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63753802 USAAF Bombardier School Students Manual Norden Bomb Sight C 1 Autopilot

63753802 USAAF Bombardier School Students Manual Norden Bomb Sight C 1 Autopilot

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ARMY AIR FORCES
TRAINING COMMAND
STUDENTS' MANUAL
Prepared by the
ARMY AIR FORCES TRAINING COMMAND
Visual Training Deportment, in Collaboration with the
ARMY AIR FORCES INSTRUCTORS' SCHOOL (BOMBARDIER)
M.A.A.F., Midland, Texas, and
ARM Y A I R FO R C E S B 0 MBA R DIE R S C H 0 0 l S
TO BE USED AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CURRENT AAF TRAINING COMMAND MEMORANDUM COVERING
BOMBARDIER TRAINING
NOTICE: This doc ume nt contains informat ion oRe cling the Notional Defense of the United Stoles ..... ithin the
meaning of th e Es pi o nage Act, 50 U.5.C. , 31 ond 32, 05 amend e d. It s transmission or the revel ation of its
conlents in ony man ner to on unaut hori ze d person is prohi bited by low.
ARMY AIR FORCES TRAINING COMMAND
RESTRICTED
The Air Force demands precision and absolute
accuracy from the Bombardier. There is n<? middle
ground. You are either an expert or you ore not a
bombardier. The importance of your responsibility
is obvious. You, and your pilot, have equipment and
troining that will destroy the enemy.
This is Y0l!r manual. It contoins the combined com-
bat experience plus the teaching experience of
t housands of instructors. Study It. Learn It . Then,
when you enter combat there will be no doubt of
the results.
i ~
>';0
~ .
,
,
\
\
,
,
,
\
\
lieutenant General, U.S.A.,
Commanding
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FOREWORD by General Yount
SECTION I - THE BOMBING PROBLEM
History of Bombing
Theory of Bombing
The Gyroscope :
Bombing Errors .
Bombing Analysis
SECTION 2-BOMBING COMPUTATIONS
REST RI CTE D
1-1
1-2
1-3
1- 4
1-5
Introduction 2-1
Slide Rule and Airspeed Computations Using the E-68 Computer 2-2
Vector Soluti o ns . 2- 3
Vector Solutions on the E-6B Comput er 2- 4
Al titude Correction Computations 2-5
The Automatic Bombing Computer 2- 6
. SECTION 3- C-l AUTOPILOT
REST·R ICTED
Introduction
Construction
Compl ete Syst em
Operati on
No menclature
SECTION 4- M-SERIES BOMBSIGHT
Introduction
Construction and Oper at ion
Pre flight Procedure
Inspections .
Trouble-Shooting
Nomenclat ure
SECTION 5- BOMBING TRAINER
Trai ner Theory
Tra iner Operation
Tactical Bombing Practice .
SECTI ON 6-BOMBING PROCEDURES
Conduct of a Training -Qualification Mission
Fixed Angl e Bombing
Conduct of a Training Combat Missi o n .
GLOSSARY OF TERMS. Equot ;ons, Constonts ond Conve,,;on Facta" .
3-1
3-2
3- 3
3- 4
3-5
4- 1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4- 5
4-6
5- 1
5-2
5-3
6-1
6-2
6-3
7-1
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SECTION 1
~ - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - -
...
...
...
\ ~ ' "
~ ~
HISTORY OF BOMBING
Fleets of bombers, operating thousands of
miles from their home bases, daily give new
effectiveness to strategy_
This objective is to get above the enemy
and drop destructive missles on him.
To get this "upper hold," warfare began
with prehistoric man dropping rocks and
spears from cliffs and trees. As the years
went by and armies developed complexity in
make-up and methods, it was still found
advantageous to fight from heights. When
1-1-1
free-floating balloons appeared, it took no
imagination to foresee the possibilities of
shooting down at the enemy and of dropping
missles on him.
With the development of the airplane, men
realized that here, for the first time in his-
tory, was a weapon with which to get above
the enemy at any place and at any time. It
was apparent that the airplane's range would
far exceed that of the finest artillery, or of
any known ground equipment.
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Air Attack in World War I
At the start of World War I, the airplane
was a f rail cr aft with engines t hat needed
most of t heir power to get the airplane off
the gr ound and hol d it aloft. For this r eason,
the earl y airplanes could carry only a small
load of missil es. These were feather-wei o-ht
compar ed to t he present-day block-bust er; . '
Pilots experimented for a time with st eel
darts, whi ch wer e dropped on ground person-
nel. The next development, small shells were
guided to their marks not by fins , as modern
bombs, but by small ropes which dang-led
behind them like kite tails. Before the end of
World War I pilots began using fragmenta-
tion and incendiary bombs which weighed 15
to 18 pounds.
The pilot act ed also as bombardier, and hi s
aiming methods wer e hit-and-miss-mostly
miss. A hit "on the nose," indeed, was so
unusual as to call f or a special celebration of
t he event. In their bomb-aiming, many pilots
used r efer ences on the airplane itself, sight-
ing along struts or cylinder s, and r eleasing
the bombs when t he target s came into sight.
They found t hat their speed determined
whether the ,bombs fell short of the target
or beyond it. By the trial-and-error method
they corrected their mi stakes. Various drop:
ping angles for di ffer ent groundspeeds were
represented by nails driven into the fuselage.
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Ther e was no allowance for drift. So the
bombing runs were made either with the
wind or against it. Most pilots used a head-
wind, because it slowed their gr oundspeed.
This made it possibl e for them to get cl oser
t o t he target bef ore releasing their bombs.
Engineer s increased the bombload capacity
of airplanes by developing more power f ul
engi nes. But this did not help solve a basic
problem : how t o find the point in space at
whi ch t o r elease the bomb, in order to hit the
t ar get . This problem became mor e acute, as
improved gr ound defenses forced the bomb-
ing airpl anes to go higher and faster.
AAF offi cer s saw that they would have to
find an accurate sighting device - and men
who could use such a device with consist ent
effi ciency-in order to make bombing effec-
tive.
1- 1- 2
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Improvement in Bombsi9hts
By the end of World War I, engineers had
developed simple bombsights. These sights
were not comparable to the present synchron-
ous sights, but they produced r esults accu-
rate enough to insure the future of air bom-
bardment.
It is impossible to outline briefiy the im-
provements that have been made in bomb-
sights and other bombing equipment in the
past 25 years. Volumes would be needed to
tell only of one great achievement - how bril-
liant American engineers, mathematicians,
physicists, and airmen solved t he problem of
d e s i ~ n i n g an accurate bombsight. This task
in itself required years of trials and tests.
Discouragements were many, progress slow.
With the bombsight completed it took the
best efforts of American industry to learn
lOUR 10UI'
L
1- 1-3
how to build these int ricate devices to the
close tolerances required, and in the large
numbers called for by global war.
Avoid the common impression that the
bombsight is a super-human, magic-brai n
device. True, it is an ingenious, precision
mechanism; but it definitel y is not a miracle
machine which requires a miracle man to
operate it. Nor is it a: device which relieves
its user of all responsibility. What it does
is to solve understandable problems in an
understandable manner.
Other equipment you will use includes the
electronic co-pilot, which holds the airplane
on its course; the computers, which save the
time and trouble of making paper-and-pencil
calculations; the intervalometer, which en-
ables you to drop a train of accurately-spaced
bombs, and oxygen equipment which makes
it possible for you to ascend to altitudes
higher than man ever went before.
You can match the excellence of this equip-
ment only by cultivating your skill in han-
dling it. This skill will qualify you for mem-
bership in that great group of men, t he bom-
bardiers, who have proved beyond question
the ability of the AAF to pin-point ammuni-
tion dumps on tiny atolls in the Pacific, to
destroy ships at sea, to blast bridges · and
communication lines far beyond artillery
range, and to lay a ruinous pattern of fire and
explosives on ANY of the enemy's industrial
areas.
.1
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INTRODUCTION
Before the invention of airplanes, the prin-
cipal means of dropping explosives upon the
enemy was the long-range cannon. An air-
plane, in effect, advances the range of a can-
non. Bombing is really aerial artillery.
In order to make a shell drop on a certain
point, a cannon must hurl it up into the air,
so that the path of t he shell, or the trajec-
tory, describes a wide arc in its flight through
the air. The essential difference between fir-
ing a shell and dropping a bomb is that the
airplane carries the bomb up into the air and
releases it at the highest point of the trajec-
tory. From that point on, t he bomb follows
the same downward path as the shell.
To make your bomb hit the target, the only
thing you have to do is find the proper point
in space from which to release it. Actually,
the bombsight will find this point and release
the bomb for you, provided that you put the
proper data into it.
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A thorough study of bombing theory, how-
ever, will enable you to understand what data
must be set into the sight, how you set it in,
and how the bombsight uses it to solve the
bombing problem.
The bombing problem has two parts: the
course problem and the range problem. '
Course means that the bomb must travel in
the right direction, that is, toward the tar-
get. Range means that it must be released
the correct distance back from the target, so
that it will not fall short of the target or
over it.
The course problem is fairly simple. A
bomb always falls in the direction in which
the airpl ane is headed at the moment of
release. Therefore you solve your course
problem by putting your airplane on the cor-
rect heading.
To understand the range problem, you
must know something about falling bodies.
1- 2-1
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FORCES ACTING
ON THE BOMB
The moment a bomb is released from an
airplane, a number of forces begin acting
upon it. These forces are: (1) gravity, (2)
airspeed, (3) air resistance, and (4) wind.
The result of t hese forces determines the
path t he bomb will follow and the point of
impact.
Gravity
Gravity pulls the bomb toward the earth
at a continually increasing speed. It exerts
the same force on all bodies, whatever their
size, shape, or weight.
True Airspeed
At the same time that gravity is pulling
the bomb downward, velocity is driving it
forward. Remember that the airplane is trav-
eling at a definite speed with respect to the
air. Since the bomb is a part of the airplane
up to the moment of release, it leaves the air-
plane with the same forward velocity. In
bombing, this forward velocity of the air-
TRUf AIR SPEED
TRAIL
'1
GRAVITY J)
The sum of these two distances on the
ground is called trail (T). This is a good name
for it, since it is the distance the bomb has
trailed behind the airplane that dropped it.
Trail is the horizontal distance measured on
t he ground from the point of impact to a
1- 2- 2
plane and the bomb relative to the air is
called true airspeed (TAS).
Remember that gravity and true airspeed
are acting on the bomb at the same time.
During the time between release and impact
the bomb follows a path between the direc-
tion of these two forces. This time is called
the actual time of fall (ATF).
Air Resistance
The third force affecting the bomb in its
flight is one whi ch acts against t he first two.
This force is air resist.ance. While true air-
speed is driving the bomb forward, the air
through which the bomb moves is resi sting
this motion. In other words, the air pushes
back against t he bomb, causing it to lag
behind the airplane. The distance on the
ground resulting from this resistance to the
forward motion of the bomb is called hori-
zontal lag.
In the same way, air resistance acts
against the force of gravity. This resi stance
tends to keep the bomb in flight longer. Dur-
ing the extra time required for the bomb to
fall , t he airplane continues to move forward.
The distance on the ground over which the
airplane travels during this extra time is
called vertical lag.
AIR RESISTANCE-
point directly beneath the ai rplane at the
instant of impact.
The amount of trail for various bombing
altitudes, true airspeeds, and types of bombs
has been determined by trial and error and
is given in your bombing tables.
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TRUt AIR
Remember that trail is the result of sev-
eral forces which are acting on the bomb.
While true airspeed is driving the bomb for-
ward, air resistance is tending to hold it
back; while gravity is pulling it down, air
resistance is tending to hold it up. If true
airspeed increases, t he resistance of the air
increases; thus the horizontal lag is greater.
Therefore:
As true airspeed increases, trail increases.
In the same way, if the downward velocity
increases, the resistance of the air to that
force increases and the vertical lag is greater.
Since the downward velocity depends on the
bombing altitude from which the bomb is
dropped:
As bombing altitude increases, trail in-
creases.
The amount of resistance which the air
offers to the bomb depends on the size and
shape of the bomb. Ordnance engineers class-
ify bombs into different types according to
t he ballistic coefficient of the part icular
bomb, which means the relative amount of
resistance the air offers to it. A bomb with a
high ballistic coefficient falls faster and with
less trail than a bomb with a low ballistic
coefficient. Therefore:
As ballistic coefficient increases, trail de-
creases.
ACTUAL TIME OF FALL
The actual time of fall (ATF) of the bomb
depends primaril y on the exact height of the
airplane above the target, or the vertical dis-
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Q
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___ =- __ ~ . J ( _
.AIR 'RESISTANCE
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r I
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T R A I L I -----::,
tance which the bomb J.l1ust fall, but it is also
affected by true airspeed and bomb ballistics.
The actual time of fall for each bombing alti-
tude, true airspeed, and type of bomb has
been determined by trial and error and is
given in your bombing tables. Whenever you
look up actual time of fall in your tables, be
sure you have the correct bombing altitude,
true airspeed, and type of bomb. Remember:
ATF
increases as
j
' bombing altitude increases.
, true airspeed increases.
I ballistic coefficient decreases.
Trail and actual time of fall are the two
factors you must set into your bombsight.
You set actual time of fall into the M-Series
Bombsight as a disc speed, but when using
some sights you set in the actual time of fall
directly. You set trail into the bombsight as
a mil value. The tables give you the correct
actual time of fall or the correct disc speed
for each bombing altitude, true airspeed, and
type of bomb. Similarly, the tables give you
the correct trail for each bombing altitude,
true airspeed, and type of bomb.
Therefore, before your sight can do any-
thing for you, YOU MUST KNOW ACCU-
RATEL Y your bombing altitude, true air-
speed, and type of bomb. Once you have
'obtained from the tables your correct trail
and actual time of fall and have set them into
the bombsight, you must synchronize for
course and range. If you do these few things
correctly, the bombsight will automatically
solve the bombing problem. It will find the
correct point in space for the bomb release,
and wi ll release t he bomb at that point.
1- 2-3
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Before considering wind, the four'th and
final force on the bomb in its downward
flight, you must understand certain funda-
mental bombing terms. Be sure that you get
them thoroughly. They are terms you must
use every day.
Whole Range and Groundspeed
In the first place, you must understand the
term whole range (WR). Whole range is the
horizontal distance traveled by the airplane
from the moment the bomb is released until
the bomb strikes the ground. To measure the
distance covered by a moving object in a
given time, you multiply the time by the rate
at which the object is moving. Whole range
is measured on the ground. Therefore, the
rate you use is the rate at which the airplane
is moving with respect to the ground. This
rate is called groundspeed (GS), and in com-
puting whole range, groundspeed must be in
1-2-4
feet per second. The time used is the actual
time of fall, and it is given in seconds. There-
fore:
WR = GS (ft/ sec) X ATF
Suppose that a bomb is dropped from an
airplane traveling at a groundspeed of 150
mph, and that the bomb takes 20 seconds to
reach the ground. In order to find the whole
range, you must first ehange your ground-
speed of 150 mph to feet per second. To do
this, multiply 150 by
5,280 (ft. in a mile) 88 22
- or -
3,600 (sec. in an hr.)' 60 15
The groundspeed in this problem is therefore
220 feet per second. Then 220 X 20 = 4,400
ft. whole r ange. In other words, the airplane
flies 4,400 ft. while the bomb is falling.
Actual Range
Actual range (AR) is t he horizontal dis-
tance that the bomb travels from the moment
RESTRICTED
of release until t he moment of impact. Since
the bomb lags a certain "distance behind the
airplane (trail), you can find actual range by
subtracting trail from whole range.
AR=WR - T
If your whole range is 4,400 ft . and you find
by using your bombing tables t hat your trai l
is 270 ft., your actual range is 4,130 ft. While
your airplane is t raveling 4,400 ft. forward,
the bomb travels only 4,130 ft. forward.
Line of Sight
Whenever you look at the target through
your bombs ight, you are looking along a line,
from bombsight to target, which is called the
line of sight. As your airplane moves toward
the target, of course your line of sight
changes.
When you have set up the proper course
toward the target, you have yet to find the
actual range, t hat is, the correct distance
back from the target that the bomb must be
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released in order to score a hit. If you set the
proper data into t he bombsight, it solves this
problem for you automatically. It measures
an angle which subtends actual range, there-
by locating t he proper point in space for the
bomb's release.
Sighting Angle
To do this, the bombsight sets up a verti-
cal line of reference between itself and the
ground. The angle between this vertical ref-
erence and the line of sight at any instant is
called the sighting angle. As the airplane
approaches the target, the line of sight
sweeps toward the vertical and the sighting
angle grows smaller.
Dropping Angle
The particular sighting angle set up by the
bombsight at the instant of release is called
the dropping angle (Drop L ). The dropping
angle is t he angle formed between the line of
1-2- 5
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sight and the vertical reference at the instant
the bomb drops from the airplane.
True Vertical and Bombsight Vertical
If you operate the bombsight correctly, it
will establish as the vertical line of reference
a line which is the true vertical, that is, a line
which is exactly perpendicular to the ground.
If you do not operate the bombsight cor-
rectly, the line of reference it sets up will not
be true vertical. But remember that the
sighting angle and the dropping angle are
measured from the vertical reference set up
by the bombsight, whether this is the true
vertical or not.
Range Angle
The range angle is the angle between the
line of sight and the true vertical. At the
instant of release, this angle differs from the
dropping angle by the amount the vertical
reference is out of the true vertical.
Actual Range Angle
The actual range angle (AR L ) is the angle
1-2-6
which subtends the actual range of the bomb.
This means that the lines which form the
angle strike off on the ground the actual
range distance. If the bombsight sets up a
true vertical reference and the bombing prob-
lem has been properly solved, the dropping
angle is the same as the actual range angle
and also subtends t.he actual range of the
bomb.
Whole Range Angle
The whole range angle (WR L ) is the angle
which subtends whole range. It is measured
from the true vertical at the instant of re-
lease.
Trail An'll,!
The angle which subtends trail is called the
trail angle (T L ). In bombing, trail is given
and used in terms of mils.
Tangent Values of Angles
Angles can be measured by using what is
called the tangent of the angle, and this is
the method the bombsight uses. The tangent
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of an angle in a right triangle is the number
you get when you divide the length of the
side opposite the angle by the length of the
side adjacent to the angle.
T t
opposite side
angen = d ' t'd
a ]acen 51 e
Reading Angles from the Bombsight
The particular tangent which you can read
from the bombsight is the tangent of the
dropping angle (Tan Drop I.. ). The side oppo-
site the dropping angle is the actual range,
and the side adjacent to the dropping angle
is bombing altitude (BA).
Therefore,
AR
Tan Drop I.. = -BA
In the same way,
Tan T I.. T (in ft.)
BA
Since the trail angle is comparatively
small, it is measured in mils (¢) rather than
in degrees. A mil is an angle whose tangent
is 0.001. An angle of 3 mils has a tangent of
0.003; an angle of 35 mils has a tangent of
0.035. One mil subtends a distance on the
ground equal to 1/1,000 of the BA. At 1,000 .
VERTICAL
17.5 mils 18 pol 20 pol 24!)'f
RANGE in mils o 176!)'f 364 pol 577 pol
DROPPING ANGLE TANGENT X 1000 = AR in mils
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ft. BA, 1 mil of trail subtends 1 ft. on the
ground. At 8,000 ft., 50 mils of trail subtends
400 ft. Therefore:
T T I..
= T (in mils)
an 1000
,
T (in ft.) = T (in mils)
Since whole range equals actual range plus
trail, then:
WR AR T
BA = BA + BA Therefore:
WR
BA = Tan Drop I.. + Tan T I.. = Tan WR I..
When you desire to find the whole range
that the bombsight has measured, you must
compute it from the tangent of the whole
range angle which sub tends it. You find the
tanget of the whole range angle by adding
the tangent of the trail angle to the tangent
of the dropping angle. You can read the tan-
gent of the dropping angle directly from the
bombsight. The trail angle is read and can
be converted to a tangent value by dividing
by 1,000. The tangent of the whole range
angle is equal to the whole range divided by
the bombing altitude. Therefore:
830 !)'f
WR = Tan WR I.. X BA
1,192 mils 1,372 mils
BA
OF A mil IN FT
1000
1-2-7
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SOLUTION OF THE RANGE PROBLEM
TRAil
~ - - - - - - - ~ ' v r ~ - - - - - - - - ~
It is necessary to know the bombing alti-
tude, true airspeed, and type of bomb to find
from your bombing tables the trail and actual
time of fall to set into your bombsight. By
keeping the line of sight on the target, you
solve for groundspeed. This is called range
synchronization. The actual time of fall set
into the bombsight is automatically multi-
plied by the groundspeed obtained through
synchronization to solve for whole range.
During this operation the trail that was pre-
viously set into the sight is automatically
1-2-8
WHOlE RANGE
solved by bombsight
from GS x ATF
subtracted from whole range, leaving the
measurement of actual range. During this
operation the bombsight sets up the dropping
angle which subtends this actual range.
When sighting angle reaches dropping angle,
the bomb is released automatically.
In addition to gravity, forward velocity,
and air resistance, there is a fourth force act-
ing on the bomb in its flight and affecting its
trajectory. This is the speed of the wind.
Consider first the simplest wind conditions:
tai lwinds and headwinds.
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HEADWINDS AND TAILWINDS
The first thing to notice about a headwind
or tailwind is t hat it does not affect t he true
airspeed of the airplane. Sinne trail depends
only on true airspeed, bombing alt itude, and
type of bomb, neither a headwind nor a tai l-
wind has any effect on the amount of trail.
Groundspeed is the factor which is affected
by a headwind or a tail wind. If your airplane
is flying at a true airspeed of 150 mph, with
a tailwind which pushes t he air forward at
10 mph, then the air plane' s speed over the
ground is 160 mph. Since whole range is
found by multiplying groundspeed (in feet
per second) by the actual time of fall, an
increase in groundspeed causes an increase in
whole range. Actual range is also increased,
TAILWIND CAUSES
AN INCREASE
IN ACTUAL RANGE
since actual range is found by subtracting
trail from whole range. Therefore, a tailwind
causes an increase in whole range and a cor-
responding increase in actual range.
When your actual range is increased, you
must drop your bomb at a gr eater distance
from your target in order to hit it. This
means that the dropping angle must be
greater. When there is a tailwind your bomb-
sight sets up a dropping angle with a larger
tangent.
When your airplane flies directly into a
headwind, all these results are reversed. The
groundspeed is less, and your actual range is
smaller. Your bombsight therefore sets up a
smaller tangent of the dropping angle.
HEADWIND CAUSES
A DECREASE
IN ACTUAL RANGE
'3f/Ued Z)0e4 1ttJt 8 Uea
7 ~ /lH«UUtt 01 7uUt I
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CROSSWINDS
When you have a wind from any direction
except from dead ahead or directly behind
the airplane, drift enters the bombing prob-
lem. Wind is the movement of the entire body
of air surr ounding the airplane. When the
wind moves to the right, the airRlane moves
to the right. This is called right drift. Sim-
ilarly, if the body of air is moving to the leit,
the movement of the airplane is described as
left drift.
In order to make good a certain path over
the ground (true course) when there is a
crosswind, the pilot crabs the airplane into
the wind. That is, he heads the airplane up-
wind sufficientl y to compensate for the effect
of drift. The angle formed between true
heading and true cour se is called the drift
angle.
At the moment of r elease, true airspeed is
driving both the a irplane and the bomb in t he
direct ion of heading. Immediately on release,
air resistance begins to reduce t he forward
velocity of the bomb. The engines, however,
continue to drive the airplane forward at the
same true airspeed as at bomb release. The
speed of the wind causes both airplane and
bomb to drift the same distance away from
the true heading. Ther efore the bomb always
lags behind the airplane in the line of head-
ing. The bomb wi ll strike the ground behind
the airplane, along the longitudinal axis of
thE airplane, and downwind of true course.
If the airplane made good a true course
which would pass directly over the target (a
collision course), the bomb would strike the
ground downwind of the target. The airplane
must therefore make good a true course up-
wind of the target. The distance between the
true course of the airplane and the collision
course is called crosstrail (CT). Crosstrail is
measured from the point of impact to the
true course.
1-2-10
I
1
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, . . . ~ , . , DRIFT L
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I
I
I
\ I
lUi
\ I ~
Ip
\ 10
1j"U
" I ~ I""
\ II-
II
I I
WIND
POINT OF
RELEASE
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The bombsight automatically measures
crosstrail for you. Crosstrail depends on trail
and drift. To make its computation, the
bombsight uses what is called the sine of the
drift angle. The sine of an angle in a right
triangle is the number you get when you
. divide the opposite side by the hypotenuse.
The side opposite the drift angle is the cross-
trail; the hypotenuse is the trail. Hence the
sine of the drift angle is the crosstrail divided
by t rail. Ther efore :
CT = T X Sin Drift L
The bombsight can compute crosstrail be-
cause you have set trail into it and have auto-
matically set up the drift angle when you set
up your course. Naturally, if there is no drift
there will be no cross trail. In the same way,
if you forget to set in trail, the bombsight
cannot compute crosstrail for you. Therefore
you MUST remember to set in trail, because
if . you do not your bomb will fall not only
short but also downwind of the target.
RCCl
You must notice one final fact about the
effect of crosswind on the bombing problem.
In the cross trail drawing, the point of impact
of the bomb is shown a small distance over
the target. Although the distance is exagger-
ated in the drawing, never theless this error
is always present in all computations per-
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formed by modern bombsights whenever a
crosswind is present. The error is called
range component of crosstr"il (RCCT). It
results from the fact that the bombsight
measures trail along t he course of the air-
plane, whereas when there is a crosswind,
trail actually occurs along t he line of heading.
When t her e is no crosswind, heading and
course coincide; there is no crosstra il and no
RCCT. But when wind and cross trail exist,
the bombs ight still measures trail along the
course. If you measure from a point on the
ground directly beneath the airplane at the
moment of impact back along the course to
a point oppos ite the target, you have the trail
as sol ved for by the bombsight. But if you
measur e this same distance back along the
heading . of the a irplane, you find that this
trail distance does not r each the target. In-
stead, it r eaches to a point on t he collision
course ahead of the target. The di stance f rom
t he t arget to this point of impact ahead of
the target is the range error "over," known
as RCCT. The equation for computing RCCT
is:
RCCT = T(1-Cos Drift L )
Notice that RCCT depends on trail and the
amount of drift. In low and medium altitude
bombing, trai l and drift are usually small
enough t hat the "over" caused by RCCT is
negli gibl e. RCCT proauces significant errors
when a high-speed bomber , flying at a hi gh
alt it ude, encounters a large drift.
NO, NO, HICGtNBOTTOM,
THE B OMBS'ICHT
MEASURES' CROS'S'TRAIL
fOR yOU AUTOMATICALLY.
1- 2- 11
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THE MOVING TARGET
A moving target is often t he obj ect of
attack. If you attack a tar get· which is mov-
ing in a straight line at a constant speed, no
new element is intr oduced into t he bombing
1'- ....
.. ....
... ( ....
/...:''\1;:- ...
... ,0".'
- ,s'o "
DROPPING ..:;t,."
ANGLE , "
.... ,
"
tc: =J
I, -............
I '<:< "
J .... "
1- 0-<, ,
'\", '\
,
problem. A target moving away from t he air-
plane in the same line as the airplane's cour se
presents t he same problem as a st ationar y
target when a headwind is blowing. Similarly,
a t arget moving towar d the a irplane along
t he cour se is like a stationar y t arget when a
t ailwind is blowing. Also a target moving in
TARGET NOT MOVING
TARGET MOVING AWAY FROM AIRPLANE
I ANGLE, '\
I \
p: :iTIS: :
TARGET MOVING TOWARDS AIRPLANE
\
1- 2-1 2 REST RICT ED
a straight line across the course presents the
same problem as a stationary target with a
crosswind blo\ving from the direction oppo-
site to that in which the target moves. ·
Remember that a bombsight develops
whole range, actual range, and dropping
angle by analyzing the speed of closure be-
tween itself and the target, that is, the speed
at which the distance between them is closed.
When the target is stationary, the speed of
closure is the same as the groundspeed of the
airplane. When the target is moving, the
speed of closure is the groundspeed of the
airplane plus or minus the groundspeed of
the target.
When an airplane traveling at a ground-
speed of 150 mph is overtaking a train re-
treating at 50 mph, the airplane is actually
closing with the train at a speed of 100 mph.
The bombsight solves for this speed of clos-
ure in setting up the dropping aNgle. When
the train approaches the airplane, the speed
of closure is 200 mph and consequently the
dropping angle is larger.
If the train moves in a straight line across
the track of the airplane, the bombsight han-
dles the situation just as if the target move-
ment were drift caused by a crosswind. In
fact, in setting up your course you could not
tell the difference between a left drift and an
actual target motion to the right. In either
case you must crab the airplane to the right
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and set up a course to right of target.
If you had a target moving diagonally
across the course and at the same time a
crosswind blowing, it would be very hard to
determine the speed of closure mathemati-
cally. But, you do not have to worry about
such a problem. The bombsight automatically
solves it and determines the correct course
and dropping angle.
However, there are hvo situations involv-
ing moving targets which the bombsight can-
not handle adequa tely. First, if the target
keeps changing its speed, the bombsight can-
not synchronize for rate or determine the
amount of crab required, and thus cannot set
up the correct course or dropping angle. Sec-
ond, if the target does not move in a straight
line, the bombsight cannot set up either
course or dropping angle accurately, since it
has no means of predicting where the target
will be at the time of impact.
If you try to bomb a target which is
maneuvering, the only thing you can use in
solving your bombing problem is the experi-
ence of AAF bombardiers. They have discov-
ered that to hit a maneuvering target you
must aim to the rear of the target movement
and inside its turn. The only way to become
proficient in bombing targets of this 80rt is
to put in a great deal of practice on the bomb-
ing trainer and have actual bombing experi-
ence.
________ ~ X
------------
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ON A MANEUVERING TARGET
AIM TO THE REAR OF THE TARGET
MOVEMENT AND INSIDE ITS TURN
1-2-13
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Your airplane pitches, turns, and roll s. You
couldn't synchronize your bombsight with
precision, if you did not have some means for
holding the sight in a steady, fixed position
r elative to t he earth. The gyroscope is the
only device that will hold your sight in a firm,
stable position, r egardless of the movements
of your airplane.
A gyroscope is simply a s pinning flywheel.
Well balanced, this wheel r evolves around its
only fixed point, its center of gravity. It is
free to turn or tilt in any direction about this
point.
RIGIDITY
One of the gyroscope's characteristics is
rigidity: its tendency to hold a fixed position
in space. When t he gyro wheel spins at a
hi gh sp'eed, the spinning axis remains in the
same direction unless some outside force is
applied to it. Properly mounted gyros are
used, for this reason, as an aid in maintain-
ing direction; but this direction may be
changed by applying some outside force.
Three factors determine a gyroscope's
1-3- 1
strength or the amount of rigidity: the
weight of its wheel or rotor, the distribution
of this weight and the speed at which the
rotor spins.
Rigidity is increased by adding to the
weight of the rotor. A gyro with a heavy
rotor has more rigidity than one with a light
rotor, if their speed is the same.
Rigidity is increased if the weight is dis-
tributed on the outer rim of t he wheel, as far
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from the spin axis as possible.
Finally, rigidity increases as the speed of
the rotor increases. A slowly spinning rotor
gives the gyro little or no rigidity. An ex-
ample is a boy's top which wobbles and then
falls over on its side when its speed of rota-
tion decreases.
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APPARENT PRECESSION
Rigidity causes the gyro's spin axis to
point in a fixed direction. However, as t he
earth turns under the gyro, the axis of the
gyro appears to tilt.
t
Suppose you have a gyro at the equator.
At noon its spin axis is horizontal. At 6 P. M.,
the axis is vertical to the earth. By mid-
night the gyro is upside down from its noon
position. It appears that the gyro has turned
over; this is an illusion. The earth has turned,
not the gyro' s spin axis, which is the same at
midnight as it was at noon.
This movement of the earth in relation to
the gyro is called apparent precession.
The greatest amount of apparent preces-
sion is at the equator. There, in 4 minutes, a
gyro will apparently precess 17.45 mil s. The
amount of apparent precession decreases as
you move from the equator toward the north
or south poles where apparent precession is
zero. You can determine, in mil s, the amount
of apparent precession that takes place in
4 minutes in any latitude, by usi ng this equa-
tion: 17.45 X cosine of the latitude.
Remember that in apparent precession, the
earth moves in relation to the gyroscope. In-
duced precession, however, means movement
of the gyro in relation to the earth.
6 A.M.
12 NOON
9 - r - - + - ~ ~ - ~ ~
6 P.M.
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1-3- 2
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INDUCED PRECESSION
GYRO PRECESSES 90° FROM
POINT OF APPLIED PRESSURE
IN THE DIRECTION OF
ROTATION.
To change the position of a 'gyro, you apply
enough force to overpower its rigidity. But
the gyro's spi n axis does not move in the
direct ion in which the force is applied, as you
would expect. Instead, it moves at a right
angle to the applied force and in the direction
of the gyro's rotation. This is known as the
La w of Precession.
Suppose you have a gyro that is spinning
1- 3-3
clockwise. If you push the top of the spin
axis toward the 3 :00 o'clock position, the
gyro does not tilt in that direction. Instead,
it tilts toward t he 6 :00 o'clock position.
A good way to remember the Law of Pre-
cession is : Place your fingers in the direction
of rotation and point index finger in the di-
rection of the applied force, your thumb will
extend in the direction of precess ion.
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INTRODUCTION
A good bombing team is one that con-
stantly improves with practice and study. If
you are a good bombardier you do not make
the same error over and over again. When
your bomb misses its mark, you must try to
find out why. You will have to study all the
data you have recorded for that particular
release.
It is only by first determining the cause of
a bombing error that you can prevent it from
happening again.
Remember, your job is to hold bombing
errors to a minimum and to eliminate them
wherever possible. Your team is only as good
as you are. Your mission is not successful
unless your bomb hits the target. When it
misses, your pilot, your navigator, your gun-
ners, the ground crew, the ordnance men who
loaded your bombs-everyone who had any-
thing to do with your mission-might just
as well have taken the day off and stayed
home in bed!
When you cut your probable errors in half,
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you become four times as valuable a bom-
bardier!
With experience, you learn what causes a
given error merely by viewing the impact
and reading the data from your sight. At
first, however, you will do most of your bomb-
ing analysis on the ground, after the mission,
and from data which you yourself have re-
corded on the 12C form. For this reason, your
data must be as complete and accurate as
Start writing it down as soon as you
call "Bomb away."
Record ALL the Data on 12C CORRECTLY.
There are two methods of bombing: (1)
synchronous and (2) fixed-angle. Errors, for
the most part, are the same in each type.
In certain cases, however, the thing which
causes a given error in synchronous bombing
causes an error in just the opposite direction
in fixed-angle bombing. For this reason, the
errors associated with each method will be
discussed separately.
1-4-1
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In synchronous bombing the bombsight
automati cally solves your groundspeed and
dropping angle. Most of the errors occur
when you compute incorr ect data, when you
operate the bombsight incorrectly, or when
your bombsight does not f unction properly.
There are six major causes of errors in syn-
chronous bombing : (1) impr oper vertical, (2)
improper actual time of fall, (3) improper
trail, (4) improper course, (5) improper rate,
and (6) improper r elease.
IMPROPER VERTICAL
The ver tical gyroscope in t he M-Seri es
bombsight stabilizes the optics against the
roll and pitch of t he airpl ane. It establishes
a vertical reference to the ground from which
to align the course and measure the dropping
angle.
To establi sh a vertical reference to t he
ground, you try to align t he spin axis of t he
sight gyro with the true vertical. Your accu-
racy in this operation has much to do with
the accuracy of your bombs. Your dropping
1-4- 2
THE MIRROR OF THE
OPTICAL SYSTEM IS
DRIVEN BY THE RATE
MOTOR
BOMBSI GHT AUTOMATIC:--- _
ALLY DETERMINES DRIFT L
AND DROP L
angle must be measured from the true ver-
t ical reference line for your bomb t o hit the
target.
But when you do not align the spin axis
with t he true vertical - that is, when you
establish an improper vertical - your bomb
misses. It mi sses because the bombsight has
measured the dropping angle from the wrong
r eference line. The effect is the same as if
you had set incorrect data into your sight.
You can tell whether your gyro is in the
true vertical by looking at t he position of
the bubbles, whi ch are in two spirit levels
mounted on t op of the gyro housi ng. If each
bubble is center ed under its lubber line, the
o
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gyro gives a true vertical reference. When
properl y centered, the bubble is cut in half
by t he lubber line. If one end of the bubble
is under the lubber line, t he bubble is one-
half bubble length off. To read the bubbles
accurately, be sure the airplane is flying
straight and level and at a constant airspeed.
You use the leveling knobs to center t he
bubbles. Once the gyro is leveled during the
bombing run, it will tend to remain level.
Likewise, t he gyro is out of t he vertical when
the bubbles are not centered, and it will t end
to r emain out of the vertical until they are
centered.
LATERAL BUBBLE
o
The lateral bubble indicates t he position of
the gyro when the airplane is flying straight
and level. When the gyro tilts, the bubble
moves toward the higher side of the gyro. If
the top of the spin. axis of the gyro tilts to
the right, the bubble moves to the left. You
can measu re the amoun t of ti lt by t he
amount the bubble deviates f rom t he lubber
line. Experience with many sights shows t hat
when the bubble is one-half length off, the
deviation of the spin axis is approximately
18 mil s.
If the bubble is one-half length to t he
r ight, the top of the spin axis of the gyro and
t he axis of t he optics are tilted 18 mils to the
left. If you set it up this way, you fly too far
to the left in sighting the target. Therefore,
your bomb hits left of the target.
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How to Calculate Deflection Errors Resulting
From Improper VerticaL
To compute t he amount of an error result-
ing f r om an improperly center ed lateral bub-
ble, or the actual distance by which the bomb
misses the target, you multiply the number
of mil s of deviation by 1/ 1,000 of the BA.
Therefor e the deflection errOr is:
DE = (bubble error in mils ) X BA/ l ,OOO.
FORE AND AFT BUBBLE
Just as the lateral bubble shows the posi-
tion of the gyro when the airplane is flying
straight and level, so the fore and aft bubble
shows the gyro's position when t he airplane
is flying at a constant airspeed and not climb-
ing or diving. Under these conditions, a per-
fectly center ed fore and aft bubble shows
t hat t he vertical reference set up by the
bombsight is the true vertical.
If this bubble is one-half length forward,
the top of t he vertical reference is tilted
back, and t he bombsight sets up a false sight-
ing angle.
You must cent er the for e and aft bubble
when the airplane is main taining a constant
speed and is not climbing or diving. Oncethe
true vertical is established, the gyro tends to
hold it. If thereafter the airplane speeds up
or slows down, t he bubble moves forward or
back because of the inertia of t he liquid.
Therefore, once you have establi shed the true
vertical, DO NOT attempt to re-center the
bubble each time it moves off.
1-4-3
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A gyro spin axis tilted forward or back
produces an error in range. The error is due
to t he fact that tilting the gyro also tilts the
telescope and mirror.
If t he gyro top is t ilted to the rear (bubble
to the front), the line of sight is swung up-
ward without moving the sighting angle in-
dex. The range angle will then be lar ger than
the angle indicated by the sighting angle
index. Consequently, the sighting angle index
will reach coincidence with the dropping
angle index too soon, and t he bomb will hit
short. If the gyro top is tilted to the front,
the range angle will be small er than that in-
dicated by the sighting angle index. This
index will therefore r each coincidence too
late, and you will get an over.
How to Calculate Range Errors Resulting
From Improper Vertical.
The amount of this range error is pri-
marily affected by the difference between the
range angle and the indications of the sight-
ing angle index. Consider, for example, a mis-
sion on which the correct dropping angle is
25° (Tan is .4663). If your bombing altitude
is 10,000 feet, t he actual range of the bomb
will be 4,663 feet (Tan 25
0
X BA). Now as-
sume that your gyro t op becomes tilted 1
0
to
ffi _l' ___ o
11
1\ 2'? .....
t he rear. The range angle wi ll now be 26
0
when t he sight ing angle index reaches coinci-
dence at 25° . Since t he Tan of 26° is .4877,
the bomb will be released 4,877 feet short of
the target. But its actual range is only 4,663
feet, hence it will h it 214 feet short.
This calculation is more simply expressed
by the equation: (Tan Dropping Angle - Tan
Range Angle at Release) X Bombing Alti-
tude = Range Error. A plus error here means
an over. A minus error is a short.
On a synchronous mission the error as cal-
culated above is not exact, due to the fact
that the shift in t he line of sight r equires
re-synchronizing. This results in a changed
dropping angle. The change in dropping angle
varies in amount, but always tends to com-
pensate to some extent for the range error
caused by the difference between the range
angle and the sighti ng angle.
Because of t he complexity of an exact cal-
culat ion, you will find it most practical on
synchronous bombing missions to assume
that fore and aft bubble errors are the same
in size as lateral bubble errors. And remem-
ber-a bubble to the front causes a hit short,
and a bubble to the rear causes a hit over.
The direction of the error is opposite to the
direction the bubble is off center .
I", -r ........ , ....
L..L 25° ,. 'Y!. ...........
, .... , / -' ......
I' 260 ', ...... .....
................. .....
I I '- , ........
I , ..... ..... ...
I \ .... , ..........
I \ .... , ..........
If . 4,877 FT· .... ..... tl
I ........ .....
i' \ • 4,663 FT • .... e
4FT
.... '
a
.
• •
II S M MAR Y: 1. Lateral bubble to the left - bomb impact to the right.
2. Lateral bubble to the right - bomb impact to the left .
1-4-4
3. Fore and aft bubble to the front - bomb impact short.
4. Fore and aft bubble to t he rear - bomb impact over . ..
Remember if the bubble is off, the bomb impact is in the
opposite direction.
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~ a d ~
OF I VERTICAL
WAS IT YOUR ERROR?

1. Did you chase the bubbles?
2. Did you try to level when the airplane
was skidding?
3. Did you over-corr ect when leveling?
4. Did you t ry to see your bubbles from an
angle?
1. Take your time.
2. Wait for a good level.
3. Use the inner knob to make more accu-
rate corrections.
4. Take a good look straight down.
WAS IT CAUSED BY YOUR INSTRUMENTS?
1. Did your leveling knobs stick ?
2. Did your gyro precess excessively?
3. Was t he C-1 Autopilot impr operly ad-
justed?
WAS IT THE PILOT'S ERROR?
1. Did he skid or turn the airplane whil e you
were leveling bubbles?
2. Did lie speed up or slow down while you
were leveling?
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1 and 2. You should have caught these 111
your preflight inspection.
3. Be sur e airplane is trimmed to fly straight
and level, "hands off" before beginning
C-1 adjustment.
1. Check PDI center and a irplane level be-
fore leveling bubbles.
2. Keep an eye on your own a irspeed indi-
cator.
1-4- 5
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IMPROPER ACTUA L TIME OF FALL
From any given BA, a bomb requires a
definit e length of time to hit the ground. This
length of time, or actual time of fall, has been
determined for most bombing altitudes and
t rue a irspeeds. Neither you nor the bomb-
sight can change the t ime it will take a bomb
to fall from a given BA and true air speed.
If you know your bombing altitude and
your type of bomb, you can readily find the
actual t ime of fall from your bombing tables.
For M-Series bombsights, this actual time
of fall is given as a disc speed setting. Al ways
r emember that disc speed is inversely propor-
tional to actual time of fall. In other words,
t he higher you fly, the smaller is your disc
speed setting.
Your bombsight computes whole range for
whatever actual time of fall you set into it.
The bombsight has no way of "knowing"
whether or not this is the correct time of fall.
Naturally, if you set in an improper actual
t ime of fall, the bombsight cannot accurately
compute whole range. Your bomb is destined
to miss the target before it ever leaves the
airplane.
1-4- 6
If you set in too small an actual time of
fall, the disc speed is too fast. When synchro-
nizing for r ate, with the di sc rotating too
fast, you do not move the roller far enough
from the center of the di sc. As a r esult, the
actual r ange computed is too small. The drop-
ping angle which subtends this incorrect
actual r ange is likewise too small. The bomb
is carried too close to the target; the bomb is
still in t he air when the actual time of fall
set in the sight expires, and the bomb falls
over.
One thi ng which might cause you to set an
improper actual time of fall into the sight is
an incorrect computation of your bombing
altitude. If you compute your bombing alti-
tude as 6,800 ft . when it is actually 7,000 ft.,
you set into the bombsight the disc speed for
6,800 ft., which is too fast.
Several things may cause you to compute
an incorrect bombing altitude. Reading the
computer incorrectl y or making simple mis-
takes in addition and subtraction are the
most common errors.
Somet imes the fault is in the free air tern-
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perature gage. When the gage reads too high,
for example, you compute too high a bombing
altitude. As a resplt, you set into the sight
too slow a disc speed. With the disc rotating
too slowly, you move the roller too far from
the center of the disc when synchronizing for
rate. Accordingly, the actual range computed
is too large. The dropping angle which sub-
tends this incorrect actual range is likewise
too large. The bomb is released too far from
the target; it hits the ground before the
actual time of fall set in the sight expires,
and it falls short.
Improper actual time of fall also can r esult
from a change in BA after the data has been
set into the sight. If the. bombing altitude is
10,000 ft. and if the airplane is actually fly-
ing at a bombing altitude of 9,800 ft. at the
moment of release, then the disc speed set
into the sight is too slow for the actual bomb-
ing altitude. The sight computes an actual
range too large for t he actual time of fall,
and the bomb falls short.
For synchronous bombing, r emember the
following relationships:
Flying at too hig'h BA l
Using too small ATF (Bomb impact over.
Using too fast aDS )
When these conditions are reversed the
. bomb impact will be short.
-
1
,
.... PROPER AT f
ACTUAL RANGE COMPUTED
CORRECT
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,
,
,
,
-
J
j' AT F TOO SMALL
ACTUAL RANGE COMPUTED
TOO SMALL
"
, ,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
HOW TO CALCULATE ERRORS RESULTING FROM IMPROPER ATF
After you set the corr ect actual time of
fall into the bombsight, you synchronize for
groundspeed. If you do this correctly, the
bombsight automatically computes the cor-
rect whole range.
Suppose t hat your bombing altitude is
6,000 ft. and the actual time of fall is 20.12
seconds . You set the corresponding di sc
speed, 263.4, into the sight. The groundspeed
is 200 ft /sec., and the trail set into the sight
is 46 mils. This is the correct trail for 6,000
ft ., if groundspeed is proportional to true air-
speed.
The whole range solved for by the bomb-
sight is groundspeed (ft/ sec) X actual time
of fall, or 200 X 20.12 = 4,024 ft. If no trail
were set into the sight, you would release the
bomb 4,024 ft. from the target. With 46 mils
of trail, you r elease the bomb 46 X 6 = 276
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ft. closer. The bomb t ravels a horizontal dis-
tance equal to groundspeed X actual time of
fall minus trail, or 200 X 20.12 - 276 = 3,748
ft. and hits the target.
Now, with this same data set into the
bombsight, suppose you release the bomb
from a BA of 7,000 ft. instead of 6,000 ft.
Since 46 mils at 7,000 ft. sub tends 322 ft.,
the bomb is released 322 ft. beyond t he whole
range vertical line. After the bomb travels
6,000 ft. downward from this point, it has
used up all the actual time of fall set in the
sight. Since it still has 1,000 ft. to fall, it
must continue to travel forward an additional
horizontal di stance. This carries it over the
target. You can compute the distance by sub-
tracting the whole range solved for by the
sight from the whole range of the bomb. In
other words: (GS X ATF at 7,000 ft.) - (GS
1- 4- 7
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..
' ~ ~ : J
0- \ \ ~
( A A ~
CORRECT DISC SPEED ALTITUDE TOO
HIGH
BOMB HITS
OVER.
X ATF at 6,000 ft.) . Then (200 X 21.82)
- (200 X 20. 12) = 4,364 - 4,024 = 340 ft.
The approximate error is then 340 ft. It is
called "approximate" because the bomb slows
down somewhat in falling the last 1,UOO ft.
You can find the exact error by considering
that since you have used data for 6,000 ft.
you have set insufficient trail into the bomb-
sight . The trail for 7,000 ft. at the true air-
speed flown (assumed to be equal to GS) is
47 mils, whereas the trail for 6,000 ft. is 46
mils. The trail deficiency is therefore 1 mil,
which results in a 7 ft. error short. Thus your
exact error is 340 ft. minus 7 ft., or 333 ft.
over.
In analyzing your errors, it is not neces-
sary to be accurate to the exact foot . For
ordi nary purposes you can ignore t he small
trail deficiency and compute the range error
as :
RE = (Difference in ATF) X GS (ft/sec)
Since this solution requires a computation
of groundspeed, you may find it easier to cal-
culate a range error by figuring it as an error
of actual time of fall in the bombsight, that
is, as an errol' in disc speed. The equation is
a simple proportion:
Range Error Error in DS
WR of Sight DS Used
From a concrete example you can see how to
1-4- 8
use this equation.
Suppose that for a bombing altitude of
10,000 ft. you set in a disc speed of 190 rpm.
The correct disc speed for this altitude is 201
rpm. You have, therefore, a disc speed error
of 11 rpm.
Since you have set in a disc speed of 190
rpm, the roller will be at position B on the
disc when you have synchronized, and the
dropping angle index will be at position B' on
the tangent scale. If you had set in the cor-
rect di sc speed of 201 rpm, the roller and
dropping angle index would have been at po-
sitions A and A', respectively. Notice that
position B' of the dropping angle index indi-
cates a larger tangent of the dropping angle
than position A'. With the incorrect disc
speed, the dropping angle is too large; your
bomb is dropped too soon, and hits short of
the target.
To calculate the distance short, you must
first compute whole range. You read the Tan
Drop L = 0.660 from the position B' of the
dropping angle index. If you have set 60 mils
trail into t he sight, the Tan T L is 0.060 . .
Then the Tan WR L is 0.660 + 0.060= 0.720.
Hence, WR= 10,000 X O.720=7,200 ft.
Now you can substitute in your equation:
RE 11 ,
- 7,200 = 190' or RE = 417 ft. short.
RESTRICTED
WAS IT YOUR ERROR?
1. Did you compute a false bombing alti-
tude?
Did you fai l to correct temperature for
airspeed compression error?
Did you read your DS tables incorrectly?
2. Did you fail to check DS at bombing alti-
tude .,
3. If you used a stop watch to check disc
speed, did you have trail set in the sight?
4. Did you knock the disc speed gear shift
out of position?
5. Did you knock the disc speed drum off the
correct setting?
RESTRICTED
1. Check those computations.
Remember that all thermometer readings
must be corrected.
Be sure you get into the right column and
row.
2. Always use your tachometer at bombing
altitude.
3. When using stop watch to check disc
speed, ALWAYS use zero trail setting.
4 and 5. Always check these positions at the
beginning of each run. ""Then operating
the bombsight, be careful with your
hands.
WAS IT CAUSED BY YOUR INSTRUMENTS?
1. Is your disc speed erratic?
2. Is the roller slipping?
3. Is your tachometer or stopwatch inaccu-
rate?
4. Does your altimeter:
read too high and cause a short? or
read too low and cause an over?
5. Does your thermometer:
read too high and cause a short? read
too low and cause an over?
WAS IT THE PILOT'S ERROR?
1. Did he fly too high or too low?
2. Did he climb at the instant of release, in-
creasing ATF and causing an over?
3. Did he dive at the instant of release, de-
creas ing ATF and causing a short?
RESTRICTED
1 and 2. Always check for these in your pre-
flight inspection.
3, 4 and 5. Have these instruments inspected
and calibrated by instrument special ists.
1. Watch your own altimeter, and ask the
pilot to fly at the correct bombing altitude.
2 and 3. This will seldom happen if you co-
operate fully with the pilot. Cultivate
team work.
1-4-9
RESTRICTED
IMPROPER TRAIL
For every different bombing altitude and
true airspeed, a given type of bomb lags a
definite distance behind the airplane. This
distance, called trail, has been determined
and is given in your bombing tables.
Trail is entered into the M-Series sights by
setting the trai l arm on the trail plate to the
correct trail value, which is given in mils.
When you move the trail arm, trail i's set into
the rate end and into the cross trail mechan-
ism at the same time. If you put the wrong
trail into the rate end, you get a range error.
At the same time, this improper trail in
the crosstrail mechanism causes a deAection
error. Thus if you set in too much trail, your
bomb falls over and upwind. If you set in too
little trail, it falls short and downwind.
There are several reasons why you might
set improper trail into the bombsight. Since
trail depends on bombing altitude and true
airspeed, you must make both these compu-
tations correctly in order to arrive at the
1- 4-10
proper trail.
On t he other hand, suppose you compute
the correct trail for the true airspeed you are
flying and set it into the bombsight. Now if
your pilot slows down or speeds up, the trai l
set into the bombsight becomes improper for
the new true airspeed. A range error results.
How to Calculate Range Error Resulting
from 1m proper Trail in Rate End.
When the dropping angl e index is set at
zero and the trail arm is set at zero trail, the
roller is positioned at the center of the di sc.
If you now enter 60 mils trail in t he rate end,
the rollei· moves up to position A. When you
synchronize on the bombing run. you move
t he r oller from position A to position C. This
automatically moves the dropping angle
index to 0.400. With the roll er and the drop-
ping angle index in these positions, the bomb-
sight computes the actual r ange for a 60-mil
trai l setting.
RESTRICTED
The correct trail is 50 mils. If you had en-
tered this correct trail, the roller would have
been at position B at the beginning of t he
run. When you synchronized, it would have
moved from B t o C, and the dropping angle
index would have moved from zero to 00410.
The distance AB is equal to the trail error
of 10 mils, and is proportional to the r ange
error on the gr ound. To find t he range error
in f eet, multiply the trail error by 1/ 1,000 of
the bombing altitude. If at 9, 000 ft. you set
60 mils trail into the sight when the correct
trail is only 50 mils, your bomb fall s 90 ft.
over.
How to CalCulate Deflection Error Resulting
from Incorrect Trail in Crosst<ail Mechanism.
If · you set the trail arm at zero trail, the
concentric stud and disc is centered over the
top of the cross trail shaft. ,When you move
-( I
@-!
\ I
CORRECT TRAIL \ I TOO MUCH TRAIL
CORRECT CROSS TRAIL \
\
\
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
t he trail arm to .the correct trail value, the
concentri c stud and disc moves toward the
r ear of the sight. The distance it moves de-
pends on t he amount of trail you set in.
When you set up your course, t he concen-
tric stud and di sc swings through the drift
angle. Its lateral displacement is proportional
to cross trail. The amount of this lateral dis-
placement will depend on the distance the
concentric stud and disc was back of the cen-
t er of t he cr osstrail shaft when it began t o
swing. In other words, the cross trail com-
puted by t he sight depends on the amount of
trail you set in. If you enter too much trail,
t he bomb impact is upwind; if you enter too
little trail, it is downwind.
Since the cross trail depends on trai l and
t he drift angle, you can compute the amount
of t he deflection error by using t he equation :
DE = Trail Error in ft. X Sin Drift L
ri,i
, J I
~ ~ I I
' t ~ ~
\ I
TOO LITTLE TRAIL \ I
I
TOO LITTLE CROSS TRAIL I
I
1-4- 11
RESTRICTED

OF INCORRECT TRAIL
WAS IT YOUR ERROR?
1. Did you forget to correct temperature
readings?
2. Did you make a mistake in computing
bombing altitude or airspeed?
3. Did you set the wrong trail?
4. Did you forget to check for pre-set trail
in your sight?
5. Did you knock trail setting off?
1. Remember to subtract compression error.
2. MASTER your computers.
3. Use your bombing tables carefully.
4. NEVER neglect your preflight checks.
5. Check your settings at the beginning of
each approach.
WAS IT CAUSED BY YOUR INSTRUMENTS?
1. Was there pre-set trail in t he sight?
2. Was the dovetail or the stabilizer mis-
aligned?
3. Does your airspeed indicator register too
high or too low?
4. Is your altimeter inaccurate?
5. Is your free air temperature gage in
error?
WAS IT THE PILOT'S ERROR?
1. Did he fly too fast or too slow?
2. Did he fly too high or too low?
1-4-12
1 and 2. Catch these errors in your preflight
check.
3, 4 and 5. Have these instruments inspected
and calibrated by instrument specialists.
1 and 2. Watch your airspeed indicator and
altimeter. Work toward complete coopera-
tion.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
IMPROPER COURSE
has a definite effect on a bomb, depending on
the wind's direction and speed and on the
bomb's airspeed and altitude. Your job is to
predetermine what this effect will be, so that
you can make proper allowances before drop-
ping the bomb.
As you r emember from "Theory of Bomb-
ing, " wind is one of the four forces acting on
a bomb f rom the instant of its release. Drift
RESTRI CTED
------------ ------- ~ - - - - - - - - - - ~
~ """",,. ..
.... -
_ ....
-' .... -
.... ""
... ______ ~ - . ,--/ ................ :MPROPERLY MADE
APPROACH
UNDER CORRECTION
- - - - - - - - - - . - ~ " ' : .
IMPROPERLY MADE
APPROACH
OVER CORRECTION
~
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ ~
-----" ~
\ .... -
, ---
" ' ~ ~ - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - -
PROPERLY MADE
APPROACH
1- 4-13
RESTRICTED
Q
Z
-
-
--
-
---
- -
COORSt.
HI/\PROP;!. _ -
- - - - - - - - ~
---
- -
t
---
- -
, - - - - - -- - - ~ - - - - -
CORRECT COURSE
At the beginning of any bombing run your
pilot will signal "On course." He means that
the airplane is headed straight for the target
and that you are now in charge. He does not
mean that the airplane is on the correct
course for you!' bomb to hit the target. That
is your job, and your very first one. You must
head the airplane sufficiently into the wind so
that it will fly the proper crosstrail distance
upwind of the target. You speak of this as
"setting up course," "killing drift," or "syn-
chronizing for course."
You direct the airplane's heading by means
of the course knobs on the bombsight. When
the fore and aft hair "rides" on the shack,
it indicates that drift has been killed.
If you do not kill ·all the drift or if you
over-correct for it, the impact of your bomb
is either upwind (over-correction) or down-
wind (under-correction) of the target.
When you set up an improper course,
you automatically cause two errors. First,
you make good an incorrect course, which
accounts for the large part of your deflection
error. Second, you set an incorrect drift into
the cross trail mechanism.
Incorrect drift in the cross trail mechanism
causes the optics to tilt at the 'vrang angle.
This results in an incorrect solution for cross-
t rail. These two errors, improper course and
incorrect crosstrail, work in the same direc-
tion. In other words, the total deflection error
equals the SUM of the two contributing
errors.
1-4-14
How to Calculate Errors Resulting from
Improper Course.
To calculate the total deflection error re-
sulting from an incorrect drift solution, first
find the error due to the improper course
of the airplane. This distance equals actual
range X sine of the drift error.
The airplane in the accompanying drawing
is cr abbed too much into the wind. It makes
good a course upwind of the proper course.
Suppose you have headed the airplane 10°
into the wind, whereas you should have cor-
rected only 6
0
• The drift error, therefore, is
4
0
• If actual range is 4,000 ft ., you multiply
4,000 X 0.070 (Sin of 4
0
). This improper
course causes a deflection error of 280 ft.
N ext find the cross trail error resulting
from this incorrect drift solution. Remember,
two factors affect crosstrail: trail and drift.
Since CT = T X Sin Drift L, it follows that
CT Error = T X Sin Drift Error . If trail is
300 ft., CT Error is: 300 X 0.070 = 21 ft.
Because the total deflection error resulting
from an incorrect drift solution equals im-
proper course error PLUS the crosstrail
error, you add 280 ft. and 2i ft. The bomb
dropped, therefore, falls 301 ft. upwind of
the target.
The overall error can be found in one calcu-
lation by using: Course Error = WR X Sin
Drift Error. Thus, WR = AR + T = 4,000
+ 300 = 4,300 ft.
Deflection Error = 4,300 ft. X 0.070 = 301 ft.
RESTRICTED
FOR IMPROPER COURSE
WAS IT YOUR ERROR?
1. Did you still have drift to kill at the end
of the run?
2. Did you over-correct for drift?
3. Did you make too many displacement cor-
rections?
4. Were your corrections jerky?
5. Did you forget the PDI or the torque
motor switch?
RESTRICTED
1. Make your large course corrections at the
beginning.
2. Wait till your pilot takes out one course
correction before making another.
3. Stop apparent motion as soon as possible
by double·gripping your course knobs.
4. Make them smooth, so your pilot can fol-
low the PDI.
:;. Check your switches before starting on a
bombing run.
WAS IT CAUSED BY YOUR E9UIPMENT?
1. Did your course knobs stick?
2. Was your PDI erratic?
3. Did your bombsight clutch slip?
4. Did your directional gyro or torque motor
fail to operate?
WAS IT THE PILOT'S ERROR?
1. Did he fail to follow the PDI correctly?
2. Was C-l Autopilot out of adjustment?
RESTRICTED
1, 2, 3 and 4. Catch these in your preftight
inspection. They must be remedied by
Bombsight lVlaintenanc€.
1. Make smooth and slow course corrections
which will be easy to follow. Pilot should
make course corrections with smooth co-
ordinated turns.
2. Before adj ustment, pilot should trim ship
for "hands off" straight and level flight.
1-4-15
RESTRICTED
IMPROPER RATE
RATE TOO FAST
After you set up course, you must synchro-
nize for groundspeed or rate of closure. Re-
member, groundspeed varies wit h the head-
ing of the airplane, since it is the wind which
causes t he difference between true airspeed
and groundspeed. The airplane must be on
the correct heading before you can solve for
rate.
You use the rate knob on the bombsight
when synchroni zing for rate. This knob
causes the roller to move out on the disc until
it picks up a rate of spin proportional to
groundspeed. You have then synchronized for
rate, and the lateral crosshair remains sta-
tionary.
If the lateral crosshair moves short of the
target, or toward you, your rate synchron-
ization is said to be "fast." You have solved
for a faster groundspeed t han actually exists.
On t he other hand, if the lateral crosshair
moves away from you, your rate synchron-
ization is said to be "slow." You have solved
for a slower groundspeed than actually exists.
1- 4- 16
RATE TOO SLOW
How to Calculate Errors Resulting from
Improper Rate.
To calculate errors caused by fast or slow
rate synchronization, remember that your
bomb is released short of the target a dis-
tance equal to the actual r ange computed by
your bombsight. Since AR = GS X ATF - T,
it follows that range error = difference be-
tween correct and incorrect GS X ATF.
Suppose you synchroni ze on a given bomb-
ing run for a groundspeed of 205 ft/ sec.
Actually, t he groundspeed is only 200 ft / sec.
You have solved for a faster groundspeed
than the actual groundspeed. You have moved
the roller out too far on the disc. Hence, the
actual range computed is too large, and so is
t he dropping angle set up t o subtend it. With
a 20-sec. ATF, your range error ....:. 20 X 5
(difference between correct and incorrect
groundspeeds) or 100 ft. Improper synchron-
ization causes the bombsight t o compute WR
100 ft. too large. The bomb is r eleased 100 ft.
too soon, and ~ i t s 100 ft. short.
RESTR ICTED
RESTRICTED
· ~ a d ~
FOR IMPROPER RATE
WAS IT YOUR ERROR?
1. Did you make rate corrections before you
set up course?
2. Did you t ry to kill r ate immediately after
making a course correction?
3. Did you make a large last second correc-
tion?
1. Kill drift first, then synchronize for rate.
2. Wait until t he airplane is flying straight
and level.
3. Keep final adjustments small. DOllble-grip
rate knobs for these last small correc·
tions.
WAS IT THE FAULT OF YOUR EQUIPMENT?
1. Did your rate knobs stick?
2. Was t here roller sli ppage ?
3. Was your di sc speed erratic ?
WAS IT THE PILOT'S ERROR?
1. Did he vary hi s airspeed down the run ?
2. Did he climb or dive? .
RESTRICTED
1. Catch t hi s in t he preflight inspection.
2 and 3. Catch these in your preflight by
checking the movement of t he sighting
angle index with your stop watch.
1 and 2. Keep an eye on your own altimeter
and airspeed indicator. Good bombing re-
quires compl et e cooperation between pilot
and bombardier, and a thorough under-
standing of each other' s problems.
1-4-17
RESTRICTED
IMPROPER RELEASE
o
BOMB LOCATION TENDS TO
BOMB TO HIT SHO.RT OF TARGET
c:=:::::::·
RACK LAG TENDS TO CAUSE BOMB
TO HIT OVER THE TARGET
Proper release of a bomb requires these
two ideal conditions: (1) the bomb must be
directly beneath the bombsight when it is
released and (2) the bomb must be released
precisely when dropping angle and sighting
angle indices meet.
Airplane construction makes it impossible
to carry the bombs directly beneath the
bombsight. Instead, bombs are carried some
distance behind the sight. As a result, they
tend to hit the same distance short of the
target.
After the r elease impulse has been sent
from the sight to the racks, the bomb is car-
ried for an instant before release actually
1-4-18
. - - - - - - - - - " . - - ~
-' .
'.
---' -- - - - - - - ' - - ~
"-
takes place. This is called rack lag. Allowable
lag is from 0.03 to 0.06 seconds, depending on
the age and condition of the racks. Rack lag
tends to give an over, since the bomb is car-
ried longer than the bombsight intended.
Errors resulting from rack lag are small un-
less the lag exceeds the allowable limit.
Improper adj ustment of the bombsight's
release contacts will cause faulty release.
These contacts should close when the drop-
ping angle and sighting angle indices meet.
If the two are not properly adjusted, the
racks will be energized either too soon, caus-
the bomb to hit short, or too late, causing it
to hi t over.
RESTRICTED
Synchronous bombing with t he equipment
you have at present is not possible at bomb-
ing altitudes below 2,000 ft. The disc does not
spin fast enough for you to synchronize for
groundspeed, which at low altitudes appears
to be much faster t han at high altitudes.
Therefore, you compute your groundspeed
by taking a double-drift and using your E-6B
computer to solve for wind. Then you find
from special bombing tables the correct drop-
ping angle for your given bombing altitude
and groundspeed, and set this dropping angle
into the bombsight before you begin the run.
Fixed-angle bombing is subject to many
of the errors associated with synchronous
bombing. Special attention, however, must be
given to errors resulting from improper
bombing alti tude, improper ai rspeed, and in-
corr ect use of bombing tables.
RESTRICTEr;I
RESTRICTED
BOMBARDIER BY
USE OF DISPLACE·
MENT KNOB ASSIST
RATE MOTOR I N
DRIVING MIRROR
DRIFT L AND DROP L PRE-
DETERMINED AND PRESET
INCORRECT ALTITUDE
For bombing altitudes below 2,000 ft ., you
pre-set the dropping angle for t he bombing
alt itude at which t he bomb is to be released.
If the bomb is released at t hat bombing alti -
tude it will strike the target. If you r elease
the bomb at a higher altitude it will fall short
of the target, because the sighting angle
coincides with the pre-set dropping angle too
soon. Simi larl y, a bomb released at too low
an altitude falls over t he target because the
airplane r eaches the release point too late.
How to Measure Errors Caused by Incorrect
Altitude.
Suppose that your bombing al titude for a
given mission is 1,000 ft . and that you com-
1-4- 19
RESTRICTED
CORRECT
59.9°T· -......,I-----o,
----------')------
pute your groundspeed at 150 mph. From
your tables you find that the correct drop-
ping angle is 59.9° and you pre-set this drop- .
ping angle. If at the moment of release your
airplane is actually flying at 1,200 ft. bomb-
ing altitude, your bomb falls short. The rea-
son is that you have used the dropping angle
of 59.9° (Tan 1.657). The correct dropping
angle for a BA of 1,200 ft. at a groundspeed
of 150 mph is 57.5
0
(Tan 1.511). To find the
range error, multiply the difference between
the two tangents by the BA flown.
RE = BA flown (Tan Drop L in sight-
Tan Drop L for BA flown)
= 1,200 (1.657 - 1.511) = 1,200 X 0.146
= 175.2 ft. short.
Suppose that on another occasion you pre-
set the same dropping angle for the same in-
tended bombing altitude and groundspeed,
but that at the moment of release the air-
plane is actually flying at a bombing altitude
of 800 ft. Your bomb falls over. To compute
the amount of the range error, find from
your tables the correct dropping angle (62.2°,
Tan 1.819) for a bombing altitude of 800 ft.
at a groundspeed of 150 mph. Then multiply
the difference between the tangents by the
bombing altitude flown.
RE = BA flown (Tan Drop L for BA
flown - Tan Drop L in sight)
= 800 (1.819 - 1.657) = 800 X 0.162 =
129.6 ft. over.
Remember that in fixed-angle bombing an
incorrect BA gives an error in the direction
opposite to' that of a similar error in syn-
chronous bombing. In fixed-angle bombing:
If BA is too high, bomb falls short.
If BA is too low, bomb falls over.
~ _ _ _ __ ______ __ _____ ~ R R E C T __ _
--
- . -
~ ~ :
1---=:1
,
"
,,-
"
1-4-20
"
"
,',
, ,
, ,
, "-
, ,
, "-
,
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
INCORRECT AIRSPEED
On a fixed-angle mlSSlOn, you are given
your bombing altitude and your indicated
airspeed. You compute your airspeed and
your groundspeed, and find from your tables
the correct dropping angle for the given
bombing altitude and groundspeed. If at the
moment of release your airplane is flying at
t he intended indicated airspeed, your bomb
hits the target. If it is flying at a faster indi-
cated airspeed, and hence a faster ground-
speed, the bomb falls over. The pre-set drop-
ping angle is smaller than the correct drop-
ping angle for t he groundspeed actually
flown.
Similarly, if you release your bomb when
the airplane is flying at a slower airspeed
than the intended one, the bomb falls short.
You have pre-set a dropping angle too large
for the groundspeed actually flown.
How to Measure Errors Caused by Incorrect
Airspeed.
Suppose that for a given mission your
bombing altitude is 1,000 ft. and your air-
speed is 150 mph. If at the moment of release
your airplane is actually flying at an indi-
cated airspeed of 165 mph, your bomb falls
over. The increase in indicated airspeed has
produced a corresponding increase in ground-
speed. Since you have pre-set the dropping
angle, the bomb has been released at the
right point for the intended groundspeed;
but the increased groundspeed has given it a
larger whole range.
The easiest way to measure the error is to
use the equation:
RE = ATF (lAS ft / sec flown - lAS ft / sec
intended.)
In using this equation you are actuall y com-
puting the difference between the actual
whole range and the intended whole range,
assuming that the difference in airspeed is
the same as the difference in groundspeed.
The actual time of fall for 1,000 ft. is 8 sec-
onds. Therefore:
RE = 8 { 165 X ~ ~ - 150 X i ~ }
= 8 (242- 220) = 8 X 22 = 176 ft. over.
If with the same intended bombing altitude
RESTRICTED

..... ~ CORRECT SPEED
------------------------
-----

"
" ,
"
--
--
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
\
\
\
\
TOO FAST - OVER
-',
"
"
,
,
,
,
,
TOO SLOW - SHORT
--""'"
,
,
"
,
,
\
\
\
\
\
,
,
,
\
\
\
and airspeed your bomb is released when the
airplane is flying at an indicated airspeed of
140 mph, your bomb falls short. The range
error is:
RE = ATF (lAS ft / sec intended - lAS ft / sec
flown)
= 8 {150 X ~ ~ - 140 X i; }
= 8(220 - 205) = 8 X 15 = 120 ft. short.
Remember that in fixed-angle bombing an
incorrect airspeed gives an error in the direc-
tion opposite to that of a similar error in syn-
chronous bombing. In fixed-angle bombing:
If airspeed is too fast, bomb falls over.
If airspeed is too slow, bomb falls short.
1-4-21
RESTRICTED
INCORRECT USE OF TABLES
In fixed-angle bombing, you always bomb
with 20° extended vision locked in. The
bombing tables for this type of bombing give
you the dropping angle and t he dropping
angle minus 20 ° for a given groundspeed and
bombing altitude. It is the second figure,
dropping angle minus 20 °, which you must
set into the sight.
s ~ OF BOMBING ERRORS
OVER
In Synchronous Bombing
l. Drop angle too SMALL, caused by
1. Disc speed too fast, caused by
Indicated altitude too high.
BA computed too small.
Altimeter reads too low.
Thermometer reads too low.
2. Too much trai l set in rate end,caused by
AS too slow.
AS indicator reads too high.
Positive pre-set trail in rate end not
allowed for.
3. Fore and aft bubble to the rear.
'1. Synchronized slow, or GS solved for by
sight slower than actually exists.
5. Mirror drive cable too short.
II. RCCT.
III. Rack lag.
IV. Airplane in shallow climb at instant of
release.
In Fixed-Angle Bombing
I. Pre-set Drop Angle too small.
II. Indicated altitude too small.
III. Airspeed too fast.
LEFT
In Both Kinds of Bombing
1. Lateral bubble right of lubber line.
2. Stabilizer twisted counter-clockwise.
3. Over-correction for right drift.
4. Under-correction for left drift.
5. Too much trai l set in crosstrail mecha-
ni sm with right drift.
6. Too little trail set in crosstrail mecha-
ni sm with left drift.
1-4-22
SHORT
In Synchronous Bombing
1. Drop Angle too LARGE, caused by
1. Disc speed too slow, caused by
Indicated altitude too low.
BA computed too large.
Altimeter reads to'o high.
Thermometer reads too high.
2. Too little trail set in rate end, caused by
AS too fast.
AS indica tor reads too low.
No allowance for negative pre-set
trail in rate end.
3. Fore and aft bubble to the front.
4. Synchronized fast, or GS solved for by
sight faster than actually exists.
5. Mirror drive cable too long.
II. Roller slippage.
III. Airplane in shallow dive at instant of
release.
In Fixed-Angle Bombing
1. Pre-set Drop A ngle too large.
II. Indicated altitude too large.
III. Airspeed too slow.
RIGHT
In Both Kinds of Bombing
1. Lateral bubble left of lubber line.
2. Stabilizer twisted clockwise.
3. Over-correction for left drift.
4. Under-correction for right drift.
5. Too much trail set in cross trai l mecha-
nism with left drift.
6. Too littl e trail set in crosstrail mecha-
nism with ri ght drift.
RESTRICTED
INTRODUCTION
HHow can I improve my bombing '!" You
will ask yourself that question many times in
your career as a bombardier. One way to im-
prove, of course, would be to drop thousands
of bombs, on the theory that you would im-
prove with constant practice.
Unfortunately, you have neither the time
nor the large supply of bombs which this
method would require. Your only choice is to
learn as much as you possibly can from each
bomb that you drop. When you return to the
field, after the last "bomb away," remember
that your mission is not yet complete. Refer
to your 12-C form and try to determine why
each bomb hit where it did. You can and you
,
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
will improve your bombing!! Study every
bomb-release carefully.
Your 12-C form is all -important. If you
make an accurate record of your mission, you
can use this data to learn what your errors
were. When you understand the "why" of
your misses, you can eliminate repetition of
those errors and improve your bombing.
It is a fairly si mple matter to analyze a
bomb's impact. Develop a Hsense of error."
That is, learn to sense the direction of error
and to esti mate just how much of the bomb's
miss is due to a given error. Study your data
thoughtfully and then follow a simple plan
of analyzi ng your errors.
1- 5-1
RESTRICTED
A SUGGESTED PLAN OF ANALYSIS
(INFORMATION AFFECTING ALL BOMBS)
WIND
Find as nearly as possible the correct wind
which was over the target at your bombing
altitude and plot this wind on your E-6B com-
puter. One way to do this is to compare notes
with other students who were bombing the
same target. Another way is to plot, on the
E-6B computer, drifts or groundspeeds from
two or more of your runs on which you were
sure you were synchronized.
BOMBING ALTITUDE AND
TRUE AIRSPEED
Check carefully your computed bombing
altitude and true airspeed. Work these out
again on your computer, to be sure that your
original computations were correct.
DISC SPEED AND TRAIL
Make certain that you obtained the correct
trail and disc speed from the bombing tables.
Check to see if you set them into the sight
correctly.
RANGE
If your error is in range, check the follow-
ing :
1-5-2
1. Vertical (fore and aft bubble).
2. Actual time of fall (disc speed and
bombing altitude).
3. Trail and RCCT.
4. Dropping angle (range synchroniza-
tion) .
DEFLECTION
If your error is in deflection, check these
possible causes:
1. Vertical (lateral bubble).
2. Cross trail.
3. Drift (course synchronization).
For bomb impacts that have errors in both
range and deflection, make separate checks,
first for range and then deflection.
Your 12-C form contains all of the infor-
mation pertaining to your bomb release.
Shown on the accompanying chart is that
part of the data which you must have in
order to analyze each bomb and determine
what error or errors were responsible for the
miss.
EXAMPLE
Use the figures from the chart in the
following suggested analysis of four bombs
dropped on a 12,OOO-ft. mission.
RESTRICTED.
RESTRICTED
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ESTRICTED
1-5- 3
RESTRICTED
WIND
By checking with other students on the
same target and at the same bombing alti-
tude, you find that the wind on your mission
was from 149
0
at 20 mph. You further check
the wind you had by using the data recorded
for the fourth bomb, on which your synchro-
nization was good and you got a good hit.
Plot the wind on your E-6B computer.
BOMBING ALTITUDE AND
TRUE AIRSPEED ++
By .. e-computing the bombing altitude you
find that 12,000 ft. was correct. Also, by re-
computing the true airspeed you find that
184 mph was correct.
DISC SPEED AND TRAIL
You check the bombing
tables and find that 78 mils
were correct.
1-5-4 RESTRICTED
BOMB NO.1
Your bomb impact was approximately 125
ft. to the right of the target.
Range-From your 12-C form you find:
1. Your fore and aft bubble was centered.
2. The pilot f lew the proper altitude.
Therefore, the actual time of fall (disc speed)
set into the sight was correct.
3. The pilot also flew the proper airspeed.
Therefore the trail setting was correct.
4. Your groundspeed compares very close-
ly to the groundspeed found on the E-6B
computer for this heading. The range syn-
chronization was good. You now see that you
solved your range ' problem with no appre-
ciable error and the bomb impact was good
in range.
Deflection-From your 12-C form you find:
1. Your lateral bubble was centered.
2. Your trail was correct. Therefore, there
was no error in cross trail.
3. Your drift is not the same as the drift
found on the E-6B computer for this mag-
netic heading. The course synchronization
was to the right.
Refer ring to the wind you have plotted on
the E-6B computer, you see that the correct
drift on a magnetic heading of 111 0 is 3
0
left.
RES T RICTED
RESTRICTED
But your 12-C form shows that you solved
for a drift of 4
0
left on a magnetic heading
of 111 o. Comparing these drifts, you can see
that your error in drift contributed to the
greater part of the bomb's miss. You solved
for 1
0
too much left drift with the bombsight
on the magnetic heading of 1110. For this
reason, you know the bomb impact would be
upwind, that is, to the right.
Now determine from the chart or calcula-
tions what part of the error on the ground
resulted from this error in drift. Remember
that the deflection error caused by a drift
error equals: WR X Sin Drift Error.
To find WR, multiply BA by Tan WR L .
To find T;m WR L ,add Tan T L to Tan Drop L .
Tan WR L = 0.492 + 0.078 = 0.570
Then:
Whole Range = 12,000 X 0.570 = 6,840 ft.
Sin of drift error = 0.01745
The deflection error caused by the drift
error = 6,840 X 0.01745 = 119 ft. right.
This shows that your 1
0
error in drift
caused bomb No. 1 to miss the target by
about 119 ft.
Your bomb impact was approximately 125
ft. to the r ight. You over-corrected 1
0
for
course and the greater part of your error
resulted from this over-correction. The re-
maining part of the error is so small that
for practical purposes you can disregard its
cause.
1-5- 5
RESTRICTED
BOMB NO.2
Your bomb impact was approximately 80
ft. over and 200 ft. to the left of the target.
Range--From your 12-C form you find:
1. Your fore and aft bubble was centered.
2. The pilot flew 200 ft. too high. This, of
course, made the actual time of fall set into
the sight too small for the bombing altitude.
The disc rotated too fast, the dropping angle
was too small, and the bomb hit over.
3. The pilot flew at the proper airspeed.
Therefore, the trail set into the sight can be
considered correct, as the 200-ft. change in
altitude has very little effect on trail.
4. Your groundspeed compares very close-
ly to the groundspeed found on the E-6B
computer for this heading. The range syn-
chronization was good.
Now determine from chart or calculations
what error r esulted from the error in bomb-
ing altitude. Use the following equation:
Range error due to incorrect bombing alti-
tude = GS ft/ sec X (ATF at 12,200 - ATF at
12,000) .
The GS was 194 mph or 284.5 ft/sec. From
your bombing tables find the ATF at 12,200
ft. (29.32 sec) and the ATF at 12,000 ft.
(29.06 sec).
Then:
Range error due to incorrect bombing alti-
tude equals:
284.5 (29.32 - 29.06) = 284.5 X 0.26 = 74 ft.
Thus you see that the error in bombing
altitude accounts for the greater part of the
range error.
~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
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1-5-6
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Deflection- From your 12-C form you find:
1. Your lateral bubble was one-half length
to the right. Thus the optics were tilted 18
mils left of the vertical, causing an error to
the left.
~ ~ t
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1 \
I ,
I \
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..... 4
2. Your trail was correct; there was no
cross trail error.
3. Your drift compares very closely to the
drift found on the E-6B computer for this
heading. Therefore, your drift was correct
and you were synchronized for course.
To determine the extent of the error '
caused by the incorrect level, multiply the
bubble error in mils by 1/ 1,000 of the BA.
Deflection error caused by incorrect level
equals:
18 X \ ~ 0 2 0 0 ~ 18 X 12.2 = 219 ft.
The deflection error caused by the incor-
rect level was about 219 ft. left and the bomb
impact was 200 ft. left. The greater part of
your error was because your gyro was out of
the vertical. Your miss was the result of two
errors. Your bomb was 74 ft. over because
the pilot flew 200 ft. too high. Your bomb was
219 ft. left because the gyro had an 18 mil
tilt from vertical.
RESTRICTED
BOMB NO.3
Your bomb impact was approximately 230
ft. over and 215 ft. right of the target.
Range-From your 12-C form you find:
1. Your fore and aft bubble was one-half
length to the rear. Therefore the top of the
optics was tilted to the front of vertical,
causing an error over.
2. The pilot flew at the proper bombing
altitude; the ATF (disc speed) set into the
sight was correct.
3. The pilot flew 10 mph too fast an air-
speed. Thus, the trail set into the sight was
too small and caused an error short.
4. Your groundspeed was 3 mph slower
than the groundspeed found on the E-6B
computer for this heading. Your range syn-
chronization was slow and caused an error
over.
Analyze the results of these errors one by
one, starting with the error caused by the
improper fore and aft vertical. Determine
this error from the chart or from the follow-
ing calculations:
The top 'of the optics was tilted forward
1 0 , thus making the range angle smaller than
t he indication of the sighting angle index.
The range angle was therefore only 33° when
the sighting angle index reached coincidence
with the dropping angle index at 34°.
The practical estimate that a bubble one-
half length out of the vertical causes an 18
mil range error, may now be used. At 12,000
ft. one mil equals 12 ft. on the ground. Hence,
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
the bubble error is estimated to cause an
error of 18 X 12 or 216 ft. over.
Determine the error caused by the error in
airspeed by finding the true airspeed from
the indicated airspeed shown on the 12-C
form. Find the trail needed for this TAS.
Using your E-6B computer, you find that
the true airspeed is 196 mph when the indi-
cated airspeed is 155 mph. From your trail
tables, you find that at a bombing altitude of
12,000 ft., at this true airspeed, you should
have 86 mils of trail set into the sight. You
actually had 78. Thus the trail error is 86
mils less 78 mils, or 8 mils. The resulting
' . 12000
range error IS then 8 X 1,000 96 ft. short.
When your synchronization for rate is
slow, you have not displaced the roller far
enough from the center of the disc. The drop-
ping angle set up by the sight is too small;
thus the bomb impact is over. Comparing the
groundspeed from the 12-C form and the
E-6B computer, you found that the ground-
speed was 3 mph faster than the groundspeed
you solved for by the sight. Use the follow-
ing equation to calculate the range error
caused by this error in synchronization:
Range Error caused by incorrect Range
Synchronization = ATF X GS error in ftl
sec.
Find ATF (29.06 sec.) from your bombing
tables. To solve for GS error in ft l sec, multi-
ply 3 by 88/ 60.
1-5-7
RESTRICTED
""',
,
,
\
\
\
\
\
\
Range Error = 29.06 X 4.4 ft / sec = 128
ft. over. You have determined three errors in
range :
216 ft. over caused by an error in level,
96 ft. short caused by an incorrect air-
speed, and
128 ft . over caused by slow synchroniza-
tion. Adding t hese, you get a tot al range
error of 248 ft. over. This accounts for your
bomb's large range error of 230 ft.
Deflection- From your 12-C form you find:
1. Your lateral bubble was one-half length
to the left. Thus the optics were tilted 18
mils from the vertical, causing an error to
the right.
2. Your trail was 8 mils too small. There-
fore, there was a small cross trail error down-
wind and to the left.
3. Your drift compares very closely to the
drift found on the E-6B computer for this
heading. Therefore, your drift was correct
and you were synchronized for course.
Analyze the results of these error s in de-
flection, starting with the error caused by
the improper lateral vertical. To determine
the extent of this error, multiply the bubble
error in mi ls by 1/ 1,000 of the BA.
Deflection error caused by incorrect level
equals:
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I!
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C
q
)
I I
1 ~ ! ~
1- 5- 8
18 X I I ~ O O O ~ O = 18 X 12 = 216 ft. right.
By use of the chart or calculations, deter-
mine the extent of the error caused by too
little trail set into the crosstrail mechanism
of the sight.
Deflection error caused by cross trail error
equals trail error in feet multiplied by the sin
of drift angle. Sin 3° = 0.053
Deflection Error caused by crosstrail error
equals
8 X 12,000 X 0 053 = 96 X 0.053 = 5 ft. left.
1,000' .
You have determined two errors in deflec-
tion. The error caused by the incorrect ver-
tical (216 f t . right) was the important one.
The error caused by incorrect cross t rai l (5 ft.
left) was very s mall, but it compensated
somewhat for the other error. The calculated
error was 211 ft. right. This accounts for the
large deftection error of 215 ft. in the bomb
impact.
RESTRICTED
BOMB NO.4
Your bomb impact was approximately 60
ft. short of the t arget.
Range- From your 12-C form you find:
1. Your fore and aft bubble was centered.
2. The pilot Aew the proper bombing alti-
tude and the di sc speed was correct.
3. The pilot flew the proper airspeed and
the trail was correct.
4. Your groundspeed compares very close-
ly to the groundspeed found on the E-6B
computer for this heading.
With all of t his data correct, your bomb
should have hit the shack; or, at least, it
should have been a near miss. Thus, with the
aid of your 12-C form and E-6B computer,
you have eliminated the possibility of any of
the more obvious errors. Now, thinking back
on your procedure, you recall the position of
the lateral crosshair at the instant of bomb
release. The later al cross hair, although its
movement was apparently killed, was about
50 ft. short of the target.
Deflection-From your 12-C form you find:
1. Your lateral bubble was level.
2. The trai l and cross trail were correct.
3. Your drift compares very closely to the
drift found on the E-6B computer for this
heading. The course synchronization was
good.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
You now know that you set up a good rate
and course and had the correct data set into
the sight. There was no reason for your bomb
to miss the target, except for the fact that
the lateral crosshair was 50 ft. short of the
target. If the crosshair had been on the tar-
get at the instant of release, you would prob-
ably have scored a hit.
The usefulness of the 12-C form should be
extremely clear to you, after you make t his
type of bomb analysis. You now know the im-
portance of recording your data correctly: so
t hat you can find the reason (or reasons) for
every short or over, and every deflection
error to left or right.
It isn' t necessary for you to know your
exact error down to a split-hair measurement
of feet and inches. But it is important for
you to learn to gage the approximate direc-
tion and distance of each particular error.
Always remember that your 12-C form is a
practical tool to aid you in becoming a better
bombardier. You err in judgment, which is
worse than a bombing error, if you regard
the 12-C form as just "a matter of form" for
statistical purposes.
If you take advantage of the 12-C form and
analyze each bomb impact, your bombing will
be better!
1-5- 9
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GROUNDSPEED in mph
RESTRICTED
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1-5- 12
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RESTRICTED
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SECTION Z
~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
INTRODUCTION
Computers are instruments for saving you
time and trouble. As a bombardier, you will
have to make many calculations involving
mathematical figuring. Furthermore in the
a ir you have to make them in a hurry. And
in the air you're going to be busy! If you had
the time, you could work out your problems
on paper, but that method is difficult and too .
slow. Your computers can solve your prob-
lems for you accurately, and they can do it
more quickly and mor e easily.
However, computers are not fool-proof.
You've got to know them; you've got to mas-
ter them, if you want them to work for you.
THE THREE COMPUTER'S YOU WILL USE THE MOST .••
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n ........ RECKONI
N
G COMPUTER E· 6 B
THE AL TJTUDE CORRECTION
N
G COMPUTER ABC
...... nM, .. TIC BOMBI
2-1-1
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SLIDE RULE AND AIRSPEED CALCULATIONS
USING THE E-68 COMPUTER
Construction
The back of the E-6B is called the slide rule
face. It has a stationary outer scale, and an
identical movable inner scale on a rotating
disc. In your calculations t he outer scale
usually r epresents units of measure (miles,
gallons, etc.) while the inner r epresents units
of time (hours and minutes). However, si nce
these scales are standard logarithmic scales
you can use them to solve any problem in
multiplication or division.
On each of these scales, the numbering
starts from an Index, labeled 10. If you begin
at this Index and r ead clockwise around the
circle, you will find the number s increasing
to 99. The next point on the scale is your
Index 10 again, which is now equivalent to
100 (10 X 10).
2- 2-1
If you continue reading in a clockwise
direction, the point marked 11 on your scale
now represents 110, the point marked 12 rep-
resents 120, etc. Thus, if you read around the
circle once more, when you reach the Index
again it will represent 1,000 (10 X 100) . In
other words, each time around the scale, the
values increase in multiples of 10. Conversely,
if you r ead the scale in a counter-clockwise
direction, the values decrease in the same
way. Thus, if your Index has a value of 1, the
figure 90, read counter-clockwise, has a value
of .9, 80 represents .8, etc.
Notice that ther e are two features common
to all slide rule scales. First, the scales carry
values from 10 to 100 only. Since the purpose
of the scales is multiplication or division, this
is no handicap; you can substitute the figure
20, for example, for 2 or 200 or .02 or any
si milar number, and you can adjust the deci-
mal point in the answer accordingly. Like-
wise 55.5 can represent .555, 5,550, and all
si milar numbers. Consequently, you can use
the available scales from 10 to 100 to repre-
sent any desired number, large or small.
The second feature of the slide rule scale
is the way t he space between t he numbers is
divided. The subdivisions are not the same
way around the scale. Ther efore, it is essen-
t ial that you know and remember the values
at any point of the scale. Usually when a
bombardier says hi s computer gives him the
wrong answer, it is because he has mis-read
the value of the subdivisions.
Here is the way it works. From the Index
10 around to 15, each subdivision r epresents
1 unit. Thus, if you start clockwise from 100,
(10 on· the scale) t he first point represents
101, the second 102, etc., up to and including
150.
From 150 (15 on the scale) to 300 (30),
each subdivision represents 2 units. From
300 to 600, each subdivision r epr esents 5
units; and from 600 to 1,000 (Index), each
subdivision represents 10 units.
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MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
The logarithmic scales on your E-6B Com-
puter make it easy for you to multiply and
divide. You can mUltiply numbers by adding
thei r logarithmic distances and divide num-
bers by subtracting thei r logarithmi c dis-
tances.
Examples-Multiplicatian
1. 12 X 15 = 180
Set t he Index 10 of t he inner scale under 12
on t he outer scale, and opposite 15 on the
inner scale r ead t he answer on the outer scale
(180). In so doing you add the logarithmic
di stance (a) of 12 to the logarithmic di stance
(b) of 15 to obtain a logarithmic distance (c)
of 180. Thus a + b = c.
c
\
\ ~
b
I .
A+B""C
2. To calcul ate whole range in feet when
you know the groundspeed in mph (182 mph)
and the actual time of fall (23.7 sec.) " and
that a speed of 1 mph is equal to a speed of
1.47 ft. per sec., you have the equation:
WR = GS mph X 1.47 X ATF.
Therefore, WR = 182 X 1.47 X 23.7 ft.
Here are t wo successive mUltiplications to
per form. First you set t he Index 10 on t he
inner scale under the 182 (same point as
18.2 ) on the outer scale; then find 1.47 (same
as 14.7) on the inner scale, and r ead the prod-
uct, 267 (same as 26.7) di r ectly above on the
outer scale. It is clear that t hi s product is
267, not 2.67 or 26.7 or 2,670, because you are
mUltiplying approximately 200 by 1. 5, and
should get a figure a little small er than 300.
Next, multi ply the intermediate product
267 by 23.7. Set the Index 10 of t he inner
scale under the 267, and then find 23.7 on t he
inner scale. ' Directly above 23.7 is your final
answer on the outer scale, 6,340. Of cour se
this is t he scale point 63.4. But you know
that you ar e mul tiplying a number cl ose to
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300 (267) by a number close to 20 (23.7) , so
t he answer must be close to 6,000; hence it is
6,340.
Examples-Division
1
180 - 12
. 15 -
Set 15 on t he inner scale under 180 on t he
outer scale and over the Index 10 on the inner
scale read t he answer 12 on the outer scale.
In so doing, you have subtracted the logar it h-
mic distance (b) of 1 5 from the logarithmic
distance (c) of 180 and obtained a logarith-
mic distance (a) of 12. Thus c - b = a .
c
\
CI
\.
\
C-B""A
2. In computing gr oundspeed in mph with
the bombsight, you have t he equation:
DS X BA
GS mph = 7773 X Tan WR L
,
You will find t hat the bombing alti t ude and
disc speed remain constant when bombing or
cali brating instruments, whereas the tangent
of the whol e range angl e will change with
each change in groundspeed. In usi ng t hi s
equation, you can substitute the constants of
disc speed and bombing altitude. Then divide
by 7,773 to fi nd a constant which can be mul-
tipli ed by the tangent of the whole r ange
angle of any heading. Thus you can find t he
groundspeed on that heading.
The first part of this equation: D ~ ~ 7 : A
,
can be solved by one setting on t he computer .
For a bombing alt itude of 8,000 ft. the disc
speed setting is 227 rpm. Ther efore, set7,773
on inner scale under 8,000 on the outer scale,
and over 227 on t he inner scale, r ead t he in-
termediate product 233.5 on t he outer scale.
Nate:
Over the index 10 on the inner scale you
wi ll find the quotient (division of 8,000 by
7,773) on t he outer scale. Your next step
2- 2-2
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wbuld be to multiply t his quotient by 227.
This is done automatically, because you have
already set the quotient on the outer scale
over the index 10 on the inner scale.
After you find the intermediate product
233.5, multiply it by the tangent of the whole
range angle to determine the groundspeed. If
the tangent of the whole range angle is 0.65
then:
GS = 233.5 X 0.65 = 152 mph.
With this same setting on the computer,
you can solve for the groundspeed on differ-
erent headings by knowing the whole range
angle, provided the bombing altitude and disc
speed remain constant.
For Tan WR L of 0.70,
GS = 233.5 X 0.70 = 163 mph.
For Tan WR L of 0.75, GS = 175 mph.
PROPORTIONS
The circular slide rule solves problems of
proportion. Thus:
2- 2-3
184
X-
y
- 100
Since 60 mph equals 88 ft/sec, you can con-
vert mph to ft/ sec by setting 60 on the inner
scale under 88 on the outer scale or by setting
the same proportion, 3,600 under 5,280. Then
opposite any speed in mph on the inner scale
you can read the same speed in ft/sec on the
outer scale, and vice versa. For example, a
speed of 120 ft/sec equals 82 mph.
NAUTICAL MILES, STATUTE MILES,
KILOMETERS
You can interconvert nautical miles, stat-
ute miles, and kilometers with a single set-
t ing of the inner disc. When you set 66 nau-
tical miles on the "N AUT" marker, the equiv-
alent 76 statute miles and 122 kilometers
appear under their respective markers.
9()
9
DISTANCE, TIME, AND SPEED
To convert minutes of time to hours, it is
necessary to divide the number of minutes by
60, since there are 60 min. in 1 hr. There-
fore, in any problems involving time, the
solid black pointer found on the inner (time)
scale at the number 60 must be used. This
constitutes 1 hr. of time, or 60 min., and its
multiples of 10: 600 min., 6,000 min., etc. The
inner disc contains two scales, one calibrated
in minutes and the other in hours and min-
utes.
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There is a definite relationship between
distance, time, and speed. Distance is the
product when time is multiplied by speed.
Speed or rate is the quotient when distance is
divided by time. Time is the quotient of dis-
tance divided by speed.
Thus Rate
Distance
-=-;i.--- Therefore in work-
Time
ing problems involving these three factors,
place distance on the outer scale opposite the
EXAMPLE J
GIVEN: Groundspeed 180 knots. Time· of
flight 35 min.
FIND: Distance traveled.
SOLUTION: Set the black pointer opposite
180 (18) on the outer (miles) scale. Opposite
35 on the inner (minutes) scale, read on outer
(miles) scale the distance traveled.
ANSWER: 105 nautical miles. ____
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time in hours or minutes on the inner scale.
This automatically divides distance by time.
Then read the rate per hour on the outer
scale opposite the black pointer (the 60 min.
or 1 hr. mark).
These positions are always the same re-
gardless of which item (distance, time, or
rate) is unknown. If you know two, and if
you set them on the computer in their proper
places, you can find the desired unknown fig-
ure at its correct place.
1:::
5
1
,'',-
EXAMPLE 2

GIVEN: Groundspeed 180 knots. Distance to
travel 210 nautical miles. e
FIND: Time required to fly distance.
SOLUTION: Set black
outer scale. Opposite 210 on outer scale, read
70 (7) on inner scale, or 1 hr. 10 min. (1 :10)
directly below.
ANSWER: 1 hr. 10 min.
EXAMPLE 3
GIVEN: Distance traveled 240 nautical miles.
Elapsed time 1 hr. 20 min.
FIND: Groundspeed.
SOLUTION: Set 1 hr. 20 min. (1:20) on inner
scale opposite 240 (24) miles on outer scale.
Opposite black pointer read groundspeed.
ANSWER: 180 knots.
NOTE: Always remember that your com-
puter is dividing distance by t ime to give
speed or rate. Therefore, if the distance is
given in nautical miles; the groundspeed
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shown on the computer is in knots (a term
meaning "nautical per hour"). Sim-
ilarly, if the distance is given in statute miles,
the groundspeed is in mph.
2- 2- 4
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FUEL CONSUMPTION
Do this in the same manner as t ime, speed,
distance. The only difference in the problem
is that you substitute gallons of fuel for units
of distance; therefore, find the rate of con-
sumption at the black pointer.
EXAMPLE J
GIVEN: Fuel consumed, 145 gal. Elapsed
time, 2 hr. 6 min.
FIND: Rate of consumption.
SOLUTION: Opposite 145 on the outer scale,
set 2 hr. 6 min. on the inner scale. Opposite
the black pointer read the rate of fuel con-
~ " ' ; ; ; ; ; ; " - ~ 7 " ~ ~ ~ ~ . - sumption.
fj ANSWER: 69 gals/ hr.
2-2-5
EXAMPLE 2
GIVEN: Fuel remaining, 160 gals. Rate of
consumption 69 gals/ hr.
FIND: Remaining flight time.
SOLUTION: Set black pointer to rate of con-
sumption, 69 gals/ hr. Opposite 160 on outer
scale, read remaining time of flight on inner
scale.
ANSWER: 2 hr. 19 min.
EXAMPLE 3
GIVEN: Rate of consumption, 69 gals/ hr.
Time needed for flight, 3 hr. 30 min.
FIND: Fuel needed for flight.
SOLUTION: Set black pointer to rate of con-
sumption, 69 gals/ hr. Opposite time of flight
on inner scale, read gallons of f uel needed.
ANSWER: 241.5 gals.
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INTERCONVERSION OF
CALIBRATED AND TRUE AIRSPEED
EXAMPLE J
GIVEN: Calibrated airspeed, 200 knots.
Flight level pressure altitude, 10,000 ft.
Flight level temperature, _12°C.
FIND: True airspeed.
SOLUTION: Adjust the rotating disc to bring
the temperature, _12°C, opposite the figure
10 (10,000 ft.) on the pressure altitude scale
which appears in the Airspeed Correction
window.
BE SURE TO USE THE WINDOW MARK
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S
ARMY AIR FODe
\}. . Q'1:8
Opposite 200 (20) on the true airspeed on the outer scale.
ANSWER: 230 knots.
EXAMPLE 2
GIVEN: Flight level temperature, +10°C.
Flight level pressure altitude, 8,000 ft. True
airspeed, 280 mph.
FIND: Calibrated airspeed.
SOLUTION: Set flight level temperature
+ lOoC. opposite flight level pressure altitude
8,000 ft. Opposite 280 mph true airspeed on
the outer scale, read calibrated airspeed on
the inner scale.
ANSWER: 244 mph.
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1. At a groundspeed of 158 mph, how far
will you travel in 1 hr. and 26 min. ?

2. How many kilometers and statute miles
are equivalent to 355 nautical miles?

3. If an airplane flies 1,350 miles in 7 hrs.
20 min., what is its average groundspeed?

4. At flight level pressure altitude of 21,-
900 and a flight level temperature of -SOC
(corrected), what is the true airspeed in mph
if the calibrated airspeed is 131 mph?

5. If an airplane consumes 153 gals. of
gasoline in 2 hrs. and 18 min., what is its rate
of consumption per hour?
A NSWERS
1. 226 miles. 3. 184 mph.
2. 408 statute miles. 4. 192Y2 mph.
658 kilometers. 5. 66Y2 gals/ hr.
2-2- 7
6. If you travel a distance of 308 miles in
2 ·hrs. and 13 min., what is your groundspeed?

7. How many feet per second is the equiv-
alent of 168 mph?

8. A fully loaded airplane holds 435 gals.
of gasoline. If it uses fuel at the rate of 84
gals/ hr, how long can it remain in the air?

9. At a groundspeed of 210 mph, how long
will it take to travel 895 miles?

10. Suppose you are flying at a bombing
altitude of 4,000 ft. and the disc speed is 326.
If the tangent of the whole range angle is .94,
what is the groundspeed in mph? If Tan of
whole range angle is 1.07 what is the ground-
speed?
6. 139 mph. 9. 4 hrs. 16 mins.
7. 246.5 ft / sec. 10. 158 mph.
180 mph.
8. 5 hrs. 12 mins.
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Before you try to solve vector problems on your computer, you need
to understand a few terms t hat are constantly used. The most essential
terms are:
INDICATED AIRSPEED Dill
The reading of the airspeed indicator in mph.
CALIBRATED AIRSPEED ICAs l
The r eading of the airspeed indicator, corrected for instrument al and '
installation error. In bombing, "miles per hour" is generally used; for nav-
igation, "knots." For t he latter purpose, indicated airspeed is calibrated
and conver ted to knots in one operation by reading the appropriate column
on the airspeed meter calibration card.
T RUE A IRS PEE D I TAS I
The true speed of an aircraft relative to the air. Airspeed is always
true airspeed unless otherwise designated. Airspeed is obtained by correct-
ing the calibrated airspeed for density, using t emperature and pressure
altitude corrections.
GROUNDSPEED [ill
Actual speed of a ircraft r elative to the ear t h' s surface.
TRUE COURSE m:J
The direction of flight over the surface of the earth, expressed as an
angle with respect to t rue north. Course is always true course unl ess other-
wise designated. It is t he course laid out on the chart or map. All courses
are measured clockwise from true north through 360". True course made
good may be called "track."
2-3-1
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+ W - E
2-3-2
TRUE HEADING [![]
The direction of the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, expressed as an
angle with respect to true north. In other words, it is the true course with
the drift correction applied. Heading is always true heading unless other-
wise designated.
DRIFT IE]
The angle between the true heading and the true course. Named right
or left according to the direction an aircraft is drifting.
DRIFT CORRECTION IDr. corr. 1
The angle added to or subtracted from an aircraft's true course to
obtain true heading. When you have right drift, subtract the angle from
the true course to obtain the true heading (Minus Corr.) ; when you have
left drift, add the angle (Plus Corr.).
VARIATION Ivar. 1
The angle between a line to true north and a line passing through a
freely suspended compass needle influenced solely by the earth's mag-
netism. It is the angle between lines to true north and magnetic north. It is .
named east or west according to the direction of the compass needle from
true north. Variation changes with time and place.
MAGNETIC HEADING [!![]
True Heading with variation applied. The direction of the longitudinal
axis of the aircraft, expressed as an angle with respect to magnetic north.
If the variation is west ADD variation to true heading to obtain magnetic
heading. If variation is east SUBTRACT.
DEVIATION I Dev· 1
The angle between a line to magnetic north and a line passing through
a compass needle. Deviation is caused by magnetic influences in an aircraft.
It is named east or west according to the direction in which the needle is
deflected from magnetic north.
COMPASS HEADING (£ff]
Magnetic heading with deviation applied. If the deviation is west, ADD
deviation to magnetic heading to obtain compass heading. If deviation is
east SUBTRACT.
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:
::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ' AS
• GS
• GS
WIND
When there is no wind, an airplane which
flies a true airspeed of 150 mph on a true
heading of 90
0
will actually travel 150 mph
over the ground in an easterly direction. That
is, true airspeed and groundspeed are equal,
and true heading and true course coincide.
But wind changes the situation. The airplane
can still fly 150 mph through the air on an
easterly heading; but if the air moves while
the airplane flies through it, it affects both
the airplane's groundspeed and true course.
Here's a simple example. Suppose an air-
plane flying east at a true airspeed of 150
mph encounters a,20 mph wind from the east.
Clearly, the moving air mass would carry the
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AS
AS
GS
airplane 20 miles west while it flew 150 miles
east through the air; the result would be a
net groundspeed of 130 mph in an easterly
direction. If the 20 mph wind blew in the
same direction as the heading, the airplane
would fly 150 miles east through an air mass
which would itself move 20 miles east during
the same hour. Thus the airplane would
actually move 170 mph over the ground.
When the wind blows at an angle to the
. heading, the airplane is subject to rorces
moving it in two directions: (1) in the direc-
tion of its heading at true airspeed, and (2)
in the direction of air movement at wind
speed. However, the airplane actually moves
over the ground in a single direction and at a
groundspeed which is a resultant or combina-
tion of the flight and wind movements.
2-3- 3
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VECTOR DIAGRAMS
A vector is a straight line which proceeds
from a starting point in a given direction,
and whose length shows distance traveled in
a given time. In a vector diagram, two com ..
ponent vectors showing r espectively (1) true
heading and true airspeed and (2) wind
direction and speed will determine the posi-
tion and length of a resultant The
resultant vector shows the true course and
groundspeed.
To illustrate the principle, assume that you
have a toy motorboat which can cross a 10-
foot stream in one minute, and that the
stream also flows 10 ft/ min. If the boat went
directly across the stream, it would reach the
opposite bank in just one minute. During
that minute, however, the mass of water in
which the boat moves carries the boat 10 ft.
downstream; so the boat reaches the oppo-
site bank 10 ft. downstream from its point of
departure. As it crosses the stream its bow is
always headed for the opposite bank, but its
course forms a 45° diagonal (a resultant vec-
tor) across the stream.
2-3-4
You have more practical use of vectors
when you solve for the heading which will
give you a desired course. Assume that your
airplane has a true airspeed of 100 mph and
that you want to fly due east when a 20 mph
wind is blowing from 315°. Clearly, if your
airplane heads directly east, the air move-
ment to the southeast will carry you south
of your course. Therefore, your airplarie must
be turned "into the wind"-that is, toward
the source of the wind--sufficiently to coun-
teract the southward drift caused by the
wind. To find your desired heading, you begin
by assuming that your airplane must always
be on its course (line AX). Then chart the
effect of an hour's wind movement (AB)
from the starting point A to point B; from
point B, swing an arc using a radius of an
hour's true airspeed, to intersect the desired
true course line. Draw a Jine through the
point of intersection (point C) from point B.
The direction of line BC represents the true
heading which must be flown .in order to keep
the airplane on the desired 90' true course.
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TO FIND HEADING AND GROUNDSPEED
GIVEN:
N
Desired true course 90'
,
True airspeed 100 mph "
A
.>:- - -
Wind from 315' at 20 mph
REQUIRED:
,
"
True heading
E
_.:I<--B
Groundspeed
NOTE:
In all vector problems, first notice the
direction of your course or heading, and lay
your problem out accor dingly. The top of the
paper is north. In t his problem you are going
east; therefore, your diagram will begin on
the left side of the paper.
1. First, layout a north-south line on the
left side of the paper.
2. From A draw the true course line 90'
as AX.
3. From A draw the wind line AB from
315' at 20 mph.
4. Make the distance AB equal to 20 miles
or one hour's wind movement, on the scale
you wish to use.
5. Spread dividers so they equal the true
airspeed for one hour or 100 mph. Then with
one point on B, swing the dividers across the
true course line to find point C. Draw line BC.
GIVEN:
True course 243'
True airspeed 140 mph
Wind from 278' at 20 mph
Distance A to M 248 miles
REQUIRED:
_---P
'-
'- \
, \
"\C
- - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - - - X
\
,
\
6. The r equired true heading is the direc-
tion of the line BC.
7. You may make triangle ADC so that
ABCD is a parallelogram. (Now the line AD
also shows the required true heading.)
8. The required groundspeed is shown by
the length of line AC.
9. It usually is not necessary to complete
t he parallelogram, as the required true head-
ing and groundspeed may be determined
from the triangle ABC. Note that the angle
NAD, which is the true heading angle, is the
same as the angle NEC (CB continued
through B to E). The true heading may
therefore be determined by finding the direc-
tion of BC, and so the side AD is not actually
needed. N
A
Groundspeed out
True heading out
Time for flight
1. Determine the position of the north-south line and
point A.
~
/"'-
NOTE.
The exercises at the end of t he
next chapter (Vector solutions
using the E-6B computer) are all
s uitable for solution by vector
triangles.
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2. Draw line from A to X at 243 ' .
3. Measure and draw wind line 278 ' at 20 mph from
A to B.
4. Meas ure and draw t rue airspeed 140 mph from B to C
on course line.
5. Measure line AC, groundspeed.
6. Measure angle NDC and subtract it from 360' , true
heading.
7. Divide distance AM (248) by grounds peed, time for
flight.
2-3-5
B
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VECTOR SOLUTIONS ON THE
SPEED

GENERAL
With- the E-6B computer you can solve
wind vectors and similar problems without
plotting the complete triangles. By moving
the chart and the plotting disc, and making a
few pencil marks on the face of the computer,
you can solve any wind problem. You do not
need to work out in your mind such things
as variation, drift angles, wind angles, or
groundspeed factors. You can read all the
data and the answers right on the scales of
the computer.
2-4-1
Description
To solve vector problems, use the front
side of the computer. This side consists of a
transparent plotting disc, a sliding chart, and
a drift & variation scale.
The outer edge of the plotting disc is a
compass rose graduated in degrees and at the
center is a small circle called the grommet.
The plotting disc can be rotated then 360°.
Radiating drift lines, concentric speed cir-
cles, and a square grid are printed on the
chart. The chart sets in the metal frame and
can be so adj usted that any desired part of
it can be set under the plotting disc. The con-
centric speed circles are graduated in units
of speed. The distance between all light speed
circles is two (2) units and the distance be-
tween the dark speed circles is ten (10) units.
For speeds of 100 units or more the distance
between the light drift lines is one degree
(1°) and distance between the dark drift
lines is five degrees (5°). The horizontal and
vertical distances between the grid lines are
two (2) units.
The top of the metal frame has a drift and
variation scale matching the compass rose.
This scale is graduated in degrees starting
with zero at the center and going to 45° on
each side. The marker at zero degrees is
called True Index. West variations and right
drift corrections are found on the right side
of the drift & variation scale; east variations
and left drift corrections are found on the
left side. Right drift is a minus correction;
left drift is a plus correction. It will help you
to keep this straight if you scratch a minus
sign (-) on the right side and a plus sign
( +) on the left side. Then you can always
read proper drift correction from the com-
puter.
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MAGNETIC INDEX on the drift & varia-
tion scale at the local variation, with a V.
TRUE COURSE on the compass rose with
a A . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
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Using the E-6B computer you solve the
vector triangle exactly as you would if plot-
ting it on graph paper. Each of the three
sides of the triangle is called a vector and
represents a direction and speed.
The three vectors are:
DIRECTION
Wind Direction
True Heading
True Course
SPEED
Wind Speed
True Airspeed
Groundspeed
If you know any two of the three direc-
tions and any two of the three speeds you
may solve for the other direction and speed
on your computer. But remember in the vec-
tor triangle:
Wind Direction and Wind Speed always go
together:
True Heading and True Airspeed always
go together; and
True Course and Groundspeed always go
together.
2-4-2
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WIND ARROW on the plotting disc by
setting the wind direction at the True Index
and tracing the measurement of the wind
speed from the grommet down the centerline
of the chart, then mark end with a short
crosswise line and/ or point.
DRIFT on the plotting disc by tracing
along the appropriate radiating drift line.
GROUNDSPEED on the plotting disc by
tracing along arc of the appropriate ground-
speed circle.
MAGNETIC HEADING at magnetic In-
dex.
TRUE HEADING at True Index.------""
TRUE COURSE on compass rose at the
drift correction on drift & variation scale. -----'
TRUE AIRSPEED under grommet.
GROUNDSPEED at point of wind arrow. ---'"'V
WIND DIRECTION at True Index. (This
is the direction from which wind is blowing.)
DRIFT CORRECTION on drift & varia-
tion scale opposite true course' : =====::' ___ !rJfr,
DRIFT at point of wind arrow.
WIND SPEED by measuring from grom-
met down centerline of chart to point of wind
arrow.
2-4-3 RESTRICTED
TO FIND WIND FROM
DRIFT MEASUREMENTS
GIVEN:
Variation 12°E
True Airspeed 214 mph
1st Magnetic Heading 39° : Drift 6°L
2nd Magnetic Heading 308 ° : Drift 3 oR
3rd Magnetic Heading 253° : Drift 7°R
FIND:
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
SOLUTION:
1. Mark magnetic index (12 °E) on drift
& variation scale.
2. Set true airspeed (214 mph) under
grommet.
3. Set 1st magnetic heading (39°) at
magnetic index.
4. Trace drift (6 °L) along drift line.
5. Set 2nd magnetic heading (308") at
magnetic index.
6. Trace drift· (3 °R) along drift line.
7. Set 3rd magnetic heading (253°) at
magnetic index.
8. Trace drift (7 °R) along drift line.
9. Set intersection of drift lines below
grommet on centerline of chart.
10. Find wind direction (170°) at true
index.
11. Draw wind arrow from grommet to in-
tersection of drift lines.
12. Measure wind speed (26 mph) from
grommet down centerline to point of
wind arrow of chart.
NOTE:
If you plot the intersection of two drift
lines, you get a fairly accurate wind measure-
ment. But if three drift lines intersect, or
form a small triangle, you can be reasonably
sure of an accurate wind measurement.
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2- 4- 4
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TO FIND WIND FROM
GROUNDSPEED MEASUREMENTS
GIVEN:
Variation 12°E
True Airspeed 214 mph
1st Magnetic Heading 118' : GS 194 mph
2nd Magnetic Heading 210' : GS 199 mph
3rd Magnetic Heading 253' : GS 218 mph
FIND:
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
.SOLUTION:
1. Mark magnetic index (12' E) on drift
& variation scale.
2. Set true airspeed (214 mph) under
grommet.
3. Set 1st magnetic heading (118°) at
magnetic index.
4. Trace arc of (194 mph) along GS cir-
cle.
5. Set 2nd magnetic heading (210°) at
magnetic index.
6. Trace arc of (199 mph) along GS cir-
cle.
7. Set 3rd magnetic heading (253 °) at
magnetic index.
8. Trace arc of (218 mph) along GS cir-
cle.
9. Set intersection of GS arcs below
grommet on centerline of chart.
10. Find wind direction (170°) at true
index.
11. Draw wind arrow from grommet to
intersection of GS arcs.
12. Measure wind speed (26 mph) from
grommet down centerline of chart to
point of wind arrow.
2-4-5
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TO FIND WIND FROM DRIFT AND
GROUNDSPEED MEASUREMENTS
GIVEN:
Variation 12'E
True Airspeed 214 mph
Magnetic Heading 253'
Drift 7'R
Groundspeed 218 mph
FIND:
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
SOLUTION:
1. Mark magnetic index (12' E) on drift
& variation scale.
2. Set true airspeed (214 mph) under
grommet.
3. Set magnetic heading (253') at mag-
netic index.
4. Trace drift (7'R) along drift line.
5. Trace arc of (218 mph) along GS cir-
cle.
6. Set intersection of drift line and GS
arc below grommet on centerline of
chart.
7. Find wind direction (170°) at true
index.
8. Draw wind arrow from grommet to
intersection of drift line and GS arc.
9. Measure wind speed (26 mph) from
grommet down centerline of chart to
point of wind arrow.
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2-4-6
RESTRICTED
TO FIND DRIFT, GROUNDSPEED AND
DROPPING ANGLE FOR GIVEN AIRSPEED,
HEADING, WIND AND ALTITUDE
GIVEN:
Variation 12°E
True Airspeed 214 mph
Magnetic Heading 118 °
Wind from 170° at 26 mph
Bombing Altitude 3,000 ft.
FIND:
Drift
Groundspeed
Dropping angle
SOLUTION:
1. Mark magnetic index (12°E) on drift
& variation scale.
2. Use dropping angle chart for 100 lb.
bomb at 3,000 ft. BA.
3. Set wind direction (170 ° ) at true
index.
4. Trace measurement of wind speed (26
mph) from grommet down centerline
of chart and mar k.
5. Set true airspeed (214 mph ) under
grommet.
6. Set magnetic heading (118°) at mag-
netic index.
7. Find drift (5°L) at point of wind
arrow.
8. Find GS (195 mph) at point of wind
arrow.
9. Find dropping angle (51.7°) at inter-
section of 195 mph GS circle and drift
line marked "3,000 ft. bombing alti -
tude."
2- 4- 7 RESTRICTED
TO FIND GROUNDSPEED, DRIFT, AND
COURSE FOR A GIVEN AIRSPEED,
HEADING AND WIND
GIVEN:
Varia tion 18 oW
True Airspeed 249 mph
Magnetic Heading 338 °
Wind from 205° at 33 mph
FIND:
Groundspeed
Drift
True Course
SOLUTION:
1. Mark magnetic index (18°W) on drift
& variation scale .
. 2. Set wind direction (205 0) at true
index.
3. Trace measurement of wind speed (33
mph) from grommet down centerline
of chart and mark.
4. Set true airspeed (249 mph) under
grommet.
5. Set magnetic heading (338°) at mag-
netic index.
6. Find GS (265 mph) at point of wind
arrow.
7. Find drift (6y,OR) at point of wind
arrow.
8. Find true course (326 y, 0) on compass
rose opposite 6% oR on drift & varia-
tion scale.
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2-4-8
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TO FIND HEADING AND
GROUNDSPEED FOR A GIVEN
COURSE, AIRSPEED AND WIND
GIVEN:
Variation 15° W
True Airspeed 220 mph
True Course 225 °
Wind f r om 190° at 40 mph
FIND:
Groundspeed
Magnetic Heading
SOLUTION:
1. Mark magnetic index (15°W) on drift
& variation scale.
2. Mark true course (225°) on compass
rose.
3. Set wind direction (190 ° ) at true
index.
4. Trace measurement of wind speed (40
mph) from grommet down centerline
of chart and mark.
5. Turn chart over and place square grid
lines under plotting disc.
6. Set true course (225°) at true index.
7. Trace a line through point of wind
arrow along a vertical grid line. (This
is a line of course.)
8. Turn chart over.
9. Set true airspeed (220 mph) under
grommet.
10. Rotate plotting disc until "line of
course" is along a drift line.
11. Find GS (184 mph) at point of wind
arrow.
12. Find magnetic heading (234°) at mag-
netic index.
Note: You will find that the true course
(225°) is at 6° right driift on drift & varia-
tion scale when the point of the wind arrow
is at 6° right drift on drift lines if this prob-
lem is properly solved.
2-4-9 RESTRICTED
TO FIND HEADING AND AIRSPEED
FOR A GIVEN COURSE,
GROUNDSPEED AND WIND
GIVEN:
Wind, from 250" at 32 mph
Groundspeed 232 mph
True Gourse 123 °
FIND:
True Heading
True Airspeed
SOLUTION:
1. Set wi nd direction (250 ° ) at true
index.
2. Trace measurement of wind speed (32
mph) from grommet down centerline
of chart and mark.
3. Turn chart over and place square grid
lines under plotting disc.
4. ]dark true course (123°) on compass
rose.
5. Set t rue course (123°) at true index.
6. Trace a (line of course) through point
of wind arrow along a vertical grid
line.
7. Turn chart over.
8. Set point of wind arrow at arc of (232
mph) on GS circle .
. 9. Rotate plotting di sc, keeping point of
wind arrow at arc of (232 mph) on GS
circle until "line of course" is along a
drift line.
10. Find true heading (130°) at true
index.
11. Find true airspeed (214 mph) under
grommet.
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2-4-10
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& u ~ d ~
l. GIVEN: True Airspeed 148 mph 5. GIVEN: True Airspeed 150 mph
1st True Heading 335 ° Drift True Heading 210°
3°R
True Course 216°
2nd True Heading 50° Drift Groundspeed 172 mph
8°R
FIND: Drift
FIND: Wind Direction
Wind Direction
Wind Speed
Wind Speed
2. GIVEN: Variation 7°W
6. GIVEN: True Heading 275 °
True Airspeed 153 mph
Groundspeed 154 mph
Magnetic Heading 326 °
Wind from 3100 at 24 mph
Groundspeed 161 mph FIND: True Course
Drift 6°L True Airspeed
FIND: Wind Direction
7. GI VEN: Variation 4 oW
Wind Speed
True Airspeed 185 mph
True Course 92°
3. GIVEN: True Airspeed 136 mph Wind from 130° at 32 mph
1st True Heading 350 ° Drift
FIND: Magnetic Heading
3°R
2nd True Heading 50 ° Drift
Groundspeed.
l °L 8. GIVEN: True Course 115 °
Groundspeed 173 mph
FIND: Wind Direction
Wind from 20° at 25 mph
Wind Speed
FIND: True Airspeed
GS on 1st True Heading
GS on 2nd True Heading
True Heading
9. GIVEN: Variation 9°E
4. GIVEN: Variation 15°E
True Airspeed 163 mph
True Airspeed 162 mph
Magnetic Heading 175°
Magnetic Heading 16°
True Course 183 °
Wind from 265° at 18 mph
Groundspeed 178 mph
FIND: True Course FIND: Wind Direction
Groundspeed
Wind Speed
ANSWERS:
l. 317° 10 mph 5. Drift 6°R 7. 102°
21 mph 1st-144 mph 70° 159 mph
2. 72°
2nd-146 mph 27 mph 8. 173 mph
18 mph
107°
4. 36° 6. 270° 9. 353°
3. 213° 173 mph 173 mph 16 mph
2-4-11
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In order to bomb with precision, one thing
you MUST know is how to find the exact
height of your ai rplane above the target.
This is called t he Bombing Altitude (BA). It
is comparatively easy to find, if you know
how to use an altimeter, the free air temper-
ature gage and your C-2, AN, or E-6B com-
puter.
You can memorize t he procedures _. but
that isn't enough. To make accurate altitude
correct ion computations, you must know
WHAT you are doing, and understand HOW
and WHY you are doing it. First you must
under stand certain facts about t he air in
which you fiy.
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The Atmosphere
The atmosphere is an ocean of air sur-
rounding t he earth. The air has densi ty or
weight , just as water has, and this weight
produces pressure. The pressure is heaviest
at the bottom of the "ocean" of air, that is,
at the surface of the earth, just as the pres-
sure of water is greatest at the bottom of the
ocean. As you go up, the pressure of the air
decreases. The temperature of the air also
decreases with altitude. You use these fac-
tors, pressure and temperature, in making
alti tude corr ection computations.
YdU can measure t he press ure of the
atmosphere at different altit udes with a tube
2- 5- 1
RESTRICTED
EARTH AND ITS ATMOSPHERE
of mercury sealed at the top and inverted in
a cup of mercury. An aneroid barometer
works on the same principle. At sea level,
under U. S. Standard atmospheric conditions,
the weight of a column of air pushes a col-
umn of mercury up in the tube to a height
of 29.92 inches, when the temperature is 15°
C and there is a temperature decrease of 2°C
for each 1,000 ft. increase in altitude (stand-
ard lapse rate).
When you take a barometer up into the
atmosphere, the column of mercury falls
approximately 1 inch for every 1,000 ft. in-
crease in altitude. Thus, when a barometer
registers 28.92, it is theoretically 1,000 ft.
above the place where the barometric pres-
sure is 29.92. If the barometric pressure at
sea level were always 29.92, the problems
would be simple. But barom ,tric pressures
change with weather, temper lture, and sea-
son. Therefore, all that a barometer can indi-
cate to you about altitude, is the pressure
measurement in feet above a certain pressure
level.
2-5-2

RESTRICTED
In order to use pressure for computing
your altitude, you must have some level from
which to measure. For convenience, the so-
called standard datum plane (SDP) is used.
This plane is the level where barometric pres-
sure is exactly 29.92. Sometimes this level is
above sea level; sonietimes it is below.
The Altimeter
YoUr altimeter that you use in the present
training and tactical bombing airplane is an
aneroid barometer. It measures pressure and
interprets it in terms of feet above a certain
pressure level. It has a window in the dial
through which you can read a scale cali-
brated in inches of mercury. When you set a
given baTometric pressure on this scale, the
hands on the dial of the altimeter will indi-
cate the pressure measurement, in feet, that
the airplane is above the level ' where that
barometric pressure exists. Thus if you set
on the pressure scale the pressure of the
standard datum plane, 29.92, the hands will
indicate your pressure measurement in feet
above the standard datum plane (SDP). This
is your pressure altitude '(P A) , provided, of
course, your altimeter is properly calibrated.
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SDP
The difference between pressure altitude
(P A) and surveyed elevation above sea level
is called pressure altitude variation (PA
Var.). It is the distance in feet between sea
level and the standard datum plane (SDP) .
Remember that the standard datum plane
(SDP) may be above or below sea level.
2- 5- 3
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-8000'----
-6000'---- +
-4000'---- +
-2000'---- --- - -+1
Under s tandard atmospheric conditions
(whi ch rarely exist), your altimeter indicates
a pressure altitude which is the t rue altitude
(TA) above sea level. Standard atmospheric
conditions exist only when the standard
datum plane (barometric pressure 29.92) is
at sea level, when the air temperature at sea
level is 15'e, and when the air temperature
decreases 2°e for each 1,000 ft. increase in
altitude. Standard atmospheric conditions
comprise a convenient "yardstick." In actual
practice, you'll never encounter t hem.
With any change from standard conditions,
the altimeter indicates a pressure altitude
that has a definite relationship to the true
altitude above sea level. If you know this
2-5-4
+ +
- +
r elationship, you know why you must cor-
r ect pressure alt itude to find true altitude.
The barometric pressure is changing con-
tinually, and it varies from one location to
another on the surface of the earth and at
sea level. These changes are usually gradual
and the barometric pressur e at sea level can
be above or below the standard barometric
pressure of 29.92. When the pressure scale is
set at 29.92, the altimeter will indicate the
pressure altitude above the level where the
barometric pressur e of 29.92 exists.
It is necessary to know the difference be-
tween sea level and the standard datum plane
(the pressure altitude variation) in order to
find the correct sea level pressure altitude.
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- +
- +
The numerical value of sea level pressure
altitude is equal to the pressure altitude vari-
ation. (SLPA = Zero + PA Var.)
The temperature of the atmosphere is fully
as changeable as the barometric pressure. It
varies greatly from one locality to another
and at different levels above sea level. You
remember, of course, how air expands as it
grows warmer, making it less dense. There-
fore, the indication of the altimeter at differ-
ent levels in the atmospher e will be increased.
The indication of t he altimeter will be de-
creased when the air is colder and more com-
pressed. You must correct for this increase
or decrease in the indication of the altimeter.
Thus you must know the correct temperature
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+
of the air col umn in order to correct t he
altimeter's indication the proper amount to
get a true measurement of the air column.
The barometric pressure and temperature
of the atmosphere will always vary from
standard conditions. The altimeter will indi-
cate the pressure altitude above the standard
datum plane. This pressure altitude can be
corrected for temperature to find the true
distance above the standard datum plane.
To find the true altitude above sea level, you
must get the pressure altitude above sea
level, which is the pressure altitude plus pres-
sure altitude variation. Then t he pressure
altitude above sea level can be corrected for
temperature to find the true altitude.
2- 5- 5
RESTRICTED
29.92 S.D.P.
Bombing Altitude
In order to bomb accurately, you must
know the true altitude of the airplane above
the target (bombing altitude-BA). You
can't measure this directly with the alti-
meter. What you can find is the Pressure
Altitude of the airplane Above the Target
(P A above T). In other words, you can find
the pressure measurement of the column of
air between the airplane and the target. You
get this by subtracting the target pressure
altitude (TP A) from the flight level pressure
altitude (FLP A). Then, if you correct this
pressure altitude above target (P A Above T)
for temperature and density, using the exist-
ing pressure and temperature of t he air col-
umn, the r esult will be the bombing altitude
(BA)-the actual height between the air-
plane and the target.
FLPA - TPA = PA Above T
PA Above T (corrected for temperature)
equals BA.
It is easy to find the flight level pressure
altitude (FLPA) of the airplane. Set the
pressure scale at 29.92. The altimeter will
then show the flight level pressure altitude
(FLPA).
NOTE:
All instruments require regular and fre-
quent calibrations. You should check the cali-
bration of your altimeter and temperature
gage very often to get proper pressure alti-
tude (P A) and temperature readings for
2-5-6
, " .. -. .. .
" .. SET
, .
- ' SCALE AF -"'"

< - : ' -
BEFORE TAKE-OFF
computing bombing altitude (BA). You can
check the altimeter calibration by using the
runway barometric pressure (corrected to
sea level conditions) (RBP corr.); this is
called the altimeter setting, and can be ob-
tained from the metro station. When the
altimeter setting is set on the pressure scale,
the altimeter will read the elevation of the
runway on which the airplane is sitting if the
altimeter is in proper calibration. If it does
not read runway elevation (R Elev.), have
your altimeter inspected by the instrument
specialist. Remember only recent metro in-
formation is useful in calibration.
As a bombardier you will have no need for
altimeter setting except for checking the cal-
ibration ·of your altimeter.
The basic problem in all altitude correction
computations is finding the target pressure
altitude (TPA), and the target temperature
(T Temp.) . To make accurate altitude correc-
tion computations, you must know these con-
ditions. Make every effort to get this infor-
mation from the best available source.
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HOW TO FIND TARGET PRESSURE ALTITUDE
When You Can Assume Target Atmospheric:
Conditions Are Comparable to Conditions
At Take-Off Position
Usually when the target is not far from
the take-off position, you can assume that the
atmospheric conditions at t he two points are
approximately the same. Thus you can com-
pute the target pressure altitude (TPA) and
the target temperature (T Temp.) from the
conditions that exist on your runway. The
best method you can use t o find your target
pressure altitude (TPA) is;
RPA - R Elev. = PA Var.
T Elev. + PA Var. = TPA
Before star ting on a bombing mission, you
know the surveyed elevation of the target
and the runway where you take off. To find
the runway pressure altitude (RPA), remem-
ber that you always set 29.92 on the pressure
scale before any take-off. When you do this,
RESTRICTED
the hands on the altimeter will indicate the
runway pressure altitude (RPA). (Note-
always tap the altimeter firmly to free hands
from any friction that might cause them to
give an incorrect reading.)
Find pressure altitude variation (PA Var.)
by subtracting runway elevation (R Elev.)
from runway pressure altitude (RPA).
Add pressure altitude variation (PA Var.)
to target elevation (T Elev.) to find target
pressure altitude (TP A).
Suppose the runway pressure altitude
(RPA) is 2,700 ft. You are going to bomb a
target whose surveyed elevation is 3,900 ft.,
and the elevation of your runway is 2,500 ft.
above sea level.
PA Var. = 2,700 - 2,500 = (+ 200 ft.)
TPA = 3,900 + 200 = 4,10.0 ft.
2-5-7
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When You Know Target Atmospheric
Conditions
Frequently, the atmospheric conditions at
the target can be predicted by your metro
station. The metro station can and should
give you the target pressure altitude (TP A).
But if they give you, instead, the target bar-
ometric pressure (corrected to sea level con-
ditions) (TBP corr.) , you must be able to find
the target pressure altitude (TP A) by the
use of the following equation:
1,000 (29.92 - TBP Corr.) = PA Var.
TElev. + PA Var. = TPA
If the target barometric pressure (cor-
rected to sea level conditions) (TBP corr.) is
greater than 29.92, the pressure altitude
variation (P A Var.) is a negative value and
the target pressure altitude (TPA) will be
less than the target elevation (T Elev.).
When BP Increases PA Decreases
Suppose the target barometric pressure
(corrected to sea level conditions) (TBP
corr.) is 30.22 and the target elevation (T
Elev.) is 2,200 ft. above sea level. The differ-
ence between 29.92 and 30.22 is (- 0.3 in.) .
Since 1 in. of mercury equal s 1,000 ft. of alti-
tude, (-0.3 in.) equals (-300 ft.).
This means that the standard datum plane
(where the altimeter would indicate zero PA)
is 300 ft. higher than sea level. If the altim-
WHEN Be INCREASES PA DECREASES
2-5-8
eter were at sea level it would indicate (-300
ft.) pressure altitude (PA). Therefore, ADD
(-300 ft.) to 2,200 ft. to get 1,900 ft., the tar-
get pressure altitude (TP A).
(29.92 - 30.22) 1,000 = PA Var.
(-0.3) 1,000 = (-300) = PA Var.
2,200 + (-300) = TPA
2,200 - 300 = 1,900 ft. = TPA
If the target barometric pressure (cor-
rected to sea level conditions) (TBP corr.) is
smaller than 29.92, the pressure altitude vari-
ation (PA Var.) is a positive value and the
target pressure altitude (TP A} will be more
than the target elevation (T Elev.).
When BP Decreas.es PA Increases
Suppose that on another occasion the bar-
ometric pressure (corrected to sea level con-
ditions) (BP corr.) of this same target area
is 29.62. The difference between 29.92 and
29.62 is ( + 0.3 in.). This means that the
standard datum plane is 300 ft. lower than
sea level. If the altimeter were at sea level it
would indicate (+300 ft.) pressure altitude
(PA). Therefore, ADD (+300 ft.) to 2,200
ft. to get 2,500 ft ., the target pressure alti-
tude (TPA).
(29.92 - 29.62) 1,000 = PA Var.
(+0.3) 1,000 = (+300) = PA Var.
2,200 + (+300) = TPA
2,200 + 300 = 2,500 ft. = TP A
WHEN BP DECREASES PA INCREASES
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When You Know Nothin9 About Atmos-
pheric Conditions at Target
Sometimes in combat the metro station
cannot predict the atmospheric conditions at
the target, and the tar get is so far from your
take-off posit ion that you must assume tar-
get conditions are different f r om your run-
way conditions. In such a situation, you must
assume that the target pressure altitude
(TP A) is the same as the surveyed elevat ion
of the target. This is not very accurate, but
it is the best you can do with the information
you have.
CORRECTION FOR DENSITY AND
TEMPERATURE OF AIR COLUMN
When the pressure scale is set at 29.92, the
indication on your altimeter, corrected for
instrumental a nd install ation errors, is the
flight level pressure altitude (FLP A).
Once you have determined the target pres-
s u r ~ altitude (TP A) you can find the pressure
altitude above the target (P A Above T)
PAAbove T = FLPA-TPA.
You now have t he pressure measurements
of the column of air. You must correct this
pressure measurement for temperature and
density of the air column to find your bomb-
ing altitude (BA). This is where you use
your computers. With the correct data prop-
erly set in, the C-2, AN, or the E-6B will
automatically make thi s correction for you.
PA Above T (Corrected for Temperature)
equals BA.
Temperature
Temperature, like pressure, decreases with
altitude. As you go up through the atmos-
phere, t he air grows increasingly colder.
When you reach the stratosphere, however,
you find that the temperature stays close to
_55°C. The t emperature of a given altitude
does not remain constant; it changes from
day to day; furthermore, the rate of decrease
in temperature as you go up into the atmos-
phere is not constant.
In taking your readings, you must re-
member that your thermometer is rushing
through the a ir at the speed of the airplane.
Thi s rapidl y moving air, by producing adia-
batic compr ession and friction, causes a
higher temperatur e indication t han the ac-
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RESTRICTED
tual air temperature. Therefore you must
correct each indication by subtracting an
airspeed correction. This correction can be
found by t he following equation:
Corr ection = -.00008 X TAS2
The following table shows the proper cor-
rections for di fferent t rue ai rspeeds, which
ar e computed by using this formula:
Airspeed Corrections f or Thermometers
True Correction True Correction
Airspeed Degrees Airspeed Degrees
MPH Cenligrade MPH Centigrade
80 -0.5 300 7.2
100 - 0.8 320 - 8.2
120 -1.1 340 - 9.2
140 - 1.6 360 - 10.4
160 -2.0 380 -11.6
180 -2.6 400 -12.8
200 -3.2 420 - 14. 1
220 - 3.9 440 - 15.5
240 - 4.6 460 - 16.9
260 - 5.4 480 -18.4
280 -6.3 500 - 20.
NOTE:
The average true airspeed of the AT-ll is
160 mph. The correction for this speed is _2°.
Ther efore in your training your usual air-
speed correction for temperatur e is -2°.
What you are concerned with is the t em-
perature of the air column between the ai r-
plane and the .target. Since t he temperat ures
will vary at different points in that column,
you use t he average of these various temper-
atures for your computations. This is called
the mean temperature. Theoreticall y, it is the
temperat ure at a point halfway between the
airplane and tbe target.
2-5- 9
RESTRICTED
HOW TO FIND MEAN TEMPERATURE
When You Can Assume Torget Atmospheric
Conditions Are Comparable to Conditions
At Toke-Off Position
Sometimes your target is near enough to
your take-off position that you can assume
the atmospheric conditions at the two places
are similar. In this case, you can compute the
target temperature and the temperature at
any place in the column of air between target
and flight level.
You can assume that the temperature
changes 2° for every 1,000 ft. difference in
elevation between the target and runway.
This temperature change is known as the
standard lapse rate. If the target is higher
than the runway, the target temperature will
be 2° lower for each 1,000 ft. difference in
eleva tion. If the target is lower than the run-
o way, the target temperature will be 2° higher
for each 1,000 ft. difference in elevation.
MEAN TEMPERATURE
You can find the mean temperature of the
air column by adding target temperature
(T Temp.) to flight level temperature (FL
Temp.) and dividing them by 2.
~ ___ ""---=:"::" ___ 30-+ 200 L-__
FL Temp. + T Temp. = Mean Temp.
2
2-5-10
MEAN TEMPERATURE
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Rather t han taking two temperat ures to
find the mean, it is more accurate to take
temperature readings for each 1,000 ft. be-
tween take-off position and flight level. By
using these temperatures you can find target
t emperature and temperature for each 1,000
ft. above the target up to flight level. To find
the mean of these temperatures of the air
column, add all temperature readings and
divide t heir sum by the number of readi ngs
taken.
Total of Temp. Mean Temp.
Number of Temp. Readmgs
When You Know Tarqet Atmospheric:
Conditions
When the metro station can give you t he
target temperature (T Temp. ) it is easy to
get a fairly accurate mean t emperature. Take
the target temperature (T Temp.) , add the
flight level temperature (FL Temp.) , and
divide by 2. For example :
T Temp. + FL Temp. Mean Temp.
2
( +18° ) t (_6 °) _ (+;2") = (+6' C)
RESTRICTED
When You Know Nothinq About
Atmospheric: Conditions at Tarqet
If the metro station cannot predict the tar-
get conditions, you can use the standard lapse
rate (or the seasonal lapse rate for your par-
ticular locality) to compute the temperature
at the t&rget. Take the corrected flight level
temperature, and increase it 2' for each 1,000
ft. down to target elevation. If t he corrected
temperature is _2' at a fli ght level of 10,000
ft., and the target elevation is 2,500 ft., then
the target temperature is + 13°.
{
FLPA-TPA }
FL Temp. + 1,000 X 2 = T Temp.
_2° + { 10,000 - 2,500 X 2} = + 13°C
1,000
With target temperature determined, find
your mean temperature in the usual way.
(+13°) + (_2°)
2
(+ 11°) = + 51h
o
C
2
10000 FT
9000 FT 0°
8000 FT
+2°
7000 FT +4°
6000FT
+6°
5000 FT
+8°
4000 FT
+10°
3000 FT
RESTR ICTED 2-5-1 1
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HOW TO USE (-2 AND AN COMPUTERS
TO FIND BOMBING ALTITUDE (BA)
Description
The C-2 and t he AN are exactly alike, ex-
cept that t hey are printed in different colors.
The black fi gures are the same on both com-
puter s. Where the C-2 has red figures, the
AN has light fl uorescent fi gures.
Both computers consist of two concentric
discs and two a rms. On the s mall inside disc
are two spiral logarithmic alti tude scales. On
t he outer side of t he spiral is the (true alti-
tude) scale with light (or r ed) fi gures on
which is found bombing altitude (BA). On
the inner side of t he spiral is the (indicated
altitude) scale with black fi gures for setting
pressure alti tude above target (PA Above
T).
The large outside disc has a pressure alti-
t ude scale, in black fi gures, for setting target
2-5-12
pressure altitude (TPA). It also has a t em-
perature scale, in li ght (or red) fi g ures, for
setting the mean temperature.
The clamped arm is used for Pressure Alti-
tude (P A) settings.
The free arm is used for mean temperature
and bombing altitude (BA) setting.
Operations
1. Set clamped arm at target pressur e
altitude (TPA). and lock.
2. Rotate small disc until pressure alti-
tude above target (P A Above T), in black
figures, is under clamped arm.
3. Set free arm at mean temper ature.
4. Find bombing altitude (BA). in lig-ht
(or red) figures, under f r ee arm.
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HOW TO USE THE E-6B COMPUTER
TO FIND BOMBING ALTITUDE (BA)
Description
To find bombing altitude (BA) from the
E-6B you use the circular slide rule and the
window marked "For Altitude Computa-
tions."
The window marked "For Altitude Correc-
tions" consists of two scales. Air t emperature
in the window is set opposite pressure alti-
tude under the window. On the out er scale of
the slide rul e is found true altitude (Cor.
Al t.), opposite pressure altitude (Cal. Alt.)
on the inner scale.
Operations
You have your choice of two possible ways,
depending on whether or not you know the
atmospheric conditions at the target. The
most accurate method is t he one used when
the atmospheric conditions at the target are
known. If you use t he computer properly,
taking care in the set ting and reading of your
numbers, you will get accurate results.
When You Know Target Pressure
Altitude and Temperature
1. Compute mean pr essure altitude (MP
A). This is t he pressure altitude which exists
half way between the tar get pressure alti-
tude (TP A) and the flight level pressure alti-
tude (FLP A). You find it the same way you
found mean temperature. Add target pres-
sur e altitude (TPA) to flight level pressure
altitude (FLP A) and divide by 2.
Note: To use your computer, you must set
in the proper temperature for a given alti-
tude. You will use mean temperature because
it is the most accurate reading you can get.
Therefore, you must use mean pressure alti-
tude (MPA), the pressure altitude where
mean temperature exists.
2. Set mean pressure altitude (MPA) op-
posite mean temperature in t he correction
window.
3. Find bombing altitude (BA) on the
outer scale opposite pressure alt itude above
target (P A Above T) on the inner scale.
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When You Don't Know Target Pres-
sure Altitude and Temperature
1. Set flight level pr essure altitude (FL
PA) opposite corrected fl ight level temper-
ature (FL Temp.) in the correction window.
2. Find true altitude above sea level on the
outer scale opposite fl ight level pressure alti-
tude (FLP A) on the inner scale.
3. Find bombing altitude (BA) by sub-
tracting target elevation from true alt it ude
above sea level.
Note: This method is the least accurate be-
cause the altitude found is actuall y the alti-
tude above the standard datum plane instead
of above sea level, and the temper ature
changes between flight level and target are
not considered. This method assumes that
pressure variation is zero and that temper-
ature variation of the air column has a stand-
ard lapse rate of approximately 2' C per
1,000 ft.
2-5-13
RESTRICTED
1
29.92
&xaHtfde 11(1-, '.;4
USING C-2 OR AN COMPUTER
GIVEN:
Flight level pressure altitude (FLP A)
19,000 ft.
Target elevation (T Elev.) 6,140 ft.
Runway pressure altitude (RP A) 5,600
ft.
Runway elevation (R Elev.) 5,280 ft.
The following temperature readings at the
pressure altitudes indicated:
Temperature Temperature
Pressure Readings Pressure Reodings
Altitude (Corrected) Altitude (Corrected)
6,460 +22°C 13,000 +6°C
7,000 +20°C 14,000 +4°C
S,OOO +ISoC 15,000 +2°C
9,000 +15°C 16,000
OoC
10,000 +13°C 17,000
_2°C
11,000 +10
o
C lS,OOO _4°C
12,000 +
SoC
19,000 _6°C
FIND:
Bombing altitude (BA).
SOLUTION:
A. Find pressure altitude variation:
RPA-R Elev. = PA Var.
5,600 - 5,280 = ( +320 ft.)
B. Find target pressure altitude:
T Elev. + PA Var. = TPA
6,140 + (+ 320) = 6,460 ft.
C. Find pressure altitude above target:
2-5-14
FLPA-TPA = PA Above T
19,000 - 6,460 = 12,540 ft.
D. Find mean temperature:
Total of Temp. Readings M T
No. of Temp. Readings = ean emp.
E. Use C-2 or AN computer:
1. Set clamped arm at TPA (6,460 ft.),
and lock.
2. Rotate small disc until PA Above T
(12,540 ft.), in black figures, is
under clamped arm.
3. Set free arm at mean temperature
(+7%°) .
4. Find BA (13,420 ft.). in light (or
red) figures under free arm.
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29.92
&utmfde?to· I . ~
USING E-6B COMPUTER
GIVEN:
Flight level pressure altitude (FLP A)
19,000 ft.
Target elevation (T Elev.) 6,140 ft.
Runway elevation(R Elev.) 5,280 ft .
Runway pressure altitude (RPA) 5,600
ft.
The following temperature readings at the
pressure altitudes indicated:
Temperature Temperature
Pres sure Readings Pressure Readings
Altitude (Corrected) Altitude (Corrected)
6,460 + 22°C 13,000 +6°C
7,000 +20°C 14,000 +4°C
8,000 + 18°C 15,000 + 2°C
9,000 +15°C 16,000 O°C
10,000 + 13°C 17,000
_2°C
11,000 +10°C 18,000
_ 4°(
12,000 + 8°C 19,000
_6°C
FIND:
Bombing altitude (BA).
SOLUTION:
A. Find pressure altitude variation:
RPA - RElev.=PA Var.
5,600 - 5,280 = (+320 ft.)
B. Find target pressure altitude:
T Elev. + PA Var. = TPA
6,140 + (+320) = 6,460 ft.
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C. Find pressure altitude above target:
FLPA-TPA = PA Above T.
19,000 - 6,460 = 12,540 ft.
D. Find mean temperature:
Total of Temp. Readings M T
N f T R d
· = ean emp.
o. 0 emp. ea mgs
E. Find mean pressure altitude :
FLPA 2+ TPA = MPA
19,000;}: 6,460 = 12,730 ft.
F. Use E-6B computer:
1. Set MPA (12,730 ft.) opposite mean
temp. (7% °C) in altitude correction
window.
2. Find BA (13,420 ft.) on the outer
scale opposite P A Above T (12,540
ft.) on the inner scale.
2- 5-15
RESTRICTED
USING C-2 OR AN COMPUTER
GIVEN:
Flight level pressure altitude.
(FLPA) 30,000 ft.
Flight level temperature (FL Temp.)
corrected -28 °C .
. Target temperature (T Temp.) + 22°C.
FIND:
Target elevation (T Elev.) 5,900 ft.
Target pressure altitude (TPA) 5,400
ft.
Bombing altitude (BA).
SOLUTION:
A. Find pressure altitude above target:
FLPA -TPA = PA Above T
30,000 - 5,400 = 24,600 ft.
B. Find mean temperature:
T Temp. + FL Temp.
2
Mean Temp.
(_28°) + (+ 22°) _6° °
- 2 · = "2- = -3C
2-5-16
C. Use C-2 or AN computer:
1. Set clamped arm at TPA (5,400 ft.),
and lock.
2. Rotate small disc until P A Above T
(24,600 ft.), in black figures, is
under clamped arm.
3. Set free arm at mean temperature
(_3°C).
4. Find BA (26,300 ft.), in light (or
red) figures under free arm.
RESTRICTED
USING E-68 COMPUTER
GIVEN:
FIND:
Flight level pressure altitude (FLPA)
30,000 .ft.
Flight level temperature (FL Temp.)
corrected -28°C.
Target temperature (T Temp.) +22°C.
Target elevation (T Elev.) 5,900 ft.
Target pressure altitude (TPA) 5,400
ft .
Bombing altitude (BA).
SOLUTION:
A. Find pressure altitude above target:
FLPA-TPA = PA Above T
30,000 - 5,400 = 24,600 ft.
E. Find mean temperature:
FL Temp. + T Temp. M T
2 = ean emp.
C. Find mean pressure altitude:
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RESTRICTED
FLPA
2
+ TPA = MPA
30,000 + 5,400
2
17,700 ft.
D. Use E-6B computer:
1. Set MPA (17,700 ft.) opposite mean
temperature (_3 °C) in the altitude
correction window.
2. Find BA (26,300 ft.) on the outer
scale opposite P A Above T (24,600
ft.) on the inner scale.
2- 5-17
RESTRICTED
29.92
USING C-2 OR AN COMPUTER
GIVEN:
FIND:
Flight level pressure altitude (FLP A)
32,000 ft.
Flight level temperature (FL Temp.)
corrected _34°C.
Target elevation (T Elev.) 2,400 ft.
Bombing altitude (BA).
SOLUTION:
A. Find pressure altitude above target:
FLPA-T Elev. = PA Above T
32,000 - 2,400 = 29,600 ft.
NOTE: Since you do not know target
pressure altitude, assume that TPA is
the same as T Elev.
B. Find target temperature:
FL Temp. + Temp. Difference = T Temp.
FLT j-
(PAAboveT X 2) TT
emp. - 1,000 emp.
(_340) + (29,600 X 2°) = ( + 2- 0C)
1,000 D
C. Find mean temperature:
2-5-18
FL Temp. + T Temp.
2 = Mean Temp.
(_34 °) 1 (+ 25°) = (--4V:! °C)
D. Use C-2 or AN computer:
1. Set clamped arm at TPA (2,400 ft.),
and lock.
2. Rotate small disc until P A Above T
(29,600 ft.), in black figures, is
under clamped arm.
3. Set fr ee arm at Mean Temperature
( W2 · )·
4. Find BA (31,420 ft.), in light (or
red) figures under free arm.
RESTRICTED
.......... --...::...
USING E-68 COMPUTER
GIVEN:
FIND:
Flight level pressure altitude (FLP A)
32,000 ft .
Flight level temperature (FL Temp.)
corrected -34 ' C.
Target elevation (T Elev.) 2,400 ft .
Bombing altitude (BA).
SOLUTION:
A. Use E-6B computer:
1. Set FLPA (32,000 ft.) opposite FL
Temp. (-34' C) in altitude correc-
tion window.
NOTE: The pressure scale at the cor-
rection window on some E-6B com-
puters ends at 30,000 ft. Therefore,
it is necessary to set 30,000 ft. P A
opposite (-30 ' C) temperature in
the correction window. By using the
standard lapse rate of 2' C per 1,000
ft., you can subtract 2,000 ft. from
the altitude and correct the temper-
ature for this altitude difference.
As this type of problem is based on
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the standard lapse rate, setting 30,-.
000 ft. P A opposite (- 30°C) sets up
the same altitude correction compu-
tation as 32,000 ft. PA opposite
(-34' C) .
2. Find true altitude above sea level
(33,800 ft.) on the outer scale op-
posite FLPA (32,000 ft.) on the
inner scale.
3. Find BA (31,400 ft.) by subtracting
T Elev. (2,400 ft.) from true alti·
tude above sea level (33,800 ft.).
2-5- 19
RESTRICTED
AUTOMATIC BOMBING COMPUTER (ABC)
Purpose
The automatic bombing computer is used
with the M-Series bombsight. If you set in
the proper data it will solve the vector tri-
angle for you, just as the E-6B does but more
rapidly. For this reasOn it can be used to
great advantage in short combat approaches.
With the ABC you can find the approximate
dropping angle and drift for any heading.
You can then pre-set this data into the bomb-
sight and it will be possible for you to make
a short bombing run with accurate results.
Description
Since you use the ABC to solve the vec-
tor triangle, you must set in certain known
values· in order to find the unknowns. Set
Magnetic Heading on the compass rose, under
the lubber line. The compass rose is locked
to the clutch drum of the stabilizer by means
of the compass rose lock.
You set in wind direction on the compass
rose by positioning the wind arrow on the
wind gear, which is mounted on top of the
compass rose, and lock it by means of the
wind gear lock. An idler gear connects the
wind gear to the wind disc. The wind gear
and the wind disc are the same size and have
2- 6-1
the same number of teeth; therefore a turn
of one will give an equal turn of the other
and in the same direction. On the wind disc
is mounted the wind speed scale and the wind
speed indicator. You set the wind speed indi-
cator at the wind speed on the wind speed
scale and lock with the wind speed lock,
which operates freely in the slot of the
groundspeed bar. On the right side of this
bar is the groundspeed scale. Attached to the
left side of the bar is the tangent scale. This
scale is selected for the true airspeed, bomb-
ing altitude, and the type of bomb used. At
the lower end of the slot is the airspeed lock,
which locks the true airspeed indicator on the
true airspeed scale. On the lower end of the
groundspeed bar is the drift pointer, which
operates freely over the drift scale.
When you set the true airspeed and wind
on the computer and lock the wind gear to
the directional gyro, the wind gear and wind
disc are held 'in a fixed position in space.
Therefore the computer automatically deter-
mines the drift, groundspeed, and dropping
angle for any heading that the airplane flies.
You then pre-set this drift and dropping
angle into the bombsight for the bombing
run.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
GROUNDSPEED BAR
WINDSPEED SCALE
WINDSPEED LOCK
WINDSPEED
INDICATOR -_ ..
WIND DISC
TANGENT SCALE
AIRSPEED
RESTRICTED
\
LUBBER LINE
COMPASS ROSE
WIND ARROW
/
I.V'M"A'," ROSE LOCK
WIND GEAR LOCK
SCALE
TRUE AIRSPEED SCALE
TRUE AIRSPEED INDICATOR
---DRIFT SCALE
DRIFT POINTER
2- 6-2
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INSTALLATION AND ZEROING
The AB Computer is installed on the sta-
bilizer of the M-Series Bombsight by means
of a mounting bracket and a compass rose
lock. When it is installed correctly you will
be able to match the dots on the idler gear
with the dots on the wind gear and wind disc.
(The dots should match once in 19 turns of
the wind gear and wind disc.) If dots do not
match properly, remove wind gear by un-
screwing compass rose lock and replace it so
all dots are properly matched. With the wind
disc and wind gear properly matched, the
wind arrow on the wind gear is parallel to
1. ONE SET OF DOTS MATCHED
2. ZERO DRIFT
2-6-3
and points in the same direction as the arrow
on the wind disc.
When the drift pointer is set on zero drift
and a wind speed is set on the wind speed
scale, the lubber line is adjusted to be oppo-
site the point or tail of the wind arrow on the
wind gear.
A direct head or tailwind does not cause
drift. Therefore, when wind is set on the
wind speed scale and the point or tail of the
wind arrow is opposite the lubber line, the
drift pointer must indicate zero drift. This is
a fast check for proper installation and zero-
ing of the ABC and should be made before
each mission.
1. BOTH SETS OF DOTS MATCHED
2. ZERO DRIFT
3. WIND ARROWS PARALLEL
4. LUBBER LINE ADJUSTED
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WIND
You can obtain the wind direction and
speed from metro predictions, drift measure-
ments, or drift and groundspeed measure-
ments.
Setting Known Wind on Computer
Metro winds, and winds found using the
E-6B computer, are always from a direction
measured from true north. Winds set on the
ABC must always be from magnetic north.
Therefore local variations must be applied to
metro and E-6B winds when setting them on
the ABC.
M 31 A 2
l00l b. PR.l.C
U
11:000'
UT. 0.5.
U
11,500·11&.6
11,600·1&5.7 ,.
11,ll11·18U
11,l1li·114.1
II.!OJ·IW
...
1t,0II·IIZ.4
U
12,1.-111.5
12,2DI·'18.7
12,3011-119.9
u
12,41»·119.2
u
12,511-111.4
T.A.S.T"il
150· 60.111'

160· 65
110- 10

180 · 16
"
Ill · BZ
.J
,
.. · u
10 0
210 - 94
221)·100
.•
2 1 1 1 · 1 ~
2(lJ ·11l
, ,
ZSG·12f1
10
2611 ·127
~
'"
118· 1101

" 2311 ·141
YO 0
29II ·'.S
NO
12
300 ·156
4
13
14
0
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
Subtract East Variation from true direc-
tion of wind to find magnetic direction of
wind.
315°T -11 °E Val'. = 304
0
Mag.
Add West Variation to true direction of
wind to find magnetic direction of wind.
140
0
T + 14°W Val' . = 154
0
Mag.
Set wind direction on the computer, by
rotating wind gear until the tail of the wind
arrow is opposite the magnetic direction of
the wind on the compass rose. Lock wind
gear to compass rose with the wind gear lock.
Set wind speed on wind speed scale and lock
with the wind speed lock.
2-6-4
RESTRICTED
TO FIND THE WIND USING THE
BOMBSIGHT ANDAB COMPUTER
The bombsight can be used to find the
drift and dropping angle (or groundspeed)
for the heading and at the a ir speed and alti-
tude the airplane is flying . You can find the
magnetic direction and speed of t he wind by
setting this drift, dropping angle (or ground-
speed), magnetic heading, and the true air-
speed on the AB Computer.
The airplane is flown on any constant head-
ing, airspeed, and at t he bombing altitude
either by C-l autopilot or manually. You un-
cage the gyro and, using a small sighting
angle, swing the sight as a drift meter to
determine the drift. To determine the drift,
you rotate the sight until objects on the
ground appear to move along or parallel to
the fore and aft crosshair. You turn the sight
away from the direction in which the objects
on the ground seem to be moving.
With the sight set on t he drift angle, con-
tinue along the same heading and at the same
airspeed. Synchronize for rate over terrain
the approximate altitude of the target to find
the tangent of the dropping angle.
Select the tangent scale for the bombing
altitude and true airspeed flown and the type
of bomb t o be used and attach it to left side
of the groundspeed bar. Loosen all four locks.
Set true airspeed on the true airspeed scale
and lock. Set magnetic heading on compass
r ose under lubber line and lock compass rose
lock. Turn wind arrow to the approximate
direction of the wind. When you have right
drift the wind is from the left and you point
the wind arrow to the right. With left drift
the wind arrow is pointed to the left. Set drift
pointer at drift determined from sight. Hold
drift pointer in this position and rotate wind
gear to position groundspeed indicator at
tangent of the dropping angle from sight.
Lock the wind speed lock and the wind gear
lock. The magnetic direction and speed of the
wind is nqw set on the ABC. You should com-
plete this entire operation before turning off
the heading on which the wind is determined.
2- 6-5
RESTRICTED
TURN WIND ARROW TO APPROXIMATE
DIRECTION OF THE WIND
" . . , , ~
"' .....
. ' ,,..11
: .t , '
.'
~ ' ~
!II '. • I
lOI-'"
$'''' ...
: .! a
: '\'i.
-"
"
l '
"
"
o
HOLD POINTER ON DRIFT AND
POSITION GROUNDSPEED INDICATOR
AT TANGENT OF DROPPING ANGLE
\
'"
RESTRICTED
" •
~ .1
1
"
"
RESTRICTED
o
2-6-6
RESTRICTED
Zero the computer prior to take-off. Attach
t he proper tangent scale. Set true airspeed
on true airspeed scale and lock. Set magnetic
direction and speed of wind. Set magnetic
heading of the ai rplane under the lubber line.
The groundspeed indicator will now indi-
cate the tangent of the dropping angle for
any magnetic heading of the airplane. The
drift pointer will indicate the drift for any
magnetic heading of the airplane. The wind
arrow wi ll indicate the direction of the wind
at all t imes. This is useful when you are plan-
ning evasive action.
To Find Information on Another Headin",
If you wish to know the drift and dropping
angle for a magneti c heading other than the
one on which you are flying, loosen the com-
pass rose and turn it until the desired mag-
netic heading is under the lubber line. After
finding this information, re-set the compass
rose to the magnetic heading of the airplane.
1I'r-------------__
"
Il
lC

IV· 1111<

,
1·- 15
111. 11
1·· 11

I • . II
1/
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111, 114
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• 10
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,
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13
0
2--6--7
RESTRICTED
CORRECTION FOR PRECESSION
The stabilizer gyro precesses about 10
0
for
every 360
0
turn in the same direction. This
causes t he magnetic heading indicated on the
compass rose of the ABC to be incorrect.
Thus the. ABC will not indicate the proper
drift and tangent of the dropping angle for
t he magnetic heading of t he airplane, unless
an adjustment is made.
To correct for this precession, unlock the
compass rose lock and r e-set the magnetic
heading of the airplane under the lubber line.
Do this shortly before the turn over the
initial point.

lL 5
WHEN TRUE AIRSPEED
EXCEEDS 210 MPH
.
IS .ll
I
The true airspeed scale on your computer
is graduated f rom 100 to 210 mph. However,
you can use it just as well f or true airspeeds
up to 420 mph. If your true airspeed exceeds
210 mph, set the true airspeed indicator at
one-half (l/2 ) the true airspeed. Remember ,
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
if the wind speed is set into the computer, it,
too, will be set at one-half (lh) its true value.
Now, if you were reading the wind speed or
groundspeed from the computer , you would
double t he indicated values.
For example, if your true airspeed is 300
mph, set the true airspeed indicator at 150.
Suppose the wind speed is 40 mph; set the
wind speed indicator at 20. Then, if you found
the groundspeed indicator at 135, you would
know that the gr oundspeed you are flying is
270 mph.
Whenever the true airspeed exceeds the
limits of the true airspeed scale, you must be
very careful in working out the tangent of
the dropping angle. Some of the detachable
tangent scales provided wit h the computer
have a small 1h printed at the top. These are
the ones you must use when t he t rue airspeed
is more than 210 mph. These 1h tangent
scales are graduated to give the correct tan-
gent readings when using lj2 settings of true
airspeed and wind speed. Therefore do not
double the tangent value given on this scale.
Since the tangent values are not constant,
you cannot use the scales t hat are not marked
1h on the theory that you could dOUble their
reading and get the true tangent .
... "
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o
2-6- 8
.. 10 FIND IVIND
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no·11I!
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3iHIi
GIVEN:
FIND:
Bombing Altitude 12,000 ft.
11-ue Airspeed 180 mph.
Type of Bomb M38A2.
Magnetic Reading 235' .
Drift 7 Yt 0 L.
Tangent of DrOPPing Angle 0.57.
Wind Direction.
Wind Speed.
2_6-9
o
SOLUTION:
A. 1. Check zero of the computer.
2. Attach the tangent Scale for the
bombing altitude (12,000 ft.), true
airspeed (180 mph), and tYpe of
bomb (M38A2).
B. 1. Loosen alJ four lOCks.
2. Set true airspeed (180 mph) on the
true airspeed Scale and lock.
3. Set magnetic heading (235' ) on the
compass rose Under the lUbber line
and lock.
o
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED

1. Turn wind arrow to the approximate
direction of the wind (pointing to
the left).
2. Set drift pOinter at drift (7!t2 0L).
3. Hold drift pointer at drift (7!t2 0L).
and rotate wind gear to Position
groundspeed indicator at tangent of
the dropping angle (0.57).
4. Lock the wind speed lock.
5. Lock the wind gear lock.
D. 1. Find magnetic wind direction (3200)
on the compass rose at the tail of
the wind arrow.
2. Find wind speed (24 mph) on the
wind speed scale a t wind speed indi_
cator.
3. Computer will now indicate the drift
and tangent of dropping angle for
any heading.
2-6_ 10
RESTRICTED
TO FIND DRIFT, GROUNDSPEED
AND TANGENT OF DROPPING ANGLE
GIVEN:
Bombing Altitude 12,000 ft.
True Airspeed 180 mph.
Type of Bomb M38A2.
Magnetic Heading 13".
Magnetic Wind from 320" at 24 mph.
FIND:
Drift.
Groundspeed.
Tangent of Dropping Angle.
SOLUTION:
A. 1. Check zero of the computer.
2. Attach the tangent scale for the
bombing altitude (12,000 ft. ), true
airspeed (180 mph). and type of
FIND
TANGENT OF DROPPING
ANGLE 0.53 AND
GROUNDSPEED 167 mph.
o
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f:
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=1:1
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0
bomb (M38A2).
B. 1. Set magnetic wind (f rom 320' at 24
mph) on the computer and lock.
(This wind is already set on the
computer from the previous prob-
lem.)
2. Set true airspeed (180 mph) on true
airspeed scale and lock.
3. Set magnetic heading (13 ' ) on com-
pass rose under the lubber line.
C. 1. Find the drift (6 y, 'R) at the drift
pointer.
2. Find the groundspeed (167 mph) at
the groundspeed indicator.
3. Find the tangent of the dropping
angle (0.53) on the tangent scale at
the groundspeed indicator.
SET MAGNETIC HEADING
13
0
SET MAGNETIC WIND
320
0
@ 24 mph.
S.ET TRUE AIRSPEED
180 mph.
FIND DRIFT 6';'0 R
2- 6-11 RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
SECTION 3
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-...
....
INTRODUCTION
The autopilot is an electronic-mechanical
robot which automatically flies the airplane
in straight and level flight, or maneuvers it
in response to controls which you or your "
pilot operate. You use it on most of your
bombing mi ssions. Although its main pur-
pose is to give you a stabilized bombing plat-
form, it is also used to relieve pilot fatigue
and as a navigational aid.
When you use it with the M-series bomb-
sight, you control the course of the airplane.
Your course corrections cause the autopilot
to make the proper t urns. Since the response
To replace the human pilot, the autopilot
must do the same work as various parts of
t he pilot's body.
The Autopilot "Eyes"
A human pilot watches the horizon or his
inst ruments to see if the airplane is flying
straight and level.
'fhe "eyes" of the autopilot are two gyros.
One is t he directional gyro in the bombsight
RESTRICTED
of the autopilot is quicker and more accurate
than that of the human pilot, you will have
lower circular errors when you use it. But to
get maximum performance from the auto-
pilot, you must know how it works and how
to set it up for proper operation. You will be
expected to set up the autopilot on many mis-
sions. When you leave the bombardier school
to join a combat crew the chances are you
will be the only man in the crew who under-
stands the operation of the autopilot. You
will have to teach your pilot and co-pilot all
you know about it.
stabilizer. The other, which has its spin axis
in the vertical, is called the flight gyro and is
. usually located near the center of gravity of
the airplane.
The cases which hold these gyros are
attached to the airplane. When the airplane
tilts, the cases move with the airplane but
the gyros tend to maintain their fixed posi-
tion in space. Two wipers are placed in a fixed
position to the fiight gyro-one around the
3-1-1
RESTRICTED
roll axis and one around the pitch axis. An-
other wiper is placed in a fixed position to the
directional gyro- around the yaw axis. These
wipers are similar to the PDI brush of the
bombsight. Each of t hese three wiper s rides
on a potentiometer mounted to the gyro case.
These potentiometers are just coiled wire. If
the wiper moves from its center or "dead"
spot on the potentiometer, it unbalances an
electric bridge circuit.
So when the airplane tilts, t he gyro and
wiper maintain their position in space, but
The Autopilot "Brains"
Just as the pilot's eyes send a signal to his
brain, the gyr os of the autopil ot, through
wipers and potentiometers, send an electric
signal to an "electric brain," the amplifier.
The Autopilot "Nerves"
A human pilot's brain must receive and
send signals through his nervous system so
the proper muscles of hi s body will react to
apply a force on the airplane's controls to
correct the attitude of t he airplane's flight .
The autopilot "nerves" are a system of
electric bridge circui ts and wires which carry
signals between t he various units.
The Autopilot "Muscles"
Signals from the amplifier cause servo
units in the autopilot system to operate.
These servo units correspond to t he human
pilot's muscles. They are attached by cables
to the airplane's control surfaces.
Thus, when the airplane deviates from
straight and level flight, the gyros signal the
amplifier, which in turn sends the proper sig-
nals to the servo units. This causes the servo
units to move the controls mechanically in
the proper direction and return the airplane
to straight and level flight .
3- 1-2
the potentiometer-which is fastened to the
airplane-moves under the wiper.
In this way, the autopilot "sees" when the
airplane is not flying straight and level.
-
-
RESTRICTED
COURSE CONTROL
Also, the autopilot bridge circuits contain
potentiometers and wipers which can be
deliberately moved by pilot 'or bombardier,
to cause the autopilot to turn the airplane
when course corrections are desired.
Limitations
The autopi lot cannot do everything that
the human pilot can. It has some limitations.
First of all, it does not correct for drift. If
the pilot. does not crab the airplane to' make
the correction before the beginning of the
bombing run, you must make drift correc-
tions during the run. Yau do this with the
course knobs. The course knob and PDI mech-
anism of t he sight ar e connected to the auto-
pilot. With the course knobs you can bank the
airplane up to 18°. Similarly, with a' control
on his instrument panel, the pilot can make a
coordinated bank as large as 40°.
RESTRICTED
The autopilot will keep the airpl ane
crabbed once you or the pilot have made t he
corrections, but it cannot compensate for any
wind changes.
The autopi lot does not maintain a constant
altitude. If you were flying at 10,000 ft. and
a sudden updraft blew t he plane to 10,300 ft.,
the autopilot would mainta in the new alti-
tude: Remember, t he autopilot keeps the atti-
tude of the plane the same, but it does not
maintain a constant altitude. However, the
pilot can use controls of the autopilot t o make
small changes in altitude without readjusting
the whole system.
When you change the altitude or airspeed
appreciably you must r eadjust the autopilot.
This is necessar y because changes in alt itude
or airspeed change the attitude at whi ch the
airplane must fly to hold a straight and level
course. At hi gher altitudes, where the air is
less dense, the nose of the airplane has to be
pointed upward more than at lower altitudes.
AUTOPILOT
DOES NOT
MA'"rA." CO"
SrA"r
Alr.rUDI
OR CORRECT FOR DRIFT }:}
RESTRICTED 3- 1- 3
RESTRICTED
THE AUTOPILOT'S
MAIN PARTS:
Flight Gyro
This gyro, which has its spin axis in the
vertical, provides stability about the pitch
and roll axis of the airplane.
Directional Gyro
Its spin axis is in the horizontal. It pro-
vides stabilization about the airplane's yaw
axis.
Directional Panel
This unit, on° the bombsight stabilizer,
makes it possible for you to turn the airplane
with the bombsight.
Servo Units
There are t hree of t hese---{)ne for each axis
of the airplane. All of them are built alike.
Each has a cable drum driven by an electric
motor. They ,upply the force to move the air-
plane's control surfaces.
Autopilot Control Panel (ACP)

000
000
000 0 0
Various switche. and knobs for engaging
parts of the autopilot and adjusting it for
proper flight are on this panel.
3-1-4
Turn Control
This knob is located on the ACP and you
use it to make coordinated turns with as
much as 40' of bank.
Amplifier
This unit r eceives electric signals from the
bridge circuits (wipers and potentiometers),
amplifies them, and relays them to the proper
servo unit for control action.
Rotary Inverter
This is a motor generator unit which takes
direct current from the airplane's power sup-
ply and changes it to alternating current for
use in t he amplifier and bridge circuits.
Junction Box
This pr0vides a central location for making
wiring connections between the various con-
trol units.
The C-1 autopilot operates on a 24-volt
direct current. Hoowever, airplanes with 12-
volt circuits are equipped with the B-1 auto-
pilot. The C-1 and B-1 autopilots are identical
except for the fact that they operate on dif-
ferent voltages.
RESTRICTED
ROTOR CASE
CAROAN RING--
BOTTOM BAIL
COUNTERWEIGHT
TOP BAIL
COUNTERBALANCE
GUIDE CHANNEL
The main purpose of the flight gyro is to
serve as a ver tical r eference for the autopilot.
The fli ght gyro detects any motion of the
airplane around t he roll and pitch axes. It is
mounted neal' the airplane's center of gravity
and rotates at approximately 7,500 rpm.
Because t his gyro serves as a verti cal ref-
erence, it must be kept in the ver tical. This is
done by an er ecting system which holds t he
gyro within one degree of the vertical.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
ROLLER
EREc.TlNG CUTOUT MECHANISM
GUDGEON PIN
BALANCE WEIGHT
GUIDE ROLLER
THE ERECTING SYSTEM
The er ecting system is fairly simple in
operation. It has two rollers geared to and in
line with the gyro' s spin axis.
Two arc-shaped metal bails, slotted down
their centers, curve across the top of t he
gyro. A roller r ides in each slot. Ther e is very
small clearance between the rollers and t he
inner surfaces of t he slots.
3-2-1
RESTRICTED
The Bails
The b a ~ l s are at right angles to each other,
mounted on the cardan by pivots in their
ends like the .bail of a bucket. The top bail
is mounted fore and aft and precesses the
gyro about the roll axis. The bottom bail is
mounted laterally and precesses the gyro
about the pitch axis. Pivoted about the pitch
axis with the top bail is the counterbalance
guide channel. Also arc-shaped like the bails,
it curves under the gyro. The guide roller,
which extends from the bottom of the gyro,
rides in the counterbalance guide channei.
The counterbalance guide channel counter-
balances the weight of the top bail and other
parts of the gyro unit. The counterweight for
the bottom bail is a fixed weight on the
underside of the cardan.
The Rollers
There are two rollers, one of which fits in
the slot of the bottom bail. The other fits in
the slot of the top bail. These rollers are
mounte<J on the same stationary spindle.
The rollers are geared through intermedi-
ate gears to the gyro's axle and turn in the
same direction at 1/32 of the gyro's speed.
Both rollers are free to revolve around the
spindle, but the bottom roller is the only one
free to move up and down it. The bottom
roller has lugs on its upper side which mesh
with lugs on the ·lower side of the top roller.
Spring tension holds the bottom roller up-
ward so that the lugs mesh. Thus the bottom
3- 2- 2
roller turns the top roller. If the bottom roller
is not held upward, the top roller does not
HOW THE ERECTING SYSTEM
WORKS
When the gyro precesses around the pitch
axis, the bottom bail falls against the bottom
roller.
The roller is rotating and rubs against the
cork face of the bail. This produces a fric-
tional force in the direction of the slot. As
the roller is attached to the gyro, this force
is applied directly to the gyro. From the law
of precession, you know that the gyro is thus
precessed at a right angle to the slot in the
bail and back to the vertical.
The top roller and bail work in the same
way when the gyro precesses about roll axis.
RESTRICTED
CENTRI FUGAL
FORCE
RESTRICTED
RESULTANT OF FORCE
ACTING ON AIRPLANE
IN A TURN THE BAil IS THROWN
AGAINST THE ROLLER AND IF THE
ROllER IS ROTATING THE GYRO WILL
ERECT FALSELY TO THE POSITION
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE AND GRAVITY
ARE BALANCED.
ERECTING CUTOUT MECHANISM
When the airplane makes a turn, centrifu-
gal force throws the top bail against the top
roller. If the top roller were rotating, it
would cause the gyro to precess toward the
center of the turn. This would place the gyro
in a false vertical.
To keep the top roller from rotating dur-
ing a planned turn, the autopilot has a device
to separate the rollers by r elieving the spring
tension on the bottom roller, which causes
the drive. This device is called the erecting
cutout mechanism. Each time turns are made
from the turn control or the directional panel,
a switch energizes a clapper magnet. This
magnet attracts an arm attached to the
spring, disengaging the bottom or drive roll er
from t he top roller. After the turn, the mag-
net is de-energized and spring tension again
shoves the bottom roller against the top
roller causing it to rotate again.
RESTRICTED
THE CONTROL MECHANISM
As the airplane rolls or pitches, the flight
gyro holds its position inside the gyro hous-
ing, which is fastened to the airplane. Thus
.the position of the gyro, in relation to the
housing, changes as often as the airplane
varies from strai ght and level flight.
The potentiometers (pots) are attached to
the inside of t he gyro housing, and the
wipers are attached to the gyro. Thus, when
the airplane rolls or pitches, changing the rel-
ative positions of the housing and gyro, the
pots move under the wipers.
3-2-3
RESTRICTED
A
CASE IS FASTENED
TO AIRPLANE
CASE TILTS WITH AIRPLANE-
ROTOR REMAINS VERTICAL
c o
WIPER IS IN FIXED POSI TION
IN RELATION TO ROTOR
POT IS ATTACHED
TO CASE
AS AIRPLANE TILTS, ROTOR AND WIPER
REMAIN VERTICAL WHILE CASE AND POT
TILT WITH AIRPLANE, THEREFORE POT
MOVES UNDER WIPER.
The Elevator Pickup Pot
The elevator pickup pot is attached to the
housi ng around the pitch axis. If the airplane
moves around the pitch axis, the pot is
moved under the wiper, which is attached to
the cardan of the gyro. This causes the wiper
to move from its zero position relative to the
pot, unbalancing an electrical circuit and
thereby signaling the autopilot to make the
proper correction in the elevator control sur-
faces.
Triple Pot Assembly
Although elevator alone corrects for devi-
ations around t he pitch axis, all three control
surfaces are used to correct for deviations
around the roll axis. Therefore, three pots
(aileron pickup, rudder compensation, and
up-elevator) known as the triple pot assem-
bly are mounted to the gyro case around the
roll axis. A wiper for each pot is attached to
the counterbalance guide channel and is sta-
bilized by the flight gyro.
Since the pots are attached to the gyro
case, any deviation of the airplane around
the roll axis will move the pots under their
stabilized wipers. In small deviations the ail-
eron pot and wiper unbalances the aileron
bridge circuit and causes corrective contrql to
be dri ven in before the rudder and elevator
circuits are unbalanced. In large deviations,
however, all three pots move under their wip-
3-2-4
ers to such a position that all three circuits
are unbalanced, and all three control surfaces
are used to correct for the deviation.
In turns made from the turn control or
directional panel, the aileron pickup and rud-
der compensation pots and wipers unbalance
their respective circuits so as to drive the
controls to a streamlined position as the air-
plane approaches the desired degree of bank.
The up-elevator pot and wiper unbalance the
elevator bridge circuit and drive in up-eleva-
tor so that the airplane will not lose altitude
during the turn.
.""",.,
' -.
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, '
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.,
:
~
' - ' ,.,
~
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..
, ,
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j. :
,.'
, ,
, .
,
,
LARGE 0
\
RESTRICTED

AND DIRECTI ONAL PANEL
DIRECTIONAL
PANEL
DIRECTIONAL
PANEL ARM
AUTOPILOT
CONNECTING ROD
\

RESTRICTED
BOMBSIGHT
CLUTCH
/
DRIFT GEAR
DASH POT - ------'-
DIRECTIONAL
ARM LOCK
The dir ectional gyr o in t he bombsight sta-
bil izer gives t he autopilot stabilization in
ya w. This stabilization is br ought about
t hrough a potentiometer syst em similar to
t he systems on t he flight gyr o.
The direct ional gyr o st abil izes t he auto-
pilot clutch mechanism when t he autopilot
clut ch is engaged. Since t he wiper s ar e linked
to the clutch, t hey ar e also stabilized. The
pots ar e mounted inside t he housing of t he
directional panel, whi ch is att ached to the
side of t he stabili zer.
When t he ai r plane deviat es around t he yaw
axis, t he directional gyr o and t he wiper s hol d
t he same pos ition in space while t he pots,
being mounted on t he di r ectional panel hous-
ing, move under t he wiper s. Ther e ar e two
pots mounted in t he dir ectional panel. One is
t he r udder pickup pot and the other is t he
dual banking pot .
RESTRICTED
DRIFT GEAR
CLUTCH
POI
AUTOPILOT
CLUTCH
AUTOPILOT
CLUTCH ARM
EXTENSION
3-2-5
RESTRICTED
WIPER CENTERING SPRINGS
WI PER
WIPER PI VOT
RUDDER PICKUP WII' ER • .k __
RUDDER PICKUP POT
The autopilot cl utch is connected to t he
directional panel by the directional panel
arm. The directional panel arm is connected
to a sliding block. Attached to the sliding
block are three wipers, one for the rudder
pickup pot and two for the dual banking pot.
Since the wipers are stabilized by the direc-
tional gyro, any movement of the airplane
arounc\ the yaw axis will move the pots under
the wipers.
Although the rudder control surface is the
main control used for corr ections in yaw, t he
aileron contr ol surface is also used to make
the correction smooth. Ther efore, for ai leron
control, the dual banking pot wipers ar e
mounted to the block.
Fastened to t he dir ectional panel dir ectly
above the dual banking pot is a spring leaf
switch which is operated by cams attached to
the sliding block. These cams are so spaced
that whenever the slide is moved one-eighth
inch or more in either direction f rom center
t he switch is closed and t he ·erecting cutout
mechanism is energized. This prevents the
gyro f r om pr ecessing out of t he vertical dur-
ing a turn.
3- 2- 6
DUAL BA.'KlJ'IG POT WI PERS
DASH POT li NKAGE
'"1.f.OIJ NTER BALANCE WEIGHT
DASH POT
ERECTING CUTOUT SWITCH OPEN
ERECTING CUTOUT SWITCH CLOSED
RESTRICTE D
OPERATION OF
DIRECTIONAL ARM LOCK
DIRECTIONAL ARM LOCK
Suppose you want to turn the airplane with
the turn control knob. The directional panel
arm mechanism, if it were free to move,
would produce a signal which would cancel
out part or all of the turn control signal.
Therefore, the autopilot has an electro-mag-
netic device, the directional arm lock, which
locks the directional panel arm mechanism
during a turn control turn. It is mounted to
the stabilizer and locks the au{opilot clutch
and directional panel arm. in a fixed position.
When the turn control knob is turned it
closes a switch. This switch completes a cir-
cuit to a solenoid which pulls the strong lock-
ing jaws of the pivoted directional arm lock
down over the extension of the autopilot
clutch arm. With the autopilot clutch arm
thus locked to . the stabilizer case, the auto-
pilot clutch slips as the airplane turns, since
the gyro holds its position. As soon as the
turn control knob is turned back to its center
position, the solenoid is de-energized and the
autopilot clutch arm and autopilot clutch are
released. The gyro will then stabilize the air-
plane on the new heading.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
OPERATION OF
DIRECTIONAL PANEl
DIRECTIONAL PANEl
ARM
3-2-7
RESTRICTED
DASH POT
The dash pot is linked to the rudder pickup
pot wiper in the directional panel in such a
way that it produces an extra initial rudder
correction signal proportional to the speed of
turn axis deviation. It consists of a piston,
working in an oil-filled cylinder, which is con-
SLOW DEVIATION
.-POT MOVES
3-2-8
nected through linkage to the rudder pickup
pot wiper.
The oil r esists any movements of the pis-
ton. The cylinder may be adjusted and locked
to regulate the piston's ease of movement.
This adjustment governs the size of an open-
ing through which the oil flows at t he bottom
of the cylinder. When you scr ew the cylinder
up, you increase the size of the opening, thus
decreasing the resistance encountered by the
piston when it moves against the oil. The
rudder pickup wiper is affected by the dash-
pot in proportion to the abruptness of the
airplane's deviation.
To understand how this affects the rudder
pickup wiper, you must know how the wiper
is mounted. It is mounted by a pivot on the
sliding block of the directional panel. The top
of the wiper is linked to the dashpot piston.
Since the top of the wiper is held by the link-
age to the piston, any sudden movement of
the airplane around t he yaw axis rotates the
wiper on its pivot. Thus the lower end of the
wiper moves over t he rudder pickup pot a dis-
tance that is proportionally greater than the
airplane's deviation. Two leaf springs tend to
hold the wiper, and they return it to center
after they have overcome the resistance of
the oil to the piston.
In slow deviations, the springs are strong
enongh to overcome the restraining effects of
the dash pot. Thus the movements of the
wiper and slide are the same.
SUDDEN DEVIATION
...- POT MOVES
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~ - - ­
-
The servo units of the autopilot supply the
mechanical force necessary to move the con-
t rol surfaces of the airplane. There are t hree
servo units-one for each of t he airplane's
control surfaces. The units are identical and
ar e connected to the contr ol sur faces by flex-
ibl e steel cables. These cables fit on cable
drums which are part of the servo uni ts.
The servos in 'he autopilot are very similar
to the torque unit of t he stabilizer. An elec-
tric motor drives the cable drum through a
system of gears and clutches. When the auto-
pilot is in operation, the motor runs continu-
ously and drives two gear s. The gears operate
freely on separate shafts, and turn in oppo-
s ite directions. For each gear there is a clutch
which engages the motor to t he cable drum.
To operate each clutch t here is an oper ating
solenoid, energized by a r elay in t he ampli-
fier. The relays .are opera Led by signal s f rom
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a discriminator tube in the amplifier.
The direct ion the ser vo drives t he control
surfaces is determined by the discriminator
tube which closes one of the relays. When one
of the r elays is closed, its r espective operat-
ing solenoid is energized, engaging the corre-
sponding clutch to one of the r otating gear s.
Thus the motor is engaged to the cable drum
and the cont rol surface is moved.
If the other r elay had been closed, the
other operating solenoid would have been
energi zed and its clutch would have been en-
ga.ged to the other rotating gear. This would
have made the control surface move in the
opposite direction.
Into whatever position the control surface
is moved, it is locked t her e by two braking
solenoids in t he servos. It remains locked in
t hat position until the controls are moved
again.
3-2-9
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OPERATING
SOLENOID"
BRAKING
A balance pot is attached to each of the
servos. A wiper for each of the balance pots
is attached to the cable drum and moves over
the pot as t he cable drum turns. Through t his
pot and wiper the original signal is gradually
balanced out as the proper amount of control
is driven in.
When the bridge circuit is completely bal-
a nced t he operating solenoid is de-energized.
This di sengages the clutch, stopping' the
drive to the control s. The controls are locked
in t his position by the two braking solenoids
until the circuit is again unbalanced.
A limit switch is incorporated in each of
the servo uni ts, as a safety f actor, to prevent
the ser vos f r om driving and jamming the
control surfaces against their stops. When
t he switch is closed, either operating solenoid
can be energized. A cam, geared to the cable
drum, opens the limi t switch as the control
surfaces ar e dri ven near t heir stops. This
breaks t he circuit to the energized solenoid
and stops t he servos' drive.
3-2-10
DIAGRAM OF SERVO
IN OPERA liON
Another safety factor of the autopi lot is
found in t he construction of the servo unit. It
is built in such a way that the pilot can over-
power t he servos and manually control the
airplane while t he autopilot is engaged.
AUTOPILOT LIMIT
MECHANICAL I
LIMIT SWITCH STOPS SERVO
BEFORE CONTROL SURFACES
REACH MECHANICAL SOPS
RESTRICTED
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The autopilot control panel (ACP) is a box
on which are mounted the switches, lights
and knobs used to operate and adjust the
autopilot.
The switches are on the left side of the
box. They are:
L The master switch (MSTR) which com-
pletes the electrical circuit to the rotary in-
verter, the servo motors, the amplifier, and
the fl ight gym
2, The stabilizer switch (STAB), which
completes the circuit to the directional gyro
of the bombsight stabilizer.
3, The ser vo-PDI switch (SERVO-PDI),
which completes the circuit to the torque unit
of the bombsight stabilizer and the pilot
director indicator.
4, The aileron engaging switch (AIL).
5, The rudder engaging switch (RUD) .
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@
,
6, The elevator engaging switch (ELEV) .
These last three switches complete the cir-
cuits to the braldng solenoids of their corre-
sponding servos, thereby engaging the auto-
pilot. to the airplane's control surfaces.
The master and stabilizer switches are
operated simultaneously by the master bar,
which mal,es it impossible to engage one
swi tch without engaging the other.
The aileron, rudder, elevator, and servo
switches can be turned on or off indivi dually.
But when they are on, their levers rest
against the master bar, Thus it is possible,
by throwing the master bar, to disengage all
of the switches simultaneously. This throws
the autopilot entirely out of operation and
returns the airplane to the pilot' s control.
Thus this use of the master bar is one of the
safety factors of the autopilot,
3-2-11
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The ACP is divided into three vertical r ows
of knobs and lights. Each of t he vertical rows
has two tell -tale lights and f our knobs which
are used to adjust t he autopilot control
around each of the axes. The t hree rows,
from left to ri ght, control the aileron, rudder,
and elevator, respectively.
The uppermost knobs of each row are the
centering knobs. You use these knobs to
establish an electrical trim which will co-
incide with the mechanical trim of the air-
plane, before engaging t he autopi lot. The
pilot mechanically trims the airplane and
then adjusts the centering knobs so as to
ali gn the electric trim with the mechanical
t rim. The centering knobs are, in effect, elec-
trical trim tabs.
Directly above the centeri ng knobs are
t hree pairs of li ghts, a pair for each axis.
These are the tell -tale lights that are used
in conjunction with t he centering knobs to
align the electric and mechanical trims. When
t he electric and mechanical trims do not co-
incide, the circuit is unbalanced and causes
one of the tell-tale lights to glow. The inten-
sity of the tell-tale li ghts can be regulated
CIRCUIT UNBALANCED
from a complete blackout to a maximum bril-
liance by the tell-tale lights switch, which is
located in the upper right hand corner of the
ACP.
After the airpl ane is trimmed mechani-
cally, you turn the centering knob until both
t ell-tale lights are out. This means that the
mechanical and electric trims now coincide.
Now you engage the aileron engaging switch.
This operation is the same for each of the
control surfaces.
Any deviation of the airplane will cause
the servos to move the controls and bring the
airplane back to the position of electrical
trim.
MECHANICAL AND ElECTRIC
TRIMS DO NOT COINCIDE-
ONE LIGHT GLOWS
MECHANICAL TRIM ,.
CIRCUIT BALANCED
3-2-12
ELECTRICAL TR IM,
MECHANICAL AND El ECTRIC
TRIMS COINCIDE -
80TH LIGHTS OUT
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Immediately below the centering knobs are
the sensitivity knobs, one for each axis.
These knobs regulate the extent of deviation
permitted before the autopilot will move the
controls to correct for it. This is done by ad-
justing the intensity of an electric signal
which opposes the signal sent to the ampli-
fier. Therefore, with a low sensitivity set-
ting, the airplane has to deviate farther be-
fore a signal large enough to overcome the
opposing current passes through the ampli-
fier and operates the servo.
LOW SENSITIVITY HIGH SENSITIVITY
LARGE DeVIATiON
NECESSARY FOR CORRECTIVE
SIGNAL TO BE EFFECTIVE
The ratio knobs are directly beneath the
sensitivity knobs. You use them to regulate
the amount the autopilot will move the con-
trol surfaces for any given deviation of the
airplane. This is done by adjusting the volt-
age drop of the balance pot, thus determining
how far the servo must drive to balance out
the original signal.
HIGH RATIO
LARGE MOVEMENT
OF CONTROL SURFACES
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LOW RATIO
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SMAll DEVIATION
CAUSES CORRECTIVE
SIGNAL
SMALL MOVEMENT
OF CONTROL SURFACES
3-2-13
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The bottom knobs in each row are the com-
pensation knobs. These knobs are used to
obtain a coordinated turn from the direc-
tional panel. This is done by adj usting the
intensity of the signal from the various pots.
The ail eron compensation knob determines
t he degree of bank obtained from the dual
banking pot. The rudder compensation knob
determines the amount of rudder to be nsed
in a turn, so that the airplane will not skid
o . . ~ n ! , . The elevator compensation knob reg-
ulates the amount of up-elevator to be used
in a turn so that the airplane will neither
gain nor lose altitude. This knob also regu-
lates the amount of up-elevator used in a turn
from the turn contr ol.
/
3-2-14 RESTRICTED
The turn control in the upper left-hand cor-
ner of the ACP makes it possible to turn the
airplane when it is under the control of the
autopilot. Using the turn control you can
make a coordinated turn with any amount of
bank up to 40° . In newer airplanes there are
also remote turn controls for the bombardier
and navigator.
The turn control consists of the aileron
control pot, the rudder control pot, .and their
wipers.
When you turn the knob, the wipers are
displaced on the pots, thus unbalancing the
aileron and rudder bridge circuits and caus-
ing the servos to move the controls. Also, as
you turn the turn control knob off the center
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position, it closes a cam switch which ener-
gizes the directional arm lock on the stabili-
zer and the erecting cutout mechanism on the
flight gyro.
The center position of the turn control is
between the two zero marks. When you
rotate the knob to zero after a turn, you feel
a small "hump" in the otherwise smooth ro-
tation of the knob. This "hump" warns you
to let the airplane return to straight and level
flight before you center the knob to open the
cam switch.
When you turn the knob to either of the
30° marks, you feel a small "hump" similar
to those at the zero positions. The "hump"
at the 30° positions warns you that the air-
3-2-15
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The main purpose of the amplifier is to
magnify the signals from the various bridge
circuits. It also controls and determines the
direction in which the servos move the con-
trol surfaces of the airplane.
It has seven tubes and six relays. There is
3-2-16
plane is nearing the maximum 40
0
bank.
The complete turn control unit includes the
aileron and rudder turn control trimmers
near the center of the ACP and the remote
control transfer with its indicator light in the
lower left hand corner of the ACP. The turn
control trimmers are adjusted to obtain a co-
ordinated bank and turn when the turn con-
trol is used.
$t(I.; Ii' •
one r ectifier tube which changes alternating
current to direct current for the other tubes.
There are three amplifier tubes - one for
each control surface. These tubes magnify
the incoming signals.
The other three are discriminator tubes-
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one for each control surface. These tubes
analyze the incoming signals and determine
in which direction the control surfaces must
be driven. Each of the discriminator tubes
operates a pair of relays which, in turn, con-
trols the operation of onG of the three servo
units.
A relay is merely an electrically controlled
switch. When closed, the relay completes a
circuit to an operating solenoid. The solenoid,
in turn, engages one of the servo clutches.
For instance, as the airplane deviates
around the pitch axis, the elevator pickup pot
The rotary inverter, a generator operating
on a 26-volt direct current, provides an alter-
nating current of 19 volts, 105 cycles, neces-
sary for the operation of the autopilot.
The junction box provides a convenient
place to connect the various units of the auto-
pilot. It is also useful in making an individual
check on each of the units in the autopilot.
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moves under the wiper. This unbalances the
elevator bridge circuit and a signal is sent to
the amplifier. This signal is amplified and
sent to the discriminator tube, which ana-
lyzes it and closes the proper relay. This en-
ergizes the proper operating solenoid, which
engages the corresponding servo clutch. This
moves the elevator control surface and re-
turns the airplane to level flight.
One r elay completes the circuIt to the
clutch which moves the elevator up and the
other to the clutch which moves the elevator
down.
3- 2-17
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DEVIATION'
Suppose a sudden gust of wind throws the
airplane nose upward. Since the elevator
pickup wiper is stabilized by the flight gyro
and the elevator pickup pot is attached to the
gyro case, the pot is moved under the wiper.
This unbalances the elevator bridge circuit
and a signal is sent to the elevator amplifier
tube.
This tube amplifies the signal and sends it
to the elevator discriminator tube, which an-
alyzes the signal and determines which relay
is to be closed. A signal from the di scrimina-
tor tube closes the down elevator r elay. When
the relay is closed, it completes a circuit to
the operating solenoid in the servo unit. The
solenoid engages its clutch, linking the servo
motor to the cable drum. This causes the
cable drum to turn, moving the elevator sur-
faces down.
3- 3-1
As the cable drum turns, the balance wiper
moves over the balance pot in the servo unit
and begins to balance out the original signal.
When the original signal is completely bal-
anced out the servo stops driving, but the
elevator control already driven in remains in
use.
As the airplane begins to return to level
flight, the elevator pickup pot is again moved
under its wiper but in the opposite direction.
This creates an opposite signal and the ele-
vator control surfaces are moved up as the
airplane approaches level flight, thus pre-
venting over-control.
Remember that this entire sequence of
action is almost simultaneous. The autopilot
functions in a similar manner for deviations
about the roll and turn axes. When necessary,
all three controls-aileron, rudder, and eleva-
tor-will function at the same time.
"
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1 4
~ ~ .
2 5
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3 6
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3-3- 2
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INTENTIONAL BANK AND RECOVERY
USING THE TURN CONTROL
When you use the turn control to turn the
airplane, it does two things:
1. As you move it from center to zero, the
cam switch is closed and the erecting cutout
and directional arm lock are operated. Thus
the autopilot clutch is locked and the bottom
roller is disengaged from t he top roller.
2. When you turn the t urn control knob
past zero, wipers connected to the knob move
over the aileron and rudder control pots. This
unbalances the aileron and rudder bridge cir-
cuits and thus sends signals to the aileron
and rudder amplifier tubes.
After t he amplifier tubes magnify the sig-
nals, t he discriminator tubes analyze them
and energize the proper solenoid in each of
the two servos. The servos move the controls
to bring the airplane into the turn, and at the
same time displace the balance pot wipers out
toward a point where they will balance the
turn control signal.
3-3-3
As the airplane goes into t he bank, the
aileron pickup pot and the rudder compensa-
tion pot on the flight gyro case are displaced
under their silibilized wipers. This displace-
ment plus that of the balance pot wipers soon
equals the original displacement of the turn
control wipers, thus canceling the turn con-
trol signals and causing the servos to stop.
However, the airplane controls ar e now in a
position to cause the airplane to increase its
bank. As it does so, the gyro pots are farther
displaced under their wipers, causing a new
signal opposite to the original turn control
signal. This causes the controls to be driven
back toward streamlined position. But the
airplane continues to increase its degree of
bank until the controls are completely
streamlined, which will occur when the air-
plane r eaches the maximum degree of bank
called for by the turn control. At this point
the displacements of the gyro pots are equal
to those of the turn control, and the balance
pots show no displacement. The servos then
cease to operate.
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1
2
3
You will recall that there are three pots
mounted in the front of the gyro case- the
aileron pickup pot, the rudder compensation
pot, and the up-elevator pot. As the airplane
is banked, the up-elevator pot and wiper un-
balance the elevator bridge circuit. This
results in enough up-elevator to prevent loss
of altitude during the turn. The elevator bal-
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RESTRI CTED
ance pot balances. out the up-elevator signal
when the proper amount of control has been
driven in.
Thus, when the airplane is in the midst of
its bank, the aileron and rudder control sur-
faces are streamlined, the up-elevator control
remains in use, and all- bridge circuits are
balanced_
3- 3-4
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In recovering from the turn, the action of
the autopilot is exactly the r everse. As you
move the turn control toward the zero posi-
tion, signals are created that move the
aileron and rudder controls out of str eamline
and in the direction opposite to that of the
original t urn. As the airplane comes out of
the bank, the t r iple pot assembly-aileron,
rudder, and elevator pots- moves under the
stabilized wipers. This creates signals which
cause the servos to move the controls back
3- 3-5
toward a streamlined position as t he airplane
returns to straight and level flight. When the
airplane reaches level flight, the bridge cir-
cuits are balanced and t he control surfaces
are streamlined.
When you move the turn control knob from
zero to center, t he er ecting cutout switch and
the directional arm lock switch are opened.
Thus the autopilot clutch is again free to sta-
bilize the airplane about the yaw axis and the
bottom roller is engaged to the top roller.
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INTENTIONAL BANK AND RECOVERY
THROUGH THE DIRECTIONAL PANEL
A turn made by the bombardier must be
made through the directional panel if his
compartment is not equipped with a turn
control. There are two methods by which a
turn can be made through the directional
panel. Each of these methods uses the auto-
pilot clutch disengaged.
The first method is very simple. You man-
ually move the autopilot clutch. This can be
done either by taking hold of the autopilot
clutch arm and displacing the clutch or by
swinging the bombsight. This is similar to
steering a bicycle. If you displace the clutch
to the left, the airplane turns right, and vice
versa.
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The mechanism which accomplishes this
result is equally simple. The autopilot clutch
is linked by the directional panel arm to the
sliding block in the directional panel. Since
the rudder pickup and dual banking pot wip-
ers are attached to the sliding block, any
movement of the autopilot clutch displaces
the wipers on their respective pots.
As you displace the , clutch from center,
the sliding block closes the erecting cutout
switch and moves the wipers over their pots,
. thus unbalancing the aileron and rudder
bridge circuits. The autopilot responds to this
unbalanced condition in exactly the same
manner as it does to a turn originating from
the turn control.
As long as the autopilot clutch is displaced
from center, the autopilot holds the airplane
in the turn.
3-3-6
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RETURN TO CENTER
MANUALLY
(
OR
3- 3-7
\
\ /\
ENGAGE AUTOPILOT
CLUTCH
I
To recover f r om t he t urn, t he aut opilot
clut ch must be r eturned to center. This can
be done by two methods, eit her by returning
it manuall y or by engaging it at its displaced
position and allowing the autopilot to r eturn
t he airplane to level fl ight so as to center the
autopilot clutch. As the clutch reaches cen-
t er, the erecting cutout switch is opened.
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TURNS MADE WITH
THE COURSE KNOBS
The second method is to move the autopilot
clutch with the course knobs of the bomb-
sight. The course knobs are indirectly linked
to the autopilot clutch and the directional
panel wipers, and can be used to turn the
autopilot through the directional panel. The
bombsight clutch must be engaged and the
autopilot clutch disengaged when using the
course knobs of the bombsight. When you
move the directional panel wipers by turning
the course knobs, the airplane turns to the
right or left in much the same way as if you
had moved the autopilot clutch manually.
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-
••
••
••
• *
••
• *

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However, there is one very important dif-
ference. When you cease to turn the course
knobs, the directional gyro immediately sta-
bilizes the whole steering mechanism, includ-
ing the autopilot clutch and the directional
panel wipers. Then, as the airplane turns in
response to the turn signals, it moves the
center of the pots back under the stabilized
wipers, thus taking out the turn signals and
causing the airplane to resume straight and
level flight on the new heading. The airplane
would continue to turn only if you continued
to turn the course knobs.
3-3-8
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PREFLIGHT INSPECTION
1. Turn autopilot master switch ON.
2. Center turn control.
3. Turn knobs on ACP to "pointers up" position.
4. Turn Servo-POI switch ON.
5. Disengage bombsight clutch and engage autopilot
clutch with POI on center.
6. Operate airplane controls manually, observing tell-
tale lights.
7. Turn aileron, rudder, and elevator engaging
switches ON, observing tell-tale lights.
8. Rotate each centering knob, observing controls.
9. Rotate turn control knob, observing controls.
10. Disengage autopilot clutch, displace to each side,
observing controls. Engage autopilot clutch.
11. Turn autopilot master switch OFF.
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• •
MSTR
AIL
RUD
ELEV
1. TURN AUTOPILOT MASTER SWITCH ON
When you turn the autopilot master switch
ON, you complete circuits to the amplifier,
servo motors, flight gyro, directional gyro,
and the rotary inverter. You must wait five
minutes before turning other switches ON.
3. TURN KNOBS ON ACP TO
"POINTERS UP" POSITION
Make sure pointers· are not loose. The auto-
pilot should be in approximate adjustment
with the pointers at "pointers up" position.
ON
ELEV
STAB
SERVO-""" / __ " UI
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1
/'
V )
PD
2. CENTER TURN CONTROL
When you place the turn control knob at
center, yoU open the erecting cutout switch
and the directional arm lock switch. There-
fore, the flight gyro will be erected to the
vertical and the directional arm lock will not
be energized. This also places the wipers in
the turn control at the center of their pots.
4. TURN SERVO·PDI SWITCH ON
By turning this switch ON, you complete
circuits to the PDr and the torque unit of the
bombsight stabilizer.
3-4- 2
RESTRICTED
5. DISENGAGE BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH
AND ENGAGE AUTOPILOT
CLUTCH WITH POI ON CENTER
The bombsight clutch should be disengaged
befor e take-off to pr event excessive wear on
the torque unit a.nd bombsight. The autopilot
clutch is engaged with the PDI on center so
the er ecting cutout switch will be open and
t he wipers of the directional panel will be at
the center of t heir pots. The autopilot will
not f unction properly wi th both clutches en-
gaged or disengaged at the same time.
3-4-3
6. OPERATE AIRPLANE CONTROLS
MANUALLY, OBSERVING
TELL-TALE LIGHTS
Operate the airplane ' controls manually to
move the control surfaces through their ex-
t r eme ranges of movement several times.
This will slide the servo unit balance pot
wipers over their respective pots and should
clean off any dust or dirt t hat is on the pots.
As you move the controls, obser ve the tell-
tale lights. When the controls are near the
streamlined position, the lights will flicker.
When controls are at the extreme ends of
their ranges, the lights may go out as t he pot
wipers run off the winding. At any interme-
diate position one light or the other should
be ON. If the lights flicker at the intermedi-
ate position, the corresponding pots need
cleaning. Dirt between the wipers and pots
causes the lights to flicker by breaking the
contact between wiper and pot.
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7. TURN THE AILERON, RUDDER AND
ELEVATOR ENGAGING SWITCHES
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ON. OBSERVING TELL-TALE LIGHTS E
As you engage these switches the corre-
sponding lights should come on, flicker, then
go out as the controls move into streamlined
position. At first the lights will glow because
the circuits are unbalanced. As the controls
are moved by the servo to streamlined posi-
tion, the circuits become balanced and conse-
quently the lights go out as no signal is being
sent to the amplifier.
CENTERING
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-
f'--./I/

1
1
,1 ...:---
\ III .;
MSTR.
AIL
OFF
RUD.
..
-
-
0
1
/
8. ROTATE EACH CENTERING
KNOB, OBSERVING CONTROLS
As you turn the centering knobs the cir-
cuits are unbalanced and the controls are
moved by the servos. As you turn the aileron
centering knob clockwise, the control wheel
should turn to the right. When you turn it
counter-clockwise, the control wheel should
turn to the left.
As you turn the rudder centering knob
clockwise, the right rudder pedal should
move forward. When you turn it counter-
clockwise, the left rudder pedal should move
forward.
As you turn the elevator centering knob
clockwise, the control column should move to
the rear. When you turn it counter-clockwise,
the control column should move forward_
3-4-4
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9. ROTATE TURN CONTROL KNOB,
OBSERVING CONTROLS
When you rotate this knob clockwise, you
unbalance the rudder and aileron bridge
circuits. Therefore, the right rudder pedal
should move forward and the control wheel
should turn to the right.
When you rotate t he knob counter-clock-
wise, the left rudder pedal should move for-
ward and the control wheel should turn to
the left.
© 0 A-- @';;;"._-...,
o
o
1 O. DISENGAGE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH,
DISPLACE TO EACH SIDE,
OBSERVING CONTROLS. ENGAGE
AUTOPILOT CLUTCH
When you disengage the autopilot clutch
and place it against the left stop, the rudder
and aileron bridge circuits are unbalanced
through the directional panel ; the right rud-
der pedal should move forward and the con-'
trol wheel should turn to the right.
As you place it against the right stop, the
left rudder pedal should move forward and
the control wheel should turn to the left.
11. TURN AUTOPILOT MASTER SWITCH OFF
MSTR
When you turn the autopilot master switch
OFF, you turn off all other switches which
engage units of the autopilot. This prevents
running dow;' the airplane battery and any
accidental control by the autopilot during
take-off.
3-4-5
AIL
RESTRICTED
r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
ENGAGING PROCEDURE
Before Take-Off:
1. Center turn contro!'
2. Turn knobs on ACP to "pointers up" position.
3. Engage autopilot clutch and disengage bompsight clutch.
After Take-Off:
4. Turn autopilot master switch ON. (Wait 10 minutes before turning
other switches ON.I
5. Manually trim airplane for straight and level flight.
6. Turn Servo-POI switch ON.
7. Turn tell-tale lights switch ON.
8. Center PDI.
9. Adiust aileron centering knob until both aileron tell-tale lights are
out.
Turn aileron switch ON.
Readjust aileron centering knob to level wings.
10. Adiust rudder centering knob until both rudder tell-tale lights are
out.
Turn rudder switch ON.
Readjust rudder centering knob to center POI.
11. Adjust elevator centering knob until both elevator tell·tale lights
are out.
Turn elevator switch ON.
Readjust elevator centering knob for level flight .
FLIGHT ADJUSTMENTS
1. Centering.
2. Sensitivity.
3. Ratio.
4. Dashpat.
5. Turn Compensation.
6. Turn Control.
,
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RESTRICTED
BEFORE TAKE-OFF
1. CENTER TURN CONTROL. ALSO MAKE SURE THAT CONTROL
TRANSFER KNOB IS AT "PILOT"
2. TURN KNOBS ON ACP TO "POINTERS UP" POSITION
This should be done unless the knobs are known to be properly adjusted.
Always make sure pointers are not loose.
3. ENGAGE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH AND DISENGAGE BOMB-
SIGHT CLUTCH
AFTER TAKE-OFF
4. TURN AUTOPILOT MASTER
SWITCH ON
(Wait 10 minutes before turning other
switches ON.) This delay is required to allow
the stabilizer gyro and vertical flight gyro to
come up to speed.
3-4-7
MSTR Q)
AIL . Q
RUD
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RESTRICTED
5. MANUALLY TRIM AIRPLANE FOR STRAIGHT
AND FLIGHT
6. TURN SERYO·PDI SWITCH ON
7. TURN TELL·TALE LIGHTS
SWITCH ON •
8. CENTER PDI
This may be done by either of the follow-
ing methods:
A. Bombardier disengages autopilot clutch
and centers PDI by moving autopilot clutch
arm to its center position. Hold PDI centered
until autopilot is engaged; then re-engage
autopilot clutch.
B. Alternate method-Pilot centers PDI
by turning airplane in direction of PDI
needle. Then resume straight and level flight,
keeping PDI centered until autopilot is en-
gaged.
RESTRICTED
On bombing mission be sure to open bomb
bay doors and fly the bombing airspeed and
altitude before trimming the airplane for
straight and level flight.
3-4-8
RESTRICTED
9. ADJUST AILERON CENTERING KNOB UNTIL BOTH AILERON
TELL·TALE LIGHTS ARE OUT
TURN AILERON SWITCH ON.
READJUST AILERON CENTERING
KNOB TO LEVEL WINGS.
A
~ ( I ) AIL
/jOW\G
Before similarly engaging the rudder servo
you check the gyro horizon, and readj ust
aileron centering to make sure the wings are
level. If the wings are not level when rudder
is centered and engaged, cross-control may
result, as the autopilot will apply rudder to
hold the airplane on a straight course.
10. ADJUST RUDDER CENTERING KNOB UNTIL BOTH
RUDDER TELL.TALE LIGHTS ARE OUT
TURN RUDDER SWITCH ON.
READJUST RUDDER CENTERING
KNOB TO CENTER PDI.
R
~ ~
Je\
This prevents the erecting cutout from be-
ing energized from the directional panel. The
erecting cutout is energized if the PDr is off
center 11/
2
0
or more.
11. ADJUST ELEVATOR CENTERING KNOB UNTIL BOTH
ELEVATOR TELL· TALE LIGHTS ARE OUT
TURN ELEVATOR SWITCH ON.
READJUST ELEVATOR CENTERING
KNOB FOR LEVEL FLIGHT
3-4-9
The elevator centering is readjusted for
level flight to prevent the gaining or losing of
altitude while flight adjustments are being
made.
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GENERAL
Control knobs on the autopilot control
panel permit precise adjustment of the auto-
pilot for maximum efficiency under any flight
or load-carrying condition. Once these ad-
justments have been set for a particular air-
plane only slight readjustments will be
required each time the autopilot is used-
unless, of course, flight or load . conditions
change considerably.
1. CENTERING
The centering controls on the ACP are
comparable to the trim tabs of the airplane.
They control the normal attitude of the air-
plane while the autopilot is in operation. Ad-
justment of the centering knobs aligns the
electric center of -the servo unit balance pot
with the pot wiper when the control surfaces
are in trim.
When flying under autopilot control, use
centering knobs in place of the mechanical
trim tabs to compensate for slight changes in
airspeed, center of gravity, or gross weight.
When large changes of airspeed, center of
gravity, or gross weight occur, it is necessary
to disengage the autopilot, re-trim mechan-
ically, and re-engage the autopilot.
CautiDn
Never trim the controls manually with the
mechanical trim tabs while the autopilot· is
in operation. Use of the trim tabs will not
change airplane's attitude because the auto-
pilot will counteract the effect of the trim
tabs. Then, when autopilot is disengaged,
trim tabs will suddenly become elfective and
produce a violent reaction.
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3-4-10
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2. SENSITIVITY
The sensitivity knobs r egulate the amount
of airplane deviation allowed by the autopilot
before it applies correction. This alertness of
the autopilot is comparable to a human pilot's
reaction time.
A human pilot may apply a correction for
even the slightest deviation (high sensitiv-
ity) or he may wait for a larger deviation
before applying the correction (low sensitiv-
ity) .
High sensitivity provides maximum flight
stability, but it is possible to adjust sensitiv-
ity so high that the controls vibrate or "chat-
ter."
TO ADJUST SENSITIVITY,
TURN KNOBS CLOCKWISE
UNTIL CONTROLS CHAT-
TER; THEN BACK OFF
UNTIL CONTINUOUS
CHATTER STOPS
LOW SENSITIVITY
HIGH SENSITJVITY
3-4-11
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3. RATIO
The ratio knobs regulate the amount of
control surface movement resulting from a
given deviation of the airplane. Thus, with a
high ratio setting, the autopilot may apply
too much control surface in correcting a
given deviation, giving fast recovery, which
may cause over-control. On the other hand, if
ratio is set too low, the autopilot will apply
too little control in correcting a deviation,
producing smooth recovery which may· be too
slow for correct flight.
Ratio will require slight r eadjustment with
any appreciable change of indicated airspeed.
Following any change of ratio, re-check cen-
tering.
TO ADJUST RATIO. TURN KNOBS
CLOCKWISE TO GIVE OVER-CON-
TROL; THEN REDUCE RATIO TO RE-
TAIN Cj)UICK RECOVERY WITHOUT
OVER-CONTROL. OBSERVE WING
TIPS. HORIZON AND PDI FOR EVI-
DENCE OF OVER-CONTROL.
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LOW RATIO
3-4-12
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4. DASH POT ADJUSTMENTS
The dash pot is linked to the rudder pickup
pot wiper in the directional panel in such a
way that it produces an extra initial rudder
correction signal proportional to the speed of
turn axis deviation. Incorrect dashpot adj ust-
ment produces a tendency for the airplane
either to "fishtail," as a result of over-control
of the rudder, or to "rudder hunt," as a result
of under-control. This may happen even with
sensitivity, ratio, and turn compensation
properly adjusted.
To Correct Dashpot Adjustment, Do This:
1. Unlock
doshpot by
turning lock
nut lever coun-
ter-clockwise.
e
5. TURN COMPENSATION
Immediately after engaging the system
and making sure sensitivity and ratio are
well adjusted, check the turn compensation
adj ustments as follows, first making sure the
airplane is flying straight and level:
1. Bombardier disengages autopilot clutch
and moves the clutch arm slowly to extreme
right or extr eme left.
2. Adjust aileron compensation knob to
produce an 18' bank, as indic"ted by the arti-
ficial horizon.
3. Adjust rudder compensation knob to
produce a perfectly coordinated turn, as indi-
cated by the ball-bank inclinometer. Ball
must be in exact center.
4. Make final adjustments with both
knobs to obtain a perfectly coordinated turn
with 18' bank.
5. Adjust elevator compensation knob to
apply sufficient up-elevator to maintain alti-
tude during the turn. Changes in load or air-
speed may require readjustment of the up-
eleva tor trimmer.
3-4-13
2. Turn knurled
nut up or down
until hunting
ceases, or
"fishtailing' ,
ceases .
3. lock
adjustment
by turning
lock nut
lever clock-
wise.
6. Bombardier re-engages autopilot clutch
at its extreme position, and allows the stabil-
izer to re-center the PDI.
STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT
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. RESTRICTED
INCREASE BANK DECREASE SKID UP ELEV
QQ'
V
QQ'
?tote:
Allowing the directional gyro in the stabil-
izer to recenter PDI gives a check on aileron
ratio. After the autopilot clutch is engaged,
the airplane must turn 51,4 0 to center PDI
from the extreme position. If aileron ratio is
too high, the wings will quickly level off be-
fore the airplane has turned the necessary
51,4 o . Then, with only rudder in effect, the
airplane will skid and turn more slowly to
center PDI. If aileron ratio is too low, the air-
plane will quickly turn the necessary 51,4 0 to
center PDI, but t he wings will not level off
fast enough and the airplane will continue to
turn, causing the PDI to overshoot center.
The result will be a fishtail action as the air-
plane straightens out.
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AIL RUD ELEV
AILERON RATIO TOO HIGH
•••••..... + t ~
.• ~ ... ---

: ...... -..... - - ~
AILERON RATIO TOO LOW
3-4-14
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6. TURN CONTROL
The turn control offers a convenient means
of changing the airplane's heading while fly-
ing under autopilot control. The turn control
seldom requires r eadjustment unless there is
r eason to believe that a previous adjustment
has been changed. This adjustment is made
only after the turn compensation adjust-
ments outlined have been completed.
1. Be sure airplane is flying straight and
level.
2. Rotate turn control knob slowly, either
to right or to left, until pointer reaches the
lined region of the dial , or until you feel a
distinct resistance to further rotation.
3. At that setting, adjust the aileron trim-
mer on the ACP to produce a 30
0
bank as
indicated by the artificial horizon.
4. Adjust rudder trimmer to produce a
perfectly coordinated turn, as indicated by
the inclinometer. Make final adjustments
with both trimmers.
If the elevator compensation knob has been
adjusted for bombardier's turns, it will also
mainta in altitude in turn-control banks up to
18
0
, provided airspeed is maintained. If loss
of altitude occurs in a turn-control turn, it
can be corrected by adjusting elevator cen-
tering and then r eadjusting centering for
straight and level flight after the turn has
been completed.
5. Slowly return pointer to zero and hold
it there while airplane res umes level flight.
6. When airplane has leveled off, re-center
turn control pointer.
3-4-15
Never operate turn with-
out first makinq sure POI is
tered and bombardier is not mak-
inq a turn with the autopilot
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RESTRICTED
OPERATION OF AUTOPILOT
AND BOMBSIGHT CLUTCHES
When the bombardier manually directs the
airplane both clutches are di sengaged. At all
other times one and only one clutch is en-
gaged. When changing from one clutch to the
other always engage the second before di s-
engaging the first.
PILOT CONTROL
ENGAGED
RESTRICTED
When you direct the airplane through t he
bombsight, the bombsight clutch is engaged
and the autopilot clutch is disengaged.
When the pilot has full control the auto-
pilot clutch is engaged and the bombsight
clutch is disengaged.
BOMBARDIER
DISENGAGED

3-4- 16
RESTRICTED
TURN CONTROL OPERATION
Whenever it is desired to turn the airplane
to a new heading while flying on autopilot
control, rotate turn control slowly in the
direction of turn desired. As the pointer
passes the zero mark, you wi ll feel a "click"
as the cam switch closes, ener gizing the
erecting cutout and directional arm lock.
Stop rotation of knob when artificial hori-
zon indicates airplane has reached desired
degree of bank.
NOTE: A warning stop causes the knob to
turn with increased difficulty after the signal
for a 30' bank has been applied. This is to
warn you to Htake it easy" as you are ap-
proaching t he maximum degree of bank ob-
tainable (40 ' ). A steeper bank may cause the
vertical flight gyro to strike against its stop
on the gyro cover, resulting in precession.
As airplane approaches the desired new
heading, slowly rotate control knob back to
zero, timing this return so pointer will reach
zero when the desired heading is attained.
Hold the pointer at zero until the airplane
has leveled off on its new heading; then cen-
ter the pointer to engage the erecting roller
and release the directional arm lock. (No sig-
nal is applied by turn control when pointer is
at either zero mark.)
1. ENTERING TURN
3-4-17

Operation of the Control Transfer
If the autopilot system includes a second
turn control at a remote station (as in the
bombardier's or navigator's compartment),
the ACP will be provided with a control
transfer in the lower left-hand corner. This
control enables the pilot to transfer control
of the airplane smoothly and gradually from
the turn control in the ACP to the remote
turn control, which is operated in an iden-
tical manner by the bombardier or navigator.
When the pilot wishes to transfer control of
the airplane to the remote turn control, he
rotates the control transfer knob to its ex-
treme clockwise position. This is done slowly
to prevent the sudden introduction of a
strong signal in case the remote turn con-
trol is not centered at the time of transfer.
(Never leave transfer knob at an intermedi-
ate position.) An indicator light adjacent to
the control transfer knob informs the pilot
when the remote turn control is in control of
the airplane.
RESTRICTED
DIRECTIONAL PANEL TURNS
Manual Turns
When you desire to turn the airplane, you
can disengage both clutches and manually
displace the autopilot clutch either by the
autopilot clutch arm or .by turning the bomb-
sight. To make your turns smooth, you dis-
place the autopilot clutch arm slowly. When
t he arm is against either stop, the airplane
banks 18° in a coordinated turn. Moving t he
arm to the left turns the airplane t o the
right, and vice versa. As the airplane comes
on the desired heading, move the autopilot
clutch arm to center and engage whichever
clutch is desired. If you ar e starting a bomb-
ing run, engage the bombsight clutch. The
autopilot wiIl maintain the new heading until
the autopilot clutch is again displaced.
Turns Through the Bombsight
In bombing with the autopilot, you direct
the airplane by use of t he bombsight course
knobs. The bombsight clutch is engaged;
thus tbe stabilizer holds the sight on a fi xed
heading. The autopilot clutch must be dis-
engaged so that t he bombsight can control
the airplane.
Turning both or either of t he course knobs
clockwise wiIl turn the airplane t o the right.
The degree of bank and turn is determined
by the rapidity at whi ch you turn the course
knob or knobs. By continuously turning t he
knobs, you can keep the airplane in a turn.
As the airplane comes on t he desired head-
ing, you stop turning the knobs, and the
directional gyro through the bombsight will
maintain the new heading.
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~
I
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3--;-4-18
RESTRICTED
MALADJUSTMENTS AND THEIR CORRECTION
1. POI CENTERED, BALL NOT CEN·
TERED, IN STRAIGHT FLIGHT
This condition is caused by improper trim-
ming or centering with one wing low and
opposite rudder applied to keep the airplane
from turning. To correct:
1. Readjust aileron and rudder centering,
or
2. Disengage both rudder and aileron
switches and re-center PDI; adjust cen-
tering and re-engage rudder and aileron
switches.
2. BALL CENTERED, BUT POI OFF
To correct:
1. Readjust rudder centering, or
2. Disengage both rudder and aileron
switches and re-center PDI; adjust cen-
tering and re-engage rudder and aileron
switches.
3-4- 19
3. OYER·CONTROL IN RUDDER
AXIS
This is caused by improper setting of ratio
or dash pot. To correct:
1. Loosen locking collar and unscrew
dashpot slowly. Stop at the point where over-
control ceases, and re-lock.
2. If loosening the dash pot does not elim-
inate over-control, reduce rudder ratio. After
changing the ratio, check rudder centering
and the rudder compensation adj ustments;
then tighten dashpot to a setting just below
that which produces over-control.
4. TURNS COORDINATED IN
ONLY ONE DIRECTION
Plane not properly trimmed before start·
ing turns. To correct :
1. Return to level flight and r eadjust
ai leron and rudder centering, or
2. Disengage rudder and aileron switches
and retrim manually before re-engaging.
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5. AIRPLANE SKIDS WHEN TURN·
ING ONE DIRECTION AND SLIPS
WHEN TURNING THE OTHER
DIRECTION
To correct :
1. Disengage autopilot and check manual
trim of airplane ; re-center and re-engage
aut opil ot.
6. LOSS OR GAIN OF ALTITUDE
1. In straight and level Hi ght, correct by
using the el evator centering knob.
2. In bombardier' s t urn, adjust elevator
compensation and increase elevator ratio. On
a bombing run, mainta in al t itude by use of
elevator centering knob.
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AIRPLANE WALLOWS OR
LACKS STABILITY
To correct : F or a condition of general lack
of stability, increase sensitivity adjus tments.
Also inspect cable t ens ions, as loose cont rol
cabl es are a common ca use of sloppy ail eron
action. Since t he rudder a nd eleva t or servOS
a r e close t o the surfaces which t hey cont rol,
very little cable t roubl e is encounter ed on
these two axes.
BeTTeR BO .BA
KNOW YOUR AUTO
Be A
Ie
I
I
T
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3-4- 20
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C-l AUTOPILOT NOMENCLATURE
Aileron engaging switch-Located on the
ACP and marked "Ail." It is used to en-
gage the aileron control of the autopilot.
Aileron trimming screw-Located on ACP
between sensitivity and ratio knobs. Mark-
ed with an "A." Regulates intensity of ail-
eron signal from the turn control.
Amplifier- Used to amplify, analyse, and re-
lay signals to the proper servo units.
Autopilot clutch-Located on the top of the
stabilizer. It transmits the stability of the
directional gyro to the directional panel.
Autopilot clutch engaging knob-Located on
autopilot clutch and is used to engage auto-
pilot clutch to the directional gyro.
Autopilot connect.ing rod-It connects the
autopilot clutch to the drift gear clutch,
allowing turns to be made from the bomb-
sight through the directional panel.
Autopilot control panel (ACP) - Located in
pilot's compartment. It is an assembly of
switches and knobs used for engaging and
adjusting C-1 autopilot for proper fl ight.
Autopilot master switch- Located on .the
ACP and marked "MSTR." It completes or
breaks the circuits to the servo motors,
flight gyro, rotary inverter, and amplifier.
Centering knobs-The first lateral row of
knobs located on the ACP. They ar e used
to trim the autopilot electrically.
Compensation knobs-Last lateral row of
knobs located on ACP. They are used to
coordinate turns made from directional
panel.
Control transfer knob-Located at lower left
hand corner of ACP. Transfers control of
the airplane from turn control in the ACP
to remote turn control.
Dashpot-Located on rear left side of the
stabilizer, used to accelerate initial rudder
correction from directional panel.
Directional panel- Located on left side of
stabilizer. It provides a means by which
you can maneuver the airplane to make
properly banked turns with bombsight
while flying under autopilot control.
Directional panel arm-It connects the auto-
pilot clutch to the operating parts of the
directional panel.
Directional arm lock-Located on rear of sta-
3-5- 1
bilizer. It locks autopilot clutch arm dur-
ing t urns made from turn control.
Elevator engaging switch-Located on ACP
and mar ked "ELEV"; used to engage ele-
vator control of the autopilot.
ECO swit.ch- Located in directional panel.
Energizes erecting cutout mechanism when
PDI is moved 1%° off center.
Erecting cutout mechanism - Located on
flight gyro. It releases the lateral erecting
mechanism whenever airplane is in a turn.
Erecting mechanism- Located on flight gyro.
It is used to keep gyro in the vertical.
Flight gyro--Located near airplane's center
of gravit y. It provides stability about pitch
and roll axes of the airplane.
Junction box-Used to connect electrical wir-
ing of the various units of autopilot.
Ratio knobs- The third lateral row of knobs
located on ACP. Regulates amount of con-
trol applied for any given deviation.
Rotary inverter-A motor generator that
changes direct current supplied by bat-
teries of the airplane into alternating cur-
rent for use in amplifiers and bridge cir-
cuits.
Rudder engaging switch- Located on the
ACP and marked "RUD". It is used to en-
gage the rudder control of the autopilot.
Rudder trimmer screw - Located between
sensitivity and ratio knobs on ACP. It is
marked with an "R". It regulates intensity
of rudder signal from turn control.
Sensitivity knobs-The second lateral row of
knobs located on ACP. They are used to
regulate how far airplane can deviate be-
fore a correction is put in by autopilot.
Servo-(Aileron, Rudder, Elevator) -These
three units supply the force to move the
three control surfaces of the airplane.
Servo· PDI swit.ch- Located on ACP and
marked "SERVO-PDI". It completes the
circuit to the torque unit and the PDI.
Tell-tale light.s-Located on upper part of
ACP. They indicate an unbalanced or bal-
anced electrical circuit.
Turn control-Located on upper left corner
of ACP. It provides a means for changing
airpl ane's heading while flying under auto·
pilot control.
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SECTION 4
~ ~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
...
...
,
INTRODUCTION
The Norden or M-Series bombsight is a
synchronizing, precision instrument. Syn-
chronization means adjustment of fl ight path
and t r avel of the optical system so that t he
bomb will be r eleased at the proper point.
The Norden sight is of American design
and construction. There ar e several models in
use, among t hem t he M-4, M-6, M-7, and M-9.
The even-numbered models use 12 volts direct
current; the odd-numbered models use 24
volts. The r eason for the voltage difference
is that the newer bombers have 24-volt cir-
cuits.
These four models ar e very much alike in
principle and operation. If you learn t o use
anyone of them, you can use all of them.
The Norden sight will seem complex to you
at first. Don' t expect to learn it in one day.
You will master it, as hundreds have before
RESTRICTED
you, by taking it up step by step, part by
part.
These parts and st eps are inter-dependent,
so you should learn each of them t horoughly.
The better you under stand t he construction
of this instrument, the better you wi ll under-
stand how to operate it. Frequent reviews
will help you remember the material you
have covered.
You will use the Norden mainl y for syn-
chronous bombing. You will also use it for
fixed angle bombing.
From your study of the bombing prob-
lem you know what t he bombsight must do.
Always keep the bombing problem in mind.
Remember that the sight solves the bombing
problem for you ONLY IF YOU SET IN
THE CORRECT DATA AND OPERATE
THE SIGHT PROPERLY.
4-1-1
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M-SERIES BOMBSIGHT
•••
1. Leveling knobs
2. Caging knob
3. Eyepiece ,
4. Index window
5. Trail arm and trail plate
6. Extended vision knob
7. Disc speed gear shift
8. Rate and displacement knobs
9. Mirror drive clutch
10. Disc speed drum
11. Turn and drift knobs
12. Tachometer adapter
13. Crosshair rheostat
4-1-2 RESTRICTED
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
\
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\
TRAil
Solving the Range Problem
The bombsight has two main unit s - the
sighthead and the stabilizer. The sighthead is
attached to the stabilizer by a pivoting con-
nection and two locking pins.
The sighthead's principal function, solving
for range, is carried out by three main parts.
1. The rate end, which computes the exact
release point for t he bomb.
2. The optical system, through which you
observe the target.
3. The vertical gyro, which stabilizes the
optics so that roll and pitch of the airplane
will not move the line of sight from target.
The r ate end combines the values of ATF,
groundspeed, and trail to compute the drop-
ping angle. From the bombing tables, you get
the values of ATF and trail and set them into
the sight. Then groundspeed remains the
on ly unknown factor. You use the rate knob,
on the rate end, to solve for it.
By turning on the rate motor switch, you
start a motor which turns a disc in the rate
end. The speed at which the di sc turns r epre-
sents ATF. You set in the desired speed by
positi oning the disc speed drum. To find the
correct di sc speed setting, you divide ATF
into the bombsight constant, 5,300.
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ACTUAL RANGE
The disc dr ives a roll er which can be
moved from the center of the disc to its up-
per edge. When t he roller is in the center of
the rotating disc, it does not turn; when it is
just off center, it turns very slowly. The far-
ther you move the roller from the center of
the di sc, the more rapidly the roller turns.
You control the position of t he roll er on the
disc with the rate knob and the trail arm.
You set in trail by moving the trail arm to
the desired position on the trail plate. This
moves the roller out from the center of the
disc a di stance proportional to trail. Then
looking through the optics, you turn the rate
knob until the lateral crosshai r a ppears to
stay on the target. By doing this, you have
moved the roll er an additional di stance on the
disc. This additional distance is proportional
to actual range. The distance from the center
of the di sc to the roller is then proportional
t o whole range and the roll er 's speed of rota-
t ion is pr oportional to groundspeed.
At the same time t hat the r ate knob posi-
tions the r oll er on t he di sc, it positions the
dropping angle index on the tangent scale,
thus setting up the correct dropping angle.
The r oller drive is transmitted to a mirror
which refl ect s t he image of the target into
4-1-3
RESTRICTED
the telescope. The mirror is hinged in such a
manner that the roller drive changes the
angle of reflection as the airplane approaches
the target.
The sighting angle at any moment is
shown by the sighting angle index. You can
see the index on the degree scale in the index
window.
vVhen the sighting angle index is exactly
opposite the dropping angle index, the sight
automatically .releases the bomb if the re-
lease lever is up. There are three types of
release levers. One you have to hold up man-
ually. Another locks in the ON position when
you raise it and has to be released by you
after the bomb is released. The third, you
lock in the ON position and it releases itself
automatically after the bomb is released.
Before you start synchronhing, however,
you must get the line of sight on the target.
You do this manually. If you are at higher
altitudes, you use the search knob, which
gives rapid displacement of the mirror for
sighting angles from 70° to 0
0
• When you
pick up the target, you engage the mirror
drive clutch to connect the drive of the roller
to the mirror.
At lower altitudes, when you need more
than 70° forward vision, you use the ex-
tended vision knob, which permits vision up
to 90°. When using the extended vision knob,
the mirror drive clutch is not engaged until
a s ighting angle of 70° is reached.
If you des ire to move the crosshair while
the mirror drive clutch is engaged, use the
displacement knob. This changes the position
of the crosshair without changing the speed
at which the roller drives.
The vertical gyro stabilizes the optics in
roll and pitch. The gyro and optics ride on
pi vots which have the same effect as a uni-
versal joint, making it possible for the gyro
and optics to stand upright and hold their
own horizontal plane regardless of pitching
and rolling of the airpl ane.
The fore and aft bubble and the lateral
bubble (s pirit levels) are on top of the gyro.
You level the gyro with the fore and aft
leveling knob and the lateral leveling knob,
which are on the left end of the sight case.
The caging knob is on the sighthead directly
over the gyro. You use this knob to lock the
4-1-4
gyro to the sight case when the gyro is not
being used on a bombing run.
A stem, which projects from the lower
part of the sighthead, fits into a hole on the
front right corner of the stabilizer. This con-
nection permits the sighthead to be turned in
relation to the stabilizer. The shaft which
passes through the center of the stem into
the sighthead is locked to the stabilizer by
the dovetail locking pin.
Another connection between the sighthead
and stabilizer is the clevis pin. This attaches
the bombsight clutch arm to the sighthead.
When the bombsight clutch is engaged, the
directional gyro stabilizes the entire sight-
head in yaw through this linkage.
To turn on the directional gyro, you flip the
switch on the stabilizer case marked "Stab."
Leave this switch on three minutes before
turning on any other switch. Other switches
on the stabilizer case are:
The bombsight switch, marked "BS," sends
current to the sighthead through a cable. It
turns on the vertical gyro and the bubble
light.
The switch, marked "PDL" energizes the
PDI circuit to the Pilot Director Indicator.
The torque unit switch, marked HServo,"
energizes the torque unit.
The directional gyro does not have enough
power to maintain stability without some aid.
This aid comes from the torque unit, which
holds the spin axis of the gyro horizontal in
relation to the stabilizer case.
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DRIFT KNOB
TURN KNOB
Solving the Course Problem
You use the course knobs to make drift
and course corrections. These knobs, concen-
trically mounted, are on the lower right side
of the sighthead. The turn knob, the outer of
the two, changes the line of sight and the air-
. plane the same amount. The inner knob is the
drift knob, which changes the heading of the
airplane without changing the line of sight.
Therefore, you establish drift angle by use of
the drift knob. Although it is correct to use
the turn knob alone, you never single-grip
the drift knob. You always lise it in conjunc-
tion with the turn knob (double grip), in
order to establish the drift angle and displace
the line of sight toward the target in one
operation. You can read the drift angle from
the drift scale, which is on the stabilizer.
The PDI, an electrical device, signals to the
pilot the corrections to make in the heading
of the airplane when you use the course
knobs .
Solving for Crosstrail
When drift and trail are combined, the re-
sult is cross trail. The crosstrail mechanism,
in the sighthead, automatically combines the
two factors and gives crosstrail. In doing
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-------
LINE OF SIGHT
- - - - - -
this, the mechanism tilts the telescope later-
ally so that the angle between the line of
sight and vertical subtends cross trail dis-
tance on the ground.
CROSS TRAil
4-1-5
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CONSTRUCTION and OP ERATION
DISC DRIVE SYSTEM
When you turn on the r at e mot or switch,
you start a shuntwound motor, which fur-
ni shes power to dr ive t he disc. This type of
mot or is used because its speed can be con-
troll ed for any actual ti me of fall. One of the
devices for cont r olli ng t he motor' s speed is
t he governor, which is on t he armature shaft
of t he mot or. The governor has two metal
arms, whi ch ar e pivoted at their center to
the shaft in such a way that they form an
X-shape. As t he motor speed increases, cen-
trifugal f or ce causes t he metal arms of the X
to close toward an I-shape, like a pair of scis-
sors.
Governor ot
low speed.
Governor at
high speed.
,
Connecting links from the governor are
attached t o the bott om of the breaker arm,
which has as its pivot point the shaft from
the di sc speed drum. A breaker point is on
the upper end. of the breaker arm. The
springs in t he disc speed drum, acting
through the shaft of the drum, tend to rotate
the breaker arm so as to keep its breaker
poi nt against the fi xed point on the case. Cur-
r ent will flow to t he rate motor as long as
these p·oint s are closed, with the rate motor
switch on.
4- 2-1
The sighthead is the upper unit of the bombsight
assembly. As you have learned, its main purpose
is to solve the range problem and to stabilize the
optics in roll and pitch .
As t he mot or speed increases, the governor
arms tend t o close, exerting a pull on the bot-
tom of t he breaker arm. When this pull is
strong enough to overcome the tension ex-
erted on t he breaker arm by the springs in
the di sc speed drum, t he breaker arm will
pivot, separat ing the breaker points. This
cuts off current to the motor. As the motor
slows down, the governor' s force lessens, al-
lowing the di sc speed drum springs t o close
t he breaker points. This sends current back
to the r ate mot or, causing it to pick up rpm.
As motor speed increases, governor causes
breaker points to separate.
Thi s action is so rapid that it holds the motor
speed withi n one-tenth rpm of t he des ired
constant speed.
You set t he desi r ed constant speed on t he
di sc speed ell· um. This drum cont ains two flat
coil sprh1gs. one of which is in operat ion
t hroughout t he entire range of the drum. The
other spring operates onl y t hrough the last
half of t he r ange. On the di sc speed drum
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DISC DRIVE SYSTEM
+
®
S. Disc speed drum.
1. Rate motor switch. 6. Breaker points. 10. Pinion gear.
2. Rate motor. 7. Disc speed drum springs. 11. Clutch.
3. Governor. 8. Disc speed gear shift. 12. Idling gear shaft.
4. Breaker arm. 9. Idling gears.
there are two scales. The inner scale, in black
fi gures, gives disc speeds from 102 to 245
rpm. The outer scale, in red figures, gives disc
speeds from 245 to 590 rpm.
In using either scale, you must set the disc
speed gear shift to the proper disc speed
range. The disc speed gear shift is a lever on
the outside of the rate end, above the rate
knobs. The range at which you set the lever
is shown by numbers engraved in a plate on
the rate end.
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13. Tachometer adapter.
Two gears are mounted on the rate motor
shaft so that they rotate whenever the motor
is running. One gear is larger than the other.
When they rotate, they turn two other gears
which idle (turn f r eely) on another shaft.
That is, they turn without turning the shaft.
The ratio between these two idling gears is
such t hat one turns faster than the other.
145 ~ ~ 102
590 245
....
4-2-2
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A pinion gear which drives the disc is
attached to the same shaft on which the
idling gears turn, and this shaft must turn
in order to drive the disc. The shaft is turned
by a clutch which fits on a squared portion
of the shaft between the two idling gears.
The turning of either idling gear can be
transmitted to the clutch through gear teeth
on the two outer faces of the clutch and the
inner faces of the two idling gears. When the
clutch engages the smaller gear, the idling
gear shaft which drives the disc will turn at
a hi gher speed than when the larger gear is
engaged. The clutch is positioned to either of
the two disc speeds by the disc speed gear
shift.
The shaft on which the disc is mounted ex-
tends through the sight ease. A tachometer
may be connected to the adapter on the end
of this shaft, making it possible to check the
exact disc speed. A spring holds the disc
against the roller.
The sight is constructed so that the disc
must make 88
1
/3 revolutions during actual
t ime of fall. That is. with no trail set in the
RATE SYSTEM
sight, it requires 881/3 revolutions of the disc
to drive the sighting angle index from the
dropping angle index to zero.
Actual t ime of fall is given in seconds. You
can find the disc speed, in revolutions per sec-
ond. by dividing 88% by the ATF. It is much
easier to read the disc speed in revolutions
per minute, which can be obtained by multi-
plying the revolutions per second by 60.
Without trail set in sight.
1
=
-
T
.
r)'88'1> !
NV.
_ ATF
~ j T ~
The disc speed in revolutions per minute to
be set into the sight can be found in one cal-
culation by dividing (88
1
/ 3 X 60) or 5,300 by
ATF. The number 5,300 is called the sight
constant.
WHEN YOU TURN THE RATE KNOB, YOU DO THREE THINGS:
POSITION THE ROLLER ON THE DISC,
POSITION THE DROPPING ANGLE INDEX,
3 POSITION THE AUTOMATIC RELEASE POINTS
4-2-3 RESTRICTED
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RATE SYSTEM
1. Mirror Drive Clutch
2. Displacement Knob
3. Rate Knob
4. Rate Bevel Gear
5. Lower Bearing Block
6. Spline Gear
7. Roller
8. Disc
9. Upper Bearing Block
10. Spindle Gear
11. Rack Drive Pinion
12. Rate Rack
13. Rate Quadrant
14. Release Po ints
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4-2-4
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Positioning the Roller on the Disc
The rate knob, through intermediate and
bevel gears, turns the spindle screw. This
scr ew is threaded through the roller carriage,
in which the roller turns on a vertical axis.
To understand how this operates, visualize
the spindle screw as a bolt and the carriage
as a "ut on the bolt. The spindle screw (or
bolt) cannot move, except to rOlate; and the
carriage (or nut) can move up or down on
the threads but cannot rotate. Thus when the
spindle screw is turned, the carriage moves
up or down on its threads, thus positioning
the roller on the disc. :
Positioning the Dropping Angle Index
As you position the roll er by turning the
spindle screw, you turn the spindle gear at
the same time. The spindle gear is fastened
to the upper end of the spindle screw. This
gear is meshed to an intermediate gear which
is on the upper end of the same shaft with
the rate rack drive pinion.
The pinion meshes with t he rate rack,
which changes the rotary motion of the gears
to a linear motion of the rate rack. A stud in
one end of the rack fits in a slot in the rate
quadrant. Any movement of the stud causes
the quadrant to move. The dropping angle
index is mounted on the quadrant so you can
see it through the index window. Thus you
can see that by turning the rate knob you
move the quadrant and position the index.
The tangent scale is calibrated in tangent
4-2-5
values. Tperefore, when you position the
roller from the center of the disc to a dis-
tance proportional to whole range, you posi-
tion the dropping angle index at the tangent
of the angle that will subtend whole range.
(This is true only when there is no trail in
the sight.)
Positioning the Automatic Release Points
The automatic release points are located on
the rate quadrant. When you move the rate
quadrant, you position the points so that the
bombs can be released at the correct moment.
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TRAIL SYSTEM
You know from your study of the bombing
problem that it is necessary to subtract trail
from whole range t6 get actual range. You
also know that when you have synchronized,
the distance from the center of the disc to
the r oller is proportional to whole range.
To subtract trail, you must have some way
t o move the roller trail di stance on the di sc,
without moving the dropping angle index.
After t his is done you use t he r at e knob
to synchronize for t he r emaining di stance,
which is proportional to actual range. The
position of t he dropping angle index will then
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RESTRICTED
Arm
2. Trail Plate
3. Trail Setting Gear
4. Spindle Gear
5. Thrust Washer
6. Nut Gear
7. Upper Bearing Block
Roller
9. Roller Carriage Assembly
10. Spindle Screw
11. Disc
12. Lower Bearing Block
show you the tangent of the dropping angle
that will subtend t he actual range.
Moving the trail arm lifts the entire spin-
dle screw and roller carriage assembly. This
movement positions the roller on the disc
without turning the spindle screw, without
moving the dr opping angle index, and with-
out positioning the automat ic r elease points.
The amount of trail you set in is shown by
the position of the trail arm on the trail
plate. This plate is calibrated from 0 to 150
mils.
The spindle screw is supported in fixed
4-2-6
RESTRICTED
upper and lower bearing blocks. It is free to
rotate and slide up and down in these blocks.
The threaded part of the upper bearing block
is called the threaded screw. The nut gear,
which has gear teeth on the outside and reg-
ular screw threads on the inside, screws up
or down on the threaded screw.
When you move t he trail arm, you turn the
trail setting gear, which turns the nut gear.
Moving the trail arm from zero causes the
nut gear to climb upward on the threaded
screw. Immediately above the nut gear,
around the spindle screw shaft, is the thrust
washer. Above the washer, fixed solidly to
the spindle screw shaft, is the spindle gear.
Thus the upward climb of the nut gear lifts
the washer, the spindle gear, and therefore
the whole spindle screw, without turning the
spindle screw. The thrust washer, acting as a
bearing surface, prevents transmission of ro-
tation f rom the nut gear to the spindle gear.
The spindl e screw is raised against the ten-
sion of the thrust spring, which is on the
lower end of the spindle screw. This spring'
insures positive, smooth action of the trail
setting system and it returns the spindle
screw, roller carriage and roller to the zero
trail position when you r eturn the trail arm
to zero.
NUT GEAR LIFTS WASHER,
SPINDLE GEAR AND SPINDLE
SCREW WITHOUT TURNING
SPINDLE SCREW.
MIRROR DRIVE SYSTEM
The mirror drive system is the mechanism
by which the roll er dri ves the mirror of the
optical system. As the roller turns, it t urns
its shaft, which has gear teeth cut in it. This
geared section of the shaft is the roller spline
gear. This gear, through an intermediate
gear, drives the upper traction gear, which is
part of the T-head assembly.
The T-head assembly consists of the upper
traction gear, the T-head gears, the lower
traction gear, and T-head shaft. For a con-
stant rate setting (constant roller position)
t he upper traction gear rotates at a constant
speed or, when synchronized, at a speed pro-
4-2-7
portional to groundspeed (or speed of closure
in case of a moving target).
The upper traction gear and lower traction
gear are mounted so t hat they are free to
rotate on the T-head shaft. Between these
gears and meshed to them are the T-head
gears, which can revolve freely on a cross
member of the T-head shaft.
As the upper traction gear turns, it turns
the T-head gears. As the T-head gears turn,
they must do one of two things: walk around
the lower traction gear, thus rotating the
T -head shaft, or cause the lower traction gear
to rotate without rotating the T-head shaft.
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RESTRICTED
MIRROR DRIVE SYSTEM
1. Roller
2. Roller Spline Gear
9. Mirror Drive Rack
16. Displacement Knob
3. Intermediate Gear
10. Stud 17. Rate Knob
4. Upper Traction Gear 11. Mirror Drive Cj)uadrant 18. Male Part of
5. T-Head Gears 12. Sighting Angle Index Mirror Drive Clutch
6. Lower Traction Gear 13. First Sheave Gear 19. Female Part of
7. T-Head Shaft 14. #1 Sheave Mirror Drive Clutch
8. Mirror Drive Rack Pinion 15. Mirror Drive Clutch 20. Search Knob
RESTRICTED
4-2-8
RESTRICTED
MIRROR DRIVE CLUTCH ENGAGED
Whether the T -head gears walk around the
lower t raction gear or the lower t raction gear
rotates, depends on whether or not the lower
traction gear is locked by the mirror drive
clutch. If t he mirror drive clutch is locked,
the T -head gears will walk around the lower
traction gear , thus r otating the T-head shaft.
If it is not locked, the lower traction gear will
rotate.
The mirror drive rack pinion is mounted on
the T-head shaft, below the lower traction
gear . The pinion meshes with the mirror
drive rack. On the forward end of the mirror
drive rack is the stud, which slides in the slot
of the mirror drive quadrant. Therefore, as
t he rack moves, the sliding action of the stud
in the slot causes t he quadrant to move. On
the quadrant is the sighting angle index. The
position of the sight ing angle index on the
degree scale, which is calibrated from O· to
70· , indicates the sighting angle.
As your airplane nears the target, your
speed of approach apparently becomes fast er,
although t he groundspeed remains constant.
From t h i ~ you can see that it is necessary to
have an increasing rate of drive to t he sight-
ing angle.
The stud-in-slot action gives t he requir ed
increasing rate of drive. As t he quadrant is
dri ven by the mirror drive rack and stud
(which move at a speed proportional to
gr oundspee(l ) , the distance from the center
of the quadrant to t he stud decreases, as the
sighting angle index and the sighti ng angle
approach zer o. Therefore, a constant linear
drive of t he r ack and stud and a decreas ing
di stance between the stud and the center of
the quadrant result in an increasing rate of
drive to the quadrant. This is known as tan-
gential speed.
Part of an arc of the quadrant has geared
teeth. This part, known as the gear ed sector,
meshes with t he first sheave gear. The first
sheave gear is attached by a shaft to the first
sheave. The mi rror drive cable, which trans-
A DECREASING DISTANCE BETWEEN THE STUD AND
CENTER OF THE QUADRANT RESULTS IN AN
INCREASING RATE OF DRIVE TO THE QUADRANT
4-2- 9
RESTRICTED
fers motion from the quadrant to the mirror
is attached to the first sheave. As the sheave
turns, it winds the cable on it, thus pulling
the mirror at a speed proportional to the
speed of the mirror drive quadrant.
For any given groundspeed and bombing
altitude, there is only one speed at which the
mirror can be driven to keep the crosshairs
on the target. To get this speed, you must put
the roller in one certain position on the disc.
You may get t he roller to this position with-
out ha ving the crosshair on the target. There-
fore, you need some method of positioning
the crosshair, without changing the position
of the roller on the disc. You do this with the
displacement knob, which is attached to the
shaft of the mirror drive clutch.
If the mirror drive clutch is engaged and
you turn the displacement knob, you turn the
clutch shaft which, through a bevel gear,
turns the lower traction gear. By turning the
lower traction gear, you may momentarily
speed up or slow down the drive of the T-
head shaft without changing the position of
the roll er on the di sc.
The mirror drive clutch shaft is divided
into two parts. On one is the male part of the
mirror drive clutch. On the other is the
female part. When you engage the mirror
EXTENDED VISION KNOB
ALLOWS MIRROR TO TILT
WITHOUT MOVING MIRROR
DRIVE QUADRANT.
Mirror Drive Quadant
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RESTRICTED
drive clutch, the two parts lock. Thus, the
lower traction gear is locked to the displace-
ment knob. If the two parts are not locked,
you cannot change the position of the lateral
crosshair by turning the displacement knob.
When you desire rapid displacement of the
mirror to pick up the target or to roll the
sighting angle index back to the 70° posi tion,
you use the search knob. This knob is con-
nected by bevel gears to the T-head shaft.
When you turn the search knob you rotate
the T-head shaft manually. You cannot use
the search knob when the mirror drive clutch
is engaged.
If you cannot see the target with 70°
vision, you can get 20° additional iorward
vision by using the extended vision knob.
This knob unlocks the first sheave from its
shaft and turns the sheave to allow the mir-
ror to tilt for the extra vision without mov-
ing the sighting angle index.
CAUTION: You cannot synchronize for
r ate while using extended vision. If you for-
get to return the extended vision knob to its
normal position, your bomb will not be re-
leased at the proper point.
Sheave
4- 2- 10
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AUTOMATIC
RELEASE MECHANISM
To make it unnecessary for you to release
the bombs by manual controls, the sight has
an automatic release mechanism. The main
parts are the automatic release notch, auto-
matic release points, and the release lever.
The automatic release notch is on the mir-
ror drive quadrant. The automatic release
points are on the rate quadrant and are
placed so that a stud which extends from the
pivoted release point rides on the edge of the
mirror drive quadrant. When the sighting
angle and dropping angle coincide, the stud
drops into the notch, closing the points. This
completes an electrical circuit to the bomb
racks and releases the bomb.
The release lever is a safety device. When
the release lever is in the OFF position a cam
rides flush with the edge of the mirror drive
quadrant, covering the automatic release
notch. This keeps the stud from dropping
4- 2-11
into the notch. However, with the release
lever in the ON position the cam is moved
away from the notch and thus permits the
automatic release points to close at the
proper time.
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CARDAN ASSEMBLY
To understand how t he mirror drive cable
is connected to t he mirror, you must first
understand how the telescope cradle is sta-
bilized by the card an assembly. The assembly
stabilizes the cradle both in pitch and roll.
The main parts of the assembly are the car -
dan, the vertical gyro and the t elescope
cradle.
The cardan is a pear-shaped metal ring
which is pivoted at both ends in the sight -
head. From your position at the rear of the
sight, when you are operating the sight, one
of the pivots is at the left end of the sight-
head and the other at the right end in the
plate between the rate end and cardan assem-
bly. The pivots are known as gudgeon bear-
ings .
You can see from the position of the pivots
that t he cardan is free to turn in the pitch
axis. In the right end of the cardan is the
telescope cradle, whi ch is mounted in fore
and aft gudgeon bearings, so that t he cr adle
is free to move in the roll axis. It moves with
the cardan when the cardan t urns in the
pitch axis.
In the left part of t he cardan is the ver-
tical gyro, which also is mounted on fore and
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aft gudgeon bearings. The movement of the
gyro in its fore and aft bearings is the same
as that of the telescope cradle in the tele-
scope cradle's bearings. Thus the stabilizing
effect of the gyro is carried through its bear-
ings to the cardan and to the telescope cradle,
because both the telescope cradle and gyro
are supported in t he cardan by f or e and aft
bearings.
The telescope cradle is stabili zed in roll by
the gyro connecting rod. The rod extends
from the bottom of the gyro housing to the
bottom of the differential lever, which is
attached t o the lower part of the telescope
cradle. Thus, in roll, the gyr o connecting rod
holds the cradle in alignment with the spin
axis of the gyro.
~
~ C \
4-2-12
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THE VERTICAL GYRO
To stabilize tbe optics in roll and pitch, the
axis of the gyro must be in the verticaL The
housing which holds the gyro, so that its spin
axis is vertical, is attacbed to the cardan.
The gyro is a series-wound motor run by
direct current. The current passes through
carbon brushes to the commutator of the
rotor. The rotor is driven at about 7,800 rpm.
The gyro housing is divided into two parts,
the upper and lower. On the upper part of the
housing are:
Gyro locking pin
Upper rotor bearing
Bubble light
Fore and aft bubble
Lateral bubble
Movable precession
weights
FORE AND AFT BUBBLE
BUBBLE
LATERAL
BUBBLE
REAR GUDGEON
BEARING
4-2-13
You use t he bubbles for leveling the gyro
during the bombing run and the bubble light
is at the junction of the bubble tubes. Main-
tenance men use the movable precession
weights in balancing the gyro.
The lower half of the gyro housing con-
tains the field coils, which fit between the
rotor and tbe motor armature; the lower
rotor bearing, and the brush tubes. On the
bottom and outside of the housing is the con-
nection for the gyro connecting rod which
links the gyro to the telescope cradle.
GYRO LOCKING PIN
MOVABLE PRECESSION WEIGHTS
GYRO
CONNECTING ROO
~
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GEAR
MIRROR SECTOR
THE TELESCOPE CRADLE
The telescope cradl e contains the optical
system and t he mirror r eturn system. The
optical syst em consists of a one-piece refract-
ing telescope, which is a fixed part of the
The telescope has an 18
0
field of vision
and 2.2 magnifying power, and the crosshairs
are etched on one of the lenses. Beneath the
telescope is a mirror which rotates on lateral
bearings. The t arget you see through the
telescope is reflected into it by the mirror.
The angle of the mirror is controlled by the
very fl exible mirror drive cable, which con-.
sists of seven strands of bronze wire. From
the first sheave, which was di scussed in t he
section on mirror dri ve, the mirror dri ve
cable passes over t he second sheave which is
in the r ate end. Fr om the second sheave, it
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TELESCOPE
COINCIDENCE POINTER
}I'
GUDGEON
BEARING

,_..v--LENS
4- 2- 14
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passes through a channel in the exact center
of the cardan gudgeon bearing to the third
sheave, which is mounted on the cardan.
From the third sheave, the cable goes to
the fourth sheave, which guides the cable
through the exact center of the cradle gud-
geon bearing to the fifth sheave. The cradle
is fastened to the fifth sheave, which is
mounted on a shaft on the cradle.
The fifth sheave gear is fastened to the
shaft turned by the fifth sheave. The gear
meshes with the geared portion of the mirror
sector. The sector's axis of rotation is the
lateral axis on which the mirror turns. Thus,
when the fifth sheave gear turns, it turns the
sector, and the sector turns the mirror.
A double cable connects the sector to the
sixth sheave, which is mounted on the cradle.
As the sector moves the mirror toward zero,
the cable turns the sheave. As the sheave
rotates, it turns the shaft on which it is
mounted. On t he other end of the shaft is a
flat coil spring, which t ightens as the shaft
turns. Thus you can see there is always
spring tension against the sector.
The crosshairs are lighted indirectly for
night bombing. The lighting system consists
of a rheostat, a small bulb, and a small mir-
ror which reflects light from the bulb onto
the crosshairs through a narrow slit. You use
the crossha ir rheostat which is on the rear of
1 - - - - ~ - - # 5 SHEAVE
GEAR
4-2-15
the sight just below the eyepiece to control
the brightness of the bulb. The amount of
light reflected onto the crosshairs is con-
troll ed by the angle of the mirror. The angle
of the mirror is adjusted by maintenance
men when they make their regular inspec-
tions.
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GYRO CAGING AND LEVELING
When you are not actually on a bombing
run, it is necessary to keep the gyro caged;
that is, held stationary in relation to the rest
Of the sight. Caging the gyro keeps it from
tumbling and being damaged. You do this
with the caging knob, which is the knurled
knob on top of the sighthead and directly
above the vertical gyro. This knob is fastened
to the top end of a shaft which has an in-
verted funnel or cone on its lower end.
When you push down on the caging knob.
the cone catches the gyro locking pin, which
projects upward from the gyro housing. This
downward pressure moves the locking pin
into alignment with the center of the cone.
When the cone holds the locking pin in this
fixed position, the gyro then is "caged" and
cannot swing free to stabilize the telescope
cradle against pitch and roll.
You use the leveling knobs on the left side
of the sight case to level the bubbles on the
gyro. When you adjust the level so the bub-
bles are centered then the gyro's spin axis is
vertical. There are two leveling knobs, the
fore and aft, and the lateral. When you use
the f""e and aft leveling knob, you apply
pressure and torque directly to the gyro
housing along the lateral axis, which tends to
move it in roll. From the law of precession.
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you know the reaction occurs 900 from the
point of applied force. Therefore the gyro is
moved in pitch, leveling the fore and aft bub-
ble.
Pressure and torque on the lateral leveling
knob applies torqne to the cal·dan. But as the
cardan is attached to the gyro, it tends to
move the gyro in the pitch axis. The 90° re-
action causes it to move in the roll axis,
thereby leveling the lateral bubble.
Each leveling knob has two knurled sec-
tions, mounted on the same shaft. You use
the small outer knob for large corrections.
This knob gives the full, direct force of ap-
plied pressure and torque to the gyro. The
larger knob-the inner one-gives small cor-
rections. You use it after bringing the gyro
approximately to its level position with the
outer knob.
The amount of force you can apply with
the larger inner knob is limited by the ten-
sion of a coil spring. This spring, known as
the inner spring, is coiled around the shaft
within the large knob and between the knob
and a collar on the shaft. When you push in
this knob, the only pressure applied to the
gyro is that of the spring tension against the
collar on the shaft. Also in the large inner
knob is a l"rge coil spring, known as the
outer spring, which holds the knobs free
when they are not in use.
4- 2-16
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The stabilizer is the lower unit of the bombsight
assembly. As you have already learned, its purpose
is to stabilize the sighthead in yaw and to help in
solving the course problem.
BOMBSIGHT CONNECTING ROD
BOMBSIGHT
CLUTCH
AUTOPILOT CLUTCH
AUTOPILOT
ROD
DRIFT GEAR
.-?' . I
DRIFT
GEAR
CLUTCH
POI BRUSH
AND COIL
CLUTCH
ENGAGING LEVER
P I SWITCH
4-2-17 RESTRICTED
UPPER CARDAN
6 VOLT RESISTC)RS ......
GYRO GUI)GEON_
ISOLATED <<r'Tt"l,P
CONTACT t>K\J3M
DIRECTIONAL GYRO
In order for the directional gyro to stabil,
ize the sighthead in yaw, its spi n axis must
be horizont al. Although this gyr o is slightl y
larger than the vertical gyro and rotates at
about 7,800 rpm, its constr uction is essen-
tially the same,
However, the directional gyro cannot be
caged; and
J
since it has a system which coun-
teracts precession, there are no bubbles on
the gyro for you to level.
The gyro is mounted in its housing, This
housing is mounted in a cardan- a metal ring
- by horizontal gudgeon bearings. The car·
dan is mounted in the stabilizer case by ver-
tical gudgeon bearings. Thus, t he card an can
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SLIP RINGS
2 ESSION GEAR
rotate in the stabilizer case, but as it is
mounted vertically in the case, you can see
that it must always remain vertical in rela·
tion to the case.
Since the directional gyro is a horizontal
one, it resists any attempt to move it in yaw.
The horizontal gudgeon bearings transmit
this stability from the gyro to the cardan.
The upper cal'dan gudgeon extends up
through the stabilizer case. The clutch drums
fit on this extension. The bombsight clutch
collar fits around t he clutch drum. When the
clutch is engaged, the collar is locked to the
drum. The bombsight clutch arm is a part
of and extends out from the clutch collar.
4-2-18
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Therefore, with the bombsight clutch en-
gaged, there is a mechanical linkage from the
directional gyro to the bombsight clutch arm.
As the clutch arm is connected to the sight-
head through the bombsight connecting rod
the sighthead is stabilized by the gyro.
Current is transmitted to the gyro through
a slip ring on top of the cardan. This ring,
with three others, is mounted on the cardan
inside the stabilizer case, directly below the
THE TORQUE UNIT
The torque unit applies force to the pre-
cession gear when the directional gyro tilts
out of horizontal. Since the gyro is neces-
sarily small, its strength is not sufficient to
stabilize the sighthead without tending to
precess. The torque unit counteracts this pre-
ceSSIOn.
As you learned when you studied its con-
struction, the card an can move only in two
directions - clockwise or counter-clockwise
4- 2-19
clutch drum. Another of the slip rings serves
as a ground to complete the circuit to the
gyro.
Directly below the slip rings are two re-
sistance coils. These coi ls limit the amount of
current flowing to the torque unit. The pre-
cession gear is beneath these coils and
mounted solidly on the cardan. As it is
mounted to the cardan, any force applied to
this gear precesses the gyro.
through 360
0
• Remember that the clutch
drum i ~ attached to the cardan and the bomb- '
sight head is attached through a linkage to
the clutch drum. Thus you can see that any
attempt to move the sighthead must result
in a twisting action on the drum. This twist-
ing force is transmitted to the cardan and
thus precesses the gyro. This twisting motion
can be either clockwise or counter-clockwise.
Therefore, the torque unit must be able to
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apply a counter-force either clockwise or
counter-clockwise.
The torque motor rotates only in one direc-
tion. Through a gear train, the motor drives
one of the two clutch drive gears. The second
clutch drive gear is meshed with the first and
is driven by the first, but in the opposite
direction. Therefore, one clutch drive gear
rotates clockwise; the other rotates counter-
clockwise. The bottom surfaces of both clutch
drive gears are faced with cork.
Directly beneath the cork facings of the
clutch drive gears but not touching them are
the clutch discs. These discs, fiat metal
plates, are supported by extensions of clap-
per arms which are operated by the clap-
per magnets. The clapper arms, made of
soft iron, are L-shaped and pivoted at their
elbows.
Whenever one of the clapper magnets is
energized, it pulls in one end of its clapper
arm. The lever action of the pivoted "L"
pushes the clutch disc up against the cork
CORK FACING
INTERMEDIATE
GEAR
CLAPPER
MAGNET
FiElD COIL
BRUSH
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facing of the drive gear. The rotation of the
drive gear is thus transmitted to the clutch
disc through the clutching action between
the cork facing and the clutch disc.
On the shaft of the clutch disc is a gear.
This gear meshes with an intermediate gear,
which, through a small gear on its shaft,
transfers the motion to the precession gear.
This gives the desired correction in one
direction. When correction in the opposite
direction is necessary, the other clapper mag-
net is energized and the power of the oppo-
site turning clutch drive gear is transferred
through its clutch disc and the intermediate
gear to the precession gear. As only one clap-
per magnet can be energi zed at a time, both
clutch discs can be connected to the same in-
termediate gear without the action of one
clutch drive interfering with the action of
the other.
Which magnet is energized depends on
which way the gyro tilts. The contact sector,
mounted on the cardan, is a bar carrying two
CLUTCH
GEAR
DISC
PIVOT
CLAPPER ARM
BAYONETT
SPRING
COMMUTATOR
4-2-20
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pairs of electric contacts separated by a strip
of nonconductive material. A contact brush,
mounte<! on the gyr o housing, rides on the
contact sector. When the gyro's axi s moves
out of horizontal, the brush moves from the
dead center strip of the sector to one of the
electric contact s. This completes an electric
circuit to the proper clapper magnet.
The first contact above the center strip
sends one half the operating voltage of the
sight to the proper magnet. The voltage is
reduced by the upper r esistance coil, which is
wired into the circuit between the contact
and the top slip ring. The top slip ring car-
ries the current f rom the magnet to the con-
t act. The circuit is completed when the con-
tact brush, which is the "ground," touches
the contact, thus energizing the magnet, pre-
cessing the gyro, and moving the brush back
t o the dead cent er strip.
If t he gyro has precessed a gre.lter amount
in the same direction, t he brush will ride up
to t he second contact above the center strip.
This circu it bypasses the r esistance coil and
ther efore sends t he full operating voltage of
the sight to the magnet through the same
slip ring.
The contacts below t he center strip are
connected to the opposite clapper magnet
through the lower r esistance coil and the sec-
ond sli p ring. Thus their reactions are iden-
ti cal to those of the upper contacts, but in the
opposite direction.
The torque unit counteracts precession of
t he directional gyro. Therefore, the gyro sta-
bilizes the sighthead in yaw, through the
bombsight clutch, bombsight connecting rod,
and the course knob mechanism.
WHEN CONTACT BRUSH IS OFF CENTER,
AN ElECTRIC SIGNAL IS SENT TO PROPER
CLAPPER MAGNET
4-2-21
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THE COURSE KNOBS
When you engage the bombsight clutch,
the stability of the directional gyro is t r ans-
mi tted to the bombsight connecting rod. This
arm is connected to the stabilized gear sec-
tor. The stabilized gear sector is mount ed
on the sight stem, ·which extends from the
bottom of t he sighthead into the sleeve on
the stabilizer .
BOMBSIGHT
CONNECTING ROD
Two connections between the sighthead
and stabilizer are the s ight stem, on which
the sighthead rests and is f r ee to turn, and
the clevi s pin, which locks the bombsight con-
necting r od to the stabilized gear sector. The
stabilized gear sector is mounted on the stem
so that the stem is free to turn in it. The
turn worm, which meshes with t he geared
part of the stabilized gear sector , is mounted
on the sighthead. The t urn worm is on t he
shaft from the turn knob.
The st abilized gear sector is locked to t he
TURN WORM HOUSING
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SIGHT STEM
CLEVIS PIN
bombsight connecting r od by t he clevis pin.
Therefor e the sector is stabili zed. As the turn
worm is meshed with the sector, the sight-
head is stabili zed through t hi s linkage. You
cannot t urn the sight head in r elation to the
stabili zed sector unl ess you t urn the turn
worm with t he t urn knob.
When you turn the turn knob, you t urn the
turn worm. The turn worm forces itself
around the stabilized gear sector , thus forc-
ing the sighthead around with it.
The dri ft worm is in the same housing
with t he turn worm, and you can rotate it
only wit h the dri ft knob. The drift worm
meshes with t he drift gear , whi ch is mounted
on the stabi lizer around t he sleeve in which
the sight head st em fits. Therefore, when you
turn the sighthead with the turn knob, the
drift worm will drag the drift gear around
the same amount the sighthead is turned.
However, when t he drift knob is turned,
t he turn worm holds the sighthead stabilized
and the drift gear is t urned independently of
the sighthead. Any time the drift gear is
turned, by the displacement of the sighthead
or drift knob, the pilot will get a s ignal from
the PDI (Pilot Di r ect or Indicator).
KNOB
DRIFT WORM
4-2-22
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DRIFT GEAR
P D I SCALE P D I BRUSH DRIFT GEAR CLUTCH
P D I COIL DRIFT SCALE BRUSH BRACKET
THE PDI SYSTEM
(PILOT DIRECTOR INDICATOR)
The drift gear clutch collar is mounted
around the hub of the drift gear, below t his
gear. Any time the drift gear t urns, the drift
gear clutch collar t urns. The clutch collar
gets its name from the fact that the friction
with which it grips t he drift gear hub may
be adj usted.
Attached to the clutch collar inside the sta-
bili zer case is the PDI brush, which rides on
a resistance coil. You can see this coil and
t he brush through Ii window on the stabilizer.
The brush can operate only within a certain
range. When it r eaches the limits of this
range, the clutch collar slips on t he drift gear
hub so that the mechanism will not be dam-
aged.
As the PDI brush moves from the center
of the coil, it sends a signal to t he pilot's in-
strument. This instrument is a double-acting
voltmeter whi ch measures two values: the
amount and the direction of cur rent flowing
through its cir cuit. These two values ar e
determined by the position of the brush on
the resistance coil.
You use t his system to signal the pilot
4- 2-23
when t he airplane is flown manually. An addi-
tional system is necessary to send signals
while using the C-l automatic pilot .
The drift gear clutch arm is part of the
drift gear clutch. Therefore, whenever the
clutch is moved, the arm is moved. The a ut o-
pilot connecting rod li nks the drift gear
clutch arm to the autopilot clutch collar. The
autopi lot clutch collar fits around the clutch
dr um just below the bombsight clutch. An
ar m, known as the directional panel drive
arm, extends from t he autopilot clutch into
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AUTOPILOT CONNECTING ROD
the directional panel, which is fastened to t he
left side of the stabilizer case.
As t he drift gear clutch collar is moved, it
moves t he PDI brush over the coil. At the
same time, it moves the autopilot clutch so
that t he directional panel drive ar m moves,
sending the signal to the autopilot.
THE AUTOPILOT
CLUTCH
The autopilot clutch has three functions:
1. It serves as a PDI limit. On the stabil-
izer case there are two studs, one on each
side of the engaging knob of the autopilot
clutch. These studs limit t he movement of
t he autopi lot clutch. Therefore, t hrough
mechanical linkage, they limit the movement
of the PDI brush.
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DRIFT GEAR CLUTCH
POI BRUSH
2. It serves as a PDI lock. When you en-
gage the autopilot clutch, you connect the
PDI brush to the directional gyro through
mechanical linkage, locking it to t he gyro.
3. It proportions C-l corrections with PDI
displacement. The PDI brush and the direc-
tional panel drive arm are linked together
mechanically. Ther efore, for each movement
of one, t here will be a proporti onal movement
of the other.
4- 2-24
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To solve the crosstrail problem, t he sight
combines trail and drift. Drift is the angular
relationship between the sightheact and sta-
bilizer. When you set t r ai l and drift into the
sight, the cross trail mechanism solves for
the correct cross tr ai l and tilts the telescope
cradle enough to subtend crosstrai l distance
on the gr ound.
Briefly, the crosstrail mechanism works
t hi s way:
The sight stem, by which the sighthead is
mounted to the stabilizer, is hollow. A shaft,
known as the dovetail shaft, passes through
this hollow st em. The lower end of this shaft
is locked to the stabili zer by the dovetail
locking pin so that this shaft cannot rotate in
relation to the stabilizer.
On the upper end of the dovetail shaft, in-
side t he sight head, is a fl at metal bar known
as t he dovetail. One end of the dovetail is
mounted on the shaft at a right angle to it.
The other end of the dovetail extends back
toward the rear of the sight. With zero drift,
the dovetail li es in the fore and aft axis of
the sighthead.
DOVETAIL
DOVETAIL SHAFT
When you turn the course knobs to correct
for drift, you crab the airplane into the wind.
However , the sighthead r emains pointed at
the target. This forms an angle between the
sighthead and stabilizer. As the dovetai l is
locked to t he stabilizer, it r emains in align-
ment with the stabilizer but moves out of
alignment with the fore and aft axis of the
sighthead. In thi s way you have set drift into
4-2-25
the cross trail mechanism.
To add t rail to the mechanism:
Fitted to t he dovetail is a part which is
moved along the dovetail by linkage from the
trail arm. This part is known as the concen-
tri c stud and disc.
When no trail is in t he sight, the concen-
tric stud and disc is at t he dovetail's pivot
point, which is the center of t he dovetail
shaft. But when you set trail into the sight,
the concentric stud and disc is moved back
from the center of pivot a di stance propor-
t ional to t rail.
ZERO TRAIL
TRAIL SET IN
.0

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With drift and t rail set into the crosstrail
mechanism, the concentri c stud will be moved
to one s ide or the other of t he zero drift posi-
tion. The distance it is t hus moved is propor-
tional to crosstrail. This movement is trans-
ferred t hrough linkage to tilt the t elescope
cradle t he proper amount.
DRIFT SET IN - NO TRAIL
!J1 .... lOT II.TED
TRAIL SET IN - NO DRIFT
~ ........ ,11.'"
TRAIL AND DRIFT SET IN
11
'
,
,
I
,
,
I
• I
, ,
b ~ J - : !
OPTICS T1Lm
Settin,! Trail in the Crosstrail Mechanism
When you move the trail a rm to set trail
in the rate end, t hi s movement turns the t rail
arm pinion, which is on the trai l arm. The
pinion is meshed with the trai l rack, which
pushes the upper end of a lever known as the
trai l bell crank. The bell crank is pivoted on
the s ight case so that as its upper end is
pushed away from t he case, its lower end is
pushed toward the case. .
The lower end of the bell crank is attached
to the push rod, whi"ch sl ides into the s ight
case through a sleeve. The s leeve is fitted into
the case so that the push rod can move only
fore and aft. The push rod is pivoted to t he
link rod, which in turn is pivoted to the link
f ork . The link fork is a coll ar-like device that
fit s around a shoulder on the concentric stud
and disc.
Extending back from t he collar are two
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prongs whi ch ride on a guide stud. The stud
anchors t he end of the linkage without re-
stricting the movement of the link fork.
Tiltin,! the Optics
When the concentric stud and disc moves
to t he rig ht or left of the dovetail's zero drift
position, the stud moves the crosstrail car -
riage. The stud fit s into the slot of a Hat plate
on the bottom of the cross trail carriag·e. This
plate is fi tted into the sight head on gu ide
tracks so t hat t he carr iage can move only to
the right or left.
The upper part of the cross trai l carriage is
connected to one arm of the crosstrail bell
crank, which is pivoted in the cardan. The
cross trail connecting rod connects the other
arm of the bell crank to the top of the differ -
ential lever. The center of the differential
lever is pivoted on the rear of the telescope
cradle at a point below the cradle gudgeon
bearing'. The other end of the differential
lever is connected to t he ver t ical gyro by the
gyro connecting rod.
If t he concentric stud and disc is moved to
the left in r elation to the s ighthead, the
cross trai l carriage will be moved to the lef t .
When the crosstrail carriage moves to the
. left, it moves the a rm of the bell cranl, to the
left and, as the bell crank is U-shaped, the
other arm al so will move to the left.
This wi ll pull the crosstrail connecti ng rod
and the top of the differential lever to t he
left; but the bottom of the differential lever
is held in place by t he vertical gyr o. There-
fore, when the top of the differential lever
moves, and t he bottom is fixed, t he pivot
point of the differ ential lever must move. As
this pivot point is below the cradle gudgeon
bearing, it causes the cradle to tilt.
CROSS TRAIL CARRIAGE
4-2- 26
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WHEN TRAIL IS SET IN
CONCENTRIC STUD-AND- DISC
IS MOVED TRAIL DISTANCE
TO THE REAR FROM CENTER
OF PIVOT.
o
o
o
2
This puts your line of sight to the left of
vertical. When the concentric stud and disc is
moved to the right. the mechanical action is
the same except that it is in the opposite
direction. Then the line of sight is to the
right of vertical.
When the optics are tilted for crosstrail.
they are tilted independently of the gyro as
the lower end of the differential lever is held
fast by the gyro. When the gyro acts to sta-
bilize the telescope cradle. the upper end of
the. differential lever is held fast by the cross-
trail mechanism. The upper end of the differ-
ential lever is at the same height as the tele-
scope cradle gudgeon bearing. Therefore. the
4-2-27
LATERAL MOVEMENT OF STUD
IS TRANSMITTED TO THE
~ o = = ~ TELESCOPE CRADLE THROUGH
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ THE CROSSTRAIL MECHANISM
([ TILTING THE OPTICS.
THEN, WHEN DRIFT IS SET IN,
CONCENTRIC STUD AND DISC
IS MOVED LATERALLY IN RELATION
TO SIGHT.
vertical axis of the telescope cradle will move
the same amount as the vertical axis of the
gyro.
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You must make a preflight inspection of your bombsight before every mission . Although
the sight stands up well under normal conditions, malfunctions do occur---chiefly from mis-
use. A careful preflight check can make the difference between success and failure of a mission.
Every bomb you drop is scored on your training record, which is one basis of whether
or not you will graduate as a bombardier. If your bombs drop "wild" on a training mission,
as a result of a malfunction which would not show up in a careful preflight, you will be per-
mitted to drop them again. But you will not get this second chance, if the malfunction is one
that you should have found in your preflight.
IF YOU FIND A MALFUNCTION WHilE MAKING THE PREFLIGHT, CAll THE MAIN-
TENANCE DEPARTMENT.
While you are learning preflight, you must also learn the reason for each step in the
procedure. If you learn the reasons for each step, you will soon be able to make the preflight
without a checklist.
RESTRICTED 4- 3- 1
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PREFLIGHT CHECK LIST
INSTALLATION
1. Match sighthead and stabilizer.
2. Insert clevis pin and dovetail locking pin.
3. Check for security of cannon plugs on stabilizer.
4. Turn "STAB." switch ON.
CROSSTRAIL MECHANISM
5. Check for pre-set trail.
6. Check for dovetail misalignment.
7. Check for tilt of optics.
RATE END
8. Turn "BS" switch ON.
9. Check knobs on rate end.
1 O. Check rote motor and optic drive.
11. Check disc speed drum and gear shift.
12. Check for pre-set trail.
13. Check for roller slippage.
14. Check mirror drive cable length.
STABILIZER AND COURSE KNOBS
15. Turn" SERVO" switch ON.
16. Check action of course knobs and POI.
17. Check torque unit and bombsight clutch.
18. Check autopilot clutch.
19. Check POI with pilot.
SIGHT VERTICAL AND LIGHTING
20. Check vertical gyro.
21. Check leveling knobs.
22. Check bubble light.
23. Check crosshoir light.
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INSTALLATION
1. MATCH SIGHTHEAD AND
STABILIZER BEFORE MOUNTING
SIGHTHEAD
Although the sighthead and stabilizer do
not always have the same serial number,
they must use the same voltage. If the volt-
age differs, one unit will be damaged.
When mounting the sighthead, always
lower the sight stem gently into the sleeve.
Never force the sight stem into the sleeve or
you will burr the drift worm and drift gear.
DOVETAIL
LOCKING PIN
3. CHECK FOR SECURITY OF CAN·
NON PLUGS ON STABILIZER
Although the cannon plugs may appear to
be secure, always check to make sure. If the
cannon plugs do not fit securely, the sight
will not get the proper voltage.
ON
1
STAB.
~
OFF
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RIGHT +
i. INSERT CLEVIS PIN AND DOVE·
TAIL LOCKING PIN
Always be sure these pins are fitted
securely. To assure stabilization of the sight-
head, the bombsight connecting rod must be
fastened to the stabilized gear sector with
the clevis pin. The dovetail locking pin must
be in place to give cross trail corrections.
4. TURN "STAB." SWITCH ON
After turning this switch ON, wait three
minutes before turning other switches ON.
This allows the directional gyro enough time
to gain running speed and prevents overload-
ing of the circuit.
4-3-3
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CROSSTRAIL MECHANISM
5. CHECK FOR PRE-SET TRAIL IN CROSSTRAIL MECHANISM
SETTINGS: Ze1'o dTi/t, Ze?'O tmil, and
small sighting angle. Remove the dovetail
locking pin. Rotate dovetail shaft. F01'e and
aft c"osshair should not move.
With the trail arm on zero, the concentric
stud and disc should be on the dovetail center
of pivot (zero trail position) . If it is not, pre-
set trail is present and the optics will be
moved by the cr oss trail mechanism when you
rotate the dovetail shaft. Then, when you set
in trail for the bombing mission, there will be
incorrect trail in the cross t rail mechanism.
FORE AND AFT CROSSHAIR
SHOULD NOT MOVE
_._-
4-3-4
6. CHECK FOR DOVETAIL MISALIGNMENT
SETTINGS: Ze1'O d"i/t, small sighting
angi e, (lnd small el1'Opping angle. Swing tmil
a:nn th1'ough enti1'e 1'·ange.F01'e and aft c'ross-
hai,. shoulel not move. .
With zero drift, the dovetail should be in
alignment with the longitudinal axis of the
stabilizer. Therefore, when 'you move the
trail arm, the fore and aft crosshair should
not move. If it does move, the dovetail is mis-
aligned.
FORE AND AFT CROSSHAIR
SHOULD NOT MOVE
RESTRICTED
7. CHECK TILT OF OPTICS
SETTINGS: M"ximum ,.ight dTift, s'm"ll
sighting "ngle, "nd sm"ll d,'opping "ngle,
Swing t1'"il "1'In thTough enti,'e ,."nge, Fo,.e
""d «It c1'Osshcti" should move to the right,
R epe"t this 01Jemtion with "",ximU1n left
d,'ift; /01'e "nd «It c,'ossh"i,' should move to
left,
With maximum drift in the crosstrail
mechanism, the optics should tilt when trai l
is added, This insures positive ·action of the
crosstrail mechanism.
RESTRICTED
7'
\
,
FORE AND AFT CROSSHAIR ........ L.:.il::;...-'"
SHOULD MOVE TO RIGHT
RATE END
8. TURN "BS" SWITCH ON
This switch completes the electrical circuit
to the sighthead, It energizes the vertical
gyro, the bubble lights, and the crosshair
rheostat. It also sends current to the r ate
motor switch.
RESTRICTED
B.S.
T ~
OFF
9. CHECK KNOBS ON RATE END
Checking the action of the rate, displace-
ment and search knobs will reveal any bind-
ing in the gears or shafts, Checking the ex-
tended vision knob shows whether 01' not the
action permits additional tilt to the mirror
and whether or not it can be locked in nor-
mal position,
4-3- 5
REST RICTED
10. CHECK RATE MOTOR AND DRIVE OF OPTICS
When you turn the rate motor switch ON,
the t achometer adapter should rotate. If it
does not rot ate, make sure the disc speed
gearshift is not in the neutral position.
When you engage the mirror dri ve clutch,
it locks the lower traction gear and connects
the drive from the disc and roll er to t he mir-
r or. With the dropping angle index off the
zero posi t ion, t he optics will drive. This drive
should be smooth. The sighting angle index
should move faster as the dropping angle in-
dex is positioned at larger dropping angles.
". CHECK DISC SPEED DRUM AND DISC SPEED GEARSHIFT
4-3-6
Shifting the di sc speed gearshift changes
t he speed of rot ation of the tachomet er
adapter. This t ests the proper action of the
clutch. By turning the disc speed drum
through its entire range, the adapter's speed
of rotation should increase as t he drum is
moved from minimum to maximum range.
This t ests for proper action of the springs
within the drum.
RE STRICTED
RESTRICTED
12. CHECK FOR PRE·SET TRAIL IN THE RATE END
SETTINGS: Dropping angl e illde." on - .05,
fraU ann on 50 n ~ i l s , 'maximum, disc speed,
a"lld smal.l sighting angle. E-llgage 'mi'"1"o,'
d'rive clutch and tU1'1! rate mot01' Slvitch ON,
S'i,qhti1lg Q.rIgle index should not move.
Setting the dropping angle index at -,05
positions the roller 50 mils below the center
of the disc. When you move the trail arm out
t o 50 mils, the roller should then be moved
back up to the center of t he disc, and the
sighting angle index should not drive,
If you have to move the trail arm less than
50 mil s to stop the movement of the sighting
angle index, positive pre-set trail is present .
You can find the amount present by subtract-
ing the amount shown on the trail plate from
50 mil s. Negative pre-set t rail exists if you
have t o move the trai l arm more than 50 mils
t o st op the movement of the sighting angle
index.
Maximum disc speed and a small sight ing
angle are used to give the greatest apparent
motion if any pre-set trail is present , Turn
rate motor switch OFF as soon as check is
completed to prevent excessive wear of disc
and r oller,
13. CHECK FOR ROLLER SLIPPAGE
SETTINGS : Zero b'ail and disc speed of
265 rpm ( set by ta,chometer). Clock the tmvel
of the sighting angle index f"om the instant
it is opposite t he d"opping angle index until
it "eaches ze,'o, Repeat this opemtion with
the dropping angle index at th,'ee di[fe" ent
settings. With the disc speed a.t 265, t he time
of travel should be 20 seconds fo,' each dmp-
ping angle index setting, A tolerance of ,2
seconds is allowed fO?' human e,Tor.
During actual time of fall, the sighting
angle index should drive through an angle
that subtends whole range, With no trail set
in t he sight, any position of the dropping
angle index is the tangent of the whole range
angle. Therefore, the time it takes the sight -
ing angl e index to drive from the dropping
angle index position to zero should equal ac-
RESTRICTED


50 MILS
-o.OS
tual t ime of faIL If it does not t ake this t ime,
there is roll er slippage,
Although you can make this check with
any ATF, a disc speed of 265 rpm is best be-
cause it gi ves you an even number of seconds
(20) to work with.
4-3-7
RESTRICTED
14. CHECK MIRROR DRIVE CABLE LENGTH
SETTINGS: Sighting angle index at ze,'O
a,nd no extended vision,
Look through the eyepiece and check co-
incidence pointers. The pointers are forward
and left of the telescope, The coincidence
pointers should match. If they do not match,
the cable is not t he correct length,
STABILIZER AND COURSE KNOBS
15. TURN "SERVO" SWITCH ON
The switch marked "SERVO" completes
the circuit to the torque unit. Since the
torque unit aids in stabilizing the directional
gyro, it must be ON before you make the
next checks.
SERVO
U
16. CHECK ACTION OF COURSE KNOBS AND PDI
4-3-8
Engage bombsight clutch and turn sight-
head through its limits with the turn knob.
You can tell by the "feel" of the knob
whether or not the t urn worm and stabilized
gear sector mesh properly,
Move the PDI brush through its limits
with the drift knob, You can tell whether or
not the drift worm and drift gear are meshed
properly.
After the PDI hits its stops, the drift gear
clutch should slip when you continue to turn
the drift knob, If the clutch is too loose, PDI
action win be erratic.
The PDI brush should move smoothly
when using either knob.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
17. CHECK TORQUE UNIT AND BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH
SETTINGS: Engage bombsight clutch and
apply t01'que to the sig hthead in both di"ec-
tions. The sighthead should resist turning.
If the bombsight does not resist turning,
either the torque unit or the bombsight
clutch is not operating properly.
A malfunction of the torque unit causes
the directional gyro to precess against the
case and lose all stability when you apply
torque to the sighthead. You apply torque in
both directions to check both halves of t he
torque unit. When the sighthead resists turn-
ing in one direction but not in the other, this
means that one half of the unit is not work-
ing.
A malfunction of the bombsight clutch
causes a slipping of the sighthead when
torque is applied. Either improper adjust-
ment of the bombsight clutch or oil on the
clutch will cause it to slip.
19. CHECK PDI WITH PILOT
Engage bombsight clutch, disengage auto-
pilot clutch. With drift knob, move PDI to
center, left, and right positions. Pilot's PDI
needle should be on center when your PDI is
on center. When you move the PDI brush to
your right, the pilot's PDI should move to
the left, and vice versa.
RESTRICTED
18. CHECK AUTOPILOT CLUTCH
Engage autopilot clutch with PDI on zero.
Turn drift knob and watch PDI. It should not
move. If it does, the autopilot clutch is slip-
ping. With autopilot clutch disengaged, PDI
should move smoothly through its limits.
4-3-9
RESTRICTED
SIGHT VERTICAL AND LIGHTING
20. CHECK VERTICAL GYRO
Un cage gyro. It should hold its position.
If the gyro does not hold its position, this
indicates that it has not attained proper run-
ning speed.
22. CHECK BUBBLE LIGHT
With "BS" switch ON, bubbles should be
lighted.
4-3- 10
21. CHECK LEVELING KNOBS
Gyro uncaged. With each leveling knob
precess gyro. Bubbles should move in same
direction that you apply torque. Also check
to see that leveling knobs return to their nor-
mal position when released.
! ' I ' I I I ' ~ ' \ "1"lfll" "I' 1",\'
23. CHECK CROSSHAIR RHEOSTAT
Rheostat full right. Cover your head and
the lower bombsight window with the bomb-
sight cover. Look into the telescope. The
crosshairs should be lighted. NOTE: This
check is necessary only during the preflight
for night missions.
RESTRICTED
General
The more you know about your equipment,
the better you can do your job. If you are
familiar with inspections and know trouble
shooting, it will help you to locate and report
any malfunction that may be present. This
will save the maintenance department time
and trouble.
The L09book
You should know the importance of the
bombsight log. The log is the history of the
bombsight from t he time it leaves the fac-
tory until it is withdrawn from service for
survey. It is an official document kept by the
maintenance department.
It has been found from exam ina tion of log
books which have been turned in with instru-
ments for repairs and overhaul that:
1. Much work is done on bombsights
which is not entered in the log.
2. Much upkeep work is done by inexperi-
enced personnel.
3. There is a tendency to do more dis-
assembly and adjustment than is necessary.
In order to give overhaul personnel com-
plete data on the equipment, every adjust-
ment or failure must be recorded fully. If
fai lure and adjustments are listed accurately,
it will give the manufacturers a clear idea of
changes needed in design or construction.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
Whenever a bombsight is withdrawn from
service and turned in to the sUl>Ply officer for
storage or shipment, the bombsight officer
must make a notation of the exact condition
of the equipment. This notation which will be
made immediately after the last previous
entry in the log book, will include the follow-
ing information:
1. This bombsight and/ or stabilizer is in
serviceable condition for re-issue without re-
pair.
2. This bombsight and/or stabilizer should
be forwarded to an overhaul shop for repairs
or overhaul prior to re-issue.
3. This bombsight and/ or stabilizer has
been lubricated and prepared for temporary
storage.
4. This bombsight and/or stabilizer has
been lubricated and prepared for extended
storage.
The logbook must be forwarded with the
bombsight or stabilizer, whenever either in-
strument is turned in for overhaul or repair.
The shop receiving a serviceable sight
should know whether it has been damaged in
shipment. For this reason, the precession
chart made on the last inspection should be
inserted in the log book. You should record
accurately all of the bombsight's running
time. Inspections are based on the running
time that you report.
4-4-1
4-4_2
RESTRICTED
INSPECTION
The asterisk precedes checks to be made on the 15-
hour inspection. All checks are to be made on 50-
hour inspection.
1. SIGHTHEAD
• Outer case inspected.
2. RATE END
• Housing cleaned
·Wiring checked
• Gears checked.
• Bearings oiled .
• Disc and roller cleaned.
• Brushes checked . .. .
·Commutator cleaned ..
• Rate motor breaker points
cleaned ....
• Disc speed drum checked.
Extended vision knob and
spring checked .....
Automatic release mechanism
and indices checked . .. __
3. CARDEN ASSEMBLY
• Housing cleaned
·Wiring checked . .
• Brushes checked . .
·Commutator cleaned
-Gyro bearings oiled
·Caging knob checked
-leveling knobs checked
Mirror drive cable checked.
• Bubble light checked.
• Mirror cleaned ....
• Flexible leads checked
4. COURSE KNOBS
Clearance checked ..
Stabilized gear sector
checked ... . . .
Dovetail locking pin checked
5. CALIBRATION
Crosshair light .... .. .
Dovetail alignment checked.
Crosstrail mechanism
checked .......... _ _
* Roller zeroed. . . . . . . .
Check telescope vertical ..
Check roller slippage lot
265 OS or 20 sec. ATF) .
Check Precession of verti-
cal gyro .. . ..... .
6. STABILIZER (External) ,
·Outer case inspected.
·Clutch drums cleaned.
* Bombsight clutch cleaned.
* Autopilot clutch cleaned .
7. TORQUE UNIT ·
·Wiring checked
• Brushes checked
·Commutgtor cleaned
*Gears cleaned.
·Clutches cleaned ..
• Bayonet springs adjusted.
Clapper magnets checked
·Oil bearings if necessary.
8. STABILIZER (Internal)
Slip rings cleaned . .. .
Slip ring brushes cleaned .
• Brushes checked ..
• Commutator cleaned . .
• Bearings oiled ... ..
Contact sector cleaned.
Brush cleaned and adjusted.
·Wiring checked . . . .
• POI coil checked ... .
·PDI brush cleaned and
checked . . . . . .
9. CALIBRATION TENSION
ADJUSTED ON,
°Bombsight clutch (18-22)
°Autopilot clutch (10-14) .
• Drift gear clutch (6-81 .
Precession check (stabilizer
gyro) ........ . .
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
INSP ECTION PERFORMANCE
1 . S ~ ~ :
OUTER CASE INSPECTED: Check con-
dition of paint as to peeling, chipping, etc. If
there is corrosion underneath paint, scrape
and polish that area thoroughly before re-
touching. Use a fast drying crackle finish lac-
quer on the exterior. You may detect corro-
sion of the magnesium alloy in the sight as a
white powder or paste similar to the sub-
stance which is found in a "dead" dry cell
battery. It must be removed completely by
scraping it away from the bare metal. Polish
the spot with crocus cloth or a hardwood stick
and retouch with paint or rub in a small
amount of bombsight oil. CAUTION: Always
clean external parts of sight before opening
the sight case.
RESTRICTED
A. CASE CLEANED: Remove all foreign
matter from inside of case. Pick up dirt from
interior of case with carbon tetrachloride
moistened cotton, or a swab stick. NEVER
STIR UP DUST AND DIRT INSIDE CASE.
Check for corrosion and rust on the bare
metal. Remove corrosion and rust with acid-
free kerosene and crocus cloth; dry clean the
surface thoroughly with carbon tetrachloride
and a clean white cloth. (White cloth is pre-
ferred because the dye from colored cloth
may easily be deposited on the surfaces' with
which it comes in contact when used in con-
junction with oil, solvents, etc.)
B. WIRING CHECKED: Check wiring for
frayed or burned insulation and faulty ter-
minals. Check terminal screws for tightness,
stripped t hreads, bad screw driver slots, etc.
Make the proper repairs and replacements.
Check for proper shaping of all wiring; this
includes pigtails and flexible leads. When nec-
essary check wiring throughout with conti-
nuity tester.
C. GEARS CHECKED: Clean with orange
wood stick and carbon tetrachloride. Remove
burrs with an Arkansas stone.
4-4-3
RESTRICTED
D. BEARINGS OILED: Oil rate motor
shaft bearings with one drop of heavy bomb-
sight oil if necessary. Oil governor bearing
and disc speed drum shaft bearing with one
drop of light bombsight oil, only if necessary.
E. DISC AND ROLLER CLEANED: If
there is any dirt, dust, or excess oil on the
disc and roller, clean them with carbon tetra-
chloride. After cleaning, rub in some light
bombsight oil and wipe off excess with clean
cloth. The roller should not be kept at the
center of the disc except for test purposes. If
the roller is kept at the center of the disc, it
will cause excessive wear, resulting in a Hat
spot on the roller and a depression in the cen-
ter of the disc. The spring tension on the disc
is tested for a 2 lb. tension.
CAUTION: Do not use abrasives in clean-
ing roller and disc.
F. BRUSHES CHECKED: Before remov-
ing brushes, mark them so that you can re-
place them in the same positions. Clean
brushes with carbon tetrachloride. Do not use
benzine.
4- 4-4
G. COMMUTATOR CLEANED: Use clean
white cloth moistened with carbon tetrachlo-
ride (not alcohol) over the end of a soft wood
stick for cleaning commutator. Keep using a
clean section of the cloth until the cloth
comes out cl ean. Scrape lightly between seg-
ments with a wedge-pointed orange stick.
Use a strip of No. 400 aluminum oxide paper
over the end of a wedge point to remove wire
edges from segments. Re-c1ean with cloth. If
commutator is rough, smooth with No. 400
aluminum oxide paper. Guide stick must be
cut to fit commutator. Never use a metal in-
strument as a guide. Care must be taken to
avoid tapering or hollowing of commutator.
Brush against commutator must have at
least an 85 percent contact.
H. BREAKER POINTS CLEANED:
Clean by pulling cigarette paper through
closed points five or six times. Check to see
that points have at least 30 percent contact.
If contact surfaces are pitted or rough, re-
surface with a fine platinum point file. Polish
RESTRICTED
contact surfaces with No. 400 aluminum
oxide paper. Clean with dry white cloth. Do
not use carbon tet rachloride or crocus cloth.
I. UlSC SPEED DRUM: Remove cover
and clean spri ngs with carbon tetrachloride
if necessar y. Check to see that springs are
secure around shaft. After cleaning wi th car-
bon tetrachloride, rub a small amount of li ght
bombsight oil on 5prings to prevent rusting.
J. EXTENDED VISION: Check to see if
knob works smoothly and :-:pfing returns
knob to normnl pos ition. If sticking. remove
and clean wit h carbon tetrachloride.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
K. AUTOMATIC RELEASE MECHA-
NISM AND INDICES: Set t he automatic r e-
lease points to close when the sighting angle
and dropping angle indices are per fectly
mat ched. Not mor e t han 1/ 32 of an inch
s hould be r emoved or dressed from t he
points.
A. CASE CLEANED: Remove all foreign
matter from inside of case. Pick up dirt from
interi or of case with carbon tetrachloride
moistened cotton, or a swab stick. NEVER
STIR UP DUST AND DIRT INSIDE THE
CASE. Check for corrosion and rust on the
bare metal. Remove rust or corrosion with
acid-free kerosene and crocus cloth; dry
cl ean the surface thoroughl y with carbon
tetrachloride and clean white cloth.
E. WIRING CHECKED: Check wiring for
frayed or burned insulati on and faulty t er-
4-4-5
RESTRICTED
minals. Check terminal screw for tightness,
stripped threads, bad screw driver slots, etc.
Check for proper shaping of all wiring; 'this
includes pigtails and flexible leads. Make
proper repairs and replacements. When nec-
essary check wiring throughout with conti-
nuity tester.
C. BRUSHES CLEANED: Before remov-
ing brushes, mark head of brush plug and
measure the amount it extends from the
brush tube. Mark brushes in such a way that
you can replace them in the same position as
before. Clean brushes with carbon tetrachlo-
ride. Do not use benzine. Check sides of
brushes for shiny spots; shiny spots indicate
that the brushes are sticking. To correct this,
polish sides with crocus cloth. Re-clean. Clean
brush tubes with carbon tetrachloride.
D. COMMUTATOR CLEANED: Use clean
white cloth moistened with carbon tetrachlo-
ride (not alcohol) over the end of a soft wood
stick for cleaning commutator. Keep using a
clean section of the cloth until cloth comes
out clean. Scrape lightly between segments
with wedge-pointed orange stick. Use a strip
of No. 400 aluminum oxide paper over the
end of a wedge point to remove wire edges
from segments. Re-clean with cloth. If com-
mutator is rough, smooth with No. 400 alum-
inum oxide paper. Guide stick must be cut to
fit commutator. Never use a metal instru-
ment as a guide. Take care to avoid tapering
4-4-6
or hollowing comml'tator. Brush against
commutator must have at least an 85 percent
contact.
E. GYRO BEARINGS OILED: Inspect
gyro rotor bearings and oil with one drop of
bombsight oil on each bearing. CAUTION:
Never wait until bearing becomes dry before
oiling. In most cases the rotor bearing must
be oiled every 15 hours. Do not touch appli-
cator to anything. After oiling bearings, run
gyro for at least ten minutes and then wipe
excess oil off commutator.
F. CAGING KNOB: Check for rust, dirt,
and binding. Disassemble, clean, and lubri-
cate with light bombsight oil.
G. LEVELING KNOBS CLEANED:
Check for precession of gyro in proper direc-
tion as knobs a r ~ used. Bubbles should move
in the same direction that the top of the knob
is turned, when gyro is running. Check for
binding of shafts due to dirt, corrosion, etc.
Disassemble, clean, and oil if necessary.
RESTRICTED
H. MIRROR DRIVE CABLE CHECKED:
Test mirror drive cable for proper spring ten-
sion. (Spring tension should be 8 oz. when
sighting angle index is at 30' .) Adjust spring
tension by turning spring to new notch inside
the spring housing. Fine adjustments can be
made by turning spring housing 180' . Then
move spring to new notch. Inspect cable for
frays.
I. BUBBLE LIGHT: Check bubble light.
Replace if necessary.
J. MIRROR CLEANED: Clean mirror and
window with soft tissue paper. CAUTION:
Do not use rough cloth or paper as the glass
can easily be scratched.
K. FLEXIBLE LEADS CHECKED: See
that fl exibl e leads on gyro do not contact the
case or each other with gyro in any position.
Shape leads with orange wood stick if neces-
sary. Leads are shaped li ke a question mark.
If flexible leads are r e-shaped, precession
runs will have to be made. CAUTION: Never
use sharp edged instruments for shaping
leads.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
A. CLEARANCES CHECKED: Adjust
end play of turn knob shaft by running lock-
ing nuts all the way down. Then back off one-
half turn and lock. This play may easily be
checked on end of shaft or between course
knobs. Adjust back lash between turn worm
and stabilized gear sector with shims. Always
place more shims between turn worm hous-
ing and sight than will be necessary to ob-
tain clearance. Then remove .001 of an inch
at a time to obtain minimum clearance with-
out binding. The same number of shims
should be placed between the drift knob shaft
bracket and the sight case as there are be-
tween the turn worm housing and the sight
case. This will prevent warping and binding
of the drift knob shaft. Turn the knob
through limits of stabilized gear sector.
4-4-7
RESTRICTED
Loosen set screw in drift worm housing and
rotate housing unti l there is no binding or
excess play. Tighten set screw. Drag should
be equal on each knob. Remove burrs from all
gear teeth before adjusting clearances. To
adj ust clearance between knobs, loosen lock
nut on drift knob shaft and turn drift knob
until you get desired clearance. Then tighten
lock nut.
B. STABILIZED GEAR SECTOR
CHECKED: Check for burrs and r emove
them. Then clean with carbon tetrachloride.
C. D 0 VET A ILL 0 C KIN G PIN
CHECKED: Check for security of pin. Re-
place if pin has any play.
5 . ~ :
A. CROSSHAIR LIGHT: If bulb i s
lighted, and crosshairs are not visible, move
mirror adjusting arm until beam is on cross-
hairs.
4-4- 8
B. DOVETAIL ALIGNMENT:
1. Settings: Set sight on zero drift. Set
sighting angle index on zero. Set dropping
angle index at center of scale. Check to see
that dovetail locking pin is in.
2. Check: Whil e moving trail arm back
and forth through entire range, look into tel-
escope and observe fore and aft cr osshair.
The fore and aft crosshair should not move.
If it does move, the dovetail is out of align-
ment with the longit udinal axis of the sta-
bilizer.
3. Correction : Loosen the four screws of
the dovetail locki ng bracket a nd t urn bracket
in the elongated screw hol es until motion of
the f or e and aft cross hair stops when trail
arm is moved. CAUTION: This adjustment
is very fine and when tightening screws do it
slowly to make sure the bracket does not
move.
RESTRICTED
C. PRESET TRAIL IN CROSSTRAIL
MECHANISM:
1. Settings: Set trail arm and sighting
angle index at zero. Remove dovetail locking
pin.
2. Check: Look into telescope and rotate
bottom of dovetail shaft back and forth. The
fore and aft cross hair should not move. If it
does move, it means that pre-set trail is in
the crosstrail mechanism.
3. Correction: Check to see that the scribe
mark on the trail rack is opposite the scribe
mark on the trail arm pinion, when trail arm
is at zero. If not, remove trail arm pinion and
align scribe mark with trail arm set at zero.
lf this condition does not exist, it means that
the trail bell crank linl<age from the trail
rack to the push rod is out of alignment.
Change shims of trail bell crank to correct.
D. ROLLER ZEROED:
1. Settings: Set trail arm on zero, and lock;
dropping angle index zero and maximum disc
speed. Remove rate end inspection plate.
2. Check: Observe roller. If it is moving,
pre-set trail is in the sight.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
3. Correction: Loosen trail arm clamp
screw and turn trail setting gear displacing
roll er below the center of the di sc (the roller
should be turning clockwise) and then center
roller by turning the trail setting gear until
roll er stops rotating. Tighten clamp screw
and check operation. NOTE: Displacing the
roll er below the center and bringing it back
to center eliminates an error caused by back
lash.
E. TELESCOPE VERTICAL: Establish
the vertical gyro in the vertical, using the
bubbles as reference. Gyro is locked in this
position by wooden wedges or clamps. Place
precision mirror directly beneath telescope
and level with spirit level. If you use a bowl
of mercury, it is not necessary to level it as
mercury will seek its true level. With bubbles
level and sighting angle index at exactly zero,
look through telescope into mirror beneath.
You should see two images or circles. The
cross hairs should split or bisect the rear
image. If the lateral crosshair is off, it can
be corrected by turning the eccentric screw
on first sheave. (Before you make this cor-
rection, be sure to check the sighting angle
index and bubbles for correct positions.)
If the fore and aft crosshair is off, the cor-
recti on is made by loosening the turret head
screw on cross trail bell crank and-gently tap-
ping the top of the telescope in the desired
direction until fore and aft crosshair is cen-
tered. Then carefully tighten the turret head
screw so as not to disturb the setting. CAU-
TION: Check to see 20
0
extended vision is
not in the sight when establishing telescope
in vertical.
4-4- 9
RESTRICTED
F. CHECK ROLLER SLIPPAGE: Set
trail arm on zero. Set disc speed of 265 and
position dropping angle index at tangent 1.5.
Clutch in mirror drive clutch and time the
travel of sighting angle index from t he time
indices meet until sighting angle index
reaches zero. Record time with a stop watch.
The time recorded should equal the actual
time of fall in seconds for this disc speed.
(5,300 divided by the disc speed equals ATF) .
Take reading several times at different tan-
gent values greater than .3 through the
range of the tangent scale. If the readings do
not coincide, it indicates roller slippage. If
r oller is slipping, check for excessive oil on
disc and roller, proper spring tension ~ n d
friction through gear train.
G. PRECESSION CHECK: Check flexible
leads and let the gyro run for at least 50 min-
utes before making precession runs. This is
done to allow the gyro to attain running tem-
perature. Set zero drift and zero sighting
angle and place the sight on a North head-
ing. Looking through the telescope, use level-
ing knobs to precess crosshairs on to the cen-
ter of the grid, which is calibrated in mils.
After two minutes observe position of fore
and aft crosshair and note the amount and
direction of precession. Repeat this operation
on the opposite heading. Easterly precession
should be equal on both headings, but not to
exceed 9 mils.
If it is not equal, you must move the fore
and aft precession weight mounted on the top
right hand side of the gyro housing. To coun-
teract precession to the right, move the
weight forward. To counteract precession to
the left, you move the weight to the rear.
The operation is the same when checking
4-4-10
for precession on East and West headings
except that now you will observe the lateral
hair and use the lateral weight to counteract
precession. If the hair moves forward, move
the weight to the left; if hair moves to t he
rear, move weight to the right.
A. OUTER CASE INSPECTED: Check
condition of paint as to peeling, chipping, etc.
If there is corrosion underneath paint, scrape
and polish that area thoroughly before re-
touching. Use a fast drying crackle finish lac-
quer on the exterior. You may detect corro-
sion of the magnesium alloy in the sight .as
a white powder or paste similar to the sub-
stance which is found in a "dead" dry cell
battery. Remove it completely by scraping it
away from the bare metal. Polish the spot
with crocus cloth or a hardwood stick and
retouch with paint or rub in a small amount
of bombsight oil. CAUTION : Always clean
external parts of stabilizer before opening
the case.
E. CLUTCH DRUMS CLEANED: Re-
move clutches and clean drums with carbon
tetrachloride. Rub oil into surface and wipe
off excess oil with a clean dry cloth.
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C. BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH CLEANED:
Remove clutch and clean with carbon tetra-
chloride. Rub oil into surface and wipe off
excess oil with dry clean cloth.
D. AUTOPILOT CLUTCH CLEANED:
Remove clutch and clean with carbon tetra-
chloride. Rub oil into surface and wipe off
excess oil with dry clean cloth.
7. 7 ~ U I t i t :
A. WIRING CHECKED: Check wiring for
frayed or burned insulation and faulty ter-
minals. Check terminal screws for tightness,
stripped threads, bad screw driver slots, etc.
Check for proper shaping of all wiring; this
includes pigtails and flexible leads. Make
proper repairs and replacements. When nec-
essary check wiring throughout with conti-
nuity tester.
B. BRUSHES CHECKED: Before remov-
ing brushes, scribe head of brush plug and
measure the amount it extends from the
brush tube. Mark brushes in such a way so
that you can replflce them in the same posi-
tions as before. Clean brushes with carbon
tetrachloride. Do not use benzine. Check sides
of brushes for shiny spots; shiny spots indi-
cate that the brushes are sticking. To cor-
rect this, polish sides with crocus cloth. Re-
clean. Clean brush tubes with carbon tetra-
chloride.
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C. COMMUTATORS CLEANED: Use
clean white cloth moistened with carbon tet-
rachloride (not alcohol) over the end of a
soft wood stick for cleaning commutator.
Keep using a clean section of the cloth until
cloth comes out clean after being used.
Scrape lightly between segments with wedge-
pointed orange stick. Use a strip of No. 400
aluminum oxide paper over the end of a
wedge point to remove wire edges from seg-
ments. Reclean with cloth. If commutator is
rough, smooth with No. 400 aluminum oxide
paper. Guide stick must be cut to fit commu-
tator. Never use a metal instrument as a
guide. Take care to avoid tapering or hollow-
ing commutator. Brush against commutator
must have at least 85 percent contact.
D. GEARS CLEANED: Clean clutch drive
gears with carbon tetrachloride. Check gears
for burrs. Remove burrs with smooth Arkan-
sas stone and polish with crocus cloth.
E. CLUTCHES CLEANED: Clean torque
clutches with clean white cloth. Place cloth
between clutch disc and cork, wedge gyro,
and turn the torque motor switch ON. Be
very careful to hold cloth out of gear teeth
and to keep clutch surfaces free of lint. Keep
using new section of cloth until no oil or dirt
appears on it. CAUTION: Keep cork facings
free of oil. Oil will cause clutch slippage.
4-4-11
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F. BAYONET SPRINGS ADJUSTED:
Check adjustment of springs to insure that
cork facing on clutch plate is not contacting
surface of clutch drive gear when clapper
magnet is de-energized.
G. CLAPPER MAGNETS CHECKED:
Check operation of clappers through contact
brush on isolated sector. Check to see that
counter-forces applied by torque unit are
steady and in the right direction. You make
this check by trying to precess the gyro man-
ually while both stabilizer and torque motor
switches are on. Check clapper pins for free-
dom and security.

A. SLIP RINGS CLEANED: Check for
rough spots and faulty insulation between
the slip rings. Remove rough spots with No.
400 aluminum oxide paper. Clean rings with
dry white cloth. Clean slip ring brush sur-
faces by inserting crocus cloth between slip
ring and brush and pulling it through five or
six times. Dirt should be removed with car-
bon tetrachloride.
4-4-12
B. BRUSHES CHECKED: Before remov-
ing brushes scribe head of brush plug and
measure the amount it extends from the
brush tube. Mark brushes in such a way that
you can replace them in the same position as
before. Check sides of brushes for shiny
spots; shiny spots indicate that the brushes
are sticking. Clean brushes with carbon tet-
rachloride.
C. COMMUTATORS CLEANED: Use
clean white cloth moistened with carbon tet-
rachloride (not alcohol) over the end of a
soft wood stick for cleaning commutator.
Keep using a clean section of the cloth until
cloth comes out clean after being used.
Scrape lightly between segments with wedge-
pointed orange stick. Use a strip of No. 400
aluminum oxide paper over the end of a
wedge point to remove wire edges from seg-
ments. Re-clean with cloth. If commutator is
rough, smooth with No. 400 aluminl.!m oxide
paper. Guide stick must be cut to fit commu-
tator. Never use a metal instrument as a
guide. Brush against commutator must have
at least an 85 percent contact. CAUTON: Be
sure that no foreign matter drops down into
bearing. Cover bearing with a clean cloth
while working on the commutator.
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D. BEARINGS OILED: Oil rotor bearings
with one drop of bombsight oil if necessary.
Never wait until bearing becomes dry. After
oiling, run gyro at Jeast 10 minutes. Then
wipe oil from the commutator. This will keep
excess oil from the commutator.
E. CONTACT SECTOR CLEANED: In-
spect sector for arcing. Remove pits and
burns with aluminum oxide paper. Lay paper
on flat surface and rub the sector across the
paper in alignment with the brush move-
ment. Wash sector with carbon tetrachloride
and replace.
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F. CONTACT BRUSH: Clean brush sur-
face with the dry white rag. There should be
a 1/ 32 of an inch bevel on the top and bot-
tom of the point. Obtain 100 percent contact
between flat surface of point and sector.
Brush should ride half way up on upper sec-
tor when gyro is cold.
G. WIRING CHECKED: Check wiring for
frayed or burned insulation, and faulty ter-
minals. Check terminal screw for tightness,
stripped threads, bad screw driver slots, etc.
Check for proper shaping of all wiring; this
includes pigtails and flexible leads. Make
proper repairs and replacements. When nec-
essary check wiring throughout with conti-
nuity tester.
4-4-13
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H. FLEXIBLE LEADS CHECKED:
Check to see t hat leads do not touch any part
of case or each other when gyro is moved to
its limits. Shape as necessary.
I. PDI COIL CHECKED: Check to see
that coil contact surface is smooth. Polish if
necessary and clean with carDon tetrachlo-
ride.
J. PDr BRUSH: Clean contact point and
check tension of point on coil. Check auto-
pilot clutch pushed firs t against one stop,
t hen the other. The PD r brush should move
an equal amount from zero in either direc-
tion. To adjust br ush to this movement,
loosen the center screw under the drift gear
(through the hole in gear). Hold autopilot
clutch against one stop and move the brush
to 5% 0 from zero on that side. Tighten
screw.
4-4--14
9 . ~ :
A. CLUTCH TENSIONS ADJUSTED: It
is very important to adjust the tensions of
the clutches to the proper amounts and at the
correct points. Using a spring scale, make the
adjustments with the stabilizer and torque
motor ON.
E. BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH: 18-22 lbs. At-
tach spring scale to end of bombsight con-
necting r od and pull at 90' to the clutch
radius. Adjust spring tension with spring
screw on clutch collar.
C. AUTOPILOT CLUTCH: 10-14 lbs. At-
tach spring scale to autopilot connecting rod
and pull at 90' to clutch radius. Adjust
spring tension by rotating turret head screw
on clutch coll ar.
RE STRICTED
D. DRIFT GEAR CLUTCH: 6-S lbs. At-
tach spring scale to stud. on drift gear clutch
arm and pull at 90· to clutch r adius. Adjust
spring tension by spring screw on collar be-
low drift gear.
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E. PRECESSION: Run stabilizer at least
15 minutes. Turn on torque motor and set
PDI at exactly zero. Engage autopilot clutch.
The directional gyr o should not precess in 15
minutes. Apply the following rules for cor-
recting :
1. If precession is clockwise: Add weight
to the brush end of the gyro housing or re-
move weight from t he other end.
2. If precession is counter-clockwise: Re-
move weight from the brush end of the gyro
housing or add weight to t he other end.
OVERNIGHT STORAGE:
OVERNIGHT STORAGE: Observe t he fol-
lowing precautions to insur e proper handling
while you are preparing the bombsight for
overnight storage.
1. CAGE THE GYRO. This prevents dam-
age to' gyr o bearings, and the t elescope cr adle
will not hit case.
2. SET STABILIZED GEAR SECTOR
ARM UNDER THE SIGHT.
3. SET TRAIL ARM AT O.
4. KEEP DROPPING ANGLE INDEX
OFF ZERO.
5. SET SIGHTING ANGLE INDEX AT
70·.
6. SET DISC SPEED DRUM AT 102.
This r elieves tension on springs in the disc
speed drum.
7. TURN CROSSHAIR RHEOSTAT
FULL LEFT.
S. ENGAGE ALL CLUTCHES. This re-
lieves tension on clutch springs.
9. TURN OFF ALL SWITCHES. This
protects electrical circui ts from damage.
4-4-15
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SfAD{,I/V"''''
Checks for Determining Molfunction
When you have bombing errors or appar-
ent malfunctions, although you are not cer-
tain there is a malfunction, make the follow-
ing checks before you submit a malfunction
report:
1. Make complete preflight inspection of
all bombing equipment.
2. Check bombing altitude and true air-
speed computations for correctness.
3. Check corrections of bombing tables
and target information used.
4. Check correctness of data set in sight.
(Proper use of tachometer.)
5. Check all switches and controls for
proper position.
6. Check extended vision knob for proper
position.
7. Check leveling knobs for sticking.
8. Turn switches OFF and ON several
times when some unit fails to operate.
9. Check disc speed gear shift for proper
position.
10. Check fuses that bombardier can re-
place.
11. Check generators for switches ON and
voltage output.
Deflection Errors
Most deflection errors are caused by mal-
functions of the cross trail mechanism or sta-
bilizer unit. However, if the telescope is out
4-5-1
of the vertical, you would also have a deflec-
tion error. When deflection errors occur, look
for:
PRE-SET TRAIL IN THE CROSS-
TRAIL MECHANISM.
DOVETAIL MISALIGNMENT.
ERRATIC PDI SIGNALS.
LATERAL LEVELING KNOB
STICKING.
BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH SLIPPING.
DRIFT GEAR CLUTCH SLIPPING.
DIRECTIONAL GYRO FAILURE.
TORQUE UNIT FAILURE.
COURSE KNOBS STICKING.
TELESCOPE OUT OF VERTICAL.
VERTICAL GYRO FAILURE.
AUTOPILOT CLUTCH STICKING.
Range Errors
Malfunctions in the rate end cause most
range errors. When range errors occur, look
for:
PRE-SET TRAIL IN RATE END.
IMPROPER LENGTH OF MIRROR
DRIVE CABLE.
HOLLER SLIPPING.
ERRATIC DISC SPEED.
FORE AND AFT LEVELING KNOB
STICKING.
VERTICAL GYRO FAILURE.
AUTOMATIC RELEASE MECHAN-
ISM FAILURE.
RANGE KNOBS FAILURE.
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NOMENCLATURE
Automatic release mechanism-Located on
quadrants in rate end. It provides auto-
matic electrical release when the indices
match and the release lever is held up.
Autopilot clutch-Located on the top of the
stabilizer. It transmits stability of the di-
rectional gyro to the directional panel.
Autopilot clutch engaging knob-Located on
autopilot clutch and is used to engage auto-
pilot clutch to the directional gyro.
Autopilot connecting rod-It connects the au-
topilot clutch to the drift gear clutch, al-
lowing turns to be made from the bomb-
sight through the directional panel.
Bombsight clutch-Located on the top of the
stabilizer. It transmits stability from the
directional gyro to the sighthead.
Bombsight connecting rod-The link between
bombsight clutch and stabilized sector.
Bombsight switch-Located on right side of
stabilizer. It completes or breaks the cir-
cuit to the sighthead and the vertical gyro.
Bubbles- Located on the top of the vertical
gyro housing. They indicate the position of
the vertical gyro's axis .
Bubble light- Located at junction of bubble
tubes. It lights bubbles for night bombing.
Caging knob-Located on top of sighthead
case. It locks the vertical gyro to the case.
Clevis pin-The pin which fastens bombsight
connecting rod to the stabilized sector.
Coincidence pointers-Two pointers, one on
telescope cradle, the other on mirror sec-
tor, used in checking length of mirror
drive cable.
Course knobs-Two knobs located on lower
right side of sighthead. They are used to
set up the course of the airplane.
Cross hair rheostat-Located on rear of sight-
head case beneath eyepiece. It controls in-
tensity of t he light on the crosshairs.
Degree scale- Seen through index window in
top right side of sighthead case. It is used
to measure the sighting angle.
Directional gyro-Located inside the stabil-
izer. It is used to give the azimuth stabil-
ization of the bombsight and the autopilot.
Disc speed drum- Located on rate end. It de-
termines speed of rate motor by the spring
tension holding breaker points.
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RESTRICTED
Disc speed gear shift-Located on the rate
end. It is used to select the range of the
disc speeds : 102-245 or 245-590.
Displacement knob-Located on the rate end.
It is the outer of the range knobs, used to
displace the lateral crosshair without
changing range synchronization.
Dovetail locking pin-The pin which fastens
the dovetail shaft to t he dovetail locking
bracket on stabilizer.
Drift gear-Located on top, right forward
corner of stabilizer. It transmits motion
from drift worm to drift gear clutch.
Drift gear clutch-Located below the drift
gear. Transmits motion or stabilization
from the stabilizer to t he PDI brush.
Drift knob-Located on rate end. It is the
inner course knob, used to displace PDI and
direct airplane without changing the line
of sight.
Drift pointer and scale--Pointer is located on
rear lower part of sighthead. Drift scale
is on stabilizer under pointer. They indi-
cate amount of drift set into bombsight.
Drift worm-Located on sighthead below
turn worm and meshed with drift gear.
Transmits motion from drift knob to drift
gear.
Dropping angle index-Seen through index
window on left side of tangent scale. It
indicates the tangent of the dropping an-
gle.
Extended vision knob-Located on rate end.
It increases forward vision 20° in M-7, M-9.
Fore and aft bubble-Located on top and left
of vertical gyro housing. It indicates the
fore and aft position of vertical gyro axis.
Fore and aft crosshair- Located on t he lens
inside telescope tube. It serves as a refer-
ence to synchronize for course.
Fore and aft leveling knob-Located on left
side of sighthead. Used for movements of
gyro's axis to the front or rear.
Lateral bubble-Located on the top and rear
of vertical gyro housing. It indicates lat-
eral position of the axis of vertical gyro.
Lateral crosshair-Located on the lens inside
the telescope tube. It serves as a reference
to synchronize for range:
Lateral leveling knobs-Located on left side
4-6-1
RESTRicteD
of sighthead. Used for movements of
gyro's axis to the left and right.
Mirror drive clutch- Located in center of dis-
placement knob. It engages the mirror
drive by locking the lower traction gear.
Pilot director indicator (PDI) - Located on
pilot's instrument panel. An electrical me-
ter that indicates to the pilot the direction
to correct the airplane's fl ight.
PDI brush and coil- Located on top of sta-
bilizer. Brush is attached to drift gear
clutch collar and moves over coil. Brush
moving over coil sends a signal to pilot's
PDI.
PDI switch- Located on rear of stabilizer.
Switch for PDI circuit to pi lot's PDI.
Range knobs- Two knobs located on the rate
end. They are used to determine and set
up the dropping angle (range) at which
the bomb is released.
Rate end- Located on right side of sight-
head. It solves the range problem by deter-
mining groundspeed and dropping angle.
Rate knob-The inner of the two range
knobs . It is used to determine the speed
of closure and set up the dropping angle.
Rat e motor-Located inside rate end of
sighthead. It is used to rotate the disc.
Rate motor switch- Located on rate end. It
completes the circuit to rate motor.
Release lever- Located on right rear of sight-
head. It permits automatic release points
to ~ l o s e and complete bomb release circuit.
Search knob- Located on the lower part of
the rate end. Allows you to make rapid
displacement of the lateral crosshair.
Sighthead- The upper unit of the bombsight
assembly. It stabilizes the optics in pitch
and roll and solves the range problem.
Sighting angle index- Seen through index
window on right side of degree scale. It
indicates the sighting angle in degrees.
Sight stem- Located on the bottom or" the
sighthead. A projection tube which fits
into sight stem sleeve on the stabilizer.
Sight stem sleeve-Located on the front of
the stabilizer. It is the bracket in which the
sighthead is mounted.
Stabilized gear sector- Located on the un-
derside of the sighthead. It aids in trans-
mitting stability to the sighthead and po-
sitioning the sighthead in azimuth.
4-6-2
Stabilizer- Lower units of bombsight assem-
bly. It stabilizes sighthead in azimuth.
Stabilizer switch- Located on the right side
of stabilizer. Completes or breaks the cir-
cuit to stabilizer and directional gyro.
Tachometer adapter- Located on rear of
sighthead. It is connected to a shaft run-
ning from disc. A tachometer can be fit
into adapter to read the disc speed in rpm.
Tangent scale-Seen through index window
on top right side of sighthead case. It is
used to measure the dropping angle.
Telescope-Located inside the sighthead on
the telescope cradle. The unit in the bomb-
sight that magnifies the targ:et image and
projects the crosshairs on the mirror.
Torque motor switch (SERVO) - Located on
the right side of the stabilizer. It completes
or breaks the circuit to the torque unit.
Torque unit- Located inside front of stabil-
izer. It keeps spin axis of directional gyro
horizontal in relation to stabil izer case.
Trail arm and trail plate-Located on top of
rate end. It provides a method of putting
desired trail into the bombsight.
Trail arm clamp screw- Located on the end
of the trail arm. It provides a method of
locking the trail into the sight.
Trail arm pinion- Located on top and at the
pivot point of. trail arm. It transmits mo-
tion from the trail arm to trail rack.
Trail bell crank-Located on front of sight-
head. It transmits motion from trail rack
to push rod. This sets in potential cross-
trail.
Trail rack- Located on trail plate. Transmits
motion from trail arm pinion to trail bell
crank.
Trail scale- It is marked on the trail plate
in mils to allow the proper trail setting·.
Turn knob- Located on rate end. It is the
outer course knob. It turns sighthead
around stabilizer gear sector, changing the
line of sight and displacing PDr.
Turn worm-It is mounted on the t.urn knob
shaft and meshed with the stabilized gear
sector. It transmits stability from stabil-
ized gear sector to sighthead.
Vertical gyro-Located inside left end of
sighthead. Stabilizes optics in pitch and
roll.
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SECTION 5
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
------------------------------------------
,
...
...
TRAINER THEORY
You will make your first practice runs with
the M-Series bombsight on the A-2 bombing
trainer. Used inside the hangar, the trainer
simulates the principal feat ures of an actual
bombing mission. It has two purposes: to
help you learn how to operate the sight and
to help you learn the procedure you will use
in the air.
The trainer consists of two platforms
mounted in a framework that rolls on three
wheels. There are seats for the bombardier,
driver and instructor. You use the upper plat-
form for synchronous bombing, and t he lower
to simulate fixed-angle bombing missions.
An electric motor drives the trainer.
Newer types have a reversible motor, which
makes it unnecessary to push the trainer
RESTRICTED
backward after each run. The driver controls
the direction of the trainer through signals
from the bombardier. These signals are reg-
istered on a standard PDI (pilot director in-
dicat or).
The A-2 also can be equi pped with the C-l
autopilot, which makes it unnecessary to
have a driver.
The trainer target is attached to the
"bug," a box-li ke device rolling on three
wheels. The bug, electricall y driven, moves
at a constant speed, and can be positioned to
move in any direction. Your "hits" with the
sight are mar ked on the target by a marker
solenoid which is mounted on a metal plate
connected to the trainer between the two
front wheels.
5-1-1
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BOMBING ALTITUDE
Bombing altitude f rom the upper platform
is considered to be t he di stance f rom t he cen-
ter of the optics, in the sight, to the top of
the bug. This distance is 10 feet or 120
inches. You can see that since a mil is 1/ 1,000
of the bombi ng altitude, a mil on the trainer
target is 0.12 inch (1/ 1,000 of 120 in.) ..
If you were s imulating a bombing altitude
of 10,000 ft. and t he impact of the plunger
was 1. 2 inches from the center of the target,
you would have a 10 mil error. This would be
an error of 100 ft. on the ground if you
actually had been bombing from that alti tude
(10 X 10 = 100).
But suppose you were simulating a bomb-
ing alti t ude of 5,000 ft. and the plunger fell
at the same point--1.2 inches from the cen-
ter of the target. The error would simulate
an error of 50 ft. on the ground (5 X 10 =
50) .
To find the error on the ground in feet
from your trainer error in inches, do this:
Divide your error in inches by .12-the
value of one mi l on the trainer-to find your
mi l error. Multiply that by 1/ 1,000 of the
simulated bombing altitude.
ACTUAL TIME OF FALL
5-1-2
10,000 fEET?
t
You simulate the time that it would take
the bomb to fall from your simulated bomb-
ing altitude (ATF) on the trainer, by use of
a clock which energizes the marker solenoid
ATF seconds after bomb release. You set
A TF in seconds on t he clock and the corre-
sponding disc speed into the sight.
5300
Disc speed = ATF
When the sighting angle index meets the
dropping angle index and the release lever is
up, t he sight's automatic release system
sends an electric signal to start the clock run-
ning. When ATF has "run out" the clock
sends the signal on to energize the marker
solenoid. It plunges downward, marking the
trainer target to simulate a bomb impact.
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TRUE AIRSPEED
True airspeed is simulated by the speed at
which t he trainer moves across the hangar
floor. This simul ated true airspeed bears the
same r elationship to the actual speed of the
trainer as t he Si mulated bombing altitude does
to the actual height of the trainer. That is:
Simulated TAS
Trainer Speed
WIND
Equals
Simulated Bombing Altitude
. Trainer Height
Wind direction and speed are simulated by
the directi on and speed at which the bug
moves across the hangar floor. The direct ion
toward which the bug moves simulates t he
direction f rom which the wind is blowing.
Thus if the bug is moving toward the east, it
simulates a wind blowing from the east.
The simulated wind speed bears the same
relation to act ual speed of the bug as the
simulated bombing altitude does to the actual
height of the trainer. That is:
Simulated Wind Speed
Bug Speed
Equals
Simulated Bombing Altitude
Trainer Height
GROUNDSPEED AND
SPEED OF CLOSURE
Groundspeed and true airspeed are iden-
tical when you make a run on " stationary
bug. The speed at which t he distance between
the trainer and the bug is covered or closed
is called the speed of closure. You may think
of the moving bug as r ejlr esenting a wind or
a moving target. Ordinarily you think of the
moving bug as r epr esenting wind. Then the
speed of closure r epr esents groundspeed.
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"
'\
I \
I
I
I
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5-1-3
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DRIFT
When the bug is moving-but not directly
toward or directly away from the trainer-
drift is simulated. Remember that the direc-
tion the bug moves simulates the direction
from which the wind is blowing. Seen
through the optics, a bug moving from west
to east appears the same as if you were in
an airplane drifting west through the air be-
cause of a wind blowing from the east. In
both cases, the target moves in the same
direction from west to east across the field of
vision in the optics of the sight.
The metal arm which holds the marker
solenoid is pivoted so that it can be moved
either to the right or left on its drift scale.
This is necessary because when you put drift
into the sighthead the optics move in an arc
around the pivot point-the sight stem-and
change their position in relation to the
marker Solenoid. The marker solenoid arm is
moved to a position matching the direction
and amount of drift set on the sight. You do
TRAIL
SIMULATED TRAI L
ON TRAINER
You can also simulate trail on the trainer.
In the air, trail causes the bomb to hit behind
the airplane. On the trainer, traii is simulated
by moving the marker solenoid plate holding
the marker solenoid trail distance toward the
5-1-4
this to keep the solenoid either directly under
the center of the optics, or directly behind it
if trail is being used. This is not done to sim-
ulate crosstrail.
ACTUAL TRAIL
I N AIR
rear of the trainer. There is a trail scale on
the marker solenoid plate and you can set in
up to 60 mils of trail. Of course, you set the
same trail in the sight that you set on the
marker solenoid plate.
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SETTING TRAIL
CROSSTRAIL
When trail and drift are set into the sight,
it automatically sets up crosstrail. The optics
are tilted, thus causing the trainer to be
steered cross trail distance upwind. At the
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moment of impact, the solenoid will be cross-
trail distance downwind and trail distance
behind the optics. Thus, crosstrail is auto-
matically simulated on the trainer, and you
do not have to worry about it.
5-1-5
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Before you turn on the generator, which
supplies current to the sight, first find out
whether the sight uses 12 or 24 volts. When
you t urn on the generator, set the voltage
regulators for the proper voltage. Turn ON
and preflight the bombsight.
You want the marker solenoid to be di-
rectly under the crosshairs when the sight's
optical system is in the vertical, since the
action of the marker solenoid simulates the
bomb impact. This is known as zeroing the
trainer.
TO ZERO THE TRAINER
1. Roll the trainer up to the bug. You do
this to eliminate any error that might result
from an uneven hangar floor.
2. Set the marker solenoid arm pointer to
zero drift on the marker solenoid plate.
3. Set zero drift on the sight and engage
the bombsight clutch.
4. Engage the mirror drive clutch and set
the sighting angle index at zero degrees.
5. Uncage and level the gyro.
6. Look through the optics and direct
someone to move the marker solenoid plate
until the center of the marker solenoid is
directly under the crosshairs. Re-check the
previous setting, particularly the gyro level,
to be sure they are correct.
SETTING ACTUAL TIME OF FALL
5-1-6
When you do synchronous bombing on the
trainer you must choose a "bombing alti-
tude." You then look up the ATF and the
corresponding disc speed for this bombing
altitude in your bombing tables.
The A TF is set into the clock on the
trainer, so the clock will cause the marker
solenoid to be energized just ATF seconds
after "b"omb away',"
Then the disc speed, which corresponds to
t he ATF, is set into the sight on the disc
speed drum. Since the disc speed should be
accurate within a fraction of an rpm, it is
necessary to check it closely. There are two
convenient methods which are also used in
the air.
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TACHOMETER METHOD
Engage the tachometer in the tachometer
adapter located on the right rear of the sight
head. When using the tachometer, hold it
firmly in the adapter but do not exert a pres-
sure for this can slow down the speed of the
disc.
To start the tachometer, press the lever
only once, which will zero the needle. Then
release to begin the check. Never touch the
lever until the needle stops moving. At the
stopping point take your reading. Adjust the
disc speed drum as necessary. Try two or
three tachometer readings on your final disc
speed setting. Do not remove tachometer
from the adapter between readings.
TRAINER METHOD
On the bombing trainer you can check the
disc speed against ATF as measured by the
clock. If the disc speed is correct, the sight-
ing angle index will drive from coincidence
with the dropping angle index to zero during
ATF. For example, if your assumed bombing
altitude is 4,000 ft., you will:
1. Set (ATF) 16.28 sec. into the trainer
clock.
2. Set zero trail into the sight.
3. Set 325.5, the disc speed for 4,000 ft.,
on the disc speed drum. A preliminary cITeck
of disc speed with tachometer or stop watch
can be made at this point.
4. Set dropping angle index at a large tan-
gent value.
5. Position sighting angle index at a
larger tangent value.
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STOP WATCH METHOD
Set zero trail and a large dropping angle in
the sight. Then time the travel of the sight-
ing angle index from coincidence with the
dropping angle index to 0 (zero). This time
should equal the ATF as shown by your
. bombing tables. If the stop watch reading ex-
ceeds the ATF, increase your rpm; if the
reading is too small, reduce your rpm.
6. Turn rate motor switch ON, hold up
release lever and engage mirror drive clutch.
7. Watch the drive of the sighting angle
index. The marker solenoid should drop the
moment the sighting angle index reaches 0
(zero). Also, if the gyro is level, the cross-
hairs should intersect the top of the marker
solenoid the moment it drops.
If the marker solenoid drops before or
after the sighting angle index reaches zero,
it means that your disc speed does not agree
with your ATF (clock) setting. Since the
ATF (clock) setting simulates the bombing
altitude of your airplane, the correction
should be made in the disc speed. That is, you
change the disc speed settings on the sight
to. agree with your bombing altitude (clock
setting) .
5-1-7
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SETTING TRAIL
On the trainer you simulate trail by caus-
ing the marker solenoid to strike trail dis-
tance to the rear of the bombsight optics,
which themselves simulate the position of
the airplane.
To set trail on the trainer, you first zero
the trainer in the usual manner. Note that
the marker solenoid plate scale may not indi-
cate zero after the trainer is zeroed. Next,
you set in the desired trail by moving the
mar ker solenoid plate trail distance to the
rear from its zeroed position. Gauge the dis-
tance by the scale on the solenoid plate.
Since you have now arranged your trainer
so your bomb will hit trail distance behind
your "airplane," you must also set the cor-
rect trail in your bombsight. The resulting
smaller dropping angle will cause the bomb-
sight to delay release (delay starting the
clock) a little longer, and will thus give you
the correct point of impact.
DRIVING THE TRAINER
5-1-8
If the trainers are not equipped with the
C-l autopilot, you will have to drive for oth",r
students while they are using the sight. Much
of the efficiency and accuracy of the man on
the sight depends on the way you follow the
PDI.
You drive the trainer with a steering wheel
which is connected by cables to the rear
wheel of the trainer. If the PDI needle
goes off center, turn the wheel quickly but
smoothly in the direction the PDI is off cen-
ter. Continue this smooth movement until the
needle stops and starts back to the zero posi-
tion. Then smoothly return the wheel toward
center so that the t rainer will resume a
straight course when the PDI needle reaches
center. At the beginning of the run you
usually need larger corrections and as you
near the release point corrections should be
smaller. Be careful not to over-correct at the
end of the run. Follow the PDI until the
marker solenoid drops.
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Your work on the trainer is important.
Here you learn to synchronize and use vir-
tually the same procedure that you will prac-
tice later in actual air work. Good trainer
procedure now will mean better bombing
later.
Your instructor will teach you trainer
technique and procedure step by step. Your
job will be to coordinate the lessons of
ground school, trainer, and flying.
Your first hour on the trainer is introduc-
tory . You will learn these things:
1. The name, purpose, and location of
knobs, switches, and other parts of the bomb-
sight..
2. The relation of the sight to the solving
of the bombing problem.
3. How the trainer simulates the bombing
problem.
4. How to operate trainer.
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v I
learn the location of each knob and switch. 1. How is groundspeed simulated by the
Your ease and accuracy in using them depends trainer?
on how wel l you know them. Develop "knob 2. What are the steps for turning on the gen-
touch. " erator?
Be sure you set in the proper voltage for 3. What is the purpose of the disc speed gear
the sight that is on your trainer. shift?
Handle all equipment with care. Do not mis- 4. What is the purpose of the dock on the
use it ! trainer?
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COURSE
Your first trainer runs for course correc-
tions are made on a stationary target. As you
progress, you will take course runs on a mov-
ing bug. Master the technique of making
smooth course corrections. Learn to establish
Double grip the course knobs to kill drift.
Use the turn knob to put the fore and oft crass-
hair back on the target.
Hold the POlan center with the autopilot
clutch before engaging the bombsight clutch.
Make all your course corrections smooth!
Do not put in course corrections faster than
the driver can take them out. .
Learn how to zero the trainer now.
5-2-2
course quickly and accurately.
You must zero the trainer before you start
any runs. Your instructor will help you do
this the first time, but after that you are on
your own.
. ~

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1. What happens i.f you put in corrections fos-
ter than the driver can take them out?
2. What is an over-correction? How con you
prevent an over-correction?
3. If the fore and aft crosshair is moving off
toward your left, which direction do you
turn the course knobs?
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RATE
Your first runs for rate are made on a still
bug or a slow moving target which rides on a
tape machine. However, after you learn the
basic technique of setting up rate, you will
make runs on a moving bug or a faster mov-
ing tape. Think about what is happening in
the sight. This will help you to refine your
Turn the rate knob to stop apparent motion
of the lateral crosshair. Use the displacement
knob to put it back on the target.
Don't twirl or peck at the rate knob. Remem-
ber the rate knob positions three things: the
roller, the dropping angle index, and the auto-
matic release points.
When possible, pre-set approximate drop-
ping angle.
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corrections. Know the purpose of each motion
you make and how it helps to solve the bomb-
ing problem.
After a few runs on rate, you discover that
the rate knobs are fast-correcting knobs. You
must develop "knob touch." Make your cor-
rections smoothly.
,. Why must you engage the mirror drive
clutch before you can move the lateral hair
with the displacement knob?
2. What is meant by saying your rate syn-
chronization is "slow" or "fast?"
3. Why is rote important?
5-2-3
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COURSE AND RATE COMBINED
Stort to work as soon as the trainer starts
and work the full length of the run. Eyery sec-
ond counts. Don't waste time while preparing
to make a run.
Always kill course before rate.
learn to refire your synchronization toward
the end of the run.
In making corrections, don't jump back and
forth between course and rate. Get course first,
then rote.
Now you will combine course, rate, and the
release lever, to see just how accurate your
first synchronous bombing runs are. Good
synchronization is the key to every good
bombing run. Everything you learn later is
for the one purpose of helping you solve for
course and rate in the quickest and best way.
Your first runs are on a stationary bug
with a small ATF set into the sight and
trainer clock. As you improve, your instruc-
tor will have you use a larger ATF and a
moving bug.
During this part of the trainer program,
the sight's vertical gyro is caged; therefore,
you leave it caged when you zero the trainer.
1. Why is it impossible to set up rate before
course?
2. Why must you engage the bombsight
dutch before making course correction?
Why must the autopilot clutch be disen-
gaged?
3. At what time in the bombing run do you
turn the rate motor switch ON?

COURSE AND RATE WITH
GYRO UNCAGED
As your ability to synchronize improves,
other steps are added to your procedure. You
begin to make runs with the vertical gyro
un caged. Your instructor shows you how and
when to level the bubbles.
5-2-4 RESTRICTED
When using the sight with the gyro uncaged,
be sure to zero the trainer with the gyro un-
caged and level.
Look at your POI before leveling. Never take
a level if the POI is off center.
Don't turn, twist, or screw the leveling knobs!
Push them in and apply torque in the direction
you want the bubble to move.
After leveling, always use the turn and dis-
placement knobs to put the crosshoirs back on
the target.
Don'f "chose" the bubbles. Toke your time
and level them properly.
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1. Why must the gyro be uncaged and level
before you can bomb accurately?
2. Why must the PDI be on center before lev-
el ing the gyro?
3. If the lat eral bubbl e is off to the right,
where will the bomb impact be?
4. Why is leveling more important at higher
altitudes?
INTERPHONE PROCEDURE
Because there must be some system of
communication between you and your pilot,
you must learn interphone procedure. This
can be done either by talking over the micro-
phone or clicking it. Whatever the method is,
agree on the signals before you take off. If
your trainer lacks an inter phone system, use
some other means for signals. There's an ex-
cellent reason for this. It assures the pilot
t hat you understand. If you learn to do this
on the trainer, it will be much easier when
you start your actual air work. For the same
reason, call "Bomb away!" on the trainer
whe!, you hear t he automatic r elease.
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5-2-5
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NIGHT BOMBING
Before you fly any night missions, you will
do some night practice on the trainer. The
bug is lighted to simulate a night target.
With t he hangar lights out, you have to use
Always check to make sure the crosshair
light is ON. Check this on the preflight i n s p e c ~
tion.
Swing the sight on the target carefully. Be
sure that your fore and aft crosshair passes
through the target. Remember, at night you do
not have the ground check points to aid you
in picking up the target.
5-2-6
the crosshair lights in the sight. A rheostat
on the sight controls the brightness of the
crosshair lights. Otherwise, night bombing
procedure is the same as day bombing.
1. Why are the crosshairs lighted for night
bombing?
2. How do you control the brightness of the
crosshoirs?
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SIMULATED MISSION ON THE TRAINER
Your instructor will give you the figures
you need to compute your bombing altitude
on a simulated mission. You will then set the
proper data in the bombsight and the trainer
to correspond to the simulated bombing alti-
tude and true airspeed.
The best and quickest way to get all your
data down on paper is to use the 12-C form.
Practice in recording and using the data in
this way will make it second nature to you by
the time you're ready to start flying.
You will learn the proper use of the ex-
tended vision knob on the trainer. Practice
rolling in extended vision and locking it. This
will give you a thorough understanding of it
by the time you start your actual flying.
You often will hear your instructor insist
that your technique be "smooth." He wants
to impress you with the necessity of being
smooth and definite in every movement and
operation.
learn to compute your bombing altitude
quickly and accurately. Don't do this mechen;.
col ly. Know the factors that enter into the
problem.
Know your 12·( form. learn to fill it out
quickly, so you con spend most of the time on
the ground in analyzing the missi on with your
instructor.
Understand extended vision and its proper
use.
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1. What factors do you need to compute your
bombing altitude?
2. How will filling out the 12·( form on the
trainer help you when you start flying?
3. V<hat error results, if you do synchronous
bombing with 20° extended vision locked
in?
5-2-7
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TRAINER PROCEDURE
Now, when you combine all the steps you
have learned, you have the same basic pro-
cedure that you will use later in the air.
These are the steps:
Preparat ion
1. Zero or pre·set. drift angle.
2. Center bombsight connecting rod.
3. Roll sighting angle index back to 70°
and engage mirror drive clutch.
4. Pre·set dropping angle.
5. Center PDI (if using manual pilot).
6. Place bomb release handle to select.
The Trainer Run
1. Pilot signals on course and level.
2. Uncage gyro.
3. Swing sight on target.
4. E ngage bombsight clutch and dis-
engage autopilot clutch.
5. Signal pilot.
6. Set up course.
7. Level gyro, if necessary.
Uncoge gyro in order to level it. Practice
doing this \quickly and accurately.
In swinging on, hold course knobs with right
hand and align sight with the torget by sight-
ing along the trail rock. Then look through the
optics immediately and put fore and aft cross-
hair on the center of torget.
Engage bombsight clutch and disengage
autopilot clutch with one movement. This trans-
fers stability to the sightheod and allows your
bombsight to send corrections to the POI.
Signal pilot when the bomb is away. He will
continue to follow the POI until the marker hits.
Be sure to look through the optics and check
5-2-8
8. Turn desired rack switch ON.
9. Turn rate motor switch ON.
10. Set up rate.
11. Hold up release lever.
12. Refine course and rate.
13. Signal pilot when bomb is away.
After Release
1. Put release lever down.
2. Turn rack switch OFF.
3. Call out drift.
4. Check synchronization.
5. Check position of bubbles and cage
gyro.
6. Analyze bomb release (call shot) .
7. Turn rate motor switch OFF.
8. Watch for bomb impact.
After Marker Hits Target
1. Engage autopilot clut ch and disengage
bombsight clutch.
2. Analyze run.
3. Prepare for next run while trainer is
being returned to starting position.
synchronization after each release. (Coli shoLl
After checking synchronization, be sure to turn
rote motor switch OFF before the sighting
angle index reaches zero.
1. Why must you disengage the autopilot
clutch in order to make course corrections?
2. If you lose the target from the field of vi-
sion in the optics, what is the first thing you
should do?
3. Why should you turn the rate motor switch
OFF before the sighting angle index
reaches zero?
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You make your first simulated combat runs
on the trainer and learn how to make a short
approach with the aid of pre-set data. In pre-
setting the data, you can use either the auto-
matic bombing computer or the E-6B. .
On the trainer you learn the basic prin-
ciples of evasive action. The objective of such
action, of course, is to out-maneuver anti-air-
craft fire. Underlying all effective evasive
action, you must remember, is a good deal of
pre-planning and foresight. You must make
your plans ahead of time.
Another technique you learn is how you
can bomb accurately with a defective sight,
merely by recognizing the cause of the fail-
ure and making the necessary compensations.
5- 3- 1
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USE OF THE ABC COMPUTER ON THE TRAINER
Ze .. oed
Make certain that the AB computer has
been properly installed on the stabilizer and
has been zeroed so that the wind arrow is
pointing at the lubber line when the drift
pointer is at zero.
Tangent Scale
Attach, on the groundspeed bar of the AB
computer, the tangent scale for the simulated
bombing altitude (disc speed) and trail set
into the sight. Loosen all four locks on the
AB computer.
5-3-2 RESTRICTED
True Airspeed
Set the true airspeed si mulated by the
trainer on the true airspeed scale and lock.
Trainer speed simulates true airspeed. Obvi-
ously, you cannot compute true airspeed from
instrument readings at flight level, as you
would in an airplane. You can find the true
airspeed your trainer simulates by the fol-
lowing method:
1. Determine how many ft/min. the
trainer travels. Do this by timing the trainer
with a stop watch over a distance measured
on the hangar floor.
2. Divide the simulated bombing altitude
by the actual trainer height above the target.
This division shows how much distance is
simulated by each foot the trainer moves.
3. Multiply the trainer speed in ft /min. by
the distance simulated by each foot the
trainer moves, to determine the simulated
true airspeed in ft/min.
4. Convert this simulated true airspeed in
it/ min. to mph by dividing by 88. Eighty-
eight is the number you get when you divide
the number of feet in a mile (5,280) by the
number of minutes in an hour (60).
The following equation summarizes these
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steps :
SIMULATED TRUE
AIRSPEED IN MPH
SIMULATED BOMBING
ALTITUDE
TRAINER SPEED
IN FT I MIN.
-
-
TRAINER HEIGHT
IN FEET
x
88
In the above equation, trainer height
means the distance from the top of the bug
to the center of the bombsight optics. This
height is approximately 10 ft. when the
bombsight is on the upper mount, and 2V2 ft.
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when it is on the lower mount. When great
accuracy is desired, as in fixed-angle bomb-
ing, the height should be measured. The cen-
ter of the optics is usually 10% inches above
the top of the mount.
5-3-3
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. . -I-:-'-
: : : , " " , . ~ , , : ,
,i-t+ 'I
[+:' ,...... ri-
r,-
/ f-i.
:
8
t:
.: 16 f-'-
E
6
4
' I Hlh
2
. W ~
o . ~ 40
60
. L
80 100 120
SIMULATED TRUE AIRSPEED in mph
5-3- 4
. ,.: :, r,·, I 'i+:-
Ii ."
I; / , -:t----\--,/ -1.'- y<.
,I [tr/
140 160 !O
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180 200
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t
.......... -41 '-t

:t
+
4:,'
-"-
----I r--- 1 8
EXAMPLE:

], , I
220 240 260 280 300
SIMULATED TRUE AIRSPEED in mph
GIVEN: Trainer ' peed = 19 ft/min.
STr;;";;loted BA = 14,000 ft.
FIND:j Simulated TAS = 302 mph
-----:·f....c..-+I -rl t' J----" 16
320 340
r--+-'-HI I 14
2
o
360
5- 3-5
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True Airspeed (Cont.)
You can also find simulated true airspeed
by making a synchronous run on a stationary
bug. On the trainer, with a stationary bug
(no wind conditions) the true airspeed equals
groundspeed. You can find groundspeed and
true airspeed by substituting the tangent of
the whole range angle found on this run in
the groundspeed equation:
MAGNETIC HEADING
Set magnetic heading of the trainer on
compass rose under lubber line, and lock com-
pass rose lock. You can find the magnetic
heading of the trainer from a compass, if one
is mounted on the trainer. If there is no com-
5-3-6
GS = DS X Simulated BA X (Tan WR L)
7773
This equation is worked out for you on the
tangent scale of the AB computer. Therefore,
you can readily find the true airspeed on the
groundspeed scale opposite the tangent of the
dropping angle on the AB computer.
pass on the trainer, find the heading from the
compass rose laid out on the hangar floor.
Align the rear wheel and marker solenoid of
the trainer on one of the lines radiating from
the center of the compass rose.
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5-3-7
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WIND
Set the magnetic direction of the wind on
the wind gear and the speed of the wind on
the wind speed scale. Lock the wind gear lock
and the wind speed lock. The direction in
which the bug moves simulates a wind mov-
ing in the opposite direction. The bug speed
simulates a wind speed. Note the direction in
which the bug moves across the hangar floor.
If the bug moves toward the east, the wind
is from the east.
The wind speed simulated by a moving bug
can be found from the chart or calculated by
the same method that you use to compute
simulated true airspeed. To do this, substi-
tute the bug speed in ft/min. for the trainer
speed. Thus,
Simulated Wind Speed in mph =
You can also solve for the wind direction
and speed on the AB computer, by using the
drift and dropping angle found in making a
synchronous run on the moving bug. Be sure
the simulated true airspeed is set on the true
airspeed scale and locked. Set magnetic head-
ing on the compass rose at lubber line and
lock. Use the magnetic heading of the trainer
found at the end of the synchronous run.
Turn the wind arrow to the approximate
direction of the wind. Set drift pointer at
drift angle determined from sight. Hold drift
pointer in th'is position and rotate wind gear
to position groundspeed indicator at the tan-
gent of the dropping angle determined from
the sight. Lock the wind speed lock and the
wind gear lock. The magnetic direction and
speed of the wind are now set on the ABC.
Simulated Bombing Altitude X Bug Speed in Ft/Min.
Trainer Height in Feet 88
5-3-8
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DRIFTS AND DROPPING ANGLES
You can now find the drift and dropping
angle from the AB computer for any mag-
netic heading of the trainer. If the magnetic
heading indicated on the compass rose of the
AB computer is not the same as the magnetic
heading of the trainer, the AB computer will
not indicate the correct drift and dropping
angle for the magnetic heading of the
trainer. Be sure to set the magnetic heading
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of the trainer on the compass rose under the
lubber line at the start of each run, and lock
the compass rose lock.
The direction of the bug's movement must
remain constant, as it is simulating a definite
wind from one direction only. That is, the
bug must be re-positioned at the same start-
ing place and move in the same direction to
simulate a constant wind direction and speed.
5- 3-9
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USE OF THE E-6B COMPUTER ON THE TRAINER
I
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You can use the E-6B and the AB com-
puter interchangeably on any bombing mis-
sion. You will find it much easier to solve a
double drift solution for fixed-angle bombing
by use of the E-6B computer. You can prac-
tice double drift solutions on the bombing
trainer by using the same compass rose laid
out on the hangar floor for practice in use of
the AB computer.
You can find simulated true airspeed by
timing the trainer with a stop watch over a
distance measured on the hangar floor and
using the chart or equation. Set this true air-
speed under the grommet of the E-6B.
Find the first drift by making a drift run
on the bug while it is moving on a straight
course in any direction. The direction of
the bug movement must remain the same
throughout the problem because it is simulat-
ing a definite wind direction.
Set the magnetic heading of the trainer at
the magnetic index of the computer. Use the
magnetic heading of the trainer after course
is killed. Trace on the computer the drift
from the first drift run.
5- 3-10
Find the second drift reading by making a
drift run on the bug while it is moving in the
same direction, but with the magnetic head-
ing of the trainer changed about 60· to 90·
from the first run. Set the second magnetic
heading of the trainer, after course is killed,
at the magnetic index of the computer. Trace
on the computer the drift from the second
drift run.
Set the intersection of the drift lines below
the grommet on the center line of the chart.
Find the true direction of the wind at true
index, or magnetic direction at the magnetic
index. Draw wind arrow from grommet to
intersection of drift lines. Measure wind
speed from grommet down center line of
chart to point of wind arrow.
The drift and groundspeed (dropping
angle) can now be found from the E-6B
computer for any magnetic heading of the
trainer. You can also set the wind on the AB
computer to solve the drift and dropping
angle for any magnetic heading of the
trainer.
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SHORT RUNS WITH EVASION ACTION
On the trainer you can simulate the prin-
ciples of evasive action, compute the length
of your run and, using the AB computer, you
can pre-set drift and dropping angle. This is
the basis of a tactical bombing approach.
You will use the E-6B or the AB computer
to find the wind, which will give you the drift
and dropping angle on any heading. Knowing
the wind, drift, and dropping angle, you can
plan evasive action to the point where the
bombing run should start. You can arrive at
this point with the trainer crabbed upwind
the proper drift correction and with the drop-
'<2
:1', ....
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- - . l _ ~
ping angle pre-set, so you have only to refine
rate synchronization.
You must start your bombing run far
enough back from the release point to allow
yourself time to level the bubbles, refine the
course and rate, and release the bomb at the
proper moment. The time of the run should
be as short as possible to do the job well.
Decide time and starting point of run, con-
sidering BA, the importance of accuracy, the
effectiveness of the anti-aircraft fire, etc.
You locate the starting point by reference
to the dropping angle, using this equation:
20 SEC.
. . (Tan WR L X time ofrun)
Tan slghtmg angle = Tan drop L + ATF
That is, the sighting angle to start the run
equals the tangent of the dropping angle plus
tangent of whole range angle times length of
run desired divided by the ATF.
You can also find the sighting angle at
which you start your bombing run by a sim-
ple computer, by trial and error timing of the
sighting angle index, or by doing fast calcu-
lations in your head, which you often will be
able to do. For example, if you desire a 30
sec. run when you are at 17,000 ft. where
ATF is 35 sec., you can double the tangent of
the dropping angle to find the tangent of the
sighting angle at which you start your run.
You should employ evasive action during
your bombing approach, from the initial point
to the point at which you start your . run.
You cannot change the trainer's altitude, but
you should practice changing its heading
from 5° to 15° every 10 to 20 secs. Use the
compass rose on the AB computer to measure
the heading change. You can estimate the
time by counting.
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.!. POINT OF RELEASE














• LEVEL OFF POSITION
T
#
#
,/,/
START
5-3-11
RESTRICTED
A defective sight should not seriously
affect your bombing accuracy at bombing
altitudes up to 5,000 or 6,000 ft ., if you make
the necessary compensations to limit your
errors. But the errors will increase as your
bombing altitude increases.
RATE MOTOR INOPERATIVE
Solve for your drift by taking a double
drift, using the sight as a drift meter. Pre-
set your drift angle in the sight and direct
your pilot over the target. You can do this
by directing your pilot over the interphone
or displacing the PDr with your hand, You
can solve the range problem as usual, but pre-
setting the dropping angle will enable you to
spend most of your time directing the pilot
for course.
FAILURE IN
OR TORQUE
DIRECTIONAL
MOTOR
First, you solve for a groundspeed by tak-
ing a double drift. From this you can find the
dropping angle in your bombing tables. Pre-
set this pre-determined dropping angle in the
sight. When the lateral crosshair approaches
the · target, turn the displacement knob to
keep the crosshair on the target. Otherwise,
the bombing procedure is the same a ~ usual.
The only difference is that you do the same
work manually that the rate motor does
mechanically. If you solve for the proper
dropping angle, by the double drift solution,
your error will be small.
5-3-12
GYRO
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FAILURE OF SIGHT GYRO
If your sight gyro loses its stabilization
you must make your bombing run with the
gyro caged. Before you go "on course," have
the pilot level the airplane and adj ust the sta-
bilizer mount so the fore and aft bubble is
level. While adj usting the stabilizer mount,
also notice the position of the lateral bubble.
If the lateral bubble is off center, offset the
aiming point in the opposite direction to com-
pensate for the error caused by the gyro's
being out of the vertical.
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TACHOMETER INOPERATIVE; SETTING UP ATF
WITH STOP WATCH
With the tachometer inoperative, you can
set up disc speeq with a stop watch. To set a
disc speed in the sight with a stop watch, you
must remove all trail from the sight. Deter-
mine the actual time of fall to be used for
your bombing altitude and true airspeed. You
can find the actual time of fall for your bomb
from the bombing tables. Set disc speed drum
at approximate disc speed. With the stop
watch, time the travel of the sighting angle
index from the instant it is opposite the drop-
ping angle index to the instant it is opposite
zero sighting angle. This length of time
should be the same as the actual time of fall
of the bomb.
If the stop watch reading is too much, in-
crease the rpm to get the desired actual time
of fall r eading. If the stop watch r eading is
too small, decrease the rpm on the disc speed
drum.
AND THE USE OF THE INTERVALOMETER
Train bombing means the dropping of a
row of bombs at regular intervals across
the target. Train bombing is very effective
against long, narrow targets such as ships
and bridges, and in formation Hplowing" of
enemy airfields and other area targets.
In using this method, you space the bombs
close enough together to insure destruction
of any bracket ed obj ective.
The even spacing of the bombs in train
bombing is controlled by an instrument
known as the intervalometer, a clock-like
mechanism which is connected to the bomb-
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sight . The intervalometer is energized by the
bomb r elease signal from the bombsight, and
in turn operates the bomb release stations to
release bombs at regular intervals.
You must make three settings on the inter-
valometer: the number of bombs, the inter-
val in feet , and the groundspeed. To turn ON
the intervalometer, you must also turn the
train selector switch to the "train" position.
In r eleasing a train of bombs, you want the
center of the train to hit the center of the
target. To do this, the first bomb must hit
half the t rain-l ength short of the target.
5-3-13
RESTRICTED
.,t6
-,
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I
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"
1\
I \
I \
I \
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\
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t-
-
,
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\
\
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I
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To find the length (in feet) of a train of
bombs, you multiply the number of bombs
minus one, by the interval between bombs.
Half the length of the train, in feet, divided
by the value of a mil ( 1 ~ ~ 0 ) will determine
how many mils short the first impact should
be.
FOR EXAMPLE:
GIVEN: 13 bombs to be dropped in train
with 60-ft. intervals between bombs.
18,000 ft. bombing altitude; 180 mph
groundspeed.
Set up intervalometer with 13 bombs and
set 180 mph groundspeed opposite 60 ft. in-
terval.
FIND LENGTH OF TRAIN:
(13 - 1) X 60 ft. = 720 ft.
First bomb should hit 360 ft. short.
The number of mils the first bomb should
hit short is: 360 X ( 1 ~ ~ 0 0 0 0 0 ) = 20 mils.
These calculations can be summarized in
the following equation:
500 (No. Bombs -1) (Interval in Ft.)
lJI' short Bombing Altitude
lJI'short 500 (13 -1) (60) = 20 mils
18,000
5-3-14
I
I
I
I
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\
\ \\
Next r educe trail or disc speed so the sight
will release the first bomb the proper distance
short . You can subtract 20 mils from the trail
set into the sight. This could cause an appre-
ciable crosstrail error. Therefore it is better
to decrease disc speed. The decrease in disc
speed depends on the groundspeed. You find
from the bombing aids chart that, at 180 mph
groundspeed, 1 rpm of disc speed will move
the first bomb 3.4 mils. Therefore, decrease
the disc speed approximately 6 rpm to move
the first bomb 20 mils short.
Approximate Number of Mils Impact Point is
Changed if Disc Speed is Changed 1 rpm.
Ground- Mils Ground- Mils
speed per Rpm speed per Rpm
20 .4 180 3.4
40 .7 200 3.7
60 1.1 220 4.1
80 1.5 240 4.5
100 1.9 260 4.85
120 2.2 280 5.2
140 2.6 300 5.6
160 3.0 320 6.0
Data based on M38A2 Bomb from 6,000 ft.,
_ but is accurate within .2 mil for any bombing
altitude between 1,500 and 12,000 ft.
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SECTIO 6
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
CONDUCT OF A TRAINING
QUALIFICATION MISSION
General
The principles of bombing procedures are
the same, regardless of the minor individual
differences among various instructors in
teaching the procedures. Always keep in
mind the bombing problem with your pro-
cedure. As you become more experienced, you
will gain something that can be described
only as "bombing sense." Tactics change con-
stantly, but not bombing sense. It is some-
thing that experience builds in the bombard-
ier's mind: it is a thinking attitude that elim-
inates mistakes due to carelessness.
Bombing is like a game. You do not become
an expert ball player in a day, but only as a
RESTRICTED
result of keen observation and practice. Lis-
ten carefully at briefings. Get a thorough
picture of what is required. Plan your mis-
sion and know what to expect when you're in
the air. Remember that you cannot check
y.ourself too closely while working on the
sight.
The following is an outline of a typical day
on the line. There will be deviations from this
procedure, but it will be helpful as a reminder
and for instructional purposes.
Before reporting to the line, be sure you
take with you all necessary equipment for
the day's work.
6-1-1
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Conduct of a Training Qualification Mission
6--1- 2
I . P ~
A. Briefing:
B.
1. Type of minion.
2. Time of lake off.
J. Torget information.
4. Pressure alt itude.
. 5. Indicated oirspeed.
6. Metro informat ion.
7. Bombardier pilot coordinati o n.
Equipment:
1. Bombardie r 's kil.
2. Parachute.
3. Camero
4. Tachomet er.
5. 12-( forms.
6. OJlygen mask.
7. ABC langent scoles.
C. Pre-flight:
1. Bombs, rocks and ( o nlrols.
2. Oxygen supply.
3. Autopilot (second Bombardier or Pilot).
4. Inl erphone.
5. Bo mbsight.
6. AB Com pul er.
7. Inslr umenh.
8. Record r unwoy press ure al ti tude cnd l empen;Jlure.
9. Fill oul Fo rm I.
A. During Climb:
1. Remoye a rmi ng pins.
2. Put Oil headset and throat microphone.
3. Turn all necessor y swit ches ON.
4. Turn autopilot moste r swi tch ON.
(se cond Bombardier o r Pilot).
5. Record temperature at 1,000 fl.
6. Put on oltygen mask and adiust su pply.
7. Compute bombing altitude.
8. Compute true airspeed.
9. Set doto in sight-(D.S. and trail).
B. At Fight Level:
1. Check bombing a lt itude and true airspeed.
2. Check data set i n sight (D.S. and trail).
3. Open bomb boy doors.
4. Engage and odiust autopilot
(second Bombardier or Pilot).
5. Level stabilizer.
6. Solve for and pre -set drift and dropping angle.
7. Prepare bombsighl for bombi ng approach.
8. Orient yourself in relat io n to the torgel.
9. Place bomb release handle la SELECT.
10. Be sure Inst r uct or 's cut-off switch is ON.
C. Bombing Approach:
1. Pilol signah on course a nd level.
2. Unca ge gyro, while a irplane is level.
3. Swi ng sight on targel.
4. Engage bombsi ght clutch and disengage autopilot
clutch.
5. Signal pitot.
6. Set up coune.
7. Level gyro, if neceuory.
8. Turn desi red roc k switch ON .
9. Turn role motor swi tch ON as latera l crosshai r
intersects target.
10. Se t up rate.
11. Check gyro level.
12. Hold up release lever.
13. Re fi ne course and role.
14. Signal pilot when bomb is away.
D. After Bomb Release:
1. Put release lever down.
2. Turn rock switch OFF.
3. Check sychronizotion, altitude and a irs peed.
4. Check position of b ubbl es and cage gyro.
5. Analyze bomb releose-(Coll shot).
6. Turn role motor switch OFF.
7. Note drill and compass heading.
8. Walch for bomb i mpact.
E. After Bomb Impact:
1. Note time and poinl of impact.
2. Engage outopilol dutch and d ise ngage bombsight
dutch.
3. Signal pilot ready 10 tur n.
4. No te lo ngent of dropping angl e.
5. Record a ll dolo on 12·C form.
6. Pre pare for next r un.
F. After Last Bomb Impact:
1. Signal pilot bombing is completed.
2. Close bomb boy doors.
3. Pl ace bomb relea se handle to safe position.
4. Tu rn bombardie r' s control panel switches OFF.
5. Turn bo mbsight switches OFf.
6. Set troil arm at zero.
7. Set disc speed drum at minimum selling.
8. Cover bombs ig hl.
9. Fill out 12-C form as compl etely as pou ible.
A. At Airplane:
1. Check entr y in Form 1.
2. fill out report on ony malfunctions of bombing
equipment.
B. Turn in Equipment:
I. Parachute.
2. Camero.
3. Ta chometer.
4. ABC tongent scoles.
5. Bombsight l ime.
C. Critique:
1. Analyze mission with instructor.
2. Turn in all re porh a nd forms.
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I.
A. BRIEFING
The purpose of a briefing is to inform you
of last minute changes and to insure that
everyone understands the mission. The brief-
jng officer will give you the altitude and air-
speed to be flown, and he will emphasize the
target to be bombed, whether it will be rec-
ord or practice mission. The weather man
will give you the pressure altitude, temper-
ature, winds aloft, and general weather fore-
cast for the mission.
1. TYPE OF MISSION. The briefing offi-
cer will tell you whether mission is record or
practice, qualification or combat, and the alti-
tude to be flown.
2. TIME OF TAKE-OFF. This is impor-
tant for the oper ation of any schedule flying.
Always be ready to take off at the scheduled
t ime.
3. TARGET INFORMATION. You will be
given the location, elevation and bombing
approach heading of the target. You will also
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be told if any targets on a series are closed.
4. PRESSURE ALTITUDE. This is em-
phasized in briefing so everyone will get the
correct pressure altitude and be the same
altitude above the target.
5. INDICATED AIRSPEED. Given for
the safe oper ation of t he airplanes while over
the targets as well as to insure an under-
standing between the pilot and bombardier.
6. METRO INFORMATION. You should
be given pressure altitude, the temperature
at the target, winds aloft and general fore-
cast. This is a helpful aid to your mission and
will help you to know what to expect after
you are in the air.
7. BOMBARDIER AND PILOT COORDI-
NATION. Before mission, have a perfect
understanding with your pilot as to t he sig-
nals that will be used and type of mission to
be flown. Remember, team work is essential
for a good miss ion.
6-1-3
RESTRICTED
B. EQUIPMENT
c. PRE-FLIGHT
You must pre-flight all the equipment you
will use on the mission. You might say that a
pre-flight is insurance of having a good mis-
sion. If you find a malfunction in your pre-
flight, call a maintenance man; do not try to
fix the equipment yourself.
L BOMBS, RACKS AND CONTROLS.
Before loading bombs, cock and fire all sta-
tions to insure proper release. After loading
bombs, inspect them in their respective sta-
tions, to see that the arms of the shackles are
properly placed in the r eleases.
6--1-4
Check to be sure you have t he necessary
equipment and that it is in good condition,
before each mission. Keep an accurate record
of your bombing results on the 12-C.
1. BOMBARDIER'S KIT. The kit is your
"tool box" for a bombing mission. All of the
instruments in a kit are important, so take
care of them.
2. PARACHUTE. For your safety learn
to wear the parachute while working in the
airplane. Check your 'parachute carefully be-
fore taking off on a mission.
3. CAMERA. Be sure your mission num-
ber is recorded on the film before take-off and
that there is enough film in camera for the
mission.
4. TACHOMETER. It enables you to set
the proper disc speed in the sight more
quickly and accurately.
5. 12-C FORMS. Don't forget 'them: they
are your "log" of results.
6. OXYGEN MASK. If you are going
above 10,000 ft. pressure altitude be sure you
have yonr oxygen mask. Check it for proper
fit.
7. ABC TANGENT SCALES. The ABC is
to be used. Be sure you take the tangent
scales for the correct bombing altitude.
RESTRICTED
2. OXYGEN SUPPLY. Check the oxygen
supply at all outlets. Be sure that sufficient
pressure is registering in each bottle to last
the mission. Remember, too little- too late
might be fatal.
3. AUTOPILOT. The second bombardier
or pilot should pre-flight the C-1 autopilot.
1. Turn autopilot master switch ON.
2. Center turn control.
3. Turn knobs on ACP to "pointers up"
position.
4. Turn Servo-PDI switch ON.
5. Disengage bombsight clutch and en-
gage autopilot clutch with PDI on center.
6. Operate airplane controls manually,
observing tell -tale lights.
7. Turn aileron, rudder, and elevator
engaging switches ON. observinv; tell-tale
lights.
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8. Rotate each centering knob, observ-
ing controls.
9. Rotate turn control knob, observing
controls.
10. Disengage autopilot clutch and dis-
place to each side, observing controls. Engage
autopilot clutch.
11. Turn autopilot master switch OFF.
4. INTERPHONE. Contact the pilot over
the interphone to insure coordination and
proper understanding.
5. BOMBSIGHT PREFLIGHT.
Installation: \
1. Match sighthead and stabilizer.
2. Insert clevis pin and dovetail locking
pm.
3. Check for security of cannon plugs
on stabilizer.
4. Turn "STAB" switch ON.
Cross trail mechanism:
5. Check for pre-set trail.
6. Check for dovetail misalignment.
7. Check for tilt of optics.
Rate end:
8. Turn "BS" switch ON.
9. Check knobs on rate end.
10. Check rate motor and optic drive.
11. Check disc speed drum and gear
shift.
6-1-5
RESTRICTED
12. Check for pre-set trail.
13. Check for roller slippage.
14. Check mirror drive cable length.
Stabilizer and course knobs:
15. Turn "SERVO" switch ON.
16. Check action of course knobs and
PDI.
17. Check torque unit and bombsight
clutch.
18. Check autopilot clutch.
19. Check PDI with pilot.
Sight vertical and lighting:
20. Check vertical gyro.
21. Check leveling knobs.
22. Check bubble light.
23. Check crosshair light.
6. AB COMPUTER.
Check installation and zeroing of the com-
puter. Set drift pointer on zero drift, and the
lubber lines should. be oppos ite the wind
arrow.
7. INSTRUMENTS. Set 29.92 on the pres-
sure scale of the altimeter and read runway
pressure altitude. After the motors of the
airplane have been started, check to see if
the free air temperature gage works and read
runway temperature. Inspect the compass in
6-1-6
the nose. Check all of the instrument calibra-
tion cards.
, ,
8. RECORD RUNWAY PRESSURE
. ALTITUDE AND TEMPERATURE. Record
the pressure altitude reading of the altim-
eter, with 29.92 set on the pressure scale.
Record the reading from free air temper-
ature gage after the motor is running.
9. FILL OUT FORM 1. Enter your name,
rank, and serial number on Form 1 before
take·off.
RESTRI CTE D
A. DURING CLIMB
During the climb, you will make your com-
putations for the bombing altitude and pre-
pare yourself for the bombing run. You will
also set the necessary data in the sight for
the run.
1. REMOVE ARMING PINS. Then, when
bomb is released, it will be armed.
2. PUT ON HEADSET AND THROAT
MICROPHONE AND ADJUST VOLUME.
Don't fumble with these when putting them
on. When speaking into the throat mike,
speak in a normal tone of voice.
3. TURN ALL THE NECESSARY
SWITCHES ON.
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On the bombardier's control panel, turn ON
the bomb circuit and station light switches.
Turn ON the "STAB.," "Servo," HPDI," and
"BS" switches in the proper sequence.
4. TURN AUTOPILOT MASTER
SWITCH ON. The other bombardier or pilot
should turn this switch ON. It supplies cui'-
rent to the flight gyro so it will erect to the
vertical.
5. RECORD TEMP ERATURE AT
EVERY 1,000 FT. In order to get an accu-
rate mean temperature, you must have these
temperature readings.
6. PUT ON OXYGEN MASK AND
ADJUST SUPPLY. On day missions oxygen
will be used at all times over 10,000 ft. On
night missions, start using oxygen from
take-off.
7. COMPUTE BOMBING ALTITUDE.
You must compute accurately for good re-
sults, using the C-2, AN or E-6B computer.
puter.
8. COMPUTE TRUE AIRSPEED. To
solve for the TAS use the E-6B computer.
9. SET DATA IN SIGHT. After comput-
ing your bombing altitude and true airspeed,
rise t he bombing tables to find the disc speed
and trail. Set these into the sight. Check
your disc speed with tachometer or stop
watch.
6-1-7
RESTRICTED
B. AT F L I G H T LEV E L
1. CHECK BOMBING ALTITUDE AND
TRUE AIRSPEED. Check your computa-
tions to assure_ yourself that you haven' t
made any careless mistakes.
2. CHECK DATA SET IN SIGHT. Do
this to be sure that you have set the correct
disc speed and trail into the sight. It is a
good policy to mark the disc speed drum at
the proper disc speed setting, so you can de-
tect any change if you accidentally knock it
off.
·3. OPEN BOMB BAY DOORS. When the
pilot signals you, raise the bomb bay door
switch to open the doors. When doors are
open, bomb bay door light will be on.
4. ENGAGE AND ADJUST THE AUTO-
PILOT. The second bombardier or pilot will
engage and adjust the autopilot.
1. Center turn control.
2. Turn knobs on ACP to "pointers up"
position.
3. Engage autopilot clutch and dis-
engage bombsight clutch.
6-1- 8
4. Turn autopilot master switch ON.
(Wait 10 minutes before turning other
switches ON.)
5. Manually trim airplane for straight
and level flight.
6. Turn Servo-PDI switch ON.
7. Turn tell-tale lights switch ON.
8. Center PDI.
9. Adjust aileron centering knob until
both aileron tell-tale lights are out. Turn
aileron switch ON. Readjust aileron center-
ing knob to level wings.
10. Adjust rudder centering knob until
both rudder tell-tale lights .are out. Turn rud-
der switch ON. Readjust elevator centering
knob to center PDI.
11. Adjust elevator centering knob until
elevator tell-tale lights are out. Turn eleva-
tor switch ON, Readjust elevator centering
knob for level flight.
12. Adjust centering, if necessary.
13. Adjust sensitivity, if necessary.
14. Adjust ratio, if necessary.
15. Adjust dashpot, if necessary.
16. Adjust turn compensation, if neces-
sary.
17. Adjust turn control, if necessary.
5. LEVEL STABILIZER. A good level
eliminates large corrections to level the ver-
tical gyro while on a bombing run.
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6. SOLVE FOR AND PRE-SET DRIFT
AND DROPPING ANGLE. You should take
a double drift and find the wind. For any
heading you can find your drift and ground-
speed at the point of the wind arrow. With
your groundspeed solved, the values of your
dropping angles can be found in the bombing
tables. You can also use the AB computer,
which will give the drift and dropping angle
directly.
7. PREPARE BOMBSIGHT FOR BOMB-
ING APPROACH_ Center bombsight con-
necting rod, roll sighting angle index back to
70°, engage mirror drive clutch, and pre-set
drift and dropping angle. Also, if you are fly-
ing a manual mission, center PDr with the
autopilot clutch arm.
8. ORIENT YOURSELF IN RELATION
TO THE TARGET_ Always observe the ter-
rain you are flying over. If you have located
the target, before your run, you will not
waste any time in swinging the sight on the
target.
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9. PLACE BOMB RELEASE HANDLE
TO SELECT POSITION. This unlocks the
releases and allows the bombs to drop armed.
10. BE SURE INSTRUCTOR'S CUT-OFF
SWITCH IS ON. This switch is located on the
right hand side of the bombardier's compart-
ment and must be ON in order to release a
bomb. It should be left t urned ON except
when cut off by the instructor to prevent a
dangerous or otherwise bad release.
o
(j)
6-1-9
RESTRICTED
C. BOMBING APPROACH
1. PILOT SIGNALS ON COURSE AND
LEVEL.
The pilot is ready for you to start the run
and the airplane is on the approximate head-
ing to the target.
2. UNCAGE GYRO,
while airplane is level. Once the airplane is
level uneage as soon as possible but be sure
it is level,
3. SWING THE SIGHT ON TARGET.
Place the target in the field of vision of the
sight, so the fore and aft cross hair will pass
through the target. If the field' of vision is
6-1-10
short of the target-roll the extended vision
into the sight. If the field of vision is over the
target--use the displacement knob to roll the
optics down on the target.
4. ENGAGE BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH
AND DISENGAGE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH.
When you engage the bombsight clutch,
the sighthead is stabilized by the directional
gyro. This allows you to put in the necessary
course corrections through the course knobs.
Be sure to disengage the autopilot clutch.
RESTRICTED
5. SIGNAL PILOT.
Answer the pilot's on course and level sig-
nal to let him know you received his signal
and are ready to direct the airplane on t he
bombing run.
6. SET UP COURSE.
Always set up course first. After swinging
on, synchroni ze for course as soon as possible
in order to maintain t he proper path into the
target. Double grip the course knobs to stop
the movement of the fore and aft crosshair.
Then put the crosshair back on the center of
the target with the turn knob.
7. LEVEL GYRO IF NECESSARY.
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After setting up course, notice your gyro.
If it isn't in the vertical, level it by centering
the bubbles. Do not attempt to level the gyro
if the plane is not flying straight and level.
8. TURN DESIRED RACK SWITCH ON.
You select t he rack from which you want
to release the bomb, and raise the corre-
sponding rack switch.
9. TURN RATE MOTOR SWITCH ON as
lateral crosshair intersects target.
6-1-11
RESTRICTED
10. SET UP RATE.
With one smooth correction of the rate
knob, stop the movement of the lateral cross-
hair. Then put the crosshair back on the cen-
ter of the target with the di splacement knob.
11. CHECK GYRO LEVEL.
If time permits, you should level it; but if
you are too near the release point, looking at
t he bubbles wi ll teach you to recognize the
error caused by improper vertical.
12. HOLD UP RELEASE LEVER.
6-1-12
This enables the automatic release points
to make an electrical contact, and thus ener-
gize the release box.
13. REFINE COURSE AND RATE.
These last-minute corrections are very
small . They must be put in with accuracy in
order to get a good hit.
14. SIGNAL PILOT WHEN BOMB IS
AWAY.
This is to not ify t he pilot when the bomb
is released. On a manual mission, this is a
signal to stop foll owing the PDI.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
D. AFTER BOMB RELEASE
1. PUT RELEASE LEVER DOWN. Do
this immediately after the bomb release to
insure against an accidental or doubl e re-
lease.
2. TURN RACK SWITCH OFF. This is
also a safety precaution to prevent an acci-
dental release.
3. CHECK SYNCHRONIZATION, ALTI-
TUDE, AND AIRSPEED.
These factors enter into"calling your shot"
and predicting the impact of the bomb.
4. CHECK POSITION OF BUBBLES'
AND CAGE GYRO.
RESTRICTED
The gyro should always be caged at this
time to be sure it isn't tumbled when you
turn.
ii. ANALYZE BOMB RELEASE (CALL
SHOT). Considering your synchronization,
alti tude, airspeed, and position of the bub-
bles, learn to predict the bomb's impact be-
for e it hits the ground.
6. TURN RATE MOTOR SWITCH OFF.
Stop the rate motor before the sighting angle
index reaches zero. This is done to prevent
damaging the mirror drive cable.
7. NOTE DRIFT AND COMPASS HEAD-
ING.
You need the drift on the sight and the
compass heading of the airplane at the time
of release.
8. WATCH FOR BOMB IMPACT. Watch
for the bomb impact; then compare actual
impact with your prediction. How closely can
you call your shots?
6-1-13
RESTRICTED
E. AFTER BOMB IMPACT
1. NOTE TIME AND POINT OF IM-
PACT.
Remember the direction and distance of
the impact from the center of the target.
2. ENGAGE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH
AND DISENGAGE THE BOMBSIGHT
CLUTCH.
6-1-1<1
If you' re flying on autopilot this will trans-
fer the control of the airplane to the pilot.
3. SIGNAL PILOT READY TO TURN.
This signal will mean you have caged the
gyro, spotted your bomb, prepared your
clutches and are ready to turn onto the next
run.
4. NOTE TANGENT OF THE DROP-
PING ANGLE. Read the tangent of the
dropping angle at the dropping angle index.
5. RECORD ALL DATA ON 12-C FORM.
Record drift, compass heading, point and
time of impact, tangent of the dropping
angle, pressure altitude and indicated air-
speed, synchronization and position of the
bubbles on the 12-C form.
6. PREPARE FOR NEXT RUN. Center
the bombsight connecting rod, roll sighting
angle index back to 70°, engage mirror drive
clutch, and pre-set drift and dropping angle.
Also, if you are flying a manual mission, cen-
ter PDI with the autopilot clutch arm.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
F. AFTER LAST BOMB IMPACT
1. SIGNAL PILOT BOMBING IS COM-
PLETED. You do this so the pilot can leave
the target series.
2. CLOSE BOMB BAY DOORS.
Lower the bomb bay door switch to close
the doors. When the doors are closed the
bomb bay door light is off.
3. PLACE BOMB RELEASE HANDLE
TO SAFE POSITION. Placing the arming
lever to safe position locks all releases.
4. TURN BOMBARDIER CONTROL
PANEL SWITCHES OFF. Turning OFF all
switches opens the circuits and breaks the
electrical flow, thus relieving the drain on the
generators.
5. TURN ALL BOMBSIGHT SWITCHES
OFF. This prevents all the parts of the sight
from starting to run at the same time, when
the next user turns the bomb circuit switch
ON.
RESTRICTED
6. SET TRAIL ARM AT ZERO. This is
done to relieve the tension on the thrust
spring at the bottom of the spindle screw.
7. SET DISC SPEED DRUM AT MIN-
IMUM SETTING. With the disc speed drum
at minimum setting, it will relieve the ten-
sion on the disc speed drum springs.
8. COVER BOMBSIGHT_
Place the cover over the bombsight in
order to protect it from dust.
9. FILL OUT 12-C FORMS AS COM-
PLETEL Y AS POSSIBLE.
Fill out as much of the forms as possible
while in the air, so the time on the ground
can be devoted to analyzing the bombs and a
critique of the mission.
6---1-15
RESTRICTED
A. AT AIRPLANE
1. CHECK ENTRY ON FORM 1. After
landing check to be sure you have a complete
entry in the form 1. This form is a record of
your flying time-so don't forget it.
2. FILL OUT REPORT ON ANY MAL·
FUNCTION OF BOMBING EQUIPMENT.
Make a report of the malfunction immedi-
ately after landing so the fault can be cor-
rected. This will keep the next bombardier
from having the same malfunction.
B. TURN IN EQUIPMENT
1. PARACHUTE.
2. CAMERA.
3. TACHOMETER.
4. ABC TANGENT SCALES.
5. BOMBSIGHT TIME. A record of the
6-1- 16
actual time the bombsight was running is
important. This enables the bombsight main-
tenance men to make the inspections at the
proper time.
C. CRITIQUE
1. ANALYZE MISSION WITH IN·
STRUCTOR. Using the 12-C form and your
E-6B computer, you must analyze each bomb
that you dropped. Learn how to determine
and correct the causes of your error. Listen
carefully to what your instructor tells you at
this time, for it is here and now that you
should learn your mistakes and how to cor-
rect them.
2. TURN IN ALL REPORTS AND
FORMS. These reports are important to you.
Be sure that you fill them in accurately, for
each report is a record of your bombing.
RESTRICTED
GENERAL
At low bombing altitudes, such as 500 to
1,500 ft., you will do fixed-angle bombing.
This consists of releasing the bomb on a pre-
set dropping angle. You must take a double
drift to solve for the drift and dropping angle
to be pre-set. On the bombing approach, you
do not synchronize for rate. Instead, you pre-
set your dropping angle and drive the sight-
ing angle manuall y by turning the displace-
ment knob. You turn this knob at whatever
speed is necessary to keep the lateral cross-
hair on the target.
At the bombing altitude, you set a disc
speed of approximately 350 to 400 rpm into
the sight. While the disc speed helps, you ac-
tually keep the lateral crosshair on the target
by turning the displacement knob.
The extended vision is rolled in and locked
to give an extra 20' forward vision. This en-
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
abIes you to pick up the target as soon as
you are on course. You compensate for this
20' extra forward vision by subtract ing 20'
from the dropping angle. You then set this
corrected dropping angle into the sight.
If the dropping angle is given in degrees,
you set the dropping angle index to the de-
gree value of the dropping angle as read on
the degree scale. After setting up the drop-
ping angle, roll the sighting angle index to
about 60 ' .
On a fixed-angle bombing run, trail has no
effect on the range problem. Therefore, you
set trail in the sight only to correct for cross-
trail. Nevertheless, be sure to set in trail.
The conduct of a fixed-angle mission is the
same as the training qualification mission ex-
cept at flight level and on the bombing ap-
proach.
6-2-1
RESTRICTED
AT FLIGHT LEVEL
l. CHECK BOMBING ALTITUDE AND
TRUE AIRSPEED COMPUTATIONS.
2. CHECK DATA SET IN SIGHT. Check
to see that you have 350 to 400 rpm disc
speed and t he correct trail set into the sight.
Also check to see t hat 20
0
extended vision is
rolled in and locked.
3. OPEN BOMB BAY DOORS.
4. ENGAGE AND ADJUST AUTO-
PILOT. (Second bombardier or pilot.)
5. LEVEL STABILIZER.
6. SOLVE FOR AND PRE-SET DRIFT
AND DROPPING ANGLE. In taking the
double drift, use the bombsight as a drift
meter. That is, with a small sighting angle
align the fore and aft crosshair with objects
on the ground as they pass along it. Then
read the drift from the drift scale on the
bombsight.
For any heading, you can find your drift
and groundspeed at the point of the wind
arrow. Wi th your groundspeed solved you
can look in the bombing tables and get the
value for your dropping angle. These must be
solved for accurately in order to have the
proper release point.
7. PREPARE BOMBSIGHT FOR BOMB-
ING APPROACH. Pre-set the known drift
and dropping angle on the bombsight. Make
sure to correct the dropping angle for the 20
0
extended vision, as 20
0
extended vision is
rolled in and locked.
8. ORIENT YOURSELF IN RELATION
TO THE TARGET.
9. PLACE BOMB RELEASE HANDLE
TO SELECT.
10. BE SURE INSTRUCTOR'S CUT-OFF
SWITCH IS ON.
NON-SYNCHRONOUS BOMBING APPROACH
l. PILOT SIGNALS ON COURSE AND
LEVEL.
2. UNCAGE GYRO, WHILE AIRPLANE
IS LEVEL.
3. SWING THE SIGHT ON TARGET.
4. ENGAGE BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH
AND DISENGAGE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH.
5. SIGNAL PILOT.
6. SET UP COURSE. Set up good course
at the start to insure small corrections at the
end of the run.
7. LEVEL GYRO IF NECESSARY.
8. TURN DESIRED RACK SWITCH ON.
6--2-2
9. TURN RATE MOTOR SWITCH ON.
You turn the rate motor switch ON, when
the lateral crosshair approaches the target.
10. KEEP THE LATERAL CROSSHAIR
ON TARGET. As you approach the target
the lateral crosshair will constantly move off
the target. Turn the displacement knob to
hold the lateral cross-hair on the target until
the bomb is away.
1l. HOLD UP THE RELEASE LEVER.
12. REFINE COURSE.
13. SIGNAL PILOT WHEN BOMB IS
AWAY.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
10 15 20 25 30 35 40
RANGE ERROR in ft.
RESTRICTED
6-2- 3
RESTR I CTED
l
o . ~ ,
10° ....L....L.L
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
RANGE ERROR in mils
6- 2- 4 RESTRICTED
GENERAL
The success of a combat bombing mission
depends to a great extent on close coopera-
tion between you and your pilot. Each mem-
ber of the combat crew must have a thorough
knowledge of his own duties as well as the
duties of other members of the crew.
You will find there is no standard combat
approach, except for the purpose of training.
If there were a standardized procedure, the
enemy would soon learn of it and take steps
to prevent a successful attack. The enemy's
opposition and the natural surroundings will
determine the approach to be used for that
particular theater of operation.
The key to a good mission is the accurate
pre-setting of the necessary data. Take ad-
RESTRICTED
vantage of the metro winds and figure the
drift and dropping angle on the ground. From
this, you will know what to expect after
you're in the air.
After you're in the air find the wind by
using the E-SB or AB computer.
Evasive action will be practiced on your
combat training approaches. These ap-
proaches employ certain fundamental evasive
techniques. They consist of changing head-
ings by 50 to 15
0
, varying airspeed, and
changing altitude. The anti-aircraft installa-
tions and your bombing altitude will deter-
mine the length of time you allow for your
final straight and level run on the target.
On all combat missions, plan your attack.
6-3-1
RESTRICTED
A. BRIEFING
The briefing of a combat mission is one of
the most important parts of your mission.
You will be issued an objective folder which
contains the target information in the form
of maps and photographs. You must study
these maps and photos to determine how you
will identify the target. You may encounter
camouflage, so learn the landmarks leading
into the target. You will have a definite point
to start your approach (initial point) and a
heading on which to make the run.
At all times, pay close attention to every
detail in the briefing.
l. TYPE OF MISSION.
2. TIME OF TAKE· OFF.
3. TARGET INFORMATION (OBJEC·
TIVE FOLDERS).
4. PRESSURE ALTITUDE.
5. INDICATED AIRSPEED.
6. METRO INFORMATION.
7. BOMBARDIER AND PILOT
COORDINATION.
6- 3-2
B. EQUIPMENT (Same as on
training qualification mission)
l. BOMBARDIER'S KIT.
2. PARACHUTE.
3. CAMERA.
4. TACHOMETER.
5. 12·C FORMS.
6. OXYGEN MASK.
7. ABC TANGENT SCALES.
c. PRE -F LIG HT (Same as on
training qualification mission)
l. BOMBS, RACKS AND CONTROLS.
2. OXYGEN SUPPLY.
3. AUTOPILOT (SECOND BOMBARD·
IER OR PILOT).
4. INTERPHONE.
5. BOMBSIGHT.
6. AB COMPUTER.
7. INSTRUMENTS.
8. RECORD RUNWAY PRESSURE
ALTITUDE AND TEMPERATURE.
9. FILL OUT FORM 1.
RESTRICTED
\
A. DURING CLIMB (Same as on
training qualification mission)
1. REMOVE ARMING PINS.
2. PUT ON HEAD·SET AND THROAT
MIKE.
3. TURN ALL NECESSARY SWITCHES
ON.
4. TURN AUTOPILOT MASTER
SWITCH ON (SECOND BOMBARD·
IER OR PILOT).
5. RECORD TEMPERATURE AT
EVERY 1,000 FT.
6. PUT ON OXYGEN MASK AND
ADJUST, SUPPLY.
7. COMPUTE BOMBING ALTITUDE.
8. COMPUTE TRUE AIRSPEED.
9. SET DATA IN SIGHT (D. S. AND
TRAIL).
B. AT FLIGHT LEVEL(Same as
on training qualification mission)
1. CHECK BOMBING ALTITUDE AND
TRUE AIRSPEED COMPUTATIONS.
RESTRICTED
2. CHECK DATA SET IN SIGHT (D. S.
AND TRAIL).
3. OPEN BOMB BAY DOORS.
4. ENGAGE AND ADJUST AUTO·
PILOT (SECOND BOMBARDIER OR
PILOT).
5. LEVEL STABILIZER.
6. SOLVE FOR AND PRE· SET DRIFT
AND DI!OPPING ANGLE. Find your actual
wind at bombing altitude by either taking
a double drift using the E· 6B or a trial run
in order to set up AB computer.
7. PREPARE BOMBSIGHT FOR BOMB·
ING APPROACH. Pre·set the known drift
and dropping angle for the heading on which
you will make the approach.
8. ORIENT YOURSELF IN RELATION
TO THE TARGET. Knowing your position,
you will be able to recognize the predeter-
mined initial point. This will enable you to
start your evasive action and plan your ap-
proach to the target.
9. PLACE BOMB RELEASE HANDLE
TO SELECT.
10. BE SURE INSTRUCTOR'S CUT-OFF
SWITCH IS ON.
----.-t----" DOUBLE DRIFT ,-----e-t-------
, . //
, , .
xx
RESTRICTED
, /
, /
'/
6-3- 3
RESTRICTED
C. BOMBING APPROACH
6-3- 4
+
3
,
,
I
I
I
,
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;

I THERE IS NO
SET'AmRN
I FOil THESE
• MANEUVERS
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,
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,
,
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1. PILOT SIGNALS YOUR SHIP AT
THE INITIAL POINT. The pilot signals you
at this point so you may start evasive action.
Plan ahead your expected maneuvers into
the target.
2. UNCAGE GYRO. If the airplane is on
autopilot and you are directing its flight, un-
cage the gyro. If the pilot is doing the eva-
sive action maneuvers leave the gyro caged
to prevent the possibility of tumbling it.
3. DISENGAGE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH.
This is done in order to control the airplane
by the autopi lot clutch arm for the evasive
action maneuvers.
4. SIGNAL PILOT. You signal the pilot
to tell him that you understand and are start-
ing the approach.
5. DO EVASIVE ACTION. On the ma-
neuvers, limit the turns from 50 to 15
0
and
the time straight and level from 10 to 20
secs.
6. LEVEL GYRO. Level the gyro on a
straight leg of the evasive action prior to the
last turn onto the run.
7. PICK UP TARGET. Begin to limit
turns of the evasive action in order to keep
the target in view.
8. TURN DESIRED RACK SWITCH ON.
9. TURN RATE MOTOR SWITCH ON.
This is done as the lateral crosshair ap-
proaches the target so you can judge the time
you have left and you can start your bombing
run at the proper time.
RESTRICTED
10. PRE·SET DRIFT AND ENGAGE
BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH. When the sighting
angle index drives to the position at which
you should start the bombing run, pre-set the
pre-determined drift for your heading and
engage the bombsight clutch.
11. TURN ON TO TARGET AND REFINE
COURSE. This is done by sighting over the
trail rack and turning the turn knob until it
is aligned with the target. You should have
only small adj ustments to make on the course
synchronization.
12. PUT LATERAL CROSSHAIR ON
TARGET AND REFINE RATE. You should
have only small adjustments to make on the
rate synchronization.
13. HOLD UP THE RELEASE LEVER.
14. REFINE COURSE AND RATE.
15. SIGNAL PILOT WHEN BOMB IS
AWAY. This is done, in combat, so the pilot
can turn and get out of the target area im-
mediately.
D. AFTER BOMB RELEASE
(Same as on training qualification mission I
1. PUT RELEASE LEVER DOWN.
2. TURN RACK SWITCH OFF.
3. CHECK SYNCHRONIZATION, ALTI-
TUDE AN)) AIRSPEED.
4. CHECK POSITION OF BUBBLES
AND CAGE GYRO.
5. ANALYZE BOMB RELEASE (CALL
SHOT).
6. TURN RATE MOTOR SWITCH OFF.
7. NOTE DRIFT AND COMPASS
HEADING.
8. WATCH FOR BOMB IMPACT.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
E. AFTER BOMB IMPACT
(Same as on training qualification mission I
1. NOTE TIME AND POINT OF
IMPACT.
2. ENGAGE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH
AND DISENGAGE BOMBSIGHT
CLUTCH.
3. SIGNAL PILOT READY TO TURN.
4. NOTE TANGENT OF DROPPING
ANGLE.
5. RECORD ALL DATA ON 12-C
FORM.
6. PREPARE FOR NEXT RUN.
F. AFTER LAST BOMB
IMPACT
(Same as on training qualification mission I
1. SIGNAL PILOT BOMBING IS
COMPLETED.
2. CLOSE BOMB BAY DOORS.
3. PLACE BOMB RELJj:ASE HANDLE
TO SAFE POSITION.
4. TURN BOMBARDIER'S CONTROL
PANEL SWITCHES OFF.
5. TURN BOMBSIGHT SWITCHES
OFF.
6. SET TRAIL ARM AT ZERO.
7. SET DISC SPEED DRUM AT MINI-
. MUM SETTING.
~ : COVER BOMBSIGHT.
9. FILL OUT 12-C FORMS AS COM-
PLETEL Y AS POSSIBLE.
6--3- 5
RESTRICTED
A. AT AIRPL4NE
I Same as on trainin9 qualification mission I
1. CHECK ENTRY IN FORM 1.
2. FILL OUT REPORT ON ANY MAL-
FUNCTION OF BOMBING
EQUIPMENT.
B. TURN IN EQUIPMENT
6-3- 6
(Same as on training qualification mission)
1. PARACHUTE.
2. CAMERA.
3. TACHOMETER.
4. ABC TANGENT SCALES.
5. BOMBSIGHT TIME.
C. CRITIQUE
(Same as on training qualification mission)
1. ANALYZE MISSION WITH
INSTRUCTOR.
2. TURN IN ALL REPORTS AND
FORMS.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
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2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
HORIZONTAL DISTANCE in miles
RESTRICTED
6- 3-7
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RESTRICTED
CONSTANTS AND CONYERSION FACTORS
5aOO- The disc speed constant for the M-
Series Bombsights.
7773-The constant used in solving for
. (5300 X 88)
groundspeed In mph, - - SO--
IS-The !!umber of mils used in deter-
mining bubble error of one degree.
EQUATIONS
WR = GS (ft/sec) X ATF
AR=WR-T
WR
TanWR !.=BA
AR
Tan AR !. = BA = Tan Drop!.
T T
T (in ft.) T (in mils)
an !. = BA = 1 000
,
Trail (in ft.) = T (in mils)
8S/60-Factor used to change mph to ft/sec.
You multiply mph by 88/ 60 to find
ft / sec.
l.I5- Factor used to convert knots to mph.
You multiply knots by 1.15 to find
mph.
DS

- ATF
GS (ft
/
)
= DS X BA X Tan WR !.
. sec. 5300
GS ( h) = DS X BA X Tan WR!.
mp 7773
CT = T X Sin drift angle
RCCT = T (I - Cos drift angle)
DS Error
-U-S-
Range Error (in mils)
Tan WR !. X 1,000
Tan Sighting !. = Tan Drop!. ) Tim; of Run
Actual time of fall (ATF)- The time lapse
between the release and impact of the
bomb.
Actual range (AR)-See Range, actual.
Actual range angle (AR!. )-See Angle, ac-
tual range.
Airspeed compression error-See Error, air-
speed compression.
Airspeed, calibrated (CAS)-The reading of
the airspeed indicator, corrected for in-
strumental and installation errors.
Airspeed, indicated (IAS)-The reading of
the airspeed indicator.
Airspeed, true (TAS) - The true speed of the
airplane relative to the air.
Altitude, bombing (BA)-The actual height
of the airplane above the target.
Altitude, calibrated (CA) - The reading of
. the altimeter corrected for instruments!
and installation errors.
RESTRICTED
Altitude, flight level pressure (FLP A) - The
pressure measurement in feet that the air-
plane is above the standard datum plane.
Altitude, indicated (lA)-The reading of the
altimeter.
Altitude, mean pressure (MPA)-The aver-
age between the target pressure altitude
and the flight level pressure altitude.
Altitude, pressure (PA)-The reading of the
altimeter corrected for instrumental and
installation errors when 29.92 is set on the
pressure scale. The pressure measurement
in feet above the standard datum plane.
Altitude, pressure above target (PA above
T)-The pressure measurement in feet of
the column of air between the airplane and
the target.
Altitude, pressure variation (PA Var.) -
The pressure measurement in feet between
sea level and the standard datum plane.
Altitude, runway pressure (RP A) - The
pressure measurement in feet that the
runway is above the standard datum plane.
7-1-1
RESTRICTED
Altitude, target pressure (TP A)-The pres-
sure measurement in feet that the target
is above the standard datum plane.
Altitude, true (TA)-The actual height of
the airplane above sea level.
Angle, actual range (AR L ) - The angle
which subtends the actual range of bomb.
Angle, drift-The angle between the true
heading and the true course.
Angle, drift correction-The angle added to
or subtracted from the airplane's true
course to obtain true heading.
Angle, dropping (Drop L )-The angle be-
tween the line of sight and the vertical ref-
erence at the instant the bomb is released.
Angle, range (RL )-The angle between the
line of sight and the true vertical. At the
instant of release, this angle differs from
the dropping angle by the amount the ver-
tical reference is out of the true vertical.
Angle, sighting-The angle between the line
of sight and the vertical reference at any
instant.
Angle, tangent of dropping (Tan drop L)-
Actual range divided by bombing altitude.
Angle, tangent of trail (Tan T L )-Trail in
feet divided by bombing altitude.
Angle, tangent of whole range (Tan WR L )
-Whole range divided by bombing alti-
tude.
Angle, trail (T L )-The angle which sub-
tends trail on the ground.
Angle, whole range (WR L )-The angle
which subtends whole range.
Apparent precession-See Precession, appar-
ent.
Area target-See Target, area.
Axis, pitch (Jateral)-An imaginary line run-
ning laterally through the center ·of grav-
ity of the .airplane, parallel to a straight
line through both wing tips. Hence, the
axis about which the airplane pitches.
Axis, roll (Jongitudinal)-An imaginary line
running fore and aft through the center of
gravity of the airplane, parallel to the axis
of the propeller or thrust line. Hence, the
axis about which the airplane rolls.
Axis, yaw (vertical)-An imaginary line run-
ning vertically through the center of grav-
ity of the airplane, at right angles to the
pitch and roll axes. Hence, the axis about
which the airplane turns or yaws.
7-1-2
Barometric pressure (Corrected to sea level
conditions) (BP Corr.)-See Target baro-
metric pressure.
Bombing altitude (BA)-See Altitude, bomb-
ing.
Bombing approach-The flight of the bomb-
ing airplane or formation from the begin-
ning of attack upon a specific target until
the beginning of the straight bombing run.
Bombing, fixed angle (Non-synchronous)-
That method of bombing where the drift
angle and dropping angle are pre-deter-
mined and set into the sighting mechanism.
Sometimes called low altitude bombing.
Bombing, synchronous - Tha t method of
bombing wMre the bombsight is used to
determine and set up the drift angle and
dropping angle by synchronizing. Some-
times called high altitude bombing.
Bombing run-The brief period of flight of
the bombing airplane or formation imme-
diately preceding bomb release.
110m bing, train-The release of two or more
bombs in succession from the same air-
plane, with a single sighting operation, and
with the desired interval in feet between
successive bombs.
Calibrated airspeed (CAS)-See Airspeed,
calibrated.
Calibrated altitude (CA)-See Altitude,
calibrated.
Circular error (CE)-See Error, circular.
Collision course-The true course made good
by the airplane when passing directly over
the target.
Compass heading (CH)-See Heading, com-
pass.
Compression error, airspeed-See Error, air-
speed compression.
Course synchronization-The process of ad-
j usting the course knobs of the bombsight
and directing the airplane so that the fore
and aft cross hair remains centered on the
desired object as the airplane flies toward
it. If cross hair is moving off to the right
the synchronization is off to the right.
Course, true (TC)-The direction of flight
over the surface of the earth, expressed
as an angle with respect to true north.
Crosstrail (CT)-The distance upwind that
the airplane must fly in order for a bomb
to hit the target.
RESTRICTED
Detlection error (DE)-See Error, deflection.
Deviation (Dev.) - The angle between a line
to magnetic north and a line passing
through a compass needle.
Disc speed (DS) - The speed in rpm at which
the disc rotates in the M-Series bomb-
sight. The time factor, arrived at by divid-
ing A TF into 5,300.
Drift angle-See Angle, drift.
Drift correction angle-See Angle, drift cor-
rection.
Dropping angle (Drop L )-See Angle, drop-
ping.
Error, airspeed compression (Temperature)
- The increase in the indication of the
free air temperature gage caused by air
compression and friction on the case
around the sensitive element.
Error, circular (CE) - The radial straight
line distance of the bomb impact to the
center of the target.
Error, detlection (DE) - The distance of the
bomb impact r ight or left of the target's
center.
Error, installation- The error in the airplane
instrument due to the location and installa-
tion of its units.
Error, instrument-The error inherent in the
instrument itself and arising in the manu-
facture of the instrument.
Error, range (RE) -The distance of bomb
impact over or short of target center.
Extended vision- The increase in the sight-
ing angle available with M-Series bomb-
sights when you rotate the extended vision
knob. (20· in the M-7 and M-9).
Fixed target-See Target, fixed.
Fixed angle bombing-See Bombing, fixed
angle.
Flight level pressure altitude (FLP A)-See
Altitude, flight level pressure . •
Flight level temperature (FL Temp.)-See
Temperature, flight level.
Groundspeed (GS )-Actual speed relative to
the earth's surface.
Heading, compass (CH)-The magnetic
heading with deviation applied.
Heading, magnetic (MH)-The true head-
ing with variation applied.
Heading, true (TH)- The direction of the
longitudinal axis of the airplane, expressed
as an angle with respect to true north.
RESTRICTED
RESTRICTED
Indicated airspeed-See Airspeed, indicated.
Indicated altitude-See Altitude, indicated.
Induced precession-See Precession, induced.
Initial point (IP) - The point on the ground
over which you will start your bombing
approach.
Installation error-See Error, installation.
Instrument error-See Error, instrument.
Lateral axis-See Axis, pitch.
Line of sight-The imaginary straight line
from the bombsight optics to a point on
the ground lying under the intersection of
the crosshairs.
Longitudinal axis-See axis, roll.
Magnetic heading (MH)-See Heading, mag-
netic.
Magnetic north (MN)-See North, magnetic.
Maneuvering target-See Target, maneuver-
ing.
Mean pressure altitude (MP A)-See Alti-
tude, mean pressure.
Mean temperature-See Temperature, mean.
Mil (pO-An angle whose tangent is 0.001.
It subtends a distance on the ground equal
to 1/ 1,000 of the bombing altitude.
Moving target-See Target, moving.
Non-synchronous bombing - See Bombing,
fixed angle.
North, true (TN) -The direction to the north
pole from any given point on the earth's
surface.
North, magnetic (MN) - The direction of the
magnetic north pole from any given point
on the earth's surface.
Pitch axis-See Axis, pitch.
Precession, apparent- The movement of the
earth in relation to the gyro.
Precession, induced-The movement of the
gyro in r elation to t he earth caused by ap-
plying an external force to the gyro.
Pretlight inspection- A test of the f unction-
ing efficiency of equipment, such as the
bombsight, before . the take-off on any
bombing mission.
Pre-set trail-The trail that remains set into
the sight when the trail arm is on zero.
Pressure altitude (P A)-See Altitude, pres-
sure.
Pressure altitude above target (P A above T)
-See Altitude, pressure above target.
Pressure altitude variation (PA Var.)-See
Altitude, pressure variation.
7-1-3
RESTRICTED
Point target-See Target, point.
Range, actual (AR)-The horizontal dis-
tance traveled by the bomb during ATF.
Range angle (R L )-See Angle, range.
Range component of crosstrail (RCGT)-
The error over which results when there
is a crosswind, because the bombsight
measures trail along the course rather
than the heading.
Range error (RE)-See Error, range.
Range synchronization-The process of ad-
justing the rate knobs of the bombsight so
that the lateral crosshair remains centered
on the desired object as the airplane flies
toward it.
Thus you solve for groundspeed. If the
cross hair is moving off to the rear the
synchronization is said to be fast.
Range, whole (WR)-The horizontal dis-
tance traveled by the airplane during ATF.
Release point-The point in space where the
bomb is released from the airplane.
Roll axis-See Axis, roll.
Runway pressure altitude (RPA)-See Alti-
tude, runway pressure.
Sighting angle-See Angle, sighting.
Speed of Closure--The speed at which the
distance between two objects is closed.
Standard datum plane (SDP)-The level
where the barometric pressure is exactly
29.92.
Standard lapse rate--A temperature decrease
of 2°C for each 1,000 ft. increase in alti-
tude.
Synchronization (course-range)-See Course
or range synchronization.
Synchronous bombing-See Bombing, syn-
chronous.
Tangent of dropping angle (Tan Drop L ) -
See Angle, tangent of dropping.
Tangent of trail angle (Tan T L )-See Angle,
tangent of trail.
Tangent of whole range angle (Tan WR L )
- See Angle, tangent of whole range.
Target, area-A target which requires a dis-
tribution of bombs of the proper size
throughout the area in which the definite
vulnerable points lie.
Target, fixed-A target which has no motion
relative to the earth.
Target, maneuvering-A target which moves
7-1- 4
with accelerated motion (changing speed
or direction or both).
Target, moving- A target which moves with
constant speed and direction.
Target, point- A target which, to be de-
stroyed, requires either a direct hit by a
bomb of the proper size or a hit within a
limited distance therefrom.
Target barometric pressure (corrected to sea
level conditions) (TBP Corr.)-The weight
of the column of air above the target
measured in inches of mercury and cor-
rected to sea level conditions.
Target pressure altitude (TPA)-See Alti-
tude, target pressure.
Target temperature (T Temp.)-See Tem-
pera ture, target.
Temperature, flight level (FL Temp.)-The
free air temperature in degrees centigrade
that exists at flight level.
Temperature, mean-The average between
the target temperature and the flight level
temperature.
Temperature, target (T Temp.)-The free
air temperature in degrees centigrade that
exists at the target.
Trail-The horizontal distance that the bomb
lags behind the airplane because of air re-
sistance.
Trail angle (T L )- See Angle, trail.
Train bombing-See Bombing, train.
Trajectory--The arched path of the bomb
through the air.
True airspeed (TAS )-See Airspeed, true.
True altitude (TA)- See Altitude, true.
True course (TC)-See Course, true.
True heading (TH)-See Heading, true.
True north (TN)-See North, true.
Uncage-To unlock the gyro from the sight
case by use of the caging knob.
Variation i,.Var.) - The angle between lines
to true north and magnetic north.
Vector- A straight line which proceeds in a
given direction, and whose length shows
distance traveled in a given time.
Vertical axis-See Axis, yaw.
Whole range (WR)-See Range, whole.
Whole range angle (WR L )-See Angle,
whole range.
Wind-A moving air mass designated by the
direction from which it comes.
Yaw axis-See Axis, yaw.
RESTRICTED
THE GUGlER LITHO. CO.
Ml lWAUI{EE, WIS., SEPT. 19H, 16)01

STUDENTS' MANUAL

Prepared by the

ARMY

AIR

FORCES

TRAINING

COMMAND

Visual Training Deportment, in Collaboration with the

ARMY AIR FORCES INSTRUCTORS' SCHOOL (BOMBARDIER)
M.A.A.F., Midland, Texas, and

ARM Y

A IR

FO R C E S

B 0 MBA R DIE R

SCH0 0 l S

TO BE USED AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CUR RENT AAF TRAINING COMMAND MEMO RAN DUM COVERING
BOMBARDIER TRAINING

NOTICE: Th is doc um e nt contains information oRe cling the Notion al Defense of the United Stoles ..... ithin the
meaning of th e Es pio nage Act, 50 U.5 .C. , 31 ond 3 2,
05

am en d e d . Its transmission or the re velation of its

con lents in ony man ne r to on unaut hori ze d person is prohi b ited by low.

ARMY AIR FORCES TRAINING COMMAND

RESTRICTED

i~ >';0
~. ,,
,
\

,,
\ \

\

The Air Force demands precision and absolute
accuracy from the Bombardier. There is n<? middle
ground. You are either an expert or you ore not a

bombardier. The importance of your responsibility
is obvious. You, and your pilot, have equipment and troining that will destroy the enemy.

This is Y0l!r manual. It contoins the combined combat experience plus the teaching experience of t housands of instruc to rs. Study It. Learn It . Then,
when you enter combat there will be no doubt of

the results.

lieutenant General, U.S.A., Commanding

RESTRICTED

REST RI CTE D

FOREWORD by General Yount SECTION I - THE BOMBING PROBLEM
History of Bombing
Theory of Bombing

The Gyroscope : Bombing Errors . Bombing Analysis

1-1 1-2 1-3

1- 4
1-5

SECTION 2-BOMBING COMPUTATIONS
Introduction
Slid e Rule and A irspe ed Computations Using the E-68 Computer

2-1

2-2
2- 3 2- 4 2-5 2- 6

Vector Solu ti o ns .
V ector Solution s on the E-6B Comput e r

Al titude Correction Computations The Automatic Bombing Com p uter

. SECTION 3- C-l AUTOPILOT
Introduction Co nstruction
Compl ete Syst e m

3-1

3-2
3- 3

Operati o n
N o me nclature

3- 4 3-5

SECTION 4- M-SERIES BOMBSIGHT
Introduction
Construction and Op er a t ion

Pre flight Procedu re
Inspections . Trouble-Shooting
Nomencla t ure

4- 1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4- 5 4-6

SECTION 5- BOMBING TRAINER
Trai ne r Theory

5-

1

Tra iner Operatio n Tactical Bombing Practice .

5-2 5-3

SECTIO N 6-BOMBING PROCEDURES
Conduct of a Tra ining -Qualification Mission
Fixed Angl e Bombing

Conduct of a Training Combat Missi o n .

6-1 6-2 6-3
.

GLOSSARY OF TERMS.

Equot;ons, Con stonts on d Conv e ,,;on Facta"

7-1

REST·R IC TED

RESTRICTED

SECTION 1

~----------~------... ... ...

~~ HISTORY OF BOMBING

\

~'"

Fleets of bombers, operating thousands of miles from their home bases, daily give new effectiveness to strategy_ This objective is to get above the enemy and drop destructive missles on him. To get this "upper hold," warfare began with prehistoric man dropping rocks and spears from cliffs and trees. As the years went by and armies developed complexity in make-up and methods, it was still found advantageous to fight from heights. When
1-1-1

free-floating balloons appeared, it took no imagination to foresee the possibilities of shooting down at the enemy and of dropping missles on him. With the development of the airplane, men realized that here, for the first time in history, was a weapon with which to get above the enemy at any place and at any time. It was apparent that the airplane 's range would far exceed that of the finest artillery, or of any known ground equipment.
RESTRICTED

. the airplane was a f rail cr aft with engines t hat needed most of t heir power to get the airplane off the g r ound and hold it aloft.and men who could use s uch a device with cons is tent effi ciency-in order to make bombing effective. sig hting along struts or cylinder s. many pilots used r efer ences on the a irplane its elf. which wer e dropped on ground personnel. ' Pilots experimen ted for a time with st eel darts. Most pilots used a headwind. E ngineer s increa sed the bombload ca pacity of a irplanes by developing more power f ul engines. These were feather-wei o-ht compa r ed to t he present-day block-bus ter. was so unusual as to call f or a specia l celebration of t he event. The pilot acted also as bombardier. F or this r ea son.bombs fe ll short of the target or beyond it. But this did not help solve a basic problem : how to find the point in space a t which to r elease the bomb. Before the end of World War I pilots began us ing fragmentation and incendiary bombs which weighed 15 to 18 pounds. and r eleas ing the bombs when t he target s came into s ight. In their bomb-aim ing. This made it possible for them to get closer t o t he ta rget bef ore releas ing their bombs.1. A hit "on the nose. but by small ropes which dang-led behind them like kite tails. because it slowed their g r oundspeed. AAF officer s saw that they would ha ve to find an accurate s ighting device . and his aiming methods wer e hit-and-miss-mos tly miss. small shells were guided to their marks not by fins ." indeed. in order to hit the ta r get . as modern bombs. Ther e was no allowance for drift.RESTRICTED Air Attack in World War I At the s tart of World War I. the earl y a irpla nes could carry only a s mall load of m issiles.2 . By the trial-and-error method they corrected their mistakes. Various drop: ping angles for differ ent g roundspeeds were represented by na ils driven into the fuselage. The next development. Th is problem became mor e acute. They found t hat their speed determined whether the . So the bombing runs were made either with the wind or against it. as improved gr ound defenses forced the bombing airplanes to go higher and fa ster. RESTRICTED 1.

Other equipment you will use includes the electronic co-pilot. precision mechanis m.RESTRICTED Improvement in Bombsi9hts By the end of World War I. magic-brai n device. which enables you to drop a train of accurately-spaced bombs. This task in itself required years of trials and tests .1 11-3 RESTRICTED . and in the large numbers called for by global war. This skill will qualify you for membership in that great group of men. These sights were not comparable to the present synchronous sights. the computers. who have proved beyond question the ability of the AAF to pin-point ammunition dumps on tiny atolls in the Pacific. t he bombardiers. but they produced r esults accurate enough to insure the future of air bombardment. and to lay a ruinous pattern of fire and explosives on ANY of the enemy's industrial areas. which holds the airplane on its course. and airmen solved t he problem of desi~ning an accurate bombsight. Nor is it a: device which relieves its user of all responsibility. It is impossible to outline briefiy the improvements that have been made in bombsights and other bombing equipment in the past 25 years. physicists. which save the time and trouble of making paper-and-pencil calculations.how brilliant American engineers. to destroy ships at sea. but it definitely is not a miracle machine which requires a miracle man to operate it. What it does is to solve understandable problems in an understandable manner. the intervalometer. Avoid the common impression that the bombsight is a super-human. mathematicians. With the bombsight completed it took the best efforts of American industry to learn how to build these int ricate devices to the close tolerances required. and oxygen equipment which makes it possible for you to ascend to altitudes higher tha n man ever went before. True. Discouragements were many. it is an ingenious. engineers had developed simple bombsights. Volumes would be needed to tell only of one g reat achievement . to blast bridges · and communication lines far beyond artillery range. lOUR 10UI' L . progress slow. You can match the excellence of this equipment only by cultivating your skill in handling it.

in effect. describes a wide arc in its flight through the air. so that the path of t he shell. a cannon must hurl it up into the air. how you set it in.RESTRICTED INTRODUCTION Before the invention of airplanes. The bombing problem has two parts: the course problem and the range problem. you must know something about falling bodies. the bombsight will find this point and release the bomb for you. however. A thorough study of bombing theory.2-1 . ' Course means that the bomb must travel in the right direction. To understand the range problem. t h e bomb follows the same downward path as the shell. advances the range of a cannon. Range means that it must be released the correct distance back from the target. An airplane. To make your bomb hit the target. toward the target. From that point on. Therefore you solve your course problem by putting your airplane on the correct heading. The essential difference between firing a sh ell and dropping a bomb is that the airplane carries the bomb up into the air and releases it at the highest point of the trajectory. RESTRICTED 1. and how the bombsight uses it to solve the bombing problem . A bomb always falls in the direction in which the a irplane is headed at the moment of release. will enable you to understand what data must be set into the sight. Bombing is really aerial artillery. In order to make a sh ell drop on a certain point. that is. Actually. so that it will not fall short of the target or over it. provided that you put the proper data into it. or the trajectory. The course problem is fairly simple. the only thing you have to do is find the proper point in space from which to release it. the principal means of dropping explosives upon the enemy was the long-range cannon.

the air pushes back against t he bomb. This resistance tends to keep the bomb in flight longer. and types of bombs has been determined by trial and error and is g iven in your bombing tables. air resistance acts against the force of gravity . The distance on the ground resulting from this resistance to the forward motion of the bomb is called horizontal lag.RESTRICTED FORCES ACTING ON THE BOMB The moment a bomb is released from an airplane. since it is the distance the bomb has trailed behind the airplane that dropped it. This is a good name for it. the air through which the bomb moves is resisting this motion. It exerts the same force on all bodies. In the same way. In bombing. (3) air resistance. In other words. or weight. While true airspeed is driving the bomb forward. Remember that the airplane is traveling at a definite speed with respect to the air. The distance on the ground over which the airplane travels during this extra time is called vertical lag. This time is called the actual time of fall (ATF). Trail is the horizontal distance measured on t he g round from the point of impact to a 1. True Airspeed At the same time that g ravity is pulling the bomb downward. causing it to lag behind the airplane. it leaves the airplane with the same forward velocity. Since the bomb is a part of the airplane up to the moment of release. During the extra time required for the bomb to fall . whatever their s ize. Gravity plane and the bomb relative to the air is called true airspeed (TAS). and (4) wind. a number of forces begin acting upon it.2. Air Resistance Gravity pulls the bomb toward the earth at a continually increasing speed. (2) airspeed. velocity is driving it forward. TRUf AIR SPEED TRAIL GRAVITY J) '1 AIR RESISTANCE- Th e s um of these two distances on the ground is called trail (T). Remember that gravity and true airspeed are acting on the bomb at the same time. The result of t hese forces determines the path t he bomb will follow and the point of impact. The amount of trail for various bombing altitudes. RESTRICTED .ance. this forward velocity of the air- The third force affecting the bomb in its flight is one which acts against t he first two. true airspeeds.2 point directly beneath the ai rplane at the instant of impact. t he airplane continues to move forward. These forces are: (1) gravity. shape. This force is air resist. During the time between release and impact the bomb follows a path between the direction of these two forces.

Since the downward velocity depends on the bombing altitude from which the bomb is dropped: As bombing altitude increases. .2-3 . A bomb with a high ballistic coefficient falls faster and with less trail than a bomb with a low ballistic coefficient. t he resistance of the air increases. thus the horizontal lag is greater. the tables give you the correct trail for each bombing altitude. The actual time of fall for each bombing altitude.RESTRICTED \ Q =. Ordnance engineers classify bombs into different types according to t he ballistic coefficient of the part icular bomb. It will find the correct point in space for the bomb release. Therefore: As true airspeed increases. and type of bomb. but it is also affected by true airspeed and bomb ballistics. you must synchronize for course and range. while gravity is pulling it down. true airspeed. be sure you have the correct bombing altitude. 1. You set actual time of fall into the M-Series Bombsight as a disc speed. trail increases. Similarly. but when using some sights yo u set in the actual time of fall directly. air resistance is tend ing to hold it up. true airspeed. and type of bomb. true airspeed. Therefore: As ballistic coefficient increases. and type of bomb has been determined by trial and error and is given in your bombing tables. If true airspeed increases. Whenever you look up actual time of fall in your tables.l1ust fall. If you do these few things correctly. true airspeed. the bombsight will automatically solve the bombing problem. and type of bomb. trail increases. which means the relative amount of resistance the air offers to it.AIR 'RESISTANCE ~~ r I I ~~ T RA I L Remember that trail is the result of several forces which are acting on the bomb. ballistic coefficient decreases. The tables give you the correct actual time of fall or the correct disc speed for each bombing altitude.j true airspeed increases. and type of bomb. Therefore. trail decreases. if the downward velocity increases. true airspeed. before your sight can do a nything for you. Once you have 'obtained from the tables your correct trail and actual time of fall and have set them into the bombsight. While true airspeed is driving the bomb forward. the resistance of the air to that force increases and the vertical lag is greater. or the vertical disRESTRICTED Trail and actual time of fall are the two factors you must set into your bombsight. I -----::. You set trail into the bombsight as a mil value. air resistance is tending to hold it back. YOU MUST KNOW ACCURATEL Y your bombing altitude.__o ___ ~~~ I TRUt AIR ~. In the same way. and wi ll release t he bomb at that point. I ACTUAL TIME OF FALL The actual time of fall (ATF) of the bomb depends primarily on the exact height of the airplane above the target.J(_ I . tance wh ich the bomb J. The amount of resistance which the air offers to the bomb depends on the size and shape of the bomb. Remember: ATF increases as ' bombing altitude increases.

400 ft. Be sure that you get them thoroughly. in a mile) 88 22 .280 (ft. and in computing whole range. Whole range is measured on the ground. the four'th and final force on the bomb in its downward flight. you must understand the term whole range (WR). Therefore. To meas ure the distance covered by a moving object in a given time.400 ft.RESTRICTED Before considering wind. In other words. Therefore: WR = GS (ft/ sec) X ATF Suppose that a bomb is dropped from an airplane traveling at a groundspeed of 150 mph. while the bomb is falling. and that the bomb takes 20 seconds to reach the ground. groundspeed must be in 1-2-4 5. This rate is called groundspeed (GS). To do this. Whole range is the horizontal distance traveled by the airplane from the moment the bomb is released until the bomb strikes the ground. Actual Range Actual range (AR) is t he horizontal distance that the bomb travels from the moment RESTRICTED . They are terms you must use every day. multiply 150 by In the first place. the airplane flies 4. In order to find the whole range. whole r ange. the rate you use is the rate at which the airplane is moving with respect to the ground. you must understand certain fundamental bombing terms. you must first ehange your groundspeed of 150 mph to feet per second.600 (sec.or 3. you multiply the time by the rate at which the object is moving. and it is given in seconds. The time used is the actual time of fall. Whole Range and Groundspeed feet per second. in an hr.)' 60 15 The groundspeed in this problem is therefore 220 feet per second. Then 220 X 20 = 4.

The angle between this vertical reference and the line of sight at any instant is called the sighting angle. which is called the line of sight. If you set the proper data into t he bombsight. it solves this problem for you automatically. As your airplane moves toward the target. t hat is. The dropping angle is t he angle formed between the line of 1-2. AR=WR .400 ft. It measures an angle which subtends actual range. As the airplane approaches the target.RESTRICTED of release un til t he moment of impact. the line of sig ht sweeps toward the vertical and the sighting angle g rows smaller. you can find actual range by subtracting trail from whole range.5 . of course your line of s ight changes. Sighting Angle Whenever you look at the target through your bombs ight. the bombsight sets up a vertical line of reference between itself and the ground.400 ft . forward.T If your whole range is 4. Since the bomb lags a certain " distance behind the airplane (trail). When you have set up the proper course toward the target. from bombsight to target. Line of Sight released in order to score a hit. thereby locating t he proper point in space for the bomb's release. you are looking along a line. the correct distance back from the target that the bomb must be RESTRICTED To do this. you have yet to find the actual range. Dropping Angle The particular sighting angle set up by the bombsight at the instant of release is called the dropping angle (Drop L ). your actual range is 4. the bomb travels only 4..130 ft.130 ft. forward. and you find by using your bombing tables t hat your trail is 270 ft. While your airplane is t raveling 4.

Trail An'll. Tangent Values of Angles The actual range angle (AR L ) is the angle 1-2-6 Angles can be measured by using what is called the tangent of the angle.RESTRICTED sight and the vertical reference at the instant the bomb drops from the airplane. the dropping angle is the same as the actual range angle and also subtends t. In bombing. At the instant of release. a line which is exactly perpendicular to the ground. whether this is the true vertical or not. It is measured from the true vertical at the instant of release. that is. If you do not operate the bombsight correctly.he actual range of the bomb. this angle differs from the dropping angle by the amount the vertical reference is out of the true vertical. Whole Range Angle The whole range angle (WR L ) is the angle which subtends whole range. the line of reference it sets up will not be true vertical.! The range angle is the angle between the line of sight and the true vertical. But remember that the sighting angle and the dropping angle are measured from the vertical reference set up by the bombsight. If the bombsight sets up a true vertical reference and the bombing problem has been properly solved. This means that the lines which form the angle strike off on the ground the actual range distance. and this is the method the bombsight uses. Range Angle which subtends the actual range of the bomb. Actual Range Angle The angle which subtends trail is called the trail angle (T L ). The tangent RESTRICTED . trail is given and used in terms of mils. it will establish as the vertical line of reference a line which is the true vertical. True Vertical and Bombsight Vertical If you operate the bombsight correctly.

One mil subtends a distance on the ground equal to 1/1. Therefore: (in mils) T an T I. = Tan WR I. then: WR AR BA = BA + BA T Therefore: WR BA = Tan Drop I. T (in ft.. 50 mils of trail s ubtends 400 ft. AR Tan Drop I. The side opposite the dropping angle is the actual range.001. An angle of 3 mils has a tangent of 0. At 1.) BA Since the trail angle is comparatively small. VERTICAL T (in ft. At 8. Tan T I. + Tan T I. The trail angle is read and can be converted to a tangent value by dividing by 1.000 of the BA. = -BA In the same way.. A mil is an angle whose tangent is 0. an angle of 35 mils has a tangent of 0. Therefore. When you desire to find the whole range that the bombsight has measured.192 mils --~VALUE 1.. The tangent of the whole range angle is equal to the whole range divided by the bombing altitude. Therefore: WR = Tan WR I. 1 mil of trail subtends 1 ft. ).5 mils 18 pol 20 364 pol 24!)'f 577 pol 830 !)'f RANGE in mils o 176!)'f pol 1. and the side adjacent to the dropping angle is bombing altitude (BA). opposite side T angen t = d ' a ]acen t'd e 51 Reading Angles from the Bombsight ft. = T 1000 .. You can read the tangent of the dropping angle directly from the bombsight. The particular tangent which you can read from the bombsight is the tangent of the dropping angle (Tan Drop I.) = T (in mils) 1~~0 Since whole range equals actual range plus trail.. on the ground. X BA 17.. it is measured in mils (¢) rather than in degrees. you must compute it from the tangent of the whole range angle which sub tends it..000.000 .000 ft..003.. You find the tanget of the whole range angle by adding the tangent of the trail angle to the tangent of the dropping angle.RESTRICTED of an angle in a right triangle is the number you get when you divide the length of the side opposite the angle by the length of the side adjacent to the angle.035. BA.372 mils DROPPING ANGLE TANGENT X 1000 RESTRICTED = AR BA in mils 1000 OF A mil IN FT 1-2-7 .

you solve for groundspeed. leaving the measurement of actual range. During this operation the trail that was previously set into the sight is automatically subtracted from whole range. Consider first the simplest wind conditions: tailwinds and headwinds. By keeping the line of sight on the target. This is the speed of the wind. true airspeed. RESTRICTED 1-2-8 . The actual time of fall set into the bombsight is automatically multiplied by the groundspeed obtained through synchronization to solve for whole range. and air resistance. In addition to gravity. and type of bomb to find from your bombing tables the trail and actual time of fall to set into your bombsight. the bomb is released automatically. When sighting angle reaches dropping angle. there is a fourth force acting on the bomb in its flight and affecting its trajectory. This is called range synchronization.RESTRICTED SOLUTION OF THE RANGE PROBLEM TRAil ~-------~'vr~--------~ WHOlE RANGE solved by bombsight from GS x ATF It is necessary to know the bombing altitude. During this operation the bombsight sets up the dropping angle which subtends this actual range. forward velocity.

RESTRICTED HEADWINDS AND TAILWINDS The first thing to notice about a headwind or tailwind is t hat it does not affect t he true airspeed of the airplane. and type of bomb. Groundspeed is the factor which is affected by a headwind or a tailwind. neither a headwind nor a tailwind has any effect on the amount of trail. TAILWIND CAUSES AN INCREASE IN ACTUAL RANGE HEADWIND CAUSES A DECREASE IN ACTUAL RANGE '3f/Ued Z)0e4 1ttJt 8 Uea 7~ RESTRICTED /lH«UUtt 01 7uUt I 1-2. then the air plane's speed over the ground is 160 mph. Actual range is also increased.9 . bombing a lt itude. with a tailwind which pushes t h e a ir forward at 10 mph. When your airplane flies directly into a headwind. and yo ur actual range is smaller. If your airplane is flying at a true airspeed of 150 mph. Therefore. Since whole range is found by multiplying groundspeed (in feet per second) by the actual time of fall. a tailwind causes an increase in whole range and a corresponding increase in actual range. When your actual range is increased. Sinne trail depends only on true airspeed. This means that the dropping angle must be greater. When there is a tailwind your bombsight sets up a dropping angle with a larger tangent. you must drop your bomb at a gr eater distance from your target in order to hit it. Your bombsigh t therefore sets up a smaller tangent of the dropping angle. since actual range is found by subtracting trail from whole range. all these results are reversed. an increase in groundspeed causes an increase in whole range. The groundspeed is less.

The engines.. Ther efore the bomb always lags behind the airplane in the line of heading. Similarly. Crosstrail is measured from the point of impact to the true course. air resistance begins to reduce t he forward velocity of the bomb.~. At the moment of r elease. The bomb will strike the ground behind the airplane. DRIFT L I I I WIND I \ \ I lUi Ip \ 10 I~ 1j"U " I"" \ II- If the airplane made good a true course which would pass directly over the target (a collision course). if the body of air is moving to the leit.. along the longitudinal axis of thE airplane. I 1 1 I . In order to make good a certain path over the g round (true course) when there is a crosswind. h owever. The speed of the wind causes both airplane and bomb to drift the same distance away from the true h eading. Wind is the movement of the entire body of air surr ounding the airplane. and downwind of true course. The distance between the true course of the airplane and the collision course is called crosstrail (CT). Immediately on release. When the wind moves to the right. 1..RESTRICTED CROSSWINDS When yo u have a wind from any direction except from dead a head or directly behind the a irplane. the pilot crabs the airplane into the wind. drift enters the bombing problem. The airplane must therefore make good a true course upwind of the target. he heads the airplane upwind s ufficiently to compensate for the effect of drift. true airspeed is driving both the a irplane and the bomb in t h e direct ion of heading. the movement of the a irplane is described a s left drift. This is called right drift. the bomb would strike the ground downwind of the target. The angle formed between true heading and true cour se is called the drift angle. the airRlane moves to the right.. That is. continue to drive the airplane forward at the same true airspeed as at bomb release.2 -10 I~ II II POINT OF RELEASE RESTRICTED ..

trail and drift are usually small enough t hat the " over" caused by R CCT is neglig ible. because if . you do not your bomb will fall not only short but a lso downwind of the target. In the same way. It results from the fact that the bombsight measures trail along t he course of the airplane. In the cross trail drawing. But when wind and cross trail exist. The equation for computing RCCT is: RCCT = T(1-Cos Drift L ) Notice that RCCT depends on trail and th e a moun t of drift. THE B OMBS'ICHT MEASURES' CROS'S'TRAIL fOR yOU AUTOMATICALLY. Naturally. encounters a large drift. if there is no drift there will be no cross trail. The error is called range component of crosstr"il (RCCT). Crosstrail depends on trail and drift. HICGtNBOTTOM. never theless this error is always presen t in all computations per- formed by modern bombsights whenever a crosswind is present. divide the opposite side by the hypotenuse. Although the distance is exaggerated in the drawing. The side opposite the drift angle is the crosstrail. whereas when there is a crosswind . NO. When t her e is no crosswind. flying at a high alt it ude. To make its computation. you find that this trail dis tance does not r each th e target. there is no crosstra il a nd no RCCT. RCCl You must notice one final fact about the effect of crosswind on the bombing problem. the bombs igh t still meas ures trail along the course. Hence the sine of the drift angle is the crosstrail divided by t rail. it r eaches to a point on t he collision course a head of the target. trail actually occurs along t he line of heading. if you forget to set in trail." known as RCCT. In low and medium a ltitude bombing. If you measure from a point on the ground directly beneath the airplane at the moment of impact back along the course to a point oppos ite the target. the bombsight cannot compute crosstrail for yo u. the bombsight uses what is called the sine of the drift a ngle. But if you measur e this same distance back a long the head ing .RESTRICTED The bombsight automatically measures crosstrail for you. the hypotenuse is the trail. Therefore you MUST remember to set in trail. The sine of an angle in a right triangle is the number yo u get when you . Ther efore : CT = T X Sin Drift L The bombsight can compute crosstrail because you have set trail into it and have automatically set up the drift angle when you set up your course. RCCT proauces significant errors when a high-s peed bomber . the point of impact of the bomb is shown a small distance over the target.2- 11 . NO. of the a irplane. RESTRICTED 1. Instead. The distance f rom t h e ta rget to this point of impact a head of the target is the range error "over. h eading and course coincide. you have th e trail as solved for by the bombsight.

. If you attack a tar get· which is moving in a straigh t line at a constant speed. . .. \ TARGET MOVING TOWARDS AIRPLANE \ 1." ..:''\1. /.<' " " 0-<. Also a target moving in 1'-. .t. -...> '\ .:- . ( - ..RESTRICTED THE MOVING TARGET A moving target is often t he obj ect of attack. p: :iTIS: : I : -~- ~ c.. '\". no new element is intr oduced into the bombing problem.... .. .2-1 2 RES T RICT ED . .. . " TARGET NOT MOVING tc: =J I 1- I..s'o " .0".. .:. ~... . a t arget moving towar d the a irplane along t h e cour se is like a stationar y t arget when a ta ilwind is blowing. .. '<:< J . Similarly... ... IDROPPING~-S-.' DROPPING ANGLE . TARGET MOVING AWAY FROM AIRPLANE '\ I ANGLE...." .. A target moving away from th e airplane in the same line as the airplane's cour se presents t he same problem as a stationar y target when a headwind is blowing.

However. If you try to bomb a target which is maneuvering. The only way to become proficient in bombing targets of this 80rt is to put in a great deal of practice on the bombing trainer and have actual bombing experience. the only thing you can use in solving your bombing problem is the experience of AAF bombardiers. the bombsight handles the situation just as if the target movement were drift caused by a crosswind. the airplane is actually closing with the train at a speed of 100 mph. the bombsight cannot synchronize for rate or determine the amount of crab required. the speed of closure is 200 mph and consequently the dropping angle is larger. in setting up your course you could not tell the difference between a left drift and an actual target motion to the right. it would be very hard to determine the speed of closure mathematically.RESTRICTED a straight line across the course presents the same problem as a stationary target with a crosswind blo\ving from the direction opposite to that in which the target moves. When the train approaches the airplane. you do not have to worry about such a problem. When an airplane traveling at a groundspeed of 150 mph is overtaking a train retreating at 50 mph. the speed of closure is the groundspeed of the airplane plus or minus the groundspeed of the target. They have discovered that to hit a maneuvering target you must aim to the rear of the target movement and inside its turn. ________ ~ X -----------ON A MANEUVERING TARGET AIM TO THE REAR OF THE TARGET MOVEMENT AND INSIDE ITS TURN RESTRICTED 1-2-13 . and dropping angle by analyzing the speed of closure between itself and the target. In fact. and thus cannot set up the correct course or dropping angle. When the target is stationary. if the target does not move in a straight line. Second. But. that is. actual range. if the target keeps changing its speed. the bombsight cannot set up either course or dropping angle accurately. since it has no means of predicting where the target will be at the time of impact. When the target is moving. the speed of closure is the same as the groundspeed of the airplane. First. there are hvo situations involving moving targets which the bombsight cannot handle adequa tely. If you had a target moving diagonally across the course and at the same time a crosswind blowing. The bombsight solves for this speed of closure in setting up the dropping aNgle. In either case you must crab the airplane to the right and set up a course to right of target. the speed at which the distance between them is closed. If the train moves in a straight line across the track of the airplane. · Remember that a bombsight develops whole range. The bombsight automatically solves it and determines the correct course and dropping angle.

the spinning axis remains in the same direction unless some outside force is applied to it. A gyroscope is s imply a s pinning flywheel. A gyro with a heavy rotor has more rigidity than one with a light rotor. You couldn't synchronize your bombsight with precision. Rigidity is increased by adding to the weight of the rotor. if you did not have some means for holding the sight in a steady. It is free to turn or tilt in any direction about this point. Properly mounted gyros are used. turns. Well balanced.1 strength or the amount of rigidity: the weight of its wheel or rotor. if their speed is the same. a nd rolls. Rigidity is increased if the weight is distributed on the outer rim of t he wheel. but this direction may be changed by applying some outside force. fixed position r elative to t he earth. stable position. When t he gyro wheel spins at a high sp'eed. The gyroscope is the only device that will hold your sight in a firm. Three fac tors determine a gy roscope's 1-3. for this reason. the distribution of this weight and the speed at which the rotor spins. its center of gravity. as an aid in maintaining direction. as far RESTRICTED . RIGIDITY One of the gyroscope's cha racteristics is rigidity: its tendency to hold a fixed position in space.RESTRICTED Your airplane pitches. r egardless of the movements of you r airplane. this wheel r evolves around its only fixed point.

Finally. of the gyro in relation to the earth. however. this is an illusion. InThis movement of the earth in relation to duced precession. You can determine. amo unt of apparent precess ion decreases as t Suppose you have a gyro at the equator. There. rigidity increases as the speed of the rotor increases. M.. in 4 minutes. It appears that the gyro has turned 4 minutes in any latitude. the amount the axis is vertical to the earth. A slowly spinning rotor gives the gyro little or no rigidity. or south poles where apparent precession is zero.45 X cosine of the latitude.45 mils. which is the same at Remember that in apparent precession. not the gyro's spin axis. a earth turns under the gyro. RESTRICTED 1-3. However. by using this equaover. the m idnight as it was at noon. The gyro appears to tilt. tion: 17. the axis of the gyro will apparently precess 17. By midnight the gyro is upside down from its noon of apparent precession that takes place in position . The earth has turned. 6 A. a s t he s ion is at the equator.M. means movement the gyro is called apparent precession. you move from the equator toward the north At noon its spin axis is horizontal. APPARENT PRECESSION Rigidity causes the gyro's spin axis to The greatest amount of apparent precespoint in a fixed direction . earth moves in relation to the gyroscope. 12 NOON 9-r--+-~~-~~ 6 P. An example is a boy's top which wobbles and then falls over on its s ide when its speed of rotation decreases. in mils.2 .RESTRICTED from the spin axis as possible.M. At 6 P .

This is known as the La w of Precession. A good way to remember the Law of Precession is : Place your fin gers in th e direction of rotation and point index finger in the direction of the applied force. it tilts toward t he 6 :00 o'clock position . as you would expect. 1. Ins tead. Suppose you have a gyro that is spinning clockwise.3-3 RESTRICTED . Instead. To change the position of a 'gyro. the gyro does not tilt in that direction. But the gyro's spin axis does not move in the direct ion in which the force is applied. it moves at a right angle to the applied force and in the direction of the gyro's rotation. you apply enough force to overpower its rigidity. your thumb will extend in the direction of precess ion.RESTRICTED INDUCED PRECESSION GYRO PRECESSES 90° FROM PO INT OF APPLIED PRESSURE IN THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION. If you push the top of the spin axis toward the 3 :00 o'clock position.

your job is to hold bombing errors to a minimum and to eliminate them wherever possible. the errors associated with each method will be discussed separately. There are two methods of bombing: (1) synchronous and (2) fixed-angle. however. your navigator. your gunners. Remember. however. the ground crew. Errors. for the most part. In certain cases. You will have to study all the data yo u have recorded for that particular release. Your team is only as good as you are. the ordnance men who loaded your bombs-everyone who had anything to do with your mission-might just as well have taken the day off and stayed home in bed! When you cut your probable errors in half. If you are a good bombardier yo u do not make the same error over and over again. the thing which causes a given error in synchronous bombing causes an error in just the opposite direction in fixed-angle bombing. It is only by first determining the cause of a bombing error that you can prevent it from happening again. For this reason. after the mission. your data must be as complete and accurate as pos~ible. Your mission is not successful unless your bomb hits the target. When it misses. For this reason." Record ALL the Data on 12C CORRECTLY. you must try to find out why. RESTRICTED 1-4-1 . and from data which you yourself have recorded on the 12C form. Start writing it down as soon as you call "Bomb away. you learn what causes a given error merely by viewing the impact and reading the data from your sight. your pilot.RESTRICTED INTRODUCTION A good bombing team is one that constantly improves with practice and study. At first. you will do most of your bombing analysis on the ground. When your bomb misses its mark. you become four times as valuable a bombardier! With experience. are the same in each type.

when you establish a n improper vertical . and (6) improper r elease. There are s ix major causes of errors in synchronous bombing : (1) impr oper vertical. Your accuracy in this operation has much to do with the accuracy of your bombs. (4) improper course. The effect is the same as if you had set incorrect data into your sight. To establish a vertical reference to t he ground. (5) improper rate.RESTRICTED THE MIRROR OF THE OPTICAL SYS TEM IS DRIVEN BY TH E RATE MOTOR BOMBSI GHT AUTOMATIC:--. But when you do not align the spin axis with t he true vertical . which are in two spirit levels mounted on top of the gyro housing. It establishes a vertical reference to the ground from which to align the course and measure the dropping angle. If each bubble is center ed under its lubber line. It misses because the bombsight has measured the dropping angle from the wrong r eference line. when you operate the bombsight incorrectly.2 angle must be measured from the true vert ical reference line for your bomb t o hit the target. the o RESTRICTED . (3) improper trail. you try to a lign t he spin axis of t he sight gyro with the true vertical.yo ur bomb misses. IMPROPER VERTICAL The ver tical gyroscope in t he M-Series bombs ight s tabilizes the optics against the roll and pitch of t he a irplane. (2) improper actual time of fall. or when your bombsight does not f unction properly.that is. Most of the errors occur when yo u compute incorr ect data._ ALLY DETERMINES DRIFT L AND DROP L In synchronous bombing the bombsight automatically solves your groundspeed and dropping angle. You can tell whether your gyro is in the true vertical by looking at t h e position of the bubbles. Your dropping 1-4.

OOO. t he bubble moves forward or back because of the inertia of t he liquid.RESTRICTED gyro gives a true vertical reference. and it will tend to r emain out of the vertical until they are centered. When the gyro tilts. You can measu re the a moun t of ti lt by t h e amount the bubble deviates f rom t he lubber line. you fly too far to the left in sighting the target. Therefor e th e deflection errOr is: DE = (bubble error in mils ) X BA/ l . You must cent er the fo r e and aft bubble when the airplane is main taining a constant speed and is not climbing or diving. Experience with ma ny s ights shows t hat when the bubble is one-half length off. If the bubble is one-half length to t h e r ight. Under these conditions. 1-4-3 . If the top of the spin. or the actual distance by which the bomb misses the target. DO NOT attempt to re-center the bubble each time it moves off. the bubble moves toward the higher side of the gyro. the deviation of the spin axis is approximately 18 mils. so the fore and aft bubble shows the gyro's position when t he airplane is flying at a constant airspeed a nd not climbing or diving. FORE AND AFT BUBBLE Just as the lateral bubble shows the position of the gyro when the airplane is flying straight and level. LATERAL BUBBLE o The lateral bubble indicates t he position of the gyro when the airplane is flying straight and level.000 of the BA. How to Calculate Deflection Errors Resulting From Improper VerticaL To compute t he a mount of an error resulting f r om an improperly center ed lateral bubble. If you set it up this way. the top of the spin axis of the gyro and t h e axis of t he optics are tilted 18 mils to the left. and t he bombsight sets up a false sighting angle. once you have established the true vertical. be sure the airplane is flying straight and level and at a constant airspeed. Oncethe true vertical is established. t h e bubble is onehalf bubble length off. your bomb hits left of the target. you multiply the number of mils of deviation by 1/ 1. the bubble is cut in half by t he lubber line. If one end of the bubble is under the lubber line. it will tend to remain level. To read the bubbles accurately. a perfectly center ed fore and aft bubble shows t hat t he vertical reference set up by the bombsight is the true vertical. the bubble moves to the left. You use the leveling knobs to center t he bubbles. Likewise. the gyro tends to hold it. RESTRICTED Therefore. t he gyro is out of t h e vertical when the bubbles are not centered. Therefore. When properl y centered. the top of t h e vertical reference is tilted back. Once the gyro is leveled during the bomb ing run. If thereafter the airplane speeds up or slows down. axis of the gyro tilts to the right. If this bubble is one-half length forward.

. The range angle will now be 26 when t he sight ing angle index reaches coincidence at 25° . the bomb impact is in the opposite direction . 4... but always tends to compensate to some extent for the range erro r caused by the difference between the range angle and the sighting angle... On a synchronous mission the error as calculated above is not exact.. and a bubble to the rear causes a hit over. h ence it will h it 214 feet short.. .. the range angle will be sma ller than that indicated by the sigh ting angle index..... ....663 FT • . I' 260 L.. The amount of this range error is primarily affected by the difference between the range angle and the indications of the s ighting angle index. How to Calculate Range Errors Resulting From Improper Vertical... The direction of the error is opposite to the direction the bubble is off center ... bomb impact to the left . . I". i' \ If I ..L . ... for example.. This results in a changed dropping a ngle. 2... '.. Consequently. . .663 feet. the sighting angle index will reach coincidence with the dropping a ngle index too soon... This calculation is more simply expressed by the equation: (Tan Dropping Angle ..... Remember if the bubble is off..000 feet...... ' •• II S M Y: 1... .. .. . Consider. '.......... I I \ \ . Lateral bubble to the right - 3... 'Y!... . bomb impact short.4877.. and you will get an over.. . Fore and aft bubble to the rear . . a mission on which the correct dropping angle is 25 ° (Tan is . 1-4-4 RESTRICTED . The range angle will then be lar ger than the angle indicated by the s ighting angle index.877 feet short of the target. a ... The change in dropping a ngle varies in amount. .. 25° /. Since t he Tan of 26° is ....... Fore and aft bubble to the front - 4. .. .. . . t he actual range of the bomb w ill be 4..... -' I ~~ I I -r. If the gyro top is tilted to the front.RESTRICTED A gyro spin axis tilted forward or back produces an error in range..... . .. Because of t h e complexity of an exact calculat ion.... ..... A plus error h ere means an over. . • 4.. the bomb will be released 4. .. ... This index will therefore r each coincidence too late. yo u will find it most practical on synchronous bombing missions to assume that fore and aft bubble errors are the same in size as lateral bubble errors.....bomb impact over ... . 4FT tl . ...663 feet (Tan 25 X BA). And remember-a bubble to the front causes a hit short.877 FT· . e . Now assume that your gyro t op becomes tilted 1 0 to 0 t h e rear. . A minus error is a short.. .. a nd t he bomb will hit short. .... . due to the fact that the shift in t he line of sight r equires re-synchronizing. . If yo ur bombing altitude is 10. But its actual range is only 4...Tan Range Angle at Release) X Bombing Altitude = Range Error. the line of sight is swung upward without moving the sighting angle index.... Lateral bubble to the MAR left - bomb impact to the right.. The error is due to t he fact that tilting the gyro also tilts the telescope and mirror.4663)... If t he gyro top is t ilted to the rear (bubble to the front). 0 ffi ___~ _l' 0"RcI) o 11 ~:"oo.. 1\ 2'? .. .

"hands off" before beginning C-1 adjustment. Check PDI center and a irplane level before leveling bubbles. 2. Be sur e airplane is trimmed to fly stra ig ht and level. Take a good look straight down. Did your gyro precess excessively? 1 and 2. Use the inner knob to make more accurate corrections.RESTRICTED ~ad~ OF I VERTICAL WAS IT YOUR ERROR? • 1. You sho uld have caught these yo ur preflight inspection . Did you t ry to see your bubbles from an angle? 2. Did your leveling knobs stick ? 2. Keep an eye on your own a irspeed indicator. Did yo u chase the bubbles? 1. Take your time. Did he skid or turn the a irplane while yo u were le veling bubbles? 2. WAS IT CAUSED BY YOUR INSTRUMENTS? 1.5 . Wait for a good level. Did you try to level when the airplane was skidding? 3. 2. 111 3. 1-4. Was t he C-1 Autopilot impr operly adjusted? 3. Did you over-corr ect when leveling? 4. Did lie speed up or slow down while yo u were leveling? RESTRICTED 1. 3. 4. WAS IT THE PILOT'S ERROR? 1.

Always r emember that disc speed is inversely proportional to actual time of fall. this actual time of fall is given a s a disc speed setting. the bomb is still in t he air when the actual time of fall set in the sight expires. As a r esult.6 .. Somet imes the fault is in the free air ternRESTRICTED 1-4. Your bombsight computes whole range for whatever actual time of fall you set into it.RESTRICTED IMPROPER ACTUA L TIME OF FALL From any given BA. In other words. if you set in an improper actual t ime of fa ll. This length of time. Your bomb is destined to miss the target before it ever leaves the airplane. or actual time of fall. If you know your bombing altitude and your type of bomb. a nd the bomb falls over. If you set in too small an actual time of fall. Reading the computer incorrectl y or ma king simple mistakes in addition and subtraction are the most common errors.800 ft .800 ft. When synchronizing for r ate. One thi ng which might cause you to set an improper actual time of fall into the sight is an incorrect computation of your bombing altitude. which is too fa st. Neither you nor the bombsight can change the t ime it will take a bomb to fall from a given BA and true a ir speed. The dropping angle which subtends this incorrect actual r ange is likewise too small. a bomb requires a definite length of time to hit the ground. you set into the bombsight the disc s peed for 6.. F or M-Series bombsights. The bombsight has no way of "knowing" whether or not this is the correct time of fa ll. If you compute your bombing altitude as 6. Several things may cause you to compute an incorrect bombing altitude. Natura lly. when it is actually 7. t he higher you fly. the disc s peed is too fast. the actual r ange computed is too small. The bomb is carried too close to the target. you do not move the roller far enough from the center of the disc. the smaller is your disc speed setting.000 ft. you can readily find the actual t ime of fall from your bombing tables. has been determined for most bombing altitudes and t rue a irspeeds. the bombsight cannot accura tely compute whole range. with the disc rotating too fast.

. you set into the sight too slow a disc speed. . You can compute the distance by s ubtracting the whole range solved for by the s ight from the whole range of the bomb. . . at the moment of release. sub tends 322 ft.. and the bomb falls short. When the gage reads too high. J j' AT F TOO SMALL .000 ft. . If you do this correctly..000 ft . closer. With 46 mils of trail. Using too fast aDS ) When these conditions are reversed the . .800 ft. the bomb is released 322 ft..(GS 1. you r elease the bomb 46 X 6 = 276 RESTRICTED ft. PROPER AT f RESTRICTED .7 . into the sight.. suppose you release the bomb from a BA of 7.000 ft. As a resplt. then the disc speed set into the sight is too slow for the actual bombing altitude. 1 . The bomb is released too far from the target.12 seconds .4.000 ft. This is the correct trail for 6. . for example. you synchronize for groundspeed. beyond t he whole range vertical line.000 ft.. from the target. instead of 6. it has used up all the actual time of fall set in the sight.perature gage. 263.276 = 3. Now. The groundspeed is 200 ft /sec.4. and the trail set into the sight is 46 mils. Since it still has 1. l ACTUAL RANGE COMPUTED TOO SMALL HOW TO CALCULATE ERRORS RESULTING FROM IMPROPER ATF After you set the corr ect actual time of fall into the bombsigh t.024 ft. Suppose t hat your bombing altitude is 6. The sight computes an actual range too large for t he actual time of fall.) .. with this same data set into the bombsight. it must continue to travel forward an additional horizontal distance. you wou ld release the bomb 4. ACTUAL RANGE COMPUTED CORRECT - " . For synchronous bombing. After the bomb travels 6. if groundspeed is proportional to true airspeed. or 200 X 20. This carries it over the target.000 ft. . .. bombing altitude is 10.000 ft. If the.. or 200 X 20. With the disc rotating too slowly. and the actual time of fall is 20. r emember the following relationships: Flying at too hig'h BA Using too small ATF (Bomb impact over.748 ft. The bomb t ravels a horizontal distance equal to groundspeed X actual time of fall minus trail. Accordingly. the bombsight automatically computes the correct whole range.12 . If no trail were set into the sight. The whole range solved for by the bombsight is groundspeed (ft/ sec) X actual time of fall. The dropping angle which s ubtends this incorrect actual range is likewise too large. you move the roller too far from the center of the disc when synchronizing for rate.12 = 4. and it falls short. Since 46 mils at 7. it hits the ground before the actual time of fall set in the sight expires. downward from this point. . the actual range computed is too large. to fall.000 ft. In other words: (GS X ATF at 7.000 ft. bomb impact will be short. you compute too high a bombing altitude. and hits the target. You set the corresponding di sc speed.024 ft. and if the airplane is actually flying at a bombing altitude of 9. Improper actual time of fall also can r esult from a change in BA after the data has been set into the sight.

. therefore.000 X O.200 ft. a disc speed error of 11 rpm.8 RESTRICTED .660 from the position B' of the dropping angle index. and the dropping angle index will be at position B' on the tangent scale. Now yo u can substitute in your equation: RE 11 .12) = 4. Then the Tan WR L is 0.) .(200 X 20. error short.. WR = 10. It is called "approximate" because the bomb slows down somewhat in falling the last 1. respectively. you set in a disc speed of 190 rpm.. You have. which results in a 7 ft. whereas the trail for 6.024 = 340 ft. The trail deficiency is therefore 1 mil.660 + 0.4. For ordi nary purposes you can ignore t he small trail deficiency and compute the range error as : RE = (Difference in ATF) X GS (ft/sec) Since this solution requires a computation of groundspeed.RESTRICTED . The approximate error is then 340 ft. Notice that position B' of the dropping angle index indicates a larger tangent of the dropping angle than position A'.000 ft.720=7. the roller and dropping angle index would have been at pos itions A and A'. If yo u have set 60 mils trail into t he sight. the roller will be at position B on the disc when you have synchronized. You read the Tan Drop L = 0. . Then (200 X 21. You can find the exact error by considering that s ince you have used data fo r 6. X ATF at 6. your bomb is dropped too soon. you may find it easier to calculate a range error by figuring it as an error of actual time of fall in the bombsight. 1-4.000 ft. Suppose that for a bombing altitude of 10.000 ft. Since you have set in a disc speed of 190 rpm.060 = 0. is 46 mils. 0( CORRECT DISC SPEED ALTITUDE TOO HIGH '~~:J BOMB HITS AA~ \\~ OVER. The trail for 7. over.UOO ft.82) .364 . and hits sh ort of the target. you have set insufficient trail into the bombsigh t . short. you must first compute whole range. The correct disc speed for this altitude is 201 rpm. In analyzing your errors. that is. it is not necessary to be accurate to the exact foot .060 . at the tr ue airspeed flown (assumed to be equal to GS) is 47 mils. With the inco rrect disc speed.000 ft. Hence.7. as an errol' in disc speed.200 = 190' or RE = 417 ft. minus 7 ft. the dropping angle is too large. Thus your exact error is 340 ft. The equation is a simple proportion: Range Error Error in DS WR of Sight DS Used From a concrete example you can see how to use this equation. To calculate the distance short. the Tan T L is 0.000 ft. If you had set in the correct disc speed of 201 rpm. or 333 ft.720.

This will seldom happen if you cooperate fully with the pilot. 1-4-9 .RESTRICTED WAS IT YOUR ERROR? 1. decreas ing ATF and causing a short? RESTRICTED 2 and 3. 3. 4 and 5. 3. Always check for these in your preflight inspection. Did you compute a false bombing altitude? Did you fail to correct temperature for airspeed compression error? Did you read your DS tables incorrectly? 1. 2. Does your thermometer: read too high and cause a short? read too lo w and cause an over? WAS IT THE PILOT'S ERROR? 1. Always check these pos itions at the beginning of each run. Did you knock the disc speed gear shift 2.. did you have trail set in the sight? 4. 5. ALWAYS use zero trail setting. Always use your tachometer at bombing altitude. Cultivate team work. Have these instruments inspected and calibrated by instrument specialists. Check those computations. Did you knock the disc speed drum off the correct setting? WAS IT CAUSED BY YOUR INSTRUMENTS? 1. Did he fly too high or too low? 1. 2. When using stop watch to check disc speed. 4 and 5. Is the roller slipping? 3. Did he climb at the instant of release. Is your disc speed erratic? 2. If you used a stop watch to check disc speed. Watch your own altimeter. be careful with yo ur hands. Remember that all thermometer readings must be corrected. and ask the pilot to fly at the correct bombing altitude. 3. ""Then operating the bombsight. increasing ATF and causing an over? 3. Be sure you get into the right column and row. Does your altimeter: read too high and cause a short? or read too low and cause an over? 1 and 2. out of position? 5. Did you fail to check DS at bombing altitude . Did he dive at the instant of release. Is your tachometer or stopwatch inaccurate? 4.

the roller is positioned at the center of the disc. your bomb falls over and upwind. the trai l set into the bombsight becomes improper for the new true airspeed . This distance. With the roller and the dropping angle index in these positions. the bombs ight computes the actual r ange for a 60-mil trail setting. trail i's set into the rate end and into the cross trail mechanism at the same time. this improper trail in the crosstrail mechanism causes a deAection error. On t he other hand. There are several reasons why you might set improper trail into the bombsight. suppose you compute the correct trail for the true airspeed you are flying and set it into the bombsight. you move t he r oller from position A to position C. a given type of bomb lags a definite distance beh ind the airplane. called trail. How to Calculate Range Error Resulting from 1m proper Trail in Rate End.10 proper trail. If you now enter 60 m ils trail in t he rate end. Now if your pilot slows down or speeds up. Thus if yo u set in too much trail. Trail is entered into the M-Series sights by setting the trai l arm on the trail plate to the correct trail value. When you move the trail arm. At the same time. Since trail depends on bombing a ltitude and true airspeed. When the dropping angle index is set at zero a nd the trail arm is set at zero trail. A range error results. which is given in mils .4. you must make both these computations correctly in order to arrive at the 1. RESTRICTED .400. If you set in too little trail. it falls short and downwind. This automatically moves the dropping angle index to 0. When you synchronize on the bombing run. has been determined and is given in your bombing tables.RESTRICTED IMPROPER TRAIL For every different bombing altitude and true airspeed. If you put the wrong trail into the rate end. the rollei· moves up to position A. you get a range error.

your bomb falls 90 ft.000 of the bombing altitude. it would have moved from B t o C. Since the cross trail depends on trail and t he drift angle.the correct trail value. To find t he range error in f eet. the roller would have been at position B at the beginning of t he run. over. X Sin Drift L @-! \ CORRECT TRAIL CORRECT CROSS TRAIL \ \ -( I I I TOO MUCH TRAIL TOO LITTLE TRAIL ~~II 't~~ ri. the cross trail computed by t he sight depe nds on the amount of trail you set in. If you had entered this correct trail.i . Its lateral displacement is proportional to cross trail.11 .000 ft. t h e concentric stud and disc swings through the drift angle. multiply the trail error by 1/ 1. it is downwind. the concentric stud and disc moves toward the r ear of the sight. t he bomb impact is upwind. The amount of this lateral displacement will depend on the distance the concentric stud and disc was back of the center of t he cr osstrail shaft when it began to swing. When yo u set up your course. In other words. When you synchronized. The distance it moves depends on t he amount of trail yo u set in. yo u can compute the amount of t h e deflection error by using t he equation : DE = Trail E rror in ft. the concentric stud and disc is centered over th e top of the cross trail s haft.RESTRICTED The correct trail is 50 mils. If at 9. yo u set 60 mils trail into the sight wh en the correct trail is only 50 mils. If · you set the trail arm at zero trail. If you enter too much trail. J I \ \ I I I TOO LITTLE CROSS TRAIL I I \ \ RESTRICTED 1-4. . The distance AB is equal to the trail error of 10 mils.When yo u move t he trail arm to . How to CalCulate Deflection Error Resulting from Incorrect Trail in Crosst<ail Mechanism. if you enter too little trail. and the dropping angle index would have moved from zero to 00410. and is proportional to the r ange error on the gr ound.

Did he fly too high or too low? 1-4-12 1 and 2. Did you set the wrong trail? 4. Does your airspeed indicator register too high or too low? 4. Was there pre-set trail in t he sight? 2. Did he fly too fast or too slow? 2. Watch your airspeed indicator and altimeter. Did you forget to correct temperature readings? 1. RESTRICTED . 4 and 5. Have these instruments inspected and calibrated by instrument specialists. Work toward complete cooperation. WAS IT THE PILOT'S ERROR? 1.RESTRICTED e~andeWte4 OF INCORRECT TRAIL WAS IT YOUR ERROR? 1. Is your altimeter inaccurate? 5. 3. WAS IT CAUSED BY YOUR INSTRUMENTS? 1. Was the dovetail or the stabilizer misaligned? 3. Is your free air temperature gage in error? 1 and 2. 5. Did you knock trail setting off? 2. Did you make a mistake in computing bombing altitude or airspeed? 3. Catch these errors in your preflight check. Remember to subtract compression error. MASTER your computers. Use yo ur bombing tables carefully. NEVER neglect your preflight checks. 2. 3. 4. Check your settings at the beginning of each approach. Did you forget to check for pre-set trail in your sight? 5.

. so that you can make proper allowances before dropping the bomb.. :MPROPERLY MADE APPROACH UNDER CORRECTION -----..RES T RICTED IM PRO PER COUR SE As you r emember from "Theory of Bombing.-............ ~ PROPERLY MADE APPROACH RESTRI CTED 1./ .-~ ~ . . .-~~~ -----" ~ --.." wind is one of the four forces acting on a bomb f rom the instant of its release. "" .. -"""". ______ ~-. IMPROPERLY MADE APPROACH OVER CORRECTION \ ..~~ -------.---. "'~~-------~------ -----------------..4-13 ...------- ~ -.-' _ . depending on the wind's direction and speed a nd on the bomb's airspeed and altitude.. .......~"':.--. . ----------........ Your job is to predetermine what this effect will be..... .. Drift has a definite effect on a bomb. ....

which accounts for the large part of your deflection error. the impact of your bomb is either upwind (over-correction) or downwind (under-correction) of the target. The airplane in the accompanying drawing is cr abbed too much into the wind . and 2i ft. Suppose you have headed the airplane 10° into the wind.000 ft . This results in an incorrect solution for crosst rail. errors. When the fore and aft hair "rides" on the shack.--- At the beginning of any bombing run your pilot will signal "On course. is 4 If actual range is 4." "killing drift. the total deflection error equals the SUM of the two contributing How to Calculate Errors Resulting from Improper Course. These two errors. upwind of the target. therefore. two factors affect crosstrail: trail and drift. + 300 = + 4. The bomb dropped. If trail is 300 ft. first find the error due to the improper course of the airplane. Remember. To calculate the total deflection error resulting from an incorrect drift solution. Thus. You speak of this as "setting up course. and your very first one.. WR = AR T = 4. Second. It makes good a course upwind of the proper course. Because the total deflection error resulting from an incorrect drift solution equals improper course error PLUS the crosstrail error.!. RESTRICTED . it follows that CT Error = T X Sin Drift Error . whereas you should have corrected only 6 The drift error. falls 301 ft..RESTRICTED Z . CT Error is: 300 X 0. you multiply 4. First. therefore. In other words.300 ft. 1-4-14 Deflection Error = 4.- CORRECT COURSE - --------~ . This distance equals actual range X sine of the drift error. you make good an incorrect course. He does not mean that the airplane is on the correct course for you!' bomb to hit the target.070 (Sin of 4 This improper course causes a deflection error of 280 ft. N ext find the cross trail error resulting from this incorrect drift solution. you automatically cause two errors . The overall error can be found in one calculation by using: Course Error = WR X Sin Drift Error. improper course and incorrect crosstrail. it indicates that drift has been killed. you add 280 ft.300 ft. Since CT = T X Sin Drift L." or "synchronizing for course.-- . _ COORSt.- Q -t --. You must head the airplane sufficiently into the wind so that it will fly the proper crosstrail distance upwind of the target. work in the same direction. X 0.000 0 • 0 • 0 ).----~-. When you set up an improper course . That is your job.000 X 0. - -- - - - - -.070 = 301 ft.-HI/\PROP." He means that the airplane is headed straight for the target and that you are now in charge. you set an incorrect drift into the cross trail mechanism . Incorrect drift in the cross trail mechanism causes the optics to tilt at the 'vrang angle.." You direct the airplane's heading by means of the course knobs on the bombsight. If you do not kill ·all the drift or if you over-correct for it.070 = 21 ft.

They must be remedied by Bombsight lVlaintenanc€. Did you forget the PDI or the torque motor switch? 2. Make your large course corrections at the beginning. Make smooth and slow course corrections which will be easy to follow. 2. Catch these in your preftight inspection. Wait till your pilot takes out one course correction before making another. Did he fail to follow the PDI correctly? 1. Did your directional gyro or torque motor fail to operate? WAS IT THE PILOT'S ERROR? 1. 3. pilot should trim ship 2.RESTRICTED FOR IMPROPER COURSE WAS IT YOUR ERROR? 1. Before adj ustment. Did you over-correct for drift? 3. Check your switches before starting on a bombing run. Did you still have drift to kill at the end of the run? 1. Did your bombsight clutch slip? 4. Did your course knobs stick? 1. Stop apparent motion as soon as possible by double·gripping your course knobs. so your pilot can follow the PDI. 2. Was your PDI erratic? 3. 3 and 4. WAS IT CAUSED BY YOUR E9UIPMENT? 1. Was C-l Autopilot out of adjustment? for "hands off" straight and level flight. RESTRICTED 1-4-15 . Were your corrections jerky? 5. Make them smooth. :.. Did you make too many displacement corrections? 4. Pilot should make course corrections with smooth coordinated turns. 4. 2. 2.

remember that your bomb is released short of the target a distance equal to the actual r ange computed by your bombsight. Improper synchronization causes the bombsight t o compute WR 100 ft. Suppose you synchronize on a given bombing run for a groundspeed of 205 ft/ sec." You have solved for a faster groundspeed t h an actually exists. yo ur range error . the actual range computed is too large.16 How to Calculate Errors Resulting from Improper Rate.. 20 X 5 (difference between correct and incorrect groundspeeds) or 100 ft. and so is t he dropping angle set up to subtend it. The bomb is r eleased 100 ft.4. ATF. short. You have solved for a faster groundspeed than the actual groundspeed. You have moved the roller out too far on the disc. and ~its 100 ft. if the lateral crosshair moves away from you. Hence. it follows that range error = difference between correct a nd incorrect GS X ATF. or toward yo u. If the lateral crosshair moves short of the target.:. you must synchronize for groundspeed or rate of closure. On t he other hand.T. your rate synchronization is s aid to be "slow. You have then synchronized for rate. since it is the wind which causes t he difference between true airspeed and groundspeed. You use the rate knob on the bombsight when synchroniz in g for rate . RES TR ICT ED .." You have solved for a slower groundspeed than actually exis ts.RESTRICTED IMPROPER RATE RATE TOO FAST RATE TOO SLOW After you set up course. t he groundspeed is only 200 ft / sec. With a 20-sec. groundspeed varies wit h the heading of the a irplane. Remember. 1. The airplane must be on the correct heading before you can solve for rate. too soon. yo ur rate synchronization is said to be "fast.. and the lateral crosshair remains stationary. This knob causes the roller to move out on the disc until it picks up a rate of spin proportional to groundspeed. Actually. too large. To calculate errors caused by fast or slow rate synchronization. Since AR = GS X ATF .

RESTRICTED 1-4-17 . Did you make rate corrections before you set up course? 2. Did you make a large last second correction? 3. DOllble-grip rate knobs for these last small correc· tions. Was your disc speed erratic ? 2 and 3. Wait until t he airplane is flying straight and level. 3. and a thoroug h under- standing of each other's problems. Good bombing requires complete cooperation between pilot and bombardier. Kill drift first. Catch t hi s in t he preflight inspection. WAS IT THE PILOT'S ERROR? 1. then synchronize for rate.RESTRICTED · ~ad~ FOR IMPROPER RATE WAS IT YOUR ERROR? 1. 2. Keep final adjustments small. Keep an eye on yo ur own altimeter and airspeed indicator. Catch these in yo ur preflight by checking the movement of t he sighting angle index with your stop watch. Did he climb or dive? . Did you t ry to kill r ate immediately after 1. Did he vary his airspeed down the run ? 2. making a course correction? 2. Was t here roller sli ppage ? 3. Did your rate knobs stick? 1. 1 and 2. WAS IT THE FAULT OF YOUR EQUIPMENT? 1.

This is called rack lag.--~ -'. These contacts should close when the dropping angle and sighting angle indices meet.06 seconds. the bomb is carried for an instant before release actually takes place. Improper adj ustment of the bombsight's release contacts will cause faulty release. o BOMB BOMB LOCATION TO HIT TENDS SHO. Errors resulting from rack lag are small unless the lag exceeds the allowable limit. depending on the age and condition of the racks. or too late. causthe bomb to hit short. 1-4-18 RESTRICTED . After the r elease impulse has been sent from the sight to the racks.-.-----'--~ c:=:::::::· RACK TO LAG HIT TENDS THE TO CAUSE TARGET BOMB OVER Proper release of a bomb requires these two ideal conditions: (1) the bomb must be directly beneath the bombsight when it is released and (2) the bomb must be released precisely when dropping angle and sighting angle indices meet. ------. since the bomb is carried longer than the bombsight intended. If the two are not properly adjusted. they tend to hit the same distance short of the target. Allowable lag is from 0. Rack lag tends to give an over. the racks will be energized either too soon. bombs are carried some distance behind the sight. Instead.RESTRICTED IMPROPER RELEASE . Airplane construction makes it impossible to carry the bombs directly beneath the bombsight.--" '.RT TO OF TARGET . causing it to hit over. ---' ".. As a result.03 to 0.

Therefore. Then yo u find from special bombing tables the correct dropping angle for your g iven bombing altitude and groundspeed. and set this dropping angle into the bombsight before you begin the run. which at low altitudes appears to be much faster t han at high altitudes. a bomb released at too low an a ltitude falls over t he target because the airplane r eaches the release point too late. Suppose that your bombing altitude for a given mission is 1. Fixed-angle bombing is subject to many of the errors associated with synchronous bombing.. because the sighting angle coincides w ith the pre-set dropping angle too soon. improper airspeed. Similarl y. The disc does not spin fast enough for you to synchronize for groundspeed. RESTRICTEr. If the bomb is released at t hat bombing altitude it will strike the target.000 ft. you compute your groundspeed by taking a double-drift and us ing your E -6B computer to solve for wind. h owever.000 ft . and incorr ect use of bombing tables.RESTRICTED BOMBARDIER BY USE OF DISPLACE· MENT KNOB ASSIST RATE MOTOR I N DRIVING MIRROR DRIFT L AND DROP L PRE DETERMINED AND PRESET Synchronous bombing with t he equipment yo u have at present is not possible at bombing altitudes below 2.19 . must be given to errors resulting from impro per bombing altitude.000 ft . Special attention.I INCORRECT ALTITUDE For bombing altitudes below 2. you pre-set the dropping angle for t h e bombing altitude at which t he bomb is to be released. and that yo u com1-4. If you r elease the bomb at a higher altitude it will fall short of the target. How to Measure E rrors Caused by Incorrect Altitude.

5 (Tan 1. .- "" ". " . your bomb falls short. RE = BA flown (Tan Drop L in sightTan Drop L for BA flown) = 1.I .1.1.. - CORRECT pute your groundspeed at 150 mph. From your tables you find that the correct dropping angle is 59. To find the range error..RESTRICTED ----------')-----59. Suppose that on another occasion you preset the same dropping angle for the same intended bombing altitude and groundspeed.. find from your tables the correct dropping angle (62.9°T· -.6 ft. In fixed-angle bombing: If BA is too high. To compute the amount of the range error. .---o.2 ft.146 = 175.162 = 129. bomb falls short.200 X 0. The correct dropping angle for a BA of 1.657) = 800 X 0. -. 0 but that at the moment of release the airplane is actually flying at a bombing altitude of 800 ft.. Your bomb falls over.. Remember that in fixed-angle bombing an incorrect BA gives an error in the direction opposite to' that of a similar error in synchronous bombing.657).511)..511) = 1.. .Tan Drop L in sight) = 800 (1.819 .200 ft..9° (Tan 1. bombing altitude. Then multiply the difference between the tangents by the bombing altitude flown.. The reason is that you have used the dropping angle of 59. over.819) for a bombing altitude of 800 ft. bomb falls over. RESTRICTED . at a groundspeed of 150 mph is 57. RE = BA flown (Tan Drop L for BA flown .2°.200 ft.. ~ ~~: 1 ---=:1 1-4-20 . Tan 1. .-_ _ _ __ ______ __ _____ ~RRECT _ _ _ . multiply the difference between the two tangents by the BA flown. "- .'. at a groundspeed of 150 mph.200 (1. short.657 .. If BA is too low. If at the moment of release your airplane is actually flying at 1. "-.9 ° and you pre-set this drop. ping angle.

the bomb falls short. . . your bomb falls over." " CORRECT SPEED . the bomb has been released at the right point for the intended groundspeed. bomb falls short. \ \ \ \ \ and airspeed your bomb is released when the airplane is flying at an indicated airspeed of 140 mph. you are given your bombing altitude and your indicated airspeed.. If it is flying at a faster indicated airspeed. You have pre-set a dropping angle too large for the groundspeed actually flown.000 ft. . The increase in indicated airspeed has produced a corresponding increase in groundspeed.000 ft.140 X 205) = 8 X 15 = 120 ft.. your bomb hits the target. and your airspeed is 150 mph. . 1-4-21 ~~ . . In fixed-angle bombing: If a irspeed is too fast.. " .. How to Measure Errors Caused by Incorrect Airspeed. i. The easiest way to measure the error is to use the equation: RE = ATF (lAS ft / sec flown . \ \ \ • --""'" TOO SLOW .lAS ft / sec flown) = 8 {150 X If with the same intended bombing altitude RESTRICTED = 8 { 165 X ~~ ..) In using this equation you are actually computing the difference between the actual whole range and the intended whole range. The pre-set dropping angle is smaller than the correct dropping angle for t he ground speed actually flown. but the increased groundspeed has given it a larger whole range..lAS ft / sec intended. is 8 seconds. if you release your bomb when the airplane is flying at a slower airspeed than the intended one. .-- -'. assuming that the difference in airspeed is the same as the difference in groundspeed. . over. and find from your tables the correct dropping angle for the given bombing altitude and groundspeed.. " .150 X i~} = 8 (242. If a irspeed is too slow. Therefore: RE • . your bomb falls short.RESTRICTED INCORRECT AIRSPEED On a fixed-angle mlSSlOn. bomb falls over. " " . \ \ \ \ TOO FAST . the bomb falls over. . . } .. . Similarly. . If at the moment of release your airplane is flying at t he intended indicated airspeed. You compute your airspeed and your groundspeed...220) = 8 X 22 = 176 ft. Since you have pre-set the dropping angle.~ ---------------------------. .OVER -. short. = 8(220 Remember that in fixed-angle bombing an incorrect airspeed gives an error in the direction opposite to that of a similar error in synchronous bombing. The range error is: RE = ATF (lAS ft / sec intended . If at the moment of release your airplane is actually flying at an indicated airspeed of 165 mph. The actual time of fall for 1. Suppose that for a given mission your bombing altitude is 1. and hence a faster groundspeed.SHORT .

Indicated altitude too large. 3. '1. Positive pre-set trail in rate end not allowed for. Too little trail set in crosstrail mechanism with left drift.caused by AS too slow. LEFT In Both Kinds of Bombing 1. Synchronized fast. Lateral bubble right of lubber line. dropping angle minus 20 °. Disc speed too slow. Too little trail set in ra te end. which you must set into the s ight. 3. Pre-set Drop Angle too small. II. Altimeter reads too low. Disc speed too fast. Airplane in shallow climb at instant of release. AS indicator reads too high. Thermometer reads too high. Over-correction for right drift. III. caused by Indicated altitude too low. 2. Airspeed too fast. Drop Angle too LARGE. II. 4. 2. Pre-set Drop A ngle too large. 1-4-22 RIGHT In Both Kinds of Bombing 1. 6. Stabilizer twisted clockwise. 2. or GS solved for by sight faster than actua lly exists. Thermometer reads too low. s~ OF BOMBING ERRORS OVER In Synchronous Bombing l. Over-correction for left drift. Rack lag. Altimeter reads to'o high. Airplane in shallow dive at instant of release. III. AS indica tor reads too low. BA computed too small. In Fixed-Angle Bombing 1. RESTRICTED . In Fixed-Angle Bombing I. Under-correction for right drift. II. Too much trail set in cross trail mechanism with left drift. IV. you always bomb with 20 ° extended vision locked in. Mirror drive cable too short. Drop angle too SMALL. Lateral bubble left of lubber line. 2. caused by Indicated altitude too high. 4. SHORT In Synchronous Bombing 1.RESTRICTED INCORRECT USE OF TABLES In fixed-angle bombing. 5. 5. Stabilizer twisted counter-clockwise. No allowance for negative pre-set trail in rate end. 3. Fore and aft bubble to the front. Airspeed too slow. 3. caused by 1. Synchronized slow. RCCT. II. III. Too much trai l set in crosstrail mechanism with right drift. Fore and aft bubble to the rear. 4. Too much trail set in rate end. It is the second figure. 5. Roller slippage. BA computed too large. Too little trail set in crosstrail mechanism with right drift. III. Under-correction for left drift. Indicated altitude too small. caused by 1. 6. caused by AS too fast. Mirror drive cable too long. The bombing tables for this type of bombing g ive you the dropping angle and t he dropping angle minus 20 ° for a given groundspeed and bombing altitude. 5. or GS solved for by sight slower than actually exists.

RESTRICTED

INTRODUCTION
HHow can I improve my bombing '!" You will ask yourself tha t question many times in your career as a bombardier. One way to improve, of course, would be to drop thousands of bombs, on the theory that you would improve with constant practice. Unfortunately, you have neither the time nor the large supply of bombs which this method would require. Your only choice is to learn as much as you possibly can from each bomb that you drop. When you return to the field, after the last "bomb away," remember that your mission is not yet complete. Refer to your 12-C form and try to determine why each bomb hit where it did. You can and you ,
RESTRICTED

will improve your bombing!! Study every bomb-release carefully. Your 12-C form is all-important. If you make an accurate record of your mission, you can use this data to learn what your errors were. When you understand the "why" of your misses, you can eliminate repetition of those errors and improve your bombing. It is a fairly simple matter to analyze a bomb's impact. Develop a Hsense of error." That is, learn to sense the direction of error and to estimate just how much of the bomb's miss is due to a g iven error. Study your data thoughtfully and then follow a simple plan of analyzi ng your errors.
15-1

RESTRICTED

A SUGGESTED PLAN OF ANALYSIS

(INFORMATION AFFECTING ALL BOMBS)

WIND
Find as nearly as possible the correct wind which was over the target at your bombing altitude and plot this wind on your E-6B computer. One way to do this is to compare notes with other students who were bombing the same target. Another way is to plot, on the E-6B computer, drifts or groundspeeds from two or more of your runs on which you were sure you were synchronized. 1. Vertical (fore and aft bubble). 2. Actual time of fall (disc speed and bombing altitude). 3. Trail and RCCT. 4. Dropping angle (range synchron ization) .

DEFLECTION BOMBING ALTITUDE AND TRUE AIRSPEED
Check carefully your computed bombing altitude and true airspeed. Work these out again on your computer, to be sure that your original computations were correct. If your error is in deflection, check these possible causes: 1. Vertical (lateral bubble). 2. Cross trail. 3. Drift (course synchronization). For bomb impacts that have errors in both range and deflection, make separate checks, first for range and then deflection. Your 12-C form contains all of the information pertaining to your bomb release. Shown on the accompanying chart is that part of the data which you must have in order to analyze each bomb and determine what error or errors were responsible for the miss.

DISC SPEED AND TRAIL
Make certain that you obtained the correct trail and disc speed from the bombing tables. Check to see if you set them into the sight correctly.

EXAMPLE
RANGE
If your error is in range, check the following :
1-5-2

Use the figures from the chart in the following s uggested analysis of four bombs dropped on a 12,OOO-ft. mission.
RESTRICTED.

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RESTRICTED

WIND
By checking with other students on the same target and at the same bombing altitude, you find that the wind on your mission was from 149 0 at 20 mph. You further check the wind you had by using the data recorded for the fourth bomb, on which your synchronization was good and you got a good hit. Plot the wind on your E-6B computer.

BOMBING ALTITUDE AND TRUE AIRSPEED

By .. e-computing the bombing altitude you find that 12,000 ft. was correct. Also, by recomputing the true airspeed you find that 184 mph was correct.

++

DISC SPEED AND TRAIL
You check the bombing tables and find that 78 mils

were correct.

1-5-4

RESTRICTED

RESTRICTED

BOMB NO.1
Your bomb impact was approximately 125 ft. to the right of the target. Range-From your 12-C form you find: 1. Your fore and aft bubble was centered. 2. The pilot f lew the proper altitude. Therefore, the actual time of fall (disc speed) set into the sight was correct. 3. The pilot also flew the proper airspeed. Therefore the trail setting was correct. 4. Your groundspeed compares very closely to the groundspeed found on the E-6B computer for this heading. The range synchronization was good. You now see that you solved your range ' problem with no appreciable error and the bomb impact was good in range. Deflection-From your 12-C form you find: 1. Your lateral bubble was centered. 2. Your trail was correct. Therefore, there was no error in cross trail. 3. Your drift is not the same as the drift found on the E -6B computer for this magnetic heading. The course synchronization was to the right. Refer ring to the wind you have plotted on the E -6B computer, you see that the correct drift on a magnetic heading of 111 0 is 3 0 left.

But your 12-C form shows that you solved for a drift of 4 0 left on a magnetic heading of 111 o. Comparing these drifts, you can see that your error in drift contributed to the greater part of the bomb's miss. You solved for 1 0 too much left drift with the bombsight on the magnetic heading of 1110. For this reason, you know the bomb impact would be upwind, that is, to the right. Now determine from the chart or calculations what part of the error on the ground resulted from this error in drift. Remember that the deflection error caused by a drift error equals: WR X Sin Drift Error. To find WR, multiply BA by Tan WR L . To find T;m WR L ,add Tan T L to Tan Drop L . Tan WR L = 0.492 0.078 = 0.570 Then: Whole Range = 12,000 X 0.570 = 6,840 ft. Sin of drift error = 0.01745 The deflection error caused by the drift error = 6,840 X 0.01745 = 119 ft. right. This shows that your 1 0 error in drift caused bomb No. 1 to miss the target by about 119 ft. Your bomb impact was approximately 125 ft. to the r ight. You over-corrected 1 0 for course and the greater part of your error resulted from this over-correction. The remaining part of the error is so small that for practical purposes you can disregard its cause.

+

RES T RICTED

1-5- 5

(29.5 (29. left and the bomb impact was 200 ft. Now determine from chart or calculations what error r esulted from the error in bombing altitude.32 .. Therefore. Therefore.000) . Your trail was correct.. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 1-5-6 RESTRICTED .5 ft/sec.000 of the BA. Your bomb was 219 ft. left. the trail set into the sigh t can be considered correct. The range synchronization was good. The pilot flew 200 ft.26 = 74 ft. ~~----------------'" . made the actual time of fall set into the sight too small for the bombing altitude. To determine the extent of the error ' caused by the incorrect level. as the 200-ft. The deflection error caused by the incorrect level was about 219 ft.. Your fore and aft bubble was centered. The disc rotated too fast. change in a ltitude has very little effect on trail. .5 X 0.2 Your bomb impact was approximately 80 ft. Use the following equation: Range error due to incorrect bombing a ltitude = GS ft/ sec X (ATF at 12.06) = 284. 2. This. The greater part of your error was because your gyro was out of the vertical. \ ' . there was no cross trail error. (29. your drift was correct and you were synchronized for course. Your drift compares very closely to the drift found on the E-6B computer for this heading. left because the gyro had an 18 mil tilt from vertical. Deflection error caused by incorrect level equals: 18 X \~0200~ 18 X 12.ATF at 12.200 ft. 3.. over and 200 ft. Your miss was the result of two errors. causing an error to the left. the dropping angle was too small.200 . Range--From your 12-C form you find: 1. The GS was 194 mph or 284. of course. 3.-.06 sec)..RESTRICTED BOMB NO.. 4. and the bomb hit over. multiply the bubble error in mils by 1/ 1. The pilot flew at the proper airspeed. too h igh. 4 2. Your bomb was 74 ft.32 sec) and the ATF at 12.29. From your bombing tables find the ATF at 12.. Thus you see that the error in bombing altitude accounts for the greater part of the range error. Thus the optics were tilted 18 mils left of the vertical. Your groundspeed compares very closely to the groundspeed found on the E-6B computer for this heading.From your 12-C form you find: 1. ~~t 1\ I I I 1 \ . Your lateral bubble was one-half length to the right.000 ft. . over because the pilot flew 200 ft.. .2 = 219 ft. . . Then: Range error due to incorrect bombing altitude equals: 284. to the left of the target. Deflection. too high.~ -------- '" .

short. at this true airspeed. Use the following equation to calculate the range error caused by this error in synchronization: Range Error caused by incorrect Range Synchronization = ATF X GS error in ftl sec.000 ft. one mil equals 12 ft. Analyze the results of these errors one by one. RESTRICTED the bubble error is estimated to cause an error of 18 X 12 or 216 ft. Your range synchronization was slow and caused an error over. the ATF (disc speed) set into the sight was correct. the trail set into the sight was too small and caused an error short.. 1-5-7 . To solve for GS error in ft l sec. Therefore the top of the optics was tilted to the front of vertical. Find the trail needed for this TAS. Using your E-6B computer. 3. From your trail tables. you should have 86 mils of trail set into the sight. 4. thus the bomb impact is over. Your fore and aft bubble was one-half length to the rear. Determine the error caused by the error in airspeed by finding the true airspeed from the indicated airspeed shown on the 12-C form. over. The range angle was therefore only 33° when the sighting angle index reached coincidence with the dropping angle index at 34°. The dropping angle set up by the sight is too small. right of the target.06 sec. Determine this error from the chart or from the following calculations: The top 'of the optics was tilted forward 1 0 .RESTRICTED BOMB NO. 12000 range error IS then 8 X 1. The pilot flew at the proper bombing altitude. starting with the error caused by the improper fore and aft vertical. you have not displaced the roller far enough from the center of the disc.3 Your bomb impact was approximately 230 ft. You actually had 78. you find that the true airspeed is 196 mph when the indicated airspeed is 155 mph. The practical estimate that a bubble onehalf length out of the vertical causes an 18 mil range error. Thus the trail error is 86 mils less 78 mils. on the ground. 2. The pilot flew 10 mph too fast an airspeed. over and 215 ft. thus making the range angle smaller than t he indication of the sighting angle index. may now be used. Comparing the groundspeed from the 12-C form and the E-6B computer.000 96 ft. multiply 3 by 88/ 60.) from your bombing tables. you find that at a bombing altitude of 12. When your synchronization for rate is slow. Range-From your 12-C form you find: 1. Hence. At 12. you found that the groundspeed was 3 mph faster than the groundspeed you solved for by the sight. causing an error over. Thus. The resulting ' . Your groundspeed was 3 mph slower than the groundspeed found on the E-6B computer for this heading. Find ATF (29. or 8 mils.000 ft.

short caused by an incorrect airspeed. 3.06 X 4. Your drift compares very closely to the drift found on the E-6B computer for this heading. \ \ \ \ \ \ Range Error = 29. left) was very s mall. over. Therefore. right. You have determined three errors in range : 216 ft. over. Analyze the results of these error s in deflection. Your trail was 8 mils too small. in the bomb impact.4 ft / sec = 128 ft. Deflection error caused by cross trail error eq uals trail error in feet multiplied by the sin of drift angle. I: C q ) 1~!~ I I I! 'I You have determined two errors in deflection. multiply the bubble error in mils by 1/ 1. right. RESTRICTED 1.From your 12-C form you find: 1. over caused by slow synchronization.053 Deflection Error caused by crosstrail error equals 8 X 12. .5. 2. This accounts for your bomb's large range error of 230 ft. Deflection error caused by incorrect level equals: 18 X II~OOO~O = 18 X 12 = 216 ft. The error caused by incorrect cross t rail (5 ft. starting with the error caused by the improper lateral vertical.RESTRICTED ""'. Sin 3 ° = 0. causing an error to the right.8 . there was a small cross trail error downwind and to the left. left. Your lateral bubble was one-half length to the left. The calculated error was 211 ft. you get a tot al range error of 248 ft. right) was the important one. Deflection. The error caused by the incorrect vertical (216 f t . By use of the chart or calculations. Thus the optics were tilted 18 mils from the vertical.000 X 0 053 = 96 X 0. 0 0 0 ' .000 of the BA. your drift was correct and you were synchronized for course. To determine the extent of this error. Therefore. 96 ft. but it compensated somewhat for the other error. This accounts for the large deftection error of 215 ft.053 = 5 ft. determine the extent of the error caused by too little trail set into the crosstrail m echanism of the sight.. over caused by an error in level. Adding t hese. and 128 ft . 1.

if you regard the 12-C form as just "a matter of form" for statistical purposes. your bombing will be better! 1-5. after you make t his type of bomb analysis. short of the target. at least. it should have been a near miss. 2. The pilot flew the proper airspeed and the trail was correct. Deflection-From your 12-C form you find: 1. with the aid of your 12-C form and E-6B computer. Thus. You err in judgment.RESTRICTED BOMB NO. 3. With all of t his data correct.9 . Your lateral bubble was level. 2. There was no reason for your bomb to miss the target. Your fore and aft bubble was centered . The trail and cross trail were correct.From your 12-C form you find: 1. short of the t arget. The pilot A the proper bombing altiew tude and the disc speed was correct. thinking back on your procedure. Now. or. your bomb should have hit the shack. RESTRICTED You now know that you set up a good rate and course and had the correct data set into the sight. 4. The later a l cross hair. short of the target. Your drift compares very closely to the drift found on the E -6B computer for this heading . But it is important for you to learn to gage the approximate direction and distance of each particular error. It isn't necessary for you to know your exact error down to a split-hair measurement of feet and inches . The usefulness of the 12-C form should be extremely clear to you. Range. which is worse than a bombing error. Your groundspeed compares very closely to the groundspeed found on the E-6B computer for this heading. If the crosshair had been on the target at the instant of release. 3. although its movement was apparently killed. yo u have eliminated the possibility of any of the more obvious errors. you would probably have scored a hit. Always remember that your 12-C form is a practical tool to aid yo u in becoming a better bombardier. You now know the importance of recording your data correctly: so t hat you can find the reason (or reasons) for every short or over. and every deflection error to left or right. The course synchronization was good. you recall the position of the lateral crosshair at the instant of bomb release. except for the fact that the lateral crosshair was 50 ft. If you take advantage of the 12-C form and analyze each bomb impact.4 Your bomb impact was approximately 60 ft. was about 50 ft.

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.9 It pc . 0 tr W .4 .. t: :r 0 0. ft /' Z Z ~ 0.: W .. m n . i .. :-: 1-'.0 " Z ~ t-i IY ::: ~ . 1... m 0...~ ~ 1.. g GROUNDSPEED in mph ..8 ITt f+ .. 1 c ...2 . V ~i :~: ...:.4 100 s: ~ 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 2 10 220 230 24 0 n .... ".~ 0 .... m III 1. . III m .: :: F J~ .. .. .7 ILLI 3: ft fT ".6 m~ 8 I- ~ 0 .. g 1.. ~ 0 + ~ " ~ 1..3 c r" I " .. z 0 ~ ~ W 0.5 '" I I .

: C> BO!.12 RESTRICTED .5.RESTRICTED ++ ++ ~SC~S~EED JAST ".UROR~OV:ER c + t c w "" '" C ::l w Z o ..± O ±ttl± L-l 2 3 4 5 6 7 B RANGE ERROR in mils 1.

...40 " --j-+ +1 10 15 20 25 30 35 45 50 RANGE ERROR in ft. if q ..9-~C: 4- .000' w H . RESTRICTED 1.t...Y A 12. . ..5-13 . .000' GS-SY N. ua iQ SYN€fI 0 tl.000 Ctc:.0 ....000 0 j:: .000' 0 :E iii Z C> 6.-T:lO 10.- 10.. .000' + SED.000' 0" ' "6 4 ..C RONI~ · "- 0 RRO · 3~ 8 -: . ii: c z « C> RANGE ERROR (RCCl) in mils 14... -u _ •• 1 :r i-' : 2.--.0" . .6 '" 4 .. « 0- C ::J 8..RESTRICTED ...

... <1: = A:: ~ 0 Z \j ~ 0...s.-1.. Z 1... 0. WNV IN o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DEFLECTION (CT) ERROR in mils E .. ..... .. C> Ii: c Ci1 10' DEEtEt+'l' 01'j1~ .. " . MPlE.RESTRICTED XO&.tow if TRAll_5MA · -'-rERROR [ ...A:MP.4 0 ..:-~f~..2 .~:...8 .5-14 RESTRICTED .tJ ...lE.B ---' o 8. C> 0 0 + • ...n. 0. 5' E ltOho"ri 0. . .2 o 15 20 25 30 35 40 DEFLECTION ERROR in mils 1. on ~ g> 20' "'C .z128° I. C> . GI _QI I -"_tr~r:.....CT AUSED FRRO '01 R~I n::E RO.. il-Eno fl)!1$ :.5 mil . Z <1: C <-.. <1: C> :I: 'I c 0 LO .mll ifl.. == 0 .....6 Z Z <1: .

THE THREE COMPUTER'S YOU WILL USE THE MOST . you will have to make many calculations involving mathematical figuring. you could work out your problems on paper..... And in the air you're going to be busy! If you had the time... RECKONI N G COMPUTER E· 6 B THE AL TJTUDE CORRECTION .. TIC G COMPUTER ABC BOMBI N RESTRICTED 2-1-1 . if you want them to work for you. and they can do it more quickly and mor e easily.. Your computers can solve your problems for you accurately. . you've got to master them. However... As a bombardier. You've got to know them.. computers are not fool-proof.. slow.. nM.•• n .RESTRICTED ~~---------------- SECTION Z INTRODUCTION Computers are instruments for saving you time and trouble. Furthermore in the a ir you have to make them in a hurry. but that method is difficult and too .

000 (Index). 5. which is now equivalent to 100 (10 X 10). you can use the available scales from 10 to 100 to represent any desired number. Here is the way it works. you will find the number s increasing to 99. Likewise 55.000 (10 X 100) .8. each subdivision r epresents 1 unit. Since the purpose of the scales is multiplication or division. Ther efore. if your Index has a value of 1. etc.5 can represent .550. The subdivisions are not the same way around the scale. the values decrease in the same way. the point marked 12 represents 120. the values increase in multiples of 10. read counter-clockwise. and all similar numbers. etc. and an identical movable inner scale on a rotating disc. Thus. if you start clockwise from 100. if you r ead the scale in a counter-clockwise direction. the figure 90. The second feature of the slide rule scale is the way t he space between t he numbers is divided. From 150 (15 on the scale) to 300 (30). it is essent ial that you know and remember the values at any point of the scale. it is because he has mis-read the value of the s ubdivisions. gallons. 2. (10 on· the scale) t he first point represents 101. the scales carry values from 10 to 100 only. has a value of . you can substitute the figure 20. 80 represents . each time around the scale. Conversely. for example. the point marked 11 on your scale now represents 110. large or small. etc. since these scales are standard logarithmic scales you can use them to solve any problem in multiplication or division. this is no handicap. Consequently. It has a stationary outer scale.) while the inner r epresents units of time (hours and minutes). First. up to and including 150.555. Thus. However..RESTRICTED SLIDE RULE AND AIRSPEED CALCULATIONS USING THE E-68 COMPUTER If you continue reading in a clockwise direction. In your calculations t he outer scale usually r epresents units of measure (miles.02 or any similar number. From the Index 10 around to 15.9. each subdivision r epr esents 5 units. RESTRICTED Construction The back of the E-6B is called the slide rule face. and from 600 to 1. the second 102. when you reach the Index again it will represent 1. Usually when a bombardier says his computer gives him the wrong answer. On each of these scales. labeled 10. Notice that ther e are two features common to all slide rule scales. the numbering starts from an Index. for 2 or 200 or . In other words. each subdivision represents 2 units. Thus. and you can adjust the decimal point in the answer accordingly. The next point on the scale is your Index 10 again.2-1 . From 300 to 600. If you begin at this Index and r ead clockwise around the circle. if you read around the circle once more. each subdivision represents 10 units. etc.

not 2. and then find 23. In so doing. and r ead the product. whereas the tangent of the whole range angle will change with each change in ground speed. you have t he equation: DS X BA GS mph = 7773 X Tan WR L .47 ft.000 by 7. 180 . Thu s c .47 X 23.5.7 is your final ans wer on the outer scale. and should get a fig ure a little sma ller than 300. Next. First yo u set t he Index 10 on t he inner scale under the 182 (same point as 18. 6.. Nate: Over the index 10 on th e inner scale you wi ll fin d the quotient (division of 8.) " and that a speed of 1 mph is equal to a speed of 1. because you are mUltiplying approximately 200 by 1. Thus you can find t he groundspeed on that heading. Set the Index 10 of t h e inner scale under the 267. so t he answer mu st be close to 6. For a bombing a lt itude of 8. ' Directly above 23.RESTRICTED MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION The logarithmic scales on yo ur E-6B Computer make it easy for you to multiply and divide. In so doing you add the logarithmic dis tance (a) of 12 to the logarithmic distance (b) of 15 to obtain a logarithmic distance (c) of 180. th en find 1.2 ) on the outer scale. r ead t he intermediate prod uct 233. \ c c \~ \ \ C-B""A b I . In computing g r oundspeed in mph with th e bombsight. you can s ubstitute the constants of disc speed and bombing altitude.7 or 2.000.670.b = a . Therefore. 300 (267) by a number close to 20 (23 .4.12 15 Set 15 on t h e inner scale unde r 180 on t he outer scale and over the Index 10 on the inner scale read t he answer 12 on the outer scale. To calculate whole range in feet wh en you know the groundspeed in mph (182 mph) and the actual time of fall (23. Examples-Division Examples-Multiplicatian 1.7 sec. You can mUltiply numbers by adding thei r logarithmic distances and divide numbers by subtracting their logarithmic distances. 1.773 ) on t h e outer scale.7) di r ectly above on the outer scale. WR = 182 X 1.340. set7. But you know that you a r e multiplying a number close to RESTRICTED 2. Ther efore. and over 227 on t he inner scale.773 to fi nd a constant wh ich can be mu ltiplied by the tangent of the whole r ange angle of an y heading.5 on t he outer scale. Thus a b = c. per sec.000 on the outer scale.7.000 ft. th e disc speed setting is 227 rpm.2-2 .67 or 26. + CI \.7 ft.340. In using t his equation. hence it is 6. Then divide by 7. 12 X 15 = 180 Set t he Index 10 of t he inner scale under 12 on t he outer scale. H ere are t wo successive mUltiplications to per form . A+B""C 2. The first part of th is eq uation: D~ .47 X ATF. Of cour se this is t he scale point 63. 267 (same as 26.7 on t he inner scale. It is clear that t his product is 267.47 (same a s 14.7) on the inner scale. you have subtracted the logar ithmic distance (b) of 1 5 from the logarithmic distance (c) of 180 and obtained a logarithmic distance (a) of 12.~7:A can be solved by one setting on t he computer . multi ply the intermediate product 267 by 23. You w ill find t ha t the bombing a ltit ude a nd disc speed rema in constant when bombing or calibrating instruments.7) .773 on in ner scale under 8. and opposite 15 on the inner scale r ead t he answer on the outer scale (180). you have the equation: WR = GS mph X 1. Your next step 2.

600 under 5. and its multiples of 10: 600 min.65 = 152 mph. and vice versa. AND SPEED To convert minutes of time to hours. one calibrated in minutes and the other in hours and minutes. For example. or 60 min.70 = 163 mph. Therefore.65 then: GS = 233. KILOMETERS You can interconvert nautical miles.75. GS 9() 9 = 175 mph. and kilometers with a single sett ing of the inner disc. For Tan WR L of 0. the solid black pointer found on the inner (time) scale at the number 60 must be used. For Tan WR L of 0. Thus: 2.280. GS = 233. Then opposite any speed in mph on the inner scale you can read the same speed in ft/sec on the outer scale. a speed of 120 ft/sec equals 82 mph. statute miles.5. provided the bombing altitude and disc speed remain constant. This is done automatically. you can convert mph to ft/ sec by setting 60 on the inner scale under 88 on the outer scale or by setting the same proportion. in 1 hr.5 X 0. you can solve for the groundspeed on differerent headings by knowing the whole range angle. y 100 XSince 60 mph equals 88 ft/sec. If the tangent of the whole range angle is 0. RESTRICTED PROPORTIONS The circular slide rule solves problems of proportion.5 X 0. DISTANCE. it is necessary to divide the number of minutes by 60. NAUTICAL MILES. since there are 60 min. of time.70. When you set 66 nautical miles on the "N AUT" marker..000 min. 184 After you find the intermediate product 233. the equivalent 76 statute miles and 122 kilometers appear under their respective markers.RESTRICTED wbuld be to multiply t his quotient by 227. STATUTE MILES. in any problems involving time. This constitutes 1 hr. 3. etc. The inner disc contains two scales.. because you have already set the quotient on the outer scale over the index 10 on the inner scale. TIME. With this same setting on the computer..2-3 . multiply it by the tangent of the whole range angle to determine the groundspeed. 6.

NOTE: Always remember that your computer is dividing distance by t ime to give speed or rate. RESTRICTED 2.- outer scale. ~ e il~!~ is''-~ ~ ~:. FIND: Groundspeed. and if you set them on the computer in their proper places. This automatically divides distance by time. 10 min. _ _ _ _~ 1::: 5 1 EXAMPLE 2 GIVEN: Groundspeed 180 knots. ANSWER: 105 nautical miles. Speed or rate is the quotient when distance is divided by time. ANSWER: 180 knots.~i. Time is the quotient of distance divided by speed. Similarly.2. the groundspeed is in mph. pOi~t:e:r~t~0~1:8:0~(1~8i)~0~n~~b~~~~'~i~!. Therefore. ANSWER: 1 hr.''.~" r~~-I . FIND: Distance traveled. if the distance is given in nautical miles. mark). you can find the desired unknown figure at its correct place. FIND: Time required to fly distance.~~~ ~ hi~~ EXAMPLE 3 GIVEN: Distance traveled 240 nautical miles. if the distance is given in statute miles.-. and speed. Thus Rate -=-. (1:20) on inner scale opposite 240 (24) miles on outer scale. Then read the rate per hour on the outer scale opposite the black pointer (the 60 min. 20 min. Opposite 210 on outer scale. Distance is the product when time is multiplied by speed. Opposite 35 on the inner (minutes) scale.- Distance Therefore in workTime ing problems involving these three factors. time.~::~.RESTRICTED There is a definite relationship between distance. If you know two. read on outer (miles) scale the distance traveled. the groundspeed shown on the computer is in knots (a term meaning "nautical mile~ per hour"). 10 min. Distance to travel 210 nautical miles. Elapsed time 1 hr. These positions are always the same regardless of which item (distance.4 . place distance on the outer scale opposite the time in hours or minutes on the inner scale. (1 :10) directly below. Opposite black pointer read groundspeed. EXAMPLE J GIVEN: Groundspeed 180 knots. SOLUTION: Set 1 hr. SOLUTION: Set the black pointer opposite 180 (18) on the outer (miles) scale. Time· of flight 35 min. time. or 1 hr. or 1 hr.i. 20 min. or rate) is unknown. read SOLUTION: Set black 70 (7) on inner scale.

speed. Elapsed time. Time needed for flight. 145 gal. Opposite 160 on outer scale. read remaining time of flight on inner scale. 69 gals/ hr. therefore. Opposite the black pointer read the rate of fuel con- ~"'. SOLUTION: Opposite 145 on the outer scale. 19 min. set 2 hr... 6 min.RESTRICTED FUEL CONSUMPTION Do this in the same manner as t ime. on the inner scale. 2 hr. Rate of consumption 69 gals/ hr. FIND: Remaining flight time. 3 hr. Opposite time of flight on inner scale. EXAMPLE 2 GIVEN : Fuel remaining. 69 gals/ hr.. ANSWER: 241.. find the rate of consumption at the black pointer. SOLUTION: Set black pointer to rate of consumption. FIND: Fuel needed for flight. fj ANSWER: 69 gals/ hr. ANSWER: 2 hr."-~7"~~~~.5 gals. read gallons of f uel needed. 6 min.. 2-2-5 RESTRICTED . 30 min. distance.sumption. SOLUTION: Set black pointer to rate of consumption. EXAMPLE J GIVEN: Fuel consumed. 160 gals. The only difference in the problem is that you substitute gallons of fuel for units of distance. FIND: Rate of consumption. EXAMPLE 3 GIVEN: Rate of consumption.. 69 gals / hr.

Flight level pressure altitude.000 ft. ANSWER: 244 mph. 8. opposite the figure 10 (10. SOLUTION: Set flight level temperature + lO oC. _12°C. Flight level pressure altitude. t:~e:i:n~n:r:s:a~l~~r:ea:d~_~~~~~~l~§~~~~~ e ce EXAMPLE 2 GIVEN: Flight level temperature. +10 °C.RESTRICTED INTERCONVERSION OF CALIBRATED AND TRUE AIRSPEED ~ EXAMPLE J GIVEN: Calibrated airspeed.000 ft. RESTRICTED 2-2-6 . \}. _12°C. BE SURE TO USE THE WINDOW MARK the true airspeed on the outer scale.) on the pressure altitude scale which appears in the Airspeed Correction window. True airspeed. ARMY AIR FODe Q'1:8 FIND: True airspeed.000 ft. opposite flight level pressure altitude 8. 200 knots. read calibrated airspeed on the inner scale. 280 mph. Opposite 200 (20) on ANSWER: 230 knots. FIND: Calibrated airspeed. SOLUTION: Adjust the rotating disc to bring the temperature. S . 10. Opposite 280 mph true airspeed on the outer scale.000 ft. Flight level temperature.

12 mins.94. 226 miles . 158 mph. 658 kilometers. and 18 min.. and 26 min. How many feet per second is the equivalent of 168 mph? • 3. ? 6. how long will it take to travel 895 miles? • 10. how long can it remain in the air? • 4. 180 mph. At flight level pressure altitude of 21.900 and a flight level temperature of -SOC (corrected). and 13 min. 4 hrs. what is its average groundspeed? • 8. At a groundspeed of 158 mph. If an airplane flies 1.. 184 mph. what is your groundspeed? • 2. 20 min. 66 Y2 gals/ hr. If the tangent of the whole range angle is . 9.000 ft.350 miles in 7 hrs. 10. 2-2. what is the true airspeed in mph if the calibrated airspeed is 131 mph? • 9.RESTRICTED 1. 7. Suppose you are flying at a bombing altitude of 4. of gasoline in 2 hrs. 2. what is its rate of consumption per hour? A NSWERS 1. If an airplane consumes 153 gals. of gasoline. 4.5 ft / sec. h ow far will you travel in 1 hr. 16 mins. and the disc speed is 326. 6. At a groundspeed of 210 mph. How many kilometers and statute miles are equivalent to 355 nautical miles? • 7. A fully loaded airplane holds 435 gals. 3.. If you travel a distance of 308 miles in 2 ·hrs. 8. 192 Y2 mph.7 RESTRICTED . 408 statute miles.07 what is the groundspeed? • 5. 5. 139 mph. 5 hrs . what is the groundspeed in mph? If Tan of whole range angle is 1. If it uses fuel at the rate of 84 gals/ hr. 246.

All courses are measured clockwise from tr ue north through 360 ". TRUE COURSE m:J The direction of flight over the surface of the earth. TRUE AIRS PEE D ITAS I The true speed of an aircraft relative to the air. using t emperature and pressure altitude corrections. corrected for instrument al and ' installation error. True course made good may be called "track. indicated airspeed is calibrated and conver ted to knots in one operation by reading the appropriate column on the airspeed meter calibration card. In bombing." For t he latter purpose. CALIBRATED AIRSPEED ICAs l The r eading of the airspeed indicator. "miles per hour" is generally used. Airspeed is always true airspeed unless otherwise designated. you need to understand a fe w terms t hat are constantly used. for navigation. It is t he course laid out on the chart or map.RESTRICTED Before you try to solve vector problems on your computer. expressed as an angle with respect to t rue north. Course is always true course unless otherwise designated ." RESTRICTED 2-3-1 . GROUNDSPEED [ill Actual speed of a ircraft r elative to the ear t h's surface. The most essential terms are: INDICATED AIRSPEED Dill The reading of the airspeed indicator in mph. Airspeed is obtained by correcting the calibrated airspeed for density. "knots.

) . If the variation is west ADD variation to true heading to obtain magnetic heading. expressed as an angle with respect to true north.RESTRICTED TRUE HEADING [![] The direction of the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. expressed as an angle with respect to magnetic north. If the deviation is west. When you have right drift. 1 The angle between a line to true north and a line passing through a freely suspended compass needle influenced solely by the earth's magnetism. it is the true course with the drift correction applied. VARIATION Ivar.).E DEVIATION I Dev· 1 The angle between a line to magnetic north and a line passing through a compass needle. It is . In other words. MAGNETIC HEADING [!![] True Heading with variation applied. when you have left drift. Named right or left according to the direction an aircraft is drifting. ADD deviation to magnetic heading to obtain compass heading. 2-3-2 RESTRICTED . add the angle (Plus Corr. subtract the angle from the true course to obtain the true heading (Minus Corr. The direction of the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. +W . Heading is always true heading unless otherwise designated. Variation changes with time and place. named east or west according to the direction of the compass needle from true north. It is the angle between lines to true north and magnetic north. DRIFT CORRECTION IDr. COMPASS HEADING (£ff] Magnetic heading with deviation applied. If variation is east SUBTRACT. If deviation is east SUBTRACT. corr. It is named east or west according to the direction in which the needle is deflected from magnetic north. Deviation is caused by magnetic influences in an aircraft. 1 The angle added to or subtracted from an aircraft's true course to obtain true heading. DRIFT IE] The angle between the true heading and the true course.

the moving air mass would carry the 0 airplane 20 miles west while it flew 150 miles east through the air. Thus the airplane would actually move 170 mph over the ground. and (2) in the direction of air movement at wind speed. But wind changes the situation. The airplane can still fly 150 mph through the air on an easterly heading. However. When the wind blows at an angle to the . and true heading and true course coincide. heading. the airplane would fly 150 miles east through an air mass which would itself move 20 miles east during the same hour. an airplane which flies a true airspeed of 150 mph on a true heading of 90 will actually travel 150 mph over the ground in an easterly direction. the airplane actually moves over the ground in a single direction and at a groundspeed which is a resultant or combination of the flight and wind movements. Clearly. but if the air moves while the airplane flies through it.3 RESTRICTED . 2-3. the airplane is subject to rorces moving it in two directions: (1) in the direction of its heading at true airspeed.20 mph wind from the east. it affects both the airplane's groundspeed and true course. true airspeed and groundspeed are equal. That is. Here's a simple example. Suppose an airplane flying east at a true airspeed of 150 mph encounters a. If the 20 mph wind blew in the same direction as the heading. the result would be a net groundspeed of 130 mph in an easterly direction.RESTRICTED : AS : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : '• GS AS • GS AS GS WIND When there is no wind.

The resultant vector shows the true course and groundspeed . As it crosses the stream its bow is always headed for the opposite bank. two com . your airplarie must be turned " into the wind"-that is. from point B.i n order to keep the airplane on the desired 90 ' true course. the mass of water in which the boat moves carries the boat 10 ft. Assume that your airplane has a true airspeed of 100 mph and that you want to fly due east when a 20 mph wind is blowing from 315°. In a vector diagram. assume that you have a toy motorboat which can cross a 10foot s tream in one minute. RESTRICTED . Therefore. To find your desired heading.. swing an arc using a radius of an hour's true airspeed. so the boat reaches the opposite bank 10 ft. however.RESTRICTED VECTOR DIAGRAMS A vector is a straight line which proceeds from a starting point in a given direction. the air movement to the southeast will carry you south of your course. Clearly. and whose length shows distance traveled in a given time. Draw a Jine through the point of intersection (point C) from point B. to intersect the desired true course line. 2-3-4 You have more practical use of vectors when you solve for the heading which will give you a desired course. Then chart the effect of an hour's wind movement (AB) from the starting point A to point B. If the boat went directly across the stream. and that the stream also flows 10 ft/ min. ponent vectors showing r espectively (1) true heading and true airspeed and (2) wind direction and speed will determine the position and length of a resultant ~vector . but its course forms a 45 ° diagonal (a resultant vector) across the stream. The direction of line BC represents the true heading which must be flown . you begin by assuming that your airplane must always be on its course (line AX). downstream. if your airplane h eads directly east. toward the source of the wind--sufficiently to counteract the southward drift caused by the wind. downstream from its point of departure. To illustrate the principle. During that minute. it would reach the opposite bank in just one minute.

First. 7. RESTRICTED 1. Meas ure and dra w t rue airspeed 140 mph from B to C on course line. It usually is not necessary to complete t he parallelogram. In t his problem you are going east. 5. Measure line AC. 4. \ \ - --------~~-------X \ "\C . Measure angle NDC and subtract it from 360 ' . on the scale you wish to use. 3. 7. N In all vector problems. GIVEN: A B True course 243' True airspeed 140 mph Wind from 278' at 20 mph Distance A to M 248 miles REQUIRED: Groundspeed out True heading out Time for flight NOTE. is the same as the angle NEC (CB continued through B to E). Note that the angle NAD. Desired true course 90 ' True airspeed 100 mph Wind from 315' at 20 mph REQUIRED: '- '- A . therefore. Make the distance AB equal to 20 miles or one hour's wind movement. Divide distance AM (248) by grounds peed. true heading. swing the dividers across the true course line to find point C. and lay your problem out accor dingly.RESTRICTED TO FIND HEADING AND GROUNDSPEED GIVEN: N _---P . " . 9. and so the side AD is not actually needed. Draw line from A to X at 243 ' . Determine the position of the north-south line and point A. Draw line BC. (Now the line AD also shows the required true heading. layout a north-south line on the left side of the paper. your diagram will begin on the left side of the paper. From A draw the true course line 90 ' as AX. 4. Measure and draw wind line 278 ' at 20 mph from A to B.>:- .:I<--B 6. The required groundspeed is shown by the length of line AC. 2. first notice the direction of your course or h eading. which is the true heading angle. ~ /"'- The exercises at the end of t he next chapter (Vector solutions using the E-6B computer) are all s uitable for solution by vector triangles . as the required true heading and groundspeed may be determined from the triangle ABC. time for flight. Spread dividers so they equal the true airspeed for one hour or 100 mph. 3. 5. You may make triangle ADC so that ABCD is a parallelogram. From A draw the wind line AB from 315 ' at 20 mph. Then with one point on B.) 8. groundspeed. 1. 6. The top of the paper is north. The r equired true heading is the direction of the line BC. 2-3-5 . The true heading may therefore be determined by finding the direction of BC. 2. \ True heading Groundspeed NOTE: E " _.

RESTRICTED VECTOR SOLUTIONS ON THE SPEED Description GENERAL With. The chart sets in the metal frame and can be so adj usted that any desired part of it can be set under the plotting disc. The outer edge of the plotting disc is a compass rose graduated in degrees and at the center is a small circle called the grommet. Right drift is a minus correction. You do not need to work out in your mind such things as variation. The horizontal and vertical distances between the grid lines are two (2) units. east variations and left drift corrections are found on the left side. and a square grid are printed on the chart. left drift is a plus correction. This side consists of a transparent plotting disc. This scale is graduated in degrees starting with zero at the center and going to 45 ° on each side.the E-6B computer you can solve wind vectors and similar problems without plotting the complete triangles. The distance between all light speed circles is two (2) units and the distance between the dark speed circles is ten (10) units. Radiating drift lines. and a drift & variation scale. RESTRICTED . For speeds of 100 units or more the distance between the light drift lines is one degree (1 °) and distance between the dark drift lines is five degrees (5 °). a sliding chart. use the front side of the computer. 2-4-1 • To solve vector problems. The concentric speed circles are graduated in units of speed . It will help you to keep this straight if you scratch a minus sign (-) on the right side and a plus sign ( +) on the left side. Then you can always read proper drift correction from the computer. drift angles. By moving the chart and the plotting disc. The marker at zero degrees is called True Index. you can solve any wind problem. concentric speed circles. The plotting disc can be rotated then 360°. The top of the metal frame has a drift and variation scale matching the compass rose. and making a few pencil marks on the face of the computer. You can read all the data and the answers right on the scales of the computer. or groundspeed factors. wind angles. West variations and right drift corrections are found on the right side of the drift & variation scale.

TRUE COURSE on the compass rose with a A. But remember in the vector triangle: Wind Direction and Wind Speed always go together: True Heading and True Airspeed always go together. with a V. MAGNETIC INDEX on the drift & variation scale at the local variation. The three vectors are: DIRECTION Wind Direction True Heading True Course SPEED Wind Speed True Airspeed Groundspeed If you know any two of the three directions and any two of the three speeds you may solve for the other direction and speed on your computer. --------------------------~ RESTRICTED 2-4-2 . and True Course and Groundspeed always go together. Each of the three sides of the triangle is called a vector and represents a direction and speed.RESTRICTED Using the E-6B computer you solve the vector triangle exactly as you would if plotting it on graph paper.

.. .. DRIFT on the plotting disc by tracing along the appropriate radiating drift line. (This is the direction from which wind is blowing.. -----. met down centerline of chart to point of wind arrow. TRUE HEADING at True Index. . MAGNETIC HEADING at magnetic Index." " TRUE COURSE on compass rose at the drift correction on drift & variation scale. 2-4-3 RESTRICTED ...) DRIFT CORRECTION on drift & variation scale opposite true course' : =====::'___ DRIFT at point of wind arrow.·IGi~(Il GROUNDSPEED at point of wind arrow. then mark end with a short crosswise line and / or point. GROUNDSPEED on the plotting disc by tracing along arc of the appropriate groundspeed circle..RESTRICTED WIND ARROW on the plotting disc by setting the wind direction at the True Index and tracing the measurement of the wind speed from the grommet down the centerline of the chart...-'"'V WIND DIRECTION at True Index....' TRUE AIRSPEED under grommet.. WIND SPEED by measuring from grom- !rJfr.

Trace drift· (3 °R) along drift line. 8. Draw wind arrow from grommet to intersection of drift lines. Set 2nd magnetic heading (308 ") at magnetic index. Trace drift (6 °L) along drift line. Set 3rd magnetic heading (253°) at magnetic index.RESTRICTED TO FIND WIND FROM DRIFT MEASUREMENTS GIVEN : Variation 12 °E True Airspeed 214 mph 1st Magnetic Heading 39 ° : Drift 6 °L 2nd Magnetic Heading 308 ° : Drift 3 oR 3rd Magnetic Heading 253 ° : Drift 7°R FIND: Wind Direction Wind Speed SOLUTION: 1. Set true airspeed (214 mph) under grommet. Trace drift (7 °R) along drift line. But if three drift lines intersect. 9. Measure wind speed (26 mph) from grommet down centerline to point of wind arrow of chart. 11. Find wind direction (170°) at true index. 4. you get a fairly accurate wind measurement. you can be reasonably sure of an accurate wind measurement. NOTE: If you plot the intersection of two drift lines.4 . 3. 6. or form a small triangle. 10. 5.4. 2. RESTRICTED 2. 12. Set intersection of drift lines below grommet on centerline of chart. 7. Set 1st magnetic heading (39 °) at magnetic index. Mark magnetic index (12 °E) on drift & variation scale.

Trace arc of (218 mph) along GS circle. Find wind direction (170°) at true index. Mark magnetic index (12 ' E) on drift & variation scale. 4. 10. 12. 8. Set true airspeed (214 mph) under grommet.RESTRICTED TO FIND WIND FROM GROUNDSPEED MEASUREMENTS GIVEN: Variation 12°E True Airspeed 214 mph 1st Magnetic Heading 118' : GS 194 mph 2nd Magnetic Heading 210 ' : GS 199 mph 3rd Magnetic Heading 253 ' : GS 218 mph FIND : Wind Direction Wind Speed . Draw wind arrow from grommet to intersection of GS arcs. 3.SOLUTION: 1. Trace arc of (194 mph) along GS circle. 2. 11. 2-4-5 RESTR IC TED . Set intersection of GS arcs below grommet on centerline of chart. Trace arc of (199 mph) along GS circle. Set 3rd magnetic heading (253 °) at magnetic index. 6. Set 2nd magnetic heading (210 °) at magnetic index. Measure wind speed (26 mph) from grommet down centerline of chart to point of wind arrow. 5. 7. 9. Set 1st magnetic heading (118 °) at magnetic index.

4. 3. Set true airspeed (214 mph) under grommet. Mark magnetic index (12 ' E) on drift & variation scale. RESTRICTED 2-4-6 .RESTRICTED TO FIND WIND FROM DRIFT AND GROUNDSPEED MEASUREMENTS GIVEN: Variation 12'E True Airspeed 214 mph Magnetic Heading 253' Drift 7'R Groundspeed 218 mph FIND: Wind Direction Wind Speed SOLUTION: 1. 5. Trace drift (7'R) along drift line. 9. 7. Set intersection of drift line and GS arc below grommet on centerline of chart. Measure wind speed (26 mph) from grommet down centerline of chart to point of wind arrow. 6. 2. Set magnetic heading (253') at magnetic index. Trace arc of (218 mph) along GS circle. Find wind direction (170°) at true index. 8. Draw wind arrow from grommet to intersection of drift line and GS arc.

5. 3.4. 6.000 ft. Set true airspeed (214 mph ) under g rommet. 2.RESTRICTED TO FIND DRIFT. Use dropping angle chart for 100 lb. bombing altitude. WIND AND ALTITUDE GIVEN: Variation 12°E True Airspeed 214 mph Magnetic Heading 118 ° Wind from 170 ° at 26 mph Bombing Altitude 3. Find dropping angle (51. HEADING. Set magnetic heading (118 °) at magn etic index. 7. S e t wind direction (170 ° ) at true index.7 RESTRICTED . GROUNDSPEED AND DROPPING ANGLE FOR GIVEN AIRSPEED. bomb at 3.7°) at intersection of 195 mph GS circle and drift line marked "3. Find GS (195 mph) at point of wind arrow.000 ft. BA. Trace measurement of wind speed (26 mph) from grommet down centerline of chart and mar k. Find drift (5°L) at point of wind arrow.000 ft. Mark magnetic index (12 °E) on drift & variation scale. FIND: Drift Groundspeed Dropping angle SOLUTION: 1." 2. 8. 4. 9.

RESTRICTED 2-4-8 . Find drift (6y. 0) on compass rose opposite 6% oR on drift & variation scale. 7. 4. 6. 5. Find GS (265 mph) at point of wind arrow. 3. Set magnetic heading (338 °) at magnetic index.RESTRICTED TO FIND GROUNDSPEED. Trace measurement of wind speed (33 mph) from grommet down centerline of chart and mark.OR) at point of wind arrow. HEADING AND WIND GIVEN: Varia tion 18 oW True Airspeed 249 mph Magnetic Heading 338 ° Wind from 205 ° at 33 mph FIND: Groundspeed Drift True Course SOLUTION: 1. Mark magnetic index (18 °W) on drift & variation scale. 8. . AND COURSE FOR A GIVEN AIRSPEED. 2. DRIFT. Find true course (326 y. Set true airspeed (249 mph) under grommet. Set wind direction (205 0) at true index.

Set true airspeed (220 mph) under grommet. 4. 3. Turn chart over. 12. Turn chart over and place square grid lines under plotting disc.RESTRICTED TO FIND HEADING AND GROUNDSPEED FOR A GIVEN COURSE. Mark true course (225°) on compass rose. 5. Mark magnetic index (15 °W) on drift & variation scale. Set true course (225 °) at true index. 9. 7.) 8. 10. 2-4-9 RESTRICTED . 2. Rotate plotting disc until "line of course" is along a drift line. Find GS (184 mph) at point of wind arrow. 11. Note: You will find that the true course (225 °) is at 6° right driift on drift & variation scale when the point of the wind arrow is at 6° right drift on drift lines if this problem is properly solved. (This is a line of course. Trace measurement of wind speed (40 mph) from grommet down centerline of chart and mark. Trace a line through point of wind arrow along a vertical grid line. Find magnetic heading (234°) at magnetic index. 6. AIRSPEED AND WIND GIVEN: Variation 15 ° W True Airspeed 220 mph True Course 225 ° Wind f r om 190 ° at 40 mph FIND: Groundspeed Magnetic Heading SOLUTION: 1. Set wind direction (190 ° ) at true index.

RESTRICTED 2-4-10 . . Set wind direction (250 ° ) at true index. Trace a (line of course) through point of wind arrow along a vertical grid line. 5. 11. Turn chart over and place square grid lines under plotting disc.RESTRICTED TO FIND HEADING AND AIRSPEED FOR A GIVEN COURSE. Find true airspeed (214 mph) under grommet. Find true heading (130°) at true index. keeping point of wind arrow at arc of (232 mph) on GS circle until "line of course" is along a drift line. 9. ]dark true course (123 °) on compass rose. Set t rue course (123 °) at true index. 3. 4. 10. from 250" at 32 mph Groundspeed 232 mph True Gourse 123 ° FIND: True Heading True Airspeed SOLUTION: 1. 7. 2. Trace measurement of wind speed (32 mph) from grommet down centerline of chart and mark. 8. Set point of wind arrow at arc of (232 mph) on GS circle . Rotate plotting disc. GROUNDSPEED AND WIND GIVEN: Wind. Turn chart over. 6.

GI VEN : Variation 4 oW True Airspeed 185 mph True Course 92 ° Wind from 130° at 32 mph Drift Drift FIND: Magnetic Heading Wind Speed 3. Drift 6°R 70° 27 mph 6. 72 ° 18 mph 3. GIVEN: Variation 9°E True Airspeed 163 mph Magnetic Heading 175° True Course 183 ° Groundspeed 178 mph FIND: Wind Direction Groundspeed Wind Speed ANSWERS: l. GIVEN: True Airspeed 148 mph 1st True Heading 335 ° 3 °R 2nd True Heading 50° 8°R FIND: Wind Direction Drift Drift 5. GIVEN: True Airspeed 136 mph 1st True Heading 350 ° 3 °R 2nd True Heading 50 ° l °L FIND: Wind Direction Groundspeed . G IVEN: True Airspeed 150 mph True Heading 210 ° True Course 216 ° Groundspeed 172 mph FIND: Drift Wind Speed 2. 36° 173 mph 5. 270 ° 173 mph 7. 8. 353 ° 16 mph 2-4-11 RESTRICTED .RESTRICTED &u~d~ l. 173 mph 107° 9. G IVEN: True Heading 275 ° Groundspeed 154 mph Wind from 3100 at 24 mph FIND: True Course True Airspeed 7. GIVEN: True Course 115 ° Groundspeed 173 mph Wind from 20 ° at 25 mph FIND: True Airspeed Wind Speed GS on 1st True Heading GS on 2nd True Heading True Heading 4. 102° 159 mph 8. 213 ° 10 mph 1st-144 mph 2nd-146 mph 4. 317° 21 mph 2. GIVEN: Variation 7 °W True Airspeed 153 mph Magnetic Heading 326 ° Groundspeed 161 mph Drift 6°L FIND: Wind Direction Wind Direction Wind Speed 6. GIVEN: Variation 15 °E True Airspeed 162 mph Magnetic Heading 16° Wind from 265 ° at 18 mph FIND: True Course 9.

the free air temperature gage and your C-2. just as the press ure of water is greatest at the bottom of the ocean. You can memorize t he procedures _. You use these factors. AN. the pressure of the air decreases. and this weight produces pressure.5. This is called t he Bombing Altitude (BA). in making altitude corr ection computations. As you go up.RESTRICTED In order to bomb with precision.1 . RESTRICTED The Atmosphere The atmosphere is an ocean of air surrounding t he earth . or E -6B computer. if you know how to use an altimeter. The temperature of the air also decreases with altitude. one thing you MUST know is how to find the exact height of your ai rplane above the target. YdU can measure t he pre ss ure of the atmosphere at different altit udes with a tube 2. First yo u must under stand certain facts about t he air in which yo u fiy. just as water has. and understand HOW and WHY you are doing it. at the s urface of the earth. To make accurate altitude correct ion computations. you must know WHAT you are doing. The air has density or weigh t . but that isn't enough. The pressure is heaviest at the bottom of the "ocean" of air. that is. pressure and temperature. It is comparatively easy to find.

RESTRICTED • EARTH AND ITS ATMOSPHERE of mercury sealed at the top and inverted in a cup of mercury. But barom .tric pressures change with weather. increase in altitude (standard lapse rate). is the pressure measurement in feet above a certain pressure level. At sea level. If the barometric pressure at sea level were always 29. Standard atmospheric conditions.000 ft.92. when the temperature is 15° C and there is a temperature decrease of 2°C for each 1. increase in altitude. when a barometer registers 28.000 ft.92. the weight of a column of air pushes a column of mercury up in the tube to a height of 29. Therefore. S.000 ft. the column of mercury falls approximately 1 inch for every 1. When you take a barometer up into the atmosphere. Thus. a ll that a barometer can indicate to you about altitude. the problems would be simple. and season. 2-5-2 RESTRICTED . above the place where the barometric pressure is 29. An aneroid barometer works on the same principle. temper lture. it is theoretically 1. under U .92 inches.92.

of course. you must have some level from which to measure. It measures pressure and interprets it in terms of feet above a certain pressure level. sonietimes it is below. the hands will indicate your pressure measurement in feet above the standard datum plane (SDP). Thus if you set on the pressure scale the pressure of the standard datum plane. your altimeter is properly calibrated. RESTRICTED 2.92. that the airplane is above the level ' where that barometric pressure exists.3 . The difference between pressure altitude (P A) and surveyed elevation above sea level is called pressure altitude variation (PA Var. When you set a given baTometric pressure on this scale. in feet. It has a window in the dial through which you can read a scale calibrated in inches of mercury.).92. This plane is the level where barometric pressure is exactly 29. It is the distance in feet between sea level and the standard datum plane (SDP) . This is your pressure altitude '(P A) .RESTRICTED SDP In order to use pressure for computing your altitude. Remember that the standard datum plane (SDP) may be above or below sea level. The Altimeter YoUr altimeter that you use in the present training and tactical bombing a irplane is an aneroid barometer. For convenience. the hands on the dial of the altimeter will indicate the pressure measurement. 29. the socalled standard datum plane (SDP) is used.5. provided. Sometimes this level is above sea level.

-. you'll never encounter t hem. and when the a ir temperature decreases 2°e for each 1.- -6000'. when the air temperature at sea level is 15'e..-+1 - + Under s tandard atmospheric con ditions (which rarely exist). With any change from standard conditions.92. Standard atmospheric conditions comprise a convenient "yardstick.92 exists. The barometric pressure is changing continually. you know why you must corr ect pressure a lt itude to find true altitude. It is necessary to know the difference between sea level and the standard datum plane (the pressure altitude variation) in order to find the correct sea level pressure altitude.. the altimeter indicates a pressure altitude that has a definite relationship to the true altitude above sea level.92) is at sea level.-- + + + -2000'.. When the pressure scale is set at 29.000 ft. Standard atmospheric conditions exist only when the standard datum plane (barometric pressure 29. increase in altitude. If you know this 2-5-4 r elationship.- + -4000'.92. and it varies from one location to another on the surface of the earth and at sea level." In actual practice. your altimeter indicates a pressure altitude which is the t rue altitude (TA) above sea level. RESTRICTED .-- . These changes are us ua lly gradual and the barometric pressur e at sea level can be above or below the standard barometric pressure of 29. the altimeter will indicate the pressure altitude above the level where the barometric pressur e of 29.-.- .RESTRICTED -8000'.

You remember. Then t h e pressure altitude above sea level can be corrected for temperature to find the true altitude. you must get the pressure altitude above sea level. 2. To find the true altitude above sea level.5. of course. the indication of the altimeter at different levels in the atmospher e will be increased. making it less dense. how air expands as it grows warmer. Thus you must know the correct temperature RESTRICTED of the air column in order to correct t he altimeter's indication the proper amount to get a true measurement of the air column. Therefore.) The temperature of the atmosphere is fully as changeable as the barometric pressure. The barometric pressure and temperature of the atmosphere will always vary from standard conditions. The altimeter will indicate the pressure a ltitude above the standard datum plane. The indication of th e altimeter will be decreased when the air is colder and more compressed . This pressure altitude can be corrected for temperature to find the true distance above the standard datum plane. (SLPA = Zero + PA Var. which is the pressure altitude plus pressure altitude variation.5 . It varies greatly from one locality to another and at different levels above sea level. You must correct for this increase or decrease in the indication of the altimeter.RESTRICTED + + + The numerical value of sea level pressure altitude is equal to the pressure altitude variation.

the r esult will be the bombing altitude (BA)-the actual height between the a irplane and the target. .92 . As a bombardier you will have no need for altimeter setting except for checking the calibration ·of your altimeter.. If it does not read runway elevation (R Elev. You should check the calibration of your altimeter and temperature gage very often to get proper pressure altitude (PA) and temperature readings for 2.~ :-. The altimeter will then show the flight level pressure altitude (FLPA). this is called the altimeter setting. Set the pressure scale at 29.) . NOTE: . if you correct this pressure altitude above target (P A Above T) for temperature and density. You can't measure this directly with the altimeter." .92 S. . You get this by subtracting the target pressure altitude (TP A) from the flight level pressure altitude (FLP A). . Bombing Altitude . Make every effort to get this information from the best available source. FLPA .). RESTRICTED All instruments require regular and frequent calibrations. you must know the true altitude of the airplane above the target (bombing altitude-BA). The basic problem in all altitude correction computations is finding the target pressure altitude (TPA).). It is easy to find the flight level pressure altitude (FLPA) of the airplane. In order to bomb accurately. using the existing pressure and temperature of t he air column. ..5 -6 .·~2. "~ ALWAYS SET " .: ' - BEFORE TAKE-OFF computing bombing altitude (BA). and the target temperature (T Temp.P. You can check the altimeter calibration by using the runway barometric pressure (corrected to sea level conditions) (RBP corr.D. To make accurate altitude correction computations.. and can be obtained from the metro station. you can find the pressure measurement of the column of air between the airplane and the target.RESTRICTED 29. In other words. When the altimeter setting is set on the pressure scale. . Then. you must know these conditions. have your altimeter inspected by the instrument specialist.TPA = PA Above T PA Above T (corrected for temperature) equals BA. What you can find is the Pressure Altitude of the airplane Above the Target (PA above T). the altimeter will read the elevation of the runway on which the airplane is sitting if the altimeter is in proper calibration.. ".---< . Remember only recent metro information is useful in calibration.' P~ESSURE SCALE AF -"'" 29.

Thus you can compute the target pressure altitude (TPA) and the target temperature (T Temp. = TPA Before star ting on a bombing mission..) from the conditions that exist on your runway.) from runway pressure altitude (RPA).) to target elevation (T Elev. RESTRICTED 2-5-7 .10. you know the surveyed elevation of the target and the runway where you take off. When you do this. PA Var. Suppose the runway pressure altitude (RPA) is 2. = 2. you can assume that the atmospheric conditions at t he two points are approximately the same.) to find target pressure altitude (TPA). RPA .92 on the pressure scale before any take-off.500 ft.R Elev.900 + 200 = 4. To find the runway pressure altitude (RPA).2.0 ft. Add pressure altitude variation (PA Var.500 = (+ 200 ft.700 . The best method you can use t o find your target pressure altitude (TPA) is.) by subtracting runway elevation (R Elev.) TPA = 3. T Elev. and the elevation of your runway is 2. = PA Var.) F ind pressure altitude variation (PA Var.900 ft. the hands on the altimeter will indicate the runway pressure altitude (RPA). remember that you always set 29. + PA Var. You are going to bomb a target whose surveyed elevation is 3.700 ft. (Notealways tap the altimeter firmly to free hands from any friction that might cause them to give an incorrect reading.RESTRICTED HOW TO FIND TARGET PRESSURE ALTITUDE When You Can Assume Target Atmospheric: Conditions Are Comparable to Conditions At Take-Off Position Usually when the target is not far from the take-off position. above sea level.

92.900 ft.200 ft.22 is (. the target pressure altitude (TPA).000 (+300) PA Var.) to 2. (29. the target pressure altitude (TP A). PA Var. (29. (+0.). instead.RESTRICTED When You Know Target Atmospheric Conditions Frequently. = TPA If the target barometric pressure (corrected to sea level conditions) (TBP corr. the atmospheric conditions at the target can be predicted by your metro station.000 ft.) is 30.000 = PA Var. ADD (+300 ft. But if they give you. lower than sea level.) is greater than 29.500 ft.3 in.92 .) pressure altitude (PA). Therefore.000 (29.).) is a positive value and the target pressure altitude (TP A} will be more than the target elevation (T Elev. = TPA If the target barometric pressure (corrected to sea level conditions) (TBP corr. When BP Decreas.30..22) 1. you must be able to find the target pressure a ltitude (TPA) by the use of the following equation: 1.) is 2.) = PA Var. (-0.62. This means that the standard datum plane (where the altimeter would indicate zero PA) is 300 ft. to get 2.3) 1.) .92 .es PA Increases When BP Increases PA Decreases Suppose the target barometric pressure (corrected to sea level conditions) (TBP corr.200 .200 ft.92 .) equals (-300 ft. 2. ADD (-300 ft.) .000 = PA Var. Since 1 in.29.92 and 30.) is smaller than 29.500 ft .) of this same target area is 29.) is a negative value and the target pressure a ltitude (TPA) will be less than the target elevation (T Elev. (-0.). TElev.). If the altim- Suppose that on another occasion the barometric pressure (corrected to sea level conditions) (BP corr.3 in.200 + (-300) = TPA 2. the pressure altitude variation (P A Var. This means that the standard datum plane is 300 ft.22 and the target elevation (T Elev. The difference between 29.000 = (-300) = PA Var.200 ft. + eter were at sea level it would indicate (-300 ft. If the altimeter were at sea level it would indicate (+300 ft. above sea level.200 + (+300) = TPA 2. The metro station can and should give you the target pressure altitude (TP A). of mercury equals 1.3) 1.900 ft.TBP Corr.. The difference between 29. the pressure altitude variation (PA Var.92.) pressure altitude (PA). the target barometric pressure (corrected to sea level conditions) (TBP corr.300 = 1.62) 1. to get 1.0.92 and 29. higher than sea level. 2.) to 2.62 is ( + 0. of altitude. = TP A = = WHEN Be INCREASES PA DECREASES WHEN BP DECREASES PA INCREASES 2-5-8 RESTRICTED . Therefore.3 in.200 + 300 = 2.

1.6 -3. This rapidly moving air. Therefore you must correct each indication by subtracting an airspeed correction.10. Ther efore in yo ur training your usual airspeed correction for temperatur e is -2 °.6 -12.14. This correction can be found by t he following equation: Corr ection = -.2 .16. What you are concerned with is the tempera ture of the air column between the airplane and the .6 . This is where you use your computers. you mus t remember that yo ur thermometer is rushing through th e a ir at the s peed of the airplane.0. 1 . You must correct this pressure m easurement for temperature and density of the air column to find your bombing altitude (BA).1 . ca uses a higher temperatur e indication t han the acRESTRICTED The average true airspeed of the AT-ll is 160 mph . In taking your readings. and the tar get is so far from your take-off position that you must assume target cond itions are different f r om your runway conditions. you mus t assume that the target pressure altitude (TP A) is the same as the surveyed elevat ion of the target. or the E -6B will automatically make this correction for you. PA Above T (Corrected for Temperature) equals BA. When you reach the stratosphere. Since t he temperat ures will vary at different points in that column.20. but it is the best you can do with the information you have. it is the tempera t ure at a point halfway between the airplane and tbe target. furthermore. As you go up through the atmosphere. Theoretically.9 -18. This is not very accurate.4 . Once you have determined the target press ur~ altitude (TP A) yo u can find the pressure altitude above the target (P A Above T) PAAbove T = FLPA-TPA.9 . the indication on your altimeter.8 . AN. With the correct data properly set in.2 . the rate of decrease in temperature as you go up into the atmosphere is not constant. however.target.00008 X TAS2 The following table shows the proper corrections for different t rue airs peeds. is the flight level pressure altitude (FLP A).6 -2.4 -11. corrected for instrumental a nd installation errors. it changes from day to day. you find that the temperature stays close to _55°C. Temperature 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 -0. In such a situation.5 . like pressure.92.0 -2.2 9.3 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 7. decreases with altitude. The correction for this speed is _2°. NOTE: Tempera ture.3.8 -1.4 . you use t he average of these various tempera tures for your computations. tual air temperature.5. You now have t he pressure measurements of the column of air.6 .2 8.15. which a r e computed by using this formula: Airspeed Corrections f or Thermometers True Airspeed MPH Correction Degrees True Airspeed Cenligrade MPH Correction Degrees Centigrade CORRECTION FOR DENSITY AND TEMPERATURE OF AIR COLUMN When the pressure scale is set at 29.5 .4.RESTRICTED When You Know Nothin9 About Atmospheric Conditions at Target Sometimes in combat the metro station cannot predict the atmospheric conditions at the target. This is called the mean temperature. 2-5.9 . by producing adiabatic comp r ession and friction. t he air grows increasingly colder. The t emperature of a given altitude does not remain constant. the C-2.

000 ft. If the target is lower than the runway.RESTRICTED HOW TO FIND MEAN TEMPERATURE When You Can Assume Torget Atmospheric Conditions Are Comparable to Conditions At Toke-Off Position o Sometimes your target is near enough to your take-off position that you can assume the atmospheric conditions at the two places are similar. 2 MEAN TEMPERATURE ~ ___""---=:"::"___30-+ 200 L -_ _ + T Temp. difference in elevation.000 ft.) to flight level temperature (FL Temp. MEAN TEMPERATURE 2-5-10 RESTRICTED .000 ft. FL Temp.) and dividing them by 2. the target temperature will be 2° higher for each 1. If the target is higher than the runway. difference in eleva tion. In this case. You can find the mean temperature of the air column by adding target temperature (T Temp. difference in elevation between the target and runway. You can assume that the temperature changes 2 ° for every 1. you can compute the target temperature and the temperature at any place in the column of air between target and flight level. This temperature change is known as the standard lapse rate. = Mean Temp. the target temperature will be 2° lower for each 1.

it is more accurate to take temperature readings for each 1. above the target up to flight level. a nd divide by 2. Take the target temperature (T Temp. Tota l of Temp.000 + 13°C + FL Temp. find your mean temperature in the usual way. When the metro station can give you th e target temperature (T T emp. Number of Temp. down to target elevation. ( +18° ) + { 10. (+6 ' C) With target temperature determined. If the corrected temperature is _2' at a flight level of 10.) . add all temperature readings and divide t heir sum by the number of readings taken. and the target elevation is 2. add the flight level temperature (FL Temp. between take-off position and flight level.000 ft.000 ft.500 X 2} = 1.2") = + (_2 °) 2 (+ 11 ° ) = + 5 1h o C 2 10000 FT 9000 FT 8000 FT 7000 FT 6000FT 5000 FT 4000 FT 3000 FT 0° +2° +4° +6° +8° +10° RESTR ICTED 2-5-1 1 . ) it is easy to get a fairly accurate mean t emperature.000 ft. and increase it 2' for each 1.500 ft. + { _2° FLPA-TPA } 1. Take the corrected flight level temperature.) . (+13 °) t (_6 °) _ (+.2.. FL Temp. Readmgs When You Know Tarqet Atmospheric: Conditions When You Know Nothinq About Atmospheric: Conditions at Tarqet If the metro station cannot predict the target conditions.000 ft. To find the mean of these temperatures of the air column. 2 Mean Temp.RESTRICTED Rather t han taking two temperat ures to find the mean.. then the target temperature is + 13°. For example : T Temp. you can use the standard lapse rate (or the seasonal lapse rate for your particular locality) to compute the temperature at the t&rget. Re~dings= Mean Temp.000 X 2 = T Temp. By using these temperatures you can find target t emperature and temperature for each 1.000 .

in lig ht (or red) fig ures. Set free arm at mean temper ature. Operations T he large outs ide disc has a pressure altit ude scale. 3. in black figures. for setting the mean temperature. RESTRICTED . Find bombing altitude (BA). 2. On the s mall inside d isc are two spiral logarithmic a lti tude scales . in black figures. T he black fig ures are the same on both computer s. Where the C-2 has red figures. Set clamped arm at target pressur e altitude (TPA). 4. It also has a t emperature scale. Rotate small disc until pressure altitude above target (P A Above T). for setting target 2-5-12 1. the AN has lig ht fl uorescen t fig ures. pressure altitude (TPA). is under clamped arm . in lig-ht (or red) figures. except that t h ey are printed in different colors. On t he outer side of t he spiral is the (true altitude) scale with light (or r ed) fig ures on which is found bombing altitude (BA). The clamped arm is used for Pressure Altitude (P A) settings. under f r ee arm . Both compu ters cons ist of two concentric discs and two a rms. On the inner s ide of t he spiral is the (indicated altitude) scale with black figures for setting pressure alti tude above target (PA Above T). and lock. The free arm is used for mean temperature and bombing altitude (BA) setting.RESTRICTED HOW TO USE (-2 AND AN COMPUTERS TO FIND BOMBING ALTITUDE (BA) Description T he C-2 and t he AN are exactly alike.

Compute mean pr essure altitude (MP A).RESTRICTED HOW TO USE THE E-6B COMPUTER TO FIND BOMBING ALTITUDE (BA) Description To find bombing altitude (BA) from the E -6B you use the circular slide rule and the window marked "For Altitude Computations. Alt. You will use mean temperature because it is the most accurate reading yo u can get. opposite pressure altitude (Cal.). This is t he pressure altitude which exists half way between the ta r get pressure altitude (TP A) and the flight level pressure altitude (FLP A). 3. Note: To use your computer. Find bombing altitude (BA) on the outer scale opposite pressure altitude above target (P A Above T) on the inner scale. On the out er scale of the slide rule is found true altitude (Cor. depending on whether or not yo u know the atmospheric conditions at the target. you will get accurate results . the pressure altitude where mean temperature exists. Add target pressur e altitude (TPA) to flight level pressure a ltitude (FLP A) and divide by 2. Find true altitude above sea level on the outer scale opposite fl ight level pressure altitude (FLP A) on the inner scale. 2-5-13 . Find bombing altitude (BA) by subtracting target elevation from true altit ude above sea level. and the temper ature changes between flight level and target are not considered.) on the inner scale. Air temperature in the window is set opposite pressure altitude under the window." The window marked " F or Altitude Corrections" consists of two scales. The most accurate method is t he one used when the atmospheric conditions at the target are known. 3.000 ft. This method assumes that pressure variation is zero and that temperature variation of the air column has a standard lapse rate of approximately 2' C per 1. You find it the same way you fo und mean temperature. When You Know Target Pressure Altitude and Temperature 1. If yo u use t he computer properly. you must use mean pressure altitude (MPA). Operations You have your choice of two possible ways. you must set in the proper temperature for a given a ltitude.) in the correction window. Note: This method is the least accurate because the altitude found is actually the altitude above the standard datum plane instead of above sea level. 2. taking care in the set ting and reading of yo ur numbers. 2. Set flight level pr essure altitude (FL PA) opposite corrected fl ight level temperature (FL Temp. Alt. RESTRICTED When You Don't Know Target Pressure Altitude and Temperature 1. Therefore. Set mean pressure altitude (MPA) opposite mean temperature in t he correction window.

000 17.460 7 .420 ft.4 USING C-2 OR AN COMPUTER GIVEN: Flight level pressure altitude (FLP A) 19. = TPA 6.000 15.460 ft. of Temp.460 = 12.540 ft. PA Var. and lock. Runway elevation (R Elev.600 . Runway pressure altitude (RP A) 5. 3.000 . Find BA (13.OOO 19. RESTRICTED 2-5-14 .). 4.280 ft.600 ft. Set free arm at mean temperature (+7% °) . is under clamped arm.) 6. 5. Find pressure altitude above target: + E.460 ft. in black figures. '.6. C. Readings = ean emp.000 16.000 12. in light (or red) figures under free arm. Use C-2 or AN computer: 1.RESTRICTED 1 29.000 10.000 11.OOO 9. D.540 ft. Set clamped arm at TPA (6.000 S. FIND: Bombing altitude (BA).) B.).92 &xaHtfde 11(1-.140 + (+ 320) = 6. SOLUTION: A. 2. Target elevation (T Elev.).140 ft. Readings M T No. The following temperature readings at the pressure altitudes indicated: Temperature Pressure Temperature Pressure Altitude Readings (Corrected) Reodings (Corrected) Altitud e 6. Rotate small disc until PA Above T (12.5. = PA Var. Find pressure altitude variation: RPA-R Elev.000 ft. Find mean temperature: Total of Temp.280 = ( +320 ft.000 +6°C +4°C +2°C OoC _2°C _4°C _6°C FLPA-TPA = PA Above T 19.000 14..000 +22°C +20°C +ISoC +15°C +13°C +10 oC + SoC 13.000 lS.) 5. Find target pressure altitude: T Elev.

SOLUTION: A. Use E-6B computer: 1. Find target pressure altitude: T Elev.~ Flight level pressure altitude (FLP A) 19.000 14. Find pressure altitude above target: FLPA-TPA = PA Above T.000 16.6.RESTRICTED 29.000 ft.000.280 ft .140 + (+320) = 6. Find mean pressure altitude : FLPA 2+ TPA = MPA 19. = TPA 6.420 ft.RElev.000 8. 5.92 &utmfde?to· USING E-6B COMPUTER GIVEN: I. · N o.000 19. The following temperature readings at the pressure altitudes indicated: Pres sure Altitu de Temperature Readings (Corrected) Temperature C.=PA Var.5-15 FIND: Bombing altitude (BA). 2.) on the inner scale.) B. 19.730 ft. RESTRICTED .000 15. Target elevation (T Elev. D.540 ft.) 6.000 + 22°C +20°C + 18°C +15°C + 13°C +10°C + 8°C 13.000 17.000 18. Readings M T = ean emp.) opposite mean temp.5. F.280 = (+320 ft.000 12. Find mean temperature: Total of Temp.) on the outer scale opposite P A Above T (12. Find pressure altitude variation: RPA . R ea d mgs Pressure Readings (Corrected) Altitude 6.000 11.}: 6. Runway elevation(R Elev.000 +6°C +4°C + 2°C O°C _2°C _ 4°( _6°C E.460 = 12.000 9. Find BA (13.000 10.460 7 .) 5.730 ft. (7% °C ) in altitude correction window. 2. 0 f T emp.600 ft.460 ft.600 .140 ft. Runway pressure altitude (RPA) 5. + PA Var. Set MPA (12.540 ft.460 = 12.000 .

Set clamped arm at TPA (5.000 ft.) 5. Rotate small disc un til P A Above T (24.000 . 4.= -3C C. in light (or red) figures under free arm. Use C-2 or AN computer: 1. . is under clamped arm. in black figures. SOLUTION: A.900 ft. Find pressure altitude above target: FLPA -TPA = PA Above T 30.). B.400 ft.). + FL Temp. 3. 2.) corrected -28 ° C.400 ft.600 ft. ° (_28 °) + (+ 22 °) _6 ° 2 · = "2.RESTRICTED USING C-2 OR AN COMPUTER GIVEN: Flight level pressure a ltitude. Find mean temperature: T Temp. Find BA (26.) + 22 °C. FIND: Bomb ing altitude (BA). Flight level temperature (FL Temp. Target pressure altitude (TPA) 5. Target elevation (T Elev. and lock.).400 = 24.300 ft. (FLPA) 30. Set free arm at mean temperature (_3 °C). Target temperature (T Temp.600 ft. 2 Mean Temp.5. 2-5-16 RESTRICTED .

600 ft. Target temperature (T Temp.700 ft.) +22°C.600 ft. FLPA + + RESTRICTED 2. Find BA (26. Find mean pressure altitude: TPA = MPA 2 30.000 .000 .400 = 24.) 5. 2 + T Temp.) on the inner scale.RESTRICTED USING E-68 COMPUTER GIVEN: F light level pressure altitude (FLPA) 30.5-17 .) corrected -28 °C. Target pressure altitude (TPA) 5.) opposite mean temperature (_3 °C) in the altitude correction window. 2 D. Target elevation (T Elev.700 ft.ft.300 ft. E. 2.400 ft . = M ean T emp.900 ft. Flight level temperature (FL Temp. Find pressure altitude above target: FLPA-TPA = PA Above T 30. Find mean temperature: FL Temp.400 17. C.000 5.5. Set MPA (17. SOLUTION: A. Use E -6B computer: 1. FIND: Bombing altitude (BA).) on the outer scale opposite P A Above T (24.

600 X 2° ) = ( + 2.400 ft. Rotate small disc until P A Above T (29. Find BA (31.j.0C) 1.420 ft. (_34 ° ) 2 + T Temp. Find mean temperature: 2-5-18 + D. = PA Above T 32. Find pressure altitude above target: FLPA-T Elev. 1 (+ 25 ° ) = (--4V:! ° C) pressure altitude. B. in black figures.).92 USING C-2 OR AN COMPUTER GIVEN: Flight level pressure altitude (FLP A) 32. in ligh t (or red) figures under free arm.000 D C. Difference = T Temp. is under clamped arm.600 ft. FLT emp.). + Temp. TT emp. and lock.) corrected _ 34°C. . RESTRICTED . FIND: Bombing a ltitude (BA). Target elevation (T Elev.000 (_34 0) (29. Flight level temperature (FL Temp.(PAAboveT X 2) 1.400 ft.000 . assume that TPA is the same as T Elev.400 = 29.). = Mean Temp.2. Set clamped arm at TPA (2. SOLUTION: A. NOTE: Since you do not know target FL Temp.600 ft. 2. 3. Find target temperature: FL Temp.000 ft. Set fr ee arm at Mean Temperature ( W2 · )· 4.) 2.RESTRICTED 29. Use C-2 or AN computer: 1.

Flight level temperature (FL Temp. you can subtract 2.--.RESTRICTED rz9.000 ft.400 ft . NOTE: The pressure scale at the correction window on some E-6B computers ends at 30. Target elevation (T Elev.) by subtracting T Elev.)...::. FIND: Bombing altitude (BA).. Use E -6B computer: 1.000 ft.19 .) 2.----.:.92 J----E:...000 ft.. Find BA (31. As this type of problem is based on RESTRICTED the standard lapse rate.. (-34 ' C) in altitude correction window. 3.800 ft. setting 30. from the altitude and correct the temperature for this altitude difference.. Set FLPA (32.000 ft.400 ft.. By using the standard lapse rate of 2 ' C per 1.30° C) sets up the same altitude correction computation as 32.) from true alti· tude above sea level (33.. USING E-68 COMPUTER GIVEN: Flight level pressure altitude (FLPA) 32.-=-~..000 ft.-. Therefore.000 ft . P A opposite (.) corrected -34 ' C. PA opposite (-34 ' C) .400 ft..800 ft. Find true altitude above sea level (33.000 ft.) on the inner scale.) opposite FL Temp.. P A opposite (-30 ' C) temperature in the correction window.000 ft. 2.... SOLUTION: A..) on the outer scale opposite FLPA (32... 2-5.. (2. it is necessary to set 30. 000 ft.

and the type of bomb used. and dropping angle for any heading that the airplane flies . When you set the true airspeed and wind on the computer and lock the wind gear to the directional gyro.RESTRICTED AUTOMATIC BOMBING COMPUTER (ABC) Purpose The automatic bombing computer is used with the M-Series bombsight. bombing altitude. the wind gear and wind disc are held 'in a fixed position in space. you must set in certain known values· in order to find the unknowns. Description Since you use the ABC to solve the vector triangle. If you set in the proper data it will solve the vector triangle for you. under the lubber line. groundspeed. You s et in wind direction on the compass rose by positioning the wind arrow on the wind gear. just as the E-6B does but more rapidly. which locks the true airspeed indicator on the true airspeed scale. For this reasOn it can be used to great advantage in short combat approaches. RESTRICTED . The wind gear and the wind disc are the same size and have 2. You set the wind speed indicator at the wind speed on the wind speed scale and lock with the wind speed lock. The compass rose is locked to the clutch drum of the stabilizer by means of the compass rose lock. At the lower end of the slot is the airspeed lock. and lock it by means of the wind gear lock. which operates freely over the drift scale. which operates freely in the slot of the groundspeed bar. With the ABC you can find the approximate dropping angle and drift for any heading. Set Magnetic Heading on the compass rose. Attached to the left side of the bar is the tangent scale. Therefore the computer automatically determines the drift. On the right side of this bar is the groundspeed scale. On the lower end of the groundspeed bar is the drift pointer. You then pre-set this drift and dropping angle into the bombsight for the bombing run. An idler gear connects the wind gear to the wind disc. therefore a turn of one will give an equal turn of the other and in the same direction. On the wind disc is mounted the wind speed scale and the wind speed indicator. which is mounted on top of the compass rose. This scale is selected for the true airspeed.6-1 the same number of teeth. You can then pre-set this data into the bombsight and it will be possible for you to make a short bombing run with accurate results.

" ROSE LOCK WIND GEAR LOCK TANGENT SCALE ~:.RESTRICTED GROUNDSPEED BAR WINDSPEED SCALE WINDSPEED LOCK \ WINDSPEED INDICATOR ._. WIND DISC LUBBER LINE COMPASS ROSE WIND ARROW / I.R()U~~DS...PEE: D SCALE TRUE AIRSPEED SCALE AIRSPEED LOICK '~ TRUE AIRSPEED INDICATOR .6-2 ..V'M"A'.DRIFT SCALE DRIFT POINTER RESTRICTED 2.

BOTH SETS OF DOTS MATCHED 1. WIND ARROWS PARALLEL 4. the drift pointer must indicate zero drift.RESTRICTED INSTALLATION AND ZEROING The AB Computer is installed on the stabilizer of the M-Series Bombsight by means of a mounting bracket and a compass rose lock. With the wind disc and wind gear properly matched. the wind arrow on the wind gear is parallel to and points in the same direction as the arrow on the wind disc. Therefore. This is a fast check for proper installation and zeroing of the ABC and should be made before each mission. remove wind gear by unscrewing compass rose lock and replace it so all dots are properly matched. ONE SET OF DOTS MATCHED 2. A direct head or tailwind does not cause drift. When it is installed correctly you will be able to match the dots on the idler gear with the dots on the wind gear and wind disc. ZERO DRIFT 3. the lubber line is adjusted to be opposite the point or tail of the wind arrow on the wind gear. LUBBER LINE ADJUSTED 2-6-3 RESTRICTED . 1.) If dots do not match properly. When the drift pointer is set on zero drift and a wind speed is set on the wind speed scale. (The dots should match once in 19 turns of the wind gear and wind disc. ZERO DRIFT 2. when wind is set on the wind speed scale and the point or tail of the wind arrow is opposite the lubber line.

~ 10 12 '" • NO YO 300 ·156 29II·'..111' 65 10 16 • • . Add West Variation to true direction of wind to find magnetic direction of wind.2 12. or drift and groundspeed measurements.500·11&. are always from a direction measured from true north.41»·119.4 T.94 221)·100 2111 · 1~ Ill · BZ 60.4 U 12. 0.5 .1. .!OJ·IW 1t.• " 10 0 0 2(lJ ·11l ZSG·12f1 2611 ·127 118· 1101 2311 ·141 .ll11·18U 11 . Set wind speed on wind speed scale and lock with the wind speed lock..C 11:000' UT. Winds set on the ABC must always be from magnetic north. u u 12.J .. Setting Known Wind on Computer Metro winds.600·1&5. U U 11. Lock wind gear to compass rose with the wind gear lock. PR. Set wind direction on the computer. by rotating wind gear until the tail of the wind arrow is opposite the magnetic direction of the wind on the compass rose. = 154 Mag. = 304 Mag. 140 T 14 °W Val'.7 12.S " 0 4 13 14 RESTRICTED 2-6-4 .7 11. . .5.3011-119.-111. 0 0 + 0 M 31 A 2 l00l b.0II·IIZ.T" il 150· 160· 110180 · .A.1 II.. Therefore local variations must be applied to metro and E-6B winds when setting them on the ABC.l.511-111.· u 210 .6 11.S.9 12. Subtract East Variation from true direction of wind to find magnetic direction of wind. drift measurements.RESTRICTED WIND You can obtain the wind direction and speed from metro predictions. 315°T -11 °E Val'. and winds found using the E-6B computer.l1li·114.2DI·'18.

Set magnetic heading on compass r ose under lubber line and lock compass rose lock. Set true airspeed on the true airspeed scale and lock . Select the tangent scale for the bombing altitude and true airspeed flown and the type of bomb t o be used and attach it to left side of the groundspeed bar. The airplane is flown on any constant heading. Turn wind arrow to the approximate direction of the wind. Lock the wind speed lock and the wind gear lock. using a small sighting angle. You uncage the gyro and. you rotate the sight until objects on the ground appear to move along or parallel to the fore and aft crosshair. You should complete this entire operation before turning off the heading on which the wind is determ ined . 2. Loosen all four locks. With the sight set on t he drift angle. With left drift the wind arrow is pointed to the left. airspeed. Hold drift pointer in this position and rotate wind gear to position groundspeed indicator at tangent of the dropping angle from s ight. and the true airspeed on the AB Computer.RESTRICTED TO FIND THE WIND USING THE BOMBSIGHT ANDAB COMPUTER The bombsight can be used to find the drift and dropping angle (or groundspeed) for the heading and at the a ir speed and altitude the airplane is flying . continue along the same heading and at the same airspeed. Set drift pointer at drift determined from sight. To determine the drift. You turn the sight away from the direction in which the objects on the ground seem to be moving. and at t he bombing altitude either by C-l autopilot or manua lly. The magnetic direction and speed of the wind is nqw set on the ABC. You can find the magnetic direction and speed of t he wind by setting this drift. Synchronize for rate over terrain the approximate altitude of the target to find the tangent of the dropping angle. When you have right drift the wind is from the left and you point the wind arrow to the right. dropping angle (or groundspeed). magnetic heading.6-5 RESTRICTED . swing the sight as a drift meter to determine the drift.

.. ~ "' ' .1" ~ 1 " " o \ RESTRICTED '" 2-6-6 . • lOI-'" $'''' I :...11 : . ! . .t ....' ~' ~ !II '. : '\'i.... a l' -" " " " o HOLD POINTER ON DRIFT AND POSITION GROUNDSPEED INDICATOR AT TANGENT OF DROPPING ANGLE • ..RESTRICTED TURN WIND ARROW TO APPROXIMATE DIRECTION OF THE WIND ".. ' ..

5· '"U IV · 1111< 1·. Set magnetic direction and speed of wind." . This is useful when you are planning evas ive action. The drift pointer will indica te the drift for any magnetic heading of the airplane." 13 • 10 0 2--6--7 RESTRICTED . : ·Ia " 41 . II ZII·m & '/11 • . 114 :i • . If " ·a 1·· 11 I• .15 111. Set true airspeed on true airspeed scale and lock. re-set the compass rose to the magnetic heading of the airplane. 11 z. If you wish to know the drift and dropping angle for a magnetic heading other than the one on which you are flying..RESTRICTED Zero the computer prior to take-off. Il lC 1I'r-------------__~>_-1 " r. The groundspeed indicator will now indicate the tangent of the dropping angle for any magnetic heading of the airplane.~. The wind arrow will indicate the direction of the wind at all times. Attach t he proper tangent scale. • . • . Set magnetic heading of the airplane under the lubber line.-/v 111. m.. . lf1 -11J 23-/. loosen the compass rose and turn it until the desired magnetic heading is under the lubber line. After finding this information. To Find Information on Another Headin". ./. m ~ 1/ • .

too. set the true airspeed indicator at one-half (l/2 ) the tru e airspeed. However. Now.RESTRICTED CORRECTION FOR PRECESSION The stabilizer gyro precesses about 10 for every 360 turn in the same direction.. " •• ~ '0 o 2-6. \~ ..'...ll I if the wind speed is set into the computer. 0 0 ..8 . ". you would know that the g r oundspeed you are flying is 270 mph... ABC will not indicate the proper drift a nd tangent of the dropping angle for t he magnetic heading of t he airplane. ~~'~~' ::' " \\1: \~\ " \1-. . if you were reading the wind speed or groundspeed from the compute r ..'" m:-. Do this shortly before the turn over the initial point." . it. if your true airspeed is 300 mph. Whenever the true airspeed exceeds the limits of the tr ue airspeed scale. '... '=. ' til " . you cannot use the scales t hat are not marked 1h on the theory that you could dOUble their reading and get the true tangent . Some of the detachable tangent scales provided wit h the computer have a small 1h printed at the top. l':-\~ l... unlock the compass rose lock and r e-set the magnetic head ing of the airplane under the lubber line.."" u " "-"''''' .. lL ~ 5 IS .' .. Therefore do not double the tangent value given on this scale. I \:-s . " WHEN TRUE AIRSPEED EXCEEDS 210 MPH The true airspeed scale on your computer is g rad uated f rom 100 to 210 mph.. . Remember . ~. set the wind speed indicator at 20. Since the tangent values are not constant.. will be set at one-half (lh) its true value. II. :'i. These 1h tangent scales are graduated to give the correct tangent readings when using lj2 settings of true airspeed and wind speed.. ~ ... For example.. you would double t h e indicated values. if you found the groundspeed indicator at 135. you can use it just as well f or true airspeeds up to 420 mph.. " . you must be very careful in working out the tangent of the dropping angle.. set the tr ue airspeed indicator at 150. These are the ones you must use when t he t rue airspeed is more tha n 210 mph.1 " \tl' ". Suppose the wind speed is 40 mph. '• :31. Thus the. This causes t he magnetic heading indicated on the compass rose of the ABC to be incorrect. RESTRICTED "'''' • . If your true airspeed exceeds 210 mph. To correct for this precession.. unless an adjustment is made.~ .. Then.

Type of Bomb M38A2." . Set magnetic heading (235 ' ) on the compass and lock. 10 FIND IVIND . 1l1 l /l ·UI ZIG · 1It 1II· 14! 3iHIi o VEN: Bombing Altitude 12. 3. 2. 2. 1l11-1 . 1. Magnetic Reading 235 ' . and tYpe of bomb (M38A2).000 ft. H~ -113 lSI-ill ~. 1. rose Under the lUbber line Wind Direction.).$~.oo( In • 1101 15 !1~ 90! no·1 1I! . B.57. . true airspeed (180 mph). Loosen alJ four lOCks. Wind Speed. SOLUTION: A.. Tangent of DrOPPing Angle 0. Check zero of the computer.. Attach the tangent Scale for the bombing altitude (12. Drift 7 Yt 0 L. 9 . 11-ue Airspeed 180 mph. l llru 1~ · ~ 1 · 'Q !JIl ..000 ft. Set true airspeed (180 mph) on the true airspeed Scale and lock.

Computer will now indicate the drift and tangent of dropping angle for any h eading. STRICTED . Find wind speed (24 mph) on the wind cator. Lock the wind speed lock. 5. 1. Find magnetic wind direction (3200) on the compass rose at the tail of the wind arrow. and rotate wind gear to Position groundspeed indicator at tangent of the dropping angle (0. 2. D. speed scale a t wind speed indi_ 3. 3. 4. Set drift pOinter at drift (7!t2 0L). Turn wind arrow to the approximate direction of the wind (pointing to the left). Hold drift pointer at drift (7!t2 0L).57).RESTRIC o • 1. Lock the wind gear lock. 2.

.. . ~ . Drift. Groundspeed. Check zero of the computer.. ''(··'10 " -. .ET TRUE AIRSPEED 180 mph. Find the drift (6 y. true airspeed (180 mph). Find the g roundspeed (167 mph) at the groundspeed indicator..) Set true airspeed (180 mph) on true airspeed scale and lock. Attach the tangent scale for the bombing altitude (12. SET MAGNETIC HEADING 130 o ... .. C.. Find the tangent of the dropping angle (0.. 'R) at the drift pointer. GROUNDSPEED AND TANGENT OF DROPPING ANGLE GIVEN: Bombing Altitude 12... 1. '" . .. .53 AND GROUNDSPEED 167 mph. Tangent of Dropping Angle.. . 2. .·{rrf!·" : . Magnetic Wind from 320" at 24 mph. SOLUTION: A." 1' .. True Airspeed 180 mph .. 3. 3.RESTRICTED TO FIND DRIFT.. := -.6-11 RESTRICTED . SET MAGNETIC WIND 320 0 @ 24 mph.~ FIND =1:1 <I. ::= :1'IW-Nf9 . FIND DRIFT 6'. .." .r f: TANGENT OF DROPPING ANGLE 0. (This wind is already set on the computer from the previous problem. Type of Bomb M38A2. :: I~ . .000 ft.53) on the tangent scale at the groundspeed indicator. .'0 R 2..... 0 " S. ..). and type of bomb (M38A2).... 1." •• " :: r -E" f • . =:: :: - U . 2."'.:ii·". Magnetic Heading 13 ". " . Set mag netic heading (13 ' ) on compass rose under the lubber line.t. FIND: B..000 ft. Set magnetic wind (f rom 320 ' at 24 mph) on the computer and lock. 1. 2.

The Autopilot "Eyes" A human pilot watches the horizon or his inst ruments to see if the airplane is flying straight and level. 'fhe " eyes" of the autopilot are two gyros. Two wipers are placed in a fixed position to the fiight gyro-one around the 3-1-1 . usually located near the center of gravity of the airplane. or maneuvers it in response to controls which you or your " pilot operate. When you leave the bombardier school to join a combat crew the chances are you will be the only man in the crew who understands the operation of the autopilot. The other. One is t he directional gyro in the bombsight RESTRICTED stabilizer.RESTRICTED ~-------------------. the cases move with the airplane but the gyros tend to maintain their fixed position in space. You will have to teach your pilot and co-pilot all you know about it. But to get maximum performance from the autopilot. The cases which hold these gyros are attached to the airplane. You use it on most of your bombing missions. is called the flight gyro and is . To replace the human pilot.. Although its main purpose is to give you a stabilized bombing platform. the autopilot must do the same work as various parts of t he pilot's body.. Since the response of the autopilot is quicker and more accurate than that of the human pilot. you control the course of the airplane. Your course corrections cause the autopilot to make the proper t urns. When the airplane tilts. which has its spin axis in the vertical... SECTION 3 INTRODUCTION The autopilot is an electronic-mechanical robot which automatically flies the airplane in straight and level flight. When you use it with the M-series bombsight. it is also used to relieve pilot fatigue and as a navigational aid. you must know how it works and how to set it up for proper operation.. You will be expected to set up the autopilot on many missions. you will have lower circular errors when you use it. .

They are attached by cables to the a irplane's control s urfaces. These servo units correspond to t he human pilot's muscles. If the wiper moves from its center or "dead" spot on the potentiometer. This causes the servo units to move the controls mechanically in the proper direction and return the a irplane to straight and level fligh t . Thus.around the yaw axis. through wipers and potentiometers." the amplifier. In this way. The Autopilot "Brains" Just as the pilot's eyes send a signal to his brain. These wipers are similar to the PDI brush of the bombsight. send an electric signal to an "electric brain.1-2 RESTRICTED . t he gyro and wiper maintain their position in space. the autopilot "sees" when the airplane is not flying straight and level. The autopilot "nerves" are a system of electric bridge circuits and wires which carry signals between t he various units. Another wiper is placed in a fixed position to the directional gyro. The Autopilot "Nerves" A human pilot's brain must receive and send signals thro ugh his nervous system so the proper muscles of his body will react to apply a force on the airplane's controls to correct the attitude of t he airplane's flight . which in turn sends the proper signals to the servo units. the gyros signal the amplifier. So when the airplane tilts. but the potentiometer-which is fastened to the airplane-moves under the wiper. The Autopilot "Muscles" Signals from the amplifier cause servo units in the autopilot system to operate. These potentiometers are just coiled wire.RESTRICTED roll axis and one around the pitch axis. it unbalances an electric bridge circuit. 3. Each of t hese three wiper s rides on a potentiometer mounted to the gyro case. when the airplane deviates from straight a nd level flight. the gyr os of the autopilot.

the nose of the airplane has to be pointed upward more than at lower altitudes. it does not correct for drift. with a' control on h is instrument panel. the pilot can make a coordinated bank as large as 40 °. With the course knobs you can bank the airplane up to 18°. The autopi lot does not maintain a constant a ltitude. the autopilot bridge circuits contain potentiometers and wipers which can be deliberately moved by pilot 'or bombardier. to cause the a utopilot to turn the airplane when course corrections are desired. At high er altitudes. but it cannot compensate for any wind changes. First of all. However. Limitations The autopilot cannot do everything that the human pilot can. The course knob and PDI mechanism of t h e sight a r e connected to the autopilot. the pilot can use controls of the autopilot to make small changes in altitude without readjusting the whole system. The autopilot will keep the airp lane crabbed once yo u or the pilot have made t he corrections.300 ft. does not crab the airplane to' make the correction before the beginning of the bombing run. the autopilot would mainta in the new altitude: Remember.1.rUDI 3. a nd a sudden updraft blew t he plane to 10. This is necessar y because changes in altitude or airspeed change the attitude at which the airplane must fly to hold a straight and level course.3 OR CORRECT FOR DRIFT }:} RESTRICTED ..000 ft. If the pilot. AUTOPILOT DOES NOT CO" MA'"rA. Similarly. wh ere the a ir is less dense.RESTRICTED COURSE CONTROL Also. Yau do this with the course knobs. If yo u were fly ing at 10. When you change the altitude or airspeed appreciably you must r eadjust the autopilot. but it does not maintain a constant altitude. you must make drift corrections during the run." SrA"r Alr. t he autopilot keeps the attitude of the plane the same. It has some limitations.

All of them are built alike.RESTRICTED THE AUTOPILOT'S MAIN PARTS: Flight Gyro Turn Control This gyro. and knobs for engaging parts of the autopilot and adjusting it for proper flight are on this panel. 3-1-4 This pr0vides a central location for making wiring connections between the various control units. RESTRICTED . Directional Gyro ~ This knob is located on the ACP and you use it to make coordinated turns with as much as 40 ' of bank. makes it possible for you to turn the airplane with the bombsight. provides stability about the pitch and roll axis of the airplane. The C-1 and B-1 autopilots are identical except for the fact that they operate on different voltages. The C-1 autopilot operates on a 24-volt direct current. They . which has its spin axis in the vertical. amplifies them. This unit. It provides stabilization about the airplane's yaw axis. airplanes with 12w volt circuits are equipped with the B-1 autopilot. Hoo ever. @l"®"")~O ooo Junction Box Autopilot Control Panel (ACP) 000 0 ~ 000 000 0 Various switche.upply the force to move the airplane's control surfaces . on° the bombsight stabilizer. Rotary Inverter Servo Units This is a motor generator unit which takes direct current from the airplane's power supply and changes it to alternating current for use in t he amplifier and bridge circuits. Each has a cable drum driven by an electric motor. and relays them to the proper servo unit for control action. Amplifier Its spin axis is in the horizontal. There are three of t hese---{)ne for each axis of the airplane. Directional Panel This unit r eceives electric signals from the bridge circuits (wipers and potentiometers).

TlNG CUTOUT MECHANISM ROTOR CASE CAROAN RING. 3-2-1 .500 rpm. This is done by an er ecting system which holds t he gyro within one degree of the vertical. A roller r ides in each slot. RESTRICTED THE ERECTING SYSTEM The er ecting system is fairly simple in operation .RESTRICTED TOP BAIL ROLLER EREc. Because t his gyro serves as a vertical reference. Two a rc-shaped metal bails. curve across the top of t he gyro. slotted down their centers. Ther e is very small clearance between the rollers and t he inner surfaces of t h e slots. It has two rollers geared to and in line with the gyro's spin axis.- GUDGEON PIN BOTTOM BAIL COUNTERWEIGHT BALANCE WEIGHT COUNTERBALANCE GUIDE CHANNEL GUIDE ROLLER The main purpose of the flight gyro is to serve as a ver tical r eference for the autopilot. It is mounted neal' the airplane's center of gravity and rotates at approximately 7. it must be kept in the ver tical. The fli ght gyro detects any motion of the airplane around the roll and pitch axes.

mounted on the cardan by pivots in their ends like the .b ail of a bucket. The top roller and bail work in the same way when the gyro precesses about roll axis. This produces a frictional force in the direction of the slot. The other fits in the slot of the top bail. rides in the counterbalance guide channei. The Rollers roller turns the top roller. which extends from the bottom of the gyro. this force is applied directly to the gyro. The guide roller. the bottom bail falls against the bottom roller. but the bottom roller is the only one free to move up and down it.2 RESTRICTED . the top roller does not There are two rollers. Both rollers are free to revolve around the spindle. These rollers are mounte<J on the same stationary spindle. The top bail is mounted fore and aft and precesses the gyro about the roll axis. 3. If the bottom roller is not held upward. Spring tension holds the bottom roller upward so that the lugs mesh. From the law of precession. The bottom bail is mounted laterally and precesses the gyro about the pitch axis.RESTRICTED The Bails The ba~ls are at right angles to each other. The roller is rotating and rubs against the cork face of the bail. The rollers are geared through intermediate gears to the gyro's axle and turn in the same direction at 1/32 of the gyro's speed. Pivoted about the pitch axis with the top bail is the counterbalance guide channel. it curves under the gyro. Also arc-shaped like the bails. The counterbalance guide channel counterbalances the weight of the top bail and other parts of the gyro unit. The bottom roller has lugs on its upper side which mesh with lugs on the ·lower side of the top roller. you know that the gyro is thus precessed at a right angle to the slot in the bail and back to the vertical. As the roller is attached to the gyro.2. Thus the bottom HOW THE ERECTING SYSTEM WORKS When the gyro precesses around the pitch axis. The counterweight for the bottom bail is a fixed weight on the underside of the cardan. one of which fits in the slot of the bottom bail.

a switch energizes a clapper magnet. If the top roller were rotating. To keep the top roller from rotating during a planned turn. it would cause the gyro to precess toward the center of the turn.the position of the gyro. disengaging the bottom or drive roller from t he top roller.RESTRICTED CENTRI FUGAL FORCE IN A TURN THE BAil IS THROWN AGAINST THE RO LL ER AND IF THE ROllER IS ROTATING TH E GYRO WILL ERECT FALSELY TO THE POSITION CENTRIFUGAL FORCE AND GRAVITY RESULTANT OF FORCE ACTING ON AIRPLANE ARE BALANCED . Each time turns are made from the turn control or the directional panel. in relation to the housing. centrifugal force throws the top bail against the top roller. when the airplane rolls or pitches. which is fastened to the a irplane. This would place the gyro in a false vertical. and the wipers are attached to the gyro. After the turn. the flight gyro holds its position inside the gyro housing. changes as often as the airplane varies from straight and level flight. 3-2-3 . Thus. Thus . the magnet is de-energized and spring tension again shoves the bottom roller against the top roller causing it to rotate again. which causes the drive. the autopilot has a device to separate the rollers by r elieving the spring tension on the bottom roller. the pots move under the wipers. This device is called the erecting cutout mechanism. ERECTING CUTOUT MECHANISM When the airplane makes a turn. This magnet attracts an arm attached to the spring. The potentiometers (pots) are attached to the inside of t he gyro housing. changing the relative positions of the housing and gyro. RESTRICTED THE CONTROL MECHANISM As the airplane rolls or pitches.

the aileron pickup and rudder compensation pots and wipers unbalance their respective circuits so as to drive the controls to a streamlined position as the airplane approaches the desired degree of bank.. Therefore. which is attached to the cardan of the gyro. however. : LARGE RESTRICTED . ROTOR AND WIPER REMAIN VERTICAL WHILE CAS E AND POT TILT WITH AIRPLANE. all three pots move under their wip3-2-4 . This causes the wiper to move from its zero position relative to the pot. Since the pots are attached to the gyro case. j. 0 \ '..""". .. " " " ".RESTRICTED A CASE IS FASTENED TO AIRP LANE CASE TILTS WITH AIRPLANEROTOR REMA INS VERTICAL c o WIPER IS IN FIXED POSI TION IN RELATION TO ROTOR POT IS ATTACHED TO CAS E AS AIRPLANE TILTS. In small deviations the aileron pot and wiper unbalances the aileron bridge circuit and causes corrective contrql to be driven in before the rudder and elevator circuits are unbalanced. .l ~ .< -. THEREFORE POT MOVES UNDER WIPER. three pots (aileron pickup. and all three control surfaces are used to correct for the deviation.. . all three control surfaces a re used to correct for deviations around the roll axis.'-: ' .. and up-elevator) known as the triple pot assembly are mounted to the gyro case around the roll axis. Triple Pot Assembly ers to such a position that all three circuits are unbalanced. the pot is moved under the wiper. Although elevator alone corrects for deviations around t he pitch axis. In large deviations. rudder compensation.. .. any deviation of the airplane around the roll axis will move the pots under their stabilized wipers. In turns made from the turn control or directional panel.. . ' ~:.' . A wiper for each pot is attached to the counterbalance guide channel and is stabilized by the flight gyro. The up-elevator pot and wiper unbalance the elevator bridge circuit and drive in up-elevator so that the airplane will not lose altitude during the turn.'. If the airplane moves around the pitch axis. The Elevator Pickup Pot The elevator pickup pot is attached to the housing around the pitch axis. unbalancing an electrical circuit and thereby signaling the autopilot to make the proper correction in the elevator control surfaces. ~: ..

RESTRICTED t)~~ AND DIRECTI ONAL PANEL DIRECTIONAL PANEL DIRECTIONAL PANEL ARM AUTOPILOT CONNECTING ROD BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH \ ~ Illl'. t h e directional gyr o and t he wiper s hold t he same pos ition in space while t he pots. The direct ional gyr o stabil izes t he a utopilot clutch mechanism when t he autopilot clutch is engaged. One is t he r udder pickup pot and the oth er is t he d ua l banking pot . RESTRICTED ~ AUTOPILOT CLUTCH ARM EXTENSION 3. being mou nted on t he di r ectiona l panel housing. The pots a r e mounted ins ide t h e housing of t he directional panel. t h ey ar e a lso stabilized . Since t he wiper s ar e linked to the clutch.DRIFT GEAR / DRIFT GEAR CLUTCH POI DASH POT - ------'- AUTOPILOT CLUTCH DIRECTIONAL ARM LOCK The dir ectional gyr o in t he bombs ig ht stabilizer gives t he autopilot stabilization in ya w. move under t he wiper s. which is attached to the side of t he stabilizer.f_~~--. Ther e ar e two pots mounted in t h e dir ectiona l panel.2 -5 . When t h e ai r plane deviat es a round t he ya w axis. This stabiliza tion is br oug ht about t hrough a potentiometer sys tem s imilar to t he systems on t he fligh t gyr o.

3. Faste ned to t he dir ectional panel dir ectly above the dual banking pot is a spring leaf switch which is operated by cams attached to the sliding block. the dual banking pot wipers ar e mounted to the block.k__ • '"1. one for the rudder pickup pot and two for the dual banking pot.RESTRICT ED WIPER CENTERING SPR INGS WI PER DUAL BA. These cams a re so spaced that whenever the slide is moved one-eighth inch or more in either direction f rom center t he switch is closed and t he ·erecting cutout mechanism is energized. Since the wipers are stabilized by the directional gyro. This prevents the gyro f r om pr ecessing out of t he vertical during a turn. Ther efore. Attached to the sliding block are three wipers.~o. The directional panel arm is connected to a sliding block.2. for aileron control. Although the rudder control surface is the main control used for corr ections in yaw.OIJ NTER BALAN CE W EIGHT RUDDER PICK UP PO T DASH POT The autopilot clutch is connected to t he directional panel by the directional panel arm.f. DASH POT li NKAGE RUDDER PICKUP WII'ER..6 ERECTING CUTOUT SWITCH OPEN ERECTING CUTOUT SWITCH CLOSED RESTRIC TE D . any movement of the airplane arounc\ the yaw axis will move the pots under the wipers.'KlJ'IG POT WI PERS WIPER PI VOT STC)P S. t he aileron contr ol s urface is a lso used to make the correction s mooth.

The gyro will then stabilize the airplane on the new heading. since the gyro holds its position.RESTRICTED OPERATION OF DIRECTIONAL PANEl OPERATION OF DIRECTIONAL ARM LOCK DIRECTIONAL ARM LOCK Suppose you want to turn the airplane with the turn control knob. the directional arm lock. As soon as the turn control knob is turned back to its center position. would produce a signal which would cancel out part or all of the turn control signal. the solenoid is de-energized and the autopilot clutch arm and autopilot clutch are released. The directional panel arm mechanism. the autopilot has an electro-magnetic device. the stabilizer case. RESTRICTED DIRECTIONAL PANEl ARM 3-2-7 . When the turn control knob is turned it closes a switch . which locks the directional panel arm mechanism during a turn control turn. Therefore. in a fixed position. the autopilot clutch slips as the airplane turns. This switch completes a circuit to a solenoid which pulls the strong locking jaws of the pivoted directional arm lock down over the extension of the autopilot clutch arm. With the autopilot clutch arm thus locked to . if it were free to move. It is mounted to the stabilizer and locks the au{opilot clutch and directional panel arm.

working in an oil-filled cylinder.POT MOVES . you must know how the wiper is mounted. Two leaf springs tend to hold the wiper. To understand how this affects the rudder pickup wiper.RESTRICTED DASH POT The dash pot is linked to the rudder pickup pot wiper in the directional panel in such a way that it produces an extra initial rudder correction signal proportional to the speed of turn axis deviation.POT MOVES 3-2-8 RESTRICTED . When you scr ew the cylinder up. . Thus the lower end of the wiper moves over the rudder pickup pot a distance that is proportionally greater than the airplane's deviation. and they return it to center after they have overcome the resistance of the oil to the piston. . The oil r esists any movements of the piston. The top of the wiper is linked to the dashpot piston. It consists of a piston. . thus decreasing the resistance encountered by the piston when it moves against the oil. This adjustment governs the size of an opening through which the oil flows at the bottom of the cylinder. The cylinder may be adjusted and locked to regulate the piston's ease of movement. . Since the top of the wiper is h eld by the linkage to the piston. any sudden movement of the airplane aro und t he yaw axis rotates the wiper on its pivot. SUDDEN DEVIATION . In slow deviations. The rudder pickup wiper is affected by the dashpot in proportion to the abruptness of the airplane's deviation. you increase the size of the opening. the springs are strong enongh to overcome the restraining effects of the dash pot. It is mounted by a pivot on the sliding block of the directional panel. Thus the movements of the wiper and slide are the same. which is conSLOW DEVIATION nected through linkage to the rudder pickup pot wiper.

For each gear there is a clutch which engages the motor to t he cable drum. and turn in oppos ite directions. 3-2-9 . The relays . This would have made the control surface move in the opposite direction. its r espective operating solenoid is energized. energized by a r elay in t he a mplifier. The units are identica l and a r e connected to the contr ol sur faces by flexible steel cables. engaging the corresponding clutch to one of the r otating gear s. There are t hree servo units-one for each of t he airplane's control s urfaces . Thus the motor is engaged to the cable drum and the cont rol surface is moved. It remains locked in t hat position until the controls are moved again.are opera Led by signals f rom RESTRICTED a discriminator tube in the amplifier. An electric motor drives the cable drum through a system of gears and clutches. The direction the ser vo drives t h e control surfaces is determined by the discriminator tube which closes one of the relays . When one of the r elays is closed.RESTRICTED ~ --­ - The servo units of the autopilot supply the mechanical force necessary to move the cont rol surfaces of the airplane. it is locked t her e by two braking solenoids in t he servos. If the other r elay had been closed. These cables fit on cable drums which are part of the servo units. The gears operate freely on separate shafts. the other operating solenoid would have been energized and its clutch would have been enga. the motor runs continuously and drives two gear s.ged to the other rotating gear. To operate each clutch t here is an oper ating solenoid. When the autopilot is in operation. The servos in 'he autopilot a re very similar to the torque un it of t he stabilizer. Into whatever position the control surface is moved.

A wiper for each of the bala nce pots is attached to the cable drum and moves over the pot as t he cable drum turns. either operating solenoid can be energized. AUTOPILOT LIMIT MECHANICAL I LIMIT SWITCH STOPS SERVO BEFORE CONTROL SURFACES REACH MECHANICAL SOPS RESTRICTED . This breaks t he circuit to the energized solenoid and stops t he servos' drive. opens the limit switch as the control s urfaces a r e driven near t heir stops. A limit switch is incorporated in each of the servo units. This disengages the clutch. When t he switch is closed. When the bridge circuit is completely bala nced t he operating solenoid is de-energized. The controls are locked in t h is position by the two braking solenoids until the circuit is again unbalanced. Through t his pot and wiper the original signal is gradually balanced out as the proper amount of control is driven in. A cam. a s a safety f actor.RESTRICTED DIAGRAM OF SERVO OPERATING SOLENOID" BRAKING IN OPERA liON A balance pot is attached to each of the servos . geared to the cable drum. stopping' the drive to the controls. It is bu ilt in s uch a way that the pilot can overpower t he servos and man ually control the a irplane while t he a utopilot is engaged. 3-2-10 Another safety factor of the autopilot is fou nd in t he construction of the servo unit. to prevent the ser vos f r om driving and jamming the control s urfaces against their stops .

ct. R E (::') ' \.~ • Q @ '" RATIO Q(!) INCREASE" Q@ INCREASE .. 3-2. PlL" i. A. and servo switches can be turned on or off individually . • '... their levers rest against the master bar. The ser vo-PDI switch (SERVO-PDI). 4. which mal..ru -!!-. 5. The rudder engaging sw itch (RUD) . which completes the circuit to the directional gyro of the bombsight stabilizer.~ (£) .es it impossible to engage one switch without engaging the other. But when they are on. to disengage all of the switches sim ultaneously.~) ~JI!T ~ ?~ : ~M.." (9 E> RUO • O• !W F ON • @ ELEV RUD STAB '" ELEV SENSITIVITY $ • • . l1i- Q@ INCREASE [LE V ~ . These last three switches complete the circuits to the braldng solenoids of their corresponding servos...:". by throwing the master bar. The aileron. lights and knobs used to operate and adjust the autopilot. which completes the circuit to the torque unit of the bombsight stabilizer and the pilot director indicator. The master and stabilizer switches are operated simultaneously by the master bar..:: '... The stabilizer switch (STAB).' ~ _ " ". 3. The switches are on the left s ide of the box. the servo motors. rudder.~FER e '" RUO TURN COMPENSATIO N TO DECREASE 'SKID "'" INCREASE 8AN K Q$ Q~ ~ . This throws the autopilot entirely out of operation and return s the airplane to the pilot's control. . • Q @ INCREASE '" INCRE ASE . elevator. thereby engaging the autopilot. Thus it is possible.~tD! SlA SER VO : .' ..11 . !' ::!) CON i >\uL :". )PEl~ @ ~ The autopilot control panel (ACP) is a box on which are mounted the switches.-". and the fl ight gym 2. ~' A ·· . The elevator engaging switch (ELEV) .- MST ID • 'w w@ 0 ~0~ @ !/(!)'1 !/® \ Je \ . . _ / ' \. RESTRICTED 6. lNO~. AIL . Thus this use of the master bar is one of the safety factors of the autopilot. to the airplane's control surfaces. Q@ IHCREASE AU' . the amplifier.. The aileron engaging switch (AIL). • ON i CENTER ING IF POI RIGHT iI TO LO W A WING ER . They are: L The master switch (MSTR) which completes the electrical circuit to the rotary inverter.RESTRICTED " "'f I ·~""~- 0\ q /0 .'~~'~<9l' :<:" .

The pilot mechanically trims the airplane and then adjusts the centering knobs so as to a lign the electric trim with the mechanical t rim. Each of t he vertical rows has two tell-tale lights and f our knobs which a re used to adjust t h e autopilot control around each of the axes. from left to right. a pair for each axis. The uppermost knobs of each row are the centering knobs. These are the tell-tale lights that are used in conjunction with the centering knobs to align the electric and mechanical trims . the circuit is unbalanced and causes one of the tell-tale lights to glow. you turn the centering knob until both t ell-tale lights are out.RESTRICTED The ACP is divided into three vertical r ows of knobs and lights. Any deviation of the a irplane will cause the servos to move the controls and bring the airplane back to the position of electrical trim . The centering knobs are. This means that the mechanical and electric trims now coincide. You use these knobs to establish an electrical trim which will coincide with the mechanical trim of the airplane. which is located in the upper right hand corner of the ACP. rudder. The t hree rows. in effect. CIRCUIT BALANCED MECHAN ICA L AND El ECTRIC TRIMS COINCID E 80T H LIGHTS O UT 3. Directly above the centeri ng knobs are t hree pairs of lights. MEC HANICAL AN D ElECTRIC TR IMS DO NOT CO INCID EON E LIGH T GLOWS M ECHANICAL TRIM . before engaging t he autopilot. This operation is the same for each of the control surfaces. respectively.2 -12 RESTRICTED . The intensity of the tell-tale lights can be reg ulated CIRCUIT UNBALANCED from a complete blackout to a maximum brilliance by the tell-tale lights switch . . Now you engage the aileron engaging switch. control the aileron. After the a irplane is trimmed mechanically. electrical trim tabs. EL ECTRICAL TR IM . and elevator. Wh en t he electric and mechanical trims do not coincide.

with a low sensitivity setting.RESTRICTED Immediately below the centering knobs are the sensitivity knobs. LOW SENSITIVITY HIGH SENSITIVITY LARGE DeVIATiON NECESSARY FOR CORRECTIVE SIGNAL TO BE EFFECTIVE SMAll DEVIATION CAUSES CORRECTIVE SIGNAL The ratio knobs are directly beneath the sensitivity knobs. HIGH RATIO LOW RATIO LARGE MOVEMENT OF CONTROL SURFACES SMALL MOVEMENT OF CONTROL SURFACES RESTRICTED 3-2-13 . thus determining how far the servo must drive to balance out the original signal. This is done by adjusting the intensity of an electric signal which opposes the signal sent to the amplifier. These knobs regulate the extent of deviation permitted before the autopilot will move the controls to correct for it. You use them to regulate the amount the autopilot will move the control surfaces for any given deviation of the airplane. the airplane has to deviate farther before a signal large enough to overcome the opposing current passes through the amplifier and operates the servo. This is done by adjusting the voltage drop of the balance pot. Therefore. one for each axis.

The elevator compensation knob regulates the amount of up-elevator to be used in a turn so that the airplane will neither gain n or lose altitude.14 RESTRICTED . This is done by adj usting the intensity of the signal from the various pots. The aileron compensation knob determines t he degree of bank obtained from the dual banking pot. The rudder compensation knob determines the amount of rudder to be nsed in a turn. .RESTRICTED The bottom knobs in each row are the compensation knobs.2 . This knob also regulates the amount of up-elevator used in a turn from the turn contr ol. / 3. These knobs are used to obtain a coordinated turn from the directional panel.. so that the airplane will not skid o.~n!.

you feel a small "hump" in the otherwise smooth rotation of the knob. Also. you feel a small "hump" similar to those at the zero positions. The center position of the turn control is between the two zero marks.RESTRICTED The turn control in the upper left-hand corner of the ACP makes it possible to turn the airplane when it is under the control of the autopilot. The turn control consists of the aileron control pot. the rudder control pot. the wipers are displaced on the pots. When you turn the knob. thus unbalancing the aileron and rudder bridge circuits and causing the servos to move the controls. In newer airplanes there are also remote turn controls for the bombardier and navigator. as you turn the turn control knob off the center RESTRICTED position. When you turn the knob to either of the 30 ° marks. The "hump" at the 30 ° positions warns you that the air3-2-15 . This "hump" warns you to let the airplane return to straight and level flight before you center the knob to open the cam switch. Using the turn control you can make a coordinated turn with any amount of bank up to 40° . When you rotate the knob to zero after a turn. it closes a cam switch which energizes the directional arm lock on the stabilizer and the erecting cutout mechanism on the flight gyro. .and their wipers.

There is 3-2-16 one r ectifier tube which changes alternating current to direct current for the other tubes.RESTRICTED plane is nearing the maximum 40 bank. The other three are discriminator tubesRESTRICTED .one for each control surface. It has seven tubes and six relays. The turn control trimmers are adjusted to obtain a coordinated bank and turn when the turn control is used. The complete turn control unit includes the aileron and rudder turn control trimmers near the center of the ACP and the remote control transfer with its indicator light in the lower left hand corner of the ACP.. These tubes magnify the incoming signals. 0 $t(I. There are three amplifier tubes . It also controls and determines the direction in which the servos move the control surfaces of the airplane. Ii' • The main purpose of the amplifier is to magnify the signals from the various bridge circuits .

This energizes the proper operating solenoid. in turn. A relay is merely an electrically controlled switch. The solenoid. RESTRICTED 3. controls the operation of onG of the three servo units. These tubes analyze the incoming signals and determine in which direction the control surfaces must be driven. For instance. which engages the corresponding servo clutch. as the airplane deviates around the pitch axis. This signal is amplified and sent to the discriminator tube. The junction box provides a convenient place to connect the various units of the autopilot. This unbalances the elevator bridge circuit and a signal is sent to the amplifier. Each of the discriminator tubes operates a pair of relays which. The rotary inverter. in turn. which analyzes it and closes the proper relay. When closed. the relay completes a circuit to an operating solenoid. This moves the elevator control surface and returns the airplane to level flight. It is also useful in making an individual check on each of the units in the autopilot. necessary for the operation of the autopilot.2-17 . 105 cycles. One r elay completes the circuIt to the clutch which moves the elevator up and the other to the clutch which moves the elevator down. engages one of the servo clutches. a generator operating on a 26-volt direct current. the elevator pickup pot moves under the wiper. provides an alternating current of 19 volts.RESTRICTED one for each control surface.

which analyzes the signal and determines which relay is to be closed. When the original signal is completely balanced out the servo stops driving. the balance wiper moves over the balance pot in the servo unit and begins to balance out the original signal. it completes a circuit to the operating solenoid in the servo unit. but the elevator control already driven in remains in use. This tube amplifies the signal and sends it to the elevator discriminator tube. the elevator pickup pot is again moved under its wiper but in the opposite direction. moving the elevator surfaces down. As the airplane begins to return to level flight. all three controls-aileron. The solenoid engages its clutch. Remember that this entire sequence of action is almost simultaneous.RESTRICTED DEVIATION' Suppose a sudden gust of wind throws the airplane nose upward. the pot is moved under the wiper. This creates an opposite signal and the elevator control s urfaces are moved up as the airplane approaches level flight. thus preventing over-control. " 3. When the relay is closed. This causes the cable drum to turn. When necessary.3-1 RESTRICTED . rudder. Since the elevator pickup wiper is stabilized by the flight gyro and the elevator pickup pot is attached to the gyro case. This unbalances the elevator bridge circuit and a signal is sent to the elevator amplifier tube. linking the servo motor to the cable drum. A signal from the discriminator tube closes the down elevator r elay. The autopilot functions in a similar manner for deviations about the roll and turn axes. and elevator-will function at the same time. As the cable drum turns.

2 5 ¢t1fSs: ~ ~.RESTRICTED 1 4 ~~.2 . 3 6 RESTRICTED 3-3.

But the airplane continues to increase its degree of bank until the controls are completely streamlined. the cam switch is closed and the erecting cutout and directional arm lock are operated. 3-3-3 RESTRICTED . Thus the autopilot clutch is locked and the bottom roller is disengaged from th e top roller. and at the same time displace the balance pot wipers out toward a point where they will balance the turn control signal. it does two things: 1. This causes the controls to be driven back toward streamlined position. As you move it from center to zero. The servos move the controls to bring the airplane into the turn. As the airplane goes into the bank. The servos then cease to operate. the gyro pots are farther displaced under their wipers. thus canceling the turn control signals a nd causing the servos to stop. the airplane controls are now in a position to cause the airplane to increase its bank.RESTRICTED INTENTIONAL BANK AND RECOVERY USING THE TURN CONTROL When you use the turn control to turn the airplane. At this point the displacements of the gyro pots are equal to those of the turn control. However. and the balance pots show no displacement. causing a new signal opposite to the original turn control signal. After the amplifier tubes magnify the signals. This unbalances the aileron and rudder bridge circuits a nd thus sends signals to the aileron and rudder amplifier tubes. t he discriminator tubes analyze them and energize the proper solenoid in each of the two servos. wipers connected to the knob move over the aileron and rudder control pots. 2. the aileron pickup pot and the rudder compensation pot on the flight gyro case are displaced under their silibilized wipers. As it does so. which will occur when the airplane reaches the maximum degree of bank called for by the turn control. This displacement plus that of the balance pot wipers soon equals the original displacement of the turn control wipers. When you turn the t urn control knob past zero.

out the up-elevator signal when the proper amount of control has been driven in. As the airplane is banked. the up-elevator control remains in use.3-4 . the rudder compensation pot.the a ileron pickup pot. The elevator balRESTRICTED ance pot balances.bridge circuits are balanced_ 3. This results in enough up-elevator to prevent loss of altitude during the turn. the aileron and rudder control surfaces are streamlined. Thus. and the up-elevator pot. and all. the up-elevator pot and wiper unbalance the elevator bridge circuit. when the airplane is in the midst of its bank.RESTR I CTED 1 2 3 You will recall that there are three pots mounted in the front of the gyro case.

the t r iple pot assembly-aileron.RESTRICTED In recovering from the turn. t he er ecting cutout switch and the directional arm lock switch are opened. This creates signals which cause the servos to move the controls back toward a streamlined position as th e a irplane returns to straight a nd level flight. 3. signals are created that move the aileron and rudder controls out of str eamline and in the direction opposite to that of the original t urn. As the airplane comes out of the bank.moves under the stabilized wipers . As you move the turn control toward the zero position. and elevator pots. the bridge circuits are balanced and t he control s urfaces are streamlined. When you move the turn control knob from zero to center. rudder.3-5 RESTRICTED . Thus the a utopilot clutch is again free to stabilize the a irplane about the yaw axis and the bottom roller is engaged to the top roller. When the airplane reaches level flight. the action of the autopilot is exactly the r everse.

There are two methods by which a turn can be made through the directional panel. If you displace the clutch to the left. and vice versa. thus unbalancing the aileron and rudder bridge circuits. This is similar to steering a bicycle. The first method is very simple. the autopilot holds the airplane in the turn. the sliding block closes the erecting cutout switch and moves the wipers over their pots. You manually move the autopilot clutch. RESTRICTED 3-3-6 . the airplane turns right. As you displace the . Since the rudder pickup and dual banking pot wipers are attached to the sliding block. . clutch from center.RESTRICTED INTENTIONAL BANK AND RECOVERY THROUGH THE DIRECTIONAL PANEL A turn made by the bombardier must be made through the directional panel if his compartment is not equipped with a turn control. Each of these methods uses the autopilot clutch disengaged. The mechanism which accomplishes this result is equally simple. The autopilot clutch is linked by the directional panel arm to the sliding block in the directional panel. The autopilot responds to this unbalanced condition in exactly the same manner as it does to a turn originating from the turn control. As long as the autopilot clutch is displaced from center. any movement of the autopilot clutch displaces the wipers on their respective pots. This can be done either by taking hold of the autopilot clutch arm and displacing the clutch or by swinging the bombsight.

3-7 RESTRICTED . This can be done by two meth ods. As the clutch reaches center. eit her by returning it manually or by engaging it at its displaced position and allowing the autopilot to r eturn the airpla ne to level flight so as to center the a utopilot clutch. ( OR ENGAGE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH \ /\ \ I 3. t he a utopilot clut ch m ust be r eturned to center. the erecting cutout switch is opened.RESTRICTED RETURN TO CENTER M ANUALLY To recover f r om t he t urn.

the airplane turns to the right or left in much the same way as if you had moved the autopilot clutch manually. The course knobs are indirectly linked to the autopilot clutch and the directional panel wipers. The airplane would continue to turn only if you continued to turn the course knobs. 3-3-8 . When you move the directional panel wipers by turning the course knobs. the directional gyro immediately stabilizes the whole steering mechanism. The bombsight clutch must be engaged and the autopilot clutch disengaged when using the course knobs of the bombsight. there is one very important difference. as the airplane turns in response to the turn signals. Then. When you cease to turn the course knobs. thus taking out the turn signals and causing the airplane to resume straight and level flight on the new heading. it moves the center of the pots back under the stabilized wipers. including the autopilot clutch and the directional panel wipers. and can be used to turn the autopilot through the directional panel. RESTRICTED However.RESTRICTED TURNS MADE WITH THE COURSE KNOBS • •* •• •• •• •* •• The second method is to move the autopilot clutch with the course knobs of the bombsight.

observing controls. observing controls. 11. Turn autopilot master switch ON. observing tell-tale lights. Turn knobs on ACP to "pointers up" position. Rotate each centering knob. 6. 8 . 10. 5. 7. observing controls. 3. Turn Servo-POI switch ON. Center turn control. Operate airplane controls manually. Engage autopilot clutch.PREFLIGHT INSPECTION 1. 4. . Disengage autopilot clutch. Rotate turn control knob. 9. observing telltale lights. Turn autopilot master switch OFF. displace to each side. 2. rudder. Disengage bombsight clutch and engage autopilot clutch with POI on center. Turn aileron. and elevator engaging switches ON.

TURN SERVO·PDI SWITCH ON SE RVO -""" __ " UI / 1 /' V RESTRICTED By turning this switch ON. TURN KNOBS ON ACP TO "POINTERS UP" POSITION Make sure pointers· are not loose.2 . flight gyro. The autopilot should be in approximate adjustment with the pointers at "pointers up" position. You must wait five minutes before turning other switches ON. servo motors. directional gyro. ON ELEV STAB 4.RESTRICTED MSTR • • AIL RUD 1. ) 3-4. Therefore. CENTER TURN CONTROL When you place the turn control knob at center. 2. 3. you complete circuits to the amplifier. This a lso places the wipers in the turn control at the center of their pots. and the rotary inverter. you complete circuits to the PDr and the torque unit of the bombsight stabilizer. yoU open the erecting cutout switch and the directional arm lock switch. the flight gyro will be erected to the vertical and the directional arm lock will not be energized. ELEV TURN AUTOPILOT MASTER SWITCH ON PD When you turn the autopilot master switch ON.

The autopilot clutch is engaged with the PDI on center so the er ecting cutout switch will be open and t he wipers of the directional panel will be at the center of t heir pots. the corresponding pots need cleaning. When the controls are near the streamlined position.RESTRICTED 5. This will slide the servo unit balance pot wipers over their respective pots and should clean off any dust or dirt t hat is on the pots.nd bombsight. the lights will flicker. 6. When controls are at the extreme ends of their ranges. As you move the controls. 3-4-3 RESTRICTED . The autopilot will not f unction properly with both clutches engaged or disengaged at the same time. At any intermediate position one light or the other should be ON. If the lights flicker at the intermediate position. OPERATE AIRPLANE CONTROLS MANUALLY. DISENGAGE BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH AND ENGAGE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH WITH POI ON CENTER The bombsight clutch should be disengaged befor e take-off to pr event excessive wear on the torque unit a. OBSERVING TELL-TALE LIGHTS Operate the airplane ' controls manually to move the control surfaces through their ext r eme ra nges of movement several times. obser ve the telltale lights. Dirt between the wipers and pots causes the lights to flicker by breaking the contact between wiper and pot. the lights may go out as t he pot wipers run off the winding.

:-~ . ROTATE EACH CENTERING KNOB.\\Ii/t.". the left rudder pedal should move forward.. the control column should move to the rear. - 0 1/ \~ ~ CENTERING 8...~~ 1 .c _'\~I-1R ~ f'--. When you turn it counterclockwise. AIL A~.? ~ ~ 1 \1 III MSTR. ~7~ .. OBSERVING CONTROLS As you turn the centering knobs the circuits are unbalanced and the controls are moved by the servos. OBSERVING TELL-TALE LIGHTS E - As you engage these switches the corresponding lights should come on. TURN THE AILERON. When you turn it counter-clockwise. the control wheel should turn to the right.. flicker. RUDDER AND ELEVATOR ENGAGING SWITCHES ON. the right rudder pedal should move forward. When you turn it counter-clockwise. the control wheel should turn to the left./I/ . the circuits become balanced and consequently the lights go out as no signal is being sent to the amplifier. As the controls are moved by the servo to streamlined position..-?~ "'W' ..RESTRICTED 7. then go out as the controls move into streamlined position. the control column should move forward_ RESTRICTED 3-4-4 .:--- OFF RUD. . As you turn the elevator centering knob clockwise. At first the lights will glow because the circuits are unbalanced. As you turn the rudder centering knob clockwise. As you turn the aileron centering knob clockwise.. ~:.

@ '. 11. ENGAGE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH © 0 A-. the right rudder pedal should move forward and the control wheel should turn to the right.". ROTATE TURN CONTROL KNOB. Therefore. o o 1O. When you rotate t he knob counter-clockwise. the right rudder pedal should move forward and the con-' trol wheel should turn to the right. the left rudder pedal should move forward and the control wheel should turn to the left. the rudder and a ileron bridge circuits are unbalanced through the directional panel . OBSERVING CONTROLS When you rotate this knob clockwise. When you disengage the autopilot clutch and place it against the left stop. you turn off all other switches which engage units of the autopilot.. 3-4-5 RESTRICTED . As you place it against the right stop. DISENGAGE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH. OBSERVING CONTROLS. you unbalance the rudder and aileron bridge circuits... MSTR TURN AUTOPILOT MASTER SWITCH OFF AIL When you turn the autopilot master switch OFF. DISPLACE TO EACH SIDE. the left rudder pedal should move forward and the control wheel should turn to the left. This prevents running dow.._-.' the airplane battery and any accidental control by the autopilot during take-off..RESTRICTED 9.

5. Manually trim airplane for straight and level flight. Turn tell-tale lights switch ON. FLIGHT ADJUSTMENTS 1. Center turn contro!' 2 . Adiust aileron centering knob until both aileron tell-tale lights are out. 10. Engage autopilot clutch and disengage bompsight clutch. Turn Servo-POI switch ON. Readjust elevator centering knob for level flight . 6.I 5 . Turn knobs on ACP to "pointers up" position. Turn autopilot master switch ON. Sensitivity. 9. Turn rudder switch ON. 3. 6. Centering. Center PDI. Readjust rudder centering knob to center POI. Readjust aileron centering knob to level wings. Turn elevator switch ON.RESTRIC r-------------------------------------~ ENGAGING PROCEDURE Before Take-Off: 1. 4. Dashpat. Adiust rudder centering knob until both rudder tell-tale lights are out. . Turn Control. Adjust elevator centering knob until both elevator tell·tale lights are out. 7. 11. 2. After Take-Off: 4. (Wait 10 minutes before turning other switches ON . 3. Ratio. Turn aileron switch ON. 8 . Turn Compensation. .

RESTRICTED

BEFORE TAKE-OFF

1.
2.
3.

CENTER TURN CONTROL. ALSO TRANSFER KNOB IS AT "PILOT"

MAKE SURE THAT CONTROL

TURN KNOBS ON ACP TO "POINTERS UP" POSITION
This should be done unless the knobs are known to be properly adjusted. Always make sure pointers are not loose.

ENGAGE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH AND DISENGAGE BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH

AFTER TAKE-OFF

4.

TURN AUTOPILOT MASTER SWITCH ON
MSTR

(Wait 10 minutes before turning other switches ON.) This delay is required to allow the stabilizer gyro and vertical flight gyro to come up to speed.

Q)

AIL .

Q

RUD

3-4-7

RESTRICTED

RESTRICTED

5.

MANUALLY TRIM AIRPLANE FOR STRAIGHT AND FLIGHT
On bombing mission be sure to open bomb bay doors and fly the bombing airspeed and a ltitude before trimming the airplane for straight and level flight.

6.

TURN SERYO·PDI SWITCH ON

7.

TURN TELL·TALE LIGHTS SWITCH ON •

8.

CENTER PDI

This may be done by either of the following methods: A. Bombardier disengages autopilot clutch and centers PDI by moving autopilot clutch arm to its center position. Hold PDI centered until autopilot is engaged; then re-engage autopilot clutch. B. Alternate method-Pilot centers PDI by turning airplane in direction of PDI needle. Then resume straight and level flight, keeping PDI centered until autopilot is engaged.
RESTRICTED

3-4-8

RESTRICTED

9.

ADJUST AILERON CENTERING KNOB UNTIL BOTH AILERON TELL·TALE LIGHTS ARE OUT
TURN AILERON SWITCH ON. READJUST AILERON CENTERING KNOB TO LEVEL WINGS.

Before similarly engaging the rudder servo you check the gyro horizon, and readj ust aileron centering to make sure the wings are level. If the wings are not level when rudder is centered and engaged, cross-control may result, as the autopilot will apply rudder to hold the airplane on a straight course.

A

~(I)

AIL

/jOW\G

10.

ADJUST RUDDER CENTERING KNOB UNTIL BOTH RUDDER TELL.TALE LIGHTS ARE OUT
TURN RUDDER SWITCH ON. READJUST RUDDER CENTERING KNOB TO CENTER PDI.
R

This prevents the erecting cutout from being energized from the directional panel. The erecting cutout is energized if the PDr is off center 11/ or more. 2
0

~~

Je\
11.
ADJUST ELEVATOR CENTERING KNOB UNTIL BOTH ELEVATOR TELL· TALE LIGHTS ARE OUT
TURN ELEVATOR SWITCH ON. READJUST ELEVATOR CENTERING KNOB FOR LEVEL FLIGHT

The elevator centering is readjusted for level flight to prevent the gaining or losing of altitude while flight adjustments are being made.

3-4-9

RESTRICTED

RESTRICTED

GENERAL
Control knobs on the autopilot control panel permit precise adjustment of the autopilot for maximum efficiency under any flight or load-carrying condition. Once these adjustments have been set for a particular airplane only s light readjustments will be required each time the autopilot is usedunless, of course, flight or load . conditions change considerably.

1.

CENTERING

The centering controls on the ACP are comparable to the trim tabs of the airplane. They control the normal attitude of the airplane while the autopilot is in operation. Adjustment of the centering knobs aligns the electric center of -the servo unit balance pot with the pot wiper when the control s urfaces are in trim. When flying under autopilot control, use centering knobs in place of the mechanical trim tabs to compensate for slight changes in airspeed, center of gravity, or gross weight. When large changes of airspeed, center of gravity, or gross weight occur, it is necessary to disengage the autopilot, re-trim mechanically, and re-engage the autopilot.
CautiDn

Never trim the controls manually with the mechanical trim tabs while the autopilot· is in operation. Use of the trim tabs will not change airplane's attitude because the a utopilot will counteract the effect of the trim tabs. Then, when autopilot is disengaged, trim tabs will suddenly become elfective and produce a violent reaction.
RESTRICTED

3-4-10

RESTRICTED

2.

SENSITIVITY

The sensitivity knobs r egulate the amount of a irplane deviation allowed by the autopilot before it applies correction . This alertness of the a utopilot is comparable to a human pilot's reaction time. A human pilot may apply a correction for even the slightest deviation (high sensitivity) or he may wait for a larger deviation before applying the correction (low sensitivity) . High sensitivity provides maximum flight stability, but it is possible to adjust sensitivity so high that the controls vibrate or "chatter."

TO ADJUST SENSITIVITY, TURN KNOBS CLOCKWISE UNTIL CONTROLS CHATTER; THEN BACK OFF UNTIL CONTINUOUS CHATTER STOPS

LOW SENSITIVITY

HIGH SENSITJVITY

3-4-11

RESTRICTED

Ratio will require slight r eadjustment with any appreciable change of indicated airspeed. which may cause over-control. OBSERVE WING TIPS. re-check centering. LOW RATIO RESTRICTED 3-4-12 . the autopilot will apply too little control in correcting a deviation. Following any change of ratio. with a high ratio setting. giving fast recovery. On the other hand. producing smooth recovery which may·be too slow for correct flight. THEN REDUCE RATIO TO RETAIN Cj)UICK RECOVERY WITHOUT OVER-CONTROL. TO ADJUST RATIO. TURN KNOBS CLOCKWISE TO GIVE OVER-CONTROL. the autopilot may apply too much control surface in correcting a given deviation.RESTRICTED 3. Thus. if ratio is set too low. HORIZON AND PDI FOR EVIDENCE OF OVER-CONTROL. RATIO The ratio knobs regulate the amount of control surface movement resulting from a given deviation of the airplane.

Incorrect dashpot adj ustment produces a tendency for the airplane either to "fishtail. 5. ceases.RESTRICTED 4. DASH POT ADJUSTMENTS The dash pot is linked to the rudder pickup pot wiper in the directional panel in such a way that it produces an extra initial rudder correction signal proportional to the speed of turn axis deviation. and allows the stabilizer to re-center the PDI. 3-4-13 6. 5. 2. Changes in load or airspeed may require readjustment of the upeleva tor trimmer. TURN COMPENSATION Immediately after engaging the system and making sure sensitivity and ratio are well adjusted. as indic"ted by the artificial horizon. and turn compensation properly adjusted. Do This: 1. Make final adjustments with both knobs to obtain a perfectly coordinated turn with 18' bank. Bombardier disengages autopilot clutch and moves the clutch arm slowly to extreme right or extr eme left. Adjust elevator compensation knob to apply sufficient up-elevator to maintain altitude during the turn." as a result of under-control. ratio. Unlock doshpot by turning lock nut lever counter-clockwise. as indicated by the ball-bank inclinometer. Adjust aileron compensation knob to produce an 18' bank. Adjust rudder compensation knob to produce a perfectly coordinated turn. first making sure the airplane is flying straight and level: 1. 3. Turn knurled nut up or down until hunting 3. Bombardier re-engages autopilot clutch at its extreme position. This may happen even with sensitivity. 2 . lock adjustment by turning lock nut lever clockwise. or e "fishtailing' . check the turn compensation adj ustments as follows. Ball must be in exact center. or to "rudder hunt." as a result of over-control of the rudder. To Correct Dashpot Adjustment. ceases . 4. STRAIGHT AND LEVEL FLIGHT RESTRICTED .

.4 to center PDI from the extreme position. If aileron ratio is too high...--:• ~ •••••..-. • .4 to center PDI... Then. +t~ --~ AILERON RATIO TOO LOW RESTRICTED 3-4-14 ... After the autopilot clutch is engaged.. but t he wings will not level off fast enough and the airplane will continue to turn. the wings will quickly level off before the airplane has turned the necessary 51.4 o .. 0 0 AILERON RATIO TOO HIGH . the airplane must turn 51... the airplane will quickly turn the necessary 51.. The result will be a fishtail action as the airplane straightens out. with only rudder in effect.. If aileron ratio is too low... RESTRICTED INCREASE BANK QQ' AIL DECREASE SKID V RUD QQ' UP ELEV ELE V ?tote: Allowing the directional gyro in the stabilizer to recenter PDI gives a check on aileron ratio. causing the PDI to overshoot center.. the airplane will skid and turn more slowly to center PDI.

Never operate turn ~antrol with~en­ out first makinq sure POI is 5. or until you feel a distinct resistance to further rotation. re-center turn control pointer. as indicated by the inclinometer. Rotate turn control knob slowly. Slowly return pointer to zero and hold tered and bombardier is not makinq a turn with the autopilot ~Iut~h. adjust the aileron trimmer on the ACP to produce a 30 bank as indicated by the artificial horizon. When airplane has leveled off. 0 .RESTRICTED 6. 3. 3-4-15 RESTRICTED . either to rig ht or to left. 0 If the elevator compensation knob has been adjusted for bombardier's turns. Adjust rudder trimmer to produce a perfectly coordinated turn. 2. it will also mainta in altitude in turn-control banks up to 18 provided airspeed is maintained. it can be corrected by adjusting elevator centering and then r eadjusting centering for straight and level flight after the turn has been completed. it there while airplane res umes level flight. 1. 4. until pointer reaches the lined region of the dial. At that setting. Make final adjustments with both trimmers. 6. Be sure airplane is flying straight and level. This adjustment is made only after the turn compensation adjustments outlined have been completed. TURN CONTROL The turn control offers a convenient means of changing the airplane's heading while flying under autopilot control. If loss of altitude occurs in a turn-control turn. The turn control seldom requires r eadjustment unless there is r eason to believe that a previous adjustment has been changed.

At all other times one and only one clutch is engaged. When the pilot has full control the autopilot clutch is engaged and the bombsight clutch is disengaged..16 .RESTRICTED OPERATION OF AUTOPILOT AND BOMBSIGHT CLUTCHES When the bombardier manually directs the airplane both clutches are disengaged. When you direct the airplane through t he bombsight. When changing from one clutch to the other always engage the second before disengaging the first. PILOT CONTROL BOMBARDIER .nIlJTI~nl DISENGAGED ENGAGED RESTRICTED • 3-4.. the bombsight clutch is engaged and the autopilot clutch is disengaged.

timing this return so pointer will reach zero when the desired heading is attained. you will feel a "click" as the cam switch closes.) Operation of the Control Transfer If the autopilot system includes a second turn control at a remote station (as in the bombardier's or navigator's compartment). 1. Stop rotation of knob when artificial horizon indicates airplane has reached desired degree of bank. This is done slowly to prevent the sudden introduction of a strong signal in case the remote turn control is not centered at the time of transfer. rotate turn control slowly in the direction of turn desired .RESTRICTED TURN CONTROL OPERATION Whenever it is desired to turn the airplane to a new heading while flying on autopilot control. which is operated in an identical manner by the bombardier or navigator. NOTE: A warning stop causes the knob to turn with increased difficulty after the signal for a 30' bank has been applied. he rotates the control transfer knob to its extreme clockwise position . then center the pointer to engage the erecting roller and release the directional arm lock. ENTERING TURN 3-4-17 RESTRICTED . This is to warn you to Htake it easy" as you are approaching the maximum degree of bank obtainable (40 ' ). As the pointer passes the zero mark. As airplane approaches the desired new heading. This control enables the pilot to transfer control of the airplane smoothly and gradually from the turn control in the ACP to the remote turn control. slowly rotate control knob back to zero. When the pilot wishes to transfer control of the a irplane to the remote turn control. Hold the pointer at zero until the airplane has leveled off on its new head ing. the ACP will be provided with a control transfer in the lower left-hand corner. ener gizing the erecting cutout and directional arm lock. A steeper bank may cause the vertical flight gyro to strike against its stop on the gyro cover.) An indicator light adjacent to the control transfer knob informs the pilot when the remote turn control is in control of the airplane. (No signal is applied by turn control when pointer is at either zero mark. (Never leave transfer knob at an intermediate position. resulting in precession.

As the airplane comes on the desired h eading. The degree of bank and turn is determined by the rapidity at which you turn the course knob or knobs. move the autopilot clutch arm to center and engage whichever clutch is desired. and vice versa. you can keep the airplane in a turn. To make your turns smooth. RESTRICTED 3--. you direct the airplane by use of t he bombsight course knobs. ~ I Turns Through the Bombsight In bombing with the autopilot. The autopilot clutch m ust be disengaged so that t he bombsight can control the a irplane. As the airplane comes on t h e desired heading.-4-18 . By continuously turning t he knobs.by turning the bombsight. the airplane banks 18° in a coordinated turn. you can disengage both clutches and manually displace the autopilot clutch either by the autopilot clutch arm or . When t he arm is against either stop. engage the bombsight clutch. Turning both or either of t he course knobs clockwise wiIl turn the airplane t o the right. Moving t he arm to the left turns the airplane t o the righ t. The autopilot wiIl maintain the new heading until the autopilot clutch is again displaced. and the directional gyro through the bombsight will maintain the new heading. The bombsight clutch is engaged.RESTRICTED DIRECTIONAL PANEL TURNS Manual Turns When you desire to turn the airplane. thus tbe stabilizer holds the sight on a fixed heading . you displace the autopilot clutch arm slowly. If you ar e starting a bombing run. yo u stop turning the knobs.

To correct: 1. or 2. To correct: 1. 3-4. BALL CENTERED. Stop at the point where overcontrol ceases. Disengage both rudder and aileron switch es and re-ce nter PDI.19 Plane not properly trimmed before start· ing turns.RESTRICTED MALADJUSTMENTS AND THEIR CORRECTION 1. or 2. 2. Readjust aileron and rudder centering. TURNS COORDINATED IN ONLY ONE DIRECTION To correct: 1. Return to level flight and r eadjust aileron and rudder centering. RESTRICTED . Disengage both rudder and aileron switch es and re-center PDI. After changing the ratio. Loosen locking collar and unscrew dashpot slowly. adjust centering and re-engage rudder and aileron switches. To correct : 1. If loosening the dash pot does not eliminate over-control. then tighten dashpot to a setting just below that which produces over-control. adjust centering and re-engage rudder and aileron switches. OYER·CONTROL IN RUDDER AXIS This condition is caused by improper trimming or centering with one wing low and opposite rudder applied to keep the airplane from turning. 2. Readjust rudder centering. or 2. This is caused by improper setting of ratio or dash pot. POI CENTERED. Disengage rudder and aileron switches and retrim manually before re-engaging. BALL NOT CEN· TERED. and re-lock. reduce rudder ratio. check rudder centering and the rudder compensation adj ustments. BUT POI OFF 4. IN STRAIGHT FLIGHT 3.

re-center and re-eng age au t opilot. correct by using the elevator centering knob. mainta in al t itude by use of elevato r cen tering knob. adju st elevator compensation and increase elevator ratio. In bombardier's t urn.20 . 6. A lso inspect cable t ens ions. S ince t h e rudder a nd eleva t or servOS a r e close t o the surfaces which t hey con t rol. BeTTeR BO .BA Be A KNOW YOUR AUTO I RESTRICTED Ie I T 3-4. Disengage autopilot and check manual trim of airplane . AIRPLANE SKIDS WHEN TURN· ING ONE DIRECTION AND SLIPS WHEN TURNING THE OTHER DIRECTION AIRPLANE WALLOWS OR LACKS STABILITY T o correct : 1. ve ry little cable t rouble is e ncounter ed on these two axes. 2. LOSS OR GAIN OF ALTITUDE 1. To correct : F or a condition of genera l lack of stability. increase sens itivity ad jus tmen ts. In stra ight and level Hig h t. On a bombing run. a s loose con t rol ca bles are a com mon ca use of sloppy a ileron actio n.RESTRICTED 5.

Rudder engaging switch. Autopilot clutch engaging knob-Located on autopilot clutch and is used to engage autopilot clutch to the directional gyro .ch. Ratio knobs. Turn control-Located on upper left corner of ACP. Rudder.Located in directional panel. Amplifier. Autopilot master switch.Located on left side of stabilizer. It completes the circuit to the torque unit and the PDI. Centering knobs-The first lateral row of knobs located on the ACP." Regulates intensity of aileron signal from the turn control.1 bilizer.Located between sensitivity and ratio knobs on ACP. They are used to regulate how far airplane can deviate before a correction is put in by autopilot. Transfers control of the airplane from turn control in the ACP to remote turn control. and relay signals to the proper servo units. They are used to coordinate turns made from directional panel. rotary inverter.The third lateral row of knobs located on ACP." It is used to engage the a ileron control of the autopilot. It is marked with an "R".s-Located on upper part of ACP. Servo·PDI swit. Directional arm lock-Located on rear of sta3-5. Rotary inverter-A motor generator that changes direct current supplied by batteries of the a irplane into alternating current for use in amplifiers and bridge circuits.Located in pilot's compartment. Erecting cutout mechanism . flight gyro.Located on .Located on flight gyro. used to engage elevator control of the autopilot.Used to amplify. analyse. RESTRICTED . It provides stability about pitch and roll axes of the airplane. used to accelerate initial rudder correction from directional panel. allowing turns to be made from the bombsight through the directional panel. Marked with an "A.RESTRICTED C-l AUTOPILOT NOMENCLATURE Aileron engaging switch-Located on the ACP and marked "Ail.ch. Aileron trimming screw-Located on ACP between sensitivity and ratio knobs. It is used to engage the rudder control of the autopilot. Dashpot-Located on rear left side of the stabilizer. Control transfer knob-Located at lower left hand corner of ACP.the ACP and marked "MSTR. They ar e used to trim the autopilot electrically. Energizes erecting cutout mechanism when PDI is moved 1%° off center.ing rod-It connects the autopilot clutch to the drift gear clutch. Directional panel. and amplifier. It locks autopilot clutch arm during t urns made from turn control. Sensitivity knobs-The second lateral row of knobs located on ACP. Servo. Erecting mechanism. Compensation knobs-Last lateral row of knobs located on ACP." It completes or breaks the circuits to the servo motors. It transmits the stability of the directional gyro to the directional panel. Directional panel arm-It connects the autopilot clutch to the operating parts of the directional panel. It provides a means by which you can maneuver the airplane to make properly banked turns with bombsight while flying under autopilot control. Elevator engaging switch-Located on ACP and mar ked "ELEV". ECO swit. Junction box-Used to connect electrical wiring of the various units of autopilot.Located on flight gyro.Located on the ACP and marked "RUD". Rudder trimmer screw . It releases the lateral erecting mechanism whenever airplane is in a turn. It provides a means for changing airplane's heading while flying under auto· pilot control.( Aileron. Elevator) -These three units supply the force to move the three control surfaces of the airplane. It regulates intensity of rudder signal from turn control. Autopilot clutch-Located on the top of the stabilizer. It is used to keep gyro in the vertical. They indicate an unbalanced or balanced electrical circuit. Autopilot control panel (ACP) . Flight gyro--Located near airplane's center of gravit y. Regulates amount of control applied for any given deviation. It is an assembly of switches and knobs used for engaging and adjusting C-1 autopilot for proper fl ight.Located on ACP and marked "SERVO-PDI". Autopilot connect. Tell-tale light.

and M-9. Frequent reviews will help yo u remember the material you have covered . M-6. .. . The better you under stand t he construction of this instrument. There a r e several models in use. so you should learn each of them t horoughly. The Norden sight will seem complex to you a t firs t. These parts and st eps are inter-dependent. You will a lso use it for fixed angle bombing . The r eason for the voltage difference is that the newer bombers have 24-volt circuits. you can use all of them. 4-1-1 .. Always keep the bombing problem in mind. The Norden sight is of American design and construction. From your study of the bombing problem you know what t he bombsigh t must do . precision instrument.. M-7. These four models a r e very much alike in principle and operation. Remember that the sight solves the bombing problem for you ONLY IF YOU SET IN THE COR RE CT DATA AND OPERATE THE SIGHT PROPERLY. among t h em t he M-4. You will use the Norden mainly for synchronous bombing.RESTRICTED ~~~---------------. If you learn to use anyone of them. Synchronization means adjustment of fl ight path and t r avel of the optical system so that t h e bomb will be r eleased at the proper point. by taking it up step by step. You will master it. part by part. the odd-numbered models use 24 volts. Don't expect to learn it in one day. The even-numbered models use 12 volts direct current.. as hundreds have before RESTRICTED you. SECTION 4 INTRODUCTION The Norden or M-Series bombsight is a synchronizing. the better you will understand how to operate it.

13. 12. Index window Trail arm and trail plate Extended vision knob Disc speed gear shift Rate and displacement knobs Mirror drive clutch Disc speed drum Turn and drift knobs Tachometer adapter Crossha ir rheostat RESTRICTED . Leveling knobs 2. 5. 4. 11. 9. 7. 10. 8.RESTRICTED M-SERIES BOMBSIGHT ••• 1. 6. Caging knob 3. 4-1-2 Eyepiece .

.. . At the same time t hat the r ate knob pos itions the r oller on t he disc. By doing this.. when it is just off center. thu s setting up the correct dropping angle. you divide ATF into the bombsight consta nt. the more rapidly the roller turns. you have moved the roller an additional distance on the disc. The vertical gyro.. Th e speed at which the disc turns r epresents ATF. You set in trail by moving the trail arm to the desired position on the trail plate.. you get the values of ATF and trail and set them into the s ig ht. 3. on the rate end. The sighthead is attached to the stabilizer by a pivoting connection and two locking pins. This moves the roller out from the center of the disc a distance proportional to trail.RESTRICTED . you turn the rate knob until the lateral crosshai r a ppears to stay on the target. When t he roller is in the center of the rotating disc.. it pos itions the dropping a ngle index on the tangent scale. From the bombing tables. 1. is carried out by three main parts. . through which you observe the target. . The optical system. RESTRICTED .. solving for range. and trail to compute the dropping angle. you start a motor which turns a disc in the rate end.. The distance from the center of the disc to th e roller is then proportional t o whole range and the roller 's speed of rotat ion is pr oportional to g round speed. . . . \ \ TRAil Solving the Range Problem ACTUAL RANGE The disc dr ives a roller which can be moved from the center of the disc to its upper edge. The r oller drive is transmitted to a mirror which refl ect s t he image of the target into 4-1-3 The bombsight has two main units . You use the rate knob.. which computes the exact release point for t he bomb. . This additional distance is proportional to actual range. The farther you move the roller from the center of the disc. it turns very slowly. . . The rate end. groundspeed. . You s et in the desired speed by pos ition ing the disc speed drum.. By turning on the rate motor switch. You control the position of t he roller on the disc with th e rate knob and the tra il arm. 5. . The sighthead 's principal function.the sighthead and the stabilizer. it does not turn. . . The r ate end combin es the values of ATF.. Then groundspeed remains the on ly unknown factor.300 . 2. Then looking through the optics.. . which stabilizes the optics so that roll and pitch of the airplane will not move the lin e of sight from target. to solve for it. . To find the correct di sc speed setting. .

The shaft which passes through the center of the stem into the sighthead is locked to the stabilizer by the dovetail locking pin. marked "PDL" energizes the PDI circuit to the Pilot Director Indicator. you must get the line of sight on the target. At lower altitudes. you use the extended vis ion knob. which holds the spin axis of the gyro horizontal in relation to the stabilizer case. the directional gyro stabilizes the entire sighthead in yaw through this linkage. marked HS ervo. This attaches the bombsight clutch arm to the sighthead. fits into a hole on the front right corner of the stabilizer." sends current to the sighthead through a cable. You do this manually. making it possible for the gyro and optics to stand upright and hold their own horizontal plane regardless of pitching and rolling of the a irplane. You can see the index on the degree scale in the index window. This changes the position of the crosshair without changing the speed at which the roller drives. you use the search knob. The directional gyro does not have enough power to maintain stability without some aid. If you des ire to move the crosshair while the mirror drive clutch is engaged. The fore and aft bubble and the lateral bubble (s pirit levels) are on top of the gyro. You level the gyro with the fore and aft leveling knob and the lateral leveling knob. which permits vision up to 90 °. which are on the left end of the sight case. A stem. the mirror drive clutch is not engaged until a s ighting angle of 70 ° is reached. marked "BS. This aid comes from the torque unit. Before you start synchronhing. Another connection between the sighthead and stabilizer is the clevis pin. you flip the switch on the stabilizer case marked "Stab. when you need more than 70 ° forward vision.RESTRICTED the telescope. The switch. The torque unit switch. Other switches on the stabilizer case are: The bombsight switch. To turn on the directional gyro. One you have to hold up manually. If you are at higher altitudes. use the displacement knob. RESTRICTED 4-1-4 . you lock in the ON position and it releases itself automatically after the bomb is released. There are three types of release levers. It turns on the vertical gyro and the bubble light.releases the bomb if the release lever is up. The mirror is hinged in such a manner that the roller drive changes the angle of reflection as the airplane approaches the target. This connection permits the sighthead to be turned in relation to the stabilizer. When the bombsight clutch is engaged. however. The vertical gyro stabilizes the optics in roll and pitch." energizes the torque unit. which projects from the lower part of the sighthead. Another locks in the ON position when you raise it and has to be released by you after the bomb is released . you engage the mirror drive clutch to connect the drive of the roller to the mirror. The sighting angle at any moment is shown by the sighting angle index. The third. You use this knob to lock the 0 • gyro to the sight case when the gyro is not being used on a bombing run. The caging knob is on the sighthead directly over the gyro. which gives rapid displacement of the mirror for sighting angles from 70 ° to 0 When you pick up the target. vVhen the sighting angle index is exactly opposite the dropping angle index. the sight automatically ." Leave this switch on three minutes before turning on any other switch. The gyro and optics ride on pi vots which have the same effect as a universal joint. When using the extended vision knob.

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DRIFT KNOB
\f-?'<.....,,,.....d;.~( - -

------LINE OF SIGHT
- - - - -

TURN KNOB

Solving the Course Problem

You use the course knobs to make drift and course corrections. These knobs, concentrically mounted, are on the lower right side of the sighthead. The turn knob, the outer of the two, changes the line of sight and the air. plane the same amount. The inner knob is the drift knob, which changes the heading of the airplane without changing the line of sight. Therefore, you establish drift angle by use of the drift knob. Although it is correct to use the turn knob alone, you never single-grip the drift knob. You always lise it in conjunction with the turn knob (double grip), in order to establish the drift angle and displace the line of sight toward the target in one operation. You can read the drift angle from the drift scale, which is on the stabilizer. The PDI, an electrical device, signals to the pilot the corrections to make in the heading of the airplane when you use the course knobs .
Solving for Crosstrail

this, the mechanism tilts the telescope laterally so that the angle between the line of sight and vertical subtends cross trail distance on the ground .

When drift and trail are combined, the result is cross trail. The crosstrail mechanism, in the sighthead, automatically combines the two factors and gives crosstrail. In doing
RESTRICTED

CROSS TRAil

4-1-5

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CONSTRUCTION and OP ERATION
The sighthead is the upper unit of the bombsight assembly. As you have learned, its main purpose is to solve the range problem and to stabilize the optics in roll and pitch .

DISC DRIVE SYSTEM
When you turn on the r a te motor switch, you start a shuntwound motor, which furnishes power to dr ive t he disc. This type of m otor is used because its speed can be controlled for a ny actual time of fa ll. One of the devices for cont r olling t he motor's speed is t he governor, wh ich is on t he armature shaft of t he motor. The governor has two metal arms, which a r e pivoted at their center to the shaft in s uch a way that they form an X-shape. As t h e moto r s peed increases, centrifugal f or ce causes t he metal arms of the X to close to ward an I-s hape, like a pair of scissors.

As t he mot or speed increases, the governor arms te nd t o close, exerting a pull on the bottom of t he breaker arm. When this pull is s trong enoug h to overcome the tens ion exerted on t he breaker arm by the springs in the disc s peed drum, t he breaker arm will pivot, separat ing the breaker points. This cuts off current to the motor. As the motor slows down, the governor's force lessens, allowing th e disc s peed drum springs t o close t he brea ke r points. This sends current back to the r ate motor, causing it to pick up rpm.

Governor ot low speed.

Governor at high speed. , As motor speed increases, governor causes breaker points to separate.

Connecting links from the governor are attached t o the bott om of the breaker arm , which has a s its pivot point the shaft from the disc speed drum. A breaker point is on the upper end. of the breaker arm . The springs in t he disc speed drum, acting through the shaft of the drum, tend to rotate the breake r a rm so as to keep its breaker point aga inst th e fi xed point on the case. Curr en t will flow to t he rate motor as long a s these p·oint s a re closed, with the rate motor switch on.
4- 2- 1

Thi s action is so rapid that it holds the motor speed within one-tenth rpm of t h e des ired constant s peed. You set t he desi r ed constant speed on t he disc speed ell·um. This drum conta ins two flat coil spr h1gs. one of which is in operat ion t hroug hout t he en tire range of the dr um. The other spring opera tes only through the last half of t he r ange. On the disc speed drum
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RESTRICTED

DISC DRIVE SYSTEM

+

®
1. 2. 3. 4.

Rate motor switch. Rate motor. Governor. Breaker arm.

S. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Disc speed drum. Breaker points. Disc speed drum springs. Disc speed gear shift. Idling gears.

10. 11. 12. 13.

Pinion gear. Clutch. Idling gear shaft. Tachometer adapter.

there are two scales. The inner scale, in black figures, gives disc speeds from 102 to 245 rpm. The outer scale, in red figures, gives disc speeds from 245 to 590 rpm . In using either scale, you must set the disc speed gear shift to the proper disc speed range. The disc speed gear shift is a lever on the outside of the rate end, above the rate knobs. The range at which you set the lever is shown by numbers engra ved in a plate on the rate end.

Two gears are mounted on the rate motor shaft so that they rotate whenever the motor is running. One gear is larger than the other. When they rotate, they turn two other gears which idle (turn f r eely) on anoth er shaft. That is, they turn without turning the shaft. The ratio between these two idling gears is such t hat one turns faster than the other.

145 590

~

....

~

102 245

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4-2-2

RESTRICTED

A pinion gear which drives the disc is attached to the same shaft on which the idling gears turn, and this shaft must turn in order to drive the disc. The shaft is turned by a clutch which fits on a squared portion of the shaft between the two idling gears . The turning of either idling gear can be transmitted to the clutch through gear teeth on the two outer faces of the clutch and the inner faces of the two idling gears. When the clutch engages the smaller gear, the idling gear shaft which drives the disc will turn at a higher speed than when the larger gear is engaged. The clutch is positioned to either of the two disc speeds by the disc speed gear shift. The shaft on which the disc is mounted extends through the sight ease. A tachometer may be connected to the adapter on the end of this shaft, making it possible to check the exact disc speed . A spring holds the disc against the roller. The sight is constructed so that the disc must make 88 1 revolutions during actual /3 t ime of fall. That is. with no trail set in the

sight, it requires 881/3 revolutions of the disc to drive the sighting angle index from the dropping angle index to zero. Actual t ime of fall is given in seconds. You can find the disc speed, in revolutions per second. by dividing 88% by the ATF. It is much easier to read the disc speed in revolutions per minute, which can be obtained by multiplying the revolutions per second by 60.

Without trail set in sight.

1
=

T

r)'88'1>_
NV.

!

.
ATF

~j

T~

The disc speed in revolutions per minute to be set into the sight can be found in one cal/ culation by dividing (88 1 3 X 60) or 5,300 by ATF. The number 5,300 is called the sight constant.

RATE SYSTEM
WHEN YOU TURN THE RATE KNOB, YOU DO THREE THINGS: POSITION THE ROLLER ON THE DISC,

POSITION THE DROPPING ANGLE INDEX,

3 POSITION

THE AUTOMATIC RELEASE POINTS

4-2-3

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RESTRICTED

RATE SYSTEM 1. Mirror Drive Clutch 2. Displacement Knob 3. Rate Knob 4. Rate Bevel Gear 5. Lower Bearing Block

6. 7. 8. 9.

Spline Gear Roller Disc Upper Bearing Block

10. Spindle Gear 11. Rack Drive Pinion 12. Rate Rack 13. Rate Quadrant 14. Release Po ints

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4-2-4

: values . which changes the rotary motion of the gears to a linear motion of the rate rack. Thus you can see that by turning the rate knob you move the quadrant and position the index. and the carriage (or nut) can move up or down on the threads but cannot rotate. Any movement of the stud causes the quadrant to move. turns the spindle screw. thus positioning the roller on the disc. The pinion meshes with t he rate rack. The spindle screw (or bolt) cannot move. Thus when the spindle screw is turned. you turn the spindle gear at the same time. RESTRICTED . A stud in one end of the rack fits in a slot in the rate quadrant. in which the roller turns on a vertical axis. visualize the spindle screw as a bolt and the carriage as a "ut on the bolt. The tangent scale is calibrated in tangent 4-2-5 Positioning the Automatic Release Points The automatic release points are located on the rate quadrant.RESTRICTED Positioning the Roller on the Disc The rate knob. When you move the rate quadrant. except to rOlate. the carriage moves up or down on its threads. (This is true only when there is no trail in the sight. This scr ew is threaded through the roller carriage. This gear is meshed to an intermediate gear which is on the upper end of the same shaft with the rate rack drive pinion.) Positioning the Dropping Angle Index As you position the roller by turning the spindle screw. when you position the roller from the center of the disc to a distance proportional to whole range. Tperefore. To understand how this operates. The spindle gear is fastened to the upper end of the spindle screw. you position the points so that the bombs can be released at the correct moment. The dropping angle index is mounted on the quadrant so you can see it through the index window. you position the dropping angle index at the tangent of the angle that will subtend whole range. through intermediate and bevel gears.

Trail Setting Gear 4. without moving the dropping angle index. Upper Bearing Block Roller 9. Lower Bearing Block TRAIL SYSTEM You know from your study of the bombing problem that it is necessary to subtract trail from whole range t6 get actual range. Thrust Washer 6. To subtract trail. you must have some way t o move the roller trail distance on the disc. This plate is calibrated from 0 to 150 mils. The spindle screw is supported in fixed 4-2-6 . which is proportional to actual range. This movement positions the roller on the disc without turning the spindle screw. Trail Plate 3. Roller Carriage Assembly 10. The position of t he dropping angle index will then RESTRICTED show you the tangent of the dropping angle that will s ubtend t he actual range. Moving the trail arm lifts the entire spindle screw and roller carriage assembly. The amount of trail you set in is shown by the position of the trail arm on the trail plate. Spindle Gear 5. Disc 12. Spindle Screw 11. and without positioning the automat ic r elease points. You a lso know that when you have synchronized. without moving the dr opping angle index. the distance from the center of the disc to the r oller is proportional to whole range. After t his is done you use t he r a te knob to synchronize for t he r emaining distance.RESTRICTED Arm 2. Nut Gear 7.

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upper and lower bearing blocks. It is free to rotate and slide up and down in these blocks. The threaded part of the upper bearing block is called the threaded screw. The nut gear, which has gear teeth on the outside and regular screw threads on the inside, screws up or down on the threaded screw. When you move t he trail arm, you turn the trail setting gear, which turns the nut gear. Moving the trail arm from zero causes the nut gear to climb upward on the threaded screw. Immediately above the nut gear, around the spindle screw shaft, is the thrust washer. Above the washer, fixed solidly to the spindle screw shaft, is the spindle gear. Thus the upward climb of the nut gear lifts the washer, the spindle gear, and therefore the whole spindle screw, without turning the spindle screw. The thrust washer, acting as a bearing surface, prevents transmission of rotation f rom the nut gear to the spindle gear. The spindle screw is raised against the tension of the thrust spring, which is on the lower end of the spindle screw. This spring ' insures positive, smooth action of the trail setting system and it returns the spindle screw, roller carriage and roller to the zero trail position wh en you r eturn the trail arm to zero.

NUT GEAR LIFTS WASHER, SPINDLE GEAR AND SPINDLE SCREW WITHOUT TURNING SPINDLE SCREW.

MIRROR DRIVE SYSTEM
The mirror drive system is the mechanism by which the roller drives the mirror of the optical system. As the roller turns, it t urns its shaft, which has gear teeth cut in it. This geared section of the shaft is the roller spline gear. This gear, through an intermediate gear, drives the upper traction gear, which is part of the T-head assembly. The T-head assembly consists of the upper traction gear, the T-head gears, the lower traction gear, and T-head shaft. For a constant rate setting (constant roller position) t he upper traction gear rotates at a constant speed or, when synchronized, at a speed pro4-2-7

portional to groundspeed (or speed of clos ure in case of a moving target). The upper traction gear and lower traction gear are mounted so t hat they are free to rotate on the T-head shaft. Between these gears and meshed to them are the T-head gears, which can revolve freely on a cross member of the T-head shaft. As the upper traction gear turns, it turns the T-head gears. As the T-head gears turn, they must do one of two things: walk around the lower traction gear, thus rotating the T -head shaft, or cause the lower traction gear to rotate without rotating the T-head shaft.
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MIRROR DRIVE SYSTEM

1. Roller 2. Roller Spline Gear 9. Mirror Drive Rack 10. Stud 11. Mirror Drive Cj)uadrant 12. Sighting Angle Index 16. Displacement Knob 17. Rate Knob 18. Male Part of

3. Intermediate Gear
4. Upper Traction Gear 5. T-Head Gears 6. Lower Traction Gear 7. T-Head Shaft

Mirror Drive Clutch
19. Female Part of
Mirror Drive Clutch

13. First Sheave Gear
14. #1 Sheave 15. Mirror Drive Clutch

8. Mirror Drive Rack Pinion
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20. Search Knob
4-2-8

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MIRROR DRIVE CLUTCH ENGAGED

Whether the T -head gears walk around the lower t raction gear or the lower traction gear rotates, depends on whether or not the lower traction gear is locked by the mirror drive clutch . If t he mirror drive clutch is locked, the T -head gears will walk around the lower traction gear , thus r otating the T-head shaft. If it is not locked, the lower traction gear will rotate. The mirror drive rack pinion is mounted on the T-head shaft, below the lower traction gear . The pinion meshes with the mirror drive rack. On the forward end of the mirror

drive rack is the stud, which slides in the slot of the mirror drive quadrant. Therefore, as t he rack moves, the sliding action of the stud in the slot causes t he quadrant to move. On the quadrant is the sighting angle index. The position of the sigh ting angle index on the degree scale, which is calibrated from O· to 70 · , indicates the sighting angle. As your airplane nears the target, your speed of approach apparently becomes fast er, although t he groundspeed remains constant. From thi ~ you can see that it is necessary to have an increasing rate of drive to t he sighting angle. The stud-in-slot action gives t he requir ed increasing rate of drive. As t he quadrant is dri ven by the mirror drive rack and stud (wh ich move at a speed proportional to gr oundspee(l ) , the distance from the cen ter of the quadrant to t h e stud decreases, as the sighting angle index and the sighti ng angle approach zer o. Therefore, a constant linear drive of t he r ack and stud and a decreas ing distance between the stud and the center of the quadrant result in an increasing rate of drive to the quadrant. Th is is known as tangential speed. Part of an arc of the quadrant has geared teeth. This part, known as the gear ed sector, m eshes with t he first sh eave gear. The first sheave gear is a ttached by a shaft to the first sheave. The mirror drive cable, which trans-

A DECREASING DISTANCE BETWEEN THE STUD AND CENTER OF THE QUADRANT RESULTS IN AN INCREASING RATE OF DRIVE TO THE QUADRANT

4-2- 9

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fers motion from the quadrant to the mirror is attached to the first s heave. As the sheave turns, it winds the cable on it, thus pulling the mirror at a speed proportional to the speed of the mirror drive quadrant. For any given groundspeed and bombing altitude, there is only one speed at which the mirror can be driven to keep the crosshairs on the target. To get this speed, you must put the roller in one certain position on the disc. You may get t he roller to this position without ha ving the crosshair on the target. Therefore, you need some method of positioning the crosshair, without changing the position of the roller on the disc. You do this with the displacement knob, which is attached to the shaft of the mirror drive clutch.

drive clutch, the two parts lock. Thus, the lower traction gear is locked to the displacement knob . If the two parts are not locked, you cannot change the position of the lateral crosshair by turning the displacement knob. When you desire rapid displacement of the mirror to pick up the target or to roll the sighting angle index back to the 70 ° position, you use the search knob. This knob is connected by bevel gears to the T-head shaft. When you turn the search knob you rotate the T-head shaft manually. You cannot use the search knob when the mirror drive clutch is engaged.

If the mirror drive clutch is engaged and you turn the displacement knob, you turn the clutch shaft which, through a bevel gear, turns the lower traction gear. By turning the lower traction gear, you may momentarily speed up or slow down the drive of the Thead shaft without changing the position of the roller on the disc. The mirror drive clutch shaft is divided into two parts. On one is the male part of the mirror drive clutch. On the other is the female part. When you engage the mirror

If you cannot see the target with 70 ° vision, you can get 20 ° additional iorward vision by using the extended vision knob. This knob unlocks the first sheave from its sh aft and turns the sheave to allow the mirror to tilt for the extra vision without moving the sighting angle index. CAUTION: You cannot synchronize for r ate while using extended vision. If you forget to return the extended vision knob to its normal position, your bomb will not be released at the proper point.
Sheave

EXTENDED VISION KNOB ALLOWS MIRROR TO TILT WITHOUT MOVING MIRROR DRIVE QUADRANT.
Mirror Drive Quadant

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4- 2- 10

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AUTOMATIC RELEASE MECHANISM
To make it unnecessary for you to release the bombs by manual controls, the sight has an automatic release mechanism. The main parts are the automatic release notch, automatic release points, and the release lever. The automatic release notch is on the mirror drive quadrant. The automatic release points are on the rate quadrant and are placed so that a stud which extends from the pivoted release point rides on the edge of the mirror drive quadrant. When the sighting angle and dropping angle coincide, the stud drops into the notch, closing the points. This completes an electrical circuit to the bomb racks and releases the bomb. The release lever is a safety device. When the release lever is in the OFF position a cam rides flush with the edge of the mirror drive quadrant, covering the automatic release notch. This keeps the stud from dropping
4- 2-11

into th e notch. However, with the release lever in the ON position the cam is moved away from the notch and thus permits the automatic release points to close at the proper time.

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so that t he cr adle is free to move in the roll axis. The movement of the gyro in its fore and aft bearings is the same as that of the telescope cradle in the telescope cradle's bearings. the gyr o connecting rod holds the cradle in alignment with the spin axis of the gyro . ~ ~C\ 4-2-12 . From your position at the rear of the sight. The rod extends from the bottom of the gyro housing to the bottom of the differential lever. The assembly stabilizes the cradle both in pitch and roll. In the left part of t h e cardan is the vertical gyro. which also is mounted on fore and RESTRICTED aft gudgeon bearings. Thus the stabilizing effect of the gyro is carried through its bearings to the cardan and to the telescope cradle. The telescope cradle is stabilized in roll by the gyro connecting rod. The pivots are known as gudgeon bearings . one of the pivots is at the left end of the sighth ead and the other at the right end in the plate between the rate end a nd cardan assembly. the vertical gyro and the t elescope cradle. It moves with the cardan when the cardan t urns in the pitch axis .RESTRICTED CARDAN ASSEMBLY To understand how t h e mirror drive cable is connected to t he mirror. You can see from the position of the pivots that t he cardan is free to turn in the pitch a xis. The cardan is a pear-shaped metal ring which is pivoted at both ends in the sigh thead. in roll. Thus. because both the telescope cradle a nd gyro are supported in the cardan by f or e and aft bearings. The ma in parts of the assembly are the car dan. you must first understand how the telescope cradle is stabilized by the card an assembly. In the right end of the cardan is the telescope cradle. when you are operating the sight. which is mounted in fore and aft g udgeon bearings. which is attach ed t o the lower part of the telescope cradle.

The gyro housing is divided into two parts. the upper and lower. The rotor is driven at about 7. the lower rotor bearing. On the upper part of the housing are: Gyro locking pin Upper rotor bearing Bubble light Fore and aft bubble Lateral bubble Movable precession weights You use t he bubbles for leveling the gyro during the bombing run and the bubble light is at the junction of the bubble tubes. is attacbed to the cardan. which fit between the rotor and tbe motor armature. GYRO LOCKING PIN MOVABLE PRECESSION WEIGHTS FORE AND AFT BUBBLE BUBBLE LATERAL BUBBLE REAR GUDGEON BEARING GYRO CONNECTING ROO ~ RESTRICTED 4-2-13 . The current passes through carbon brushes to the commutator of the rotor.RESTRICTED THE VERTICAL GYRO To stabilize tbe optics in roll and pitch. The gyro is a series-wound motor run by direct current. On the bottom and outside of the housing is the connection for the gyro connecting rod which links the gyro to the telescope cradle. the axis of the gyro must be in the verticaL The housing which holds the gyro. Maintenance men use the movable precession weights in balancing the gyro. The lower half of the gyro housing contains the field coils.800 rpm. so that its spin axis is vertical. and the brush tubes.

14 . which was discussed in t he section on mirror drive.RESTRICTED TELESCOPE COINCIDENCE POINTER }I' GEAR GUDGEON BEARING MIRROR SECTOR THE TELESCOPE CRADLE The telescope cradle contains the optical system and t he mirror r eturn system. it 0 . which is a fixed part of the cradl~. The telescope h as an 18 field of vision and 2.v--LENS RESTRICTED 4. F r om the second sheave.2 magnifying power.~~LENS . and the crosshairs are etched on one of the lenses. the mirror drive cable passes over t he second sheave which is in the r ate end. From the first s heave._. Beneath the telescope is a mirror which rotates on lateral bearings.2. The angle of the mirror is controlled by the very fl exible mirror drive cable. The optical system consists of a one-piece refracting telescope. The target yo u see through the telescope is reflected into it by the mirror. which con-. sists of seven s trands of bronze wire..

The gear meshes with the geared portion of the mirror sector. From the third sheave. which guides the cable through the exact center of the cradle gudgeon bearing to the fifth sheave. Thus you can see there is always spring tension against the sector. The sector's axis of rotation is the lateral axis on which the mirror turns. which is mounted on the cradle. A double cable connects the sector to the sixth sheave. The fifth sheave gear is fastened to the shaft turned by the fifth sheave. which is mounted on a shaft on the cradle. On t h e other end of the shaft is a flat coil spring. it turns the sector. and a small mirror which reflects light from the bulb onto the crosshairs through a narrow slit. when the fifth sheave gear turns. a small bulb. As the sector moves the mirror toward zero. The angle of the mirror is adjusted by maintenance men when they make their regular inspections. You use the crossha ir rheostat which is on the rear of the sight just below the eyepiece to control the brightness of the bulb. which t ightens as the shaft turns. The crosshairs are lighted indirectly for night bombing. Thus.RESTRICTED passes through a channel in the exact center of the cardan gudgeon bearing to the third sheave. the cable goes to the fourth sheave. The lighting system consists of a rheostat. it turns the shaft on which it is mounted. The cradle is fastened to the fifth sheave. and the sector turns the mirror. As the sheave rotates. The amount of light reflected onto the crosshairs is controlled by the angle of the mirror. which is mounted on the cardan.#5 SHEAVE GEAR 4-2-15 RESTRICTED . the cable turns the sheave. 1----~-.

This knob gives the full. Caging the gyro keeps it from tumbling and being damaged. the cone catches the gyro locking pin. known as the outer spring. The larger knob-the inner one-gives small corrections. the only pressure applied to the gyro is that of the spring tension against the collar on the shaft. the fore and aft. This knob is fastened to the top end of a shaft which has an inverted funnel or cone on its lower end. Pressure and torque on the lateral leveling knob applies torqne to the cal·dan. held stationary in relation to the rest Of the sight. When you use the f""e and aft leveling knob. You use the small outer knob for large corrections. leveling the fore and aft bubble. is coiled around the shaft within the large knob and between the knob and a collar on the shaft. known as the inner spring. When you push down on the caging knob. and the lateral. that is. the gyro then is "caged" and cannot swing free to stabilize the telescope cradle against pitch and roll. direct force of applied pressure and torque to the gyro. When you push in this knob. which is the knurled knob on top of the sighthead and directly above the vertical gyro. But as the cardan is attached to the gyro. thereby leveling the lateral bubble. RESTRICTED 4. The 90° reaction causes it to move in the roll axis. mounted on the same shaft. which holds the knobs free when they are not in use. From the law of precession. which tends to move it in roll. Also in the large inner knob is a l"rge coil spring. You do this with the caging knob. you know the reaction occurs 900 from the point of applied force. There are two leveling knobs. it tends to move the gyro in the pitch axis. The amount of force you can apply with the larger inner knob is limited by the tension of a coil spring. Each leveling knob has two knurled sections. This downward pressure moves the locking pin into alignment with the center of the cone. This spring. which projects upward from the gyro housing.2-16 . you apply pressure and torque directly to the gyro housing along the lateral axis. Therefore the gyro is moved in pitch. it is necessary to keep the gyro caged. You use it after bringing the gyro approximately to its level position with the outer knob. When you adjust the level so the bubbles are centered then the gyro's spin axis is vertical. You use the leveling knobs on the left side of the sight case to level the bubbles on the gyro. When the cone holds the locking pin in this fixed position.RESTRICTED GYRO CAGING AND LEVELING When you are not actually on a bombing run.

-?' . BOMBSIGHT CONNECTING ROD BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH AUTOPILOT ~--I'~~_ ~ vCONNECTING . its purpose is to stabilize the sighthead in yaw and to help in solving the course problem. ROD DRIFT GEAR I AUTOPILOT CLUTCH DRIFT GEAR CLUTCH POI BRUSH AND COIL CLUTCH ENGAGING LEVER P I SWITCH 4-2-17 RESTRICTED . As you have already learned.RESTRICTED The stabilizer is the lower unit of the bombsight assembly.

its spin axis must be horizontal.by horizontal gudgeon bearings. The gyro is mounted in its housing.. and since it has a system which counteracts precession. the collar is locked to the drum. Although this gyr o is slightly larger than the vertical gyro and rotates at abo ut 7. 4-2-18 RESTRICTED .. The clutch drums fit on this extens ion . The car· dan is mounted in the stabilizer case by vertical g udgeon bearings. Since the directional gyro is a horizontal one. The bombsight clutch collar fits arou nd t he clutch drum. its constr uction is essentially the sam e. The upper cal'dan gudgeon extends up through the stabilizer case.. t he card an can J rotate in the stabilizer case. Thus. ize the sighthead in yaw. you can see that it mus t always remain vertical in rela· tion to the case. it resists any attempt to move it in yaw. This housing is mounted in a cardan.. 2 ESSION GEAR GYRO GUI)GEON_ ISOLATED <<r'Tt"l.RESTRICTED UPPER CARDAN SLIP RINGS 6 VOLT RESISTC)RS.. When the clutch is engaged. there are no bubbles on the gyro fo r you to level.a metal ring . However. The horizontal gudgeon bearings transmit this s tability from the gyro to the cardan. The bombs ight clutch arm is a part of and extends out from the clutch collar.800 rpm.P CONTACT t>K\J3M DIRECTIONAL GYRO In order for the directional gyro to stabil. but as it is mounted vertically in the case. the directional gyro cannot be caged.

there is a mechanical linkage from the directional gyro to the bombsight clutch arm. directly below the clutch drum. As it is mounted to the cardan.clockwise or counter-clockwise 4. THE TORQUE UNIT The torque unit applies force to the precession gear when the directional gyro tilts out of horizontal. Since the gyro is necessarily small. This twisting force is transmitted to the cardan and thus precesses the gyro. As you learned when you studied its construction. the torque unit must be able to 0 • RESTRICTED . its strength is not sufficient to stabilize the sighthead without tending to precess.' sight head is attached through a linkage to the clutch drum. These coils limit the amount of current flowing to the torque unit. with the bombsight clutch engaged. Current is transmitted to the gyro through a slip ring on top of the cardan. any force applied to this gear precesses the gyro. Directly below the slip rings are two resistance coils. Thus you can see that any attempt to move the sighthead must result in a twisting action on the drum. As the clutch arm is connected to the sighthead through the bombsight connecting rod the sighthead is stabilized by the gyro. The precession gear is beneath these coils and mounted solidly on the cardan. with three others. The torque unit counteracts this preceSSIOn. the card an can move only in two directions . This ring. is mounted on the cardan inside the stabilizer case. Therefore. This twisting motion can be either clockwise or counter-clockwise. Another of the slip rings serves as a ground to complete the circuit to the gyro.2-19 through 360 Remember that the clutch drum i~ attached to the cardan and the bomb.RESTRICTED Therefore.

the other clapper magnet is energized and the power of the opposite turning clutch drive gear is transferred through its clutch disc and the intermediate gear to the precession gear. This gear mesh es with an intermediate gear. are L-shaped and pivoted at their elbows. both clutch discs can be connected to the same intermediate gear without the action of one clutch drive interfering with the action of the other. When correction in the opposite direction is necessary. the other rotates counterclockwise. transfers the motion to the precession gear. through a small gear on its shaft.RESTRICTED apply a counter-force either clockwise or counter-clockwise. The bottom surfaces of both clutch drive gears are faced with cork. The contact sector. The second clutch drive gear is meshed with the first and is driven by the first. On the shaft of the clutch disc is a gear. The lever action of the pivoted "L" pushes the clutch disc up against the cork facing of the drive gear. Therefore. which. These discs. mounted on the cardan. made of soft iron. fiat metal plates. Whenever one of the clapper magnets is energized. The clapper arms. This gives the desired correction in one direction. The rotation of the drive gear is thus transmitted to the clutch disc through the clutching action between the cork facing and the clutch disc. the motor drives one of the two clutch drive gears. is a bar carrying two CLUTCH GEAR CORK FACING INTERMEDIATE GEAR PIVOT CLAPPER ARM CLAPPER MAGNET BAYONETT SPRING DISC FiElD COIL BRUSH COMMUTATOR RESTRICTED 4-2-20 . Directly beneath the cork facings of the clutch drive gears but not touching them are the clutch discs . As only one clapper magnet can be energized at a time. it pulls in one end of its clapper arm. Which magnet is energized depends on which way the gyro tilts. but in the opposite direction. are supported by extensions of clapper arms which are operated by the clapper magnets. The torque motor rotates only in one direction. one clutch drive gear rotates clockwise. Through a gear train.

RESTRICTED pairs of electric contacts separa ted by a strip of nonconductive material. This circu it bypasses the r esistance coil and ther efore sends t h e full operating voltage of the sight to the magnet through the same slip ring. and moving the brush back t o the dead center strip. a nd the course knob mecha nism. the gyro stabilizes the sighthead in yaw. mounte<! on the gyr o housing. but in the opposite direction. A contact brush. When the gyro's axis moves out of horizontal. Therefore. which is wired into the circuit between the contact and the top slip ring.lter amount in the same direction. The top slip ring carries the current f rom the magnet to the cont act. The first contact above the center strip sends one half the operating voltage of the sight to the proper magnet. This completes an electric circuit to the proper clapper magnet. rides on the contact sector. WHEN CONTACT BRUSH IS OFF CENTER. t he brush will ride up to t he second contact above the center strip. bombsight connecting rod. through the bombsight clutch. The torqu e unit counteracts precession of t h e directional gyro. AN ElECTRIC SIGNAL IS SENT TO PROPER CLAPPER MAGNET 4-2-21 RESTRICTED . If t he gyro has precessed a gre." touches the contact. thus energ izing the magnet. The circuit is completed when the contact brush. Thus their reactions are identical to those of the upper contacts. the brush moves from the dead center strip of the sector to one of the electric contacts. The voltage is reduced by the upper r esistance coil. The contacts below t he center strip are connected to the opposite clapper magnet through the lower r esistance coil and the second slip ring. precessing the gyro. which is the " ground.

The stabilized gear sector is mounted on the stem so that th e stem is free to turn in it. As the turn worm is mes hed with the sector. The drift worm meshes with t he drift gear . When you turn the turn knob. yo u t urn the turn worm. The turn worm forces itself around the stabilized gear sector . on which th e sighthead rests and is f r ee to turn. TURN WORM HOUSING KNOB DRIFT WORM RESTRICTED 4-2-22 . . t he turn worm holds the s ig hthead stabilized and the drift gear is t urned independently of the sigh thead. th e stability of the directional gyro is t r ansmitted to the bombsight connecting rod. The sta bilized gear sector is locked to t h e bombsigh t connecting r od by t he clevis pin. th e pilot will get a s ig nal from the PDI (Pilot Dir ector Indicator). when t he drift knob is turned. '1-J· -~ C • SIGHT STEM CLEVIS PIN BOMBSIGHT CONNECTING ROD Two con nections between the s ighthead and stabilizer are the s ig ht stem. Therefor e the sector is stabilized . by the displacement of the s ighthead or drift knob. ·which extends from the bottom of t he sighthead into the sleeve on the stabilizer . Th erefore. Th e stabilized gear sector is mounted on the s ight stem. The drift worm is in the same housing with t he turn worm. However.RESTRICTED THE COURSE KNOBS When yo u engage th e bombsight clutch. Any time the drift gear is turned. and the clevis pin. when you turn the s ig hthead with the turn knob. is mo un ted on the sighthead. You cannot t urn the sight head in r elation to the s tabilized sector unless yo u t urn the turn worm with t he t urn knob . The turn worm. The t urn worm is on t he shaft from the turn knob. the drift worm will drag the drift gear around the same amo unt the sighthead is turned . which meshes with t he geared part of the s tabilized gear sector . thus forcing the sighthead around with it. the sighthead is stabilized through t his linkage. and you can rotate it only wit h th e drift knob. which locks the bombs ight connecting r od to the stabilized gear sector. This arm is connected to the stabilized gear sector. whi ch is mounted on the stabi lizer around t he s leeve in which the sigh t head st em fits.

The brush can operate only within a certain range. extends from t he autopilot clutch into RESTRICTED . the drift gear clutch collar t urns. You can see this coil and t he brush through Ii window on the stabilizer. which rides on a resistance coil.2-23 when t he airplane is flown manually.RESTRICTED DRIFT GEAR P D I SCALE P D I BRUSH DRIFT GEAR CLUTCH P D I COIL DRIFT SCALE BRUSH BRACKET THE PDI SYSTEM (PILOT DIRECTOR INDICATOR) The drift gear clutch collar is mounted around the hub of the drift gear. These two values ar e determined by the position of the brush on the resistance coil. The drift gear clutch arm is part of the drift gear clutch . You use t his system to signal the pilot 4. When it r each es the limits of this range. the clutch collar slips on t he drift gear hub so that the mechanism will not be damaged. known as the directional pa nel drive arm. Therefore. whenever the clutch is moved. The clutch collar gets its name from the fact that the friction with which it grips t he drift gear hub may be adj usted. Any time the drift gear t urns. An ar m. below t his gear. it sends a signal to t he pilot's ins trument. The autopilot clutch collar fits arou nd the clutch dr um jus t below the bombsight clutch. This instrument is a double-acting voltmeter which measures two values: the amount and the direction of cur rent flowing through its cir cuit. As the PD I brush moves from the center of the coil. The a utopilot connecting rod links the drift gear clutch arm to the autopilot clutch collar. the arm is moved. An additional sys tem is necessary to send signals wh ile using the C-l automatic pilot . Attached to the clutch collar inside the stabilizer case is the PDI brush.

which is fastened to t he left s ide of the stabilizer case. 2. It serves a s a PDI limit.RESTRICTED AUTOPILOT CONNECTING ROD DRIFT GEAR CLUTCH POI BRUSH the directional panel. When you engage the autopilot clutch. At the same time. it moves t he PDI brush over the coil. 4.2-24 . t h ere will be a proportional movement of the other. sending the signal to the autopilot. The PDI brush and the directional panel drive arm are linked together mechanically. t hrough mechanical linkage. It proportions C-l corrections with PDI displacement. they limit the movement of the PDI brush. Therefore. for each movement of one. you connect the PDI brush to the directional gyro through m echanical linkage. it moves the autopilot clutch so that t he directional panel drive a r m moves. locking it to t he gyro. It serves as a PDI lock. RESTRICTED 3. one on each side of the engag ing knob of the autopilot clutch. On the stabilizer case there are two studs. Ther efore. These studs limit t he movement of t he autopilot clu tch. THE AUTOPILOT CLUTCH Th e auto pilot clutch has three functions: 1. As t he drift gear clutch collar is moved.

A shaft. the crosstrail mechanism works t his way: The sight stem. As the dovetail is locked to t he s tabilizer. When no trail is in t h e sight. When you set t r ail and drift into the sight. But when you set trail into the sight. In thi s way you have set drift into 4-2-25 • TRAIL SET IN RESTRICTED .0 When yo u turn the course knobs to correct for drift. To add t rail to the mechanism: F itted to t he dovetail is a part which is moved a long the dovetail by linkage from the trail arm. passes through this hollow stem. DOVETAIL ZERO TRAIL DOVETAIL SHAFT . inside t he sigh t h ead. The other end of the dovetail extends back toward the rear of the sight. t he sight combines trail a nd drift. the cross trail mechanism. which is the center of t he dovetail shaft. the dovetail lies in the fore a nd aft axis of the sighthead. However . The lower end of this shaft is locked to the stabilizer by the dovetail locking pin so that this shaft cannot rotate in rela tion to the s tabilizer. This forms an a ngle between the sighthead and stabilizer. the concentric stud and disc is at t he dovetail's pivot point. you crab the airplane into the wind .RESTRICTED To solve the crosstrail problem. is a flat metal bar known as t he dovetail. On the upper end of the dovetail shaft. This part is known a s the concentric stud and disc. is hollow. Briefly. known as the dovetail shaft. One end of the dovetail is mounted on the sh aft at a right angle to it. the cross trail mechanism solves for the correct cross tr ail and tilts the telescope cradle enough to subtend crosstrai l distance on the gr ound. Drift is the angular relationship between the sightheact a nd sta bilizer. by which the sighthead is mounted to the stabilizer. the concentric stud and disc is moved back from the center of pivot a di stance proport ional to t rail. it r ema ins in alignment with the s tabilizer but moves out of a lignment with the fore and aft axis of the sighthead. the sighthead r emains pointed at the target. With zero drift.

and t he bottom is fixed. . This plate is fi tted into the sigh t head on gu ide tracks so t ha t t h e carr iage can move only to the right or left. The stud anchors t he end of the linkage without restr icting the movement of the link fork. CROSS TRAIL CARRIAGE 4-2.. prongs which ride on a guide stud. This movement is transferred t hrough linkage to tilt the t elescope cradle t h e proper amount. Extending back from t he collar are two RESTRICTED When the concentric stud and disc moves to t he rig h t or left of the dovetail's zero drift position. The s leeve is fitted into the ca se so that the push rod can move only fore and aft. which pushes the upper end of a lever known as the trai l bell crank. When the crosstrail carriage moves to the . The lower end of the bell crank is attach ed to the push rod.26 .. As this pivot point is below the cradle gudgeon bearing. • TRAIL AND DRIFT SET IN OPTICS T1Lm b~J-:! Settin. This will pu ll the crosstrail connecti ng rod and the to p of the differential lever to t h e left. . If t he concentric stud and disc is moved to the left in r elation to the s ig hthead. Tiltin . which is pivoted in the cardan.. The stud fits into the slot of a Hat plate on the bottom of the cross trail carriag·e.'" ' 11 ..NO DRIFT . The dista nce it is t hus moved is proportional to crosstrail. The link fork is a collar-like device that fits a round a shoulder on the concentric stud and disc. The upper part of the cross trail ca rr iage is connected to one arm of the crosstrail bell crank.TED TRAIL SET IN .. The push rod is pivoted to t h e link rod. The center of the differential lever is pivoted on the rear of the telescope cradle at a point below the cradle gudgeon bearing'. ~ .! Trail in the Crosstrail Mechanism When you move the trail a rm to set tra il in the rate end.. The bell crank is pivoted on the s ight case so that a s its upper end is pushed away from t he case. I I lOT II. it causes the cradle to tilt. to the left and. The oth er end of the differential lever is connected to t he ve r t ical gyro by the gyro con necting rod. I . the stud moves the crosstrail car riage .RESTRICTED With drift and t rail set into the crosstrail m ech a n ism..! the Optics DRIFT SET IN . the concentric stud will be moved to one s ide or the other of t he zero drift position . Therefore. the cross trai l carriage w ill be moved to th e lef t . which is on the trail arm. left. as the bell crank is U-shaped. The pinion is m eshed with the trai l rack. its lower end is pushed toward the case. t his movement turns the t rail arm pinion.. whi"ch slides into the s ight case through a sleeve. but the bottom of the differential le ver is held in place by t he vertical gyr o.NO TRAIL !J1 . The cross trail connecting rod connects the other arm of the bell crank to the top of the differ ential lever.. . it moves the a rm of the bell cranl. when the top of the diffe rential lever m oves. t h e pivot point of the differ ential lever must move. . which in turn is pivoted to the link fork ...11. the other a rm also will mo ve to the left.

2 THEN. The upper end of the differential lever is at the same height as the telescope cradle gudgeon bearing. the 4-2-27 vertical axis of the telescope cradle will move the same amount as the vertical axis of the gyro. This puts your line of sight to the left of vertical. Then the line of sight is to the right of vertical.RESTRICTED WHEN TRAIL IS SET IN CONCENTRIC STUD-AND. Therefore. When the gyro acts to stabilize the telescope cradle. differential lever is held fast by the crosstrail mechanism. the mechanical action is the same except that it is in the opposite direction . CONCENTRIC STUD AND DISC IS MOVED LATERALLY IN RELATION TO SIGHT. o o o LATERAL MOVEMENT OF STUD IS TRANSMITTED TO THE ~o==~ TELESCOPE CRADLE THROUGH ~~~~~ THE CROSSTRAIL MECHANISM ([ TILTING THE OPTICS. they are tilted independently of the gyro as the lower end of the differential lever is held fast by the gyro .DISC IS MOVED TRAIL DISTANCE TO THE REAR FROM CENTER OF PIVOT. When the concentric stud and disc is moved to the right. WHEN DRIFT IS SET IN. When the optics are tilted for crosstrail. RESTRICTED . the upper end of the.

While you are learning preflight. RESTRICTED 4. you will soon be able to make the preflight without a checklist.1 . If you learn the reasons for each step. which is one basis of whether or not you will graduate as a bombardier. IF YOU FIND A MALFUNCTION WHilE MAKING THE PREFLIGHT. But you will not get this second chance. If your bombs drop "wild" on a training mission. malfunctions do occur---chiefly from misuse. Every bomb you drop is scored on your training record. Although the sight stands up well under normal conditions. CAll THE MAIN TENANC E DEPARTMENT .RESTRICTED You must make a preflight inspection of your bombsight before every mission . you must also learn the reason for each step in the procedure . if the malfunction is one that you should have found in your preflight. you will be permitted to drop them again.3. as a result of a malfunction which would not show up in a careful preflight. A careful preflight check can make the difference between success and failure of a mission.

PREFLIGHT CHECK LIST INSTALLATION 1. 3. Check disc speed drum and gear shift. Check for roller slippage. 1 O. Turn "STAB. Check for tilt of optics. Check leveling knobs. Check vertical gyro. Check mirror drive cable length. STABILIZER AND COURSE KNOBS 15. . Check knobs on rate end . Turn "BS" switch ON . 17. Match sighthead and stabilizer. Check for pre-set trail. 11. 9 . 6 . 13. Check torque unit and bombsight clutch. Check for dovetail misalignment. Turn" SERVO" switch ON. 23. 2. Check autopilot clutch. Check bubble light. 4. Insert clevis pin and dovetail locking pin. 18. 14. CROSSTRAIL MECHANISM 5. RATE END 8. Check for pre-set trail. 7. 16. Check crosshoir light. Check for security of cannon plugs on stabilizer. SIGHT VERTICAL AND LIGHTING 20 . Check rote motor and optic drive. 22. 21." switch ON. Check POI with pilot. 19. Check action of course knobs and POI. 12.

To assure stabilization of the sighthead. they must use the same voltage. If the cannon plugs do not fit securely. CHECK FOR SECURITY OF CAN· NON PLUGS ON STABILIZER Although the cannon plugs may appear to be secure. 4-3-3 RESTRICTED . one unit will be damaged. always lower the sight stem gently into the sleeve. This allows the directional gyro enough time to gain running speed and prevents overloading of the circuit.RESTRICTED INSTALLATION 1. RIGHT + i. wait three minutes before turning other switches ON. 3. Never force the sight stem into the sleeve or you will burr the drift worm and drift gear. MATCH SIGHTHEAD AND STABILIZER BEFORE MOUNTING SIGHTHEAD Although the sighthead and stabilizer do not always have the same serial number. When mounting the sighthead. the sight will not get the proper voltage." SWITCH ON After turning this switch ON. 4. TURN "STAB. the bombsight connecting rod must be fastened to the stabilized gear sector with the clevis pin . always check to make sure. If the voltage differs. ON OFF 1 ~ STAB. The dovetail locking pin must be in place to give cross trail corrections. INSERT CLEVIS PIN AND DOVE· TAIL LOCKING PIN DOVETAIL LOCKING PIN Always be sure these pins are fitted securely.

and small sighting angle. _ . FORE AND AFT CROSSHAIR SHOULD NOT MOVE 6._FORE AND AFT CROSSHAIR SHOULD NOT MOVE 4-3-4 RESTRICTED .F01'e and aft c'ross' hai. when 'you move the trail arm. shoulel not move. Then. Swing tmil a:nn th1'ough enti1'e 1·ange. If it is not. the concentric stud and disc should be on the dovetail center of pivot (zero trail position) . With the trail arm on zero. small sighting angie. when yo u set in trail for the bombing miss ion. F01'e and aft c"osshair should not move . there will be incorrect trail in the cross t rail mechanism. Rotate dovetail shaft. the dovetail should be in alignment with the longitudinal axis of the stabilizer. With zero drift.. (lnd small el1'Opping angle. Ze?'O tmil. preset trail is present and the optics will be moved by the cr oss trail mechanism when you rotate the dovetail shaft. CHECK FOR PRE-SET TRAIL IN CROSSTRAIL MECHANISM SETTINGS: Ze1'o dTi/t.RESTRICTED CROSSTRAIL MECHANISM 5. If it does move. Therefore. . CHECK FOR DOVETAIL MISALIGNMENT SETTINGS: Ze1'O d"i/t. the dovetail is misaligned. the fore and aft crosshair should not move. Remove the dovetail locking pin.

5 .. This ins ures positive ·action of the crosstrail mechanism.:."nge.-'" SHOULD MOVE TO RIGHT \ .L. 7' FORE AND AFT CROSSHAIR ..il::.'ift..RESTRICTED 7.. Checking the extended vision knob shows whether 01' not the action permits additional tilt to the mirror and whether or not it can be locked in normal position.e ""d «It c1'Osshcti" should move to the right. R epe"t this 01Jemtion with "". Fo.' should move to left. CHECK TILT OF OPTICS SETTINGS: M" ximum . Checking the action of the rate.. "nd sm"ll d.ximU1n left d. /01'e "nd «It c. s'm"ll sighting "ngle. T~ CHECK KNOBS ON RATE END 9. the optics should tilt when trail is added. and the crosshair rheostat. displacement and search knobs will reveal any binding in the gears or shafts.'e . the bubble lights.S. OFF 8... It also sends current to the r ate motor switch. RATE END B....ight dTift.. RESTRICTED 4-3. TURN "BS" SWITCH ON This switch completes the electrical circuit to the sighthead. With maximum drift in the crosstrail mechanism...'ossh"i. Swing t1'"il "1'In thTough enti.'opping "ngle. It energizes the vertical gyro.

" . When you engage the mirror dri ve clutch . This t ests for proper action of the springs within the drum. With the dropping angle index off the zero posit ion.R EST R ICTED 10. This tests the proper action of the clutch. t he optics will drive. make sure the disc speed gearshift is not in the neutral position . CHECK DISC SPEED DRUM AND DISC SPEED GEARSHIFT Shifting the disc speed gearshift changes t he speed of ro t ation of the tachom et e r adapter. If it does not rot ate. CHECK RATE MOTOR AND DRIVE OF OPTICS When you turn the rate motor switch ON. it locks the lower traction gear and connects the drive from the disc and roller to t he mirr or. the adapter's speed of rotation should increase as t he drum is moved from minimum to maximum range. The sighting angle index should move faster as the dropping angle index is positioned at larger dropping angles. This drive should be smooth. 4-3-6 RE STRICT ED . the ta chometer adapter should rotate. By turning the disc speed drum through its entire range.

With no trail set in t he sight. CHECK FOR ROLLER SLIPPAGE SETTINGS : Zero b'ail and disc speed of 265 rpm ( set by ta. S'i. any position of the dropping angle index is the tangent of the whole range angle.RESTRICTED 12." on .Tor. fraU ann on 50 'maximum. If you have to move the trail arm less than 50 mils to stop the movement of the sighting angle index. there is roller slippage.qhti1lg Q. the time it takes the sight ing angle index to drive from the dropping angle index position to zero should equal acRESTRICTED tual t ime of faIL If it does not take th is t ime. With the disc speed a. Maximum disc speed and a small sigh t ing angle are used to give the greatest apparent motion if any pre-set trail is present . Negative pre-set t rail exists if you have to move the trail arm more than 50 mils t o s top the movement of the sighting angle index. You can find the amount present by s ubtracting the amount s hown on the trail plate from 50 mils. the time of travel should be 20 seconds fo. When you move the trail arm out to 50 mils. Turn rate motor switch OFF as soon as check is completed to prevent excessive wear of disc and r oller. and the sighting angle index should not drive.rIgle index should not move. Clock the tmvel of the sig hting angle index f"om the instant it is opposite the d"opping angle index until it "eaches ze. disc speed. 4-3-7 . a disc speed of 265 rpm is best because it gives you an even number of seconds (20) to work with .OS 13.'o .t 265.05 positions the roller 50 mils below the center of the disc. • • 50 MILS -o.chometer). Therefore. positive pre-set trail is present . R epeat this opemtion with the dropping angle index at th. a"lld smal..2 seconds is allowed fO?' human e. Although you can make this check with any ATF. CHECK FOR PRE·SET TRAIL IN THE RATE END n~ils. the roller s hould then be moved back up to the center of t he disc.l sig hting angle.05.'ee di[fe" ent settings.' d'rive clutch and tU1'1! rate mot01' Slvitch ON. SETTINGS: Dropping angle illde. During actual time of fall. A tolerance of .' each dmpping angle index setting . Setting the dropping angle index at -. the sighting angle index should drive through an a ngle that subtends whole range. E-llgage 'mi'"1"o.

the cable is not the correct length.nd no extended vision. U 16. The pointers are forward and left of the telescope. If the clutch is too loose. Since the torque unit aids in stabilizing the directional gyro. You can tell whether or not the drift worm and drift gear are meshed properly. the drift gear clutch should slip when you continue to turn the drift knob. The coincidence pointers should match. Look through the eyepiece and check coincidence pointers. After the PDI hits its stops. The PDI brush should move smoothly when using either knob.'O a. TURN "SERVO" SWITCH ON SERVO The switch marked "SERVO" completes the circuit to the torque unit. STABILIZER AND COURSE KNOBS 15. PDI action win be erratic.RESTRICTED 14. Move the PDI brush through its limits with the drift knob. If they do not match. 4-3-8 RESTRICTED . CHECK MIRROR DRIVE CABLE LENGTH SETTINGS: Sighting angle index at ze. CHECK ACTION OF COURSE KNOBS AND PDI Engage bombsight clutch and turn sighthead through its limits with the turn knob. it must be ON before you make the next checks. You can tell by the "feel" of the knob whether or not the t urn worm and stabilized gear sector mesh properly.

RESTRICTED 17. With autopilot clutch disengaged. Turn drift knob and watch PDI. the autopilot clutch is slipping. either the torque unit or the bombsight clutch is not operating properly. It should not move. If it does. When the sighthead resists turning in one direction but not in the other. The sighthead should resist turning. Either improper adjustment of the bombsight clutch or oil on the clutch will cause it to slip. RESTRICTED 4-3-9 . A malfunction of the bombsight clutch causes a slipping of the sighthead when torque is applied. CHECK TORQUE UNIT AND BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH SETTINGS: Engage bombsight clutch and apply t01'que to the sig hthead in both di"ections. If the bombsight does not resist turning. 19. CHECK AUTOPILOT CLUTCH Engage autopilot clutch with PDI on zero. With drift knob. Pilot's PDI needle should be on center when your PDI is on center. move PDI to center. When you move the PDI brush to your right. this means that one half of the unit is not working. left. CHECK PDI WITH PILOT Engage bombsight clutch. and right positions. You apply torque in both directions to check both halves of t he torque unit. and vice versa. disengage autopilot clutch. A malfunction of the torque unit causes the directional gyro to precess against the case and lose all stability when you apply torque to the sighthead . the pilot's PDI should move to the left. 18. PDI should move smoothly through its limits.

Look into the telescope. 4-3. 22. Bubbles should move in same direction that you apply torque. Cover your head and the lower bombsight window with the bombsight cover. The crosshairs should be lighted. CHECK BUBBLE LIGHT With "BS" switch ON. NOTE: This check is necessary only during the preflight for night missions. CHECK LEVELING KNOBS Gyro uncaged. !'I'III'~'\ "1"lfll" "I' 1". 21. this indicates that it has not attained proper running speed. CHECK CROSSHAIR RHEOSTAT Rheostat full right. With each leveling knob precess gyro. bubbles should be lighted. Also check to see that leveling knobs return to their normal position when released.RESTRICTED SIGHT VERTICAL AND LIGHTING 20.\' 23. CHECK VERTICAL GYRO Un cage gyro.10 RESTRICTED . If the gyro does not hold its position. It should hold its position.

The log is the history of the bombsight from t he time it leaves the factory until it is withdrawn from service for survey. Much upkeep work is done by inexperienced personnel. the bombsight officer must make a notation of the exact condition of the equipment. The shop receiving a serviceable sight should know whether it has been damaged in shipment. 2. In order to give overhaul personnel complete data on the equipment. If fai lure and adjustments are listed accurately. RESTRICTED Whenever a bombsight is withdrawn from service and turned in to the sUl>Ply officer for storage or shipment. The L09book You should know the importance of the bombsight log. For this reason.RESTRICTED General The more you know about your equipment. it will give the manufacturers a clear idea of changes needed in design or construction. This bombsight and / or stabilizer has been lubricated and prepared for temporary storage. It has been found from exam ina tion of log books which have been turned in with instruments for repairs and overhaul that: 1. This notation which will be made immediately after the last previous entry in the log book. whenever either instrument is turned in for overhaul or repair. 3. It is an official document kept by the maintenance department. If you are familiar with inspections and know trouble shooting. every adjustment or failure must be recorded fully. the precession chart made on the last inspection should be inserted in the log book. it will help you to locate and report any malfunction that may be present. will include the following information: 1. 2. This bombsight and / or stabilizer is in serviceable condition for re-issue without repair. This bombsight and/or stabilizer has been lubricated and prepared for extended storage. 4. There is a tendency to do more disassembly and adjustment than is necessary. the better you can do your job. Much work is done on bombsights which is not entered in the log . 3. The logbook must be forwarded with the bombsight or stabilizer. This will save the maintenance department time and trouble. This bombsight and/or stabilizer should be forwarded to an overhaul shop for repairs or overhaul prior to re-issue. You should record accurately all of the bombsight's running time. 4-4-1 . Inspections are based on the running time that you report.

. . Dovetail alignment checked. . . RATE END • Housing cleaned ·Wiring checked • Gears checked. . . . . . Stabilized gear sector checked . . Check Precession of vertical gyro . . . . . . . . CARDEN ASSEMBLY • Housing cleaned ·Wiring checked . . °Bombsight clutch (18-22) ° Autopilot clutch (10-14) . . 6. ·Commutator cleaned . . . . • Commutator cleaned . . Check telescope vertical . . • Bearings o iled . • Disc speed drum checked. 8. CALIBRATION TENSION ADJUSTED ON . ·Clutch drums cleaned. ·Wiring checked . 4. Brush cleaned and adjusted._ _ * Roller zeroed. • Bearings oiled . 5. ·Clutches cleaned . . . . . Crosstrail mechanism checked . . . . Slip ring brushes cleaned . . • Rate motor breaker points cleaned . • Brushes checked . . . • Brushes checked . • Bayonet springs adjusted. . ·Commutator cleaned -Gyro bearings oiled ·Caging knob checked -leveling knobs checked Mirror drive cable checked. • Bubble light checked. Check roller slippage lot 265 OS or 20 sec. 7. . 1. . . .INSPECTION The asterisk precedes checks to be made on the 15hour inspection. . *Autopilot clutch cleaned . . • Drift gear clutch (6-81 . . . • Mirror cleaned . . . • Disc and roller cleaned. . . . . • Flexible leads checked COURSE KNOBS Clearance checked . . . . ·PDI brush cleaned and checked . . . . . Extended vision knob and spring checked . . . Contact sector cleaned. . . . . . . ·Outer case inspected. _ _ 3 . . . 4_2 . . . . ATF) . Dovetail locking pin checked CALIBRATION Crosshair light . . SIGHTHEAD • Outer case inspected. 9. • Brushes checked . . . . Precession check (stabilizer gyro) . STABILIZER (Internal) Slip rings cleaned . • POI coil checked . . *Bom bsight clutch cleaned. All checks are to be made on 50- hour inspection. . TORQUE UNIT · ·Wiring checked • Brushes checked ·Commutgtor cleaned *Gears cleaned. . . . . Clapper magnets checked ·Oil bearings if necessary. . . . Automatic release mechanism and indices checked . . STABILIZER (Externa l) . 2. . .

bad screw driver slots. (White cloth is preferred because the dye from colored cloth may easily be deposited on the surfaces ' with which it comes in contact when used in conjunction with oil. stripped t hreads. WIRING CHECKED: Check wiring for frayed or burned insulation and faulty terminals. NEVER STIR UP DUST AND DIRT INSIDE CASE . Use a fast drying crackle finish lacquer on the exterior.RESTRICTED INSP ECTION PERFORMANCE A. Remove burrs with an Arkansas stone. 1. C. GEARS CHECKED: Clean with orange wood stick and carbon tetrachloride. scrape and polish that area thoroughly before retouching. Check terminal screws for tightness. solvents. etc. dry clean the surface thoroughly with carbon tetrachloride and a clean white cloth. Polish the spot with crocus cloth or a hardwood stick and retouch with paint or rub in a small amount of bombsight oil. CASE CLEANED: Remove all foreign matter from inside of case. Check for proper shaping of all wiring. RESTRICTED 4-4-3 . chipping. Pick up dirt from interior of case with carbon tetrachloride moistened cotton. When necessary check wiring throughout with continuity tester. Check for corrosion and rust on the bare metal. or a swab stick.S~~: OUTER CASE INSPECTED: Check condition of paint as to peeling. If there is corrosion underneath paint. You may detect corrosion of the magnesium alloy in the sight as a white powder or paste similar to the substance which is found in a "dead" dry cell battery. this includes pigtails and flexible leads. It must be removed completely by scraping it away from the bare metal. Remove corrosion and rust with acidfree kerosene and crocus cloth. CAUTION: Always clean external parts of sight before opening the sight case. etc. Make the proper repairs and replacements. etc.) B.

CAUTION: Do not use abrasives in cleaning roller and disc. it will cause excessive wear. Check to see that points have at least 30 percent contact. or excess oil on the disc and roller. resurface with a fine platinum point file. 400 aluminum oxide paper over the end of a wedge point to remove wire edges from segments. smooth with No . Oil governor bearing and disc speed drum shaft bearing with one drop of light bombsight oil. If contact surfaces are pitted or rough. BEARINGS OILED: Oil rate motor shaft bearings with one drop of heavy bombsight oil if necessary. only if necessary. BRUSHES CHECKED: Before removing brushes. Re-c1ean with cloth. The roller should not be kept at the center of the disc except for test purposes. F. If the roller is kept at the center of the disc. Use a strip of No. Clean brushes with carbon tetrachloride.4-4 H. Polish RESTRICTED . COMMUTATOR CLEANED: Use clean white cloth moistened with carbon tetrachloride (not alcohol) over the end of a soft wood stick for cleaning commutator. Scrape lightly between segments with a wedge-pointed orange stick. Do not use benzine. The spring tension on the disc is tested for a 2 lb. dust. rub in some light bombsight oil and wipe off excess with clean cloth.RESTRICTED D. Keep using a clean section of the cloth until the cloth comes out clean. After cleaning. G. Care must be taken to avoid tapering or hollowing of commutator. DISC AND ROLLER CLEANED: If there is any dirt. If commutator is rough. resulting in a Hat spot on the roller and a depression in the center of the disc. E. BREAKER POINTS CLEANED: Clean by pulling cigarette paper through closed points five or six times. Brush against commutator must have at least an 85 percent contact. tension. Never use a metal instrument as a guide. mark them so that you can replace them in the same positions. 4. 400 aluminum oxide paper. clean them with carbon tetrachloride. Guide stick must be cut to fit commutator.

Check to see that springs are secure around shaft. Pick up dirt from interior of case with carbon tetrachloride moistened cotton. rub a s mall amoun t of light bombsight oil on 5prings to prevent ru sting. RESTRICTED A. WIRING CHECKED : Check wiring for frayed or burned ins ulation and faulty t er4-4-5 . After cleaning with carbon tetrachloride. NEVER STIR UP DUST AND DIRT INSIDE THE CASE. Clean with dry white cloth. CASE CLEANED: Remove all fore ign matter from ins ide of case.RESTRICTED contact s urfaces with No. I. Remove rust or corrosion with acid-free kerosene and crocus cloth. K. Check for corrosion a nd rust on the bare metal. UlSC SPEED DRUM: Remove cover and clean spri ngs with carbon tetrachloride if necessar y. If sticking. remove and clean wit h carbo n tetrachloride. dry clean the surface thoroug hl y with carbon tetrachloride a nd clean white cloth . Do not use carbon tetrachloride or crocus cloth. Not mor e t han 1/ 32 of an inch s hould be r emoved or dressed from t he points. AUTOMATIC RELEASE MECHANISM AND INDICES: Set t he automatic r elease points to close when the sighting angle and dropping angle indices are per fectly ma tched. or a swab stick. EXTENDED VISION: Check to see if knob works smoothly and :-:pfing re turn s knob to normnl pos ition. E. 400 aluminum ox ide paper. J.

dirt. Check for binding of shafts due to dirt. Keep using a clean section of the cloth until cloth comes out clean. and oil if necessary. Do not touch applicator to anything. Use a strip of No. D. C. To correct this. Never use a metal instrument as a guide. Scrape lightly between segments with wedge-pointed orange stick. etc. clean. LEVELING KNOBS CLEANED: Check for precession of gyro in proper direction as knobs ar~ used . shiny spots indicate that the brushes are sticking.RESTRICTED minals. Re-clean with cloth. stripped threads. etc. and lubricate with light bombsight oil. Disassemble. when gyro is running. mark head of brush plug and measure the amount it extends from the brush tube. Check for proper shaping of all wiring. clean. Bubbles should move in the same direction that the top of the knob is turned. Take care to avoid tapering 4-4-6 RESTRICTED . bad screw driver slots. E. Mark brushes in such a way that you can replace them in the same position as before. When necessary check wiring throughout with continuity tester. BRUSHES CLEANED: Before removing brushes. CAGING KNOB: Check for rust. Clean brushes with carbon tetrachloride. After oiling bearings. GYRO BEARINGS OILED: Inspect gyro rotor bearings and oil with one drop of bombsight oil on each bearing. G. 't his includes pigtails and flexible leads. Clean brush tubes with carbon tetrachloride. Re-clean. In most cases the rotor bearing must be oiled every 15 hours. Check terminal screw for tightness. Disassemble. run gyro for at least ten minutes and then wipe excess oil off commutator. Make proper repairs and replacements . Brush against commutator must have at least an 85 percent contact. and binding. 400 aluminum oxide paper over the end of a wedge point to remove wire edges from segments. 400 aluminum oxide paper. F. corrosion. Check sides of brushes for shiny spots. polish sides with crocus cloth. If commutator is rough. CAUTION: Never wait until bearing becomes dry before oiling. smooth with No. or hollowing comml'tator. Guide stick must be cut to fit commutator. COMMUTATOR CLEANED: Use clean white cloth moistened with carbon tetrachloride (not alcohol) over the end of a soft wood stick for cleaning commutator. Do not use benzine.

Shape leads with orange wood stick if necessary. when sighting angle index is at 30 ' . BUBBLE LIGHT: Check bubble lig ht. Fine adjustments can be made by turning spring housing 180 ' . The same number of shims should be placed between the drift knob shaft bracket and the sight case as there are between the turn worm housing and the sight case. CLEARANCES CHECKED: Adjust end play of turn knob shaft by running locking nuts all the way down. I. MIRROR CLEANED: Clean mirror and window with soft tiss ue paper. Replace if necessary. CAUTION: Never use sharp edged instruments for shaping leads. (Spring tension should be 8 oz. precession runs will have to be made. This play may easily be checked on end of shaft or between course knobs.) Adjust spring tension by turning spring to new notch ins ide the spring housing. RESTRICTED 4-4-7 . This will prevent warping and binding of the drift knob shaft. If flexible leads are r e-shaped. Then back off onehalf turn and lock. A. CAUTION: Do not use rough cloth or paper as the glass can easily be scratched. Then remove .RESTRICTED H. FLEXIBLE LEADS CHECKED: See that fl ex ible leads on gyro do not contact the case or each other with gyro in any position. Leads are shaped like a question mark. J.001 of an inch at a time to obtain minimum clearance without binding. Then move spring to new notch. Always place more shims between turn worm housing and sight than will be necessary to ob- K. tain clearance. Turn the knob through limits of stabilized gear sector. Inspect cable for frays. MIRROR DRIVE CABLE CHECKED: Test mirror drive cable for proper spring tension. Adjust back lash between turn worm and stabilized gear sector with shims.

Then tighten lock nut. C. 4-4. the dovetail is out of alignm ent with the longit udinal axis of the stabilizer. Check to see that dovetail locking pin is in. D 0 VET A ILL 0 C KIN G PIN CHECKED: Ch eck for security of pin. CROSSHAIR LIGHT: If bulb i s lighted. Correction : Loosen the four screws of the dovetail locki ng bracket a nd t urn bracket in the elongated screw holes until motion of the f or e and aft cross hair stops when trail arm is moved. STABILIZED GEAR SECTOR CHECKED: Check for burrs and r emove them . 2. Tighten set screw. Check: While moving trail arm back and forth through entire range. 3. If it does move. loosen lock nut on drift k nob shaft and turn drift knob until yo u get desired clearance. Set dropping angle index at center of scale. Then clean with carbon tetrachloride. CAUTION: This adjustment is very fin e and when tightening screws do it slowly to make sure the bracket does not move.RESTRICTED Loosen set screw in drift worm housing and rotate housing until there is no binding or excess play. B. and crosshairs are not vis ible. DOVETAIL ALIGNMENT: 1. Drag should be equal on each knob. To adj ust clearance between knobs. Remove burrs from a ll gear teeth before adjusting clearances. 5.8 RESTRICTED . look into telescope and observe fore and aft cr osshair. B. Settings: Set s ight on zero drift. The fore and aft crosshair should not move. move mirror adjusting arm until beam is on crosshairs. Replace if pin has any play. Set sighting angle index on zero.~: A.

RESTRICTED C. With bubbles level and sighting angle index at exactly zero. The fore and aft cross hair should not move. look through telescope into mirror beneath. If it is moving. Check: Observe roller. If you use a bowl of mercury. 3.) If the fore and aft crosshair is off. using the bubbles as reference. Gyro is locked in this position by wooden wedges or clamps. 2. (Before you make this correction. 0 RESTRICTED 4-4. Settings: Set trail arm and sighting angle index at zero. ROLLER ZEROED: 1. remove trail arm pinion and align scribe mark with trail arm set at zero. NOTE: Displacing the roller below the center and bringing it back to center eliminates an error caused by back lash. E. lf this condition does not exist. D. Settings: Set trail arm on zero. You s hould see two images or circles. 2. The cross hairs should split or bisect the rear image . and lock. Remove dovetail locking pin . dropping angle index zero and maximum disc speed. CAUTION: Check to see 20 extended vision is not in the sight when establishing telescope in vertical. Change shims of trail bell crank to correct. Correction: Loosen trail arm clamp screw and turn trail setting gear displacing roller below the center of the disc (the roller should be turning clockwise) and then center roller by turning the trail setting gear until roller stops rotating. TELESCOPE VERTICAL: Establish the vertical gyro in the vertical. 3. when trail arm is at zero. If not. PRESET TRAIL IN CROSSTRAIL MECHANISM: 1. pre-set trail is in the sight. Remove rate end inspection plate. be sure to check the sighting angle ind ex and bubbles for correct positions.9 . Correction: Check to see that the scribe mark on the trail rack is opposite the scribe mark on the trail arm pinion. If it does move. Place precision mirror directly beneath telescope and level with spirit level. the correction is made by loosening the turret head screw on cross trail bell crank and-gently tapping the top of the telescope in the desired direction until fore and aft crosshair is centered. it is not necessary to level it as mercury will seek its true level. Then carefully tighten the turret h ead screw so as not to disturb the setting. If the lateral crosshair is off. it can be corrected by turning the eccentric screw on first sheave. it means that the trail bell crank linl<age from the trail rack to the push rod is out of alignment. it means that pre-set trail is in the crosstrail mechanism. Check: Look into telescope and rotate bottom of dovetail shaft back and forth. Tighten clamp screw and check operation.

CLUTCH DRUMS CLEANED: Remove clutches and clean drums with carbon tetrachloride. Clutch in mirror drive clutch and time the travel of sighting angle index from t he time indices meet until s ighting angle index reaches zero. Use a fast drying crackle finish lacquer on the exterior. If the hair moves forward. CHECK ROLLER SLIPPAGE: Set trail arm on zero.RESTRICTED F. If there is corrosion underneath paint. Take reading several times at different tangent values greater than . etc.3 through the range of the tangent scale.5. check for excessive oil on disc and roller. G. you must move the fore and aft precession weight mounted on the top right hand side of the gyro housing. If it is not equal. which is calibrated in mils. (5. if hair moves to t he rear.as a white powder or paste similar to the substance which is found in a "dead" dry cell battery. but not to exceed 9 mils. scrape and polish that area thoroughly before retouching. If the readings do not coincide. Looking through the telescope. RESTRICTED . Record time with a stop watch. chipping. for precession on East and West headings except that now you will observe the lateral hair and use the lateral weight to counteract precession. To counteract precession to the left. proper spring tension ~nd friction through gear train. Repeat this operation on the opposite heading. This is done to allow the gyro to attain running temperature. E. You may detect corrosion of the magnesium alloy in the sight . Set disc speed of 265 and position dropping angle index at tangent 1. it indicates roller slippage. Easterly precession should be equal on both headings. move the weight forward. Polish the spot with crocus cloth or a hardwood stick and retouch with paint or rub in a small amount of bombsight oil. use leveling knobs to precess crosshairs on to the center of the grid. The operation is the same when checking 4-4-10 A. To counteract precession to the right.300 divided by the disc speed equals ATF) . PRECESSION CHECK: Check flexible leads and let the gyro run for at least 50 minutes before making precession runs. move the weight to the left. OUTER CASE INSPECTED: Check condition of paint as to peeling. The time recorded should equal the actual time of fall in seconds for this disc speed. CAUTION : Always clean external parts of stabilizer before opening the case. Remove it completely by scraping it away from the bare metal. Set zero drift and zero sighting angle and place the sight on a North heading. move weight to the right. If r oller is slipping. After two minutes observe position of fore and aft crosshair and note the amount and direction of precession. you move the weight to the rear. Rub oil into surface and wipe off excess oil with a clean dry cloth.

Scrape lightly between segments with wedgepointed orange stick. B.4 -11 . Guide stick must be cut to fit commutator. 400 alumin um oxide paper. Place cloth between clutch disc and cork. Check terminal screws for tightness. Do not use benzine. Never use a metal instrument as a guide. D. D . COMMUTATORS CLEANED: Use clean white cloth moistened with carbon tetrachloride (not alcohol) over the end of a soft wood stick for cleaning commutator. polish sides with crocus cloth. Oil will cause clutch slippage. BRUSHES CHECKED: Before removing brushes. GEARS CLEANED: Clean clutch drive gears with carbon tetrachloride. smooth with No. and turn the torque motor switch ON. CAUTION: Keep cork facings free of oil. Clean brushes with carbon tetrachloride. Use a strip of No. Keep using new section of cloth until no oil or dirt appears on it. Remove burrs with smooth Arkansas stone and polish with crocus cloth. Check gears for burrs. Brush against commutator must have at least 85 percent contact. bad screw driver slots. Take care to avoid tapering or hollowing commutator. 7~UItit: A. this includes pigtails and flexible leads. If commutator is rough. wedge gyro. Clean brush tubes with carbon tetrachloride. WIRING CHECKED: Check wiring for frayed or burned insulation and faulty terminals.RESTRICTED C. C. stripped threads. Check for proper shaping of all wiring. AUTOPILOT CLUTCH Remove clutch and clean with chloride. E. Rub oil into surface excess oil with dry clean cloth. Mark brushes in such a way so that you can replflce them in the same positions as before. CLEANED: carbon tetraand wipe off CLEANED: carbon tetraand wipe off 7. Make proper repairs and replacements. scribe head of brush plug and measure the amount it extends from the brush tube. 400 aluminum oxide paper over the end of a wedge point to remove wire edges from segments. To correct this. Check sides of brushes for shiny spots. CLUTCHES CLEANED: Clean torque clutches with clean white cloth. Be very careful to hold cloth out of gear teeth and to keep clutch surfaces free of lint. When necessary check wiring throughout with continuity tester. Keep using a clean section of the cloth until cloth comes out clean after being used. Reclean with cloth. RESTRICTED 4. Rub oil into surface excess oil with dry clean cloth. etc. shiny spots indicate that the brushes are sticking. Reclean. BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH Remove clutch and clean with chloride.

Re-clean with cloth. RESTRICTED 4-4-12 . CAUTON: Be sure that no foreign matter drops down into bearing.RESTRICTED F. 400 aluminl. CLAPPER MAGNETS CHECKED: Check operation of clappers through contact brush on isolated sector. Clean slip ring brush surfaces by inserting crocus cloth between slip ring and brush and pulling it through five or six times. Brush against commutator must have at least an 85 percent contact. SLIP RINGS CLEANED: Check for rough spots and faulty insulation between the slip rings.S~('7~): A. Keep using a clean section of the cloth until cloth comes out clean after being used. Mark brushes in such a way that you can replace them in the same position as before. G. Cover bearing with a clean cloth while working on the commutator. 400 aluminum oxide paper over the end of a wedge point to remove wire edges from segments. smooth with No.!m oxide paper. BAYONET SPRINGS Check adjustment of springs cork facing on clutch plate is surface of clutch drive gear magnet is de-energized. Clean brushes with carbon tetrachloride. shiny spots indicate that the brushes are sticking. If commutator is rough. Never use a metal instrument as a guide. Dirt should be removed with carbon tetrachloride. Guide stick must be cut to fit commutator. Scrape lightly between segments with wedgepointed orange stick. Clean rings with dry white cloth. 8. Remove rough spots with No. You make this check by trying to precess the gyro manually while both stabilizer and torque motor switches are on. Check to see that counter-forces applied by torque unit are steady and in the right direction. 400 aluminum oxide paper. ADJUSTED: to insure that not contacting when clapper B. C. Check clapper pins for freedom and security. COMMUTATORS CLEANED: Use clean white cloth moistened with carbon tetrachloride (not alcohol) over the end of a soft wood stick for cleaning commutator. BRUSHES CHECKED: Before removing brushes scribe head of brush plug and measure the amount it extends from the brush tube . Check sides of brushes for shiny spots. Use a strip of No.

Check terminal screw for tightness. This will keep excess oil from the commutator. CONTACT SECTOR CLEANED: Inspect sector for arcing. Remove pits and burns with aluminum oxide paper. D. BEARINGS OILED: Oil rotor bearings with one drop of bombsight oil if necessary. G. Obtain 100 percent contact between flat surface of point and sector. bad screw driver slots. Brush should ride half way up on upper sector when gyro is cold. E. After oiling. Then wipe oil from the commutator. Make proper repairs and replacements . run gyro at Jeast 10 minutes. Lay paper on flat surface and rub the sector across the paper in alignment with the brush movement. and faulty terminals. Check for proper shaping of all wiring. etc.RESTRICTED F . stripped threads. Wash sector with carbon tetrachloride and replace . CONTACT BRUSH: Clean brush surface with the dry white rag. RESTRICTED 4-4-13 . Never wait until bearing becomes dry. WIRING CHECKED: Check wiring for frayed or burned insulation. When necessary check wiring throughout with continuity tester. this includes pigtails and flexible leads. There should be a 1/ 32 of an inch bevel on the top and bottom of the point.

RESTRICTED H. loosen the center screw under the drift gear (through the hole in gear).~: A. The PD r brush should move an equal amount from zero in either direction. Tighten screw. J. 4-4--14 RE STRICTED . E. make the adjustments with the stabilizer and torq ue motor ON. BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH: 18-22 lbs. Attach spring scale to end of bombsight conn ecting r od and pull at 90' to the clutch radius. Attach spring scale to autopilot connecting rod and pull at 90 ' to clutch radius. FLEXIBLE LEADS CHE CKED: Check to see t ha t leads do not touch any part of case or each other when gyro is moved to its limits. Using a spring scale. CLUTCH TENSIONS ADJUSTE D: It is very important to adjust the tensions of the clutches to the proper amounts and at the correct points. Shape as necessary. 9. C. Polish if necessary and clean with carDon tetrachloride. Adjust spring tension with spring screw on clutch collar. Adjust spring tension by rotating turret head screw on clutch collar. PDr BRUSH: Clean contact point and check tension of point on coil. I. PDI COIL CHECKED: Check to see that coil contact surface is smooth. t hen the other. To adjust br ush to this movement. AUTOPILOT CLUTCH: 10-14 lbs. Check autopilot clutch pushed firs t against one stop. Hold autopilot clutch against one stop and move the brush to 5% 0 from zero on that side.

OVERNIGHT STORAGE: OVERNIGHT STORAGE: Observe t he fo llowing precautions to insur e proper handling while you are preparing the bombsight for overnight storage. DRIFT GEAR CLUTCH: 6-S lbs. 3. Turn on torque motor and set PDI at exactly zero. and the telescope cr adle will not hit case. SET STABILIZED GEAR SECTOR ARM UNDER THE SIGHT. This protects electrical circuits from damage. SET DISC SPEED DRUM AT 102. 5. Attach spring scale to stud. S. If precession is counter-clockwise: Remove weight from the brush end of the gyro housing or add weight to t he other end. This relieves tension on clutch springs . 4. 9. PRECESSION: Run stabilizer at least 15 minutes. 1. CAGE THE GYRO. Engage autopilot clutch. The directional gyr o should not precess in 15 minutes. Adjust spring tension by spring screw on collar below drift gear. SET SIGHTING ANGLE INDEX AT 70·. 1. TURN OFF ALL SWITCHES.RESTRICTED E. 2. on drift gear clutch arm and pull at 90 · to clutch r a dius. 7. This r elieves tension on springs in the disc speed drum. KEEP DROPPING ANGLE INDEX OFF ZERO. RESTRICTED 4-4-15 . TURN CROSSHAIR RHEOSTAT FULL LEFT. 6. This prevents damage to' gyr o bearings. 2. Apply the following rules for correcting : D. If precession is clockwise: Add weight to the brush end of the gyro housing or remove weight from t he other end . SET TRAIL ARM AT O. ENGAGE ALL CLUTCHES.

make the following checks before you submit a malfunction report: 1. TELESCOPE OUT OF VERTICAL. VERTICAL GYRO FAILURE . AUTOPILOT CLUTCH STICKING. HOLLER SLIPPING. Check disc speed gear shift for proper position. 4. However. 8. 11. Check fuses that bombardier can replace.I/V"'''' Checks for Determining Molfunction When you have bombing errors or apparent malfunctions. When range errors occur. Check generators for switches ON and voltage output. FORE AND AFT LEVELING KNOB STICKING. IMPROPER LENGTH OF MIRROR DRIVE CABLE. ERRATIC DISC SPEED. VERTICAL GYRO FAILURE. DOVETAIL MISALIGNMENT. RANGE KNOBS FAILURE . look for: PRE-SET TRAIL IN RATE END.) 5. you wo uld also have a deflection error. Make complete preflight inspection of all bombing equipment. Deflection Errors of the vertical. Check all switches and controls for proper position. BOMBSIGHT CLUTCH SLIPPING. TORQUE UNIT FAILURE. LATERAL LEVELING KNOB STICKING. Range Errors Malfunctions in the rate end cause most range errors. Check bombing altitude and true airspeed computations for correctness. COURSE KNOBS STICKING. 7. Check leveling knobs for sticking. RESTRICTED Most deflection errors are caused by malfunctions of the cross trail mechanism or stabilizer unit. ERRATIC PDI SIGNALS. 9.RESTRICTED SfAD{. 10. 3. DRIFT GEAR CLUTCH SLIPPING. DIRECTIONAL GYRO FAILURE. When deflection errors occur. if the telescope is out 4-5-1 . (Proper use of tachometer. Check extended vision knob for proper position. although you are not certain there is a malfunction. 6. Check corrections of bombing tables and target information used. Check correctness of data set in sight. 2. look for: PRE-SET TRAIL IN THE CROSSTRAIL MECHANISM. AUTOMATIC RELEASE MECHANISM FAILURE. Turn switches OFF and ON several times when some unit fails to operate.

Coincidence pointers-Two pointers. used to displace the la teral crosshair without changing range synchronization. Bombsight connecting rod-The link between bombsight clutch and stabilized sector. Autopilot clutch engaging knob-Located on autopilot clutch and is used to engage autopilot clutch to the directional gyro. They are used to set up the course of the airplane. Course knobs-Two knobs located on lower right side of sighthead. Directional gyro-Located inside the stabilizer. Drift gear clutch-Located below the drift gear. used to displace PDI and direct airplane without changing the line of sight. used in checking length of mirror drive cable. Autopilot clutch-Located on the top of the stabilizer. Displacement knob-Located on the rate end. Autopilot connecting rod-It connects the autopilot clutch to the drift gear clutch. Drift worm-Located on sighthead below turn worm and meshed with drift gear. Drift knob-Located on rate end. They indicate the position of the vertical gyro's axis . allowing turns to be made from the bombsight through the directional panel. It is used to select the range of the disc speeds : 102-245 or 245-590. It serves as a reference to synchronize for range: Lateral leveling knobs-Located on left side 4-6-1 . Dropping angle index-Seen through index window on left side of tangent scale. It provides automatic electrical release when the indices match and the release lever is held up. Used for movements of gyro's axis to the front or rear. right forward corner of stabilizer. It completes or breaks the circuit to the sighthead and the vertical gyro. Clevis pin-The pin which fastens bombsight connecting rod to the stabilized sector. Extended vision knob-Located on rate end . It transmits motion from drift worm to drift gear clutch. It transmits stability of the directional gyro to the directional panel. Lateral bubble-Located on the top and rear of vertical gyro housing. Caging knob-Located on top of sighthead case.RESTRICTED • NOMENCLATURE Automatic release mechanism-Located on quadrants in rate end. It is used to measure the sighting angle. Fore and aft bubble-Located on top and left of vertical gyro housing. Transmits motion from drift knob to drift gear. They indicate amount of drift set into bombsight. It increases forward vision 20° in M-7. It controls intensity of t he light on the crosshairs. Drift scale is on stabilizer under pointer.Located on t he lens inside telescope tube . It indicates the tangent of the dropping angle. Lateral crosshair-Located on the lens inside the telescope tube. It indicates lateral position of the axis of vertical gyro. It is used to give the azimuth stabilization of the bombsight and the autopilot.Located on rate end. It is the inner course knob. It lights bubbles for night bombing. Fore and aft crosshair. the other on mirror sector. Drift gear-Located on top. Bombsight clutch-Located on the top of the stabilizer. Bubble light.Located on the top of the vertical gyro housing. Drift pointer and scale--Pointer is located on rear lower part of s ighthead. It transmits stability from the directional gyro to the s ighthead. Fore and aft leveling knob-Located on left side of sighthead. Bubbles.Located at junction of bubble tubes. M-9. RESTRICTED Disc speed gear shift-Located on the rate end. Cross hair rheostat-Located on rear of sighthead case beneath eyepiece. Bombsight switch-Located on right side of stabilizer.Seen through index window in top right side of sighthead case. Degree scale. It indicates the fore and aft position of vertical gyro axis. Transmits motion or stabilization from the stabilizer to t he PDI brush. Dovetail locking pin-The pin which fastens the dovetail shaft to t he dovetail locking bracket on stabilizer. Disc speed drum. It locks the vertical gyro to the case. one on telescope cradle. It serves as a reference to synchronize for course. It is the outer of the range knobs. It determines speed of rate motor by the spring tension holding breaker points.

Rate motor switch. The unit in the bombsight that magn ifies the targ:et image and projects the crosshairs on the mirror. It provides a method of locking the trail into the sight. Stabilizer switch. A projection tube which fits into sight stem sleeve on the stabilizer. Search knob.Located on rate end. Release lever. Trail scale. Stabilized gear sector. RESTRICTED . Used fo r movements of gyro's axis to the left and right. It keeps spin axis of directional gyro horizontal in relation to stabil izer case.Located on pilot's instrument panel.RESTRicteD of sighthead.Located on rear of sighthead.Located on top of stabilizer. It is used to measure the dropping angle. Trail arm clamp screw. It provides a method of putting desired trail into the bombsight. Torque unit. It indicates the sighting angle in degrees. Sighthead. Torque motor switch (SERVO) . It engages the mirror drive by locking the lower traction gear.Located in center of displacement knob . PDI switch. Switch for PDI circuit to pilot's PDI.Located on the bottom or" the sighthead. Trail arm pinion. Rate end. Brush moving over coil sends a signal to pilot's PDI. Trail bell crank-Located on front of sighthead . It solves the range problem by determining groundspeed and dropping angle.Located on rate end. Sight stem. Sight stem sleeve-Located on the front of the stabilizer. Vertical gyro-Located inside left end of sighthead. It completes the circuit to rate motor. Tachometer adapter. It turns sighthead around stabilizer gear sector.Located on the underside of the sighthead . This sets in potential crosstrail.Two knobs located on the rate end . It permits automatic release points to ~lose and complete bomb release circuit.It is marked on the trail plate in mils to allow the proper trail setting·.Located on right rear of sighthead. They are used to determine and set up the dropping angle (range) at which the bomb is released .Located on the lower part of the rate end. It is connected to a shaft running from disc. It is used to determine the speed of closure and set up the dropping angle. Transmits motion from trail arm pinion to trail bell crank. It stabilizes the optics in pitch and roll and solves the range problem. A tachometer can be fit into adapter to read the disc speed in rpm.Located on the right side of the stabilizer. Range knobs.Seen thro ugh index window on right side of degree scale. It is the outer course knob. Rate knob-The inner of the two range knobs . It is used to rotate the disc. 4-6-2 Stabilizer. Brush is attached to drift gear clutch collar and moves over coil. An electrical meter that indicates to the pilot the direction to correct the airplane's fl ight. Allows you to make rapid displacement of the lateral crosshair. Turn knob.Located on right side of sighthead. Completes or breaks the circuit to stabilizer and directional gyro. Turn worm-It is mounted on the t.Located on the right side of stabilizer. Trail rack. Pilot director indicator (PDI) . PDI brush and coil. Mirror drive clutch.Located on trail plate .Located on top and at the pivot point of. Rate motor-Located inside rate end of sighthead. Stabilizes optics in pitch and roll. It transmits motion from the trail arm to trail rack. It transmits stability from stabilized gear sector to sighthead .Located inside front of stabilizer.Lower units of bombsight assembly.Located on the end of the trail arm. It aids in transmitting stability to the sighthead and positioning the sighthead in azimuth .Located on rear of stabilizer.urn knob shaft and meshed with the stabilized gear sector. Tangent scale-Seen through index window on top right side of sighthead case.The upper unit of the bombsight assembly. It stabilizes sighthead in azimuth . It is the bracket in which the sighthead is mounted. It transmits motion from trail rack to push rod. changing the line of sight and displacing PDr. Sighting angle index. It completes or breaks the circuit to the torque unit. Trail arm and trail plate-Located on top of rate end. Telescope-Located inside the sighthead on the telescope cradle. trail arm.

The trainer target is attached to the "bug. It has two purposes: to help you learn how to operate the sight and to help you learn the procedure you will use in the air. The trainer consists of two platf orms mounted in a framework that rolls on three wheels. Your "hits" with the sight are mar ked on the target by a marker solenoid wh ich is mounted on a metal plate connected to the trainer between the two front wheels. . The A-2 also can be equi pped with the C-l autopilot. the trainer simulates the principal feat ures of an actual bombing mission. and t h e lower to simulate fixed-angle bombing missions. The driver controls the direction of the trainer through signals from the bombardier.. Used inside the hangar.. SECTION 5 . There are seats for the bombardier. electrically driven..RESTRICTED ~-----------------------------------------------------------. 5-1-1 . The bug. You use the upper platform for synchronous bombing. which makes it unnecessary to have a driver. which makes it unnecessary to push the trainer RESTRICTED backward after each run. TRAINER THEORY You will make your first practice runs with the M-Series bombsight on the A -2 bombing trainer. These signals are registered on a standard PDI (pilot director indicat or). driver and instructor. and can be positioned to move in any direction.. moves at a constant speed. Newer types have a reversible motor. An electric motor drives the trainer ." a box-like device rolling on three wheels.

in the sight. 5-1-2 RESTRICTED . on the ground if you a ctually had been bombing from that a ltitude (10 X 10 = 100). The error would s imulate an error of 50 ft.000 ft. This distance is 10 feet or 120 inches. a mil on the trainer target is 0. on the ground (5 X 10 = 50) . to the top of the bug. and t he impact of the plunger was 1.. This would be an error of 100 ft. by use of a clock which energizes the marker solenoid ATF seconds after bomb release. You set A TF in seconds on t he clock and the corresponding disc speed into the sight.000 ft. To find the error on the ground in feet from your trainer error in inches. When ATF has "run out" the clock sends the signal on to energize the marker solenoid. and the plu nger fell at the same point--1. marking the trainer target to simulate a bomb impact. If you were s imulating a bombing a ltitude of 10.12-the value of one mi l on the trainer-to find your mi l error.) .000 of 120 in. t he s ight's automatic release system sends an electric signal to start the clock running.RESTRICTED BOMBING ALTITUDE Bombing altitude f rom the upper platform is considered to be t he distance f ro m t he center of the optics.000 of the bombing a ltitude. You can see that since a mil is 1/ 1. It plunges downward. you would have a 10 mil error. Multiply that by 1/ 1. do this: Divide your error in inches by . 10.000 fEET? t ACTUAL TIME OF FALL You sim ulate the time that it would take the bomb to fall from your s imulated bombing a ltitude (ATF) on the trainer. 5300 Disc speed = ATF When the sighting angle index meets the dropping angle index and the release lever is up.2 inches from the center of the target.000 of the s imulated bombing altitude. But s uppose you were simulating a bombing altit ude of 5.12 inch (1 / 1.2 inches from the center of the target.

That is: Simulated Wind Speed Bug Speed Equals " Simulated Bombing Altitude Tra iner Heigh t I I I \ '\ I GROUNDSPEED AND SPEED OF CLOSURE Groundspeed and true airspeed are identical when yo u make a run on " stationary bug. RESTRICTED 5-1-3 . You may think of the moving bug as r ejlr esenting a wind or a moving target. This simulated true airspeed bears the sam e r elationship to the actual speed of the trainer as t he Simulated bombing altitude does to the actual height of the trainer. Thus if the bug is moving toward the east. The simulated wind speed bears the same relation to actual speed of the bug as the simulated bombing altitude does to the actual height of the trainer. Trainer Height WIND Wind direction and speed are simulated by the direction a nd speed at which the bug moves across the hangar floor. The direct ion toward which the bug moves simulates t he direction f rom wh ich the wind is blowing. That is: Simulated TAS Trainer Speed Equals Simulated Bombing Altitude . it simulates a wind blowing from the east. The speed at which t he distance between the trainer and the bug is covered or closed is called the speed of closure. Then the speed of closure r epr esents groundspeed. Ordinarily you think of the moving bug as r epr esenting wind.RESTRICTED TRUE AIRSPEED True airspeed is simulated by the speed at which t he trainer moves across the hangar floor.

RE ST RICTE D .RESTRICTED DRIFT When the bug is moving-but not directly toward or directly away from the trainerdrift is simulated. This is not done to simulate crosstrail. The marker solenoid arm is moved to a position matching the direction and amount of drift set on the sight. the target moves in the same direction from west to east across the field of vision in the optics of the sight. Of course. The metal arm which holds the marker solenoid is pivoted so that it can be moved either to the right or left on its drift scale. This is necessary because when you put drift into the sighthead the optics move in an arc around the pivot point-the sight stem-and change their position in relation to the marker Solenoid. On the trainer. TRAIL SIMULATED TRAI L ON TRAINER ACTUAL TRAIL IN AIR You can also simulate trail on the trainer. a bug moving from west to east appears the same as if you were in an airplane drifting west through the air because of a wind blowing from the east. In both cases. You do this to keep the solenoid either directly under the center of the optics. traii is simulated by moving the marker solenoid plate holding the marker solenoid trail distance toward the 5-1-4 rear of the trainer. Seen through the optics. There is a trail scale on the marker solenoid plate and you can set in up to 60 mils of trail. trail causes the bomb to hit behind the airplane. In the air. or directly behind it if trail is being used. you set the same trail in the sight that you set on the marker solenoid plate. Remember that the direction the bug moves simulates the direction from which the wind is blowing.

it automatically sets up crosstrail. At the moment of impact. thus causing the trainer to be steered cross trail distance upwind. and you do not have to worry about it. crosstrail is automatically simulated on the trainer.RESTRICTED SETTING TRAIL CROSSTRAIL When trail and drift are set into the sight. RESTRICTED 5-1-5 . the solenoid will be crosstrail distance downwind and trail distance behind the optics. Thus. The optics are tilted.

Turn ON and preflight the bombsight. Re-check the previous setting. When you t urn on the generator. particularly the gyro level. which supplies current to the sight." Then the disc speed. Roll the trainer up to the bug. 6.RESTRICTED Before you turn on the generator. Set zero drift on the sight and engage the bombsight clutch. it is necessary to check it closely. Set the marker solenoid arm pointer to zero drift on the marker solenoid plate. since the action of the marker solenoid simulates the bomb impact. 2. There are two convenient methods which are also used in the air. SETTING ACTUAL TIME OF FALL When you do synchronous bombing on the trainer you must choose a "bombing altitude. Engage the mirror drive clutch and set the sighting angle index at zero degrees. is set into the sight on the disc speed drum. 5. which corresponds to the ATF. Since the disc speed should be accurate within a fraction of an rpm. TO ZERO THE TRAINER 1." You then look up the ATF and the corresponding disc speed for this bombing altitude in your bombing tables. This is known as zeroing the trainer. You do this to eliminate any error that might result from an uneven hangar floor. 5-1-6 RESTRICTED . 4. Look through the optics and direct someone to move the marker solenoid plate until the center of the marker solenoid is directly under the crosshairs. Uncage and level the gyro. to be sure they are correct. so the clock will cause the marker solenoid to be energized just ATF seconds after "b" omb away'. set the voltage regulators for the proper voltage. 3. first find out whether the sight uses 12 or 24 volts. The A TF is set into the clock on the trainer. You want the marker solenoid to be directly under the crosshairs when the sight's optical system is in the vertical.

reduce your rpm. Watch the drive of the sighting angle index. When using the tachometer. the disc speed for 4. if the reading is too small. TRAINER METHOD On the bombing trainer you can check the disc speed against ATF as measured by the clock.RESTRICTED TACHOMETER METHOD Engage the tachometer in the tachometer adapter located on the right rear of the sight head. Also. it means that your disc speed does not agree with your ATF (clock) setting. Set dropping angle index at a large tangent value. Adjust the disc speed drum as necessary. Since the ATF (clock) setting simulates the bombing altitude of your airplane. agree with your bombing altitude (clock setting) . 5-1-7 . 4.28 sec. If the disc speed is correct.. 5. Set zero trail into the sight. This time should equal the ATF as shown by your . which will zero the needle. If the marker solenoid drops before or after the sighting angle index reaches zero. if your assumed bombing altitude is 4. 2. you change the disc speed settings on the sight to. The marker solenoid should drop the moment the sighting angle index reaches 0 (zero).5. Then release to begin the check. Set (ATF) 16. At the stopping point take your reading. For example. Never touch the lever until the needle stops moving. Try two or three tachometer readings on your final disc speed setting. Then time the travel of the sighting angle index from coincidence with the dropping angle index to 0 (zero). on the disc speed drum. Set 325. RESTRICTED 6. press the lever only once. hold it firmly in the adapter but do not exert a pressure for this can slow down the speed of the disc.000 ft. you will: 1.000 ft. the sighting angle index will drive from coincidence with the dropping angle index to zero during ATF. Position sighting angle index at a larger tangent value. If the stop watch reading exceeds the ATF. increase your rpm. STOP WATCH METHOD Set zero trail and a large dropping angle in the sight. A preliminary cITeck of disc speed with tachometer or stop watch can be made at this point. That is.bombing tables. Turn rate motor switch ON. into the trainer clock. 7.. if the gyro is level. the correction should be made in the disc speed. To start the tachometer. the crosshairs should intersect the top of the marker solenoid the moment it drops. 3. hold up release lever and engage mirror drive clutch. Do not remove tachometer from the adapter between readings.

Be careful not to over-correct at the end of the run.r students while they are using the sight. If the PDI needle goes off center. 5-1-8 RESTRICTED . and will thus give you the correct point of impact." you must also set the correct trail in your bombsight. Note that the marker solenoid plate scale may not indicate zero after the trainer is zeroed . Since you have now arranged your trainer so your bomb will hit trail distance behind your "airplane. Follow the PDI until the marker solenoid drops. Gauge the distance by the scale on the solenoid plate.RESTRICTED SETTING TRAIL On the trainer you simulate trail by causing the marker solenoid to strike trail distance to the rear of the bombsight optics. To set trail on the trainer. Continue this smooth movement until the needle stops and starts back to the zero position. At the beginning of the run you usually need larger corrections and as you near the release point corrections should be smaller. you will have to drive for oth". you first zero the trainer in the usual manner. Much of the efficiency and accuracy of the man on the sight depends on the way you follow the PDI. The resulting smaller dropping angle will cause the bombsight to delay release (delay starting the clock) a little longer. you set in the desired trail by moving the mar ker solenoid plate trail distance to the rear from its zeroed position. which themselves simulate the position of the airplane. Then smoothly return the wheel toward center so that the trainer will resume a straight course when the PDI needle reaches center. Next. You drive the trainer with a steering wheel which is connected by cables to the rear wheel of the trainer. turn the wheel quickly but smoothly in the direction the PDI is off center. DRIVING THE TRAINER If the trainers are not equipped with the C-l a utopilot.

learn the location of each knob and switch. switches. 2. What is the purpose of the trainer? dock on the it ! RESTRICTE D 5-2-1 . trainer. Develop "knob touch. How the trainer simulates the bombing problem. 3. " What are the steps for turning on the gen erator? Be sure you set in the proper voltage for the sigh t that is on your trainer. 4. What is the purpose of the disc speed gear shift? Handle all equipment with care. and flying. 2. purpose. Good trainer procedure now will mean better bombing later. Your job will be to coordinate the lessons of ground school.. How is groundspeed simulated by the trainer? on how wel l you know them. and location of knobs. How to operate trainer. The name. Your first hour on the trainer is introductory . You will learn these things: 1. Your instructor will teach you trainer technique and procedure step by step. 3. and other parts of the bombsight.RESTRICTED v I Your work on the trainer is important. Here you learn to synchronize and use virtually the same procedure that you will practice later in actual air work. The relation of the sight to the solving of the bombing problem. Do not misuse 4. Your ease and accuracy in using them depends 1.

f you put in corrections foster than the driver can take them out? 2. you will take course runs on a moving bug. which direction do you turn the course knobs? 3. . 1. Use the turn knob to put the fore and oft crasshair back on the target. Make all your course corrections smooth! Do not put in course corrections faster than the driver can take them out. As you progress. Hold the POlan center with the autopilot clutch before engaging the bombsight clutch. Learn to establish course quickly and accurately. You must zero the trainer before you start any runs. 5-2-2 RESTRICTED . I I . I I • • • I I . Your instructor will help you do this the first time. Learn how to zero the trainer now. but after that you are on your own.RESTRICTED COURSE Your first trainer runs for course corrections are made on a stationary target. What is an over-correction? How con you prevent an over-correction? If the fore and aft crosshair is moving off toward your left. Master the technique of making smooth course corrections. What happens i. • ~ Double grip the course knobs to kill drift.

This will help you to refine your corrections. pre-set approximate drop- ." Make your corrections smoothly. What is meant by saying your rate syn chronization is "slow" or "fast?" 3. after you learn the basic technique of setting up rate. Why must you engage the mirror drive clutch before you can move the lateral hair with the displacement knob? 2. and the automatic release points. you discover that the rate knobs are fast-correcting knobs. Turn the rate knob to stop apparent motion of the lateral crosshair. Why is rote important? ping angle. However. You must develop "knob touch. Remember the rate knob positions three things: the roller. Use the displacement knob to put it back on the target. RESTRICTED 5-2-3 .RESTRICTED RATE Your first runs for rate are made on a still bug or a slow moving target which rides on a tape machine. the dropping angle index. When possible. Think about what is happening in the sight. Know the purpose of each motion you make and how it helps to solve the bombing problem.. After a few runs on rate. Don't twirl or peck at the rate knob. you will make runs on a moving bug or a faster moving tape.

Stort to work as soon as the trainer starts 1. During this part of the trainer program. In making corrections. Everything you learn later is for the one purpose of helping you solve for course and rate in the quickest and best way. 5-2-4 RESTRICTED . Don't waste time while preparing to make a run. Good synchronization is the key to every good bombing run. You begin to make runs with the vertical gyro un caged. 2. other steps are added to your procedure. you leave it caged when you zero the trainer. Your instructor shows you how and when to level the bubbles.RESTRICTED COURSE AND RATE COMBINED Now you will combine course. Why must the autopilot clutch be disengaged? At what time in the bombing run do you turn the rate motor switch ON? • COURSE AND RATE WITH GYRO UNCAGED As your ability to synchronize improves. and the release lever. 3. then rote. Why is it impossible to set up rate before course? and work the full length of the run. your instructor will have you use a larger ATF and a moving bug. As you improve. don't jump back and forth between course and rate. Get course first. learn to refire your synchronization toward the end of the run. Eyery second counts. Why must you engage the bombsight dutch before making course correction? Always kill course before rate. to see just how accurate your first synchronous bombing runs are. therefore. rate. the sight's vertical gyro is caged. Your first runs are on a stationary bug with a small ATF set into the sight and trainer clock.

Why mu st the g yro be un cag ed and level before yo u can bomb accurately? 2. 1. Whatever the method is. you must learn interphone procedure. For the same reason. agree on the signals before yo u take off. use some other means for signals. W hy is levelin g more important at higher altitudes? Don'f "chose" the bubbles. twist. where will the bomb impact be ? 4. it will be much easier when you start your actual air work . RESTRICTED 5-2-5 . call "Bomb away!" on the trainer whe!. If your trainer lacks an inter phone system. Look at your POI befo re leveling. INTERPHONE PROCEDURE Because there must be some system of communication between you and your pilot. This can be done either by talking over the microphone or clicking it. If the lat eral bubbl e is off to the right. There's an excellent reason for th is. If you learn to do this on the trainer. be sure to zero the trainer with the gyro uncaged and level. Toke yo ur time and leve l them prop erly. you hear t he automatic r elease. It ass ures the pilot t hat you understand . always use the turn and dis place ment knobs to put the crosshoirs back on the target.RESTRICTED When using the sight with the gyro uncaged . Why mu st the PDI be on center before level ing th e g yro? 3. Don 't turn . After leveling. Never take a level if the POI is off center. or sc rew the leveling knobs! Push them in and apply torque in the dire ction you want the bubble to move .

Otherwise. How do you control the brightness of the crosshoirs? tion. at night you do not have the ground check points to aid you in picking up the target. Remember. Swing the sight on the target carefully. night bombing procedure is the same as day bombing. Check this on the preflight inspec~ 1. you have to use the crosshair lights in the sight.RESTRICTED NIGHT BOMBING Before you fly any night missions. The bug is lighted to simulate a night target. A rheostat on the s igh t controls the brightness of the crosshair lights. 5-2-6 RESTRICTED . Be sure that your fore and aft crosshair passes through the target. you will do some night practice on the trainer. With t he hangar lights out. Why are the crosshairs lighted for night bombing? 2. Always check to make sure the crosshair light is ON .

RESTRICTED SIMULATED MISSION ON THE TRAINER Your instructor will give you the figures you need to compute your bombing altitude on a sim ulated mission. You often will hear your instructor insist that yo ur technique be "smooth. This will give you a thorough understanding of it by the time you start your actual flying. if you do synchronous problem. The best and quickest way to get all your data down on paper is to use the 12-C form. You w ill learn the proper use of the extended vision knob on the trainer. RESTRICTED 5-2-7 . learn to fill it out quickly." He wants to impress you with the necessity of being smooth and definite in every movement and operation. How will filling out the 12·( form on the trainer help you when you start flying? 3. Know yo ur 12·( form. You will then set the proper data in the bombsight and the trainer to correspond to the simulated bombing altitude and true airspeed. What factors do you need to compute your bombing altitude? 2. so you con spend most of the time on the ground in analyzing the missi on with your instructor. Don't do this mechen. bombing with 20° extended vision locked in? Understand extended vision and its proper use. Practice in recording and using the data in this way will make it second nature to you by the time you're ready to start flying. learn to compute your bombing altitude quickly and accurately. col ly.. Know the factors that enter into the 1. Practice rolling in extended vision and locking it. V<hat error results.

6. 3. After Marker Hits Target 1. Turn rate motor switch ON. Pilot signals on course and level. 2. Be sure to look through the optics and check 5-2-8 RESTRICTED . Analyze run. 5. Center bombsight connecting rod. 4. Uncoge gyro in order to level it. Turn desired rack s witch ON. 2. 5. 4. 3. 3. 1. 6. Zero or pre·set. E ngage bombsight clutch and disengage autopilot clutch. 9. Signal pilot. Prepare for next run while trainer is being returned to starting position. Swing sight on target. Set up course. In swinging on. Set up rate. Roll sighting angle index back to 70° and engage mirror drive clutch. Place bomb release handle to select. Hold up release lever. drift angle. Engage autopilot clutch and disengage bombsight clutch. gyro. what is the first thing you should do? Why should you turn the rate motor switch OFF before the sighting angle index reaches zero? 2. 3. Center PDI (if using manual pilot). 10. 5. 4. 6. The Tra iner Run 2. Preparat ion 1. This trans- synchronization after each release. Check position of bubbles and cage Analyze bomb release (call shot) . 12. Practice doing this \quickly and accurately. He will continue to follow the POI until the marker hits. 1. Refine course and rate. 3.RESTRICTED TRAINER PROCEDURE Now. Signal pilot when the bomb is away. 7. Turn rack switch OFF. (Coli shoLl After checking synchronization. Then look through the optics immediately and put fore and aft cross hair on the center of torget. when you combine all the steps you have learned. 8. hold course knobs with right hand and align sight with the torget by sighting along the trail rock. Watch for bomb impact. 11. Signal pilot when bomb is away. be sure to turn rote motor switch OFF before the sighting angle index reaches zero. Put release lever down. Call out drift. 7. 13. Engage bombsight clutch and disengage autopilot clutch with one movement. Turn rate motor switch OFF. if necessary. These are the steps: 8. After Release 1. Level gyro. Pre·set dropping angle. Uncage gyro. Why must you disengage the autopilot clutch in order to make course corrections? If you lose the target from the field of vision in the optics. 2. you have the same basic procedure that you will use later in the air. Check synchronization. fers stability to the sightheod and allows your bombsight to send corrections to the POI.

Underlying all effective evasive action. is a good deal of pre-planning and foresight. merely by recognizing the cause of the failure and making the necessary compensations.RESTRICTED • RESTRICTED You make your first simulated combat runs on the trainer and learn how to make a short approach with the aid of pre-set data. You must make your plans ahead of time. On the trainer you learn the basic principles of evasive action. of course. you must remember. you can use either the automatic bombing computer or the E-6B. Another technique you learn is how you can bomb accurately with a defective sight. The objective of such action.31 . is to out-maneuver anti-aircraft fire. . In presetting the data. 5.

the tangent scale for the simulated bombing altitude (disc speed) and trail set into the sight.RESTRICTED USE OF THE ABC COMPUTER ON THE TRAINER Ze . Tangent Scale Attach. 5-3-2 RESTRICTED . Loosen all four locks on the AB computer. on the groundspeed bar of the AB computer.. oed Make certain that the AB computer has been properly installed on the stabilizer and has been zeroed so that the wind arrow is pointing at the lubber line when the drift pointer is at zero.

88 In the above equation. trainer height means the distance from the top of the bug to the center of the bombsight optics. 2. The center of the optics is usually 10% inches above the top of the mount. the height should be measured. Multiply the trainer speed in ft /min. to mph by dividing by 88. as you would in an airplane. This division shows how much distance is simulated by each foot the trainer moves. The following equation summarizes these steps : SIMULATED TRUE AIRSPEED IN MPH - SIMULATED BOMBING ALTITUDE TRAINER HEIGHT IN FEET x TRAINER SPEED IN FT I MIN. when it is on the lower mount. Convert this simulated true airspeed in it/ min.280) by the number of minutes in an hour (60). 3. as in fixed-angle bombing. 4.RESTRICTED True Airspeed Set the true airspeed simulated by the trainer on the true airspeed scale and lock. You can find the true airspeed your trainer simulates by the following method: 1. Eightyeight is the number you get when you divide the number of feet in a mile (5. Trainer speed simulates true a irspeed. Obviously. and 2V2 ft. you cannot compute true airspeed from instrument readings at flight level. the trainer travels. by the distance simulated by each foot the trainer moves. Do this by timing the trainer with a stop watch over a distance measured on the hangar floor. 5-3-3 RESTRICTED . Determine how many ft/min. This height is approximately 10 ft. When great accuracy is desired. to determine the simulated true airspeed in ft/min. Divide the simulated bombing altitude by the actual trainer height above the target. when the bombsight is on the upper mount.

. . -:t----\--./ f-i. -I-:-'- :::.~ 5-3.: :.'- y< . rir.i-t+ 'I [+:' . .. ~./ . / . ..·. ... : .I [tr/ -1.RESTRICTED .." E 6 4 'I Hlh 2 o. .. W~ . r. I 'i+:- : 8 .: 16 f-'- t: Ii I.." " . L 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 !O SIMULATED TRUE AIRSPEED in mph RESTRIC TED . .4 .

' -...loted BA = 14....~...000 ft.RESTRICTED t t. I -" ----I EXAMPLE: r--- 18 GIVEN : FIND :j Train er ' peed = 19 ft/min . STr..-+I-rl = 302 mph t' J----" 16 r--+-'-HII 14 2 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 o 320 340 360 SIMULATED TRUE AIRSPEED in mph RESTRICTED 5.c.-41 ~ --+-. ..".... "± ].3-5 .+. Simulated TAS -----:·f./ ....+-"7 ~ v' '-t ~_ 22 :t + 4:.

MAGNETIC HEADING Set magnetic heading of the trainer on compass rose under lubber line. If there is no com5-3-6 pass on the trainer.RESTRICTED True Airspeed (Cont. if one is mounted on the trainer. You can find the magnetic heading of the trainer from a compass. find the heading from the compass rose laid out on the hangar floor. RESTRICTED . You can find groundspeed and true airspeed by substituting the tangent of the whole range angle found on this run in the groundspeed equation: GS = DS X Simulated BA X 7773 (Tan WR L) This equation is worked out for you on the tangent scale of the AB computer.) You can also find simulated true airspeed by making a synchronous run on a stationary bug. you can readily find the true airspeed on the groundspeed scale opposite the tangent of the dropping angle on the AB computer. and lock compass rose lock. Therefore. On the trainer. Align the rear wheel and marker solenoid of the trainer on one of the lines radiating from the center of the compass rose. with a stationary bug (no wind conditions) the true airspeed equals groundspeed.

RESTRICTED RESTRICTED 5-3-7 .

If the bug moves toward the east. Lock the wind gear lock and the wind speed lock. Trainer Height in Feet 88 5-3-8 RESTRICTED . substitute the bug speed in ft/min. The magnetic direction and speed of the wind are now set on the ABC. Set magnetic heading on the compass rose at lubber line and lock. Use the magnetic heading of the trainer found at the end of the synchronous run. Simulated Bombing Altitude X Bug Speed in Ft/Min. Note the direction in which the bug moves across the hangar floor.RESTRICTED WIND Set the magnetic direction of the wind on the wind gear and the speed of the wind on the wind speed scale. Set drift pointer at drift angle determined from sight. Turn the wind arrow to the approximate direction of the wind. Simulated Wind Speed in mph = You can also solve for the wind direction and speed on the AB computer. To do this. for the trainer speed. Lock the wind speed lock and the wind gear lock. the wind is from the east. The wind speed simulated by a moving bug can be found from the chart or calculated by the same method that you use to compute simulated true airspeed. by using the drift and dropping angle found in making a synchronous run on the moving bug. The direction in which the bug moves simulates a wind moving in the opposite direction. Be sure the simulated true airspeed is set on the true airspeed scale and locked. Hold drift pointer in th'is position and rotate wind gear to position groundspeed indicator at the tangent of the dropping angle determined from the sight. The bug speed simulates a wind speed. Thus.

5. the AB computer will not indicate the correct drift and dropping angle for the magnetic heading of the trainer. The direction of the bug's movement must remain constant.RESTRICTED DRIFTS AND DROPPING ANGLES You can now find the drift and dropping angle from the AB computer for any magnetic heading of the trainer. Be sure to set the magnetic heading RESTRICTED of the trainer on the compass rose under the lubber line at the start of each run. If the magnetic heading indicated on the compass rose of the AB computer is not the same as the magnetic heading of the trainer.3-9 . as it is simulating a definite wind from one direction only. That is. the bug must be re-positioned at the same starting place and move in the same direction to simulate a constant wind direction and speed. and lock the compass rose lock.

You can find simulated true airspeed by timing the trainer with a stop watch over a distance measured on the hangar floor and using the chart or equation. Set the intersection of the drift lines below the grommet on the center line of the chart. or magnetic direction at the magnetic index. Measure wind speed from grommet down center line of chart to point of wind arrow. Trace on the computer the drift from the second drift run.3-10 Find the second drift reading by making a drift run on the bug while it is moving in the same direction.RESTRICTED USE OF THE E-6B COMPUTER ON THE TRAINER I I I I I I I I I You can use the E-6B and the AB computer interchangeably on any bombing mission. Use the magnetic heading of the trainer after course is killed. You will find it much easier to solve a double drift solution for fixed-angle bombing by use of the E-6B computer. Draw wind arrow from grommet to intersection of drift lines. You can practice double drift solutions on the bombing trainer by using the same compass rose laid out on the hangar floor for practice in use of the AB computer. after course is killed. Find the true direction of the wind at true index. The direction of the bug movement must remain the same throughout the problem because it is simulating a definite wind direction. but with the magnetic heading of the trainer changed about 60 · to 90 · from the first run. Set the magnetic heading of the trainer at the magnetic index of the computer. Trace on the computer the drift from the first drift run. RESTRICTED . Set the second magnetic heading of the trainer. You can also set the wind on the AB computer to solve the drift and dropping angle for any magnetic heading of the trainer. The drift and groundspeed (dropping angle) can now be found from the E-6B computer for any magnetic heading of the trainer. Set this true airspeed under the grommet of the E-6B. Find the first drift by making a drift run on the bug while it is moving on a straight course in any direction. at the magnetic index of the computer. 5.

. so you have only to refine rate synchronization. the sighting angle to start the run equals the tangent of the dropping angle plus tangent of whole range angle times length of run desired divided by the ATF. Decide time and starting point of run. For example. You locate the starting point by reference to the dropping angle. refine the 20 SEC. drift. This is the basis of a tactical bombing approach. the importance of accuracy. You must start your bombing run far enough back from the release point to allow yourself time to level the bubbles. by trial and error timing of the sighting angle index. You can arrive at this point with the trainer crabbed upwind the proper drift correction and with the dropping angle pre-set. You can estimate the time by counting. which you often will be able to do. run when you are at 17. considering BA. You cannot change the trainer's altitude. . Knowing the wind. if you desire a 30 sec. you can plan evasive action to the point where the bombing run should start. from the initial point to the point at which you start your .. run. The time of the run should be as short as possible to do the job well. .l_~ POINT OF RELEASE LEVEL OFF POSITION + That is. Use the compass rose on the AB computer to measure the heading change. or by doing fast calculations in your head. you can pre-set drift and dropping angle. but you should practice changing its heading from 5° to 15° every 10 to 20 secs. which will give you the drift and dropping angle on any heading. You should employ evasive action during your bombing approach. using this equation: . etc. you can double the tangent of the dropping angle to find the tangent of the sighting angle at which you start your run. the effectiveness of the anti-aircraft fire.!.RESTRICTED SHORT RUNS WITH EVASION ACTION On the trainer you can simulate the principles of evasive action. and dropping angle. ./ START 5-3-11 . using the AB computer. You will use the E-6B or the AB computer to find the wind. • • • --./. · . course and rate. RESTRICTED # # . You can also find the sighting angle at which you start your bombing run by a simple computer. where ATF is 35 sec. (Tan WR L X time ofrun) Tan slghtmg angle = Tan drop L ATF '<2 T • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • :1'. compute the length of your run and.000 ft. and release the bomb at the proper moment.

Preset this pre-determined dropping angle in the sight. You can solve the range problem as usual.000 ft . Preset your drift angle in the sight and direct your pilot over the target. you solve for a groundspeed by taking a double drift. You can do this by directing your pilot over the interphone or displacing the PDr with your hand. but presetting the dropping angle will enable you to spend most of your time directing the pilot for course. RATE MOTOR INOPERATIVE Solve for your drift by taking a double drift.000 or 6. When the lateral crosshair approaches the · target. If you solve for the proper dropping angle. using the sight as a drift meter. The only difference is that you do the same work manually that the rate motor does mechanically. Otherwise. But the errors will increase as your bombing altitude increases. by the double drift solution. From this you can find the dropping angle in your bombing tables. FAILURE IN DIRECTIONAL GYRO OR TORQUE MOTOR First. 5-3-12 RESTRICTED . if you make the necessary compensations to limit your errors . the bombing procedure is the same a~ usual. turn the displacement knob to keep the crosshair on the target. your error will be small..RESTRICTED A defective sight should not seriously affect your bombing accuracy at bombing altitudes up to 5.

narrow targets such as ships and bridges. You must make three settings on the intervalometer: the number of bombs. a clock-like mechanism which is connected to the bombRESTRICTED sight . the first bomb must hit h alf the t rain-length short of the target. If the stop watch r eading is too small. Determine the actual time of fall to be used for your bombing altitude and true airspeed. The intervalometer is energized by the bomb r elease signal from the bombsight. you space the bombs close enough together to insure destruction of any bracket ed obj ective. you can set up disc speeq with a stop watch. While adj usting the stabilizer mount. In using this method. SETTING UP ATF WITH STOP WATCH With the tachometer inoperative. 5-3-13 . Before you go "on course. Train bombing is very effective against long. In r eleasing a train of bombs. To set a disc speed in the sight with a stop watch. time the travel of the sighting angle index from the instant it is opposite the dropping angle index to the instant it is opposite zero sighting angle. you must also turn the train selector switch to the "train" position. TACHOMETER INOPERATIVE. To do this. and the groundspeed. If the stop watch reading is too much. Set disc speed drum at approximate disc speed. AND THE USE OF THE INTERVALOMETER Train bombing means the dropping of a row of bombs at regular intervals across the target. and in turn operates the bomb release stations to release bombs at regular intervals. With the stop watch. also notice the position of the lateral bubble. The even s pacing of the bombs in train bombing is controlled by an instrument known as the intervalometer. If the lateral bubble is off center. you must remove all trail from the sight. and in formation Hplowing" of enemy airfields and other area targets. This length of time should be the same as the actual time of fall of the bomb. you want the center of the train to hit the center of the target. You can find the actual time of fall for your bomb from the bombing tables. decrease the rpm on the disc speed drum. the interval in feet . increase the rpm to get the desired actual time of fa ll r eading.RESTRICTED FAILURE OF SIGHT GYRO If your sight gyro loses its stabilization you must make your bombing run with the gyro caged. offset the aiming point in the opposite direction to compensate for the error caused by the gyro's being out of the vertical." have the pilot level the airplane and adj ust the stabilizer mount so the fore and aft bubble is level. To turn ON the intervalometer.

2 2. The decrease in disc speed depends on the groundspeed. Approximate Number of Mils Impact Point is Changed if Disc Speed is Changed 1 rpm.) lJI' short Bombing Altitude lJI'short 5-3-14 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 . Therefore it is better to decrease disc speed. Set up intervalometer with 13 bombs and set 180 mph groundspeed opposite 60 ft.1 1.85 5. First bomb should hit 360 ft. by the interval between bombs. Therefore. decrease the disc speed approximately 6 rpm to move the first bomb 20 mils short. Groundspeed Mils per Rpm Groundspeed Mils per Rpm (1~~00000) = 20 mils.1 4. you multiply the number of bombs minus one.t6 --it( ' lt- \ I \ \ \ \ \ If' r"'" ~ \ - .0 500 (13 -1) (60) 18..0 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 3. bombing altitude. divided by the value of a mil ( 1~~0 ) will determine how many mils short the first impact should be.4 mils. You can subtract 20 mils from the trail set into the sight. in feet. The number of mils the first bomb should hit short is: 360 X Next r educe trail or disc speed so the sight will release the first bomb the proper distance short .6 6.4 3.000 = 20 mils Data based on M38A2 Bomb from 6.2 5.5 4. You find from the bombing aids chart that.6 3. These calculations can be summarized in the following equation: 500 (No.2 mil for any bombing altitude between 1.000 ft.7 4. short. FIND LENGTH OF TRAIN: (13 .000 ft.000 ft.500 and 12. Half the length of the train. intervals between bombs. This could cause an appreciable crosstrail error.5 1.~ I \ \ .7 1. interval.RESTRICTED 1\ I \ " I ..1) X 60 ft. Bombs -1) (Interval in Ft.9 2.4 . at 180 mph groundspeed. _ but is accurate within . t\' I I I \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ I I \ \ \ \ \ \ I I \ \ \\ \ \ I I \ \ \\ To find the length (in feet) of a train of bombs. RESTRICTED . 18. 180 mph groundspeed. = 720 ft. 1 rpm of disc speed will move the first bomb 3. FOR EXAMPLE: GIVEN: 13 bombs to be dropped in train with 60-ft. .

" Tactics change constantly. The following is an outline of a typical day on the line. 6-1-1 . regardless of the minor individual differences among various instructors in teaching the procedures. You do not become an expert ball player in a day. but it will be helpful as a reminder and for instructional purposes. but only as a RESTRICTED result of keen observation and practice. It is something that experience builds in the bombardier's mind: it is a thinking attitude that eliminates mistakes due to carelessness. There will be deviations from this procedure. Before reporting to the line. Listen carefully at briefings. Get a thorough picture of what is required. Remember that you cannot check y. Always keep in mind the bombing problem with your procedure. Bombing is like a game. be sure you take with you all necessary equipment for the day's work. As you become more experienced. Plan your mission and know what to expect when you're in the air.RESTRICTED ~------------------ SECTIO 6 CONDUCT OF A TRAINING QUALIFICATION MISSION General The principles of bombing procedures are the same. but not bombing sense.ourself too closely while working on the sight. you will gain something that can be described only as "bombing sense.

Put on oltygen mask and adiust su pply. 5. Se t up rate. 2. 8. Bombing Approach: 1. 12. 7. Be sure Inst r ucto r 's cut-off switch is ON. Check en tr y in Form 1. Set up coune. 2. 6. 2. Tachomet e r. 4. Check data set i n sight (D. and trail). After Last Bomb Impact: A. Engage bomb si ght clutch and disengage autopilot clutch. Camero 4. 5. 6 . 11. 8. 4. Bo mbsight. Parachute . Inlerphone. Pre pare for next r un. 4 . Pre-flight: 1.P~ A. Set troil arm at zero. altitude and a irs peed. 10. Me tro information. Torg et in formation . After Bomb Release: 1. Turn in all re porh a nd forms. 3. B. 4. rocks and ( o nlrols. Camero . 5. Signa l pilot ready 10 tu r n. while a irplane is level. 12-( forms.2 RESTRICTED . Record r unwoy pre ss ure al ti tude cnd l em pen. 6. At Airplane: 1. Check pos ition of b u bbl es and cage gyro. Unca ge gy ro. Check bombing a ltitude and true airspeed. 5. 2. fill out report on ony malfunctions of bom bin g equipment. J. 4. 8.RESTRICTED Conduct of a Training Qualification Mission I. 7. 9. OJlygen ma sk. Turn rock switch OF F. 2. 2. 10. Turn role motor swi tch ON as latera l crosshai r intersects targe t. Prepare bombsighl for b om bi ng approach. Fill ou t 12-C form as compl etely as pou ible. Pilol signah on course a nd level. 5. 3. Turn in Equipment: I. Signal pilot when bomb is away. Tu rn bombard ie r's control panel switches OFF. 3. 2. Set disc speed drum at minimum selling. Record a ll dolo on 12·C form. 1. Record temperature at 1. 8. Close bomb boy doors. Parachute. 4. Compute true airspeed. Set doto in sight-(D. Engage and odiust autopilot (second Bombardier or Pilot). Turn autopilot moste r switch ON . 7. 5 . At Fight Level: 1. Analyze mission with instructor. 9. 5.000 fl. 3. Engage outopilol dutch and d ise ngag e bombsig ht dutch. 4. Remoye a rmi ng pins. Signal p ilot bombing is completed. No te drill and compass heading . Check gyro level. B. 6. Level gyro. D.S. F. Turn all necesso r y switches ON . Check sychronizotion . E. C. 2. Open bomb boy doors. Auto p ilot (second Bombardier or Pilot). Turn desi red roc k switch ON . Bombard ier pilot coordinatio n. 7 . Critique: 1. Briefing: 1. 5. 9. Bombsight l ime. 7. 7. 14. 2. Signal pitot. Put release lever down. Walch for bom b i mpact. Turn role motor switch OFF. 4. During Climb: 1. Solve fo r and pre -set drift and dropping angle. Note time and poinl of impact. Put Oil hea d set and throat microphone. Orient yourself in relatio n to the torgel. Bombs. . Oxygen supply. Tim e of lake off. 2. C. Analyze bomb releose-(Coll shot). 3. 4. 9. and trail). Ta chometer. Compute bombing altitude. Cover bombs ig hl. if neceuory. Equipment: 1.S. Swi ng sight on targel. C. 9. 13. Level stabilizer. In slr umenh. Indicated oirspeed. Pressure altitude. 6. Re fi ne course and role. 3. Place bom b relea se hand le to safe position. Fill oul Fo rm I. No te lo ngent of dropping angle. Place bomb release handle la SELECT. 8. Hold u p release lever. (se cond Bom bardier o r Pilot). 3. 3. 6. 8. AB Com puler. ABC tongent scoles. 2. 6. B. Bombardie r 's kil. 3. 5.Jlure. A. After Bomb Impact: 1. 5. 2. Turn b o mbsight switches OFf. 7. 6. 7. 6 . Type of min ion . 6--1 . ABC langent scoles.

BOMBARDIER AND PILOT COORDINATION. and general weather forecast for the mission. The weather man will g ive you the pressure altitude. winds aloft. The briefing officer will tell you whether mission is record or practice. and the altitude to be flown. This is important for the oper ation of any schedule flying. temperature. You will also RESTRICTED be told if any targets on a series are closed. A. team work is essential for a good miss ion. TYPE OF MISSION. PRESSURE ALTITUDE. 2. INDICATED AIRSPEED. 5. TIME OF TAKE-OFF. 4. 3. Always be ready to take off at the scheduled t ime. TARGET INFORMATION. This is emphasized in briefing so everyone will get the correct pressure a ltitude and be the same altitude above the target. winds aloft and general forecast. whether it will be record or practice mission. Given for the safe oper ation of t h e airplanes while over the targets as well as to insure an understanding between the pilot and bombardier. Before mission. the temperature at the target. Remember. 6. qualification or combat. METRO INFORMATION. The briefjng officer will give you the altitude a nd airspeed to be flown .RESTRICTED I. 6-1-3 . 1. BRIEFING The purpose of a briefing is to inform you of last minute changes and to insure that everyone understands the mission. You will be g iven the location. 7. You should be given pressure altitude. have a perfect understanding with your pilot as to t he signals that will be used and type of mission to be flown . and he will emphasize the target to be bombed. elevation and bombing approach heading of the target. This is a helpful aid to your mission and will help you to know what to expect after you are in the air.

so take care of them. do not try to fix the equipment yourself. 1. If you are going above 10. If you find a malfunction in your preflight. c. Before loading bombs. TACHOMETER. Keep an accurate record of your bombing results on the 12-C.RESTRICTED B. to see that the arms of the shackles are properly placed in the r eleases. 7. The ABC is to be used. Be sure you take the tangent scales for the correct bombing altitude. You might say that a pre-flight is insurance of having a good mission. CAMERA. before each mission. 3. For your safety learn to wear the parachute while working in the airplane. PRE-FLIGHT You must pre-flight all the equipment you will use on the mission. PARACHUTE. Check your 'p arachute carefully before taking off on a mission. All of the instruments in a kit are important. OXYGEN MASK. 6. inspect them in their respective stations. After loading bombs. 5. RACKS AND CONTROLS. Check it for proper fit. Be s ure your mission number is recorded on the film before take-off and that there is enough film in camera for the mission.000 ft. Don't forget 'them: they are your "log" of results. 2. 4. ABC TANGENT SCALES. The kit is your "tool box" for a bombing mission. BOMBARDIER'S KIT. 6--1-4 RESTRICTED . L BOMBS. 12-C FORMS. pressure altitude be sure you have yonr oxygen mask. call a maintenance man. EQUIPMENT Check to be sure you have th e necessary equipment and that it is in good condition. cock and fire all stations to insure proper release. It enables you to set the proper disc speed in the sight more quickly and accurately.

Contact the pilot over the interphone to insure coordination and proper understanding. Rate end: 8. 4. 9. 2. observinv. Check for dovetail misalignment. observing controls. Rotate each cen tering knob. 2. 11. RESTRICTED 3. rudder. Check disc speed drum and gear shift. INTERPHONE. Check knobs on rate end . Disengage bombsight clutch and engage autopilot clutch with PDI on center. Turn "STAB" switch ON . 5. 11.too late might be fatal. observing tell-tale lights. Rotate turn control knob. 7. 4. Insert clevis pin and dovetail locking pm. 3. 5. observing controls. 10. 10. Engage autopilot clutch. too little. Turn autopilot master switch OFF. Turn autopilot master switch ON. Turn aileron. Operate airplane controls manually. Be sure that sufficient pressure is registering in each bottle to last the mission. Cross trail mechanism: 5. observing controls. Installation: \ 1. Match sighthead and stabilizer. 3. Check rate motor and optic drive. Center turn control. Disengage autopilot clutch and displace to each side. The second bombardier or pilot should pre-flight the C-1 autopilot. Turn Servo-PDI switch ON. Check for security of cannon plugs on stabilizer. 4. Turn "BS" switch ON.RESTRICTED 2. OXYGEN SUPPLY. 1. Remember. 6-1-5 . 6. Turn knobs on ACP to "pointers up" position. 9. 8. Check for tilt of optics. 7. tell-tale lights. AUTOPILOT. Check for pre-set trail. BOMBSIGHT PREFLIGHT. and elevator engaging switches ON. 6. Check the oxygen supply at all outlets.

check to see if the free air temperature gage works and read runway temperature. AB COMPUTER. Check leveling knobs. 19. Check for pre-set trail. 7. Check crosshair light. with 29. 21. 8. Set drift pointer on zero drift. and the lubber lines should. Check for roller slippage. Enter your name. After the motors of the airplane have been started. Set 29. Turn "SERVO" switch ON. Inspect the compass in 6-1-6 RESTRI CTE D . 13. Check torque unit and bombsight clutch. . Check PDI with pilot. Check vertical gyro. 6. 9. 17. Check autopilot clutch.92 set on the pressure scale. Stabilizer and course knobs: 15. Record the pressure altitude reading of the altimeter. Check installation and zeroing of the computer. 22. the nose. ALTITUDE AND TEMPERATURE. Check action of course knobs and PDI. rank. and serial number on Form 1 before take·off. Check all of the instrument calibration cards . Check bubble light. RE CORD RUNWAY PRESSURE . Sight vertical and lighting: 20. Check mirror drive cable length. FILL OUT FORM 1. 23. be oppo s ite the wind arrow.92 on the pressure scale of the altimeter and read runway pressure altitude. 14. INSTRUMENTS. . Record the reading from free air temperature gage after the motor is running. 16.RESTRICTED 12. 18.

8. The other bombardier or pilot should turn this switch ON. COMPUTE TRUE AIRSP EED . It supplies cui'rent to the flight gyro so it will erect to the vertical. Set these into the sight. using the C-2." and "BS" switches in the proper sequence. 4. 2. DURING CLIMB During the climb. In order to get an accurate mean temperature." "Servo. COMPUTE BOMBING ALTITUDE. you must have these temperature readings . 1. SET DATA IN SIGHT. turn ON the bomb circuit and station light switches. rise t he bombing tables to find the disc speed and trail. 7. it will be armed. Check your disc speed with tachometer or stop watch. On day missions oxygen will be used at all times over 10. 5. REMOVE ARMING PINS. You must compute accurately for good results. Don't fumble with these when putting them on. when bomb is released..000 FT. AN or E -6B computer. start using oxygen from take-off. speak in a normal tone of voice. After computing your bombing altitude and true airspeed. RESTRICTED 6-1-7 . Then. 3. puter. TURN AUTOPILOT MASTER SWITCH ON. PUT ON OXYGEN MASK AND ADJUST SUPPLY. PUT ON HEADSET AND THROAT MICROPHONE AND ADJUST VOLUME. RECORD TEMP ERATURE AT EVERY 1. Turn ON the "STAB." HPDI. You will also set the necessary data in the sight for the run.000 ft. On the bombardier's control panel. When speaking into the throat mike.RESTRICTED A. To solve for the TAS use the E-6B computer. TURN ALL THE NECESSARY SWITCHES ON. On night missions. you will make your computations for the bombing altitude and prepare yourself for the bombing run. 6. 9.

Turn Servo-PDI switch ON. When the 3 pilot signals you. if necessary. Turn aileron switch ON. 10. 12. 8. Adjust turn compensation. Check your computations to assure_ yourself that you haven't made any careless mistakes. 13. 17.