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• • • • • • • • Type of Propulsion Size of Aircraft Minimum Turning Radius Minimum Circling Radius Speed of Aircraft Capacity of Aircraft Aircraft Weight and Wheel Configuration Jet Blast and Noise
Type of Propulsion
• Propeller driven Piston Engine (P)
– Thrust is generated by propeller which is powered by gasoline fed reciprocating engine (Cesna Aircrafts)
• Turbo Prop (TP)
– Thrust is generated by propeller which is powered by turbine engine. Its turbine uses almost all the engine's energy to turn its compressor and propeller, and it depends on the propeller for thrust, rather than on the high-velocity gases going out of the exhaust. (ATR, Dornier)
• Turbo Jet (TJ)
– Don’t depend on propeller for thrust. Thrust is directly obtained from turbine engines (Concorde)
• Turbo Fan (TF)
– Similar to turbo jet, but with a small fan attached to the turbine engine. The fan causes more air to flow around (bypass) the engine. This produces greater thrust and reduces specific fuel consumption. This propulsion system is the most efficient. (most of the present day principal transport aircrfats – Airbus, Boeng, McDonnell-Douglas)
Turbo Fan .
turning radius. Determines size of gate. etc. – These dimensions effect the minimum turning radius. . etc. The outer to outer distance between the two landing gears is outer main gear wheel span. Determines the minimum turning radius • Wheel tread / Outer main gear wheel span – The centre to centre distance between the two landing gears is wheel tread. • Fuselage length – The overall length of aircraft from tip of nose to the tail. width of taxiway. size of gates. turning radius. etc. Determines separation clearance between two parallel taxiways. • Height – Determines the vertical clearances required in hangar and other service areas • Wheel base – Centre to centre distance between nose gear and landing gear.Size of Aircraft • Wing span – Distance between two wing tips.
Size of Aircraft (B-747) Height Fuselage Length Wing span .
while working out minimum turning radii.Minimum Turning Radius • This dimension is important for establishing the geometry of movement of the aircraft. • The exact position of the aircraft adjacent to the terminal building and the path of the aircraft at other locations is determined based on the turning radius. • Turning radius is a function of nose gear turning angle (caster angle). moderate caster angle (50) is used to minimize the wear and tear of nose gear. The maximum turning angle varies between 600 – 800. . • However.
Determining Minimum Turning Radius .
• Depends on type of aircraft. weather condition.Minimum Circling Radius • This is the minimum radius with which aircraft can take turn in space. • Determines the spacing between two airports . air traffic volume. etc.
Typical Values for Minimum Circling Radii • Small general aviation aircrafts operating under Visual Flight Rules • Bigger aircrafts operating under Visual Flight Rules • Piston Engine aircrafts operating under Instrument Flight Rules • Jet Engine aircrafts operating under Instrument Flight Rules 1.6 km 3.2 km 13 km 80 km .
85 km) • Approach speed. touchdown speed. . exit speed and allowable deceleration values determine the location and design of exit taxiways.Speed of Aircraft • Speed of aircraft is measured either with respect to ground (termed as cruising speed or ground speed) or relative to wind (termed as air speed) • Speed of aircraft is reported in Nautical Miles per hour (1 nautical mile = 1.
the bending moments at the junction of wing and fuselage do not become excessive. • Payload – This is the total revenue producing load: passengers + baggage + mail + cargo • Maximum Structural Payload – The maximum payload the aircraft is certified to carry. so that. etc. Theoretically. .OEW – Actual payload often is less than this as much of space is occupied by seats. but including crew and necessary gear required for flight • Zero Fuel weight (ZFW) – The weight above which all additional weight must be in terms of fuel. Maximum Structural Payload = ZFW . when the aircraft is in flight.Aircraft Weight • Operating Empty Weight (OEW) – Weight of aircraft excluding payload and fuel.
OEW. • Maximum Structural Landing Weight – This is the weight for which the landing gear is designed. – Thus. the fuel is jettisoned so as not to exceed the maximum structural landing weight . payload and trip and reserve fuel. It excludes taxi and run-up fuel and includes. • Maximum Ramp Weight – This is the maximum total weight of the aircraft authorised for ground maneuver • Maximum Structural Takeoff Weight – The maximum weight of the aircraft authorised at brake release for takeoff. – In case of abortive takeoff. Maximum structural landing weight is less than the maximum structural takeoff weight as aircraft loses weight en route by burning fuel. The total weight of the aircraft can not exceed this while landing. the difference between ramp weight and takeoff weight is nominal.Aircraft Weight Contd.
. • Maximum ramp weight is used while working out the distribution of load for pavement design purposes. • The distribution of the load between the main gears and the landing gear depends on the type of aircraft and the location of the centre of gravity of the aircraft • However. for pavement design it is normally assumed that 95% of the weight is supported on the two landing gears.Gear Configuration • Aircrafts are supported by a nose gear and two main landing gears located on the wing area on each side.
Gear Configurations Single wheel Dual wheel Dual-in-tandem Double dual-in-tandem .
B767 • Double Dual-in-tandem – B747A.Gear Configuration Contd. B 727 • Dual-in-tandem – A300. B720B. A310. • Single wheel – Small aircrafts (Douglas DC-3) • Dual wheel – B 737. B747B . B757. A320. B701.
Payload Vs Range • Range of an aircraft is the maximum distance it can fly satisfying the norms relating to reserve fuel and the maximum weight characteristics. . the payload has to be reduced (say to PB) giving way for additional fuel filling the fuel tanks completely. • In order to maximise the range (say to RB). • Using these curves the exact weight characteristics of the aircrafts can be obtained by knowing their scheduled operations. These curves are useful in the planning of airport. the requirements of reserve fuel will not apply. • The payload vs range curves are given by the manufacturer. The range worked out by considering maximum trip fuel and reserve fuel under zero payload is termed as ferry range (RC). the fuel tanks can not be completely filled to satisfy the requirement of maximum structural takeoff weight limiting the range (say to RA). • When the aircraft is not on a passenger flight. • When the aircraft is loaded to its maximum structural payload (PA).
PC) 7000 Range. kg 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 (RB. PA) Payload. PB) (RC. Nautical miles .Typical Payload versus Range Curve 40000 (RA.
25 hr in en route service Average route speed: 869 km/hr Average fuel burn rate: 6.Weight characteristics of an aircraft Maximum structural takeoff weight 99880 kg Maximum structural landing weight 89892 kg Zero fuel weight Operating empty weight Maximum structural payload Fuel capacity 82860 kg 56982 kg 25878 kg 34232 kg Reserve fuel requirement: 1.43 kg/km Prepare payload versus range relationship .
• Jet blast of aircraft influences the design of blast pads at runway ends and the parking configurations adjacent to the terminals. • The noise contours are superimposed on the land use map of the airport to get a noise footprint. These footprints are used in optimizing the runway layouts minimizing the adverse effect on the surrounding communities. It also determines the range of the aircraft • Noise created by the aircraft influences the decisions on airport layout and capacity.Other Aircraft Characteristics • Capacity of aircraft determines the facilities with in and adjacent to the terminal building. .
Basic Runway Length • Basic runway length is the length of runway required based on the imposed performance requirements of the critical aircraft under standard conditions • Basic runway length has to be determined for the following three general cases – Normal landing case – Normal Takeoff case – Engine failure case • Continued takeoff • Aborted takeoff (Engine failure accelerated stop) .
clear of obstacles (max slope is 1. allowing the aircraft to climb safely to clear an imaginary 11 m (35’) obstacle. • Stop way is a paved surface that allows an aircraft overrun to take place without harming the vehicle structurally (cannot be used for takeoff) .Runway Components • The three basic components of runway are: – Full strength pavement (FS) – Clearway (CL) – Stopway (SW) • Full strength pavement should support the full weight of the aircraft • Clearway is a prepared area beyond FS.25%).
Stopway Direction of operation Departure end of runway Sto p wa y Source: FAA AC: 150/5300-13 (1989) .
Clearway Direction of operation Departure end of runway Maximum Upward Slope (1.25%) Clea rway Cle arw a yL eng th m 150 Source: FAA AC: 150/5300-13 (1989) .
Runway Components Each runway end has to be considered individually for runway length analysis .
) obstacle .Nomenclature • • • • • • • • • • FL = field length (total amount of runway needed) FS = full strength pavement distance CL = clearway distance SW = stopway distance LOD = lift off distance TOR = takeoff run TOD = takeoff distance LD = landing distance SD = stopping distance D35 = distance to clear an 11 m (35 ft.
667 * SD FSland = LD .Normal Landing Case • • Pilot approaches with proper speed and crosses the threshold of the runway at a height of 15m The demonstrated distance to stop an aircraft should be within 60% of landing distance LD = 1.
15 times the D35 – The entire length of TOD need not be of full strength pavement.Normal Takeoff Case • The length of runway depends on – Lift off distance (LOD) – Distance to reach a height of 35 feet (~11 m) (D35) • Take of Distance (TOD) is taken as 1. – The regulations permit the use of Clearway at the end of full strength pavement • Clearway Length (CL) = 0. which is TOD-CL.5(TOD-1.15LOD) • The full strength runway. is also termed as Take off Run (TOR) .
Normal Takeoff Case RELATIONSHIPS: .
Engine Failure Continued Takeoff Case • Engine failure continued takeoff – TOD and LOD will be longer than those in normal takeoff case – TOD is taken as D35 with no percentage applied – Regulations permit the use of clearway at the end – Length of Clearway (CL) is half the difference between TOD and LOD – FS = TOR = TOD-CL – FL = FS + CL .
full strength pavement is used for the entire DAS • For turbine engine aircrafts. decelerating and coming to a stop. regulations permit the use of Stopway for portion of DAS beyond TOR. in such a situation. .Engine Failure Aborted Takeoff Case • The length of runway should be sufficient to bring the plane to a stop • The distance required by an aero plane for accelerating. is termed as Distance to Accelerated Stop (DAS) • For piston engine aircrafts.
Engine Failure Case .
Example Problem • Determine the runway length requirements according to the specifications for a turbine powered aircraft with the following performance characteristics: • Normal Landing: SD = 2540 m • Normal Takeoff: LOD = 2134 m D35 = 2438 • Engine Failure Continued Takeoff: LOD = 2500 m D35 =2774 m • Engine Failure Aborted Takeoff: DAS = 2896 m .
667*1524 = 2540 m • Normal takeoff: TOD = 1.667*SD = 1. TOD.15LOD) = 0.15 (D35) = 1.5(TOD-1. LD) = 2637 m 259 m SW = (DAS – FS) = 259 m CL = FL – (FS+SW) = 2896 – 2896 = 0 2637 m 259 m .5(2804-1.15*2438 = 2804 m CL = 0. DAS) = 2896 m FS = max (TOR.15*2134) = 175 m TOR = TOD –CL = 2804 -175 = 2629 m • Engine failure take off: TOD = D35 = 2774 m CL = 0.5(2774-2500) =137 m TOR = TOD – CL = 2774 – 137 = 2637 m • Engine failure aborted take off: DAS = 2896 m • Summary: FL =max (LD.5(TOD-LOD) = 0.Solution • Normal landing: LD = 1.
Environs at the Airport • Basic runway length is valid under the following assumed conditions at the airport – – – – – – – Altitude is at sea level Temperature at the airport is standard Runway is level in the longitudinal direction No wind is blowing on runway Aircraft is loaded to its full loading capacity No wind is blowing en route to the destination En route temperature is standard .
Corrections to Basic Runway Length • The basic runway length is corrected for the actual conditions at the airport • The following corrections are applied: – Correction for elevation – Correction for temperature – Correction for gradient .
• The rate of increase at higher altitudes is higher than at lower altitudes. • ICAO. • The increase in runway length with altitude is not linear and it varies with weight and temperature. however. higher the altitude the longer the runway required. recommends that the basic runway length should be increased at the rate of 7% per 300 m rise in elevation above mean sea level. . resulting in lower output of thrust. • Therefore.Correction for Elevation • High altitudes reflect low air densities. where the increase could be up to 10%. • There is exception for high temperature and high altitude areas.
Correction for Temperature
• Higher temperatures reflect lower air densities resulting in lower out put of thrust. • Therefore, higher the temperature the longer the runway required. • The increase in runway length with temperature is not linear. • The rate of increase at high temperatures is greater than at lower temperatures. • ICAO, however, recommends that the base runway length after having been corrected for elevation, should be further increased at the rate of 1% for every 1oC rise of airport reference temperature above the standard atmospheric temperature at that elevation.
Airport Reference Temperature
If, T1 = Mean of the mean daily temperatures for the hottest month T2 = Mean of the maximum daily temperatures for the hottest month Then, airport reference temperature (T) is found out as T = T1 + (T2 – T1)/3
Standard Atmospheric Temperature
• The standard temperature at mean sea level is 15oC. • The temperature gradient of the standard temperature from the mean sea level to the altitude at which the temperature becomes -15.5oC is 0.0065oC per metre. • The temperature gradient becomes zero at the elevation above the altitude at which the temperature is -15.5oC.
Check for Correction • The total correction in basic runway length for elevation and temperature should not exceed 35%. • If this correction exceeds 35% further checks are needed using model studies. .
5% . • Airport design criteria limits the runway gradient to a maximum of 1.Correction for Gradient • If the runway is on gradient. • Studies indicate that the runway length varies linearly with the gradient. the aircraft has to overcome the grade resistance. • More runway length is required to achieve the required speed for liftoff.
Effective Gradient • For applying correction to runway length for gradient. h1 h2 L h3 h4 • Effective gradient = (h4 – h3)/L . • Effective gradient is defined as the maximum difference in elevation between the highest and the lowest points of runway divided by the total length of runway. FAA uses effective gradient.
.Correction for Gradient • FAA recommends that the runway length after having been corrected for elevation and temperature should be further increased at the rate of 20% for every 1% effective gradient.
5 -0.Example Problem • • • • • • Determine the actual length of runway to be provided for the following data Basic runway length: 1500 m Elevation of the runway: 110 m +MSL Mean of average daily temperatures for the hottest month: 18oC Mean of maximum daily temperatures: 30oC The construction plan includes the following data: Station to Station Gradient (%) 0 – 300 300 – 900 900 – 1500 1500 – 1800 1800 .5 -0.0 -0.3 1.2100 0.3 .
5×(22-14.2-1500)/(1500/100) = 10.2850C – Airport reference temperature = 18+(30-18)/3 = 220C – Correction = 1538.50 = 1538.50 m • Correction for temperature: – Standard temperature = 15 – 0.5 + 118.7 = 1657.48%<35% – Okay .0065×110 = 14.2 m • Check for elevation and temperature correction – Increase in runway length = (1657.7 m – Corrected length = 1538.50 m • Corrected length = 1500 + 38.Solution • Correction for elevation = (7/100)×(110/300)×(1500) = 38.285) ×(1/100) = 118.
2 m • Actual runway length at the airport = 1780 m. • Correction for gradient – Station 0 300 101.362% – Correction = 1657.2 × (0.7 1800 104.7 1500 105.2] ×100 = 0.2 + 120 = 1777.3 – Elevation 100 – Effective gradient = [(105.2 2100 103. .Solution Contd.7 – 99.7)/1657.362 × 20)/100 = 120 m – Corrected length = 1657.5 900 99.
. • The terminal building should be located so as to provide easy and timely access to runways. • Orientation of runways depends on the direction of wind. • Number of runways depends on air traffic volume.Airport Configuration • Airport configuration is defined as the number and orientation of runways and the location of the terminal area relative to the runways. size and shape of the area and land use and airspace use restrictions in the vicinity of airport.
• High intensity winds perpendicular to the direction of runway cause wobbling effect and cause problems during landing and takeoff of aircrafts. intensity (speed). • The data on the parameters of wind namely. .Analysis of Wind for Orienting Runways • Runways are oriented in the direction of prevailing winds. • Smaller aircrafts are particularly effected by these crosswinds. direction and duration are essential to determine the orientation of runways.
5 km/hr .Analysis of Wind • Cross wind component – The component of wind intensity perpendicular to the centre line of runway is termed as cross wind component. This depends on the size of aircraft. • Allowable cross wind component – This is the maximum cross wind component that is safe for aircraft operations. wing configuration and the condition of the pavement surface. – ICAO guidelines on cross wind component Runway Length (m) ACW Component (km/hr) >1500 1200 – 1500 <1200 37 km /hr 24 km/hr 18.
• Calm Period – Percentage of time during which wind intensity is less than a small value of wind speed (say 6. • Wind rose – A diagram where in the direction.5 km/hr) which will not effect the operations. a cross wind runway should be provided to achieve the same. duration and intensity are graphically represented.Analysis of Wind • Wind coverage – The amount of time in an year during which the cross wind component is less than the allowable cross wind component – FAA specifies that the system of runways at an airport should be oriented in such a way to give at least 95% wind coverage. – If it is not possible to achieve the specified wind coverage with one runway. .
1993) .Typical Wind Data for Wind Rose (Source: Horonjeff and Mckelvey.
41-47.Collection of Wind Data • The wind information that is used in the analysis should be latest and should accurately represent the situation. wind data for the last 10 consecutive years should be collected for carrying out the analysis. • Preferably. • Wind data records for durations less than 10 years may be utilized with caution. . 7-11. 11-17. 17-22. over 47 knots) • At least 16 wind quadrants and suitable speed groupings should be used. 22-28. it may be highly desirable to obtain and assemble wind information for periods of particular significance. • Indian Meteorological Department is the source for the collection of wind data in India. 4-7. • In some instances. 34-41. • FAA specifies that the wind summary for the airport site should be formatted with the standard 36 wind quadrants and usual speed groupings (0-4. 28-34.
it is permissible to develop composite wind data using wind information obtained from two or more nearby recording stations.Collection of Wind Data • In the absence of wind data for a site. the terrain between the site and the recording stations should be plain or rolling for developing the composite wind data. wind data should be collected for at least one year at the site and the composite wind data for the site should be prepared my merging the data from nearby recording stations and augmented with personal observations. • In extreme cases. However. • Airport development should not proceed until adequate wind data are acquired .
1993) .Wind Rose Construction (Source: Horonjeff and Mckelvey.
Graphical Representation of Wind Parameters CWC V cos θ V/ cos θ CWC V V sin θ V/ sin θ V/ .
Completed Wind Rose (Source: Horonjeff and Mckelvey.1993) .
Wind Coverage of E-W Runway Wind Coverage = 90.1993) .8 % (Source: Horonjeff and Mckelvey.
8% (Source: Horonjeff and Mckelvey.1993) .Wind Coverage of CW Runway • Wind Coverage = 84.8 % • Additional Wind Coverage = 5.
6 % (Source: Horonjeff and Mckelvey.1993) .Wind Coverage of the Runway System Wind Coverage of the runway system = 96.
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