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AGRICULTURE: CRITICAL ISSUES
PROBLEMS AND POLICIES
Ghazanfar Latif 11P0015
land reforms were not made properly because political leader never want to break their land. For this purpose new seed were introduced that gives high yield. People who are owner of large area of land were not able to grow efficiently on their land because of large area.6%.Suppose you are a policy maker for the Government of Pakistan. But due to political influence. in 1949/50 agriculture was by far the largest sector contributing 53% in GDP. minor crops. comprising major crops. today service sector contribute more in GDP as compared to agriculture. this share was down to only 23. Since day first Pakistan is facing problems and hardships in establishing agriculture sector and not able to revolutionize the agriculture sector like other countries did. The extent of change in Pakistan’s overall economy and society over the last nearly six decades can best summarized in a single figure which shows the extent of the contribution of Pakistan GDP. These hybrid seeds and cultivation need specific . Green revolution Green revolution is introduced to improve and increase yield of the wheat and rice. 42% not available for cultivation and 6%. 15% cultivable land. fisheries and forestry. out of total land of Pakistan 37% is cultivated area. The purpose of colonization was to give vacant land to people so that they can cultivate and whatever they generate from cultivation they give percentage to government. Make policy suggestions based on what you have learnt to eradicate some or all of the problems mentioned in the case? The agriculture sector in Pakistan is classified as containing five subsectors. Problems with agriculture sector Pakistan so called agri based economy. According to 2002/3 figures. livestock. This help to increase the cultivation area and help to develop new cities. in 2002/3. It was kind of lease to the people. And are many reasons for this and we will look at them one by one: Land reforms and colonization Green revolution Irrigation methods Pricing policies Credit policies Income tax waivers Water crisis Land reforms and colonization The purpose of these reforms was to divide land in smaller chunks so that people have manageable piece of land for cultivation.
Land should be divided in manner that gives maximum output yield farming. whereas small farmers get load from people. But he IMF forced to remove these subsidies because of loan structure. breaches and water losses. government fix the rate to save from fluctuation in the international market prices. The purpose of the support price is to protect producers from drop in the producers below the minimum level at which production remains profitable for the good producers. There is need to give full attention to that to increase productivity. This create social class difference and create difference those who are salaried paid and industrialist. And if anyone the factor missed. Provide all facilities which are needed for high yield production. Irrigation methods Major source of water supply was canal system. If you fulfill all demand this would give you huge crop. Solutions to the problems of agriculture: Government should make strict policies for land reforms and implement that as well. farming facilities and productivity. water not able to reach the tail user. And in order to fulfill the need we are importing fertilizers. initially when green revolution was introduced Pakistan agri flourish at high pace. The so called green revolution was introduced which strike back. This increase cost of production. And this exactly happened with Pakistan. water . Pricing policies In order to support farmer. Because of GAS shortage we are not able to produce fertilizer. As agriculture sector is not paying tax. Income tax on agriculture Tax on agriculture always remained a political issue. this hybrid farming hurt you badly. . but they were not able to sustain requirement needed to flourish hybrid farming. pesticides and fertilizers. income. spillage. This create difference in terms of social class. they are generating huge amount of money and from that they buy real estates in cities.conditions. Since the cost of farming is getting higher and higher there is serious need to control this. But due to canal seepage. So it actually strikes back. Credit policies Major sources of funds were from institutional (banks) and non institutional (from some person ) sources. Big farmers were able to get loans and other credits facilities from bank and other corperative institutions.
Make efficient and effective tax collection to collect indirect tax like water irrigation tax (ABIYAAN) and agriculture based land tax. Due to poor maintenance canal irrigation system has had its capacity of carrying water reduced. Canal system need to improvement. fertilizer and seeds so that cost of production comes down. More public and private investors come on agriculture side in financing the farmer. Government seriously need to encourage people to get agriculture education and so that they need to develop specialized agriculture based universities all over the Pakistan. but there is need to spread this all around the Pakistan. people around the globe will recognize your product and you can compete in international markets. because of canal desilting had not taken properly and due to the crumbling of canal bank. Encourage small and medium farmer to do mechanist farming which will help in generating high yield. but loan criteria are so tough that they are not able to get loans. Medium and small farmer want loans and credit. Give subsidies on pesticides. Government of Punjab initiated this step. Impose and collect tax from agriculture based income. Once you get GAAP certified. 85 % of farmers are getting loans from non-institutional sources. More government and private banks come and play part in agriculture financing and come up new and innovation agri-based financial instrument. Rural financial markets are very weak. GAAP is like standards of farming and cultivation crops. particularly in Sindh should be rehabilitee. There are vast areas which are water logged and salinity. There is only one bank ZTBL which is working for the agriculture sector and few commercial banks which are providing loans for farming. Small farmer want short term and long term. If you follow these standards. . Right now there is only one agriculture university and few research institutes. but financial institutes are not sufficient to cater them. So there is huge potential in this market. you get a very specialized high quality product and you can sell anywhere in the world. so that we can make you crops and fruits highly healthier product. The next big thing is GAAP (Globally accepted agriculture practices).
the time for harvesting has arrived. seasame Rabi Crops Wheat. Harvest: Once the wheat stems.What are the major crops of Pakistan? What are the requirements for cultivating and harvesting those crops? There are two principal crop seasons in Pakistan namely “Kharif”. especially when the grains are filling.4 percent to the value added in agriculture and 3. In Pakistan. but not too hot. rice. having annual production of more than 5 million tons. It grows best when temperatures are warm. . wheat being the staple diet is the most important crop and cultivated on the largest acreages in almost every part of the country. After harvesting the wheat. tobacco. Kharif Crops Cotton. the use of a combine machine allows for quick and easy harvesting of acres of wheat in a short period of time. repessed.wisegeek. http://www.htm Conditions: Wheat needs 12 to 15 inches (31 to 38 centimeters) of water to produce a good crop. Using a scythe to manually harvest the wheat kernels is the time-honored process.com/how-is-wheat-grown-and-harvested. maize. Pakistan is one of the largest rice producing countries. sugarcane. barley.0 percent to GDP. the process of separating any chaff prepares the end product for grinding into flour. RICE: It is second staple food and contributes more than 2 million tonnes to our national food requirement. with sowing beginning in April and harvest between October and December and “Rabi” beginning in October-December and ending in April-May. from 70° to 75° F (21° to 24° C). gram. bajra. Wheat also needs a lot of sunshine. It contributes 14. mustard Wheat: Wheat is one of the major and biggest food crop of country. For large wheat crops.
It has an arid sub-tropical climate with 100 mm of average rainfall and maximum temperature higher than zone 1 and 2. It consists of the large tract of land on the west bank of river Indus. much threshing is still carried out by hand but there is an increasing use of mechanical threshers. . with a throughput of a couple of tonnes a day. Drying has to be carried out quickly to avoid the formation of moulds. that simply remove the outer husk. mostly concentrated in summer. to enormous operations that can process 4. Again. Mills range from simple hullers. It is the Indus delta which consists of vast spill flats and basins.Gur. The climate is sub-humid. with village-level drying being used for paddy to be consumed by farm families. Harvesting is followed by threshing. Harvesting can be carried out by the farmers themselves. although there is a growing interest in mechanical harvesting. paddy needs to be dried to bring down the moisture content to no more than 20% for milling. Sugarcane Sugar cane is an important cash crop of Pakistan. either immediately or within a day or two.Alcohol and Desi Shakkar are also prepared from Sugar cane. in most countries the bulk of drying of marketed paddy takes place in mills.All available evidences indicate that Sugar Cane originated in Indo-Pak sub-continent. Zone-4. the latter are mostly irrigated. The climate is sub-humid monsoon with 750 to 1000 mm average rainfall. Zone-2. Sugar cane is used for sweetening purposes. A familiar sight in several Asian countries is paddy laid out to dry along roads. It lies in the broad strip of land between rivers Ravi and Chenab where both canal and sub-soil water are used for irrigation.000 tonnes a day and produce highly polished rice.Conditions: In Pakistan rice is grown under diverse climatic. It consists of northern mountainous areas of the country and irrigated rice is grown either in flat valleys or terraced valley-sides. However.It is the most important and cheapest source of refined sugar. harvesting is carried out manually. sub-tropical type with 400 to 700 mm of rainfall mostly in July-August Zone-3. hydrological and edaphic conditions and is divided into 4 distinct agroecological zones. Zone-1. Subsequently. where rice is almost entirely the product of smallholder agriculture. but is also frequently done by seasonal labour groups. The climate is arid tropical marine with no marked season and is highly suited to coarse varieties. Mills either sun dry or use mechanical driers or both. Harvest: In most Asian countries.
It is outstanding among vegetable.php/Sugar_cane_harvesting#ixzz1vAScU EQW Cotton Cotton is a Kharif crop in Pakistan and is cultivated in the summer season. .It is for this reason that canal and tube well irrigated areas of Sindh and Punjab are devoted to cotton cultivation. http://www.Besides the preparation of a number of its products . but a dry season is desirable before harvest.cotton cultivation is not possible. and other trash. It grows well in areas having rainfall of more than 40 degree annually.ritchiewiki. canes were extracted by hand or cut with knives.accounting for approximately one half of the all materials that are made into cloth.animal and synthetic fibers. Conditions: A minimum precipitation amount of 20″ and a maximum of 40″ per year is considered to be the optimum requirement for cotton cultivation. Similarly. Pakistan ranks fifth in world cotton production.The moisture should be comparatively even throughout much of the year but retarted during the harvesting period.guesspapers.In Sindh. which strips the entire boll off the plant. This method was very labor-intensive and cutters were subjected to stooping in order to cut canes at the lower length desired for optimal sugarcane harvest. the cutting of stalks with machete-type knives. By a cotton picker. also known as cutlass. Whereas in Punjab it begins in September or October.picking starts from August. or by a cotton stripper.so without artificial irrigation.The annual rainfall in Pakistan is less than 20″ which is insufficient .Conditions: Heavy precipitation is beneficial during the early and intermediate stage of crop growth. It is very sensitive to drought conditions. Harvest: Early harvesting methods involved burning canes to remove leaves. and still does in some fields.net/1621/agricultural-crops-of-pakistan/ Harvest: Cotton is harvested manually or mechanically.we also earn a large amount of foreign exchange from its export to other countries. New & Used Heavy Equipment http://www. a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant. weeds. Harvesting also included. Sowing is mainly broadcast and begins in April in Sindh and in May or June in Punjab.com/wiki/index. Cotton is considered to be the most important cash crop of Pakistan.
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