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**A Matter of Some Gravity
**

Learning Goal: To understand Newton's law of gravitation and the distinction between inertial and gravitational masses. In this problem, you will practice using Newton's law of gravitation. According to that law, the magnitude of the gravitational force between two small particles of masses and , separated by a distance , is given by , where is the universal gravitational constant, whose numerical value (in SI units) is .

This formula applies not only to small particles, but also to spherical objects. In fact, the gravitational force between two uniform spheres is the same as if we concentrated all the mass of each sphere at its center. Thus, by modeling the Earth and the Moon as uniform spheres, you can use the particle approximation when calculating the force of gravity between them. Be careful in using Newton's law to choose the correct value for . To calculate the force of gravitational attraction between two uniform spheres, the distance in the equation for Newton's law of gravitation is the distance between the centers of the spheres. For instance, if a small object would be such as an elephant is located on the surface of the Earth, the radius of the Earth used in the equation. Note that the force of gravity acting on an object located near the surface of a planet is often called weight. Also note that in situations involving satellites, you are often given the altitude of the satellite, that is, the distance from the satellite to the surface of the planet; this is not the distance to be used in the formula for the law of gravitation. There is a potentially confusing issue involving mass. Mass is defined as a measure of an object's inertia, that is, its ability to resist acceleration. Newton's second law demonstrates the relationship between mass, acceleration, and the net force acting on an object: this measure of inertia more precisely as the inertial mass. On the other hand, the masses of the particles that appear in the expression for the law of gravity seem to have nothing to do with inertia: Rather, they serve as a measure of the strength of gravitational interactions. It would be reasonable to call such a property gravitational mass. Does this mean that every object has two different masses? Generally speaking, yes. However, the . We can now refer to

equal to each other. in fact. the force of gravitational attraction is nine times weaker. you will answer several questions that require the use of Newton's law of gravitation. Then the satellite moves to a different orbit. If the distance is tripled. In this problem. it is an established consensus among physicists that there is only one mass after all. The force of gravitational interaction between the satellite and the planet is . so that its altitude is tripled. The force of gravitational interaction between them is . Now the separation between the particles is tripled. Note that this consensus.1 Altitude versus distance Part not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Part C . Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Note that the gravitational force between two objects is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Find the new force of gravitational interaction Part B. like everything else in science. is open to possible amendments in the future. . Part B A satellite revolves around a planet at an altitude equal to the radius of the planet. which is a measure of both the object's inertia and its ability to engage in gravitational interactions.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View good news is that according to the latest. Find the new force of gravitational interaction . . the inertial and the gravitational mass of an object are. Part A Two particles are separated by a certain distance. measurements. . highly precise.

Satellite A has mass and has an orbit of radius . Find . Then the satellite is brought back to the surface of the planet. . The forces of gravitational attraction between each satellite and the Earth is the same. Find the new force of gravitational interaction Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = . ANSWER: = 2. the Moon.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View A satellite revolves around a planet at an altitude equal to the radius of the planet.0 tons. An adult elephant shrew has a mass of about 50 grams. ( . Satellite B has mass and an orbit of unknown radius . How far from the center of the Earth should an elephant be placed so that its weight equals that of the elephant shrew on the surface of the Earth? The radius of the Earth is 6400 .00×106 The table below gives the masses of the Earth.) Express your answer in kilometers. The force of gravitational interaction between the satellite and the planet is . and the Sun. Express your answer in terms of . Name Mass (kg) Earth Moon Sun The average distance between the Earth and the Moon is . ANSWER: = Part E An adult elephant has a mass of about 5. Part D Two satellites revolve around the Earth. The average distance .

ANSWER: = 3. Express your answer in newtons to three significant figures. Hint F.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View between the Earth and the Sun is questions.3 Part not displayed Express your answer in newtons to three significant figures.1 Hint not displayed Part F. Part F .50×1022 Understanding Mass and Weight .2 Part not displayed Part F. Use this information to answer the following Find the net gravitational force acting on the Earth in the Sun-Earth-Moon system during the new moon (when the moon is located directly between the Earth and the Sun). ANSWER: = 3.54×1022 Part G Find the net gravitational force acting on the Earth in the Sun-Earth-Moon system during the full moon (when the Earth is located directly between the moon and the sun).

unlike mass. they are also very different. is the mass of that object. in contrast. it is determined by both the object and its location." as in "My weight is seventy-five kilograms" or "I need to lose some weight. is a measure of an object's inertia (ability to resist acceleration). C. For example. B. 12. however.34 m 411 cm 899 MN .0 lbs 0.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Learning Goal: To understand the distinction between mass and weight and to be able to calculate the weight of an object from its mass and Newton's law of gravitation. Weight. Mass is an intrinsic property of an object and is independent of the object's Enter the letters of all the correct answers in alphabetical order. That force depends on the strength of the gravitational field of the planet: . Part A Which of the following quantities represent mass? A. F. where is the weight of an object. D. the word "weight" often replaces "mass. E." Of course. mass and weight are related. is defined as the force due to gravity acting on the object. is not an intrinsic property of the object.34 g 120 kg 1600 kN 0. Weight. if you think that C and D correspond to the correct answers. The concepts of mass and weight are often confused. the strength of the gravitational field at the location of the object). Mass. G. In fact. as you recall. ANSWER: BC Part B . Newton's 2nd law demonstrates the relationship among an object's mass. Do not use commas. its acceleration. and is the local acceleration due to gravity (in other words. in everyday conversations. and the net force acting on it: location. enter CD.

If a rock is transported from the moon to the earth. Part C The gravitational field on the surface of the earth is stronger than that on the surface of the moon. Do not use commas. G. 12. ANSWER: ADG Weight is a force and is measured in newtons (or kilonewtons. is the gravitational constant.0 lbs 0. C. we can find the weight of an object feeling the gravitational pull . megatons. E. D. is simply the radius of the planet.).MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Which of the following quantities would be acceptable representations of weight? A. We can write an expression is the mass of that object. is mass of the planet. For example. if you think that C and D correspond to the correct answers. etc.34 m 411 cm 899 MN Enter the letters of all the correct answers in alphabetical order.) or in pounds (or tons. which properties of the rock change? ANSWER: mass only weight only both mass and weight neither mass nor weight Part D . Using the universal law of gravity. where is the weight of the of a nearby planet. If the object is on the surface of the planet. and object. B. F. is the distance from the center of the planet to the object.34 g 120 kg 1600 kN 0. etc. enter CD. meganewtons.

weight remains the same mass remains the same.80 1.30 2.8 4. Tehar has a mass equal to 2. he steps on the bathroom scale and "weighs in" at 236 lb. weight decreases mass remains the same. As a result. the mass and the radius of each planet are given in terms of the corresponding properties of the earth.80 earth radii.7 0. For instance. weight remains the same Punch Taut is a down-on-his-luck heavyweight boxer.36 12 8.1 4. which of the following changes in the properties of the object take place? ANSWER: mass increases.1 earth masses and a radius equal to 0. His plan is to travel to Xobing. Part E . weight decreases mass decreases.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View An object is lifted from the surface of a spherical planet to an altitude equal to the radius of the planet. Punch decides to go to a different planet where he would weigh in at 118 lb so that he can compete with the bantamweights who are not allowed to exceed 118 lb. Unhappy with his recent bouts.6 0.3 Radius ) ( ) 0.1 5.3 9. weight increases mass remains the same. a newly discovered star with a planetary system. weight increases mass increases.0 Name Tehar Loput Cremury Suven Pentune Rams In this table. One day. Here is a table listing the planets in that system: Mass ( 2. weight decreases mass increases.

which formula gives the acceleration due to gravity on Loput? Hint E.70 Part G .1 What equations to use Hint not displayed ANSWER: Part F If the acceleration due to gravity on the earth is 9. ANSWER: 5.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View If acceleration due to gravity on the earth is .8 on Rams? Express your answer in meters per second squared and use two significant figures. what is the acceleration due to gravity .

The masses and the weights of the athletes are directly proportional--as long as everyone is on the same planet! Escape Velocity . the "weight classes" in boxing are really "mass classes": It is the relative mass of the boxers that matters. weight remains the same Of course. weight increases mass remains the same. weight decreases mass increases. Part G. what actually happens to his mass and his weight? ANSWER: mass increases. weight decreases mass decreases.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Which planet should Punch travel to if his goal is to weigh in at 118 lb? Refer to the table of planetary masses and radii given to determine your answer. weight decreases mass remains the same.1 Part not displayed ANSWER: Tehar Loput Cremury Suven Pentune Rams Part H As Punch Taut travels to Pentune. weight remains the same mass remains the same. weight increases mass increases.

e.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Learning Goal: To introduce you to the concept of escape velocity for a rocket.. ANSWER: Part C Total mechanical energy is conserved. ANSWER: Part E true false true false true false . The escape velocity is defined to be the minimum speed with which an object of mass must move to escape from the gravitational attraction of a much larger body. of the If an object is launched at its escape velocity. such as a planet of total mass . what is the total mechanical energy object at a very large (i. Hint A. Part B Angular momentum about the center of the planet is conserved. ANSWER: Part D Kinetic energy is conserved.1 Consider various cases Hint not displayed ANSWER: = 0 Consider the motion of an object between a point close to the planet and a point very very far from the planet. The escape velocity is a function of the distance of the object from the center of the planet . Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. but unless otherwise specified this distance is taken to be the radius of the planet because it addresses the question "How fast does my rocket have to go to escape from the surface of the planet?" Part A The key to making a concise mathematical definition of escape velocity is to consider the energy. infinite) distance from the planet? Follow the usual convention and take the gravitational potential energy to be zero at very large distances.

so will go to 0 as goes to infinity. so the angle at which the object is launched does not have a significant effect on the energy at large . Assume that . and . the universal gravitational constant. it will have a tangential velocity angular momentum . Properties of Circular Orbits . the radius of the planet. What if the object is not moving directly away from or toward the planet but instead is moving at and an angle from the normal? In this case.3 Hint not displayed Express the escape velocity in terms of ANSWER: = Does it surprise you that the escape velocity does not depend on the mass of the object? Even more surprising is that it does not depend on the direction (as long as the trajectory misses the planet). . The important aspect for determining the escape velocity will therefore be the conservation of total mechanical energy. Part F. for any . . This means that angular momentum can be conserved without adding any kinetic energy at .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View The angular momentum about the center of the planet and the total mechanical energy will be conserved regardless of whether the object moves from small to large (like a rocket being launched) or from large ANSWER: true to small false (like a comet approaching the earth). Since angular momentum is conserved. Any angular momentum given at radius can be conserved with a tangential velocity that vanishes as goes to infinity.1 Part not displayed Part F. .2 Part not displayed Hint F. Part F Find the escape velocity for an object of mass that is initially at a distance from the center of a planet of mass . and ignore air resistance.

3 Hint not displayed Express the orbital speed in terms of ANSWER: = Part B Find the kinetic energy of a satellite with mass . .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Learning Goal: To teach you how to find the parameters characterizing an object in a circular orbit around a much heavier body like the earth. in a circular orbit with radius . Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Part C . . use Part A Find the orbital speed Part A.2 Part not displayed Hint A.1 Part not displayed Part A. . . and . The motivation for Isaac Newton to discover his laws of motion was to explain the properties of planetary orbits that were observed by Tycho Brahe and analyzed by Johannes Kepler. where appropriate. and . for the universal gravitational constant. For all parts of this problem. for a satellite in a circular orbit of radius . A good starting point for understanding this (as well as the speed of the space shuttle and the height of geostationary satellites) is the simplest orbit--a circular one. This problem concerns the properties of circular orbits for a satellite orbiting a planet of mass .

Part D Find the orbital period Hint D. Part not displayed ANSWER: = This is an example of a powerful theorem. and whose potential behaves as . . where the brackets denote the temporal (time) average. known as the Virial Theorem.1 Potential energy in terms of the potential energy . .1 Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = . Rudolf Clausius proved that .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Express the kinetic energy Part C. . Part E . For any system whose motion is periodic or remains forever bounded. and .

1 . in . the magnitude of the angular momentum of the satellite with respect to the center of the planet. . and all represent physical quantities characterizing the orbit that . This is Kepler's Third Law. Part F Find . that order. Hint G. Hint F.500 . and . Hint not displayed Express your answer as a comma-separated list of exponents corresponding to . Indicate the exponent (power) of the radial dependence of the absolute value . .5. . Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = This shows that the square of the period is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis. . . −1.500. Geosynchronous Satellite .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Find an expression for the square of the orbital period.-3/2 would mean ANSWER: −0.0. .1 Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Part G The quantities . . . and so forth.-0. depend on radius of each.−1.-1/2. For example.00. . in the case of a circular orbit where the semi-major axis is equal to the radius. and . and .00. -1.

not the surface. Part A Find the radius of the orbit of a geosynchronous satellite that circles the earth. and it is known as a geostationary satellite. If a geosynchronous satellite is in an equatorial orbit. .2 Part not displayed Part A. ANSWER: = m Satellites and Kepler's Laws . its position appears stationary with respect to a ground station.3 Part not displayed Give the orbital radius in meters to three significant digits. (Note that is measured from the center of the earth.1 Part not displayed Part A. q q Part A.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View A satellite that goes around the earth once every 24 hours is called a geosynchronous satellite. .) You may use the following constants: q The universal gravitational constant The mass of the earth is The radius of the earth is is .

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View This applet shows satellites orbiting a central body from various starting distances.0 and for the major of the orbit of the red satellite with initial speed 1. You should think of this applet as data obtained in an experiment (e. Try to think of a technique that will.1 Hint not displayed Express your answer to three significant figures. Part A of the purple (innermost) satellite when it has an initial speed of Determine the orbital period 2.1 Hint not displayed Give the length of the major axis for the purple satellite followed by the length for that of the red satellite separated by a comma.0. (For this problem. Hint A. Hint C. a set of videos made by compiling data of observations of satellites).. ANSWER: = 2.5.4. the units are chosen for convenience and may be ignored for the first few parts of the problem. the semi-major axis of an ellipse is usually denoted . ANSWER: = 10.60 Part D .) Note that simply watching one orbit and seeing how long it takes will not give you three significant figures. Express your answers to two significant figures. hence we use the notation axis of the purple satellite's orbit.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Express your answer to three significant figures. The mass of the central body is much greater than the masses of the satellites. Recall that of revolution for the red satellite if its initial speed is 1.g.00.5.160 Part B Determine the period Hint B.70 Part C Find the length of the major axis the length of the major axis of the orbit of the purple satellite with initial speed 2. ANSWER: = 3.

1 Hint not displayed Express your answer to three significant figures. Determine the escape speed of one of the satellites from its initial position. Now. Determine the speed for a circular orbit of one of the satellites and use it to find the central mass. B.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Now.. you will get 2. A distance measured as 5 would be . Enter the letters of all of the options that you think are correct in alphabetical order.250 . and use it to find the central mass. Notice that if you take your answer from Part C and calculate the ratio which is the same as your answer here to two significant figures.3. Note that if you use your results from part C.) Part E Which of the following techniques could be used to determine the mass using only information available in the applet? of the central object. assume that the speed is measured in kilometers per second and the distance is measured in hundreds of thousands of kilometers. (e. ANSWER: BC Part F . C. without spaces or commas between them. your answer will have two significant figures instead of three.g. use the periods (obtained in Parts A and B) and Kepler's laws to determine the ratio the semi-major axes. of A. Determine the initial potential energy of one of the satellites and use it to find the central mass. ANSWER: = 2. Hint D.

2 Hint not displayed Part F.1 Part not displayed Hint F. can you find the red satellite's mass? ANSWER: Part H Using only information available in the applet to determine the escape speed of the red satellite from its initial position.3 Part not displayed Hint F.4 Hint not displayed Express your answer in kilograms to two significant figures and remember that speed is measured in kilometers per second and distance is measured in hundreds of thousands of kilometers.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Use one of these techniques to determine the mass of the central object. can you find the red satellite's mass? ANSWER: Part I Using only information available in the applet to determine the speed for a circular orbit of the red satellite. . the mass of the satellite cancels out of the expressions for the speed in a circular orbit and the escape speed. can you find the red satellite's mass? ANSWER: yes no yes no yes no None of the techniques will work and hence the mass of an orbiting satellite cannot be found using information in the applet. Part F. Interestingly. but the potential energy cannot be determined directly from the applet.87×1024 Part G Using only information available in the applet to determine the initial potential energy of the red satellite. Experiment with the applet to help you make this choice. ANSWER: = 5. The potential energy could be used to determine the satellite's mass. Be sure to think about which satellite will give the most accurate information for the method you choose.

have about the same mass as our sun but a much smaller diameter.67×10 .2 Part not displayed Part A.3 Part not displayed Express your answer in newtons.0 ? Take the mass of the sun to be −11 = 1. ANSWER: = 7.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Weight on a Neutron Star Neutron stars.49×1013 This is over times your weight on earth! . . what would you weigh on the surface of a neutron star that has the same mass as our sun and a diameter of 22.99×1030 . such as the one at the center of the Crab Nebula. Part A If you weigh 670 on the earth. the gravitational constant to be = 6. and the acceleration due to gravity at the earth's surface to be = 9.810 Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Part A.

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