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S
IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING EXAMINATIONS 2006
EEE/ISE PART II: MEng, BEng and ACGI
SIGNALS AND LINEAR SYSTEMS
Corrected Copy
NcJh
Wednesday, 7 June 2:00 pm Time allowed: 2:00 hours
.e;
There are FOUR questions
on this paper,
01 is compulsory. Answer 01 and any two of questions 2·4. Q1 carries 40% of the marks. Questions 2 to 4 carry equal marks (30% each).
Any special instructions for invigilators candidates are on page 1.
and information
for
Examiners responsible
First Marker(s) : Second Marker(s):
P.T. Stathaki, . A.G. Constantinides,
© University of London 2006
1.
Consider the discretetime system with the following inputoutput relationship x[n]x[nl] y [ n.] = 2 with x[n] the input of the system and y[n] the output of the system. (i) (ii) Is this system linear and timeinvariant? Justify your answer. (1)
[5]
Find the impulse response h[n] Sketch the impulse response. of the system and express it compactly in a mathematical form.
(iii)
[5] Find the step response s[nJ of the system and express it compactly in a mathematical form. Sketch the step response.
(iv)
By performing the discrete time convolution system when the input is given by x[n]
yen]
= x[n] * h[n]
[5] find the output yen] of the
=
Verify that the output is indeed the output expected from the filter defined in Equation (1) above, when the input is the signal x[nJ defined in Equation (2) above. [5] (v) Consider a discrete signal x[nJ with Discrete Time Fourier Transform Discrete Time Fourier Transform of the signal x[n  no] with no any integer. X (e
jW ).
i
n. n = 0,1,2,3,4
0, otherwise.
(2)
Find the
[5]
(vi) Find the Discrete Time Fourier Transform of the signal x[n] with ztransform
X(z).
defined in (iv),
[5]
(vii) Consider a discrete signal x[n]
x[nno]
Find the ztransform of the signal
with no any integer.
[5]
(viii) Find the ztransform of the output y[n] of the system defined in Equation (1) above, when the input is the function x[n] defined in (iv).
[5]
Signals and Linear Systems
Page 1 of4
2.
(a) Consider a discrete, real and even signal fundamental frequency (i)
aJo
Xl
[n]
that is periodic with period
N = 7 and
=
21l
N
.
Prove that the Fourier series coefficients Ck of Xl [n] given by 1 Ni []ejk(21lIN)1l C «> " L.,xln N n..o are real and even.
[6]
(ii) (iii)
Show that the coefficients ck are periodic with respect to k with period N == 7.
[6]
Given that
CIS
== 1,
C16
= 2,
e17
=3,
[6]
determine the values of c_1,
C_2'
c3•
(Definition: A discrete signal x[n] is even if x[ n] = x[n]).
i1
(b) Find the Discrete Time Fourier Transform of the discrete signal x2 en] == a u[n], lal < 1, where
urn]
is the discrete unit step function defined as
urn]
={
I,
n~O
0, otherwise.
You may wish to use the relationship
n=O
Ix" =_1_, if Ixl < 1. 1 x
[6]
(c) The input x[n] and output y[n] the difference equation
of a stable and causal linear, timeinvariant system are related by
y[n]
5 '6 yen 1]+'6 1 y[n
 2]::: x[n].
Find the impulse response of this system.
[6]
Signals and Linear Systems
Page 2 of4
3.
(a) Consider a continuoustime signal x(t) which is sampled uniformly with sampling period obtain the signal (i) (ii) Prove that Prove X,( OJ)
Xs
r: to
[7]
(t)
= xC!) I b(t
k~__'
+..
 kr;), where J(t)
jk::""/
~tr
is the continuoustime impulse function.
x (t) = J
1
T,
x(t)
+~
Ie
T,
k~<oo
that
the
Fourier
transform 2n
of
the
sampled
signal
xs(t)
IS
=
1
kH'"
T, k~
I X (OJ + kco, ), COs = 
T,
where X (w) is the Fourier transform of the original
[8]
signal x(t) .
(b) Consider a continuoustime signal xCt) with Fourier transform X(w)=(l
2nxlO
I~ 3)TI( 4nxlO 3). OJ
where
0)
is the angular frequency and TI(cv) is defined as: IT(co)
=
I { 0.5
We
sample
xs(t)=x(t) (i)
k~

o
jcq = 0.5
otherwise. period
Icq <0.5
x(t)
uniformly
with
sampling
T,
to
obtain
the
signal
I.J(tkT,). T,
be and yet allow perfect reconstruction
Xs
How large can
of the continuoustime .
signal [7]
[8]
(ii)
from its samples? Sketch the Fourier transform of
(t),
X s (co) , assuming
7: = a.lms
Signals and Linear Systems
Page 3 of 4
4.
(a) (i)
Find the analytical expression and the region of convergence (ROC) of the ztransform of the discrete causal signal x[n] function defined as
= a"u[n
urn]
1], with a real and urn] the discrete unit step
={
I, 0,
n:2:0 otherwise.
[6]
(ii) Find the analytical expression and the region of convergence (ROC) of the ztransform of the discrete anticausal signal x[n] function. For parts (a) (i), (a) (ii) you may wish to use the relationship
= anu[ n] , with
a real and urn] the discrete unit step
,,~O
L x" = ,_1_, if Ixl < 1. 1x
[6]
(b) Consider a linear, timeinvariant system with input x[n] and output y[n] related by the difference equation yen] _ 9 y[n 1] + 2y[n 2] = 7x[n].
2
Determine the impulse response and its ztransform in the following three cases: (i) (ii) (iii) The system is causal. The system is stable. The system is neither causal nor stable.
[18]
Signals and Linear Systems
Page 4 of 4
tl'
s
Z,i~","J.s +(
S.j,"f.MJ
~.:>Iu~·~ .
'700
Answer (i) Yes, since if the inputs ~[n] input a,x,[n] + a2x2[n] (ii) and x2[n] produce the outputs YI[n]
and hen] respectively, the
will produce the output Q,Yt[n]
+ a2Y2[n].
The impulse response of the system hen] is defined as the output of the system when the input is the impulse function J[n] . Therefore, hen] = 8[n]  J[n 1] . This function is shown below: 2 hen]
1/2
___ +
o
, __ .n
(iii)
The step response of the system sen] is defined as the output of the system when the input is
th e
. functi [] urut step . unction un.
Th erelore, s []n =. u[n]u[n1] + . ·22
8[n] . ThiIS runcnon IS Sh. own c . . = 
below: s[n]
112
__ + +n
o
(iv) This is defined as y[n]= hink]
+~
Lx[k]h[nk].
In that case x[k]
is nonzero if O:::;;k::;4 and We may find three
is nonzero if Osnks1=:>I:::;;n+ksO=>n1Sk:::;;n.
separate cases for which the two intervals overlap, and therefore the convolution is nonzero. I. The lower bound of the function x(k] lies within the bounds of the function h[n  k] , i.e., nl:::;;O::;n=>Osn::;l.
In
y[O]
that
case
y[n]=
+00
~_
Ix[k]h[nk]=I(6'[nk]O[nkl])k=n.
nIL
~2
2
Therefore,
2.
2 The bounds of the function hen  k] are included within the bounds of the function x[ k] , nl>0=>n>1 In that case y[n] and ns4,i.e., 1<n::;4
= 0 and yell = 2. .
=
k=n12
±
.!.C8[nk]J[nkl])k=_CnI)+!:=.!..
2
2
2
3. The upper bound of the function x[k] lies within the bounds of the function hen  k], i.e., nl!S4<n=>4<ns5=> In that case y[5] Thus, n=5. x[k]h[5  k]
k=
=~
= x[5]h[0]
+ x[ 4]h[l]
= 5.!
2
 4.!. =.!. . 22
y[n]
={J
=
n=O n
= 1,2,3,4,5
,jZ
.
otherwise
x[]
From the re 1· ations hi y [] ip n get yen] as above, since: yeO] = x[O] ~ "\11]
(v)
(VI ')
=
x[n]
+ x[n 1] we see t hat lor the given f'unction . .
2
n we can
= 0,
nno
y[l] = xCI] ; x[O]
±,
etc.
e iW)
~ L.,x [ nno ] ejrm
~
~x[  L.,
] e jw(nlIo) e j(a'o e
jla'oX(
L.,ne
jrm
=e
j(1)
+ 2e 2}(O + 3e 3jaJ + 4e 4jW
11=1
2.
(a) Consider the discrete, real and even signal
x[n]
that is periodic with period
N
=7
.
and
fundamental frequency (Vo = 2n . Suppose that the Fourier series coefficients of x(t) N 1 NI . c. =_ "x [n]e)k(21rIN)n and also (i)
k
are ck
N
L., 11=0
I·
1 c, =_
N
c., _
__
Ixj[n]ejk(2"'IN)n
,,=(NI) Nl "
0
1 NJ = Lx [n]eJk(2"'IN)1I
N
11=0
j
1 =N
. __
NI IxtCn]e1k(2"'IN)II ,,=0
=c;
_
1 N
L.,XI n
[.]eJk(2"'IN)CIIJ

__
1 N
(NI) '\'
L.,Xj
[_
n
]ejk(21rIN)/I
1 N

(NI) "
L.,Xl n
[]eJk(21EIN)I1
11=0
11=0
11=0
 Ck
.
(ii) Nn~ Since the Fourier series coefficients
CIS
Ck+N _
•
_
1
NI
'\'
L.,Xl n
[]eJ(k+N)(21rIN)n
_
(iii)
Ck
NII~ will be real and even. Given that cI6
_
1
Nl
L.xI
'\'
[]eJk(21rIN)n
n
e
j2m
_
=c,
= 1,
= 2,
c17
=::
3
determine the values of c_I,
C_1 =::
c1 = CIS = 1 c_2 = c2 = Cl6 = 2
C_2,
C3.
c_3 = C3
= e17
.
=3
x[n]
(b) Find the Fourier transform of the discrete signal In this case X(eJl)))=
= a"u[ n J, lal < 1 .
1
lae _jw,lal<l
I
n=~
+00
a"u[n]e)M"=:L(aeJf))t=.
11=0
.
+00.
(c) The input and output of a stable and causal LTI system are related by the differential equation y[n]   y[n lJ Find the impulse response of this system. We take the Fourier transform in both sides:
5
.
6
+  y[n  2] = x[n] 6
1
Y(eJIlI)
_2.ejWY(eJIlI)
6
.
1
+..!.e 2JIlIY(e}W)
6
:::: x (ejW)
:::::>
Y(eiW) S_jill I e
6
+e
3
1
2jw
=
1 (1
6
..!.e2
jw
)(1 ~ e  jM) 3
=
2
(1
.!. e  jW)
3
:::::> (1 .!_ e  jW)
2
h[n] = [2(.!.)"  3(.!.)fI ]u[n]
·32
3.
(a)(i) The continuoustime impulse train
k=o<>
2:o(t 
~
kT) is a periodic function and therefore it can be
TL
. . . . . wntten usmg F' ouner series, Th e F' ouner senes coe ffiicients are ck
= 1
r, .z,
2
2£
0
1:'(t ) e  jko)l d t = . 1
s
T.,
Therefore, x,(t)=x(t)
+00
Io(tkT.,)=x(t)
k=~
1
+..
T.,
Ie
. 27r Jkt
1~
k=
(ii) The Fourier transform of the signal ejWst x(t) transform of the sampled signal x, (r) is X s (e1W)
is X (J(w
(l)s»
and therefore the Fourier 271
.
= , I X (OJ + kwJ, W.I' = , .
75 k=..
Q
1
k=+=
T,
(b )(i)
The function equal to
TIC
471XlO
Q
3)
is equal to 1 if
..!. <
2
4nx103
<..!.
2
::::>
2nx 103
< Q < 2n x 103 ,
..!. if .Q = ±21Z'xl03
2
and 0 otherwise. Therefore, X (n) bas the form shown below.
X(Q)
Based on the sampling theorem (called also Nyquist criterion) the sampling frequency must be at twice the maximum frequency of the signal. In that case:
Qs
=21if, :<::1(lnxl03):::::>!s
:<::lxl03 ::::>Ts =
)s
sO.5xl03
has the
(ii) Based on the analysis given in the first section of this set of notes, the DTFr of x[n]
form shown below. The horizontal axis
to
is the axis Q shown above, multiplied by
T, ;;:; sec 104
(j)
Z.Z1r
4.
(a) (i) The z transform expression is X(z)= If
+00
L:all zn = L(az't1
11=0
+00
Jaz II < 1, or equivalently, Izl> lal' the above sum converges
X(z)= laz
,,=1
and
1 _] 1=_z_I=(l,lzl>lal
za za _a" {o n<O
n<'::O
x () = n
(ii) The z transform expression is
If
la zl < 1, or equivalently, Izi < lal ' the above sum converges
I
and
X(z):;:
Ia
1 =_a_,lzl <Ial
1
z
1
za
(b) y[n]
_2. y[n
2
1] + 2y[n  2] 7x[n] => Y(z)
=
_2.z Y(z)
2 8 =>
+ 2z2y(z)
= 7 X(z)
=> H (z) =
7 9 1z 2
I
=
?
2
1 11 z 2
1

+z
1 4z1
Causal Stable Nether causal nor stable
hen)
= (..!.. )'1 urn] + 4'1 urn]
2
hen) = (.!.)II urn]  4" u[ n 1]
2
.
hen) = (!y u[nl] 2 hen)
+ 4 "u[n] or
 4" u[n 1]
= c.!.r u[n1]
2
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