁndings.1 if only we make the replacements (9.42) is singular of a ‘Dirac delta type’.10) on page 74) and (5. eventually published in 1937.4. Vavilov explained the results in terms of radioactive particles creating Compton electrons which gave rise to the radiation.x 0 FT v 0 t 0 /ı. This was indeed the correct interpretation.42) O1 where Â is the angle between the direction of motion.z 0 /O 1 x 1 This is illustrated in ﬁgure 9.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.8) on page 84 (integrated over a closed sphere at large distances). and submitted it to Nature. the resulting Fourier transL forms of the Vavilov-Cerenkov magnetic and electric radiation ﬁelds can be calculated from the expressions (5. 178 j 9 . we note that we can describe the motion of each charged particle q 0 as a current density: (9.7 In order to make some quantitative estimates of this radiation. but the paper was rejected.j! k/e ik x0 ˇ d ˇ 0 ˇ 4 "0 nc V ˇZ 1 ˇ2 h Ái ˇ q 0 2 n! 2 ˇ 0 ! 0ˇ ˇ D exp ix k cos Â dx ˇ sin2 Â d 16 3 " c 3 ˇ v0 (9. On 8 May. The paper was then sent to Physical Review and was. In the manuscript.38) The ﬁrst systematic exploration of this radiation was made in 1934 by PAV E L A L E K S E E V I C H L C E R E N KOV (1904–1990). predictions of a similar effect had been made as early as 1888 by O L I V E R H E AV I S I D E (1850–1925). . This radiation in question is therefore L called Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation. Tamm. I G O R ’ E V G E N ’ E V I C H TA M M (1895–1975) and I LYA M I K H A I L OV I C H F R A N K (1908– 1990) published the theory for the effect (‘the singing electron’). The total energy content is then obtained from equation (6. equation (6. put Cerenkov as the author. 1937. saying that he was surprised that his old 1904 ideas were now becoming interesting.21) on page 76.39) which has the trivial Fourier transform j! D q 0 i!x 0 =v0 e ı.40) R A "0 ! " D n 2 "0 n! k! c rad U! d 0 This Fourier component can be used in the formulæ derived for a linear current in subsection 6. private communication]. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER In the direction Âc where the potentials are singular.41a) (9. 7 j D q 0 v 0 ı. and by A R N O L D JOHANNES WILHELM SOMM E R F E L D (1868–1951) in his 1904 paper ‘Radiating body moving with velocity of light’. respectively.y 0 /ı. Sommerfeld sent a letter to Tamm via Austria.z 0 /O 1 x 2 (9. x0 . If we limit observer. who claimed the results to be wrong. In fact. but she never pursued the exploration of it. using j! from equation (9. The ﬁrst observation of this type of radiation was reported by M A R I E S K L O D OW S K A C U R I E in 1910.40) above. Frank and L Cerenkov received the Nobel Prize in 1958 ‘for the discovery and L the interpretation of the Cerenkov effect’ [V I TA L I Y L A Z A R E V I C H G I N Z B U R G (1916–2009). The cone of potential singularities and ﬁeld sphere circumferences propagates with speed c=n in the form of a shock front. who was then a doctoral student in S E R G E Y I VA N OV I C H VAV I L OV ’s (1891–1951) research group at the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow.x0 v 0 t 0 / D q 0 v 0 ı. For a Fourier component one obtains [cf. and the direction to the O The integral in (9. after some controversy with the American editors. The VavilovL Cerenkov cone is similar in nature to the Mach cone in acoustics.se/CED/Book Sheet: 200 of 262 .plasma. k.y 0 /ı. all ﬁeld spheres are tangent to a straight cone with its apex at the instantaneous position of the particle and with the apex half angle ˛c deﬁned according to sin ˛c D cos Âc D c nv 0 (9.uu.11) on page 85] ˇZ ˇ2 ˇ ˇ 1 ˇ d3x 0 .1 on the preceding page.

This means that the integrand function is practically zero outside the integration interval 2 Œ 1.Â / sin Â Z 1 1 rad U! .44) is strongly peaked near D c=.3. The integration of (9.plasma.43) over therefore picks up the main contributions from Â Âc . we ﬁnd that the radiation energy per frequency unit and per unit length is Â Q rad U! d! q02! D 1 2X 4 "0 c 2 c2 n2 .44) dÂ D dcos Â D cD2 h Á i 0 X! sin2 1 C nv 0 c v h Á i2 d 0 ! 1 C nv c v0 . near cos Âc D c=. one may extend the integration interval to . we can set sin2 Â sin2 Âc and the result of the integration is Q rad U! D 2 Z 0 rad U! .nv 0 /.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Realising this. Via yet another variable substitution we can therefore approximate h Á i Ã Â Z Z 1 sin2 1 C nv0 X! c v0 cX 1 sin2 x c2 2 sin Âc dx 1 h Á i2 d 0 n2 v 02 !n 1 x 2 ! 1 1 C nv c v0 Â Ã cX c2 D 1 !n n2 v 02 (9. ! C d!/ Â 1 c2 n2 v 02 Ã ! d! (9.se/CED/Book Sheet: 201 of 262 . 1. / d q 0 2 n! 2 sin2 Âc 2 2 "0 c 3 Z 1 1 D q02X Q rad U! d! D 2 "0 c 2 leading to the ﬁnal approximate result for the total energy loss in the frequency interval .!. the refractive index is usually frequency dependent. equivalently.43) nv 0 ! 2 4 3 "0 c 3 1 cos Â 0 c v which has a maximum in the direction Âc as expected.46) As mentioned earlier.45) FT (9.nv 0 /.47) R A The integrand in (9.!/v 02 Ã d! (9. 1/ without introducing too much an error. 9. Radiation from charges in a material medium j 179 the spatial extent of the motion of the particle to the closed interval Œ X. The magnitude of this maximum grows and its width narrows as X ! 1. Consequently. Consequently. X on the x 0 axis we can evaluate the integral to obtain h Á i 0 2 02 2 sin2 1 nv cos Â X! 0 c v q n! sin Â rad U! d D d (9. or.uu. 1.

of electromagnetic theory. known as Ohm’s law: j. impinges. and the dynamics of the charges (charge and current densities) in the region under study.x/.49) R A where is the conductivity of the medium.1) on page 20. under the condition that the expression inside the parentheses in the right hand side is positive.e.48a) (9. this is a formidable task. Let us make the further assumption that " D ".!/ ! 1 when ! ! 1. so there exist L always a highest frequency for which we can obtain Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation from a fast charge in a medium.t.t. In order to do so. or postulates.48) above. respectively. these wave equations were derived from the Maxwell-Lorentz equations (2. D . and one must often resort to numerical methods. for simplicity. and .t. they can equally well be viewed as terms that describe the impact on matter in a particular region upon which an electromagnetic wave.3 in chapter 2 we derived the wave equations for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds. For all media it is true that n. i.. assume that the linear relations.8) on page 171 and formula (9. E and B.15) on page 173. x/ (9. produced in another region with its own charges and currents.. one needs to ﬁnd the constitutive relations that describe how charge and current densities are induced by the impinging ﬁelds. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER This result was derived under the assumption that v 0 =c > 1=n.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.e. 9. taken as an axiomatic foundation.plasma. as given by formula (9. essentially the Coulomb and Ampère forces. i. these equations just state what relations exist between (the second order derivatives of) the ﬁelds. Even if the and j terms in the Maxwell-Lorentz equations are often referred to as the source terms. 180 j 9 .x/. @j @t (9.se/CED/Book Sheet: 202 of 262 . hold. Let us. As such. x/E.48b) j D where the charge density and the current density j were viewed as the sources of the wave ﬁelds.4 Electromagnetic waves in a medium 1 @2 E c 2 @t 2 1 @2 B c 2 @t 2 r 2E D r 2B D r "0 0r FT 0 In section 2. Our derivation above for a ﬁxed value of n is valid for each individual Fourier component. As we recall.!/. In general. Then one can solve the wave equations (9. x/ D .uu.x/ are not explicitly dependent on time and are . and that there is also a linear relation between the electric ﬁeld E and the current density.

i.g.51a) If one includes also the effect of the charges on E and B. Electromagnetic waves in a medium j 181 local in space. treat and j as sources for ﬁelds. that D 0.x/ . respectively) that are induces by the E and B ﬁelds of the waves impinging upon the medium of interest.g.x/ .1 Constitutive relations In a solid.x/ E For the case D 0 (no magnetisation) and tions (9..x/ @2 E D .x/ @E @t ".x/ Eg "0 c 2 @t 2 ".4. polarisation and conduction charges and currents. So do also. ﬂuid or gaseous medium the source terms in the microscopic Maxwell equations (2.52a) R A are obtained. .x/ @2 E D r Œr ln ".1) on page 20 must include all charges and currents in the medium.x/ @2 E D r fŒr ln ".e. also the intrinsic ones (e.52b) 8 @E @t @B .x/ "0 c 2 @t 2 (9.9 D FT (9.r H/ r ln ".plasma. From now one we assume that and j represent only the charge and current densities (i. the polarisation charges in electrets.x/ 2 D . . 9.x/ 0 Œr .. singularities will appear in the theory.x/E/ Œr .r B/ Œr ln ".se/CED/Book Sheet: 203 of 262 .x/ (9.x/ 0 2 D .x/ .x/ @t C .8 Let us for simplicity consider a medium containing free electrons only and which is not penetrated by a magnetic ﬁeld.e.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x/ @2 B D . i.x/ E C r (9. 9 To this category belongs unmagnetised plasma. and atomistic magnetisation currents in magnets) and the self-consistently imposed ones (e.x/ E @t 2 @2 B ".50b) D Const in the medium.. equa- 0 Making the further assumption that the medium is not conductive.. to a good approximation.r B/ r ln ".x/ H C r ln ".uu. This is of course also true for the inhomogeneous wave equations derived from Maxwell’s equations.x/ .e.x/ 0 (9.x/ .x/ @t @t r Œr ln . Then we obtain the coupled wave equations r 2E ..r @t 2 E/ r ln .e.50a) " @H @2 H r 2H .4. i. 9.x/ "..x/ @t .. the uncoupled wave equations r 2E r 2B ". the medium is assumed to be isotropic with no preferred direction(s) in space. ﬂuid or solid metals. Such so called self-force effects will not be treated here.e. polarisation currents). E/ E 0 r ln ". i.x/ ".50) simplify to r 2E r 2B 0 r Œr ln ".51b) (9.

55) R A P D Nd d D Nd q 2 E m. respectively.x/ D "0 Â Nd . we obtain dD q2 E m. formula (4. one ﬁnds that D. this is also true if there is no magnetic ﬁeld present.5) on page 170. x/ D ". E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER Each of these electrons are assumed to be accelerated by the Lorentz force. the equation of motion becomes (9. For a Fourier component of the electric ﬁeld E D E0 exp . Inserting this in equation (9.x/q 2 1 "0 m ! 2 C i! Ã where m and q are the mass and charge of the electron. Of course. So the equation of motion for each electron in the medium can be written m d2 x dx Cm D qE 2 dt dt (9.53) ! 2 qx. x/ (9.x/ electrons per unit volume can be assumed to give rise to the electric polarisation P .plasma.59) .59) on page 61. if the ﬁelds are those of an electromagnetic wave one can.uu. then its dipole moment is d.58) The quantity s !p .x/E.54) above.! 2 C i! / This is the the lowest order contribution to the dipole moment of the medium from each electron under the inﬂuence of the assumed electric ﬁeld.t.t.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. this becomes (9.54) If the electron is at equilibrium x D 0 when E D 0. the effective collision frequency representing the frictional dissipative force from the surrounding medium. If Nd .! 2 C i! / (9.! 2 C i! / (9. neglect the force from the magnetic ﬁeld.t / D qx. i!t/.x/q 2 D "0 1 m.x/q 2 "0 m (9.se/CED/Book Sheet: 204 of 262 .56) Using this in formula (9.t / i! qx. 182 j 9 . and E the effective applied electric ﬁeld sensed by the electron.57) D where ".x/ D Nd . for reasonably high oscillation frequencies.t /. However.t/ D FT q2 E m Nd .

. containing. We notice that for the simple propagation media considered here. equation (9. i.uu. 9. the refractive index n D 0.62) . Therefore.60) is called the refractive index. in the special case under consideration. the following time- D FT (9. The wave equations (9. and no electromotive force. At points in the medium where the wave frequency ! equals this plasma frequency and the collision frequency vanishes. and the wave is totally reﬂected.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. " D "0 . in this case it sufﬁces to consider only the E ﬁeld. metals and other conductors in free space have a conductivity that is not dependent on t or x.61).g.2 Electromagnetic waves in a conducting medium We shall now restrict ourselves to the wave equations for the electric ﬁeld vector E and the magnetic ﬁeld vector B in a electrically conductive and neutral medium.4.1 The wave equations for E and B To a good approximation. This is the basis for over-the-horizon radio communications.e. a volume where there exist no net electric charge. e. no dielectric effects. Electromagnetic waves in a medium j 183 is called the plasma frequency and s n. 9.x/ D ". the wave equations for E and for B do not have the same mathematical form.61) (9..4. In the ionised outer part of the atmosphere called the ionosphere this happens for radio waves of frequencies up to about 10 MHz. 9.x/ D "0 s 1 2 !p ! 2 C i! (9. we obtain.38) on page 28.2.4. Eemf D 0. since the results for the B ﬁeld follow trivially. Following the spectral component prescription leading to equation (2.se/CED/Book Sheet: 205 of 262 . D 0. inhomogeneities. A highly conductive metal is a good example of such a medium. For EM waves propagating in more complicated media.plasma.51) on page 181 are then simpliﬁed to r 2E r 2B 0 R A 0 @E @t @B @t 1 @2 E D0 c 2 @t 2 1 @2 B D0 c 2 @t 2 which are the homogeneous vector wave equations for E and B in a conducting medium without EMF. the wave equation for the magnetic ﬁeld B has exactly the same mathematical form as the wave equation for the electric ﬁeld E.

65) (9. 184 j 9 . and SHF signals.uu. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER independent wave equation Â Ã !2 2 E0 D 0 r E0 C 2 1 C i c "0 ! (9.2 Plane waves Consider now the case where all ﬁelds depend only on the distance O plane with unit normal n. UHF.69) . we see that the differential equation for each spectral component can be written Â Ã !2 i r 2 E.4. If we introduce the vacuum wave number (9. Hence. in metallic conductors.67) according to equation (1. the propagation term @2 E=c 2 @t 2 is negligible even for VHF. For most metals 10 14 s. Then the del operator becomes O r Dn @ O D nr @ to a given (9. In the short (high conductivity ) limit we have instead r 2 E C i! 0 ED0 FT 0 (9. x/ C 2 1 C E.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.13) on p we can write. which means that the diffusion picture is good for all frequencies lower than optical frequencies.t.64) c ! In the limit of long r 2E C !2 ED0 c2 (low conductivity ).68) D where in the last step we used the characteristic impedance of vacuum deﬁned according to formula (6. we may say that the displacement current "0 @E=@t is negligible relative to the conduction current j D E.2.66) R A kD ! c which is a time-independent diffusion equation for E. x/ D 0 (9. r 1 1 0 D D D D R0 ! "0 ! "0 ck k "0 k (9.64) tends to which is a time-independent wave equation for E.3) on page 83. using the fact that c D 1= "0 page 6.plasma. Alternatively. (9.t.63) Multiplying by e i!t and introducing the relaxation time D "0 = of the medium in question. 9. representing undamped propagating waves.se/CED/Book Sheet: 206 of 262 .

.se/CED/Book Sheet: 207 of 262 .t.4.70a).70d) by n. and (9. O n 9. we can easily derive a wave equation @E @t 1 @2 E D0 c 2 @t 2 (9. 9.72) (9. the component which is perpendicular to the plane surface is independent of and has a time dependence which exhibits an exponential decay.e. the only non-static solution must consist of transverse components.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.76) R A This.71) .4.70c).plasma. Electromagnetic waves in a medium j 185 and the microscopic Maxwell equations attain the form @E @ @E O n @ @B O n @ @B O n @ O n D0 D D0 D 0 j.70d) which simpliﬁes to the ﬁrst-order ordinary differential equation for the normal component En of the electric ﬁeld dEn C En D 0 dt "0 with the solution E n D E n0 e t ="0 t= D En0 e D @2 E @ 2 0 @B D0 (9. we conclude that the only longitudinal component of B must be constant in both time and space.75) @t From this.uu. In other words. we similarly ﬁnd that Â Ã @E @B O O O 0Dn n D n (9. together with (9. with a decrement given by the relaxation time in the medium.70b) by n. i. shows that the longitudinal component of E.70b) (9.61) on page 183.70c) C "0 0 @E D @t 0 E C "0 0 @E @t (9. x/ (9. O Scalar multiplying (9.3 Telegrapher’s equation In analogy with equation (9.73) O Scalar multiplying (9.70a) @B @t (9. we ﬁnd that Ã Â Ã Â @ @B O O O Dn E 0Dn n 0 C "0 0 @ @t (9.74) @ @t or FT (9.2.

(9.uu.82) D Let us consider the lower sign in front of k in the exponent in (9.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.81) this solution can be written as E D E0 ei. 2. If the medium is an insulator so that D 0. This corresponds to a wave which propagates in the direction of increasing . BD k O n ! ED 1 k ! ED 1 O k c ED p "0 0 O n E (9. the general solution to each component of equation (9.78) Ei D f .83) or. C ct/.!t˙k / If we assume that our electromagnetic ﬁelds E and B are represented by a Fourier component proportional to exp. Inserting this solution into equation (9. v' t/ C g. FT i D 1.80). 3 (9. each component of this equation has a solution which can be written Ei D f .80) By introducing the wave vector O k D kn D ! !O O nD k c c (9. gives O n @E O D i!B D ik n @ E (9.77) As is well known. the solution of equation (9. In a medium. i!t/. then the equation takes the form of the one-dimensional wave equation @2 E @ 2 1 @2 E D0 c 2 @t 2 (9. ct / C g. This general solution represents perturbations which propagate along . 3 k !t/ where f and g are arbitrary (non-pathological) functions of their respective arguments. solving for B. C v' t/.79) R A E D E0 e i.99) on page 189 is given by (9. i D 1.se/CED/Book Sheet: 208 of 262 . E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER describing the propagation of plane waves along in a conducting medium. This equation is is called the telegrapher’s equation.70b) on the previous page. 2.77) becomes D E0 ei. where the f perturbation propagates in the positive direction and the g perturbation propagates in the negative direction.k x !t/ (9. 186 j 9 .plasma.84) .

there exists an associated magnetic ﬁeld given by equation (9.89) (9.4. in the last step.86) . one obtains the second order algebraic equation (in ˛ 2 ) ˛ 2 . we obtain r D ˛ C iˇ (9.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.90) (9. we have a plane wave.91) D which can be easily solved and one ﬁnds that vr u Á2 u u 1C C1 t "0 ! ˛Dk 2 vr u Á2 u u 1C 1 t "0 ! ˇDk 2 FT (9. we ﬁnd that the timeindependent telegrapher’s equation can be written @2 E C "0 @ 2 where K D "0 2 0! 2 0! 2 ECi 0 !E D @2 E C K 2E D 0 @ 2 (9. Allowing now for a ﬁnite conductivity in our medium. equation (9.67) on page 184 was used to introduce the wave number k.76) on page 185. and making the spectral component Ansatz in equation (9.88) (9.uu.87) K Dk 1Ci "0 ! Squaring. Electromagnetic waves in a medium j 187 Hence. 9.˛ 2 k2/ D k4 2 4"2 ! 2 0 (9.85) Â 1Ci "0 ! Ã where.92b) !2 D 2 c Â 1Ci "0 ! Ã Dk 2 Â 1Ci "0 ! Ã (9. Taking the square root of this expression. one ﬁnds that Â Ã k2 1 C i D .84) on the facing page. to each transverse component of E.92a) (9.˛ 2 "0 ! or ˇ 2 / C 2i˛ˇ ˇ2 D ˛2 ˛ˇ D R A k2 2 k 2"0 ! Squaring the latter and combining with the former.plasma. If E and/or B has a direction in space which is constant in time.se/CED/Book Sheet: 209 of 262 .

˛ C iˇ/ D 1 O . we can derive the general telegrapher’s equation [cf. we immediately see that E.93) With the aid of equation (9. is damped.1 C i/ 2! Hence.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.76) on page 185] (9. independent on time and space.95) R A D @2 E @ 2 @E @t " @2 E D0 @t 2 In this limit we ﬁnd that when the wave impinges perpendicularly upon the medium.se/CED/Book Sheet: 210 of 262 . and ﬁnd that it is given by BD 1 O Kk ! ED 1 O . both ﬁelds fall off by a factor 1=e at a distance s 2 ıD 0 ! (9. 188 j 9 .94) 1 Ä "0 ! Á 2 K Dk 1Ci Dk i 1 i "0 ! "0 ! r r p 0 ! D "0 0 !.84) on page 186 we can calculate the associated magnetic ﬁeld. rewritten ˛ C iˇ in the amplitude-phase form jAj exp.1 C i/ 2"0 ! 2 Â Ã1 2 FT r k. inside the medium. Assuming for simplicity that the electric permittivity " and the magnetic permeability . the ﬁelds are given. and consequently also B.i /. for each type of material we consider.uu. equation (9. in the last step. by r Âr Ã 0 ! 0 ! 0 E D E0 exp exp i !t (9.96b) B0 D . . can be written E D E0 e ˇ ei.1 C i/ where we have.n E 0 / (9. equation (9.97) This distance ı is called the skin depth .k ! E/. the solution of the time-independent telegrapher’s equation.1 C i/ D . we can approximate K as follows: 2"0 ! (9. E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER As a consequence. and that E and B in the wave are out of phase.˛ !t/ (9.85) on the previous page.98) describing (1D) wave propagation in a material medium. In the limit "0 ! .k ! E/ jAj ei (9.plasma. From the above. and hence the relative permittivity Äe and the relative permeability Äm all have ﬁxed values.96a) 2 2 r 0 O .

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9.4. Electromagnetic waves in a medium

j 189

In chapter 2 we concluded that the existence of a ﬁnite conductivity, manifesting itself in a collisional interaction between the charge carriers, causes the waves to decay exponentially with time and space. Let us therefore assume that in our medium D 0 so that the wave equation simpliﬁes to @2 E @ 2 " @2 E D0 @t 2 (9.99)

As in the vacuum case discussed in chapter 2, assuming that E is timeharmonic, i.e., can be represented by a Fourier component proportional to exp. i!t/, the solution of equation (9.99) can be written E D E0 ei.k x

!t /

(9.100)

where now k is the wave vector in the medium given by equation (9.20) on page 174. With these deﬁnitions, the vacuum formula for the associated magnetic ﬁeld, equation (9.84) on page 186, BD p O " k ED 1 O k v' ED 1 k ! E (9.101)

is valid also in a material medium (assuming, as mentioned, that n has a ﬁxed constant scalar value). A consequence of a Äe ¤ 1 is that the electric ﬁeld will, in general, have a longitudinal component.

Electromagnetic waves in an electrically and magnetically conducting medium

Derive the wave equation for the E ﬁeld described by the electromagnetodynamic equations (Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations) [cf. equations (1.50) on page 16] "0 @B r ED @t r BD 0 m r B D "0

0

r ED

R

e 0j m

D

jm D

m

@E C @t

0j

e

under the assumption of vanishing net electric and magnetic charge densities and in the absence of electromotive and magnetomotive forces. Interpret this equation physically. Assume, for symmetry reasons, that there exists a linear relation between the magnetic current density j m and the magnetic ﬁeld B (the magnetic dual of Ohm’s law for electric currents, j e D e E) B

0

Taking the curl of (9.102b) and using (9.102d), one ﬁnds, noting that "0

A FT

(9.102a) (9.102b) (9.102c) (9.102d) (9.103) D 1=c 2 , that

E X A M P L E 9.1

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190 j

9 . E L E CTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MATTER

r

.r

E/ D D D

0r 0

0

@ .r B/ @t Â Ã @ 1 @E m e r B 0j C 2 @t c @t Ã Â 1 @E e @E m e 0 0 EC 2 @t c @t jm

(9.104) 1 @2 E c 2 @t 2

Using the vector operator identity r .r E/ D r .r E/ r 2 E, and the fact that r E D 0 for a vanishing net electric charge, we can rewrite the wave equation as Â m Ã @E 1 @2 E e 2 m e C 2 ED0 (9.105) r2E 0 0 @t c c 2 @t 2 This is the homogeneous electromagnetodynamic wave equation for E that we were after. Compared to the ordinary electrodynamic wave equation for E, equation (9.61) on page 183, we see that we pick up extra terms. In order to understand what these extra terms mean physically, we analyse the time-independent wave equation for a single Fourier component. Then our wave equation becomes Â mÃ !2 e 2 m e r 2 E C i! 0 C 2 EC 2 E E 0 c c # "Â (9.106) Ã e C m =c 2 !2 1 0 m e Ci ED0 D r2E C 2 1 "0 ! c ! 2 "0 Realising that, according to formula (6.3) on page 83, 0 ="0 is the square of the vacuum radiation resistance R0 , and rearranging a bit, we obtain the time-independent wave equation in Dirac’s symmetrised electrodynamics 1 0 ! 2 e C m =c 2 C R0 m e B !2 B1 C i Â ÃCE D 0; r2E C 2 1 @ 2 2 c ! R0 m e A (9.107) " ! 1

0 !2

D

R

@E @t Dr 2 E D0

From this equation we conclude that the existence of magnetic charges (magnetic monopoles), and non-vanishing electric and magnetic conductivities would lead to a shift in the effective wave number of the wave. Furthermore, even if the electric conductivity e vanishes, the imaginary term does not necessarily vanish and the wave therefore experiences damping or growth according as m is positive or negative, respectively. This would happen in a hypothetical medium which is a perfect insulator for electric currents but which can carry magnetic currents. p m e def ! , the time-independent Finally, we note that in the particular case ! D R0 Á m wave equation equation (9.106) above becomes a time-independent diffusion equation Â mÃ e r 2 E C i! 0 C 2 ED0 (9.108) c which in time domain corresponds to the time-dependent diffusion equation (9.109)

with a diffusion coefﬁcient given by

A FT

! ¤ R0 p

m e

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9.5. Bibliography

j 191

DD

0

1

e

C

m

Á

(9.110)

c2

Hence, electromagnetic waves with this particular frequency do not propagate. This means that if magnetic charges (monopoles) exist in a region in the Universe, electromagnetic waves propagating through this region would, in this simplistic model, exhibit a lower cutoff at ! D !m . This would in fact impose a lower limit on the mass of the photon, the quantum of the electromagnetic ﬁeld that we shall come across later. End of example 9.1

[55] E. H ALLÉN, Electromagnetic Theory, Chapman & Hall, Ltd., London, 1962.

[56] J. D. JACKSON, Classical Electrodynamics, third ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY . . . , 1999, ISBN 0-471-30932-X.

[57] W. K. H. PANOFSKY AND M. P HILLIPS, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, second ed., Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., Reading, MA . . . , 1962, ISBN 0-201-05702-6. [58] J. A. S TRATTON, Electromagnetic Theory, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, NY and London, 1953, ISBN 07-062150-0.

D

R A

FT

9.5 Bibliography

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D

R A

FT

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FORMULÆ

F .1

The electromagnetic ﬁeld

F .1.1

The microscopic Maxwell (Lorentz) equations

r ED

R A

@B @t

0j

"0 r BD0 ED BD

r r

C "0

0

@E @t

F .1.1.1

Constitutive relations

D 1 c2

D

"0 r

0 0

"0

D R0 . "E B

376:7 /

D

H j P

E "0 E 193

FT

(F.1) (F.2) (F.3) (F.4) (F.5) (F.6) (F.7) (F.8) (F.9) (F.10)

1. 194 j 6.1.1.15) Linear momentum ﬂux tensor (the negative of the Maxwell stress tensor) (F.3.16) (F.1.se/CED/Book Sheet: 216 of 262 . FORMULÆ F .3 T D 13 (F.13) r AC F .12) BDr ED F .1 Fields and potentials Vector and scalar potentials A r @A @t (F.11) (F.3 F .E E C c 2 B B/ 2 R A uD F .18) F .2.uu.3.1.17) "0 E E C c2B B "0 EE C c 2 BB 2 1 Tij D ıij u "0 Ei Ej Bi Bj D F .2 The Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition in vacuum 1 @ D0 c 2 @t (F.14) Electromagnetic ﬁeld energy density in vacuum 1 "0 .2.2 E B FT 0 (F.3.1.1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.2 Electromagnetic radiation Relationship between the ﬁeld vectors in a plane wave O k c E (F.2.1 BD .plasma.2 F .1 Force and energy The Poynting vector in vacuum 1 0 SD F .

F .x 4 "0 s 3 Â x0 / 1 v 02 c2 Ã C .x/ D 8 Efar .t.23) (F.2.x/ D eikjxj d! jxj k (F.x/ D ! eikjxj Œ.m! 4 jxj 0 far B! .k Q! / 8 "0 jxj i k k D F .t.x/ D ! i eikjxj O x 4 "0 c jxj d3 x 0 e F .x x0 / c2 P v0 (F.21) .plasma.2.24) far B! . x/ D B.2 The far ﬁelds from an extended source distribution i D 4 0 far B! .6 E. Electromagnetic radiation j 195 F .t.x/ eikjxj jxj Z V0 d3 x 0 e Z V0 ik x0 j! ik x0 k j! k (F.x x0 / The ﬁelds from a point charge in arbitrary motion Ä q . x/ cjx x0 j (F.2.2.22) (F.k Q! / jxj k (F.x x0 / .2.26) far B! .4 The far ﬁelds from a magnetic dipole eikjxj . x/ D .20) Efar .3 The far ﬁelds from an electric dipole ! 4 0 Efar .x/ D ! 1 eikjxj .19) (F.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.25) (F.uu.27) E.se/CED/Book Sheet: 217 of 262 .2.x/ D ! R A i 0! k eikjxj m! 4 "0 c jxj F .x/ D k/ k k Efar .d! 4 "0 jxj k/ k F .5 The far ﬁelds from an electric quadrupole eikjxj .28) FT (F.

3 Special relativity Á 1 B0 B DB @0 0 0 0 1 0 0 FT 0 0 1 0 1 0 0C C C 0A 1 0 0 1 0 0 0C C C 0A 1 1 F .31) x x0 D .3.1 Metric tensor for ﬂat 4D space (F.35) (F.38) ds D c .3.se/CED/Book Sheet: 218 of 262 .30) (F.plasma.36) (F.37) F .3.32) F .x x0 / jx Â 0Ã @t jx x0 j D @t x s F .4 Invariant line element dt Dcd (F.uu. 196 j 6.33) F .2 Covariant and contravariant four-vectors v R A v DÁ (F. FORMULÆ ˇ s D ˇx ˇ x0 ˇ .3.x x0 / v0 c x0 j v c 0 (F.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.29) (F.3 Lorentz transformation of a four-vector (F.34) x0 D ƒ x 0 ˇ D B ˇ B ƒ DB @ 0 0 1 Dp 1 ˇ2 v ˇD c 0 0 (F.

: : :.se/CED/Book Sheet: 219 of 262 .8 Four-potential Â Ã c . a. b.c. y.3. Vector relations j 197 F .x/. arbitrary rank two tensor ﬁelds in this space. FT (F. arbitrary vector ﬁelds. and A.3.x/.x/.p c (F.39) u D F .x1 . : : : . x3 / Á .plasma. ˇ.3. B. F .3.9 F Field tensor D@ A @ A R A 0 Ex =c 0 Bz By Ey =c Bz 0 Bx 1 Ez =c By C C C Bx A 0 F 0 BE =c B x DB @Ey =c Ez =c D F .41) .x/.6 Four-momentum Â Ã E . coordinate vector) from the origin to the Cartesian coordinate point .40) p D m0 u D F .A A D F .3. complex conjugation). Let further ˛.5 Four-velocity dx d D .uu. : : : . where applicable.44) D 0u (F.43) (F. Let denote complex conjugate and denote Hermitian conjugate (transposition and.x/. z/ in 3D Euclidean space R3 and let jxj denote the magnitude (‘length’) of x.x/.x.42) (F.4.7 j Four-current density F .4 Vector relations Let x be the position vector (radius vector. v / (F. be arbitrary scalar ﬁelds. x2 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

se/CED/Book Sheet: 220 of 262 .4 Directed area element (F.50) F .47c) R A O O O x1 D sin Â cos ' r C cos Â cos ' ™ O O x3 D cos Â r O sin Â ™ F .47b) (F.48c) O O O O x2 D sin Â sin ' r C cos Â sin ' ™ C cos ' ® Directed line element O O O O dx x D dl D dr r C r dÂ ™ C r sin Â d' ® (F.51) O O O d2x n D dS D dS r D r 2 d r F . .1. x2 Á y. FORMULÆ The differential vector operator r is in Cartesian coordinates given by r Á 3 X i D1 O xi @ def @ def O Á xi Á@ @xi @xi (F.2 (F. @x1 @x2 @x3 Ã D Â @ @ @ .4. i D 1.4.5 Volume element (F.48b) (F. 3 is the ith unit vector and x1 Á x. @x @y @z Ã (F. 2.49) F .45) O O O O O O O where xi .47a) (F.1.1.1.52) d3x D dV D dr dS D r 2 dr d .plasma.3 Solid angle element D d D sin Â dÂ d' (F.4.1.46) F .4.4.1 Spherical polar coordinates (F.uu.48a) (F. . and x3 Á z. In component (tensor) notation r can be written Â ri D @i D @ @ @ . 198 j 6.1 Base vectors O O O O r D sin Â cos ' x1 C sin Â sin ' x2 C cos Â x3 O O O ™ D cos Â cos ' x1 C cos Â sin ' x2 O ®D O O sin ' x1 C cos ' x2 FT O sin Â x3 O sin ' ® F .4.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

57) (F.2 Vector and tensor formulæ O O In the following.13 / D @0 1 0A 0 0 1 We also introduce the vector (F.55) 0 0 B S3 D @ i 0 1 i 0 C 0 0A 0 0 (F.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.b ab cd D . a D a.60) (F.4.uu.66) (F.72) O kij ai bj xk O S D Si xi .53) (F.65) (F.a bD b/ D O O A D Aij xi xj O O A D Aij xj xi Tr.A/ D Ai i O O Aij D xi A xj O O ab D ai bj xi xj D c ab D .54) where the components Si are the matrices 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 i B C B C S1 D @0 0 iA S2 D @ 0 0 0A 0 i 0 i 0 0 F .64) (F. x D xi xi and x0 D xi0 xi are position vectors.c a/b c ab D .4.a R A b aD O ij k aj bk xi D O j ki ak bi xj D ia Sb D iaS b a/b c/ b/ c c/ D .se/CED/Book Sheet: 221 of 262 .b c D a. F .2.69) (F.plasma. r 0 Á xi @x 0 .63) (F.56) (F.62) (F. i and 1n the n-dimensional unit tensor of rank two.c ab c D a. Vector relations j 199 F .70) (F.67) (F.b C c/ D ab C ac . k an arbitrary O @ O @ constant vector.68) (F.59) (F.a C b/c D ac C bc FT (F.x/ an arbitrary vector ﬁeld.1 General vector and tensor algebraic identities a b D b a D ıij ai bj D ab cos Â a .4.58) (F.61) (F.71) (F. O O 1 3 D xi xi 1 0 1 0 0 B C .b c/ad a. r Á xi @xi .b c/ ab a .

4.b d/ F .90) (F.95) (F.c ca b D b.se/CED/Book Sheet: 222 of 262 .b .a d/ D .74) .86) (F.93) (F.81) (F.a c/.a .ba .plasma.84) (F.a d/.75) (F.99) D r .73) (F.r a/ b/ D b .r r .r b/ a b/ C b r .a r /b .2.˛a/ D a r ˛ C ˛r a r .r a/ C .˛ˇ/ D ˛r ˇ C ˇr ˛ Da .a r .ab/ D .a b/ (F.13 13 FT ir S a .r b/ a/ a a a b/ a .a r r r b/ D .4.r a/b C a r b .a .c b d/c .a c/ a/ C c .76) b/ D 0 .87) (F.92) (F.2 Special vector and tensor algebraic identities (F.r a/ D O ij k xi @j ak ir Sa D r D O ij k xi aj @k r .a b/ D .a .85) (F.80) (F.uu.78) 0 0 a2 13 / D @ a3 13 a D a 13 D a 13 aDa a/ D .r b/ D r .a ab F .a b c/d b/ .98) (F.˛a/ D ˛r .a 13 a .3 General vector and tensor analytic identities R A O O r a D xi xj @i aj r a D @i ai r a aD a r D ai @i .r a a/b b O r ˛ D xi @i ˛ (F.r r˛ ab/ rb .13 b/ D a b a .2.94) (F. FORMULÆ a a .97) (F.b r /a C .a c.89) (F.82) b/ D a b/ D ba b .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.79) (F.c .83) (F.b c/ (F.r a/ b C .88) (F. 200 j 6.91) (F.b b/ c/ D ba c c/ C b .77) (F.96) (F.1 3 B a3 0 a1 a2 C a1 A D 0 1 iS a (F.ab/ D .c d/ D a Œb d/ D .

13 r a/ D r a r xD3 xD0 r x D 13 r .103) (F.x a/ D a C x. F .120) (F.x/ 3 jxj jxj Â Ã Â Ã x x0 1 r D r2 D 4 ı.114) (F.a2 / a r a 2 .r r .a r / b D ai r bi a.r r a/ D 0 r˛ D 0 F .113) (F.118) (F.r a/ (F.102) r a 2 r r a D r .r b/ .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.4.13 a/ D r a r .101) (F.4 Special vector and tensor analytic identities r .106) (F.104) (F.x k/ D k r .x x0 / jx x0 j3 jx x0 j Â Ã Ä Â Ã k 1 k x r Dk r D jxj jxj jxj3 Ä Â Ã Â Ã x k x r k D r if jxj ¤ 0 jxj3 jxj3 Â Ã Â Ã k 1 r2 D kr 2 D 4 kı.107) r r˛ D r ˛ O r r a D r .r a/ D xi @i @j aj r .r b/ a a r b 1 a .x r / a x r jxj D jxj x x0 r jx x0 j D D r 0 jx x0 j jx x0 j Â Ã 1 x r D jxj jxj3 Â Ã Â Ã x x0 1 1 0 r D D r jx x0 j3 jx x0 j jx x0 j Â Ã Â Ã x 1 r D r2 D 4 ı.108) (F. Vector relations j 201 a b/ D .119) (F.105) (F.2.122) (F.r a/ D r r a 2 (F.110) (F.plasma.116) (F.x/ jxj jxj R A D FT (F.r a/ D r .13 ˛/ D r ˛ r .111) (F.100) (F.123) (F.124) .uu.121) (F.4.112) (F.109) (F.115) (F.r a/ C .117) (F.se/CED/Book Sheet: 223 of 262 .

.r a/ r . ISBN 07-043316-8. . New York.5 Bibliography [59] G. .se/CED/Book Sheet: 224 of 262 . whose line element is dl. MA ..S / be the volume bounded by the closed surface S. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. CA . curl theorem) (F. second ed. . Inc. ISBN 0-201-05702-6.V /.uu.128) If S. M. 1962.125) F .5 Integral identities Let V . Inc. [61] W. J. Then Z I d3x r a D dS a (Gauss’s theorem.. directed along the outO O ward pointing surface normal unit vector n. by dS. . 202 j 6... .k a/ (F. . 1995. FORMULÆ r . P HILLIPS.k a/ D k.126) V Z I S d3x r ˛ D dS ˛ (F. 1953. McGrawHill Book Company. B. W EBER. divergence theorem) (F.r a/ (Stokes’ theorem.130) C S D R A F . Academic Press.2. then I Z dl ˛ D dS r ˛ (F.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. NY .127) V S Z I d3x r a D dS a (F. Mathematical Methods for Physicists. fourth. A RFKEN AND H. H.C / is an open surface bounded by the contour C.129) S IC Z dl a D dS . ISBN 0-12-0598167. F ESHBACH.Á d2x n/. Denote the 3D volume element by d3x.. San Diego.r a/ C k .4. FT V S . Classical Electricity and Magnetism. . Inc. .plasma. Reading. Part I.S/. Methods of Theoretical Physics. [60] P. PANOFSKY AND M. K. international ed.Á dV / and the surface element. M ORSE AND H.

Had this noncreative. in a compact and unambiguous manner. static view of physics been adopted by physicists since the renaissance. repeatable experiments that produce objective data. we would all still be doing essentially Newtonian mechanics. accurately designed. systematic. based on these physical laws.se/CED/Book Sheet: 225 of 262 . the physical laws that bear his name.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Then these predictions are put to tough tests in independent. Merely describing Nature and explaining physical experiments in terms of already existing laws is not physics in the true sense of the word. Another more modern example is the delta ‘function’ introduced by PAU L A D R I E N M AU R I C E D I R AC . needed by S I R I S A AC N E W T O N to formulate. mathematics was once introduced by us human beings to make it easier to quantitatively and systematically describe. Examples of this from ancient times are arithmetics and geometry. together with the formal methods of logic. Even if such a scientiﬁc giant as M I C H A E L F A R A DAY . MATHEMATICAL METHODS Physics is the academic discipline which systematically studies and describes the physical world. But the opposite is also very common: the expansion and generalisation of mathematics has more than once provided excellent tools for D R A 203 FT .uu. ﬁnds new fundamental laws of Nature or generalises existing ones that govern Nature’s behaviour under different conditions. who started out as a lowly bookbinder apprentice and had very little formal mathematical training. it is for us mere mortals most convenient to use the shorthand language of mathematics. in physics. A less archaic example is differential calculus. After all. was able to make truly remarkable contributions to physics (and chemistry) using practically no formal mathematics whatsoever.plasma. understand and predict the physical world around us. and—perhaps most important of all—makes new predictions. carefully performed.

A tensor describes the local motion or deformation of a surface or a volume due to some form of tension and is therefore a relation between a set vectors. describes the scaling of a physical quantity. and not by mere Aristotelean logical reasoning. 204 j 13.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. FT creating new physical ideas and to better analyse observational data. Common sense is not enough and logic and reasoning can never ‘outsmart’ Nature. pseudovectors. the only conclusion one can draw is that the theory in question is wrong.uu. all of which obey certain canonical rules of transformation under a change of coordinate systems and are completely deﬁned by these rules. vectors. Despite certain advantages (and some shortcomings). a physical theory that is supposed to describe the physical reality has to fulﬁl the additional criterion that its predictions be empirically testable. We have chosen to describe the observables in classical electrodynamics in terms of scalars. vector and tensor and a pseudoscalar. pseudoscalars. Should the outcome of repeated. extending existing physical theories by mathematical and logical generalisations is a very powerful way of making hypotheses and predictions of new physical phenomena. independent experiments produce results that systematically contradict predictions based on a logically stringent theory.’ D R A M . physical reality is deﬁned by the outcome of experiments and observations.1 On the other hand. Ultimately. however mathematically correct and logically consistent this may be.se/CED/Book Sheet: 226 of 262 . generalisations to more abstract notions of these quantities have proved useful and are therefore commonplace. The difference between a scalar. This appendix describes brieﬂy some of the more common mathematical methods and tools that are used in Classical Electrodynamics. A scalar. pseudovector and a pseudotensor is that the latter behave differently under those coordinate transformations that cannot be reduced to pure rotations. Secondly it must explain in a reasonable manner the new evidence which brought the previous ideas into doubt and which suggested the new hypothesis. However. MATHEMATICAL METHODS 1 The theoretical physicist S I R R U D O L F P E I E R L S (1907–1995) described an ideal physical theory in the following way: ‘It must ﬁrstly leave undisturbed the successes of earlier work and not upset the explanations of observations that had been used in support of earlier ideas. Unlike mathematics per se.1 Scalars. where the criterion of logical consistency is both necessary and sufﬁcient. differential forms will not be exploited to any signiﬁcant degree in our mathematical description of physical observables. . A vector describes some kind of physical motion along a curve in space due to vection.plasma. which may or may not be constant in time and/or space. as G A L I L E O G A L I L E I taught us. which were not known or not clearly understood at the time when it was invented. tensors and pseudotensors. But it is not until these hypotheses and predictions have withstood empirical tests in physical experiments that they can be said to extend physics and our knowledge about Nature. carefully performed. And thirdly it must predict new phenomena or new relationships between different phenomena. Examples of the latter include non-Euclidean geometry and group theory. vectors and tensors Every physical observable can be represented by a mathematical object.

coordinate vector) which is the vector from the origin of the chosen coordinate system to the actual point of interest. run over the range 0. But since all physical observables are real. In classical physics this is achieved by taking the real (or imaginary) part of the mathematical result. however.. which are used in four-dimensional (4D) space.. . M . i. do not exhibit vector transformation properties! M .1 Vectors It is often very convenient to use complex notation in physics. care must be exercised when comparing mathematical results with physical observables. we must in the ﬁnal step of our mathematical analysis of a physical problem always ensure that the results to be compared with experimental values are realvalued. . since by deﬁnition our physical world is real. and the prototype against which all other vectors are benchmarked. Ä. is the position vector (radius vector. to equal in meaning’. 3. 2.a1 . Another symbol sometimes used is ´. 3 to denote vector or tensor components in the real Euclidean three-dimensional (3D) conﬁguration space R3 .e. x2 . We introduce the symbol Á which may be read ‘is.uu. i.1. we have N D 3 and the position vector x can be represented by the triplet . . or. i. : : : . Therefore a convenient representation of the position vector in R3 is3 O O xi xi Á xi xi (M. Scalars. Its N -tuple representation simply enumerates the coordinates of the position of this point. l. the vector from the origin to a point is synonymous with the coordinates of the point itself. This notation can simplify the mathematical treatment considerably. Whenever possible and convenient we shall in the following always assume E† and suppress explicit summation in our formulæ. One suitable representation in a vector space of dimension N is in terms of an ordered N -tuple of real or complex numbers2 . 3. x3 / of its coordinates xi .x1 . real-valued numbers obtained from physical measurements.1. formally. deﬁniendum Á deﬁniens. Mathematically.e. by deﬁnition.1. def def where we have introduced Einstein’s summation convention (E†) which states that a repeated index in a term implies summation over the range of the index in question. 1.1 D xD 3 X i D1 def The most basic vector. a2 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 227 of 262 . that there are many ordered N -tuples of numbers that do not comprise a vector. aN / of the components along N orthogonal coordinate axes that span the vector space under consideration. j. k. it is often useful to allow mathematical objects representing physical observables to be complex-valued. a vector can be represented in a number of different ways. : : : run over the range 1. 2.. : : : . or ‘equals by deﬁnition’. 2.1. to let them be analytically continued into (a domain of) the complex plane. vectors and tensors j 205 For computational convenience. However. The coordinates xi are scalar quantities which describe the position along the O unit base vectors xi which span R3 . and Greek indices .plasma. Throughout we adopt the convention that Latin indices i. Typographically. i D 1.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. whereas in quantum physics one takes the absolute value. Note. In this sense.1) R A Position vector FT 2 3 M . In the 3D Euclidean space R3 .e.

x 1 . x2 . x1 . z/.3) x Á . In Cartesian coordinates4 . x3 / def (M.4) or its covariant component form (subscript index form) x Á .x0 .plasma. x3 / D . x3 / D .x. x2 .x 0 .x1 . . x2 . The dual representation of vectors in contravariant and covariant forms is most convenient when we work in a vector space with an indeﬁnite metric.se/CED/Book Sheet: 228 of 262 .x1 . x2 . in a ﬁeld which depends on the usual position vector x of R3 . z/ (M.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x/ D ˛. x2 .5) D R A M .2 The relation between the covariant and contravariant forms is determined by the metric tensor (also known as the fundamental tensor) whose actual form is dictated by the properties of the vector space in question. In particular. Alternatively. An example is Lorentz space L4 which is a 4D Riemannian space frequently employed to formulate the special theory of relativity. for instance a. we can describe the position vector x in component notation as xi where xi Á . Â. x 3 / def FT def This component notation is particularly useful in 4D space where we can represent the (one and the same) position vector either in its contravariant component form. Such a parameter can be viewed as a ‘continuous index’ which enumerates the ‘coordinates’ of the ﬁeld. (superscript index form) as the quartet (M.x1 . each point in this space can be considered as one degree of freedom so that a ﬁeld is a representation of a physical entity which has an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom.xi / (M. . '.uu.1.2. r . x3 / Á ˛.1 Scalar ﬁelds We denote an arbitrary scalar ﬁeld in R3 by ˛. x3 / 4 def (M. x 2 . M . y.6) .x1 .2) In spherical polar coordinates . x3 / D . 206 j 13. MATHEMATICAL METHODS we represent a vector or vector operator in 3D Euclidean space R3 by a boldface letter or symbol in a Roman font. Fields A ﬁeld is a physical entity that depends on one or more continuous parameters.1.r. x2 . '/ and in cylindrical coordinates . and .x1 .

x/O i 2 R3 x In component notation this same vector can be represented as ai .8) (M.x/ is a vector in C3 (or.!t/ .x/O 2 C3 c a which means that Re fcg D cR Im fcg D cI def The use of complex vectors is in many cases a very convenient and powerful technique but requires extra care since physical observables must be represented by real vectors (2 R3 ).a1 . if we like.x 0 .plasma.x/ D . Scalars. vectors and tensors j 207 This ﬁeld describes how the scalar quantity ˛ varies continuously in 3D R3 space.11b) EXAMPLE M .x/O I Á c. x 1 .!t/O 1 ˙ cos.xj / A 3D complex vector ﬁeld c. a2 .2.!t/O 2 x x x (M. a3 .x/ as follows: a. expressed in terms of two real vectors cR and cI in R3 in the following way R A c c. End of example M.x/O R C icI .1.x/ D ai . depending on the sign.12) We see that the real part of this vector describes a rotation in positive or negative sense.!t/O 2 C iC sin. D D C cos. in R6 ).10) (M. Since a four-scalar has the same value at a given point regardless of coordinate system.x / def (M. a four-scalar ﬁeld is denoted ˛.!t/O 1 x Complex representation of a rotating vector FT (M.1 .1 Let us consider the complex vector c D C ei!t .1.O 1 ˙ iO 2 / D C cos. M .11a) (M. x 3 / Á ˛.x/.!t/ C i sin.x/.7) which indicates that the four-scalar ˛ depends on all four coordinates spanning this space.x// D ai .x/ C icI .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. M . it is also called an invariant. x 2 .O 1 ˙ iO 2 / x x x x sin.2 Vector ﬁelds We can represent an arbitrary 3D vector ﬁeld a.uu. In 4D.se/CED/Book Sheet: 229 of 262 .9) def (M.x/ Á cR .x/ D cR .

Whether an arbitrary N -tuple fulﬁls the requirement of being an (N -dimensional) contravariant vector or not.3 Coordinate transformations D R A y0 D @x 0 dx (M.e.x // or. M .. y 3 / constitutes a contravariant four-vector (or the contravariant components of a four-vector) if and only if.1. as a .x /. x 1 . according to the rule @x y0 D 0 y (M.se/CED/Book Sheet: 230 of 262 . FT We note that for a change of coordinates x ! x 0 D x 0 . again.16). due to a transformation from one coordinate system † to another coordinate system †0 . a2 . the differential position vector dx transforms as . an arbitrary four-vector ﬁeld in contravariant component form can be represented as a . Analogous to the transformation rule for the differential dx .15) @x This follows trivially from the rules of differentiation of x 0 considered as a function of four variables x . a1 .e..e.15) above. depends on its transformation properties during a change of coordinates.a0 .plasma.x /. during a transformation from a system † with coordinates x to a system †0 with coordinates x 0 .x /. during the change from † to †0 .x /.17) @x i.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. in the same way as the differential coordinate element dx transforms according to equation (M.x / D . in 4D an assemblage y D .x /. equation (M. x 3 /. it transforms to the new system according to the rule dx 0 D @x 0 y (M.x /. y 1 .x // (M. a2 .a0 . coordinate four-vector). in the same way as the differential operator @=@x transforms according to equation (M. MATHEMATICAL METHODS In 4D. a3 .y 0 . i.18) @x i.13) where x is the position four-vector (radius four-vector.uu. x 0 D x 0 . y 2 .2.x 0 .16) 0 @x @x @x which. in covariant component form. x 2 . a3 .x /. The analogous requirement for a covariant four-vector is that it transforms. the transformation rule for the differential operator @=@x under a transformation x ! x 0 becomes @ @x @ D 0 (M. 208 j 13.x / D . Again. follows trivially from the rules of differentiation. the relation between a and a is determined by the metric of the physical 4D system under consideration.14) (M.. For instance. a1 .15).

This tensor ﬁeld can be represented in a number of ways.2.plasma. j.25) .2. vectors and tensors j 209 M . the tensor ﬁeld described here is a tensor of rank two.x/ A13 .x/ def def B C (M.1.x/ A33 .xk / Á @A21 .2. i. M . j. k are equal ij k D ˆ ˆ : 1 if i.1. Consequently.uu. A tensor of rank n D 2 may be represented by FT (M.x/ A22 . for instance in the following matrix representation:5 1 0 A11 . this tensor fulﬁls the relations ij k 5 When a mathematical object representing a physical observable is given in matrix representation.se/CED/Book Sheet: 231 of 262 .x/ A32 .4 Tensor ﬁelds We denote an arbitrary tensor ﬁeld in R3 by A.22) 0 if at least two of i.x/ A12 .e.x/ Á Aij .ıij / D @0 1 0A (M.20) ıij D 1 if i D j The 3D Kronecker delta tensor has the following matrix representation 0 1 1 0 0 B C . we indicate this by enclosing the mathmatical object in question in parentheses.24) (M.3 Clearly. A particularly simple rank two tensor in R3 is the 3D Kronecker delta tensor ıij . . a scalar is considered to be a tensor of rank n D 0 and a vector to be a tensor of rank n D 1.23) (M. Scalars. the notation where a vector (tensor) is represented in its component form is called the tensor notation.: : :/. with the following properties: ( 0 if i ¤ j (M.x/. D R A j ki D kij and ij k D D j ik D i kj and has the following further property ij k i lm D ıj l ıkm ıj m ıkl In fact. j. k is an odd permutation of 1.. tensors may have any rank n.19) A. In this picture.3 ˆ < (M.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x/A A31 .x/ A23 .x/ Strictly speaking. k is an even permutation of 1. also known as the Levi-Civita tensor 8 ˆ1 if i.21) 0 0 1 Another common and useful tensor is the fully antisymmetric tensor of rank three.

acts on matter which lies on the opposite side of d2x. 3..29) EXAMPLE D R M .28) (M. MATHEMATICAL METHODS Here we have introduced the matrix vector O S D Si xi 6 These matrices are the spin operators for a (classical) 3D vector ﬁeld.uu. Sj D (M. 2. j. ij k /i D2 D @ 221 222 223 A D @0 0 0 A D iS2 (M. Let dS D d2x n be the directed surface element of this volume element and let the vector Tn d2x be the force that matter.27) where the vector components Si are the matrices6 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 i 0 0 0 C B C B B S1 D @0 0 iA S2 D @ 0 0 0A S3 D @ i 0 i 0 0 0 i 0 which satisfy the angular-momentum commutation rule ŒSi . which at a given . these components have the matrix representations (the second and third indices.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 3.26c) 0 0 0 331 332 333 (M.2 Tensors of rank higher than 3 are best represented in their tensor notation (component form). denotes the component of such a vector of tensors.30) and Newton’s second law.se/CED/Book Sheet: 232 of 262 .30) Using (M. 2. This force concept is meaningful only if the forces are short-range enough that they can be assumed to act only in the surface proper. According to Newton’s third law. this surface force fulﬁls T O n D Tn O (M. ij k /i D3 D @ 321 322 323 A D @ 1 0 0A D iS3 (M. 210 j 13. we ﬁnd that the matter of mass m.26b) 1 0 0 231 232 233 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 311 312 313 B C B C . the ﬁrst index i D 1. Tensors in 3D space Consider a tetrahedron-like volume element V of a solid. whose atomistic structure is irrelevant for the present analysis. ﬁgure M. or gaseous body. are the matrix indices) 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 111 112 113 B C B C . It is important to remember that a tensor of any rank is fully and totally characterized by its transformation properties under the change of coordinates. lying on the side of d2x O O toward which the unit normal vector n points. ij k /i D1 D @ 121 122 123 A D @0 0 1A D iS1 (M. e. ﬂuid.1 on the next page indicates O how this volume may look like. Assuming that one of the indices of the Levi-Civita tensor ij k . and a tensor of rank n D 3 may be represented as a vector of tensors of rank n D 2. k D 1.26a) 0 1 0 131 132 133 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 211 212 213 B C B C .plasma. This is a very strict constraint.g. A FT 1 i 0 C 0 0A 0 0 i ij k Sk a two-dimensional array or matrix.

34) . one ﬁnds that in this limit D Tn D O i D1 3 X R ni Txi Á ni Txi O O Á j where Fext is the external force and a is the acceleration of the volume element.33) above in component O A FT cos Â3 Tx3 d2x C Fext D ma O (M.plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. M . we can write equation (M.se/CED/Book Sheet: 233 of 262 . vectors and tensors j 211 x3 Figure M.uu.33) (M. Introducing the notation Tij D Txi O for the j th component of the vector Txi .31) (M. O n d2x x2 V x1 instant is located in V obeys the equation of motion Tn d2x O cos Â1 Tx1 d2x O cos Â2 Tx2 d2x O Since both a and Fext =m remain ﬁnite whereas m=d2x ! 0 as V ! 0.1. In other words Â Ã m Fext (M. Scalars.1: Tetrahedron-like volume element V containing matter.33) is valid not only in equilibrium but also when the matter in V is in motion.32) Tn D n1 Tx1 C n2 Tx2 C n3 Tx3 C 2 a O O O O m dx From the above derivation it is clear that equation (M.

equivalently @vj C v r vj @t fj @Tij D0 @xi (M.se/CED/Book Sheet: 234 of 262 . x1 .37) The j th component of this equation can be written R A Z V d vj dm D dt Z V fj d3x C Z S Tnj d2x D O Z V fj d3x C Z S ni Tij d2x (M.39) V V V Since this formula is valid for any arbitrary volume.35).35) Using equation (M. To this end we consider a part V of the body.x1 . the j th component of the vector Txi .40) D or. we must require that d vj dt fj @Tij D0 @xi (M.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.2 . Note that Tnm is independent of the particular coordinate O O system used in the derivation.Tn /j D O O 3 X iD1 ni Tij Á ni Tij (M. Tn d2x O (M.plasma. MATHEMATICAL METHODS form as follows Tnj D . End of example M.38) where. 212 j 13. can be interpreted as the O ij th component of a tensor T.36) We shall now show how one can use the momentum law (force equation) to derive the equation of motion for an arbitrary element of mass in the body. here denoted Tij . in the last step. equation (M. If the external force density (force per unit volume) is denoted by f and the velocity for a mass element dm is denoted by v. Setting dm D divergence theorem on the last term. x3 /. we obtain d dt Z V Z v dm D V f d3x C FT Z S Hence.41) Note that @vj =@t is the rate of change with time of the velocity component vj at a ﬁxed point x D . we can rewrite the result as Z d vj d3x D dt Z fj d3x C Z @Tij 3 dx @xi d3x and using the (M.uu. we ﬁnd that the component of the vector Tn in the direction of an O O arbitrary unit vector m is O Tnm D Tn m O O O D 3 X j D1 Tnj mj D O 3 3 X X j D1 i D1 ! ni Tij O O mj Á ni Tij mj D n T m (M.35) above was used.

plasma. Scalars.Á / D B @0 0 1 0A 1 R L4 A Dg Äg AÄ i. the following lowering and raising rules hold for arbitrary rank n mixed tensor ﬁelds: g g k k A A 1 2 ::: k 1 k kC1 kC2 ::: n 1 2 ::: k 1 k kC1 ::: n .1.47) 1 if D D i D j D 1.x Ä / Á g def a . a dual application of the lowering operation on a rank two tensor in its contravariant form yields i. 2.x /. we have three forms of four-tensor ﬁelds of rank n.. In covariant component form we shall denote it g .e. M .x Ä / (M. Contravariant and covariant vectors in ﬂat Lorentz space EXAMPLE M .e.x Ä / (M. a matrix with a main diagonal that has the sign sequence.x /.42) . denoted A 1 1 2 ::: n . The raising of index analogue of the index lowering rule is: a .uu.x Ä / D A Successive lowering and raising of more than one index is achieved by a repeated application of this rule.48) .44) 1 2 ::: k 1 k kC1 kC2 ::: n . 3 ˆ : 0 if ¤ which in matrix notation becomes 1 0 1 0 0 0 B0 1 0 0C C . The 4D metric tensor (fundamental tensor) mentioned above is a particularly important four-tensor of rank two. 1 2 ::: k kC1 ::: n . fC. This metric tensor determines the relation between an arbitrary contravariant four-vector a and its covariant counterpart a according to the following rule: This rule is often called lowering of index.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. .x Ä / D A k k . 2 ::: n . the same rank two tensor in its covariant form. g.43) 1 2 ::: k 1 k kC1 ::: n a . denoted A a mixed four-tensor ﬁeld .se/CED/Book Sheet: 235 of 262 .46) (M.x /. or signature.x Ä / (M.x Ä / Á g def a . We speak of a contravariant four-tensor ﬁeld . vectors and tensors j 213 In 4D. For example.45) (M.x Ä / More generally. denoted A a covariant four-tensor ﬁeld . A FT (M.. .3 D 0 0 0 The 4D Lorentz space has a simple metric which can be described by the metric tensor 8 if D D 0 ˆ1 < g DÁ D (M.

x 0 . a3 / D . a2 .56) a2 D 0 a C 0 a 0 1 a C0 a D 2 2 3 3 D3W a3 D 0 a C 0 a C 0 a 1 1 a D or a D . z/ D . a3 / D . .51) According to the index lowering rule.55) (M. one can deﬁne the metric tensor in L4 as 8 ˆ 1 if < D 1 if ˆ : 0 if D D ¤ D0 D i D j D 1. g metric we obtain D0W D1W D2W a1 D 0 a 0 0 a0 D 1 a 0 C 0 a 1 C 0 a 2 C 0 a 3 D a 0 a a a 1 2 3 (M.a0 . a2 . x/ x D . a0 . the physics is unaffected by the choice of metric tensor. . a/ def FT a 1 a C0 a C0 a D 1 1 2 3 i.a0 . C.50) Consider an arbitrary contravariant four-vector a in this space. x1 . using the f . x2 .54) (M. x 2 . 214 j 13. a2 .a0 .ct. x.Á (M. a1 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 236 of 262 . x3 / D .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. Cg metric we obtain a D .59) End of example M. a0 . C. a3 / D .a0 . a1 . y. a2 .52) R A In the fC. C.53) (M. 2. C. a2 . a1 . a1 .58) Analogously.. a3 / D .plasma. a/ (M.uu. MATHEMATICAL METHODS Alternatively. a/ (M. x/ (M. x 3 / D .ct. x 1 . a3 / D Á (M.a0 . x 1 . a1 .a0 . Cg. In component form it can be written: a Á .57) D The radius 4-vector itself in L4 and in this metric is given by x D .ct. equation (M. x 3 / D . 3 (M. a3 / D . a1 .x0 . we obtain the covariant version of this vector as a def Á .e. a2 .42) on the preceding page.49) Á which in matrix representation becomes 1 B 0 /DB @ 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0C C 0A 1 . x 2 .3 . a matrix with signature f .a0 . (M. Of course.ct.

M .64) Using this in equation (M. The inner product of c with itself may be deﬁned as c2 Á c c D c2 R def c2 C 2icR cI Á c 2 2 C I (M. Scalars. This allows us to write a b D ab cos Â def 7 In the Russian literature. we see that we can deﬁne the complex unit vector as being O cD c D q c cR c2 R c2 I O cR C i q cI c2 I C 2icR cI O cI c2 R R C 2icR cI c2 I D D cR q c2 R q cI 2icR cI 4c2 c2 sin2 Â R I .3.7 The scalar product of a vector a in R3 with itself is a a Á .ab/. vectors and tensors j 215 M .63) from which we ﬁnd that cD q c2 R c2 C 2icR cI 2 C I (M.65) On the other hand.c2 C c2 /2 R I s O cR C i c2 R c2 I 1 2icR cI 4c2 c2 sin2 Â R I .66) with the help of which we can deﬁne the unit vector as . (M.3 M .c2 C c2 /2 R I s .61) where Â is the angle between a and b.60) O O where we used the fact that the scalar product xi xj is a representation of the Kronecker delta ıij deﬁned in equation (M.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the 3D scalar product is often denoted .ai /2 D a2 and similarly for b.uu.1.62) def EXAMPLE M .c2 C c2 / R I O cI 2 C3 .1 Vector algebra Scalar product The scalar product (dot product. the deﬁnition of the scalar product in terms of the inner product of a complex vector with its own complex conjugate yields jcj2 Á c c D c2 C c2 D jcj2 R I def (M.10) on page 207.4 Let c be a complex vector deﬁned as in expression (M.20) on page 209.a/2 D jaj2 D . Scalar products in complex vector space A FT (M.se/CED/Book Sheet: 237 of 262 . inner product) of two arbitrary 3D vectors a and b in Euclidean R3 space is the scalar number O O O O a b D ai xi bj xj D xi xj ai bj D ıij ai bj D ai bi (M.1.10) on page 207.plasma.c2 C c2 / R I 1 (M.1.

It is also the square of the line element ds which is the distance between neighbouring points with coordinates x and x C dx . For the fC.e. g signature it becomes a b D .dx 1 /2 .x0 .x 0 .3 on page 213] and.4 In 4D space we deﬁne the scalar product of two arbitrary four-vectors a and b in the following way a b Dg a b Da b Dg a b (M.dt/2 . MATHEMATICAL METHODS O cD c cR cI O O D q cR C i q cI jcj 2 2 2 cR C cI cR C c2 I q D cR c2 C c2 R I q O cR C i cI (M..plasma.ct. x/ D .69) EXAMPLE R A M . b/ D a0 b 0 a b (M.5 i. is an invariant called the metric. Scalar product.70) D The important scalar product of the L4 radius four-vector with itself becomes x x D .72) FT End of example M. 216 j 13.ct. .uu.43). The L4 metric is the quadratic differential form ds 2 D dx dx D c 2 .67) c2 C c2 R I O cI 2 C3 c2 C c2 R I c2 C c2 R I End of example M.x 1 /2 . x/ D .71) which is the indeﬁnite. The result is a four-scalar.e.dx 3 /2 (M.x 3 /2 D s 2 (M.. i.ct/2 .x 2 /2 .b 0 .dx 2 /2 .68) above can be evaluated almost trivially. x/ . x/ . .se/CED/Book Sheet: 238 of 262 .a0 . an invariant which is independent of in which 4D coordinate system it is measured. a/ . The quadratic differential form ds 2 D g dx dx D dx dx (M.68) where we made use of the index lowering and raising rules (M. norm and metric in Lorentz space In L4 the metric tensor attains a simple form [see example M.5 . the scalar product in equation (M. real norm of L4 . hence. the scalar product of the differential position four-vector with itself.42) and (M.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

which is to say that the direction of an ordinary vector is not dependent on the choice of the directions of the coordinate axes. Therefore a (or b) is an example of a ‘true’ vector.1. an example being the pseudoscalar xi .se/CED/Book Sheet: 239 of 262 .74) M . .73) Sometimes the 3D vector product of a and b is denoted a ^ b or. and zero-rank pseudotensors are therefore also called O x O O O pseudoscalars.1. Pseudovectors transform as ordinary vectors under translations and proper rotations. M . On the other hand. x2 .3. a O b D ab sin Â e (M.3.x/ and b.22) on page 209.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. A prototype for a pseudovector is the angular momentum vector L D x p and hence the attribute ‘axial’. Written out in explicit form.73) above.x/ Á a. usually denoted ˝. x1 . Tensors (of any rank) which transform analogously to pseudovectors are called pseudotensors. the cross product vector c does not change sign.x/ with two juxtaposed vector ﬁelds a. ij k xi /. x3 / D . Œab.75a) D R A O where Â is the angle between a and b and e is a unit vector perpendicular to the plane spanned by a and b. Alternatively. This triple product is a representation of the ij k component of the rank three Levi-Civita pseudotensor ij k .x/b.x/b. particularly in the Russian literature. x2 . x3 /. or polar vector.x/ becomes O O O O A D ab Á a ˝ b D a1 x1 b1 x1 C a1 x1 b2 x2 C O O C a3 x3 b3 x3 (M.plasma. Scalars.x/ D a. the dyadic product A. known as a parity transformation. changes sign of the components of the vectors a and b so that in the new coordinate system a0 D a and b0 D b. 0 0 0 A spatial reversal of the coordinate system.x/ is the outer product of a and b known as a dyad . vectors and tensors j 217 M .2 Vector product 8 The vector product or cross product of two arbitrary 3D vectors a and b in ordinary R3 space is the vector8 cDa bD O ij k xi aj bk D O ij k aj bk xi (M. The dyadic product between vectors (rank one tensors) is a special instance of the direct product.3 Dyadic product The dyadic product ﬁeld A.uu. the Kronecker product. Here ij k is the Levi-Civita tensor deﬁned in equation (M. FT . when applied to matrices (matrix representations of tensors). Scalars are tensors of rank zero. Here a is called the antecedent and b the consequent. but reverse their sign relative to ordinary vectors for any coordinate change involving reﬂection. whereas c is an example of an pseudovector or axial vector.x1 . as is seen from equation (M. This associative but non-commuting operation is also called the tensor product or.1. between arbitrary rank tensors.O j xk / D xi .

Scalar multiplication from the right or from the left of the dyad A. In the ﬁrst case. emphasising its vectorial characteristics.given by formula (M. viz. . c is known as the postfactor. if c D xj .uu.76) O A c Á ab c Á a.x/b.a ˝ b/ D @a2 A b1 a3 Á a1 b1 B D @a2 b1 a3 b1 0 a1 b2 a2 b2 a3 b2 (M. are in general not identical to each other.77a) (M.c a/b D ai bj ci xj respectively. produces other vectors according to the scheme (M.19) on page 209.plasma.77b) O c A Á c ab Á .b c/ D aj bi ci xj def def A FT def def which we identify with expression (M.27) on page 210.c/ D @c2 A D . respectively.78a) (M.75c) b2 b3 1 a1 b3 C a2 b3 A a3 b3 (M. then O O A xj D abj D ai bj xi (M. in the second case as the prefactor. MATHEMATICAL METHODS O O O O O O D ai xi bj xj D ai bj xi xj D xi ai bj xj 0 10 1 O x1 Á a1 b1 a1 b2 a1 b3 B CB C D x1 x2 x3 @a2 b1 a2 b2 a2 b3 A @x2 A O O O O O a3 b1 a3 b2 a3 b3 x3 In matrix representation 0 1 a1 B C . a dyadic of two vectors is intimately related to a rank two tensor.a b/ D @a3 b1 a1 b3 A D ia Sb D iaS b (M. Hence.78b) R which means that O O xj A D aj b D aj bi xi O O xi A xj D ai bj D Aij (M.78c) D The vector product can be represented in matrix form as follows: 0 1 0 1 c1 a2 b3 a3 b2 B C B C . proportional to a and b.A/ D . and the vector b.79) c3 a1 b2 a2 b1 where Sb is dyadic product of the matrix vector S. These two vectors.75b) (M.x/ D a. O Speciﬁcally. a tensor in matrix representation.se/CED/Book Sheet: 240 of 262 . and aS is the dyadic product of the vector a and the matrix vector S.x/ by a vector c.ab/ Á . 218 j 13.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

vectors and tensors j 219 Matrix representation of the vector product in R3 Prove that the matrix representation of the vector product c D a (M. aS b D a. Scalars.S b/ D Hence.28) on page 210. M . i.S b/ where 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 S b D Si bi D @0 0 iA b1 C @ 0 i 0 i 0 0 1 0 b3 b2 D i @ b3 0 b1 A b2 b1 0 D a.79).6 According to formula (M.a S/b D i @ a3 0 a2 a1 In other words.a S/b D 0 a2 b3 ia Sb D @a3 b1 a1 b2 1 a3 b2 a1 b3 A D .86) QED End of example M.S b/ D i a1 from which follows ia.a S/b where a S D ai Si and the components Si are given by formula (M.81) . Hence 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 i 0 0 0 i 0 0 0 a S D a1 @0 0 i A C a2 @ 0 0 0 A C a3 @ i 0 0 A 0 0 0 i 0 0 0 i 0 20 1 0 1 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 a2 0 a3 0 D i 4@0 0 a1 A C @ 0 0 0 A C @a3 0 0A5 0 a1 0 a2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 a3 a2 D i @ a3 0 a1 A a2 a1 0 from which we ﬁnd that 0 0 a3 .se/CED/Book Sheet: 241 of 262 .uu. .84) 1 a3 b2 a1 b3 A a2 b1 (M.a a2 b1 b/ b/ D iaS b Likewise.82) (M.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. the scalar multiplication of a dyadic product of two vectors (in our case S and b) from the left by a vector (in our case a) is interpreted as a Sb D .80) R A b/ 0 0 0 1 0 i 0 0A b2 C @ i 0 0 0 a2 a3 0 @ b3 b2 b3 0 b1 0 1 b2 a2 b 3 b1 A D i @a3 b1 a1 b 2 0 0 a2 b3 iaS b D @a3 b1 a1 b2 ia Sb D 1 a3 b2 a1 b3 A D .85) (M. b is given by formula EXAMPLE M .a a2 b1 0 10 1 a2 b3 a2 b1 a1 A @b2 A D i @a3 b1 a1 b2 0 b3 1 a3 b2 a1 b3 A a2 b1 (M.83) i 0 0 1 0 0A b3 0 (M.1.plasma.a and FT (M.6 (M.77) on the facing page.

e. . the two new dyads thus created are not identical to each other. in matrix representation.13 c/ D @ c3 0 c2 c1 FT 13 O O C c3 x2 x1 O O c1 x2 x3 (M. In this vein. and so on.90) One can extend the dyadic scheme and introduce abc.89) Using the matrix vector formula (M.91) O where xi is the ith unit vector in a Cartesian coordinate system.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. if A D 13 D xi xi . then 13 cD O O O O c3 x1 x2 C c2 x1 x3 O O O O c2 x1 x3 C c1 x3 x2 D c or. 0 0 c3 B .c 13 / D iS c (M. Since the operator in itself has vectorial properties. a vector a is sometimes called a monad . (M. called a tryad . O O Speciﬁcally. M . used the symbol for it..uu.88) 1 c2 C c1 A D .87a) (M.c 0 13 / (M.4 Vector analysis The del operator M .c def def c/ D a/b D O O j kl ai bk cl xi xj O O j kl al bi ck xj xi D O O ikl al bj ck xi xj (M.13 c/ D . MATHEMATICAL METHODS Vector multiplication from the right and from the left of the dyad A by a vector is another dyad according to the scheme A c D ab ADc c Á a.92) @x1 @x2 @x3 .1 D This operator was introduced by W I L L I A M R OW E N H A M I LT O N (1805–1865) who. denoted in Gibbs’ notation by r and deﬁned as9 O O r D xi ri Á xi def @ def @ def Á Á@ @xi @x (M.b ab Á . 220 j 13. the unit dyad or the second-rank unit tensor. however. In general.27) on page 210.1. we can write this as R A . It is therefore sometimes called the Hamilton operator.plasma.1. we denote it with a boldface nabla (r ). 9 In R3 the del operator is a differential vector operator. i.87b) c respectively.4.se/CED/Book Sheet: 242 of 262 . In ‘component’ (tensor) notation the del operator can be written Â Ã @ @ @ @i D .

4.95) .x /.1. In 4D.18) on page 208 as and y 0 D @0 x respectively. Scalars. .se/CED/Book Sheet: 243 of 262 .93) @x0 @x1 @x2 @x3 whereas the covariant four-del operator is Ã Â @ @ @ @ . / @ A FT (M. say. the contravariant component representation of the four-del operator is deﬁned by Â Ã @ @ @ @ @ D . From this we see that the boldface notation for the gradient (r ) is very handy as it elucidates its 3D vectorial property and separates it from the nabla operator (r) which has a scalar property.1.uu.x / D @˛. / O D —r˛.96) (M.x/ D @˛.x / @x @ ˛.x / D @˛.x/ D r ˛. the four-gradient of a four-scalar is a covariant vector.94) We can use this four-del operator to express the transformation properties (M. is an R3 vector ﬁeld O grad ˛.97) (M. M . vectors and tensors j 221 In 4D. then D @ ˛.17) and (M.x / @x O and. formed as a derivative of a four-scalar ﬁeld ˛. therefore.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. @ D @x 0 @x 1 @x 2 @x 3 (M. M . r D —r.x/. with the following component form: (M.x/ D xi @i ˛.2 y The gradient of a scalar ﬁeld The gradient of an R1 scalar ﬁeld ˛. . .98) y0 D @ x0 y (M. / D — @˛. .99a) with the contravariant form (M.x/ def If the scalar ﬁeld depends only on one coordinate. (M.plasma.x/ Á r ˛.99b) R O r ˛.

aj xj / Œ.O i @i /.x/ @xj @ a .27) on page 210.4.bk xk / x x O O D .x / @x (M.a b/ D .102) The curl of a vector ﬁeld R A curl a.105) A vector with vanishing curl is said to be irrotational . 222 j 13.r a/ D @@3 a1 @1 a3 A D ir Sa D ir S a (M.4 @a . If a is an ordinary vector (polar vector). as indicated by the notation ˛.uu.x/. then r a is a pseudovector (axial vector) and vice versa.1.aj xj bk xk / x O O O O D Œ.x Ä / (M.x / D M .r a/ b C .plasma. introduced in equation (M.x/ Á r def In R3 the curl of a vector ﬁeld a.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.x/ @xi O ij k xi @j ak .22) on page 209.7 Gradient of a scalar product of two vector ﬁelds The gradient of the scalar product of two vector ﬁelds a and b can be calculated in the following way: O O r .x Ä / (M.O i @i /. End of example M.101) which.104) @1 a2 @2 a1 where S is the matrix vector given by formula (M.x/ D (M.r b/ a x x This is the ﬁrst version of formula (F. .100) M . The covariant 4D generalisation of the curl of a four-vector ﬁeld a .1.x/ D def FT @ai . The four-divergence of a four-vector a is the four-scalar @ a . MATHEMATICAL METHODS EXAMPLE M .x / is the antisymmetric four-tensor ﬁeld A .bk xk / C .91) on page 200.79) on page 218. Similarly to formula (M.x/ is another R3 vector ﬁeld deﬁned in the following way: a.103) D where use was made of the Levi-Civita tensor.3 The divergence of a vector ﬁeld We deﬁne the 3D divergence of a vector ﬁeld a in R3 as div a.O i @i /. we can write the matrix representation of the curl in R3 as 0 1 @2 a3 @3 a2 B C .O i @i aj xj / b C .x/ D @i ai .se/CED/Book Sheet: 244 of 262 .7 (M.x Ä / D A .x Ä / D @ a .x/ Á r a.aj xj / . is a scalar ﬁeld in R3 .x/ D O ij k xi @ak .O i @i bk xk / a D .4.

107) (M.106) The four-del operator in Lorentz space A FT (M.4. r c @t c @t and the covariant form as Â @ D Ã Â Ã 1 @ 1 @ . for a scalar ﬁeld ˛.8 In L4 the contravariant form of the four-del operator can be represented as Â @ D Ã Â Ã 1 @ 1 @ .uu. @ D . one obtains which is the d’Alembert operator. M . If. and sometimes deﬁned with an End of example M.109) .x/. ˛ has a concentration at that point. EXAMPLE M . Numerous vector algebra and vector analysis formulæ are given in appendix F . Those which are not found there can often be easily derived by using the component forms of the vectors and tensors.5 The Laplacian The 3D Laplace operator or Laplacian can be described as the divergence of the del operator: X @2 @2 Á @xi2 @xi2 i D1 3 r r D r 2 Á D @2 D i def (M.se/CED/Book Sheet: 245 of 262 . vectors and tensors j 223 M . r 2 ˛ < 0 at some point in 3D space. R r2 D 2 .108) (M. together with the Kronecker and Levi-Civita tensors and their generalisations to higher ranks and higher dimensions.1.8 The symbol r 2 is sometimes read del squared .@ D .1. Scalars.plasma.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.r c @t c @t D @ @ D 1 @2 c 2 @t 2 Taking the scalar product of these two. sometimes denoted opposite sign convention.

End of example M. MATHEMATICAL METHODS EXAMPLE M .10 Divergence in 3D For an arbitrary R3 vector ﬁeld a.11 . includes x D x0 .112) End of example M.x2 0 x2 /2 C .x x0 / @jx 0 @xi @xi x0 j D r 0 jx x0 j (M.113) which demonstrates how the primed divergence.x0 /.110) Using this. 224 j 13. on jx x0 j.110).Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.S/.9 EXAMPLE M .x1 x0 x0 j 0 x1 /2 C . we can deﬁne the primed del operator in the following way: O r 0 D xi @ 0 0 D@ @xi (M..se/CED/Book Sheet: 246 of 262 .plasma.x0 / 1 r0 D C a. enclosed by the surface S.111) Likewise Ã Â 1 D r jx x0 j (M.115) equals 4 if the integration volume V .x0 / r 0 a. works.uu.9 Gradients of scalar functions of relative distances in 3D Very often electrodynamic quantities are dependent on the relative distance in R3 between two vectors x and x0 . and elementary rules of differentiation.x3 0 x3 /2 D O xi A FT x x0 D jx x0 j3 r0 Â 1 Ã jx x0 j 4 ı.x0 / r 0 jx x0 j jx x0 j jx x0 j (M. i.xi xi / x O D D xi 0j jx x jx 0 x0 j @ . This formula follows directly from the fact that Ã Z Â Ã I Â Ã Â Z x x0 x x0 1 O D d3x r D d2x n d3x r r jx x0 j jx x0 j3 jx x0 j3 V V S (M. viz.114) where ı.11 End of example M. and equals 0 otherwise.x x0 / is the 3D Dirac delta ‘function’. the following relation holds: Â Ã Ã Â a.e. In analogy with equation (M. EXAMPLE R M . the corresponding unprimed version.. equation (M.91) on page 220.91) on page 220.V /. we obtain the following very useful result: q r jx @jx O O x j D xi D xi @xi 0 .10 The Laplacian and the Dirac delta D A very useful formula in 3D R3 is Â Ã Ã Â 1 1 r r D r2 D jx x0 j jx x0 j (M. deﬁned in terms of the primed del operator in equation (M.

x/O 3 x (M. we see that r Œr ˛.x/.12 ij k @i @j ak .x/ D @i Œr a.x/O 2 x ! ˛. equation (M. .se/CED/Book Sheet: 247 of 262 . Hence.x/O i x @xj @xk @2 @x3 @x2 ! ˛.103) on page 222.13 r Œr R a.@ @ @ @ /˛.x/ @ a @xj k @2 @x2 @x3 @2 @x3 @x1 @2 @x1 @x2 @2 @x3 @x2 ! a1 .x/ D D C C Á0 We thus ﬁnd that r Œr ˛. equation (M. a gradient is always irrotational. equation (M.121) @2 @x1 @x3 @2 @x2 @x1 .x/.103) on page 222.12 which. due to the assumed well-behavedness of ˛.x/ @ @ ˛. we ﬁnd that. deﬁned by equation (M.x Ä / so that the four-curl of a four-gradient vanishes just as does a curl of a gradient in R3 .x/ EXAMPLE M .x/ Á 0 ij k @2 @x2 @x3 @2 @x3 @x1 @2 @x1 @x2 @2 @x1 @x3 @2 @x2 @x1 for any arbitrary. well-behaved R3 scalar ﬁeld ˛.120) Using the deﬁnition for the Levi-Civita symbol.x/. and the gradient.uu. due to the assumed well-behavedness of a. Scalars. vanishes: O ij k xi @j @k ˛.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma.101) and the curl.x/ ! a3 . we ﬁnd that (M.x/ D O ij k xi @j @k ˛.x/ ! a2 .22) on page 209.1.97) on page 221. M .x Ä / Á 0 In 4D we note that for any well-behaved four-scalar ﬁeld ˛.x/ (M. The divergence of a curl A FT (M. D D C C Á0 @i ij k @j ak .117) (M.119) End of example M.x/O 1 x ! ˛.116) EXAMPLE M .118) (M.x/i D D @ @xi ij k With the use of the deﬁnitions of the divergence (M. vectors and tensors j 225 The curl of a gradient Using the deﬁnition of the R3 curl.

uu.plasma. for @ A D @ @ a .14 . we can rewrite this as . where a and b are 3D vector ﬁelds. In 4D. one has to ensure that the range of the operator is taken into account in a proper and correct manner.r b/ This is formula (F. x ij k aj @k /.x/. End of example M.x/ Á 0 r Œr (M.14 A non-trivial vector analytic triple product formula R A . well-behaved R3 vector ﬁeld a. that a.102) on page 201.x Ä / ¤ 0 (M. D O ij k xi aj @k / bD.124a) where dummy summation indices were changed. illustrates how this situation can be handled. ij k When differential operators appear inside multiple-product vector formulæ. 226 j 13. D.a r/ bD.a r/ bD . lmn xl ıi m bn / O li n xl aj @k bn D FT b/ O ij k lmn ıi m xl aj @k bn O i ln xl aj @k bn ıj n ıkl /O l aj @k bn x O xj aj @k bk End of example M.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.a r / b. the four-divergence of the four-curl is not zero.122) for any arbitrary.se/CED/Book Sheet: 248 of 262 .124b) a.x Ä / 2 a . MATHEMATICAL METHODS i.25) on page 209 with m D n..O i D ij k O ij k aj @k /.ıj l ık n D O D xk aj @k bj D ai r bi (M. Using formula (M. The following calculation of the triple product .123) EXAMPLE M .13 (M.e.

qi . qi . qi .plasma.126) t1 and the variational principle with ﬁxed endpoints t1 and t2 .uu. P .130) (M.132a) (M. t / D L qi . M .127) (M. the Lagrange function or Lagrangian L is given by Â Ã dqi L.qi . differentiable function ˛ D ˛.se/CED/Book Sheet: 249 of 262 .2 Analytical mechanics Lagrange’s equations M .125) dt where qi is the generalised coordinate.129) and note from equation (M.128) above that @L D pi P @qi R A d˛ @˛ @˛ D L C qi P C dt @qi @t D L0 D L C then @L0 @L @˛ D C @qi P @qi P @q @L0 @L d @˛ D C @qi @qi dt @q If we introduce an arbitrary. Using the action Z t2 SD dt L.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.t D T V (M. T the kinetic energy and V the potential energy of a mechanical system. Analytical mechanics j 227 M . ıS D 0 one ﬁnds that the Lagrangian satisﬁes the Euler-Lagrange equations Â Ã @L d @L D0 dt @qi P @qi To the generalised coordinate qi one deﬁnes a canonically conjugate momentum pi according to pi D @L @qi P (M.2.qi .132b) . t / P (M.131) FT (M.1 As is well known from elementary analytical mechanics.128) (M. t/ and a new Lagrangian L0 related to L in the following way (M.2.

noting that according to equation (M. d @L0 Á @L0 dt @qi P where pi0 D and qi0 D @qi D d @L Á dt @qi P @L @qi (M.uu.136) R D @H dqi D qi D P @pi dt @H D pi D P @qi According to the deﬁnition of pi . qi . MATHEMATICAL METHODS Or. t/ P (M. with corrections.130) on the previous page the third term on the right hand side of equation (M. the Hamiltonian (Hamilton function) H can be deﬁned via the Legendre transformation H. 1972. 228 j 13.133) @L @˛ @˛ @L0 D C D pi C @qi P @qi P @qi @qi (M.136) is equal to pi dqi and identifying terms. the second and fourth terms on the right hand side cancel.135) After differentiating the left and right hand sides of this deﬁnition and setting them equal we obtain @H @H @H dpi C dqi C dt D qi dpi C pi dqi P P @pi @qi @t @L dqi @qi @L dqi P @qi P @L dt @t (M.2.137a) dpi dt (M.3 [62] M..qi . Dover Publications.pi .129) on the preceding page. t / D pi qi P L. S TEGUN. Tenth Printing.plasma. A. equation (M.137b) M . Furthermore.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.134a) @L @L0 D D qi @pi P @p P (M.2 From L.134b) M . Inc. A FT Hamilton’s equations Bibliography . A BRAMOWITZ AND I. we P obtain the Hamilton equations: (M. in other words.se/CED/Book Sheet: 250 of 262 . qi . Handbook of Mathematical Functions. New York.

[69] W. Edinburgh and London.. John Wiley & Sons. [67] P. II.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. American Journal of Physics. A RFKEN AND H. M. 1995. A. [65] A.se/CED/Book Sheet: 251 of 262 . . North-Holland Publishing Co. Methods of Theoretical Physics. 1967. W EBER. D EAN. 1965. . vol. E VETT. Permutation symbol approach to elementary vector analysis. M ESSIAH. New York. ISBN 0-387-94843-0. Oliver and Boyd. 1970. . 503–507. [64] R. Part I. F ESHBACH. Academic Press. 1953.uu. J. Elements of Abstract Algebra. NY . ISBN 0-12-0598167. A. ISBN 07-043316-8. S PAIN. Bibliography j 229 [63] G. New York. pp. . Classical Mathematical Physics. D R A FT [68] B. fourth. Mathematical Methods for Physicists. .. international ed. Ltd. T HIRRING.. NY .. 34 (1965). third ed.plasma. Inc. Springer-Verlag.. McGrawHill Book Company. . Vienna. CA . ISBN 05-001331-9. Tensor Calculus. . ISBN 0-471-20452-8.. E. M ORSE AND H. . Inc. . Inc. Quantum Mechanics. M . . Amsterdam. New York. [66] A.. 1997. San Diego. Sixth printing. B.3.

D R A FT .plasma.uu.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book Sheet: 252 of 262 .

98 antenna feed point. 205 complex vector ﬁeld. 19 azimuthal phase. 206 concentration. 55 D R A FT . INDEX L Cerenkov. 140 axial gauge. 22 component notation.uu. 83. 8 birefringent. 140 coherent radiation. 197 complex notation. 51 associated Legendre polynomial of the ﬁrst kind. 148 arrow of time. André-Marie. 180 consequent. 98 antisymmetric tensor. 68 circular wave polarisation. 49 Cherenkov radiation. 207 complex-ﬁeld six-vector. 68 CGS units. 172 angular frequency.se/CED/Book Sheet: 253 of 262 . 89 associative. 184 charge conjugation. xviii Bessel functions. 64 angular-momentum commutation rule. 128 Carozzi.plasma. 189 complete ˛-Lorenz gauge. 68 Barbieri. 121 bremsstrahlung. 171 231 Bohm. 27 classical electrodynamics. 133 braking radiation. 97 antenna current. 217 axiomatic foundation of classical electrodynamics. 175 antecedent. 171 anomalous dispersion. 174 birefringent crystal. 15 characteristic impedance of vacuum. 182 collisional interaction. 156. 217 conservation law. David Joseph. 68 chirality ﬂow. 6 Ampère. 40 Ampère’s law. 6 Ampère-turn density. Tobia. 20. 127 collision frequency. Pavel Alekseevich. xx canonically conjugate four-momentum. 121. 10 closed algebraic structure. 210 anisotropic. 1. 3. 38 angular momentum theorem. 42 complex conjugate. 217 antenna. Cesare. 178 acceleration ﬁeld. 174 anisotropic medium. 223 conductivity. 27. 227 canonically conjugate momentum density. 156 canonically conjugate momentum. 104 Biot-Savart’s law. 148. 111 advanced time. 176 chiral media.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 170 chirality density. 163 centre of energy. 42 axial vector.

15 curl. 11 divergence. 217 dyadic product. 175 dispersive property. 60 conservation law for the total current. 1. 54 contravariant component form. 15. Pierre. 13 coordinate four-vector. 136 control sphere. 52 E1 radiation.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 223 de Coulomb. 52. 1. 54 constants of motion. 54 constitutive relations. 56 conservation laws. 205 deﬁniens. 224 Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations. 145 covariant vector. Pierre. 138 differential vector operator. 180 continuity equation. 220 del squared. 178 Curie. 208 contravariant four-vector ﬁeld. 64 conservation law for linear momentum. 232 INDEX conservation law for angular momentum. 151 Duhem. 98 Dirac delta. 223 demodulation. 170 differential distance. 136 dyad. 171 displacement current. 97 Einstein’s summation convention. 217 Curie. 205 cosine integral.plasma. 213 contravariant four-vector. 205 del operator. 21 cyclotron radiation. 93 E2 radiation. 25. 16 Dirac. 171 dielectric permittivity. 51 cross product.se/CED/Book Sheet: 254 of 262 . 92 FT . 208 covariant four-vector ﬁeld. 3 electric and magnetic ﬁeld energy. 54 conservative ﬁeld. 190 dipole antennas. 40 Coulomb’s law. 8 electric dipole moment. 213 covariant four-vector. 136 CPT theorem. 122 cycle average. 58 electric charge conservation law. 203 direct product. 222 curl theorem. 3 deﬁniendum. 205 Einstein. 11 electric current density. 134 covariant component form. 125. 3 coupled differential equations. 144. 215 dual electromagnetic tensor. Albert. 101 Coulomb gauge. 37. 139 covariant gauge. 40. 128 D R A d’Alembert operator. 220 diffusion coefﬁcient. 161 conserved quantities. 139 contravariant vector. 24 covariant. 149 covariant four-tensor ﬁeld. 206 contravariant ﬁeld tensor. 10 electric charge density. 12 conservative forces. Marie Sklodowska. 4 electric conductivity. 136 duality transformation. 208 coordinate vector. 54 convective derivative. 202 cutoff. 2 dummy index. 149 contravariant four-tensor ﬁeld. 206 covariant ﬁeld tensor. 202 dot product. 150 dual vector. 217 dispersive. Paul Adrien Maurice. 217 dyons.uu. 222 divergence theorem. Charles-Augustin. 136.

170 electric ﬁeld. 57 electromagnetic ﬁeld energy density. Michael. Marcus. 12 energy density balance equation. 57 energy theorem in Maxwell’s theory. 58 electric monopole moment. 33 electrostatic scalar potential. 63 electromagnetic energy current density. 86 electric quadrupole radiation. 162 Euler-Lagrange equations.se/CED/Book Sheet: 255 of 262 . 35 electromagnetic virial density. 56 electromagnetic energy ﬂux. Leonhard. 149 Faraday’s law. 60 electromagnetic linear momentum density. Lev Mikahilovich.plasma. 63. 66 electromagnetic scalar potential. 169. 74 far zone. 9 Eriksson. 62 Euler-Lagrange equation. 188 electric polarisation. 2 elliptical wave polarisation. 17 electric displacement vector. 170 electric ﬁeld energy. xx Eriksson. 63 electromagnetic orbital angular momentum. 56 electromagnetic ﬁeld energy. 206 ﬁeld Lagrange density. 23. 90 Faraday tensor. 60 electromagnetic moment of momentum density. 16 equations of classical electrostatics. 56 electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor. 10 Faraday. 140 far ﬁeld. 22 FT . 86 electric permittivity. 26 EMF. 10 equation of continuity for magnetic charge. 32 electrostatics. 9 equations of classical magnetostatics. 3. 94 electromagnetic angular momentum ﬂux tensor. 227 Euler-Mascheroni constant. 1. 16 electromagnetodynamics. 87 electric quadrupole moment tensor. 97 electric susceptibility. 12 Faraday’s law of induction. 59. 12 electrostatic dipole moment vector. 145 equation of continuity for electric charge. 35 electromagnetic angular momentum current density. 35 electromagnetic spin angular momentum. 203 Feynman. 69 D R A electromagnetism. 97 electric quadrupole tensor. 77. 163. 52 electromotive force.uu. 1 electromagnetodynamic equations. 1. Richard Phillips. xviii Erukhimov. 149 electromagnetic linear momentum current density. 58 equation of continuity. 59 Euler. 69 electromagnetic virial theorem. Anders. 2 electroweak theory. 164 ﬁeld momentum. 101 event. 2 electrodynamic potentials. xx Euclidean space. 141 Euclidean vector space. 66 electromagnetic vector potential.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 63 electromagnetic angular momentum density. 137 Euler’s ﬁrst law. 33 electrostatic quadrupole moment tensor. 93 electric displacement current. 93 electromagnetic linear momentum ﬂux tensor. 86 electric dipole radiation. INDEX 233 electric dipole moment vector. 171 electricity. 40 ﬁeld.

139. 42 Hamilton operator. 121 frequency conversion. Per Olof. 28 Fourier transform. 220 Ginzburg. 28.uu. 144 four-scalar. 27 Fourier integral. Oliver. 130 four-current. Ilya Mikhailovich. 213 four-vector. 227 generalised four-coordinate. 173 Hall. 45. xix fully antisymmetric tensor. 228 Heaviside. 43 gauge transformation. 221 four-dimensional Hamilton equations. 115. Vitaliy Lazarevich. 156. 12 frequency mixing. 88 Hertz’s method. 160 Huygens’s principle. 228 Hamilton function. 171 Hodge star operator. 2 gradient. 89 group theory. 207 four-tensor ﬁelds. 90 Hermitian conjugate. 220 Hamiltonian. 162 fundamental tensor. 178 Franklin. 42 gauge function. 46 Gauss’s law of electrostatics. 197 Hertz vector. 136 four-divergence.plasma. 133 generalised coordinate. 156 four-Lagrangian. 178 Glashow. 140 FT . 183 Hooke’s law. 37 Helmholtz’s theorem. 43 gauge invariant. 4 ﬁeld quantum. xx Gauss’s theorem. Göran. 178 Heaviside-Larmor-Rainich transformation. 43 gauge theory. 221 Green function.se/CED/Book Sheet: 256 of 262 . 27 Helmholtz equation. Benjamin. 12 Fröman. 5 help vector. 46 gauge transformation of the second kind. 136. 222 four-gradient. 163 Hamilton density equations. 204 Galileo’s law. 156 Gibbs’ notation. 36 general theory of relativity. 228 Hamilton gauge. 143 four-potential. 122 ﬁne structure constant. Galileo. xx. 202 general inhomogeneous wave equations. 55 free-free radiation. 5 D R A ﬁeld point. 174. 123. 156. 154 four-momentum. Sheldon. 52 Heaviside-Lorentz units. William Rowen. 143 Fourier amplitude. 38 identity element. 43 gauge transformation of the ﬁrst kind. 144 four-del operator. 156 four-dimensional vector space. 86 Hertz. 220 Hamilton. 221 four-Hamiltonian. 175 Hall effect. 209 functional derivative. 133 gauge ﬁxing. 37 Frank. Heinrich Rudolf. Edwin Herbert. 173 Hamilton density. 98 Helmholtz’ theorem. 15 helical base vectors. 234 INDEX Galilei. 81 heterodyning. 213 Fäldt. 45. 140 group velocity. 206. 52 homogeneous vector wave equations. 208 four-velocity. 38.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 163 Hamilton equations.

37 Lorentz power. 147 local gauge transformation. 136 index lowering. 129 Kerr effect. 38 inhomogeneous wave equation. 107 Liénard-Wiechert potentials. 46 longitudinal component. 161 Lagrange function. 60 linear momentum operator. Alfred-Marie. 62 linear momentum theorem in Maxwell’s theory. 66 Legendre polynomial. 137. 145 lowering of index. 206 Lorentz torque. 28 ionosphere. 164 intermediate ﬁeld. 170 induction ﬁeld. 223 Laplacian. 3 Kopka. 161 linear momentum density. 133 Learned. 160. Helmut.se/CED/Book Sheet: 257 of 262 . 209 Kronecker product. 27. 227 Laplace operator. 223 Larmor formula for radiated power. 37 Lorenz. 38 inhomogeneous time-independent wave equation. 6. 138 inverse element. 183 irrotational. xviii line broadening.plasma. 107.uu. 185 loop antenna. 60 linear wave polarisation. 136 index of refraction. 57 Lorentz space. 77 invariant. 133 inertial system. 118 interaction Lagrange density. Johan. Cecilia. INDEX 235 Jacobi identity. xx Kronecker delta tensor. 213 FT . 118 law of inertia. Roger. 42 Kirchhoff. 37 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge. 216 linear mass density. 217 Lagrange density. 140 inverse Fourier transform. 37. xx left-hand circular polarisation. 135 Lorentz. 227 kinetic momentum. 137 index contraction. 26 Liénard. John. 22. 151 Jarlskog. 227 D R A in a medium. 63 Lorentz transformation. 101 Lorentz boost parameter. 177 incoherent radiation. 207 invariant line element. 228 Levi-Civita tensor. 222 Lagrangian. 61 Lorentz force density. Rudolf. 14. 139 light-like interval. 74 inertial reference frame. 58 Karlsson. 139 Lindberg. 171 kinetic energy. Hendrik Antoon. xx Kelvin function. 128 indeﬁnite norm. xx Joule heat power. 57 Lorentz power density. 59 Lorentz gauge condition. 209 light cone. 215 instantaneous. 142 Lorentz force.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 64 Lorentz torque density. 160. 159 Kirchhoff gauge. 160. Gustav Robert. 1. 42 Kohlrausch. 89 Legendre transformation. 44 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition. Ludvig Valentin. 133 inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. 37 inner product. 28 line element.

1 magnetostatic vector potential.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 206. Ettore. 164 mechanical linear momentum. 172 magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. Sir Isaac. 15 Maxwell-Lorentz source equations. 140 matrix representation. 236 INDEX Lundborg. 137 non-linear effects. 151 magnetic induction. 15 near zone. 173 magnetisation.se/CED/Book Sheet: 258 of 262 . 174 Maxwell’s microscopic equations. 203 Newton-Lorentz force equation. 141 mixed four-tensor ﬁeld. 156 Minkowski space. 32 magnetostatics. 23 Majorana representation. 63 mechanical energy. 54 Noether. 136. 62 mechanical spin angular momentum. 45 Minkowski equation. 59 massive photons. 178 magnetic charge density.uu. 12 norm. 57 mechanical energy density. 13 magnetic ﬂux density. 62 mechanical torque. 52 moment of velocity. Amalie Emmy. 209 Maxwell stress tensor. 216 FT . 62 mechanical orbital angular momentum. 174 Newton’s ﬁrst law. 71 monochromatic wave. 172 magnetism. 168 material derivative. Bengt. 170 magnetic ﬁeld energy. 188 magnetic susceptibility. 58 magnetic ﬁeld intensity. 15 Maxwell. 15 magnetic dipole moment. 23 Majorana. 216 metric tensor. 28 multipole expansion. 20 mechanical angular momentum. 23 mass density. 77 negative helicity. 7. 19 D R A Maxwell-Lorentz equations. 97 Mach cone. 15 magnetic current density. 8 magnetic monopoles. 59 Newton. 17 magnetic ﬁeld. xix. 63 metamaterials. 8 magnetic four-current. 169. xx M1 radiation. 213 mixing angle. 156 Noether’s theorem. 6 Majorana formalism. 213 minimal coupling. 172 magnetised plasma. 10 Maxwell’s macroscopic equations. 86 Møller scattering. 97 magnetic displacement current. 60 Maxwell’s displacement current. 170. 54 non-Euclidean space. 171 magnetising ﬁeld. 96. 172 magnetic dipole radiation. 55 monad. 133 Newton’s second law. 15 magnetic permeability. 13 mathematical group. 136. 206. 59 mechanical moment of momentum. 27 negative refractive index. 174 metric. James Clerk. 172 magnetic ﬂux. 220 monochromatic. 57 mechanical Lagrange density. 170.plasma. 130 natural units. 62 mechanical angular momentum density. 172 magnetisation currents. 62 mechanical linear momentum density. 1.

205 positive deﬁnite. 136. 89 proper time. 69 Poincaré gauge. 129 Pauli. 139 observation point. 50. vi. 1. 134 relaxation time. 15 plane wave. 32 polar vector. 180 Ohmic losses. 169 physical observable. 138. 46 Peierls. 187 plasma.plasma. 217 D R A FT QCD. 173. 136. 58 one-dimensional wave equation. 186 orbital angular momentum operator. 67 outer product. 137 positive helicity. 174. 184 rest mass density. 45 Proca Lagrangian. 19 potential energy. 204 pseudotensors. 41 radiation resistance. 188 relative permittivity. 217 Parseval’s identity. 204 phase velocity. 174 photon. 20. 175 plasma frequency. 141 positive deﬁnite norm. 148.uu. 42 Poisson’s equation. 58 radiation ﬁeld. 4 radial gauge. 208 position vector. 205 raising of index. 38. 218 postulates. 4 Ohm’s law. 217 polarisation charges. 42 radiated electromagnetic power. 169 quadratic differential form. 148. INDEX 237 null vector. 122. 141 pseudoscalar. 58 prefactor. 164 retarded Coulomb ﬁeld. 170. 89 Poynting vector. 217 pseudovector. 204. 122. 51. 27 postfactor. 77 radiation gauge. 136 Planck units. 139 pseudo-Riemannian space. 217 pseudotensor. 40. xviii parity transformation. 227 potential theory. 175. 213 rank. 101 radius four-vector. 209 rapidity. 169 quantum mechanical non-linearity. 1. 216 quantum chromodynamics. Kristoffer. 56 Poynting’s theorem. 88 position four-vector. 171 relative permeability. Wolfgang. 88 polarisation vector. 183 relative dielectric permittivity. 191 photons. 142 reciprocal space. 208 radius vector.se/CED/Book Sheet: 259 of 262 . 77. 66. 188 Relativity principle. 2 quantum electrodynamics. 160. 217 Palmer. 26 propagator. 30 refractive index. 170 polarisation currents. 167 propagation vector. 74. 2 QED. 183 plasma physics. 204 pseudoscalars. 40 . 11. 172 polarisation potential. 218 probability density. 77 retarded potentials. Sir Rudolf. 26. 111 radiation ﬁelds.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.

149 skin depth. 173 source point. 22 Riemannian metric.plasma. xviii skew-symmetric. 27 temporal Fourier series. 139 Tomonaga. 204 tensor ﬁeld.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 128 synchrotron radiation lobe width. 80 spin angular momentum operator. vi. 15 self-force effects. 215 Schrödinger equation. 3. 137 time reversal. 21 temporal dispersive media. Holger. Johan. 178 SI units. 65 spin operators. Igor’ Evgen’evich. 1 total charge. 4 source terms. 28 synchrotron radiation. 206 scalar product. 98. 1. 12 temporal Fourier components. 89 spherical harmonic. 2 scalar. 134 standing wave. 19 rotational degree of freedom. Fritz. 202 Strandberg. xviii Tamm. 27 temporal gauge. 88 superposition principle. 133. Fabrizio. 89 spherical waves. 1.se/CED/Book Sheet: 260 of 262 . 210 standard conﬁguration. 45 Schwinger. 187 time-independent wave equation. 184 time-like interval. 33 Stokes’ theorem. 139 space-time. 66 Rohrlich. 188 temporal average. 238 INDEX retarded relative distance. 125. 137. 85 Salam. Abdus. 20 space components. 188 Sommerfeld. 27. 98 static net charge. 126 t’Hooft. 204. xviii thermodynamic entropy. 86 D R A FT . 136. 40 Riemann-Silberstein vector. 209 tensor notation. 190 time-dependent Poisson’s equation. 209 tensor product. 89 spherical Hankel function of the ﬁrst kind. 138 Riemannian space. Arnold Johannes Wilhelm. 42 temporal spectral components. 51 three-dimensional functional derivative. 163 time arrow of radiation. xx Tamburini.uu. 178 telegrapher’s equation. 222 scalar ﬁeld. 134 spectral energy density. 181 shock front. 217 Then. 29 spatial spectral components. 178 source equations. 29 special theory of relativity. 186. 115 Sjöholm. 27 tensor. 84 spherical Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind. 28. 206 right-hand circular polarisation. 41 time-harmonic wave. 107. 184 time-independent telegrapher’s equation. 137 spatial Fourier components. 50 time-dependent diffusion equation. 140. Julian Seymour. 28 time-independent diffusion equation. 49 space-like interval. Sin-Itiro. 107 retarded time. 81 time component. Bruno. 213 simultaneous coordinate. 137 space inversion. Gerardus. 15 signature. xviii super-potential.

38 variational principle. 217 vector wave equations. 2 Weyl gauge. 204 vector product. 43 Yngve. 136 Wiechert. 184 vacuum wavelength. 56 wave equations. Christer. 167 Ørsted. 178 L Vavilov-Cerenkov cone. 145 unmagnetised plasma. 140 . 62 tryad. 227 Vavilov. Wilhelm Eduard. 3 Weinberg. 176. Staffan. 94 total electromagnetic linear momentum. Clifford Ambrose. 111 velocity gauge condition. 62 traceless. xx wave equation. 22 transverse components. xx Waldenvik. 26 wave vector. 42 virtual simultaneous coordinate. 22. 6 wave number. Emil Johann. 25 vector waves. 3 vacuum polarisation effects. 42 Wheeler.se/CED/Book Sheet: 261 of 262 . 24 D R A FT Yang-Mills theory. xviii Young’s modulus. John Archibald. Steven. 185 transverse gauge. 41 Truesdell III.. 178 L Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation. Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand. 111 von Helmholtz. 3 Weber. Alfred North. INDEX 239 total electromagnetic angular momentum.Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www. 38 wave packets. 161 Yukawa meson ﬁeld. 26 velocity ﬁeld. Mattias. 220 uncertainty principle. 5 Wahlberg.plasma. 37 unit dyad. 71 Whitehead. 174.uu. 29. 4 vacuum wave number. Sergey Ivanovich. 6 vacuum permittivity. 178 vector. 82 transversality condition. 186 Weber’s constant. 94 total mechanical angular momentum. 40 white noise. 181 vacuum permeability. Hans Christian. 34 translational degree of freedom. 26 wave polarisation. 51 uncoupled inhomogeneous wave equations. 220 universal constant. 107 world line. 220 unit tensor.

uu.se/CED/Book Sheet: 262 of 262 .Draft version released 13th September 2011 at 15:39 CET—Downloaded from http://www.plasma. D R A E L E C T RO M AGNETIC FIELD THEORY ISBN 978-0-486-4773-2 FT .