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AGRICULTURE: CRITICAL ISSUES
PROBLEMS AND POLICIES
Ghazanfar Latif 11P0015
minor crops. fisheries and forestry.Suppose you are a policy maker for the Government of Pakistan. These hybrid seeds and cultivation need specific .6%. 15% cultivable land. The purpose of colonization was to give vacant land to people so that they can cultivate and whatever they generate from cultivation they give percentage to government. Green revolution Green revolution is introduced to improve and increase yield of the wheat and rice. in 2002/3. It was kind of lease to the people. People who are owner of large area of land were not able to grow efficiently on their land because of large area. comprising major crops. According to 2002/3 figures. 42% not available for cultivation and 6%. This help to increase the cultivation area and help to develop new cities. But due to political influence. For this purpose new seed were introduced that gives high yield. And are many reasons for this and we will look at them one by one: Land reforms and colonization Green revolution Irrigation methods Pricing policies Credit policies Income tax waivers Water crisis Land reforms and colonization The purpose of these reforms was to divide land in smaller chunks so that people have manageable piece of land for cultivation. Problems with agriculture sector Pakistan so called agri based economy. Since day first Pakistan is facing problems and hardships in establishing agriculture sector and not able to revolutionize the agriculture sector like other countries did. Make policy suggestions based on what you have learnt to eradicate some or all of the problems mentioned in the case? The agriculture sector in Pakistan is classified as containing five subsectors. today service sector contribute more in GDP as compared to agriculture. The extent of change in Pakistan’s overall economy and society over the last nearly six decades can best summarized in a single figure which shows the extent of the contribution of Pakistan GDP. land reforms were not made properly because political leader never want to break their land. in 1949/50 agriculture was by far the largest sector contributing 53% in GDP. livestock. out of total land of Pakistan 37% is cultivated area. this share was down to only 23.
but they were not able to sustain requirement needed to flourish hybrid farming.conditions. The so called green revolution was introduced which strike back. farming facilities and productivity. So it actually strikes back. income. And this exactly happened with Pakistan. But he IMF forced to remove these subsidies because of loan structure. Irrigation methods Major source of water supply was canal system. Because of GAS shortage we are not able to produce fertilizer. water not able to reach the tail user. Provide all facilities which are needed for high yield production. This create social class difference and create difference those who are salaried paid and industrialist. this hybrid farming hurt you badly. whereas small farmers get load from people. As agriculture sector is not paying tax. But due to canal seepage. government fix the rate to save from fluctuation in the international market prices. This increase cost of production. Big farmers were able to get loans and other credits facilities from bank and other corperative institutions. initially when green revolution was introduced Pakistan agri flourish at high pace. If you fulfill all demand this would give you huge crop. spillage. Since the cost of farming is getting higher and higher there is serious need to control this. Solutions to the problems of agriculture: Government should make strict policies for land reforms and implement that as well. Land should be divided in manner that gives maximum output yield farming. breaches and water losses. And in order to fulfill the need we are importing fertilizers. Income tax on agriculture Tax on agriculture always remained a political issue. And if anyone the factor missed. Credit policies Major sources of funds were from institutional (banks) and non institutional (from some person ) sources. Pricing policies In order to support farmer. . There is need to give full attention to that to increase productivity. The purpose of the support price is to protect producers from drop in the producers below the minimum level at which production remains profitable for the good producers. water . pesticides and fertilizers. This create difference in terms of social class. they are generating huge amount of money and from that they buy real estates in cities.
Rural financial markets are very weak. Impose and collect tax from agriculture based income. Government seriously need to encourage people to get agriculture education and so that they need to develop specialized agriculture based universities all over the Pakistan. Once you get GAAP certified. Medium and small farmer want loans and credit. but financial institutes are not sufficient to cater them. because of canal desilting had not taken properly and due to the crumbling of canal bank. If you follow these standards. Make efficient and effective tax collection to collect indirect tax like water irrigation tax (ABIYAAN) and agriculture based land tax. Give subsidies on pesticides. but there is need to spread this all around the Pakistan. fertilizer and seeds so that cost of production comes down. . The next big thing is GAAP (Globally accepted agriculture practices). but loan criteria are so tough that they are not able to get loans. Government of Punjab initiated this step. Small farmer want short term and long term. Due to poor maintenance canal irrigation system has had its capacity of carrying water reduced. 85 % of farmers are getting loans from non-institutional sources. There is only one bank ZTBL which is working for the agriculture sector and few commercial banks which are providing loans for farming. so that we can make you crops and fruits highly healthier product. particularly in Sindh should be rehabilitee. So there is huge potential in this market. people around the globe will recognize your product and you can compete in international markets. More public and private investors come on agriculture side in financing the farmer. More government and private banks come and play part in agriculture financing and come up new and innovation agri-based financial instrument. There are vast areas which are water logged and salinity. Canal system need to improvement. GAAP is like standards of farming and cultivation crops. you get a very specialized high quality product and you can sell anywhere in the world. Right now there is only one agriculture university and few research institutes. Encourage small and medium farmer to do mechanist farming which will help in generating high yield.
4 percent to the value added in agriculture and 3. Harvest: Once the wheat stems. bajra. rice. RICE: It is second staple food and contributes more than 2 million tonnes to our national food requirement.What are the major crops of Pakistan? What are the requirements for cultivating and harvesting those crops? There are two principal crop seasons in Pakistan namely “Kharif”. In Pakistan. Kharif Crops Cotton.0 percent to GDP. gram. the time for harvesting has arrived. mustard Wheat: Wheat is one of the major and biggest food crop of country. . from 70° to 75° F (21° to 24° C). seasame Rabi Crops Wheat. It grows best when temperatures are warm. maize. the use of a combine machine allows for quick and easy harvesting of acres of wheat in a short period of time. Wheat also needs a lot of sunshine.wisegeek. Pakistan is one of the largest rice producing countries. repessed. having annual production of more than 5 million tons. wheat being the staple diet is the most important crop and cultivated on the largest acreages in almost every part of the country. For large wheat crops. http://www.htm Conditions: Wheat needs 12 to 15 inches (31 to 38 centimeters) of water to produce a good crop. but not too hot. with sowing beginning in April and harvest between October and December and “Rabi” beginning in October-December and ending in April-May. the process of separating any chaff prepares the end product for grinding into flour. After harvesting the wheat. Using a scythe to manually harvest the wheat kernels is the time-honored process. It contributes 14. tobacco.com/how-is-wheat-grown-and-harvested. especially when the grains are filling. sugarcane. barley.
The climate is arid tropical marine with no marked season and is highly suited to coarse varieties. A familiar sight in several Asian countries is paddy laid out to dry along roads. the latter are mostly irrigated. Zone-1. with a throughput of a couple of tonnes a day. although there is a growing interest in mechanical harvesting.Alcohol and Desi Shakkar are also prepared from Sugar cane. to enormous operations that can process 4. Mills either sun dry or use mechanical driers or both. that simply remove the outer husk. with village-level drying being used for paddy to be consumed by farm families. It lies in the broad strip of land between rivers Ravi and Chenab where both canal and sub-soil water are used for irrigation. mostly concentrated in summer. Zone-2. The climate is sub-humid. It is the Indus delta which consists of vast spill flats and basins. Harvesting is followed by threshing. in most countries the bulk of drying of marketed paddy takes place in mills. but is also frequently done by seasonal labour groups. Harvesting can be carried out by the farmers themselves. Subsequently. The climate is sub-humid monsoon with 750 to 1000 mm average rainfall. harvesting is carried out manually. It consists of the large tract of land on the west bank of river Indus.000 tonnes a day and produce highly polished rice.Conditions: In Pakistan rice is grown under diverse climatic. Mills range from simple hullers. It consists of northern mountainous areas of the country and irrigated rice is grown either in flat valleys or terraced valley-sides. Again. paddy needs to be dried to bring down the moisture content to no more than 20% for milling. . where rice is almost entirely the product of smallholder agriculture. It has an arid sub-tropical climate with 100 mm of average rainfall and maximum temperature higher than zone 1 and 2. either immediately or within a day or two. Sugar cane is used for sweetening purposes. sub-tropical type with 400 to 700 mm of rainfall mostly in July-August Zone-3. Zone-4. Sugarcane Sugar cane is an important cash crop of Pakistan. Harvest: In most Asian countries. However.Gur.All available evidences indicate that Sugar Cane originated in Indo-Pak sub-continent. Drying has to be carried out quickly to avoid the formation of moulds.It is the most important and cheapest source of refined sugar. hydrological and edaphic conditions and is divided into 4 distinct agroecological zones. much threshing is still carried out by hand but there is an increasing use of mechanical threshers.
php/Sugar_cane_harvesting#ixzz1vAScU EQW Cotton Cotton is a Kharif crop in Pakistan and is cultivated in the summer season.ritchiewiki.we also earn a large amount of foreign exchange from its export to other countries. By a cotton picker. or by a cotton stripper. .accounting for approximately one half of the all materials that are made into cloth. and other trash.picking starts from August.guesspapers. weeds. which strips the entire boll off the plant.com/wiki/index. Pakistan ranks fifth in world cotton production.so without artificial irrigation. Cotton is considered to be the most important cash crop of Pakistan. Sowing is mainly broadcast and begins in April in Sindh and in May or June in Punjab. Conditions: A minimum precipitation amount of 20″ and a maximum of 40″ per year is considered to be the optimum requirement for cotton cultivation. Harvest: Early harvesting methods involved burning canes to remove leaves. It is very sensitive to drought conditions. It is outstanding among vegetable. New & Used Heavy Equipment http://www. canes were extracted by hand or cut with knives. Whereas in Punjab it begins in September or October.The annual rainfall in Pakistan is less than 20″ which is insufficient . Similarly. but a dry season is desirable before harvest. It grows well in areas having rainfall of more than 40 degree annually.Besides the preparation of a number of its products . and still does in some fields. Harvesting also included.net/1621/agricultural-crops-of-pakistan/ Harvest: Cotton is harvested manually or mechanically.animal and synthetic fibers.It is for this reason that canal and tube well irrigated areas of Sindh and Punjab are devoted to cotton cultivation. This method was very labor-intensive and cutters were subjected to stooping in order to cut canes at the lower length desired for optimal sugarcane harvest. a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant.In Sindh.Conditions: Heavy precipitation is beneficial during the early and intermediate stage of crop growth.cotton cultivation is not possible. also known as cutlass.The moisture should be comparatively even throughout much of the year but retarted during the harvesting period. the cutting of stalks with machete-type knives. http://www.
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