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. •• 'Iran ..o"es. '1:' VI'" I::'.cn'__'"". .o'-'b'...e:r. D-. R·:-···· University of California 'Press B. .a_rore.. ~. _~ ...C'-' h"".t-'e-d b 'yo J' .'.-woJ'! b"'-' _ ' If"..._...ey Los .:__.-.'a.~.> .~.The Architext An ntroduction .eria .S I '.~.-=~. ... Lev -ll"in JlJ.W..' '1: .k:e~...__--do:-~:1'~.~IQ.. 'l'Zl'"t-h. • 1 "' • ~ ... -"--W'S···. _ {I!j. ~ - ~" ._ : "" ...:___.A:ngeles Oxford Copy" 'gh ted m a1.E" .

\.. 'b~bliograJ:phicaJ refc:reTl(1es and indc)L :p" '~ NI. .. ."l' • J LiV ~.) Trdlnsla~ion of: Inerodu crion ~. __ .J .. Eng'Hsh] Th:e:' 3(rthi~I~.'. Poetics '" .Univer.rd ~ ru.) 1. .. :I:ndudes.'FU.Cl1 .C':-_·~I:.Q.~eles C:lHflorn~a.1"iii) z-in-P .. :2..: ~..'.l L'~ 987 654121 The' paper ~lscd in ~'his public~uio:n RlCCU. ('ii.ed. Lewin.1 The .'~ [pbk.2J~__I~)44·98 _ ..(.IlN V""'.I'a rchitexte. .atiQn S ciences-e-Permanence of Paper fo:r ~Ol' .G44131 199i 00' " III . ~}-=5'I"-P76ti. _J~_ .. sn IL .-1i~ (lP4 Co" . '. 'M':'. ~ ] (~"I .S"S.iU" ~ '(J'-"'..n ~ Z 39 '4. . a.0·..N'4. u h '-I ication I.fl. I :S-. [Inrro duction a.~1 p'r.'' ' ~'Q"g. .. 'l "C']"[) . _._g. . Libra J.Jnuy . 'books..~ es of the Universirv of Califoru ~a .9'30- u"anshned by Jani(~.':1 !I' I" Title.'.0 7Y '-" rid N 1["no rt.Co ~I 10. l' §il. ili"V 1 '0". . ~ ~I l~l I It.uantum.J ~_ ~. co '''_. em.([(·1 A:_'.. 'IAI . RC'O:. L~t'CFar\j'form. .E". l~·~. ~i.. I.IL~.. ..".a Is 'I.!(t~.._ .l:lie._ Liln ". .~n iOI NJ duction I (ier~:rd (i~ncu:.J![ IJ ".J~~~ ~"\. ."..J itll'IGl ~1 GleneE te. g 1.cria .. the' rninimum requirements of American N ational Stall dard for lnfQ!rtl:~. G'cra.~'.r .3. .':' .I ~l£'8f'.~. '. Press Berkeley and Los Afi.!llIIL .'.i:!'" Copy" 'gh ted m a1.~... l'aechitexre. _.' 'P.f". .~~-.a Ii. -.slty of 'CaHfo rHii:).~.~..~J':.1 0'= d c'101 . _ I gIl.~.

: ~". v..ns. :' I: '''":'. :No[e' xi Copyrighted materia .··t·.OJlleS.. ''''1' I.-5···· t· Con":'.n 'L_ I~~ Tra.l:tl£or:'s. I S h 'I f '_'o<re'wor-_".-"y 'R d 'b .'C_.~I.~~ou'e:rt :.-~ en .

I .·.'..(···-. ~.····. .· .-If literatu. . . . is. be studied discussed a . e 10.. G'~fr·"Iiir·-·'d'.~.. ..!ll. '- _~ c.h .1k. . -. ••• an -...about."... ins..... 'too" the' tortoise regularly out...~".... ~ - '"....]h.. .._""..!I.:I'~. l 1 ._'_~ is t·[O.:~..'. that' too of course. _I _.··. '~C._. -. I:n the heaven '0 f ideas" the tortoise of form alwa ys out .".• '-".>I. g"!LU...er postsrructuralism.....~r~. _._' C' -'- _. "knows' it 'would.._. __ . perhaps sometimes be better on~' for'ge'tting .. . .' " I t:"'IO·".r. '-'-7 .: . _' "C ~'_ ..--.. _ "..j""... €". l I!.~ Ji. 0·· .it' n ..IS sm too mUC.. ·5···-W'.. as it." " ._.1.~._·.. __ r. II 1 • _ •. pers . "science": the little it ..one.~....Genette has persi sted in formal an d. In a.. .'~ h. brie 1 0. It':o·'·.'-' tr ··U·. .sense that is..·':[" C. '_." _. re t . ~··O·" -_ A. is 'aU.!I!. .b~. consisti.I! + 'Ii' . . ef . ..anguage Edition I d .. "'"'" 11... I wanted to say'-an d.~'..cria . vh a_ rash critic ODeleIcalle1d the: "low structuralism u' of Genette-s-rem _'.I' t"~'h:'·"._' . .· . rhetorics] studies while ideological storms raged around him and. "i! .'.. I ~ _.IYDIW._ ..~"OII:vd"" Ro·.:li 1_.." .".. . '--'l!' ~'H~' .p. . .I!j..." Copy" ·gh ted m a1. " •• ." _.. . . c _ ._1. For the ver two decades now.. Il.ttje book. " [' II".f·.· '"1 . ~ _ ••• I •• • • •.... 1I!o. . __ ~.5···....·. 0·.Aft.._....~.-.. . criticized" it will always need poedcs+end poetics is 'what this 'Ii. I_.....j-.Iii. t'I"'II· I Y d':'-~ e. Here 0)1 earth things are more complicated. }""'s-::1:4::': hare._. U _._~' ..~".~.res and departed wirh whim .' ...-- :r. 1_·'.:]..•• ". I e E'-"'n.il Poetics is a very old and very young.. even after deconsrructur.. ~"'[1 .~ '. but here. '. th [~.·' . irm a al ~isun""''''-'.. I. ·. ._ . ·i·:.··U·r\a~·' st c 1· . taken.. ..··..."~ ." .' Ji.. critical fashio'ns arrived 'with f3l:nfa. n I~_. \ .~:c_ '.... .!II. A"smy epigraph in dicates.. .. ~ . · '1'::'1'5······. is" from near 'the' end of Genettc's discussion this book.' L ."little" in more than one sense J~. _. .. 1 •.1 _". runs the hare of conten t..·'-O··:U' rse..~'_."".. '.

V'IU iii".. '.1t..r.• :(1.. .-y some ..l.is._.e:r to . met th .J [U! maier arncie..===c~ .a. ...'..ogy ..:'-'1]--':'" --.'. . '"1. poetics n eith .' '... ns .~ .1 .n~'~lsarollng 'w:it~ som.. .a': '..-··--·.~n. .. poetic doctrine tha t is mainly Rol11antic in its 0 rigi lIS.= poetics is only that critici sm cannot :'-'~"":'--.':.dl lCS 'lie-pen' " lI.• 1. in France :S··-·' . .." " . .0 ....~.. " .I g.--...} sto r y 0 ·:f-".a: --. .lI·t .. nougn t·. .". 'P:"I..' I.. . -~-II AI- I "C 1 '---"..'c._ .· e Gen." - " •.. ... -P-'-'I-'IO.. I... .'_- '- -. I]·: netre does claim for .-. ..to.1..r -'. conrouna us".-.tl't:lcrlocu.1 .' -1..y ..'~ .--·.":'.'-'.'" _ .-.":: :.. _." 't-. '\Vlt'h proper-~li)l:ence .1i'O'U c. -. ....ette's.. . 'end.11[. rter -. -".C ...1..~ e l. j...:"1"." ~. ' """__ .-.0'.O\-VS..~ .. 1 ".I.'111.-~. ttituoe nas neen '.-'.' . .on. .0$ an" a diia 1···..d d' d·~ .:" :"... 0--' I. " . ..norb Iet e r than . v 1.~' .-~-10'..'ff].'h ick mea g.JI. Ican .. r'in Ge-. ----11..e.---:'..0_ -Jj.wo .. ~.~nd..e n... .n foiste 'd ' -'.:: dieval 2[.:" . l(. ' .an .. .11Ua.'.. .. 'h.: "--:".en.. and Romantic and 011 to the modern theories of literary genre. __.-_~. . ..----'-. _.y to S.Ill ~ ~ ".ng:-l.·· ['..-.on.. as guilty .. iJ.) his 1. thus S owing confus ions tha t still . . cl..''I'':d·· 11''rI·p:·_---o·:·.:.-C ..' ·'·f~·.n 'do .11 _~ ..1-.I.'-.. .0 '11:'.g" _.-:-"-.: ]0·-···bl'·1 .11. ". 11-a·· 'II\"Q-. ..YS..C"....-. ..iii..II..-'...a'tio'n of .e. .....'... 'I'" _j. '.-.._ ." E.. .r _:_. .... ".. :'" ~:·I.'k--elf' O~lects. 'E-'.s.... .c- .. ... it_ is also. I .od·-: '_-"o_' t Jl."...'. '.··-···.'hl" ... _.gu.. _ I S-·. .~g ."...: '. ".--'.g. e'm. UI '. .~.. Y j.~. ..-. '.o. 1 . ..ea.. SP ecifically.y t'llis sh. . d b--.1 ) _So ······. _.n.s. 'secon d the ~Jor 'ticle rouoweo .·· ..t aU. 'Ol~ s Uc.. 1'OJ. all.'J.--.' :..-_.. . . r-es. Genesee sketches the evolution of this misprision with m asterfu . . one of the im po rtant thing:s Genette h ~ ~...I.11..· CS 'j" 0" ...ould llOt .• ~ . l U. !"" _ .'-h." .! 'I..·'-..ln .. . '~'ta..us 1.-His projec t is [...:.e ad vic'e' for' th:t contin'U..e ... [J.. however In th e '.... I~-·~'·'i. [.. .1._ ~ _ __~ ~ __. n~_ere ~ 0' . Genetre traces the process by which new for ms of tex tualiry are' regularly jus tified by being a ssi ~ d an cient '1. = it •. .... . . = .-'\·-:t.··. .iI.:'.le .·· titl'ii"~'IIi"' read Li'l·. I... '_..u.'d: I nlore ·d..I..d. '''.. I JI " .-'.'. -" zh '. very .u.'0 p-run'e tbis t:hic-ke£ a~n.._ defended _. 0:1\.. ~!iI .o'\. ..-· . '1 ater crincs h ave attnibuted to A ri storle a..er tru th no "fl' J!. b····· j..-_'-_"'I"'~' ~ . ~.the rounaers 0 .'··. . . "1:._1 e results of 01.) - ..• U1._.d...a..' 1':-- I" '~'.content iI'j' mere ...e1.-:'~-. u.~ is one of astonishing confusions and n1. tbis process.lI. .en·alSS ance.~uogue to Justl Y this pr.etic ..cri a ...'-::-e.". h. d_' an.3.oerta.. . :C:-'h~11111. [-·'0. _-11·····-"'1' ~ d-~..e .' .' ..y a. D. 11] .aJlJllenge.--. . c .es~.•.I.d ogue . "f: ."... d" " .~ ~ ._-. tJl].pen. C()fltl.'_' iis Fll. Id· .' JLIL i:'-~.' I n. .---.·.. rh [-0.·'·"-_---·_-·I'I--'I. "I'f'~ :'1-..n--~I[I Si"-I~'J('" worth 'W-.ngll1g.0 . t__ "". . ' ... _. (.["'0-' .Q1W t.' . ment. _.I 5. .- .poetics th can . l....'·e-'3·: 'f'·S·. 11.pr.-.k 's publi c at ion ce I' e.11. ..'.." _" llg fo:"r-.-"'. -found [ot . r". "j.n 3.. ra. . .... Ji. 0"f .gel aro n.._~_' '__~ __ ~_ ~et -I".) .''-1J.~:''Lla·:''t .:: u ~:.e - -..... --"-d-.- ... :.. 'blaz traHs . I' '~" _-. .y.:.e.'_' .po:n_:clUll[.p~.--'·~-·'I-·' 1" ~ -'.ii.J' J-'!'~..e.se. c: '1-'1-..".--... ...·'I~·'---:-.~~e__.g W 11aou t " ~~ow eVler.poetic' think: .-. ' .1.- c'.' ."'.. - :'. :'.'-- .' In.~" 11. nee a . with .... " . c.-':. ....~ ~- Copy" 'gh ted m a1. .:'0' c " -1"1' :h-· "1-'- --c- ~.h---"t: d lOIS ec "po'n... I.···:~ sater mea . '.(:. ".'-.'~'II" n"'l'.·_1h···.·. Ir!l( . . ~-.-..··....·JLII. ..• and lucidirv y. ._'·f:"· Ul.ctie... .d."1.'.- '. a--1I.int: out t'h. .oug.... '" It.[rlCU.i\ .IStor.'! 'S..HlnS_-ll t ....' :'.. ."'r~'i.n-·: th bo .a..-' '.. " . W. -... -'1-..- "1_.... ." "aue . ..._---.h...3LILIJ...1S _. . .1 -··.\-V-h ich . .-}.: I '0" _ .' ca..:·.1-...- '1.ll11Se 1..""'" co u rs e of his disc ... ~I~~V. t..--..:' '-'.U. 1... '..re..--. ane I en. Aristotle.·:. .. N~~. '.''I7'o'iJ.0 ann e f «l ' -:'.lf'.-.£-" ..._---.'.'" na t h:"'-"-_-'" '::.- 1..1 . " . JI. demonstrates nere IS ith.' d-.. .' =~ .----:-~ _--'it' 1 '-~ c "r'--": 'I -It . ..' .-' ".' .ision..~ .sl. rt '0' .-::h--o. ...~ . "". J.. ...J.. ' gently.t ''''t··· .~.-."'.. .u" er [or.ide ---.ponse is to po..3."" '~~" I ..r as:ks wh.'f". '.'. ':-. . .era ry h:'.. . As one of those' whom IGenette cite's.! rs poeti ". :"~" "':j" '~'_\:...'.. ..But. I:' : ----. .~ 'iVVo¢l.g."- . JUI. '-'--~I'--"-- . at many.d a . . .~ inJ which d ':..r. .. ·'··-.' m-I'!e' '·y:'-._. I '-.l~ '1H aso Olie-rs".: '~'h'· Iearning .C1150S.--.ended 'm'l . unpretentious ~ claimine _~ .IJ.' :i- "j'.'b. beer . "' ._. "1 --. .. tna t t n. ~ h..-:..":IiIO'O····· t h·C}IV"·'C··' "m". lf ··'· .:t' ·R~··. . 'pOCJC th ....-' '~": -"'._ 1.p-iricai stud . m....IS lL...~:' ..' c :" -' •• ':. '1" . 1-'. .'. 1111 '..-:/~....tt:: -". '.

.._ . Cenette maintains ~[ "implies the examination.. -_-. J:. "'" __J..e 'US literary genres 10'( "architcxts.-liy.ro_ ..or durable links between p[a:r:~ ticular modes a-u.'en e ~ p'r-o'p'. ..tic '..:_- U.C . tile . 'be' renewed. .r than Arisrotle's own.. d histoi I'urea .5. .Qwe."" - 'I" ""'-- '". poe . .." £" f'diti 'h-' to . _ _'_:_' '-_ c"'i ~ '.II.\.._' that Call.-"0.._..--..-1' _.~-:_:gests we recognize that what 'we call ". also persistent' (love d ea th) .' ..t Copy" ·gh ted m a1. fight next '~'O its great archi textural predecessor.["nUI.'.cria .g''---..~-.. in.~~... I~ . ed..'n-i' an ·d-:S··:'U-'-I~h-" defin itio 'n-I' r--'e1q'" res tho u g~" h ·t. because 'we' CaJ1D:ot make sense 01: anym dIVll:U3..extent b:-:y".. 'W·hat Genette has accomplished.3!'VO. The study of these is what. .. ub '."..'ve'r.1itie '~'~' .e .:.. ''--'C_ ...are gr. -'- "_ ". 'Themes.". ' ' '·d: IX '" u-1n.~.. I. in a text no larg'e.'. He gives it to lIS . l~!Ir..""':_'. . h.agai. sug.."_ :5.eV"-.S':' "suid ed" ...~ _... '" ". G'-"~:'. this.ill.:'W' to' " . ." . '. a 'I' fo r con ._.' """...cultuur-"'I'dl..--_:'.oetlcs b text wi tho u r situatin g it: in. book that b.. -..1..S '[0' disencumber poetics of centuries of accrctions. 'The.'"'t".narration) and are therefore extremely persistent across time.'!i.a. ." 11..'.•.". ll!j. of whv Aristotle's Poetics hss ieself p oved." . l."0'.ll "'_" ...n. 'with.. " . IIL.t··· .' m iark.-'._ b 'y'-:-:. Wit have called "poerics't=-an old.' 1I.. ~."" __ .'. real 'history'.--. .' . _ _.. __~J.I"..". tll!j._ "~ :.. I-C" I.. :r-. since Aristotle.._'.1. _.". . -. ~ so durable.. you'n g one.[_-.and cultures... .'.gs..U1d in terms of a repertory of textual :p ossibilities.....g other things.1' 'I putansll IO:'~ traomonat 1-' terms mat concearl and anc confuse' their 0 bjects over time. bu '~' '1".__-. 'We need .ln~~ '~II~' here. . :.on.:~' ...~".."'.. Persistent .11.!I. certai n irreversible elemen ts in it.e.-..~clarified and refresh:ed" in. .elan..precise ly '. be described formally only by poetics. The history of litera ture is a. because it must always. and thus the taking into account.__. ical situations. _-"=. 11r fC' ~ id l p.modes are basic to the pragmati cs of Ian. he reminds u~ e _ __ y _ '".".~.~. :v-'-." A-· '5 . .. :_ .! [_1_.0.d themes giv.". ~_".I._. . courses and on shelves." _.lI. .I."'i '~IloJ ~ .'·'1 - t-· c-' I -. genres' ~ are best described as the mtersecrions of certain modes of enunciation and certain thematic concerns.._ ..t.'.~.1. .iIi.. of continuities. P !IIS' _.-tio -dl.·g P"O e --')I~~ '. book.~.guage itself (like... terms 0 f other texts :. ~ .'i'll'r···'·e·· .-I:('v' S.'.. and in doing SIO he has given 'us a.. .-. though.Anl.. science as Genette says and also ..!!..".r::. .. Even the study of literary transformation.~I" _ _ ~ _~ __ ~_ I..'" ' . .-.:.."".il.' '.

'.U..lvriau.r.".us" th." n?. "n. ':':iI"~'" "-'.~: 'l\.. the ad z.O:' 'f"..1L. y ."S"..._c..d ve.: rencn text m a b df If] P aces ~ handtul [0'1." makes it appropriate to modify this practice in.~'."'.e. lew:.J '".".":. an..if~"" immed... the author modified the 'F h " on .la.'~. vides a" decisive ad] ectivi ty' ~ cue" the: reader processes each of those 'words :3S a noun.t.rec.e.-[".'["'" I. __ "t.' ..('' )' ' '" '.'''''n 1'. ess 1. (French makes the distincrion: 1"?e":'n'''''''''~'·/J.l".:'.ces. 1'.'. .tio:o. m 'E\I'" t~sh ' ie wars ep. .1g1ish 'c:r. . rhie .""..'h' " " ".t.a.stc'ad. is.-"". rate.. .rcal instead of epic. ".Y'fC. .":""" '"' but t context lacks a str..'1''"'''' 't~~' -T"e nus.' artte . . un I tne context . nart'itb"H~~.'. ' ri tr~:-. . ical in. "taUQ..t.... .'... en th e .) :F'or rhe E:~.'''"~-.. " l'Jl :':' '__ '~'..""'i"'" ..'"::'[' ds e s.'.". 'fI': ."_-. :~.I .llauat.Trans-'I' a .of}..~lL." noun re IS essennai 1 ror ...~' er ''''"i: :...eria ." -..e·'~.'q.ue~'1'".' :.g.':'" '.. " ar d'".II I" IL.'" .~..-''~.3J.I]C ion b h as nouns anu ' as aqjecnves..s.te contex . '"':p'qu. of lrtlc~ and have placed "'f.g adjectivity cue' (a cue' that Ieads the reader to process the 'word instantaneously as.1 "tA"".yr._.ognlz. gmail . In this 'book" however.'n~ . one direction or the: other.::-. . ':": 't". .I.d-' .'~ the ." p.".e" W'.rea.iila.(... ' 'I' .er' ' 'ro . 1"" .yrlque) le 'r~. 'e '''''".n.:.. ::c' '" "-'ii" Copy" 'gh ted m a1.n[ a.' "ih:' '''' .rrAl' "':r(Jpe...eaojecnva"I" rorrn IS meant br th ne "'. W nenever".:.. '''''.: ..TO""' t. It net . rtis c: r .meant and when the adjective...p:rodiecti d bot .:i .["ilk' "-1J.C~'l"I:..r~" C' . ha ve 'used. . ._" .. ':. an adjective) ~ I have used ep.' .("". "'' ' ' ' ".

.r ~ 'V'J'io-S:'I~O'Y .itio_.... ~~.jl:-':-:'-:::~"'h'-....I.. o 'lift her ."-·:11-"'-" everr th . friend Lynch ~~hi. I. . IL_... .. . [~~ I'. "eW'lre('tlons."'.~I in 'a :p-~':p1111'Iii eod A·. :.Il._i'"_. J.. . " "hi' -' ..' 'V' .'1-f.:e·to. _I.ne. . ..~.~jamesjoyce._.. A Portra'i't ojt#"e Art'isl:' as 'rp""i rxew ". " ' not especially original." 1...U.." ..c_:..~. 1.a_. i._. _ '" ' '__':'___""::_ .. -' _ ".". l.u!'1'J' :U' (' N' "'U" ..._tep.'. [~."IW1~_..~·._~g(.esthe•tic lr""D.I.' .' -' _.• me d'tiea" e rela ..C._..•: th arr'0-"'-'[-' wnerem tne st .' 11 :9·"-':1". I' ..~ __ ._~ . ~-'. . [I-II .t' .~ ~i~'aI. as Joyce was well aware. .' .'·'11 ~"'_.. . ': i... ___:_...t _!Ii.a. Copy" 'gh ted m a1.th.-'. .]J$ . ~ '-!II ." I .~ . a 1111 IIg.: tr. [ill [Il ..._. _._. -. S. cited an o i · .L WI . '.~.he' nresenes his image in.or __ ~_ __ . .: k 'N'..[._::_ \. 'I'(-i ·~".--.r!l .'~"'. .:.. _''':''''1' .. ~. term .~~.:·I\r.~ .. r ·· '''' __ . ·-'r·... '.' . u inas ' u:~ '. ex.ro:)'ie\V'Ior_. ..I/.I fam ':.-. .". [IHI] .-. . a.\ I[ . '_' ~. . '.:. ... ~ rorm..r I..1~..'11 JI.~ ~~ ~ ~ A:r~. D' '.. ..c:_..I[ll .. ep "en was.···).-_ __ -. I .S[1'111.. n.9'[6.Ii.._ . 1 ' ~C' ...:"1"1". ~"".::.'~ .... r" e_.··• ._ .. UI .:i: .' . of the episoide . . . 'ulg_" ._.1 .. "".-ited '[....·"C 'll""n.. 't know whether Saint.eria .).11.to others :t~ll This trinan . . ' r .p..c":: "'.··I'g-l~•A. h is image m un1L. "..e maior ae. [[ .:. readily attrib.-.n Stenh .' ('1....-· I-I a ...~ 'Tl. ._ .--.~44.m irnmec ··d·· te . for .. '. .. .-..:1 tripartieion or even whether joyce was really '--.._ ~... .:'.__: . lOrm.'...."-r. "'T"h. :_.-..0". Q 'Yozu~~.r'.iut-·._".=[_..homas ever . -'...... [g.::reSS"lng himself '.1I. . .!.. the' dramatic It h torm wherem h presents. ~ "~. ..__:~_".....[.i._"~~.~_t:_ . e··:v'.1 lL .'..I J to ---Y" f the d: vision in''''O':' genres. -" "". ..:_= _ t.I'~~'''I''i"' with that 'P·~I'i'iII·S···~a.-.hcA added ironically that -'S'''~' 111 r "_ ._.'k··' "V':']ik. ..21..'--".. the.phen explains eo his il!"'~"!I!o I.r.... wherein...·']jit.: Arisstotle ..· .J ..._. proposed ' I...Imag..' ." '2'-1'·4''i -~ -N· . _ .. ".' .r".$.-':::g" ..0 exam plc of the ateribu tion from the pen of Ernes t Bovee =" ._..... I -e. ~ _.yrlc. Irene Behrens .of dis" ._ . ~ __ .. _ .Willi' [.._·. P ]~ .. ' .' C' I ... .AI..". . vI fij.... ..~:--.. such ..."'"S j ~.:'.··:""'" . r == ..r. " ..~.1 .r~'.. [.lSI stnenc W' as Ill.. ··t ·-0 hi ..C· ~.".6.. .". __ · rhe mI..._. .. . :......__ 'lr.'I. Man 19 .r-..: ... . 1I!.-:." .. he did -·b.'. a . "t 1I... ~. ..' . .". ~ ~ . a1.. epics 1 £0'-'[__ ~ the forrr 1. . itsel '1£' t'.1 ...'Lr::.e'._'_ '-..-. rate reranon . [I .._l __ .S. -..'I-.YI! in which Ste. nove nes_' "" even t. _ _ I...'~\. [[ II! ..~.p.' ~ ...! n- ~. m '''"..' mmserr. -. . covering -.1. theory of the thre .e: ..-' 11.'!"ll.. . .. .' rorm .. ..__ _ __ __ _ ".~ I"._C. the ... U~ .-.[ ..._.. V . I.._..~"'.u. _. ... _.•. csring .JI _ .~.r .l\.resen.. . _ _ __ ____ _~ "!.-. " mediate relation to himself and to others.. for some time.... [H...' h "':. I U. .031· air -...... j... " ...A~' P'-:-~'~:-:'. ": .' ."T.0[.c.. . '.' [ I[ 1.[.. -. me r. dY"'" 0'-· fl' rhe.:.:su.11 ..in the fi...el. IL.. . .". .. '1 have n oted here and there ·. h is.. _. ") naif '~.....~ II.11 U III J~ ."\.h... If': .10'11' v . w·..···q. --.._S"". are l".~ .. ~ .. _.f?' c. I • I..Jl .. oug 1 "his "E~ .C .·_ ~ don . _ r·· _ __ _ _ - ~ - ..") 77' . =~.' I ~-....'.::_.:.J. 1111.:. .)..' . '6-.~I'~O M:":'~"..'iQ!. "'" e- ..tripartition has 'been.. ~ .. .r.~ V~.i!'t' ·(I'S· .

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and I d lram atic 'g~',e"'n""r"e', "),, and im rme 'd"ate I'y"" refu ':t: ed ,~,~ '" i a '_, ,_.11"", _' hil '.' "d d ~, wtu e asserting rb at it 'was a1 d- very wic :,es,prea.':'"J" ',' ~ rea ",y _ Bur -as we will see, her clarification did not keep others from r.,.pea _.~n g'-", ,.e offen 11se -U' . ndoubtedly .~.'~.. part~ bere ". ,[-"1'""-'- _:' th .·.111~-'1 .. Ir. . u .". .."1 in', ,.,. , . . c:ause the error (or rather ehe retrospec tive_ illusion that _ iaus __ e_ = o_, =,. e ~I"' ; _ _ ___ _ . is in question here) :is deeply rooted in OU'f conscious or uncons cious, literary minds ~ Besides her clarification itself was 'not entirely untainted by the tradition, she was denouncing, for she wondered in ,3 U seriou sness how it came about that the traditional tripareition did not ap... , ·Ac: "-bl.. pear m Aristot 1- anad s ne toun d•.'OD.'e possible reason In e, the fa ct tha t. Greek 1yricis m 'was too, closel y ass 0 ciated with music to, be included within, poe tics," But tragedy was just as, cl,ose,l'y associated 'with music; and lyric is absent from, Aristotle's Poetics for a, much more' basic reas,o:n-a reason that needs only to 'be perceived for the -qu"":8,+'';;0'''''1,[1-- itself '[-~IO, '," lose a n':y",' k'ind of releva nc e. But not, apparently, any raison d'etre; "wedo not easil y forgo projecting onto the foundin g text of classical ':P":o'--"l·,'C"S" a fund amrental '..... _'.'. of "rn odern", ~_. _' ... ~_., '. _ ich e•. Pioecics (wh , .... (. ...... ' 1~. ~a't.~ tenet ._" ."__ ~~, - II ~111- fl-']11 actuany, as 'we wu otten see, reauy means roman,dC po ... , etics), and perhaps the theoretical consequences of the sroiection t Fo' ',' •... n "ilJ-" ,1"il,l .. P-'-:.11':.:' ..... ".:1. " re unfo 'r- u nate ,iii,"'"rr by U.,"s1 11r-p' g:, tha [, r emote cestry, the rel .... ively recen (,:heory of the "three mai or t ''"JI! genres' '0.0,[ only lay'S claim, '(.'0 ancientness ~ and thus to an appearance or presumption of being eternal and therefo re self-evident; it also misappropriates for the
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benefit of its three generic insti tntions :a natural foundaeion t':I", A',':,""r,;'l~,~i~~,rl,,-, P.-'), before him had estabato ,,3 IO.l}._13at _ ~,_,_:5 ~O'I!i._e,~"ii~d~1 H_ "_ lished, perhaps more legitimately, for something very' differenr. This knot of confusions, quid pro 'quos'l and unnoticed substitutions that 'has lain at the' heart of 'We:ste'rn poetics for several centurles is, what :1want to tryto untangle a 'bit"
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'. ae' ~l. .H.' . I~ 'I i· '_"_'l. "~... _:' ..._.·_ .'II!r.' £:[0..ury·· .._ . c ..' .~ _I .e cette d .-..___ -.3. .~~"... drttercnce--ethear ':"'.iI' r' :' '. on_ -y~.] \ __ :_....1 . sara chap~'ter~ 'with ..AU emphases all attributions are miner. '. '~ ' __ ' . .g The doctrine in question is Batteux's r··' c.t 'wa._ '-"_' Keep i-CI:' In.~II~.faux..wid .. added t t~ ~= .'. .' --/ '. ' ..-.reprint of .J . 0'1'" Pl ...')' ". '1'" "'. '----'-·----'-'1----'.y P..(--'N' .rlstote "':11 "'A' .:." . so wioespreac fo-...c Dictionary of tile Sdencos 0:1" .6. '_'" .. '. 't- .-..- i:1 '.edi..r.:...ip'~-~c' this chapter is almost more than we could have hoped c. _ t= l. :..'.e th--....._-. .1 paradoxically his mistake demonstrates th. 2')" _.'~"J' JI:~' ":7""9--:'-)'" M·· ._..-..:"'_. -._...1..U...."'. th massive 51 .Ar. --" '/" ~~'_" .~e en_ :.: .6 therine Por rer .: ':. :'11 i3 ___tlJ].er. 0"'f' rh:(.5. -_.. ':~nto. he subject o. Is in -.ence re E~the Poetics m .f':' .-A. ..-. tnat ne thinks 'he is..' I ..'.. ••• ~ [!~.._ '_-.e: 1-.'" '·'d·· 'LC-.:__:__:.-. 1.' . Doctrine . The title: of P--'r.11" .l.". '"rs .. is unaware 01.'. denouncing.. -:.___:__ !""!J~!!""!J'... _. «: t" .. "[="ib ..' .!"""!"':_."~III".plnS U~'-.: '~'~ 15-'''l· .~' .IJ!rQu.. .6:.: a..fU::lfU!$.d e ···· .. :.\i.'D .-'.'_ V·~'.-. "'_.-...'.'''). ana th• "'b·.' 1_.Li...L ..46) in the first volume of Les s . '. acaec to hi essayL-' J!£.:.. 'j' i'I:" I '.l .' r s re"d' ·.s added on~ In tlt.S .op.' I .' ~. .:re" A-' it' th a'!-.IIr. r. ')'1' .:.. l..1311 . '.~ ~_ . .···.- . _-_-._~ ....'.:_: ..'. ---~'-:'" .C S...DiVers. . I . '" = say (originally published in. l I.... in." m . ..'-...-----' '. O'liviie:r' (Paris: G'.. :".-"H-onki .B':: ... . )-ric zenresv and f y' 0·.. res:s.~ _':~['. '~ d 'lIS '-. .!'}1:" n'0" 'n" to. tIiIi '.-..and P'08'1: roman tic) literary theorists 'blindly' project their own contributions onto .!Ii 11 .. .. as we 'win see is the' retrcsp ective illusion J.II\-' "In 11'76'-'4.~.enty [B".inc. . .. -.. - id kh .---. d-d . "...1" .--.-'.. o.-_. . " " ~ .I·~.._."t.~ __ ' .-. ~u' '.. · ~'J vl.-. '['.J--h-'. '...:. '.' '1'1 y"A'-' :_".. :[1.."._~~_~~. =' .Il"_... :__:.is ending' 'was made ..~_. trans.': ~.i... OS .:.:. " .'t·· ". ... U'-..c> .'-... . Ao. ... _ ..:..-t'··· .nres"'._-. 1-". . 'Of the' m. ....r/tile'o:rJe .' .-~'[. _.rhe -...__rc__ .. Or'r tne the most part the iI!Ii.1:.ial.est con' £"--'orme a doctrme .:rts Obeying One . chapter that Abb'e Bat----. __ . :OI3..::" 'T'h· ... ~.P .ter.Jp_'. that he e 10UR..(._.'=rs '6:2"~:<~< '0'-'" s~. '-". - (That This...."~ . :.... . '1' .." 's..1 ~ .edition.re: -:1 Li1'~'DuaQ'e tran -:S·c···· ~... al. their own d "tr: . '1'" : .ikh .. •• '_"_.-. ndsalan -.B"" akh ~-0. _. _..:. ".• : ·.:..'. -'-' ranee.!I. . .'. .:. 'if'''::II'tl':riI'i(!' ~. including poetry.u..!""'!.t'Ie'ta:ken. ._:f.c' ·'..A-' sts -. II ..r. .-.• " 1.-.w~:sl' 119"'7". J Estlreti.. ....'I'[]'...'.. -----.~1'-'9. _..:..-..d ".... _".r~..t W3lS . H with '_ ''--'~'. ~..". ..e. 's a un mem e (The Fine A.~ .":.0 ray..d .':'l.._. :.'.' . ~a._ " h '-t h imitanon 0:: rair nature " ~. We' find it' as early as the eighteenth century.':' .. S-.. :-:'..:'~ . ot ennrery a:n.a~'ep:~--~r:e =~ ~ . .:".-.L.~ ..·:·4.'.'.._ '_' _. "ge. " . j]~L..7·'~. :'...' ..' hei istone. -:.'. .. L!"'!'Q . ll.'.' :fior: .. from 'the' text.~ .nmon..O.. .·a.-"-'. ····d'-I....:. r "i."..ti ..( . !I' ~..".al.-:.]..." ~ ".J:.-1-' ..1.a:w):.~ .. .' ..apt..:... of-. nat t. 1'978)..ch.• .. _ I" c'. hy· 'r which modern '---":"::....n.: . "". T-n-I 1·~ ch apter first appeared in th .!""'!' '_ . ._.'..-.. '~7.. '_"" __ ..' (preromantic . -. • _I .. -__ cei - 1-}-..ous .. _.-1_.roma n tic .!"""!'_____!~ [..-.! 1"".Im. ·15r.1. 'c'.e' :posthum.--. .invention of the twentieth century. C:"Q.. a. --." ._".:... . . " ..I~1 .. n"urce'uIl '__ ew.ria..'-. general theory on h sote vtaw .id 0._.. '.' .cria . f"'.t.he es~I.1 . ":'-:::' -'Ii .'.. as rhe ae " ~ -" fine arts..'. ...-. ' Copy" 'gh ted m a1. Fer what is important.-' '. ' ._:n "..du riOttH1U. :." .:. .-.. .. ._:_:..ato.''_-. '_ .t ~]-' '0''b~~ 'B·.. .... _.} -":':"J~~'I_1 .teu X.'-.. is 'no enti _ ..-~. . J' r . -.~ = _. " .=.824 th. r.. bu t for' ... or 1...~' .'very lgno ._.._ rio 0 the _ eory or ... a.5 WJ.~...... ...--" '''. -.IL· ". Aristotl~~-..ii1~..-.. ~' s: wald Ducrot and Tzvetan Todorov....q:ue et .a'Poes:ie' des 'Ve:rs~ t'ha. 414.-.. ad .. ':_' .a..'''' .. .''-. f'-..: ' . ····1··· .:-"1-" own modermty.. Encyc:/."'... :.. I.. .3v. limard. .-..·. S:.

:" t- ·'::c::_'-..··I 'I-:____::__'-.~. rocuses on.genI"es o:r forms (dith.'._ '0:£1-" P'-..e.'b~ . th . 1.~ ." ._._. I' 1-" :1 1. \. ~. r.. " '-....~S As one can see. l~'_ " . c"..~..t)_ __ '_" '!Ii - .:_:':.'1.Di'onysu~t' . =t :. seem$_O 't'·-·c. chapter...' .[..... in his own trans Iation: "L es mots co m P '0..f.. I I.. .I ' - "..._ 1"....:____ say. .. .-. (h_erOIC verses" rna t..[lm. I- "..: ·11...o·:'. !Ij.r.' V.. ...m.." . ..' Wh. .-. vid_oS the ...~:~-....: .=._lt_l:J.. llro' -la.g t'he ~~lyric d···.' . ""..ee.:a·.' h-I."...'il -~.. ."'- -- ~ ~ _.' hi .a.J- :"'\-"~:.-::-=-1 bo -[[ ..cho.11:11 ". "TI dOl ~o. am.ca'bl:bsh. :rea.. ':."'T<lh· '-.._:: that ristotle di·] :d.-... _ ._. __ = _. -..i!' ". '!II .-" ' ' .' 3l a. " '" ~ 1:..-I lld. bv A'·ristotle's t'-'~--'m·Iii:'. ID.."..-...h ~c' . -. ~". .I'd" '€:I' '-J~Q'-. _I:.. ':_'"1'..-1 t r a..se' o...s . ~l :_'' .. no .'11 L" 11:'. . three color . I ~.'...~'..~_~.. . B': tte 'i·' . -Fr"'lil'n·.'. -:-.:'vr '---0'" rd .._ ~ '.B.::.. C ''C'.'... ·W·n a··-· ..eln._.'ire-. .fla ('''' bi verses.._ .>-I.ly~r'l.y.::d: .'P·~'I-~·'S-: . _:..e a bbe ~..'.~ ora· .'._""_~ _'_11 [ .... ~ ." - ''ll . ~ Copy" "gh ted m a1.-. .. -.·:-.aux ·It yram bess. .: . _.. h -. lar .. styte.." g ta '.e .n.00.lI.£_lo._...rds m ade ':-_.". . ":" trage d y an...' .:_.. Th:e Artfdtext .'I·:·S·-· o J.. I:: Im... b' " .-' ' .:e.'. ..':. to[llC.. .---... .-. .mon.___: _:____ .1 .~ ~ b 't. .r C. _ .e) '.ey_.ge :in._:l~h.es 'bctw'een Idithy:r.1. .. .m..· . t-'h: "::l"'~'~'~-' I'ea.-. .I:': -e. of .'1 ~ : .11.._.y. " ..y¥ .A~~~L~ ."..a.. . *"'-·=-yl-:·· ·.'.n _. '>". I.a.· . . .•• 1 . I!j.~ '.":' th e epi c.S:.' .]1'..o..' J acqu. 22..k:n. n: here A~"-'[.e d·' ameter as epic ano to lam:'.!iZ\ r. "''\.--.--.-' ."" ~" '.. .:l. a....:_____:' •.more parl"lCU_a...o'w'n 'b " ]1 « .. -'1 ..~ _ .<_"': '.' 1 _" ':___.thus.-. :_'..u.. "ree co_ors ar p -: 0. .'''.. . . ... .._ Piti"O-""'P·'· riate t-"IO: dithyrambs rare words to epics and ''''--.. '_._.-_.'~-··'I·t-'. es.' '. ~··a't:t.e 11 .~~'. ...' ~:..r.:. . I d·· [... ]. h.. •..'-'~-".ers of 'to.""it'l:l"t.·.y' ... ."".ay' t_-~e d~h form" for' almo st no lex:a.. ~ -" Jl- ""..6 '\r.. _'11. .it a.".yr.h '.. :. I '.dHy classify' .lC...--.'_ '. poetry ~-3: n 1 r:.J. _~eL_egrf{q .= _:. 'cl ".~" !I!l~.~ et le:s tropes aux drames" (The' -.'.' dire c·io . etf)'p'-.m. m.. ....a.b.[ -' a.. which he 'bases. :hono:r . come dv..'. ---' _ .d stylistic methods-e-although Batteu S··:'' _'-·-'C·'..[ e..:" ..C·_:_·~I .~-----. .e_. .. I..1S~" [e"sse. ~ I.[ y.._etry into three genre s or .'d."" . .. ~ ".W'f'.-.:' ._ '.'.-._ [I t -11.._..' '.emonst ra ring ".~.L:e' .-. .~ln. '.•. 1"'. J •••• Ii".··. ." 1':-' -- '-'_C' =-- iI" .'.on.··.as c.-11'-'·-" '! .. .I~~.~ ·'1 1'- '.Ii.d '1 '.~a.l es '". V-1Lr. 8'0 .·d.. '0'. ...ann "h:.~.u' I"--:'__~=-':-::_-: 6 '. inusites aux epope'es.'..t ) :1 '..:.· 6. . ' 1 . the Poetics 0.'~ d acty 1'~ "ex .._. 'i .'1 IC ' i.res -': _:.a...' '! '.' _ ___:_.:p: I::re :"A=Cl~t_ly n.'.'.-.t ".' h.....c poetry".'t .s-']-] .. :3's' 'B·:·-.of it fle'main:..-_.:__:_ :. ."7: 0' .d.it'l.--*.-' ." 1- .i _.4 . :.. ---' -=--:..0. .9.UX -'>~I~-II-'e:d. 1'-'-'.C""'-':_' . his .Y .1. .r lyri c'-' e etr yo: .g three ..····)-'1 :-'" ': •.1':In" "'Ij']I]._.a.) I.~ ~ iam' ·I).'1'"-'.-rrowingI C....01..~ r :_.'I:· '... . '. .epic. 1·'..··i:.~. 'C. " . Tfh... _. '. -:".-· --" ~tllla '~ A·c: . "--'._.. as a ("choral song i. .~= -I . ..se.:1 •••._ .-:' ¥[ . . ....t._ '1 _~~JU Il'~~_.ram..:. ·.. I .: 'J.at w'e :s till nleed to e'v'alu.--..'._esc.as 'W'. "'~ ". :.-'"' -·'1'1._: '_' ".n.~=== . .~*. .." t "e d . _..d:r.ro. •.'.ses ·d: PJ]'U'~'l··e·urs m iots ·C-O·-·l··~ e ·1····: 1:'1.. W'-'0' 'f_ :.-.:[ces...oweve'f.n tha .L"'.....-..I.· __.IS~ ."..'-' u-'p of ~se'-"-e' ra l'..'.eu'X.speciaiemenr ~'.Q'. · : ~. 1'1 ·..'.. ·.. .of . .S 'not a w'e_:·. . .:_.".oml"Y:l '___... I I··....I .'-t .t l £'_ -- iii t un. "_" ~ 9 ~.atic dialog:u.-.11" :·c· . ..~I·· I '.e 1".-. .... .. lui...""'" '". ..I .Lr..:"k:'. 'but s. - 'I:' .This comes at the end ."'P" . rrat ~v·'. ):" 11 '1' .J A. _<.r\fX. qnesnons 0" I le: '~"or" :.. ~.. the -'. .' .a:m.I.1" """'--1'''- - ""1'" c . .. ". d.:1. 0. rhos f tb dithv amb CO"Q"S.. ". - __ c__ · C·-.'~...0. __ " t_. .ples ..- I :2-.ate is th'e eq'uivalence :Batteu:x.. -' . .'.' _ .. :'.cria ."'_ ..' .L..pi -11"['"_" -. ·c. ..~··. ·-c-. to dramas)'...' "L" et u-:S" overlo o"'k'~ rhis slig'hr accentuan .. at issue here' is the approp ria te linkage between :genres an. "0·-... '. .r. .a.0_ [ " .. J "! .crib'e it. '''~''''''~'~~.. rr " .ee d R-' I" __ . an•..~J1 . -'[. res ' mots vrennent ·-.~.a. .r-:s' a--e" m 0-' . .__ . olr comic dialogue) as "drama..: .'..~ ~ ::~_' ~.~" ·d--] aubt the ..e (P" a.~_......' • . ~ '1.I". "" .' __ -_.'If.ppo. ~~" ..t..y:ra:m.. '_' '_ ._::__\-: ':--:. " di hv P .a..] .. -~.. 1. '._::. ". ·T'b .. /i " .o n. :_...ragu:.~ .1 ·..lCd. ~.h:' apiter co n centrates .:=--. ..'which . ·-1..).m'b a:n.a. t-e~---m"-" from Horacee·... I.l'"yr(l..- .1 U. .\~. ~ ")II I.-.r .: .in'.-o.. ..ars genle:ra'~'Iy d:es.:_.r n°.' ....::.--. . :' .claim~ and the quotation is 'worth repeating.e" quotes the plass.".·re·e ba =-.__ W01Ll~.. II" ." .... ..:_: ".1 'lor-ms.V-.-. ." I' ".' ·1 .US .

-.1:0all.Z I[H[ _..'...ge ...')".10 ((·.". t t .:llndins . .~·· '..' '1" .·. . ." .. '~I 8 : ~ :I!I \19" '.pe than '".-:.'9.~:. .~ .ficant T·. .'. _.:y 'moor . he specifies that.I. modes and. was originally narrative and Iater became "mim . the' Homeri c Prob! ems.J ag... . _.'. " In.I "..y.~~S'..2~~IIQ!. -:. 1 I" na 9~ .e" 'n' ·0·"rm·"I·le·.ll"~·'. lrn. .POSl""On.y" .. . e -'I!." with the .~. "-.'-".." r._ . l:'~ d·.:.o: c se m tie.fifth century. y...::'--. "_ III~ 'III I'~....l. Aristotle does nor mention the dithyramb anywhere .. :rtsto. __ .~ • ~ pU.~.sa....es .'. . _. ..·.. D.-.:. . . t [P' .' PtOle2.'.uhUc· 394 c.. :th.·!II·!II·] -that is dram . I ..'._ .appreciate t ae ~agnl~~.' ·s·:up.cria . . 1Ii Ei:.I aurh'10· xizes us to claim that i· Arissotl . _.e._ it:) . ...arra~.. 7 who say'S that "nothing corresponds better to our lyric :po etry.. .'11:· ~..••. [.". a rorerunner . ·D'·····.··f·:'I. ' I.'2""' '... ···It". c zod: nus. ~'. '_'11.Ie. . __ ali. B'3 _ ·ellx. ..the cion c'.--.apd..:. -.. A-' ~ .. r.• tic 8 A-".'Jla. . . . . . ... the dirhvramb of the fourth ceneurv . IS 'slgnl. ._l.~ otr er_.'"c"p~.. to "."_ '. c'·:.' piece of heroic narranon.. .v.. ..." an .• ""Y"" ..rl. . without dialogue...a tis . ...~.: .. . __ . 0" _I . ~·c..'..--ve..go th " :.ry.as the consummate example of poetry th. d-·'·II·. 1 I-.-. .to have been.• '..•. I I It~. ··d·'h~'.·lonYSD5 .1 .3 ii:J.. o: moar rna have been..~.Rep. the dithvramb illustrates the__ .t:#:·m'' l ..aris: . ..d "G".-."'" .. Poetics." . 19--: '9 :'_". Ql'··V.'[I·1i HI J:tIHO~' [i1 Copy" 'gh ted m a1.preserved-.rerer . .-." '1.:ii-OI··S a.tlon..l ~ .. mus tea·'110 .. ~ :..._""'._: '.0: mly ·0: . h '0" But".. ·C•."'' 18-" 'b.. ·t""-I·. I~~ t . d..'. Wit t. "~_.. '."i:I····· ··:b.Y n._'" _.g."'" ' .-. l~. [.ne ...'··1·· . I [ Ai. Plato he 'm':c':rion ...pp..tI.£. J..et ~.IS a..._.'._.t. __ Iyric rtsoe' .P·>'·'I··d·l. ..: ".ato. to. y H . in Bmw re et tA.-.· 'i. ' .. "~'. '11 1"'1' ".' _r : ... .... he could have.fil~le··J!'l1 Md: !ir. .4 1 . pa..J H I ·c-:....--del ' IS rortion IS ... rrrative...ments ·-.- -..".._-·d-. n '""__.. a. .' -.e PI01U t ·a w. ..m.-' 'i'ct as.. choir.'.y ~h '.-.::d. 'r~: "W'. ieant.'.'f".'._-..-. I...· "1. n dO' ".. 1\.. . t . ~Mi-mesis et ena:nciation.].·i' iificance more ·fi···1'1.d: me :IS I. genre ·-'qlU:it-c .: as t··hap 'P.. . .. .. 'C'._..r '.e·ristotle :':~ A:-_-' ...-. -.. . dis .1 ''''i'-.cance ru 1·.A riot' IIH. ""..-0 the Ira. _.voca.. .. e 0= com ... &'-r ~ '.' was ..·.·:.....:'..1. 'e'~ "'r Sap .lle.~.·· I" = '0' .'...().:XI'O:r..' '- ••.. : ~(I.l..• u .... '" .. the ···d·~·'0--:·f·' ·P:l·'n.·~ . ~'~. "1'7'~".~~.ZY.. .l ... ust be a..7)~: (··:·0····· ·c' '-d'~ 'C-. _ .' j c •• .IJ.". "~i"L:-. ~ .1 .. __ ~ __ "".::'·.'LJl1. ". ' .' .f... _. ..v.ilf' R ~ ·. '. the in tro d u cti on of lyric solos.' ._.. . ".c..11.~... _r . _'l. sacred or heroic subjects more or less associated.~:('0:-" Plato}.'.>. r' .Cl"es e... ". hich .i(·d..)-:_-..renuon. " ...-IS Ii-. I __ ~_... . 1. the form.re.-:. the lyric song in honor of Dionysus .-.s. .-... .. ~...··U'-c tria d The _I... '. ""7 . .. . oc.:ato'.. _.. of (-~""-"..1' .. ..--.JLler . !L.' ·3..'!o. I •..'. _.. __ .8··'•.·. I .II]. I!"'lt seems that at the' beginning of the ." p· ... :C:···:~[ Ar~:1\iurr !"""!J_-_. r-aI. ..~ n~ tr. a r "'n' ~ the diehyramb .c.. 'I ::.ra·m. ~ u _..'-...[I·O·.'C.b appears. . sung by' a. for ex .·t"[a.or so.··~~rieiu' 19'7~·6-]'. _ 11 I I IIiIr." [Roselyne Dupont .:. . un d-I]-..c'ven...." '..J.an d'l reaenng 1.:.·::h'I.''.. .__· _ . - . E' J' P'l poel:~rque:s: u:~·ct.. . .11 "'[[t ...--. : ····1 .:S. " '''.:··.·..: . .!"""!_ P 'r'-~s'_-S'~' ·di~." .'m(-:~ ..e Lll .~JC'._""".'.:~a·· . ..'-.~ .. _.. ~uulng ~O [.. r that . A." an assereion tha t gives short shrifl to.-.menm ... ". &.c .._ . :o~"ere'j .(':·.. ~a..! l . in a 11 the. .f"'e:: p'.. '1' h .. vmmes.. 1 .0·····.ng it'.__ ". . y .---..• ' '. f tragedy .·:·fi···· .:..-.~ T'h'-c-. '~:' ~hl.. ···i·.llS Nothin g--" thiere then .:...m·3-Y have dealt with.' .. a..)"c:::k·o." p:: .o~.) "_"~ " .1:.':.~~..b' 11.cco.o'C_ :.c·:···'·-·.1lCJJil ~. . ~' d'H··.J I . '.' c___ •• I! I~ 11.". '.. 1 • '..Ii. ..'[. ]. . '~. 1.. _ .ran [.ji. ..ut\es:'·:.C·'·0··' 1' .9.~_...I-JI..'v. b.' iii-..-.... ....Ii. sanction ·t:O" the illu ~·t. It .. .~: ..'_" ·c~'li 'm':b'rj I" ..tI.'. _ _.' ··.g:..- _.:...fe· .' . [._'~ ~.·.. _ .... . 1""':'1" 'I'· '7""~ 1144····~. b..I!.' the... w .5·· ·f.eor. . ' ..:.. ~~:n "'O·. a ' ..' "_" I' " . ..: 'I..' ~ 1 --1'1...'G.d:""".' .P fa . .D:· •.d:ith.. '.~. h ~t except t'IO --6 eo . invoke :..--:-:-:~"'.i':' rr c nnxm g 0.. !3..

('. e "t" :-lC· d ~ . other war. J. [. narrative (Ilaple d'.....' '1'1 :'C" '.--.92c) and glosses it as.'..c'!iw .. ~~"'. meaning srye"..a':t'0 ..t :". ''''-. "'~~ iii. provisional concession to the vulgate.I.' . as a...- = ".m'.e=--th a t IS.._-.'" I('l:':'-"-' p" nt ' e "". --' 1orms:"" It can b-'"' ' purery ~'-'''' . to..." \.' ... 1'1~-..1·Qr.trns." h~ra c ters) ..-hi. .ic['..' .'" presen ."_-'."..-: 1'0een C.. I_:_I :.o-". W-hiicn 'IL :. .r: -.." d eX~5 this antithetical value: out of context the most faithful transu~ _fans lations 'would.' J-Il·" ~ cp= ~~~ntmg _irt __~_....' ~~~~sera..s. --" ~~-" .". 1 -'h. resent shortcomings esoe ciall y. the third book of the .e $'OU . .'. '-. '.irn'e.erm..--: mcorrecr and tnat '.. .. 'P-]:'1IIIi". ~~= u 'l" .it is not): the poet should not rep'. ..~~~~~.."._ ~ _ .'.retturn ... that sometmng .'.Repu:b._·.. ." I."'. "d..e .. as we know rhetoric limits lexis to "" ' "...." . .·b: ed 'I·'-t to"} !L..' .=.. _ ._~ '.s' 0 tie poets works. is .-'... "'_" .' . I'" I..+uO 'no..3ve 10. ha lek . _~.: aeor s 1. .. '" .-'-1-' .." the 'L'O'_-'I.:" " ..wo twc _" _ __ _ _~ _ ~ . " .JJ ' .s . (. ~ . .J Copyr "gh ted m a\cri a . . " "" :Ii' i" '" "-' '-' I bl' '. -..0 often ...-.. -.. --".. . ~-. "". on rh e "C". It is Pla.e "'-: ."'. " . -. ....li. " ".-'r.' in g'--..nethine enurery anrerent 15 involved.·e: 'T:.-.'." rd '.~ -.':.tton! C 'the matter of spee ch''~)and . . r . ne -alizing (though all 1:0. be ~ 'discou rse' ~and ~.' 1l1J. as "-.~ 'f" __ - ~~ .'':: _ .e.< .' " C':_~ . 'k"'" ...".-" '. -'. _' te ~ j"' ~~[l' T~~ .'-. .:'-" I \.D'.... is a. " .ltr--.ansra ti ".-.~..m. . .[~ _---. oe -..totl '~..'._ . as 1:0 the theater. '....__:..e . to tt m ust once a..no t..ce tnum nh anr -T"h"'"seconc . . narrative 1(11& iio isis): of past.from the stare with..' './2:oS' I ekteon C 'the manner of speech") Subsequently.au-re b tw.. 1"" '- ·C. the usr "n-reo-e-rr : 'tc svstem if gen res rha.~ ::.._.• "' J _..al~~ .... '.'I. rods -" roes. "-... .in '. h oasicai 'f S.rons or .".."." . '1"·" tu . ~'..ds... "[U~ 1(-1-1 '..1':..to himself ·" 'who constructs the opposition.of jO].'-.~I-~: ..:.. C'O"... '.'.::.. 'V'F--U~e as rmse 'b'l or V'''. be: meanJD.-":.". _- '_ ~=- ... -e:cto _. d". ne ..'._. I " '. ·rl·.-. .--'j:'" '/ h \. _'.· 'il 1 ...!!. . it can he mimetic (ai'a ..y~ .' ••• J . diction . '.Plato justine's his wellknown _ decision to expel .. . ~~...-"".-. . '. veloped .-: n c.''" .·..' '_' .... . sets of consideration co' The first bears on the eontenr '(""~'A'_' DIIs-'~~ h "'.. '.__ .iI" '~' __ "-.. ...' . Ill. I say "system of genres' . " "...)" ... or 'to: an b:e "m~ .urn.an· . _ ''II __'" .. .8 W' "-._.!IJ.' '.' .oears' .... aroa'd' sense can rake t aree 'C"'. .g the mode oj representation ~]O Every :p'oem. _I. . ~.' ". I.~." ~. "'~ poiets JI"r~ .. "'1''''-- !II ".""..·l~'·..' ." . '. .course th t-. but we will soon see' that the terr IS incorrect ani. and should certainly not promote shortcomings by renresen -. "'I' "1-. .d he'r'" " . . . Jl_ _ .eXlS" ~"':')'" . ~.010:['lOU. b way or-' -' d'" oy cia''. r or future even ts: n arrati ve in h .go.' ·dl··· . xed" '(': in .11 _." -.3.'.~ :.~.-:JIIJII .~~.ogos . [T: rans: 1--"'< .' . = '.". . _- '. a pno:rl _..+. ~ WI. h auld'_ b ... re: fro ..-..' . Ii. .eI" .1.~ . ..~ -' 1-'. . . Q~ .".g.t.Ardasex t e '. '1-"': diffe -.:__ ~.eive d an d A. erm ~".:__' .:_ ..:.'" .: . h ~hh f' seOS/-'ln.. . .i~g'esis)... ""k" .:. "'" I I ' 0...• . '''li.to· ii'll' r.'. th .'0"" :'f'.

.cl 1··0····· -.. . to . ~ .a. "'It ~'. _ -. ". =' '_ ...' '112° '3'3-"'" an. "I 'It -~I-~ ·-·-.. rhe mixed to epic....'~_..._-'_ _'" _'. ucou -.~.A .:Al ""hI v.. '.lIlo. ..:-" :.' "_.'----_. . '110. '!I - Copy" 'gh ted m a1.cria ..<' . hoc.c' rae b In mooem . I ··-" . .. .-'.Y tuustranont. .i' --~d .~-:.".. 1 ." r - - Ii J ~ I~I~ -. -. _.b." - I ~. ..f' . ano w.Y the J: ~ ideri 1: h rorrns 0...:~..~'br. a fi" . • I discuss them'_' '~H .. y "~." -" . . -"') :T'h"re . _-. ~'..'". .yr.:me p'u.s. -' - " • -...l. ·biie representationlik .. .-.)·.."_ -' . I ~ d" isnnguishedd bPI ato ies f' rezts ~ '" "y . ole 'r.~---. of course.-~ .I tc__e co[.. ': •• '!l . ~ :.. ~' "".'~....._~..r d -.' Plato's d em ton stration 'u . "rmmenc '.I"~ g. tornort all other forms of Iirerature (includin g....'. . .'.e' ·.~'-. DI':_) . ~ '1 .~ - ~ - "'...iato i h ere rs considering OOj. -' . I' r. .-. II '_ .'.1-y'" "~" "1:'" ~.- .'''' 'A~ .ence.. poetry-e-ano d. ' '. .'.1' . . or representattlona~:: po.~ J'l ~ E--I' -ew1..'.•• - •- :..-t.nell U ni vC.-.'.i:n." ..'.-"-reports events.I..9 other words .."'i''01iii'._". -_.~. ~ ..1 . - . . _. Homer) ~ Here I will not .".. -" ...1. comedy.~ lli. .a.'. ~-.-.)1 ~.0"0' back over the derails o·-.'was not.-'l. . tater b-' cane d t h " poenc genres :. ~I- __ .-. . .~... . .1Ct1:Ve'.. ."."1-· system co..~... ' . pos:s.1 _l •._' ._. pi'.-·d-· """--' '.· d' c. . --.. (I th.....~J.~ "-. ': etry. ."" - -'". and the :purc' narrative tlo~""'eslp.. " ' bs -".: ·C: ·o.. --.'.~. .I. u ce QU. ..ca: Cot.._.ear 1.resplon~.t ." 11 ~. .__.r-~\e-:~S".---h' ..'. -' . _. 1:'h~"-:.. of course.-sometimes.-.. ~~ .-...' ..l ~1!.. -"._ ..' d. V:IO'US"I:Y' '. ( mansta pOu... b l~I~ •.·· ~'h~" e ·V"'Oryl-·:··'··.iL.. novei I 0..' '" 'il". ... r . ~_ . 'P"l]..e :_~.' p'Oln.own."'_.. .. "..-. ~'_.. '(-'N'ew.. -PI ..:__.1uma 0":f" n e mimetic ana rruxeo . . •.~ .t.. - '..~.- "-" _. _ uan tor .~ d or hi well-known c eva._-. . -. ~ .... ~ ~ . ".. principle. .::.'f ..c__._.' I sl. "'.-1L.. _..' _ I ' .'. tu.. _. th. _ '''''" '"'1. umora U""~nlvers.-'~ -.. aeove ai ..... II.finition S . .16. QU.-. .~ ."_'_ '-". I:__· .I.:_."-':' )·... wm1. 19°2':1). 'Iih h~' . tnearerr. !Ii iii" "!I :!I .~~ unaware of lyric poetry but he excludes it: 'here' with a. 'l~""-:'" 111 'r-:..(-."'~l~·. .rl I .~ .~ th "'. ~ ~ deliberately restrictive d:efinition -3 restriction perhaps ad.In prose. " " ..1IS. _'. . for again.. -.. I It-- 1-' .'[1. . except a.).: main grounds for indictine~' .::_. "'1'....".at'o 0b . ' poets (the other.I_~.'.-_ 1. .' _ ..·l"_l_:_. '~-. .. .' .' rSf trans.. _-I . "1'11-..'11. " .y.'..y.:...--.' . .~-. ...... ct.·]~ 'b" .Ia~'". ".~ ..' . ..[lIe' a.. . - : - - r= .. narrative In. ie .h:iat.~ _' _' . .. " .Sh.:"_-.[ 'i '-" ode .. ..62... ] .}.3'['-.. 1..~-" _.re mimetic corresponds to tr. ·.ii.' . ' .' I "~: I..U ..ec:ia]._.. rc ': of p--. e t. is..'. " '~'- -"~' - '-' ..- .mp. I I •... .' " ...'-c-' . --d'i N':"':' ..·""....'iI" on. -'p. 'Ill " J J • .-' fin 11.•. ..".. ress.'< .m"es_.r.. ..~. to that at. ...neueeratelv'l'~ leaves (Jut' all nonrepresentational Poetry-e-and .1l.···"c .. 'p'. ".'."'..-.fsi:tY' Press ~ '1980) 1. __ u _ ._... . ...11-.~..-." be . us. the' immorality of their 1L. k: .e .' •• ". oetry .:.. .~" .It ~:O'-C'-c..J \. the representation of events '1i__ hIe.. wil] more readily cal] (i ~ h I' mvernng the terms' .n I'll III .-1:I'~ ~ . no p.'.ato.. '1 one.~.:h.:..'.~.~ IL..7'0.5C'" quent tradition...-'.t tne su . D' I'· '0 -._." or fie .i\....' tt ..-. h between rne three mo d" ot .l~ ~.in reality alternating c.. '''1'1 "." after Aristotle. ' .-. .. - - -I -: _- _.cC'YW1...._ _. '-_. . ...'" '"... I~ "" '_'. .. ~J ~JI L-.=-~. -_' . ~=.·f··... representational . .'~ ..' ._ . L··· .'.•• ILI...th -.. "" .. mdenc subjects ::-. ~ ..D !Ii~l~'" J ~1!fi.. .) dithv unb . '. 'I 'S'-'h 'id'··· ~. deed in... '\I-. narrarive and sometimes dialogue..aged:y and. -. ~ j I _.a'D.. '- _.oac sense.. .."1' ~I _ I.-...m.-'" h .t ~ . .~. .].." . since it facilitates the bann i1\1g 0 f poets (except ....an -. W':h at we can Y:f1(.--... . ._.' '.1--r.. .:. as in.c.-. " " ... .: poetry that is f" h '.-.s mo d es which 'is 0'[1" ~ of his ... ..'. ~ .-1!. C...auIi'O~ trans ...y n a...- J • • -... D·_ ..... -- J 1/..._... 0'··e-:::m" e ."" t. '-..E.rea. ... JL . .iir:it''. nk d ~ h '.z. -. wno e "~..." .M_.~-'h.c___:e~rlan.!Ioll.~~' C'. '..... ...

.'-.I"C. . nommna rve. [New Yo _' '.o_.:".rP'" ':".' . U~..lt. . ... __ .e. .jH' ~ .'-.· ' em.~ . nor elsewhere. "-1--.. I·: ~. rererences. -h ]' ] .3. but a restriction that" via Aristotle will become-s-and for centuries will remain-s-the basic tenet of classical poetics.JlIt)[1.--.' ..[Ern' as __. __ .. tthe ~. "Ilk...··. __ .s~ T'.n:..r. _ -t" '. _.·.''.: '. .:" '_-:". ric poets]'). '.1.d· ._... '.: rh .. \. :.. 'S-0pn ron. 't[ii '.. Sap P..~ -:. '·.:2....t.U." .:' I. 'B-: te a '. .. B--:--: the ~~_.'~~ ~ encs. mutation 1n .w.-..se-' quent subdivisions will t'J1US be' brought to bear only wit-hin. :-. '~I · "lose . we know "it 'would be.gh. ..'llio'br' .. ·("F. es.verse an __ m.._ cae. .poems-. .dici natural -. 'ii" ....i!j._.' .-.. ly.. fOclll. b·-···'). .Jl t..g..'aSlS IS . .Ii.._ . !II. 1 '-' . . '. A ..S ._cc.!I" Copy" 'gh ted m a1.h .I.' ..:t2 To. widespread opinion (Uthe' n am e o···..h sme t...t. such.dlll.'YS.'... of .t·-..I :. -. .:oes A.11 poet" even h.····. lle " .. __ '. .. ..I....:-"."lI'lj"it Ro.' .."" . -_-. riT'lh--. '.'I' exam p.' -~:!i . yrlC . more gen.'- . I Throughout.ers.~.-: 1i..-'...'..In .. the c·l·=-:s~·. an.. "fi!' .10 '~T.g0.' .o'-. v~~r JfI.·:·_-·· en 'i"'.J..:".::.' • •). rhicb h:' e'.. and..... circumscribed ar. -. 1 .."..'.an. .S::·OJ .J COl" rt~.-._':' tt. [1 [.Y. _. .' '-["..~l. 19'1 '1.:']. a]. imer ".Of. .'._ -.... '".'.po er is by c us. .-'.h eto rile~ for :i t s part.l .. ... ' ·I-Ii. '".. I .ses. .. " .. . :·'-h-.t.I- l I.'-'.-f. __ .. .--C'''''-J.. .-. uses the_'"-' same m'e' ter "'5-": H-:1'0'.1 .' ..~ 'H" IarI:i ·:"f·.i...ri[lS[O:[ "1'e mennon. - Indeed the' fi rst pag e of the Po eties clearly defines P 0etry as the of nnrita tion in verse (m ::O:-:. tic d"ialo gu~. __ .....h e"P-'-'-' .'.' . as o ratory on which the R. r Y":'.Ir..'II car ."-_.. " .-~ - - '.1. . __ " __ ." neither 'here.are d-I·1!.--:' ·1-.-- . •• ..-- . . . translations of the' -S'-· 'B: .l . .- '11 .".._" ...:!!.I : = ""__ _ ..: .. A..:.··· .' ' :._. IIlr.... in ...Ij'l'l~.!..Q .."''' __ "11.'--. U..4-..L .· "by. .aki." ..' Q_ .erally any "treatise on.. poetry. l I II II ~ I ' I -".~ ...' I..a. I . ' c-- rectly connected 'to the v'e'ry' fact of represenradon: the' 1.cria .n M~-<'"ar:.. ...' _ .:'.\<':' 1 . .447 a])~ explicitly ..-.[1 "."" f-.. .··'t"·.-." " ." . ne -~ ocra 1 mar -.1 the' Po_ . . _or Pindar)'.ilg' i10 mention at: all of nonimitative prose.'-es) '. Of' 'harmony' '._'. . -:-.H':'fStfLP.. 'li- Q..r~" jeers despite what he calls a.~·. race ''19-"5---:2'·"]-.JI-..~ .-.·." ..~ Texts .-'C. -...:- jl .'1" '7-_-' 4. '...iL " . . rhythm" language..::-".. -A-111 -.rnat .-.·. . "'.:.:Ii.e su b~. JI3·~<I'. ..-:':. r ~!!I ~ ':_:IP.._.. '.~. 11:...~a of r'~p-'~:-'~I-. -.".1" istode . ·-1·-"':-'-...-ll. .-'- .m verse [(1.t - .UI~' W:·."_._ "__ .. on -~: ~.dC'S are o.." [[1. " .": 1 '. h exc IU dilng.'.'k-.____ ".UJl-.lClSt.i· --I ..... to the auithor u~ To A·. ____________ =_ __ " _ _~resena tl.II" .. .-..ers 'lS:' -.. 0 ". -'....·.l to -'."".(ll:nl. "e. 1Il..basi --. .tha ..-·h· '. ..-.out.. i nd .~ [Translator's note.:! . t.. -..I. ~...-ey-~ were 0 utside "PC '1-ato. 'w··::' . 'ate -.....'that we W"''':':d.t 'T· I.I. 'I . I . . __ in _ .C_'-....'i .-- ' --'1 . a~~e: --~.- ~".:.. . -I- .[oug". \.I·E. - of Empedocles. V.... ..:..K·. _.. . en £:5 are given .. .:' .'" rex t J :" .---I'-_'~":I.. pe d oc"es...ramer th .-:.-:. pih . ' re .-1'1.. d'" '.:'-r'd··' d·' id lactic po e. nC "ex. out.J...·'·' " .-.. __.'•.-.._:: .~ "-r.-... .'-.'._:.-" -.. I _' "Q...IIhite _' ..1S Co' 11 d ..'-:-' ~':. .-:'9'·'-:'5·' 'rev.. --.Ii...'. tr ey r pl..tror ._ ho _ ''''.t m C:".... __= e __ .'·i.l..·· ·S-.Lf'lii._~ .\ ...' rev L ·t· .. ..·'it.r ~ "S lor n"".- ·'-·.f·. ..eC[~nl.ts _. -. ". 0. illus trate uonimitative verse Aristo tle selects the work '~..1 . tom O"'~v". '·-I---c'h-. the strictly....' ".1"I .... " .~'~nl other '--·'..--id I. '.'.t:. "~'-. "'.' - t.n mec rcme or natural science . ~'. right ('0 cal]..pros e (t'( mimes 0. -·..- .".. -If'~' c -"..'1 1 " ...--.rnpedo . ~ neie as [..ou.'["~ exactl '·Y'.' b .'-.. .. .

. .'" ...._ _ these term obviously involvre the entire Interpretation o···f:-· this ..CO :fi: .u. .: 't-' i.._ ~ "~ . 1. p--..·'··.l:8"[ ·a-:'-).Ig ~.ml ' _. -I-A._~. _.con.0'\-1-. I iemgs " .'-1 A..11.a) and virtue (cnrete) ~ The later classical tradi tion tends rather to...'"'.eSIS'~1 0[[ orf'-'-..rhap-'s too 'p~. orne " ". . '1--:' 'i' '1-···· [ .. an."'-:h'" c.-... this. interpret them in social ..' ·.q~ 't- 13... '1 -"":..I__.- G. '" . Uf h .. 'with heroes who a're' "~'better-U than the' 3Jvera._: d-' spea k rat IS" .'b 1'. .ardy's [french] transla..-"ry"..:':: I' . ' .ristotelia'D...n. ...f·O···'._. ·d..m .• • . .e~ II!.'. __ . an 'Oedipus o:r a Medea.iiiiii -...ne 1"-1... .• . I. ~~.cr~ ccn...-I .. - _ - . .An Introduction s.. ~ T....Q._1" _ _ of hiah ra..' -" - .s~ or-' dr: ·· itic rei .. c·.: _..to.. -_. n... [ W ..·t-..~ '! I It ••• 1 . ·_.L.~l.II..ap'pearan.: ~. '-Jill.-Ii'.w h can b rep [resente d as sup error 'to ._ c.elles Let'tt'es)" it g:[e't's en . . _:'. .··.·. :[3n k..rLerlon e oUJec"... _a.i. e .f--h -th-' Ing:s WIt.-C.· c-'~'. \ .- . -:!'_- - -- - -') 'U '! -niddl .. '. . . ·.ge person'i' . :.Ing'] ..slation ~. v -.ef~ iniicion of the h.~ .~ __ .e-n.~.··::s[ .. '_ Il' ~ '.'.. ~_ . .t one hesica. •• _' .ct . '.rudent co:m'p.::e... ~.t te 'PI c .(--..•e .. ' .:U.: "Ii"" : ." :•• ..U'-<jI:~ meanin g-' 115--:. .-.... •• i' . • e..'~ ... e '~.~'--. I I .:.Aristotle rank. '. ~ ._-. I ...:."~'present [-". haracters as .. i!j. •.....~·t' :.: "..!I~t -_~--.. 1. d . ···l .:' here we have a new resrricrion-c-consists solely of hu~.disappeared.." .. in ac. '." ...rated .'h-···· c._.-. it i:s[ [oc:ttainl y true . '.. ·d eo u:.~at emas.~ ...__... epic) '"or'l...._ ..-.= In.(h.. ". 1. .e. ~~~ . ·G. q... '_ ''''1')1 "3..'. .~.theory of the: tragic hero" 'w'hieb 'we win oo:m.. __.rln_'''L .~a living a..··ll·ln·[g->' before us" ·(. '. y trYl:n." ····i :. im ...·····.a1d. _'...ramanc represen ..3_fi"h" !l.t.r~ ~ ImlJ -elc.. the context of their firs... d ~ ~. is at P-·.:·'---..·~· and.. -.. . _." TI-l. '.:.:"..·I'"~'..g.. . ' .··•.rl-y·~ moral as nC" the .-.A..:.r~-y: ople. ..._= __==_. (i."'-/: .._.. . .ge .·t. .-: about an _. :1. .. -I i'" man actio n s or more precisery 0:f"--: mnnan b '.. ·:··...--' t. . acrers are distinguished by 'vice (kak.--:-'If 1._.___.·:. _.:.-.. c.~..·d·"r ..~ 1 A~Jl8·._.-" v. -. ..rayu~." ..... • _ . Y.h'a't'?')....'h 'r'.. "-'''--''-I~'C' .glt. aspect_ '-Ill..Q.. .'. .::r- i..~e~..:. ... WllJl reClV..··. .t .···· _ the ml. .auon)._ .. •.u··b· t .. ....' . ... .··· part from that disappearance what n.'s·--ha's'_ -n ixe ._'. _.... .." '" .": .I:" .:3..=.".$ down ·t-:O:·-· . ·..e.e. - _ ..._:-. lll. ~~ '. L'\". '-. I. :·'.. . I \ria]. '"..."...-· .. - ..."'"... non .e d (...t. .-. Inl l~~ll J.. .cria . -.).·.c. ).e grou.Wl.cJ.-. " lb· .e..:. interprerarion of .. 'movmg . _ e _. . h....['"... ..-.. ti. .- . ' .· .:l~ls-:....t 1: .don (Paris: les· B. at Ieast as a taxo_ principle A·._.--. ~' .' ~n'-eceive little attenu .:romise. :_.h e -u··!iJ'!I.==_" is n.erUlf h heroes. ..p-'.110 I .. .•.. '--. t :. I..~~-:: '~_' .t . to...".~ C:n ' us [.< ·. _.'. - - - - - l -.. .le q.0"f'-. _": :T'h-"[e' obiecr."[t..lne..-·r· sta. .. I _ .e ..' tI.own .. ..W..ten. v ·.!!..1 __ ··[·m··-.ter:~is.l:n . :-. ·'I. eo<bIC~:·... - - . .h.--.."".e'l'y roo [. · " '..'.tes to have ..." . stage '. "I . .n.II.·: ordi...•.~ ••..-·-. ":". .. a is.'" ·P~····l-·. I...-~O··• ·d·'1'0'·..·'---·:h·"Ie... ':[. Qi... ·t'·· ion). ._"~_. Ii ~:~.. u__ ·.the manne Of' of I. _. -..' ". -..·:·"1. ..-" -". £.-..:. _ _ - .. (.[e...(:'\1.. 11 . .a .the A.u_ ~ _ _ _ . .rencerom...:.. chapter: char . mo•.~ 'h ". and. therefore_ 'the. ...._. - • ...!l1 a-:nd···I. sn l t~e-] h' l:"" J. -~ I _ _ ~ _ .c ..'.' ._.--... . iHi'-').. ~ _' . I~ l' I. '.' . 'J.. ~ . '[- ran k and co:m.I...'. - - (..[.. '...:i Iv. ~ ._. bu._..• : ' . I '. Here again we' SC1erhat an intermediate class=-che Plat onlC mlX .. .\[ ·b·:·· :-.e upon la. 1 .-. .ndS ) oe equai1-· to (k' "h".. ..".·0.·· .•• ..£ H. [. 'i. ~ P···oetks Their 11'lS-·".~ I·('·th---L.ce in.?-...mese.s :fo. !Ij.l ..'on.· 't·. or mreno r '£:0.. _.rudent'.'\.. .. • I = : ..• '-. pur. P. _ ~ ~.}gj.-. _ . Copy" ·gh ted m a1.~....~-.•..dlllll.ero'~s excellence" '[i'Superior'~~.' .. ...e1d Y' ch a:racte'[~ ot low' V. ~... "...! ..o t cODsis.-· 'II'· .3.ha. - - - ... . sti o n..- - I' h-II" - ...._. .. ~'. .5j0'_ cae.w..... 4. <:-:d·· J.._.. .... 0 ~.. t hat i setting tne. ' [·=-·S-..' - '-" I .......' A' th contrast b re oetween superior an d.·(·~h-IC--. -·o.• I : .1 '.. -~ .f'g. 'numesl. ... .'t"J ronas. . _' .-:: '("-:'h:...itared) c·-o 3"...'. ....': ::.' __ .on[".. &1] ~ _~ .. ..-' .... ' l r' ~ " .r"infe[io:r"'j.. In lD._}~ . ~ _. avinn chara cters terms wnrh..t 'with . for the manner of imitation it consisrs either of telling -h taeomc napte u:t. 1c I .. ".o····n-I s.' -I' - .. _.g car ._.t.an.•. ..:ea..k'-'-h.'1- .~. .e·---'.en. ... 'p-.• n .otL ~...:' .

- .··-I·~'·-·· + '.. ntameter e or In. t'...:fa m~. the "I.....m:...' . ":"~I:-"I-"-'.. .o.."-:tiation b -: the me . .. whose system of genres com prises by and .p-I' I·erio'··[. ges ures or In wor'. .. . it' i:-- -.... term ror x e. wnereas i the :dra. .a'·.--. . a.I."" ~-are nea mg not Wit.ra.." :." "'. .".:..' th '.. __ '''.ra. ~ ~ . · .ories . Wl. . . ··' '--' . pd·' '·Y:·''iii· ·tl~e: a.Il_1a"lon .'i'~'':"':'1I'1'wur cau .•.--.''h.. '~~ 'W'lth=_ rs-'" eel'" to =.g precise I~ to y .e. thus produces a grid _'Wl __ .. U!.e. lit..'.".C"--L--. S-'. I :.•. \. :.·.ge. r . \ ... . '. £our c.I[ ~ .. . _.. .. 1 II" .~.. ..ne:r ~ '" ~of imitation" (1447 a) is A exactly eouivalent ' '0.v .. exact. ._.u..' .. : >'.....nese.d k c ."I: ' ~. .IC:·[-'I"'O·1f'1I1C'. 1-···.'·. ·'· . ". .... :. .... . _ ":11.... "". $'1j"3J0e-.:'.nres.·m"1lt)~' ..1-4 Th.n restu ..'-.':.' .. .o I! J J . tn.····· ··d· .1I. the question ul~n W'·h' a"t. '. etc." . .-.cria . an. d····. .'I .'P-I~:~ in gc' 'W e .-' S .. ··· .':.. ·t'. genres me. ..g ·-···t-'~]:'~-'I't-'··ff-'... 'd~'··:ue loS..'as e e tra .. more_ precise "]-1' rr e 'Y rh . _ _ _ '.~· . .most.. c·'. I .IIY.': "'1-"'-' ~ 'i' :'-i··. ..-.). u.'. -." Ig"~ _lit ... _.-._1. . "'1"""" '.~. . ' .' H.. H.11-.I"'f'.L _' a.or.. princi pie' three types of differentiation among[.--.1"'-'-1" . ..__. . ' the' arts of imitaJ'll rion: diffie.. rose . ra~ee d ~--d'" b .'1.. . '1':[""1-' I' noet . ·._.:. alc·~ter~... -. . ""iji.. LTo use Plato's terms.. ~ .' oerween cnrfer-en t types of verse.·..~ects an d mo d' aes :~..cter.~p .'' what Plato called lexis Th '1"S:': is ntot _..[ ['_. .. e s si.. . ..c. _ '..·~.~ '.' .of inferior char7 . ".. ~':. . __ .-. : .' - . -. si tuations oj enu tlci'ating '. . I'~" ~ '.-.'_'-.:I~ ~ .• •....nl..1.':.e b'--.~.- - .:'. -t e c. .tne r .' .I" ~'.3..ere U~.m. ' (ue]]} no ·d·Oll :b.- _~'I'-"".'s'....-'.. 11'1'.'d'-"e ".iI.0.llt "-"') ~'.. ~. retween ..n ...-ween c. . )-ll ···t· '...~tino···~·d··~::~D.. '-'.~ 'The ..JI.. _Y' iJL• ~-'-_I_-:.. ..or In 'E" .' ·~.' .!.!!.d: '._- S.. .'. W~~... .. ~...·._.1 ~~ 0' ~... ".act 'b"....n·'. ...~ rmgusr ".Que whereas in .. ristotle cans "the man. _ _ '-'.r '...S..r: I-~··-···...•..._~"..' S . '1b 1arge on.--y . _..-. '"-.• . . .[...f -'.l'·-::-·' '-"'-_1 :'.l.:£····· imiitation (the [-'W:··.--p /f'.~ Hi ..::!ii~ ("-" .n']... . -.'...r. I.111 . emse ves :s:pea" or.t e ··..:...her 'I tk .. recount or set on stage the actions of superior characters.··. ere ': .. . ~. 'G-'.-_.. .. _. e ct JI. v' ~... -.t. .m .1'' H:'...in.' l • _ .lU~... ··. l .. _.".a.t as UllSS0JJU_...h term f d yet a system .r-.-'-:. m i '. . . '_ ..0...tmg thi ... _.:'.... f ]..f: . . attention out It in the Poetics. '1.'1asses orf-' mutation corresponc d In. JL.0.. .·1" .. .". ~~ ....'.speaks disguised as r. r . !Ii..' ca'1-'1 fl'inon ."'.r ." the CIa.O··. ). raracters t.-: '. . 'm ··.. 1 . '._ •._ l.. .··. [Butcher's 1.can: .. .j.' . .. A\_:1j.. . third typ e corresponds best '[0 what ~ I'" ou 'r tra d '..· er] tran slatio ·.-. H ·:-·-"·'--'··1·<- l-"~ '. h. in..'.·!t· T.in.". oO!..lly.' .. lI".. --'..-. _..' . but with....'].~.. ""Jll" . v.p '~'~ _ ._-.' ~ . ': _I. .(.~_ . -.' I '1":" ".._.a Ie m. __ .. .'. . _lCWln. ' .. ___ .'b" '.-"'" 3.I' . Ht..-:t" • r ..~. .[--' ser 0"'11-.l":.: ..unc..·...:_ .·h-a....'1L d' ~... -..."-' __ " 14 = I.. Ul .. .Q' . .Y 'b. 11.'1:"': .-'-=''--_:''''-' .ree.Ii . category IS un ·QU" te. the fi rst Ch...dl_o... ~e. th e -['B· -:Ih·.e·~·· :S~'UI.Ye·d··'oes 'c_ V". . '1'- :..t-'[-'....".e .:: -:..." ..."-... -'-j' 'I' ..lS 'I':" ... tne "...1("'--' .01t'i1 Do'S' <.edl ".. ". dealinz '''' '-'with U... ..actl0n:5~ ..U' oloi mrode .. 0'" . ~-. ...· .3 pter Aristotle dis tinguishes ..~ 'r "n ... .. : . the poet speaks m his 'O>W-~'::'-: name.'" y A""" to be f. . andoubtedlv tne term-s-uscd In. . .....ItI"-r '.\' .. __ In.s. .1.:.d': ~ffl~._ o_lg.' \1..1' . rorm m the tradimona-11-1 sense....~':. '... _.". ~ meter .-. . ai..O·. : .. axp·. . -... . e.:": '1- _.:n-...-$rIC 11i trad ~10n.I"~. •••• .J-'''. . . with ~ ~ . .-.d'-. .JJY the term useo _".. '. .'" e A".~ JI.· "" Copy" 'gh ted m a1.Ih' _.-_IS.P 0 e.. ..(. se nS.: :_' ':"1'_·.._ chs '...-'--'-' -'-' '_':..' .entia ti 0-' n by .. This...1". = __ _ == . _j" __ :1' il ... the' narrative mode.:_'~ . ·li'·Iit. literally.. e I.. I..W."..•. .rs .onn" but i receives no rea:. ·-dl ~r\.L " n . :)"--"'--"'1.. . h but -']-"""1 differ .1l. .f'" .-:-" '0..-J '1--:-1--'-:-'- I . _. .-.:._":>.IJ.g' '.. -. -~ __'..~.!l...--. 'If ~ . with ..'_' :'1" ..rac:e... '. _.-.-' ''::_. .e·~~. lute Strie._ •• ~ .:. 0' Cc' Setting the two "object' categories in cross .~.' .'" .r" . recoun 0·. ..". ..Q o .s"lg natin t. no_ Yhteren_la~..~cuex'. '11.·n-... In 'prose or In 'verse" :1n p.' . >... -..:-.J... 1 l .. j..11.ii.. translation [[]447 a].y o.' .': .-t • ..1 "li 1_ Q I_:_. ..-. an.h ch .-.'.I. ". man -'~' ~a.11_'1-1· CI"ea.1' .'h-:'··-contrast between verse and 'p. "-'1":' .I!~'~. relation ["0 the two "mode' categ.-.~I " .' '· .re. :. a so . "''iI.._ . ." .• n~erne.o' ·'-'····1· '."'.l.'J'" 'r' ·k.. ".: ': \. ... .llltyor (..-.....

ilu.La veau x [Paris: Hachette .: '!I!:" . -.:3 ncntragrc". His definirion is.OH. one sees on.e that is less clear-en t~ one' cbat A..in.g kings and they endanger nei ..:I:. here (.IOn.. ice."" (' se '.._<: I . :.A.-" ..~Ic. This slot.rgites attributed to Horner ('1.. I..fc-lY' a.l...f' for jlA' raR'..I. is obviously the: one for comic narration.:. 'Cor.. 'H- .13 superior .. (the' mock heroic . and Tite eI' .650 the mixed subgenre of "heroic corned Y'~'~ Don Sa fu:n. ed..m" 'I'.me drrunatiql:4 e~ 1. which seems to have originally been. spends to a gen. wnen even 'I. f nme.. ther thernsel ves nor their realm s. .p~ ~ .'.ii. I 'I .no blee setnng).86:2-..s'. .. be j u stifles that d.'Q'wed to speak I"'~: ~ ·~. ' .jIlL" ' . _.. . in th e next century. aroo es (':'par. stage a..448a) and sometimes by' a Ma.h tly or W'[O'1l gly..' ration 0' -"f'~"" tio n~' nd h eo '~"'O'--.O-' ciation with an explicit e:ridcisEll. 1 '!'IiI ~I.~. not: sayin g wh at: those actions should be ~ In :auy case.rot. inferior-dramaric corresponds to comedy" the inferior-narrative corte ..iii.. . dra m '" lIJI~..ICh.i.."..u:strates sometimes 'by the "ps dies" 1. I ~ ..'"-r~ g te :b"II"m l'. When.._l~ .r.rle'~ 1671!.d. rorle leaves unnamed and iU...ey' are to tragedies (1449 a).. inventing in 1.<" '. no long' e'[' ~ 'x''t'a" t-' 0'".h.Ad'L.68:1" L t :::23 -:24"" The in verse ddsso ciation {a.. come d.. " '18 l~UtTle.." I. " }Ii.I ~ . ~t .J' an . therefore. -. .Aris rode: "Drama tic poetry~ ac--C"O-. not cn. •• · '~iI' Copy" 'gh ted m a1.3 t the beginning of the Poetics ~ with the rank of the characters. I do not rhink tba. ...tragic action.'H" n l .:neiU"c seems to ha ve been the first: to b reak that bond.ii. narrative defines epic. his defini tion 'was consisten t with the practice then in vogue'" when 0'0. rig.om.f' and Nicochares (1. '..I.".B.1 y characters of inferior rank were aU.ris. ~1672. !l:.gemo'n.:UI}.on...' xtanr. produce bourgeois so [. he expressly declares is to comedies what the' l.i'ad and the O'dy.'.'. are 0 ther t later examples.'\ I. the action is sufficiently rhe level of tragedy' (CEu:v:n!:5' de Pierre Comeille.co medy.riate' . '0 ur.. illuserared=-whatever we should take that to mean-ebasically 'b'y parodies of epics.ngure '. ..660.' . I lid.:0 'rise to.tlll£'hJ e CQu'Id~. . simple love story a.eri".iSS.cria .I' ~ l!. h owever.m..a.. ~ . ').B(Jt~a.. 'I[' .448b).. - cas ses characters only' as carriers of the .Y as 11 In Jlong as their deeds do no t raise them above it..dol . " acnon m a.CtI.pprolp.I • '~'~ rt .. give us I: c" ~ . in an everyda Y' setting) 'will. . .)'.. 0 f ."''din '. Charles Marty. the. 'Wh. In his Disceurs du por.t even though the characters are illustrious. ~ xmgs can.

.. . g .arra. preju. . . _ '" a V:..'. 'C: ". ".e.n ."'d ra' m. I 11..3: . 's . .C·· h ..l'....ve. d ." an. a". ~. _' ~.. 1..~...iJI " _ .' ":: .. ct -.tt'h·'· a·'t'I~'S' a' dram atist) as an' epic poet can 'be.1:1")".[. . he was no Jess aware than Plato of the "mixed" nature of Homeric n. " .. '.'. ...A!rif) -p'epl ..:·· JUI.... The Aristotelian genre system. oO]i" . parody ·····..a· "i. succession of abandonments 01' deadly depreciations: the inferior .dice)~ .1 . The two high genres will be' left: face-to-face in an unequal ma tch because..:'II i 5m .. " ." " I: " __ .3.~.".1' <:I~I_ I of".in.". hic" ~ m amd Jl.r..'. ".'·O··liii .-".3.'. I I.rr:a'tif] Superior '( c ..~ 11' --'.~~J::]S.tl'ric . . I.• ["" .•• ..' ~"t. ap-r. ...-.'. . . .-.al.Jri1---I'1.iI' . O V _. _'"... . That outcome .. the Poetics (at least all but a few pages of what' remains of .. 1 l_' "1 il ". :I -- . ~ .:3.·.~ ..' 1 _ •• j' • . ._1:~.. .e 1.' ~ " 1 mIa.._-Olre goes". incidentally.. 'W. .r a5. and comedy very little.'t..J... itself does.I: U.. =: ... l II Copy" "gh ted m a1.. ' -.. . ':.~ m .~ ." ":... A· t·.-"...cria ..it'"..:.it) turns out to be mainly a theory of tragedy.' explicit and.' Dramatic [na.II. (:. •••...zJ.i ':. then...'.1.:_ " . of in C"~'O·· .m .1 . of course.14 some idea of these). •m. J •• [ Jl.ettin g his characters speak as ofien as possible (1. s .' " I I l. -' 'no " • .o:n\!..r... the superiority of the dramatic mode re r '"..n·"·." mtertor comedy . as possible l~. ~. one [of whose merits is that as n.t - !'ji ." '. the remainder of the P etics will deploy (In this grid .." ~._-0 cau tne _~ orneric .mpleteness 0·-"[ mutilation bu. . " . . '" ..t·· ... J\.'ii""r· t i e (the . I. _ . C:S. least note that this triumph of tragedy is not solely the effe.. ....- ' .arrator he intervenes as 1::~[.' ..' h imse If a··:··8-' "·U'.·.]10' n"n (. fact whose consequences I will return to) ~ rs .-. I _...460 a) (this commendation shows.-t·~·O-'O..tm~.~ ... .m e'work... rhat although Aristotle omitted the category. m ". I' . . JI. ~ . Let us at . " ~14"4'8' b . can be depicted like this: Narra tr ve .u -.-irato::. . ·p. a.3. First.ti.t. th e".ll~. 1 III.. 50 r. r. .o·:·.. .ll-kn ow n rev e"r'--~:aI11 0• if p"11 a to. A~ we know only ...' '1'1 the H: "" .-:~.1:.I' ..11. results fro. superiority proclaimed. '..- .opos of Horner. motivated attributions of higher value._.~ l... .. . . " . r . narrative will be mentioned no more. ". 11.IIi.j'I'll "s . .. .l'<~'~ .~. '". not concern us .&·1 U '..--it -.well.._ "_ "_" __ " 111. ... . after setrmg forth this taxonomic fr3. ~_ .

. ...448b as in...-'·h: ·0": ever .' . ~ ... .ry ~gree$ W'~. b.•.cria .1:. " ".. oblem.a·n·· m d nore surprising the thematic """.. of the . __ "" _ _ _ _ _ ---'!i - 'IL_ _ ~\". a .. bear in mind.. '.t'.'_. Bai tl~:r'e' et tl1 eorie p oc..Ietormat I .II.. ...~'_ i~1.' 1···...ol.l'"'~ 4"9' :" 'b~"E~~' po..nos'. rd .. of the dif."[. ... in the genera] category of narrative (f. J..'..""' 0... ."'-.{ \.e~ '" eir so...1.ntQ" l448 a).. i ~ in."".. as we nave seen.II" ." lIr.~..!!. . ....n definitions. l5 ~.. A" 1'" d' ~_. "C'..~.".1 .' o. .C '5:".460 a).~:__QWeve:r1' rnese /I ' ~.. u_ u ~ nally."C" "I'''-]-. 1."' .iJ."". the aesthetic a).."...". ~nen ".B· no P..>.Ii. . .'90-..[.."10[' th ~. . .... '- 'H. 'H' . :S.cr. of sup..'''O···~. i '1. I. -~ ._ " . mererj.IL .' ~'I "C. This [equality is proclaimed a..d: """10"'-" ..-.:411._" . I"~ la ~~_.. ." ' . "'1i:Mj'\ AiU " " . .~.s some are' "" '. Trag ·..' sU"perl0flt. d _ """'...o m m 0····n to b oth 1'.-'_'.. . selon Aristote et l'excellenee (PHo mere. And we should.y f tr3...· ..i r "':5'· it is far imitatioon in verse 0'·.~'==-'~'~'~""' .ge:_'y'-s d' 'O:~' I ~ hiahr "." '" •. '~_:.. fo I!i.. ~.': C .'" H' ~. .- -. _ . of one . .is..as..:: _.n ~:n.. .." t..obje'cts that are' not only equal but identi._ ~!I. "ll '.. I..".Fi...111. of Homeric mimesis.~ .C.J.. -'.:.')".."'1'.. ' .. '0.46"j:'-.:" C·•• haracters of a .- Copy" ·gh ted m a1.' varymg. .' "'~-"'-='"'.-.- .~ (~r: =-d--'yS'-'-_et ~ encrose d within rhe .d1y._...= me curer mgr er.0""._.. the operring pages of the Poetics attribute to the two genres . .' '. the officially granted equality of 0eject: is surrep . ji')":11 . 1~1Ilr.h'" drnerence ..tr:" ne .._.--"'"' namery ~ the ..'.cPl.-'I.'" In. ~ ll: .-.il.'. "La .jl. I. ..""" . "11·1 h ..d.~ect~.' "'6.~'_".c- =_!!i. """. _. ... .ti . fO-pOS.-:. the Inrellectual superiority of tragedy for its "vividness of impression in reading as wleU..." t... . '.y'" .d':--" 0. in 1...'-~~ T- iI.. h o f u e tragic 0b . 0' ces r -.~ _ ~__ .•di a~r~jn' ·P.· Y. . _ ·1'··.:: a. . not prevent him t:.". J.<" __ 1 [9' 'g"C 0". ""i..~.. . I f' v'arle:ty ot" meters and its inclusion [of "music and scenic effects' (1.'''. ~ £"'.'en.:_ Pr 0'.u'~'''Pp'tl'u.l'HJ.2 Fourth and fifth.~~~a . .. ... G ..l .-')j. "" 'I" d.o time . "''':11 "...' ..mimes."" this praise '0" f IH: o mer an"..~.1Iir. .. .1 l"'IIIrr-'~ [.:_. . 'W. .n me famous unity . .. " I.'". ririe ..("1.-). t.'~ ...r"".._...~_:.t.motd""· ano t hae d. " T-h"· comes tr e rerrunuer of th 'c'.'. .'. '" der '"i.1.:~ . '!io"l1...... superiority of tragedy for its concen tration and u:nity :(: ']-14'.. 'y.D 114' .-'2-.er . . _I!l.' representanon or .U .oonsn uent par.h ." . . revolution o f the sun)." __ I ••• 'Ii' -( .Uqu:cS't 15?3.in (for rhe last time) in '.il.I. . lil\r.:.j. (.- "....error he .~.r~\r."_... "'k'" ~ "... d:ra:maltis:ing the g'~U..". '..U". .[-.. '[.-"t"eh"--I .r" m keeping those 'W' .-. ur view ":P--'._ . C).s'.ously_. . neroes .' """ ~. .utese'"'. i~. '~ ...tJ:i'm:eisth'a'i apatlgell'o'.an. n.I~'ll \r...' rts -l..".:...:11... secon d.-"'-' U '.0. ences in form."...~ II . ~. 1 .IJ..lr~l· .ference between the 'Platonic: a:nd Aristotelia. ll. '-lill 'V'e'ry l --- strong terms ·d::' .. -~"'"I"'- r-.e.'o r '"' .sa.. i'-·i.. HLII..l .IlJ [1l~lllil."'. .-"'-. (I .462.a..."0. _-_I~'.~Q~. " ...". :j' .'" .'.')'.J! _ . ." ca'I-.l 1]1.1 . ence In.1.1 ~"~t-h" "~:ra. (epic's uniform meter versus tragedy's ."r ~" .. ' ~~". .'for a mo re detailed analysis of the reasons .' ie."".type. . ~ .:rOU5"_..".lng' b necause th reoretrcat 'y.". ·.~."'..eng...ga.' .ge"" :" actionJ .-.-'UI'1ar to..o""~u(tton c.". eh ""C.' ..'ra"ge~"f I. .""-'... rks :1::1 o :..~. . amerc..··. 'J -... t..a)~ Third. Lallot. see Je.rn.. "_~~':"1l'c" -:_ .:o.. "..• I_ .. "'!It (.0 the epic in general.l. ~ ...tn [''e.....f": .M(J'rf'iu:s he uses the expression. ·t'·h·· ·"i -.c_" moo.ei[.'.. in representation" .me P"e c·.:. _ !lL ~ _ ~ ~"~ ~" _"_ ~ ~_ ." '. .M ore 5'U.:- .rprls..'e... ~\r._. uperiority ... ":' . " '... '_.u!~:u. that be' does not apply these terms. 'but: to Homer only (mo._:. ...>"" the .cl.~.

. " superiority may still seem obscure or abstruse: tragedy 11]1 dl " 1 d . 0:.. _="".. ." u.. !II. . .._._ I .-" ~.e til. ~l'~.-." in :an.e. I a.. 111.. ""'lI'].. thought. action that is serious.g d Its b 1'· 1 tt h e clearest. . A~I j" -"I I1 . rr :".'~ . the the -_.! . aside from But .A.0[: include." '. of action.C Cth.-. '.. .:' "-'. __..8> "constituent .g 1.'16 therefore.y case'. " .-_~. at . .l-.- •••• ".. . 111..=..1.... ".J. . '~-I-. ·f·· 'higher value.f--·:' t.- 1..'h no concession of recioroc U · ... = .. '.. less~ Th e reasons for this.1 . . ':-". in language embellished.. -. auegeory InCU_1es 'WIt.'Ii. . __ :" '_ ~='"t __. through pity an.._ 1. and song '[114:5:0. ~ _' .. . " . rhe I" .. ..lac.~...~" ....-.~'-'"~ .h .Il .ubt that of th . f' -h '.~"il~.r~_" 0" amon. 'in.L_'l'" ~'"" l"[' ... . .P:"'C .cria ...-:-. Jl .c."gatlon.~ __. nition.d r: iY"" h -'. but the. complete.".•IJ~.9b). .'. ~ rouno '1the E .t"-JI.t"lh~ .IJ_eory .._.~ ~~. .~IL'L... the form."..il " Ai .. the last two specific eo it ...- . ."I~:h--.·'_' virtue... n-·0 d..' . ..a'YS'~s set . .' ...:. authoritative for centuries: "Tragedy then.ere) that epic does ...-'." '." . diction..p:ic poetry: for all the leJe:m. 'with.'0·'"f t''._ ":"_~~II!. ~~ .'I' borne a few lines la rer by this second defi.~.(].. ':' -':"'1.. .mmon --' I'O..' ~ -" conno . P irase ·'.. :is an imitarion of an. . . . these technical considerations" the leonl:parisen intima tes even at this point that ehe initial definition common to . -.' '...J.:. separate' parts of the play.'ll~ _' Copy" 'gh ted m a1. or bad Tragedy. an" i '<. . .roclty. ." ._'_"'-'" 1. . ..ic -.1l \.': - J . fj :d-'. knows also about ." .·· .-'f' -' '-rag'l. ...<].. .pnn ctp '1'.'.. passage attribute's an automatic superiority if not: to the tragic poet rhein at least' to the t . and of a certain magnitude. ..0.e.the reader.I:' ~. '. ·'·c-. [.... . of a Trag..e ." ... each.E." ~. ..-'. (plot. ".'1[".bI'Y·..everyone kn . ·tA s .~ . r.44.. h di res ..~ . . _.:. for.JlJ ".-==c.' -.- . --.:(" th r~..".. ~. dl ' .lI.. knows what is gOlod.)'I'I_.'-. 01 scunty has supporte d mulntu d-es I _ of perhaps pointless exegeses. the 0 bjects of both genres 'win not completely suffice (to say the least) to define the object of rragedy-e-an intimatio "'~n.'''1'1: '~ . me ~-. which 'has been..". not of narrati ve. tear ettecting n e proper :pu.~. .. _. _". For us.l·S--.$'P'U.• \r.'. ~' [II II . kind of artistic ornament.ents of an Epic poern are found in Tragedy.~ T-'lhe p'.~ _ _ '~' '_' ~. ".~ . .•.f-:~ tragedy_ ·. ~ :1]. importa n[-'~'hl rin ..[:' effect (wrhether psycholo igical .elements.· e' r.'iI'Ij"~ A. six . d m..' . .....·_ ':\r.poem. tileseveral kinds being found in.!I. leap's 0 Ut: aot. ' -...l'n"g'. IS no It :. ." ."..o. . n ese emo ['1-0l1~~r (1....na" ohr -'"'. 'W'hat does all '[his mean? Literally ~.' l~. . " . in the pr'(lper sense of the phrase. . ion 0: I'. .S···· no'.this.-. .IJ..'. "whoever can do.eCllp._. spectacle. 'th'" -. '.~'.. "parts" o·-. . . 0- • :'1" 1 : '.!\r 'O~'iII*.-_.more can do..~ " . I •..' I' ::-: .. . I' ". character.'.. II .'" '"rag-~. . . (l·. .re not al'"I. . ."_ .[ 0. (iI.·h·.1.. _."_~~_. 'II!'.. knows. parts" ('fl.r-":" I C ' II.t:._.e..

.-. _'i j- . :.. (or tragicr..'.to t".~ . o do: b ~._a".2 misfora)..r"'-...a.n.~r[:p": refer rabl Y" 1l.: >.' ".~ fi' .-.2········· 0··.~l ..I. coincidenc ~S '.' .' 1 ._.:d' '· ' .. ...".~ f"" r. for some of the incompatibilities arc' .-Y . .. or especially tragic (tragik'ot.u-rrth er on t~AI5'~[9--:. .atos) {14-5-.[1.l .'11 ~ d 'I... l~~ .II..." ..Ii __ .. most tragic" eminently' tragic..U C ~c-.__ .. _.'~"<)I' .".n '\ ".1...··1j"iI'" JiJi. ..' \. the idea of . '~' ' . .n.n . a r·~~~l' mI but 'b.:lOg "..Io'".El..~ ~_' a.. ."..~"U'1n. the [earlier definition.\.t i ~ . !\..'.tJLi at ia sh n-_ reverse of what has been andcipaeed ~.l~lQ .I .aw'.-' ..Ii.:: actions 0" f' Oe ():!ll.l. ~ ."'i: ~t1" 0---"'-"[..1 .'~ (.: ' .'.. .']''-'It. I'." I __ ."m.. ... ' . .' I> "..e corn ·':t.-". One example is. • ".. I~ J\.. .U1C..' e '_e~S.JiJi. (14.b granting to epic the sam e .'.:::i!..' '.. definition: an unexpected (. I' """.~'" .-: ...... .... \". 1_'1 ~ __ " _ . J • '-'.A~.'\r' ·II!r._ '. "J~'U< di .."lIP-: [9'-'1. l ~V .IL1.._. . e ~ents" as __c-cc._ _ •....".. . keeping with that ___ ~ ''' .--~I 0··f':-~v'~ -[[' ::' wh.." ll[lA~11 . " w' .)..: .d. rhe d.'-.v.'~.~')I.1Ii. A/"~'.._cce-~~ . tune suffer-e. ·i. . 11..e. .. . -... III _. _. 'of the gn.r.WI. on t 'h verge 0.'.. III cnes 'rC'.--. 'p[ity-n~'m.. . song .err pro ducti 'n ''': . _. _ ..-" a r .. f"jO"'.t'la".~. .. . (y. . 11.' . and so _ .-.I .. ]. ... [ y.A nstone1 restores tne b lance somewhat .' <..fflastoH".a: ':S''_-..or moral) of the two emotions of tragedy but the very pl'ese. l~~t][i". ':.:c):.ph ontes as the most perfect tragic actions and Eurjpedes as the author who. is. :"il'~ QI..5.L' ~ 1[ .dby a.". ha ve an air of desi gn' (145..il .. b. :' ...je. __~. '.Dition.""'0-' ~. Y.am[a.tore to"" u e: the existence of a tragedy that is if)... Q. __.': b .-.~· __ ...'i"I':S~ tituen~'~up~: arts" th traged '-y7' 1k..enu"on~ 'R:"".' I -:-' ~. . ..2 a)._.. '~~- Ch" ' '.." !II "... _' '_ ._.I l._ .1. f 1. •.. .: b. "" T_"-c. "except .'..... . as when behavior produces an out . .·~'e" 1L .ecogru .."d·j:' by t-IJ~ '[ f'.._ l.: ~"'..:C.. . 0.~c-..-_: __ .._.~JI .:.~..b. o. '" 'e··· of in[~(r~~. I ' ILl:l . - ~a.i' ".'iii a no ' h[~'r-.!..'.·y::.' cri ..3. .11 ...•.I..":" e- '... IIII ...1'''. Jj . 'vi 1·· ...~.eJ. hero who is..(14-5.'-"".3 a) t' certainly constitute a new definition of tragedy-c-one we cannot wholly dismiss merely by' calling it 'less extensive 'a.< __:.. .o been unknown or concealed (14. [ "3' rk ch di:pus Rex or the C:res.il. ".n.S. "peri P etei a" [0'( 'reversal" of the action.~ '.C'. [...\ re. anitio _..•• . " ._" d better. .".. " " \ 11. a) .../~: ~O'A!n. II . ._.I. -.~ . .[ ~ ~: . '.ert.: '-.rireria ..• -. 'R" " " '(':"~[" ..'. ao:d....6 A····· u these whic h m:. .. [ tions and Tra gic Incidents. 'Illi .- '[e.CC' comrmtee L f--' .t-[tlU.[ <r... neither wh oily' innocent no..en.s[cener y~ .. t ~ ):' ...0 'l.'h.. !ill ~. ~_' ~_~ _ __~ _ zenre as.JlJl.~-'(':'1 Ai [5···3"~"a.".. hilth. ..\. .I~l.t.!II..'. Iittle more difficult to reconcile.' . .f~fi[ d'ox:a'f') and amazing :hau...' "" ..o·'~s~' ' lenrit ies .."Reversal _S.ll. ..'O:-._ ...~ d I. ._-.more detailed than.'. 1'11"h' 'o·. __ . l. 'O..'.C< JIIi..'"".nee of these emotions in.. "I' "'. ~..g . .aim. " ~ ~_ ~~ __.....0]1. .".: Copy" ·gh ted m a1.s alien to epic . u""" U h oa h -.J.e. .... ._'"' .. '_ .:' I . !l .L ~" 116-'.. I'_:_." .11. .. .i. __ iL.. : .g'"ate '.r.ltc-y. .t._..:" ur]' t.' \".':.. lL :_ : . .. __ . "':: . .a tragic hero I. ".. . ".. . prevented ne but at the last: moment 'by the recognition) 'between people d__ to ear ch h ·. commute d t..~ . •• [1".... .." .. "' fl'" -' .. 1(""3-·· 'IU··· sed n ot 'be::.0" r '8.r U .r'. "" 'I - '..'O'.': e «I..3 b).para .5. · .11. J] .. well as the set of'specific_ features Aristotle ~des.. but unaware of the nature of their 'tie's...: as ne ce-:S:'~a"ry.f'I[O. Q.rQ...' " tram ..O[~-.d. e . ._[1. ." But the basic motif of the' tragic-e-fear and = .cria .. ters '11 ( I. ' ..

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en' tirel y good nor en:~re,J,y C''VlJJa:c-' '~O' ~ ti "111 "~ (. ... 'c,;, cording to Racine's faithful paraphrase in the preface to'
1

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perfect, he must always have some defect, " as the pref. .. ~, t·· B"·' .. '"t·an"n,cu,s ",,'·extends tne , mea-e-correc ....:II, .". m.y .'....,.... ··,···d··,·, th idea .' '. t l y" m ". ace ,0' '~I',r~, . h view, ') or- not cJ' ear-sig h d leflou,g'.'.or-e-an d' thi amounts tred ms to the same' thing:,-too ,I'fa'r-sighted (like Oedipus, 17 'who in Holderlin's famous and inspired verse has. "one eye' ." .... '''' .. ""'!!'1iI)'''' ~" .',-"'d' rne traps ,~.~ .. y C"..'-18 .., ~d'i too many , to avorc the ,".-," ~ set bv tate.': 'T"h" ,. ,1,:3'[' 1" ea does '~10-,'t sq ua r 'C- well wirh. he earlier decree of a. h um a an ,nature s u'P~> 0:("' to the av e:r.ag.~~:,e, s this sup· eri unles ..eriority is to 'be deprived of any' mo ·r"I'I or in': tell ect ual dimensio:_!.n" h: ld ~ "'b' ith L di W"lC· h WQU,,',_C b rat h rer incompatible11 with tne ordinary '" 'h meaning orf" t 'h';C-Iedjective ,t. ,r '" a d. ,. ue,Jlion;, as we nave seen. A n .... ~', · other example is, Aristotle' s requirement that the actio n 'be capable of arousing fear and pity regardless of wheth lv narra ~~'dcl(1:1 "_ .'. '-.",wnetner it s , sh '0- ,-, ";.' '1":-',on star or mere",y .'.:'_". ,'"t' ,Ce, '.....' ,4:5:·"3-~ 1, IS s,~~<wn, ' sa.ge b) Here he certainl 'Y' seems tOI admit tnat tl. e tragic S,U~dmi h h . b I~: r .e certam jeer C,3l1, 'be'dissociated from the dramatic mode and entrusted simply to narration, withou t there by b ecoming '. . ',. an. ,'-".:,' '. su I..,necr, ep_rc b'" ."
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too I,'a'r~(id;, that is the 'main theme ~ tragic here b eca use the issue d:.....~L uU -.',- h.•:~.',:-her worr..S-" '("L",.~L~-,···l'·· _.·d" ......'S.~e,rn.r1'les.~, ,-f·'· B~": ', - · In .. t .il~". ls~cad!I,.!I! but com :.-)~, 0,,, e:r "', ~CO.f ... :fi'~······"....:.,' L' r .. ··ar bier de ISevUle):' where the' issue is onlv the mo-rtifi,catioll of an old fool or the "useless" precaudon=-useless and even ha:rf1ifUl or" 'to put it in terms more appropriate in this contex r, disastro or J[~"W (~;~''''''l: 1.8. The' ,C'o,mp,I',ett P'la'}"s oj jean Racine, trans". Samuel Sol... · omen (New York: Random, Hous e, 1. 967), 1.: 1,4·1 (Andrio\ 1 289 II,J"dd't:U-U,~iiUI., 'Friecmc h 'H'~'I~d-1-' '''I n 'Iiet nc h,:("'B" .. ") ,~ . d . ,. ,I~,()_, er In, ,~, ,; bl m,aq_ue,.1' I:,~,_' l er
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in his Discouss de I Q' trag'etUe (1,660; in (Eu:v re:s'" 'I ::59)..,Seven. p.ages later, he applies that distinction to two of the ,Aristotelian requirements: the semi .... · innocence of the' hero and the exis renee of close ties between th~-. .-'~ "'-Ii.g'-.• 0-.0-',,',.1."" i'~W:' .-..,' h e-~- '1- s-':a' '.Y' "' ,. h e' a dds ""'['.'h-- [. [-0'"e -. e t'-w-' c·o·':n,,,..' ,(- , '~'I'· -($-s .~~ C TlIi .• : dit io··D··'-S' are onlvI for 'p: erfect traaedies 'I, do n ""Ii" m iea·n·ehat ""","'.~g-"""'.
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Copy" ·gh ted m a1.cria

~ b .:ti " ..•.gne (ju.' e_ " succession without paying much attention to ehe diffeF~ ence between them-e-and without suspecting..._' "1 J . . . even if everything that follows is d:ialo'.:. __ :. a of lit'-: -.. h. A:r.tr-'II"o-'-.istotle recognized the' mixed nature of the epic mode perfectly well-and. ".' "1"" III But let' 'us go. PIUt a ni.. rem did not and by d. the need to distinguish between pure narrative and impure narrarive._ ._. 'which that memorable digression on the tragic transcends but aprepudiate... ' h' t he tr eorencal imbrog 1." .. _.~.-_ . cation. having others apply to the' whole of .:...ed.r. th. _' .-. ie norms ' ie "a e . 1. broad and nra. _ •.-.an. .3.-__:. epic will be ranked among the narrative genres: after all.'.-y nsts entrappe d" b~Y' t'1. between the pure narrative mode.."hef' va/:'u:t on: it.'\.t tonic distinction.UC.s1t .l -~ '_' I" ..at pojn t ora. Fro._'!. __ .IL ".m.' ~ d naive ..l. -. 3" single.e'V[c:r 'we:ak rhe j u..:_'.:__. -- "'."_".:'.".~- 111 0 '0 '" "-'..ll atec C(-~.-'.. not assign any' place to lyric poetry'. some twenty' .' _'-. Or rather. I@i CO' ". risrotle espo used both sen ses in '..3S. . .'_'.:-_I '_. into 'W'h h. back to the initial system. 'but 'we:have also seen that the sys'[[e:m overlooked 0'[ seemed in pas sing 'to overlook rhe Plapatently does DO.cria . at the' s ame time. mode. ."d·· ted ror one O. ..' ". illustrated by epic.' .!Q.: .art disappears in. ive cenf curies later the absence of such an introdu ction will 'be enough to establish the "interior monologue '.h. his system is. ". I hop e. illustrated."' .:raged. _ " .: ' :_ :~l'-.Y.~.d..sti6.:. 'W'. I~ "'.. with its two senses..m... '0 I . ae applying . if for P]ato epic belonged Copy" 'gh ted m a1. genre thenorms he had eh ·-..".word of introduction by the poet is ultimately enough to make it narrative. ~ C..__::.rtainly A".As we have seen. _. \}..n. 'form [I") ~ 'In short.1.~." ... "'..efinirion could.USlo'n anc na '1 b". _ _I. ·.• ~ •. ~\.An Jnt:roductfon biguity of the word t.-. the :sy's-.. .. . .OiW'. i!il"""':__ ...... many centuries 10 ucr later.ent on .'w· '-e'.'.the 01 C'll' status of the dithyramb and..COIII. his casualness would throw some Iiterary theo ...5 spectes.. _ __:..-"a proceeding almost as old as narrati ve-e-as a full-fledged novelistic .b'i and the: mix._.' . I repeat.' . 'Jr-. _1[.-. 'by' dith:yram.'...

.. ..y.teristic ~'. n t .. [po . .] ..l.. :.'._-" nave y c' . \1 .. .. . .1" .'..eplc or nove1')1': .lL·. 22·:' =: . ' .a thing."' '-'.'.u .' d' ~.. •.') should enoQuI'[age one to be' prudent. --:" ..d" '~'·-F··..IS" sa ......1.tne . .re..·'[:ri .'..•• .· 'rb ~-.. h ..·". I .' ~+""~.. r. . __ . "_ to t h e d· tor Artstotte It b 'I l' '".'_ ...re.. at the' levelof a... mtxead'·: or I..aC3.:wnoie wor ..U""iours~: ... a '.3. D.~t .- ': 1I1 ~..c".. no.. "_" ~· •."." ". troun }..:---·. .g narra lve.. and A....Q!~..1. ..~' . ': .ris-. :'t ." of the past and 'he surely ' 6'.. _.] In Nouveau dislOU rs' du reci t (:pub...'tel/ino' without SIJOW-itlO in the language of .'·· ureiudice be '. ..l~~ .. n IlL'" U'... [.r··..OI. _..g~ ror one'..fU10lre. kir ".·. .[ . l\"..". '."'.-. v·~ . . .. .'..llOU Y' _~n.:1.' .. ..'s seot a' c :h· 3'r''lIC''.PI~J. ".dVf... ' . and 1".. Something happens rhere-e-bcrween Plato.' . is...".::-' -. ..~e JJne o.cri a .: ctuanze It.nl...a· ~~ .. ..·C.J'_"!! .'.. " -' _ ~ d' '1._.'..:1.- bilitv is.:...-0' .... .a ire rit .. ." nQ"a.ere ~ .h· at we t. .::'.. belongs to tne nar'1L modev c: A '. American criticism) is pure po ssibiliry...··111. :"....il.Q..'". -'.11'1' iiI. " ""'~ (f . .'..-.. 'h -111 .''..e t·· a .[-I ..._d·. r· 1 .C. OS' 8'~ "11'..f.ay be.. ' . '..-·--·-. . ._ •• ..-c":".Uc lce.mlssln.' .~"'ah" it .--'.: b 'I I i"J'.~.·:·· a ttempt...I.any" ' rrom ." ··· ··d···eo .. '..· P~'" ...ever [0 'a . . ' 'J 1 ·]·....."c·. '..I.. .'.. . ..n..~~.rr the dithyram b is pha n torn .'.." '.'I': ~'" 1.... 111 -.:_.."Q 'I. : C ....'... 'f .~.out dial·'0' g l!l.". :'1"-.:0' '1i16'~" ..".' it .. (b .· ''"'I . .or over 0 0.'. .I':"'.e't ancd :tOI tne epic c. ._ .. nJ . 1..' a new 'e....'1'0 · .'d" J" ..on. ".1·..' .. '.".I'...:. Llf... ···f.. 'mo ·d' e eve.oJi' .n " '19' ·8·3·'··~·2-'8::-'~'Iii' .'-... .h>. :~I .e appreciating nu'~I··· necause.' d h as __ reasons ."._"... ·:c..O.. '.-..·d···r}'....•.... mar .·J·:··~·l .JI'\r. "'..'.o de astation W[OC":u' ght by time undoubtedly _~~~ not 'blear sole responsibility: Aristotle speaks of that genre as if it: is already.~ . it .n..~'"e.~:...-' .' '. '.I':'J.. D.!_-'i···. _..c'l'" ..::_.' ..c· ' .. .' .'.. ~"-'" 1 .an..~. '...".. .' .~ .J. questl.. •.4 tu on: [n I'dttidt'€Xf'e ) G'-.".' .'::.$ ' '..'.' .'n":~" the dith ..' ". ..[" . ~~t=¥ '.rne......:~....u~e"1 \-ra.. Ih" ·. ·41'11... :~:. E: . "'-. :': '.. ..Ir-...'1!..'~ ..1Ic.~: . . . .-'. . . .····t'·:.'. ..'..:L. .· ~..g it ·t·'h' '.... U'.' II! ::..: ..) th':··.'...'.·· ress" l. _.k. '''-''iI'' :... ···t-'·.• t·. .:JLa.. .."'r'~~~ '. I ri.ns~_ anen" '[-eWIR. .. ·..: nnyramcic But_.'. Copy" ·gh ted m a1.:. :f..... 1 •. ·'1 It. 1"":'... '. ana '. .'. '. : .-.. " .. . ..1. obvious.' -: ..ot _ " '_1. a fortiori..·.'.enett'f wrote: is ': 1_".'-x.'II':' ".~ .(-'!i A:···· 11~...0 U'[ years 3J. . ...~'.: ·1!.. .J!.narranve rs out' 0.g'..I. _..~.• . ~...s D10··d·' ..··. "..pu. __ r- .~ ixed rmxen .·d·· ... C':'.'~ '.:.'... '.. _ I _ ••••. f i '~ [ l' ..' .' ... we would be hard '1:'1 ~h i'113tl. '.. '..:-.till ...'.' ~ ·~"o. 0'1"._ .r .Versl:y.lC. "'. Il.r" N:' . ._' :.. [ _' 'a..' . .. i"... t·" .... U' .'. '.' ". (!H' "··a' ·.:":. however.h -. ...se ". _::.'.•... .S:~e"u· " ..'.. ".. ".evt.'. ··.' . T~"... -' c Wh..It..J....[. - Ij.--': -'..' .."J •.. at tne . .• .. and.a.. . ·.~ ~I~' " .Y narrative. ·. '.1 •.. _-"I -.aIrIng .ogu."'D t'. ' 1.---:~ .·c.".I.Iij' ISCQUr:S uJ'.' ..!..pure.. J'£ ' iVji..£ca"r)... wi rh ahnost no .A~~·£'[aUSfIS p'ure. e-n' p' . .' .1· .._....' . I.. .' - which obviously means that the criterion of purity is no longer relevant.': c '".' : fi'-.. b.. . . .-'. does .. A rthitexte wnere I completely exc"1deu th passli'b..rror. e :' " 0 .. ·(·N.'"... genre.. . 1 .J. '.". .'. ' I . :)"1 ~ '4-"2.orel .In..~.-.lnciele (:~eve:rvP'" r lthing that :m.· .10U.... expression of empiricism.t'oug.:"...'. 20~ [Transla to r'8 note. (ep"..rve..'.:'h ung. .• '_' '_' . corpus . Co' I'd' I..w !Ii" ....1:5' b :ns..H' ·d·'. 1.htee e.'~l O~. :n.I.' ....~~ . . pro-rmmenc . '.....' ..'.' d re :1ty f.'.-: c :-..ure narrative is.: __ ..... "'.. .~' •• _ "_'~ __ '_'.'te tntro .-··_·". .!I...~'~.. - I .. ... " ..T'he" possi10" ."' .. ····1·..-'d~-l--''.y" '-.n: 'to~..e. "t·.mpu"e.'. '. And w'[e'know well from experience that pure narrative (.b tone ... ··... or at 1'" _-" .' . tear one. 101 [or tl e novei.'" l.. .'~'-~"'" 1.lt~. .~ ~~ " . ran ve..'·· . h '" put to name a novena without d'~ '11 ...abandon tin '~I[. _-It'· 'teas.-·.• ~"I take this] opportunjty to correct a bl una er I made in the ( t...: . :. l. .~V' . the [d.it"~' d~··_t1!" . ".Iijit~.. . . and Buffon's .h~'t.. '~Ia_ogue".stng.R.-' .[' '.

"'I "l__ .:- I IV Fo r several cen It· uries the Plato nic A··~··· ristotelian restric tion of poetics [:... b· c"a"1 se .' _'-"\. J. __ .~~·n'·X>. ..... 'II .IU.~ remere j'.~" an . ~T'-'h.I .. ve 1·~_:··_":-:~1~~.. _I_._.'.a·.Faral L"-: A._ . .. 11'111 I ..'lIS ...U Il ."-. [.]! ._.I". :_. r ne. D ~I r. there' is."". [' _. .... -_'~~~:. tor .. " l. ..:'.".t:..A . I_ :.. .". ' .'~' .... '. II' tern of modes 'with Aristotle's.. I.."W'· .f-.Fo r the '~"'Ii ... . e~ _" pecially when 'we already know' the outcome.7~h"a' "111~·n--· 'S·::· 'hiQ..I!'[. . . is the fact that one slot . d.. .~... I' II .1I'~~' .... p" ..1.... .-'·0:'. .I .J ... .."..-.. cnart n va ." ..~~ been vacated (a on". I I .. ." ...·'·. raromc '1triar·d'~'. [..adheren us ceep ....pp ens-''n-x' .-1 the cha --i' 'h... ."W..-gl U'l't Ifm.· a lone ""...· st en'fo d ..·· "'.~··1:"1:-_.:. . l ... . ..·1 . ..:'f:~'d'U..lle ...&' I I . \ .... "a""~ ·.e· ·p····'·. .'_. . G.' -..' the.. ··"o: ""'(. ..~ I".••.0 the representative 'will weigh heavily on th iifj' theory .t-·'#····~···· .IY . :_ . . ·A~ I ~ll'" I I' . .: 1'" '_'. I" .'. .'" '_."'-'1' Copy" 'gh ted m a1.·IW·'·· rev.1".r_t(-: e~__ to g lJ . II. ".. s..._:.."=. ...r 'l . []: :0···· '. II. ~' ~_.-.--' ""..J' 10.t: rem 1. 1·.'. the perspicacious reader 'will S:3'Y.. Ed m'.•. s• .'11d\p ace reserved it ..... -. .. .' .. 'a~·r-[--'... " '-_ part... .on.~ et ['.e"-___ 'W:-h :3. _.' -:.'.. :J ~ rath .oJ ' .-: __ '='5S ~ y -"_' __ _' _ next..narrative. .l~ 1111.S .. '._~}_ .'.:.cria .'. .rcu:re: a'. et~ . . :[" ..~n---'res an d k ·.. 'I 0'" I narranve :[I. '!!l... y..· .' .g. t._ I. '11 ' . ."sr-' if W"'~' comp .~ . I..th. . . . _~·.': U~£'U? ..1.d the ._.' .d·.·...'d::.f jU r .'ed --' abli shes :""1 '.e .'-".. .r . .of 'Lol ...'.' .': :O'-·'-·:U-'.:::.~L..:.'"t.-. ' .. :~.'...IL. s =as::-' -. p... es itsen·. .'ID.lf....~'.r-. narranv 'e g..-_:· . ~_ .a...-~.g th way.U!S et tU'CUt1.'. ~ d'.-----. mrxeed dram atic _ ..1d "atif]J . _ .·-' n--.... · d 1"S a' e a' e u.. .t-h-.' "J . l~._ 'j. ..n.[ [ .. '.. .-...r..3· re Plato's svs. I [ndrr€l'.!I!I....J' ._:.I .. ..t!'" ""] if .-. . So. '."'. ' ..~~~ ken 1::lJ'._ .lu'r--e.. WI' I '...j ]\i. _ . in a state' of malaise 0'[' confusion.!'> 1"-S.'JI. .-S'1=-1 d n . [a .. p." . ry 's .. = !I I . '1-:'I:. But Iet's 110 it: skip '[:100 man Y' steps ~ but not .... .:.Lte..' .e_".. ..:. 'l'--' . _..:·.lt~.~. a_L...1L "ld ..'~':-'" . ---J....oQ. . . [] .-_an_cr" id p-".' _'....' tett-e-estat ·.X"'ll'...'. ae .I'. ~ '..11a". ..~'" 'me ' in -.'..C'.· t.". V~J!Ii~:J. :'. .. ~'. .-·If' rnixeo-c-t the onlY narratrve 1. . '..slot to b e fj-'l-l.'.' ." The: idea of lyric po.'.I" 0105. jj. .-'. ..D.. -- ....• by -'.._ .mprl rlos ·t).'l"... Plate ie "_.... ]-1 .."'~ '. the histor ical inform ation that feJ11" c'I"IO-'!If"l -DS· ._ . _ 'J ll.:21. mixed che \ir.a u~£'ltfnq. 1 L. .IJ'" ~Ai J\.·.. '1" _'~'~'.[ 1.. .!.. t 'S" 'no' 'De"'XI~.... ..''0'.'...

.:))II~ .rv "Princeton·: P'rinceton. .___:_. .-.J J c B 1. . 1-(l2----4-):'· Bohrenrens..~ . ."ne »."C.-'a.'3 lis t of nine' lyr ic 'po.....:.-".. . '. .~ ":'·L· 'S "t (1970") 1'n .:J. • long remain canonical .-"-.d ida . ..~.·· I.:.9" ... .:Z:lerte ··'''''!!-..age ''_" ar.Co). '~9~·6":"..~.ra.. tragedy.. _ 11.d:· "d·=t. seven poetic g"enres::' epic (which here comrises aJl..r'I!t'l.nsrarc mtnc emro I!'". -. lyst to..'f··''..---. . [1 •• 1.' '. but it is nos made part.--aeu.. ""....'... .H I v._ .':s:sa..U Poe.I"~ thie list ..-. c.-still purely technical (poems with lyre accompaniment) and .' ·.. the A"b..0 r 'd"..o..-..6 fi. . .n~.eu1.....adi . _. dei !l.1 .~~:.II..St -"".. nampion. d-I ne 1 a :Iyricis'€ and satirist.U'li...I' ~ . [_ :....rouen i._ the ..~. ":'. '-' . ..:11.-td' ..-' .~.f.' . ·d'1.~ 'R"--..: ._ ... ."stncn. '..n.gs ~'. .--.' '" - .'. j :'. '0· ..~ ·197 .c--n . _ _.h.'. .~ in...OSC. 'p.'~'1::). .24 'T--'J' A rautext . __ II' . ·." ."'~i(~p·""...'" " d.ouer .T:h. v-ree an ..:~ --.t'e.·It:.a.S ". for example.~..Bari:_ Laeerza ..lll. ..C..' ..' . '. .. Haven: 'Yale.'...( .-.r:.. ".ll -1'·b.s.~.' = '_ ~. Romantic ''T'':j1''. the "i . um n ran reco mmenos to "-'-1_' £1-uture orator 'I t e_ he m . h -.- ' '.: : "'-1'· iM:-:.U. m G··'-·I. .I.il~a.ature a. ..' C • J• ....1-..'\r. . =c •.' ·8.. = in __ " . '-H~ I n [e.' ..t .'F.:l:Iug . ... ij":I'.. ..g:tac.. .~:.1<~-:-.._ .'hl'-'1 '1.. Lati n aedv ed .. an.... de .f' '" . r. ...·~·]"1il'ld. mmon 1..draws up'. Pine . besid es .itive -.' • ._.. ' _. '(--0.. ....ILl.• M-· T·. of the paradigm alongside the '"d-"..·~ _ ""arlO '_ Ut.. .·'Ys~em.. .. 1 M~·: .ltm. -".Ii.~.::_ .....I.. ... H'-'I ':-_" '.=en:r. . ...[ (a-~ ~-·-d'-·:'''· uu~. excludes.'-"'-. (>P---"---"I-'" '.. A'~"~-"'-"'-'--h'I'" rus..'. :....-.!.'.~ ..... Iga.".. d ~Pd'.' ._~. .I'· - e '.:.~ .D '. come y.I'I'~~.:)""': #iJi'~I.so' ~ dtscots! di teoria letteraria ('. stori .'--'.'1:rlC..'[. ' ...-j ncluding ' .'.'.'.aturc' ...7.as. 0" .~!J.n..' J 'I' . .tJer efr.. _ __ n ca e noesia saaoi __ v ~_ ~_ _____ __ __ _ 11'9:6" '...--c-"··-'-"i··".acr-eo.u . .G·.eplc . L:~'. ~ J rhetoric. l' _- !II ~ ~ ~l.1j.. 0.".f"Y'. elegy .neorw t . ek ""'·G··--· th 'L-~'" '..U tit.0]f course m histo ' ph ". an d 1...n..·" .. Qll.R.' and .. - -. _ .e'£. - ..nne....P{1iI. terms of genre" to praising' Horner and setting forth the rules of dr . ':Ii -.Poli:sie. 1 .. 3..~.d--' . '-....':.e:t·'-'l.l....·. . ..l.11. ·" -·'.f Eiuteiluu«: '1 ~..r... . .~ L"..1 -. .ex.a..~ 'B 'L 'il __ P-oeuq~I:. Ql. n....-' . ."[. . _" .-.. kind "Ir.rd:'rtI Histo..en'UUUl~ tr.'. ano restricnvc..~ .". L··· E' --.':':1.. c .' ".. d cen...d.·."-.. . l.-"5_'(..:attu'igl?n. d 'P--·'· dar) h ·'111 Al S-' 'h A"" ..-Il ...u)ye..t.'··k·" " ..I' \ University P:ress~ 1.".third 'Iro "--. _.lL'. ~... .f·.' irtertl'nsft~el~-. -'.: . \ ...-" " . s.ans.rI' .'-'.~an d_ -W~--'-·7"--'······1 'T'.' .- - I:_'_'(>': .1' I:"'''C.11:.. :~ 0"'1' c...."C'-'-: U· hus ene La ..1 ~h_.--."..]l .:e.'U'ni versiry Press 1... rn :' rs 0 r-' realn. ....--- ·W· lj~'t·d".. ano B''·ne_1US (1967)" in Disai n i fU~t fa ns: Fu rther Co rU1?:p: Q{' Criticism :. (""'B-''-~'r"n'~ '-F--rc U'n'·c-l~.. ~' Crit J:..C.· ..!I._~L "!'[G. -'-. .h 'WI.].. P-.et _"" ..a --er-e·"t+" = _ '~'f'.'" •. . anc .." .. ·'S-"-.rL. .-' .. .~...~- .-. .. -~ '~"-.:..Q. Iitterari g. ht ~I" d h La [1n rn a..:'_' IUS. 1..·..~ .k·'· .: ··b. t. ·-.C1!lI·d-i'·-I'.-.e.. IIi..rren.l .h •.: .-~. .. 97'0)."'.Ul1seJJ ic i .. -e."'..~.~ULIl.... ":-..:aruara.'In. =-.~.£J' .~.I fa' _'h.'T--'h .c:".' ...'~" .....-I'ij-.. - .[~J4'!·I!~!I'·.'..lre ._13:p'P·•··.'0. I' t:. .. . pO~SL.-' :".." .' _.:1 i-<'.' beradu·e..-..esioo '"neocr'ric.~~.-....''!i.'Xlor.<W·:~e.'tramatic poetry.6"") R'" _..-. ..'ano d"i'rama itic .t.•.u!b__..J.'hi'" .-•. ·1' :1 '1 1 .-. ..~ .ac"~ :. _leary OJ' L'.S."'. ·-··-'-k·'Ow..971)..~il '.1' 1'-"" _llf::.I -.. or ace. .. Y1 ano 1..'" ..rlS~ .a tio..US'!1 ana 'L' .' Y"" "_ '._'~. .~.a'~:.. . .':cl. -I ..mS -...._...cri a ..-"~:'.I .vrn!l). '_ iF.er...r-es-s. _ ___ _ _ _ ct ry IS obviouslvy D_ _ unknown to the_ Alexandrian critnot ics.l. _ _ _:_ __ F 'I.] secon -':..i.!. ..' . Schlegel~' (1968)...'ts (New ..'U.!"!! !""!J • •• !""'!ll"""! Copyr 'gh ted m a1.' . jV~.1 - 0: 1 •.1..A' .. '·.."" ' -... '<.• . ra m.-. '!"~ 1('11·9····5' 1)"..lng. :'·'1 I' ..' . "I~'y .'. .enee_~!e_.: . . .unHt.... 3. .g. of narra rive descrip .e' . .~s" ~C'-:--"h"-.~ _~ .C·· tic .. ('~)I..n ....- :.. 'J'..'e .. . 0'10-'1'""-':'1' 0 Ii.".. .'. k. 'a.-:'-tur B C .(~ry'" of l-..' ers~... P.d: .. J. . .1~ '_ a 5SHi ~ et·. . limits the A.I!.rt of Poetry.J.'•.' . ..' _..fJlt.lU. " .ac poe r.']I. '-I'--~"'-""-..n. ~."t. .U.. ~. --. the cI..1 ".""...e' -S·:~ _ 'li"." . •.... '" ...Ii. [ .'.'~ 1'·-."'.-caeu s." . _.".-_.} JfJJ."C.1:: . .'~'iljl...te.." 'H'"'.d n l." 1 .. : nd d d ef -.tp.".s-_S" ..-" '-'--. "La Theo:rie des genres poe~iques chez./ l'!!""! _ _ _ _ _ !""!J _ ~_.. '..··..'.'·-·l-.· -: i...~'_.l 11......i..1 1 ..~ W'lC." ..Ys . . "_.-"..5.~.e ·'·le'a~'.. .ilosophy". . _:'.. "C'- ..." 1: eas : . Perer Szondi.-. .-v-1.tUl.. in th .t... ··1·-.:-:-.- .. " '-. ..j(!!I.'1= " _ _ a.X1. .ward tin: ~rJ1f". I·'..! i '. in.. " 'W""-l1.11.... ~ S~.ets (._g 'V::'.lL!!.-.)~ '-....:.' ..itl . ...0. ···.--.c..' J~ G'-" R.. . 1'. t.f 'nlo":~"."1_ 'ti --l' ....t.l]··o.

'. . :not mentioned d b. "' . Alcaeus.. '('. with oue 'mil . i es "" ren'Ire ry:"')'. .25 elegists) ~ iambic (A.re: he puts-e-alongside epic-s-iambic. .=-. ...ei of Illl. . c' =. :.1·':._' ~ :_-. song.. .s e. .' -~ -..I: .. among: others.._.. re ch.' ly:riC' (ArchiIochus and..II •._.."'""..(." ' .. since it inclu des wo rks in~pro se '.. But Quintilian's list is obviously nor an art oj poetrY'. the narrative ..-.gen..=~ (gl~ne~ra)and after a fashion" apportions among them t'l'l.'. = . ".. .1' ". G-( th1.."....'"'d. several nonnarrative and nondramatic genres an.. Copy" 'gh ted m atcria . :~~li '_. Pindar. Horace. .1 '11 q-: uelin d 'g ~ '...·lI.ato or A"nstotle •.. 11. an d lyri C poetry-e-this las t illus trated by.'la to 'V. . '_ ~J...-. 'wh. IJ 10 I'D' n.ge1 Pl ~.Ie '.! r~. A. '...]. ~ ~. The sixteenth-century authors of arts of poetry' gen ..p'" system·ls. .:.r'b .r..-.. tO integrate Iyric poetry in·t· ·0'. r.· 1 C·" .~1:tJ'ar:ativurn (narrative). and.. 12I .' d "):'in whtich p'·o··c··t and c·'h·Ia..~ f.. "'-"'l .r[chiloc·hu._~ A·:····· !Ij..: . er ~~'~Y'"£'0...'I.n:J. h . at the end of antiquity' and.eass-named d is tne satiric d rama 01~ t. 1 ny. make g.. uous tgnemic: .nl.·r'. .jti..JlJ'.60. t:Jh-' g'(!I. I .Il~:.... . rist orle '_'_'~""" J·~ . .0'-'...II >ln: 1. and satiric species -I}' t . I ':..' .5): epic...~ ~ 11) ..-1 .~~ . elegy. Horace).e['[species" (. . r fUI. in.. dthe did a."1 :J"A·....tru ct :..h. epi sde..."'" JI.' " ". La Fresnaye (1.. c-Yo..1..Q"··~O·'···•. Mans (1.ctlc.'! 'c'".' . iambic'. ."". . r- _ •.e'.. ing their categories.~~ ..'. .. '~ . comprises the species that are heroic (the epic) and.n'.. .Jj . ..gY'.y':~..f:S {. Proclus (fifth c[en-' tury) omits the mixed category...'. ae tetralogies.")'" aUI[_ " '(:~_. comes down in fact to one form..~ QI '-' _ . .": 1- I~ """. . ~ . I ·t- ~. which only the poet speaks.d. sonnet. t..]I. ".. "--'..fes) that we' W'O uld call genres: the .'[~ ..In.~·O'.' . :. the svstem '-. ode. are C···'O·· n_..e' nus imitativum (dra:m. . S onnet..d. .5.. .:~.s:p et.o' (mix '.f.. ..... ~ '... as Aristotle did.J. . _.. ...g" 51:U ~.an d·-·. _.ris tens h [~ th ree Pl to ni m 0' •.e ear. ~.[e~ltefforts.~[ d .~l '_ .55):epigra m.• ... in. "her o te' W'" ~0'--Jr' . comprises the properl y narrative. ~~ .. spelc~e. ..1 and mdos (1yricism).. stead simply 'to juxta pos[e species ~ Thus Peletier du... .mi ..' "The' later attempts ae systematization. """~~"''''"~'. the senten . otherr 'words " here the l"y·. the MiddIe Ages.~. .».-. is' .\ . .'.. and in. .'[.' 1' "~"".m-e···d'·--y::~' tr a". comic. john of IGa rland (thirteenth century) goes back '£0 Diomedes system. eleg y.~ sati[. ': "... Thus Diomedes (late fourth centu. .l .' '. .:.. n. " .mo :t>:':t.-~ c.il..' 1.~.I ..~ _' turn..~..""" ..c:h only the characters speak. el.e . .'.I'IIC con s r :iI"l--:.HO '[J L '\ ..: ed'-y'.g.. -. '0-'[' =V"=.n··[·t···· . comprises the tragic.'..:··'f"':C· itersa sp ea k tin' .vric is simply one of.. ..i. .'I'~i·f·~y·"··-' P ..atic)" in.11_ '1.s~ Horace) '[ sanre ("'tota nostra ": Luci lius and Horace).'iII' ."'. which is the ode.."". _.y""reclS. g" . ..

I..~..h .::_'.. -:. c'om. d.:-:-.. ·..y. _ _ _ . I~IU-II~' .-:.roo easuy recucime to th".'~-1 101 '. roicv '1" . 'W-1~.m...-Ji'!IJ. 1 '.'.' f'..~____ ~ a.l ·.ay m. __ ...·... th e eras srcai -:-"~''-'-1'1---.. ·-:...:. . without any comprehen. e6-'-. 1i.e :kuows that I~"~-un ea u d. ne "a.I··-~·.'.-v~thont: co:ntex:t and 'thus withou. tragtc. I . e ~ '1 h pastora '1nove I..'I. cen .. ". Copy" 'gh ted m a1.-~ ..." bi '«".."1eo..• .r .~ __ ..~_..-.···. c·'· . ".·. romantic "j" .:::·.-0""'..._' 2'-< 1~.. pre ..'·as.are devoted to rransgeneric considerations ~A:nd. 1. :..e. and 4.e.".~~s m . 0:( S·' L' Sir Philip ~:...'-J!! lll-S ...~ 'We should rem e mber rhar cantos 1.of i'~classical -' £1-' '.arl. -h rnaj or gemres .'..-._ "e 1>.:'.:.. . A···· nsrote~· .0 e {Of '.~:: ._'._ '. ·t-h'I"....realllly dll~'-"rs'".~" . ~_."1 1'._ sive c assmcanon... fro '.' ::. ryrrc. . . .~ .a... .[ - -.. .:· genres .. £1' --.•.routext .. ~. < I. 'ij"'.."1" poem" .__ ..26 Th~:e.3 deals with trag ed 'yo e '-P··'l:·C· -. . ···':--<·1'.>......d '0..I_. . A h' .. A' I ··t .r"·:-'h-: tne-. ~.~. ._1· '1' .-!t-'~. '. r . r} p h-. .··. .." .··~uu[e~ '..ecesso rs s rn'.-c '1""-"" -. \.-.'. The main arts of poetry of the class"ical tra. ..'''...O:I"'~J 0.et. -\..••I ".r~--~" ---. n"" Ap. 3.'. no t toO s.--.0·· R' ·a.---..'..~.~... I" • '-.e:5. ~ ·..".3.rrang.as _~':. c____""~ . .'..1''It..~I:·.~ .m. h dramatic pastorat... the sixteenth commentaries on Aristotle'.' . -<1'1"""-1"::'" '=-~J 1... a.. .-.-0 'II' ~.:·. .~I.o.· century of '-.n".'... . '(16':'--:7':·4' .'-.-. .loIl 0= • he '.'Q..... ':· .Souv'enf' _ ~ _ . .--i'-'~·"-'-·' . :il-..~.t :.y~ satire.. ti .-:.:''..-:·.._.··.--.5" .Q rdre les It un etIet de '1...v.. I . ~.-. etc."?-.. '-"I.-' .-.'. in which the inexhaustible debate about [hie comparative 'merits of tragedy and epic goes on and on. classific '.~'Ii."'>:'~.....3.e' proverbs '\.:.. n l . "..~"'Idl...~"II.l:·(.. alte e 0r the_...-. .' ry · .: . r._:..e emergence in.....'.] .~..isin ter pr'eta ti 00.:."" •••..:. d . -._ '. a. comic..-..~''':::: the de .j. ·:·1··-~·1 ···..cveryon..'/'1.:. _'..e' .. 'j!'~ l" . ~"1i '~'7:'<'11 _il""'!.. ronaeau..---·. ·6:' .h -.01 ···-+'1··eau s .'... Poetrle "~ about~ t 5080)-" -...:_. " .-0. .' B'-' wrhi.d y.~'r' l~' ~110""n'.[L.!....··...- '-1 .. iamoic. H J' ..".." .A'-'.-. ~.e...e-:"Ij" g.istinction and pushes it fu rther: 1-.'--'1' ·I '. ·R-·'.. J -.~) .-an. var':--'.. (:'oft:times)" .~ . 11..doxy by means of a convenient distinction between "the ~ ~ -· '. ."II4"'~.n . satmc. same year. ~.f" r~r -. ~r'~ .__ '~'fi... . in passing. ~r-.).-1 ~ '1-·1--':...1. -".'_.d .':..o][··.----V·. .~..["..!."".. iiI~ '!ii'~ ~- 1"" -:i.'" .. e p--. '_'__ . .--""..[callL. "{- -<.C n ~"~" perfectly (albeit implicitly) attests: canto .__ ~ '.' new "-. "-' .. ~( . ~lei ... e [-~'._' : :'-"]'" I e" . __ .7'. . elegiac.a~ex..t'que. - ~ -. - " "':.and:rine tbat 'pe·o'ple readily'.e'87e(t: of art).-. '.'-.iLllt -"-' '~~-..nlp]. 13..'./~ .'('0:' 'a".. anto ik C' ... I··:···-·~·"-····'~~·['·:':~' "~. d ." (like .C'.-.:..·-·1-]11 k.." narra d·' ramatic mode) n.. '..1.~ """""'.'o-loo'f) J' .. :_-":. ' I ..I ri Ii.to: :....:~·.·:' -..-.-[ .f:C.'_.".jI:"._" ~ ~ tne orners a..me. .. ..]...'~~_:"'-' I"I. ter a c:~'O'~~ ~ '" ~ t -1'ian th~ ras"h~-mon. ~. '-"(. oce. spea. '. _ :··-. ~"..: r- ' '_ ... ..·'f':~ 's~ i!!l'... ..r -relevanoe~ .pu.. '[-d .' ..-:::-'--0'· :rec~b.. ··.II"~ pastoral..' . 1-- ".'..lcaJ¥-t as...amrenance I.._.·_..oiiiiii' "1-1 . and song.. eaks o:penl y of the d.ap·'oc~'t-." we xnow."'I' .' .. .". .e with~__ _ ~__ ~_.0'-: ...··~1::.. trage d!.. ('F'I-' +.-"e~ :P-I '~':prlec-e'pt:s1'~ th._:-.cria ..:1 1 '" ....._". egy.ro.'...". ._<. _""" .~ ... t he ~ ··I··-.1 .. " .22..'..::-:-.nt 10. } '-1' d Sl. h ~.oj.' c. .. rne classical vu"g.r. ':-'rve.:" -. dustmcnon to es ...' -d IOUS nonrepresentanonai orms . while tb.ge th e r ). foot: ..~'. : '.'-~. ...pln~ are ba ·~..· -"_..··:·-- 'I-~I·:-·'-·:-.-:-. .nlli. (...I).'.'~"._ ""'1 I" 1'..f.. 'but this :is 3 fi:ve._d-~.(.'1(.:~ -"-'.r:l :le' nr'o .._. co'm:p...' '. are"' (a fi ne d:iso rder is an b .:' .·:I..:.' .gs E-o..le." ~]. a-n"d 'com iedy while 'iIo.··..'" l_ _..e. ·. "f" . ~ ..-'J._a_ satire" vaudeville.1 .:::.~ .-. -It'lfl'~n·" . or t._ ri ...··1 -_'.~---.. J :_ ':' :·:. ..' eragrcomecy....'-. ..:' :m··· t"e...-~..ga '-1b '[. as __ ____.-·-' . e ae racro '-.P<}..d :..:' "'.-.Sidnev (:.I~'" ..h-cenitu . I '-'I '.at have becom.. pas toral. .a -tn -i . ...r... ehe heroical .X teen t...-..::...' .a"e.~: sonnet" epigram. 11 d o d c. - . .'. if"-. e d ed eacn ch 'edu ible to r e . -I '.·~.F-or eXJ. that certajn misunders tan dings .n.. . "p.IS reconcr'. - 'i. i.'.. ::..I!j"" __ ~ ... ·t..-_. :. '..

.€' (Paris. ....··11 . '[' I c~.. is undoubtedly a... r' ..". 'I' ~ - - = - '. .: avowal .Ii.t '....' . .' . . ..Dl'? The .. •.. '. '11]'yr-.....· o ..!"""'!l :..~ (I' '.'po 'J. whol e can. . ". canto 2..".""..- -e.' ···dl th '.~. rne eons c ·'·0" 'In'['~'m·····lP":'C"U· '0' ms 10:£" eve '~y:'"thine outsid•• "the m aior :g:·e·.cha peer 1t:1. I I .~_ \iI. gether somie _> informarion on bucolic poetry.. on_l..p.'.. ._. Comedy-s-and ~ these' three' species C:l.'Ih·.. .¥ M. .. _ \itA .1.. I'...·J~'IlJI Copy" 'gh ted m a1.l 1. rpt..'.alI'C. ere 11 . ts were too nar '-'-..doctrine cla-S. [11ul· .'.. ' .AI . .'..:n" ':-'1 i -_ . .ey .O..I " _I':~.gu...au . '. ""'./.. ·6··6·.. ode.?) can be reduced to --eho's.... .1 ·._. ~ Ballad are but species of imperfect Poetry..[.. '"._. 23~ . _~ U\~ .'..9.•.'I an d ~[O····.'two . l.. 't..n_ ·.~" ':. '1.['if c prel. .' ray makes when..'d·.. .' "'_'1.. be' reduced '"'. _ ..···1)·· . segregative :·-:..'.Poetics as a.. ."1I't}I'D···e'· xed 'Ij"Q". In short. _"I .On:A of which consists of ." .ru ~... rherefare.!&.f .y .II.aRS wer is in.. Satire to Comedy._.' "'"'. :-[._~. 't'.'. ~'.""'.0 01!l ter darkness ~![': 'J c_: \[.!II" '-101 _' __. ...al>~. Ii. and...n.~ :24.l ' _" the . . .. _. ~ .I. ~ ". or" II on. epigram. _ ~ J. the Rondeau.cria .41 .."._pec... _ l .. . ". l'·9· ·'1 ...e' to epic) or a" dismissal (:. 1'. '. -. "m. lines 5<8-..sifrin. ".ers. the nonrepresentational genres ma:y choose' "... 1674):.~ nan the discou . [~. t.:.o. ..._:' '.ijl xi 0. the other of narration All the other species that Aristotle mentions [.-"I'~ '-c"'iII' .' ":Ii . be' divided into three differ ."....e . _. .. '. corned 'y:.: .lr.' '\r. .'" jl[ecn. _'_" . . '3.Sil" la pOf.'..'s·." . 1 n drigal ~the Epigram.-~ va. hero V=='\.. g..Ol1". ....~t'~ _.ll:ng' 'r·o .tai or "~'e·-nres" and then tried to b ring '. 1 ... _ .!! h e' ab ~ p ..iq11c ~~I! _.(I.- '~:: '..]. [OJ!.e t.. · h a: :in 'g'-' studied the. •. The real beginning of the line is "Chez elle" (with her)._1.' - 1.elr val ue t' ~:-' (s·· atire . s. . :.~'ly':..!L " .' B. __ a .ag:e[y anc '".... .~._:_ ...gc:nrcs is a cl'Qu.- ' . 0_...· ". -'. .f. I. .. 1 I' . '_. _' no better comment on....~~ (: ~'_I. .ti'qU.._~..·." po[e_!_.' ." •. part 2~. "ion t_3t h [..' _' _ _ " _. I "1 .~~-~' 'R...' . ~ mres To.' between an annexati c-!= i~h'~··...$...:C.... ~ . ' .":-... ~et "ee~._ . ric po etrv I ama ".-'.dof small forms" it is evasive..edm 0 ".""l. .'_ic Poet.*1[. DI· . !\i.'3' _'.....9' assessment '1: ..~. ed 0 ~~. '. ._.". France (1.':. .2S e Paris: Nizet t.. ·''"d·· atren.c ".-.. ~..._ . beneath-e-the major and dramatic . rt "~ T''h t'h'lI'-I"~... .'[ '~'[" ·il. . . .'h". and the a[. elegy..~.:. it' t· 'I"~.I.. _l.im' oerfec -'~..--ti ~ ~ .. " . '.". . !\.'.:-.~.. b-' rreaks" off '~I'B-':u' 11 ~ 'u" sit'I'::" [ '. : .::.. . "e..~' -_.· Ii. ." "'m 'W'T" J... With Wh.': d'i t I': troug 'h sn b ren a .' . .' :3: nd thu 'S:.11 ~ "..~[][I~ a ._.27:.c :'.. '0···· . .. ''''''1 . Jill! tion to. .. ' .~ L. .O.[Ag..c ..' -._.24 Beside-s-or narrative rather. La Formation de [Id .R.. 72. .~ ~.h ~.d..". to .-.. IA. v ·.:: !II! • .' "._.'·:·".~' '. .. '. . ·0ide and Ecloeue to ~.. y Th e Sonne•..A. Tr'ag'edy. this.. · ent species of' perfect Poem-e-Epic.._. .~... .e two: Comedy to dramatic Poetry..I. . and . le~: s o .lll. od e and ecl..~ Th~.!l .e neroic ...en="ances .:to [-'bp...= ...~-:.~I ooctnne. - . 1::.. __ . · .'"ere .'."'" ~. ..·C U ···~I '...~.. claissical theo ri i!'IIC' of the ·. '1' ~. ··· r ··t 0 -~...1.. .11::. •. : •. = ~_= .0:-" f/l!"'I'C.0.•.1]'l'[ 'b'-. ". '... ".' .' " ... 1 '_ .

-. ---d'. 1: . e and. n".-.-.-\ . aeir . ~ .lJIC''S'0-" mew..· . reness (:.-.. In ..'I ano 1 -~. e case of ..ile __ _ -.iI!":'.... .~. . .el.. as reforms sometimes break the ground for revolutions.D ~l'txotle" h hi I.~.. I I ".l"lllOs. :.t.).se t-I' t. . ·I-·'...~..-/I-. ocla poetic ..1. .!' .. '. e . • .. : '. !AL ..'-'-~:.d---t==e. O·.-.aSS.-I :.'a. .speec.Ii..IO break" with the'_ dog.. ... u .r .-...a prayer.. -" --.-". party under the common name of lyric 'ploetry' is.r rumen'--'_._. .. ..'.'.on: Q--"' "j l. .I. d . SOl to' speak.~.- ~o~.1. - '.IS eX.-11 ... L~ 1-- .h _..O~ 11' k -" .. : ':-1'" .~ ' '-.not wholly unknown to the classical period: it is merely marginal and.-- -'f.-.on'.'.a. :'.. '1' -. .il: '" -._.c cee.' ...'"a···'y}\5' '[-:0··..g n a [ IS 1.cria .' .'...J. 0'11. ..US . .1"·. . The first occurrence of it tha t Irene Behrens noted .. :' I . ".1.'. -.·. .'. In ..l.' -.:.. "I . . ·:' m..~< 0'. .-'mutate "'. ..~ se [l1U...d "I . " ".. . JJ.. u.. a. Su. -'. .IO IS.~.: .- -. .: l> "I .. . for whom .--. !!i_. ...'.'..' ' .IOUS~ 1- feeli ~ .' .. '" W.'".ano:n."" .• '.-..e.-".. Today those' two movements seem an-..:...:-'I- .: 'of which is c-aU:ed theatrical..h '. "".-". the third epical.-. · .'. . '.. .-:~-..J. ere. 1rm ta non 0..-~" I '.. h" ' "" -' .... poe~.l~ 0.-.old more '-.-.~ ----:.::__:} or [lC£lt.. ':.___ f S 0'r ..!' " Copy" 'gh ted m a1. .lC st--. u 'p-."...--. ~ .. I.l. '. :~'I-~ "1' '-...-: 11~ I' ....r-.'"-" ..." .al....-.-'I-:-"~ .lC3_" _ '.. 0 theii :0.._. 1-' -.-.-.J-.K.. d -11]. C . " ..'~.t.._'..'. ' araproci ~:TT"i ' .n... I ~":Ii "I :-. heterodox. ..--" ....ogicauy in..S 'a .'~ '!' '..'..' h "l~ <". I . stillv in irs own c:--: s.. B'"ut::ln .I...~-~. w. Ij. III l'IIA'L " yl..g~.'.r..-iaving y I..:".' ··'1 t de uxe a " .-"'1' t ith -".. he -..' ". alleged in the case of their subjects) and much -'-. ll Ia shion a ~'. '.' rne centuries-oro eXCI. ri '._...':0: ~J.. .I~? -.' --.'. ...'. . " " .:_I~:~:~.'!... there' are only two conceivable ways of promotinz them ·t:. "('. nity.tt lac ."". ~.' '-: ".-.-t.. .: -.A" _:Z uext T..au 1-t heey I_-.~..~.' . ck 0"'f:' -" .iSI in the 'work of the Italian Minturno." '. _--'.-.-..ex. " I' 1" :~ .tmtta. . T-'Ih. the wav fc r ' the l·.28 .: .= IL ~ -- Ii.. er . :00 action Ib ~ oecause the1.nn. ·C"'..~. .i_. ' . the second lyrical.. .gles sonnets.. I ." wnar 0-..I. t-:·.gma "..--'. ' '. •.W1L1tnencat . . '.1lI _: .1.:co.' 'F: -'~:'. ""I e cl.ct-"(1'V_"_" to ~.'...3 cloaking it.." '... i:h ei -....-O. In. .. The idea of federating all the kinds of nonmimeric poetry to establish. their little :~-..~.' ." .'.I SiOt1'S._ theeequa 1-:.. [..-.h . nas ..=.."_J " ' .'::._.'..Parts. ~llU."~._ ~I~I--l:. "".' . ..011..r-...'L ._.re.0tau.~~ _.1" -..-. radica] way 'is. I" ...--. some~--..---' t.1J10"'W' chat '. .3.press. .ea._: ~.. : .=eeJng ..!. ~ . -.HlC'( .r-epresen.11. the . ._ "'" .~ ': .-C"C ".~ -: 'c.Q ' . 1111"\0' ~'I •.-.pan.USlo'n a. ~'fj"£~r W. ~'- V .--. '_::: ' . :.. -I I~ _·rt.'I 'i"~" I ~-:--._rea.r autn ..s :-.p .I~ first 'w"'.l]" mcompanmc.f:' men 1n a Cnon ~ '" d'es 11 ~ '" -'I e~..1.U. .ilL.' .1n..'. e 0 ..' 1:-' -I'-'S.'..-_ . .~1J..llgnl_ yo.:.'h. . ·i.In..mretiortr y rho.1 d':o. to the --.J ".....~~ t .· orenca '1"y :....1.-.. chapter .-. ... '1.- . . ~ "-:_---:.p W... IH..':.l th 111..:'".--.f tni'11'@si("a-nd'..1..l. .i tho -s.' ibl d the ." .. ablv the former .O:·'-·1 poetic dig.-"- ....~ ~ " "]!ll~·... " -1':-: ..e" ..'..' T'h---' ....--"·f' a no..of s ratemient is S~JJl. . .I. them as a third. . 1I '-. O.--:..rrna__~nu . .-:sequently...L.. -... '-_1i."poet:r'y is divided into three ..IS C-' C ervanres.".l.' ...tional utterance...-IS aue '.p. hJil7 C.. n. . ild :.o [1cle.rh at tvne .t real. ...:-. more .p'.u._ j' r..-- ..'-.one.-.fICu to every .'d:'I~7J"I--':'t.'_ .

..." .au:" ar.).. rourroic c"lVlSlOf}'J wnn uramanc poetry Sp!1L speak 0 . o..ricn --do" .s."_ .u-"'n·~·lg:a. and others ..:~ .."""". " ". earliest example to m'y knowledge. .'-c. .~. evokes "the lyrical the epical.... ~". ' .d' '"". in.\:..-.P...' 01" the Q"C" '~tr of tne .elthl p.".1pJ·.'. a..~ l·.. Itali ..~. '. ".jl.'". I '116' ''f..:".~'..I. 1"-""1..ervantes.Y':"B.~I a..."c'.._.' IP ..iiI.' ':".... .' las tnt: same di ~'' ~' ' '""..at de 1]" M" t_.'O'~-~~.".-r" 1 ." ".rama[~lC 0.~.'" ' '.' •.'i""'.-"· H"'. "I'." . ...-r/f . .epic"' dramatic.e"-' ore ~ .' ::' ....M··'..OL.d.¢:ry.agron '.. '.···.:. e.ra.e .... ~ tile.·:. '-'M'" . Dryden ~ Au .~e... .uO.. ("N'.':.." -I " ..'.~ .c ~'"'. ".u:r" . "' -..'I' "-t"' '.. ~ '.1.U.' """"'l5 ~ 1 .. :~.' 1".O~'!I 0' ::1.' e .Ie" _ 11:-"!" Milton ~-.. '...Ptl1fSv .. 0 loderns compares tr~'8 three categories and describes " ern. ... ."~'r~.." .-~dramatic and rheir zen ieric sub divisio iII1C ""25 A-' m y".." .. '. .'.j.Jays no claim to ex:iausnveness..- "':!"i" 1"--'.(. " ' . "" . .~~r' en UlqJ:U!.3.j.[ .. trazicc or 'com 1c.~.ra.1[.~ 'I R .~.[\. t' y. ..-O:II '''...3 fourfold d'::'..~'~~.r P c' VIeS£'._. .. ". . M"'.d · d ~'" .""" I:d'" ""'1:" "~'--'I ..E. '." -'C' I ."'lil a.pl..'.".-""'.I P . ..' -' .:".:~''''.I. H= .." =--5'"ann '" II on"...C ...5.[. "~ '" '.' ~ " "" a ..:ld""l .~' .itt.'-·.." ·"'1':['-" lD. " .il.S':: 'D' "Q H" d"l c ...·I··~: .s chivalry] enables the author to show his~_ _ ...:ro.de --'~'·' " .." . v \~_e:" .n.'t".~_. 'P".. .t -" one c apter 0 f""" '.f)". J' oh11..~ - "I:." "" ·W'.O~":". ~ " . 'Q"'-':'...~_C..". .o . :.'.m~ [... '"'~"'..I'"' '''''i! I:--::~:·:··... .Y.' ... g..'oed "..'.""f}e:_.. =. l_".".. true C.'l! " .:1~" col tined .E. .i. .ue none 0·.3Lr.- '.Ons.'<:P. lS."" ·"..~cal."". '.'".= . _. .!la.II.·i.""" h.'. .. ." :". .aum :i..')" .illS b_y 'N'w Y-:... ".. ~"'"~ I.-:' I" ..rr. .." : (" .'" ."": k"" '~'~T"~ unres .- .e:..es 1(.y ~'I". totle.~'..PlC .g.(I'd"" 'B b'b M .-'i4.Js: LO_-II-s-~.rt._-. _ -..' 1] I· 1 '.".• · •." .ru.. .:i.~ramatic .• :ljI 11.I ..o. '. 'poetry .. '11" - " ..I' '" . . 3: "2"."" :Ii - "- -~ - "" - '" - .' r't>""l~l'..::- . '.".~'I----:I_." . imself . }-.:... .".~".otle ~ ="~J~"ex HlilS.to '-"'1". sey Press~."-"'.ji ..166'8)"1... an..ce '.'.~".I.ua Of." ..ed" ."" .t!. ot ..'" . the . t?! Dfa'ltUJt~"c "~. 'IN.J ClJla.tll..-.·::--. " ....'~ .'..].!:.ec .-'.roun'.'U·· '[1'1' ues or. r "'J"!.'.' .. .J _.an "W··· nls£on~ "~l'95'·"_. t 957)1" 637." ". '" :.}..' .nge of ""00.'..1.. 11. _ · . ""' .."t" " In ttanan..:J:"' .. '_" .'I-l.I u...' ... '"1.. unde . .' '.ivrsion. '...".. I. _._IOrll"QI. ··.j " "" 'd tne poettca ('17:-"'0'8<":".bus (l735 h section '1. Mazzoni. ISelected 'Workl$. .. :: . D Ofl}UXQ..~. ['-] 1 ~ th 7. ....'"... ." tlea .e.. p'oe'..r..~. '.. .." ll" '..'..' ~iI. A".".1"..I.-.~'. B.J " A''-":'mcienes an""dl u e ".or". '~7-C. Jl :>~ "3' ') ..-lana. ".' '" ".7~'' .'.Y':'l'r'[" in en 1'.g..'" 'G' --" " " .'". Tasso.' ... . ""'.. Horace.l ."ano"'" th nexs __d ".~o...- L. ~ ~ " dramai '.'" "1[.I~"?01'.1.r -::'."-.YSI"" ..-:-'k '1"'" 'RI · . D' ' Ii M"''-I. and. :D. moa". [".' ...a· '''.e_~"s" tL M" "v.R'" ".e.cria .·. r.." (J. " . I.".~- -" ..dol ." :1'1' I . .. do"..h V.··.o"~ IV. '-"'-"""""'''.< "".' '.ro ]'Y'£l·... ".epic-. epic C 1" a~ rye" " _e~ .·"-~l-fC~..".£ a. vetro." '" -. .C' 'C'."'. !Il !Ii'''~ 'I Vf. .Ii.-" . as "at..ll ..""'-'itior .on.: '1--' "1"1'''''''"".'''l 11]5UJ. ''Ii '..lIS.::"". ..--- . . WilHam.("T "-'.-" '.vlna de .'" d' "". '.m t-""". t .._:' Ed' .":~' [[ 0. 11 .[ I. C-.. [' :'.r.'~ .~~. - :1.l. .. ":"'. '!I"n..fu.~o.. " 'L t" t " " .._'.'U .M.'3:5-:-' text that ..'~'~. u.-.p"a.c Jl y nc." -" " .".' iI!o "'H " "- ...[l __ (l. . ne " st .' "'-'..__""" "" _ powersc e.. . . ". l.ertitU~fZt. . ' "'..I. .1 'rJ."_..~.' ".--...gUe.. F .1! U'" 1 U(lt:U'IUUb tl'd p.."..'. wo .t.) ~~! ...f:ssay .':6 ..'"-. ..."-.On"' d:-anS. ' e. I J :" i_' I:: '_".~..''.laws " .:>n . _' in A'~ ---.' :. II" .':" -' "..-. bo ik s 0" '--.'159)"" 'nrs .'. n"""d':Ja.·d ano weu 'ex'..t Y.1.oif::"J"'ohu Dr-y'dent e.. '--f th .:Cl a .. "" '<. p .PO. __ """ "" .c " .-. . John..a'bt '-.06" Copy" 'gh ted m a1..'! ~-" A" '"".'~ H h....'evotes ~ hi" ~ .":. . """'!l!" . res his Aesthetica..e rrc .poc.. II._ 'C'-'-o~ ._ . '!j.pO. -tion.: . I.""~. 0 r --":""I"~""" "" .:' :'. I.. earnest enortt U1 th . ( vemce 15.' ..'!o.. "..' ."I..: '.-.~." :t".··'~'-i_'h""-""I . 11"" .. of our improper at.. 1.·~.(..t" Q" "'1 " ." ._.'Cl.f- 'f. 2d d ('n._: 1.-.d' .' epic... :___'. enumeration .. .iC. S 0 . " 25' •.d"" ce ra . .. if"' .~I~.'..~~i<h".:~etrl~_"'~l" C'... tt ose proposmons..n. ("1644")" 1"'" C-' I' P..a v filg·. :. II. "..':.[Ul.11'1 j~'~~'d. lyric poet "" .--lot"Jn... .".'.~ "' '" Pinall.Q'U"ar =.Iew 'Y.....oronosicic ..' .'.t .<." ..lv we'1U . r 'W".. ': oetrv ': "i'~"~t' '~".-' '.. Dr-y den distinauishes ..$'..rI..~:' ris..Ii~ "." C--··"'i'i"'·I""...n."-. :ragic.yrl... ern m the context'I" of the 'Quarrel...O [.'.e.err.a-.r . ... _'-'f" . r an" .1 Ed .'I:C ~ .!. .w.ia!Iit.'1"" . 'IN""". ~ au". . p. .a. "11"...~. ."O I.• ..I..ln:e ~~~TI·t. .' ~ "'.. . ':-:'-:~~'i-'-~. iii "~"'. -c.~~of .~"' 3~"7~' " J~-~ 'M~~:'::'tl'''':'1 :an".M0 ..J' .-.0'.I.c .r.. ~rh. -.:I. three "ways" ~d ra m atic "[]I..' ~"" "-' ro '-''''.''-'" ..".. "and the Italian commentaries of Castel ..[u. once an. ....·.IDO.. trjbiu..29 :"f' . 19'18'11') '.""_" __.

.t' .~ n r." -al' ._ '".tar : stu orn hiocox ro cover an 11." '.' ':. . .Jo.. rse :. .' - _-..... 1.. ".lI... m a y na v e as ·'"t··" su.. ..::.I:. ' ~·I-"~- .~ .. -. . _"'... thought earn.." !-IY· . C:'~. .. But.b-' ~'a-~ oetieas (:"1'.or a rene r...poem Iuce a '. . ..lng . .. ·:··.~..-.JI. plot in the A.~::·..[ess es.' ['. "the ar:r:an..-' j ne A' see..."..=:~:~._.' . 1:. .. . '. ···t :d'" Y of"it 1.. ".:=. lr ~ "l.' b It aJm. _'> . I .vI..'. the idea that 3.: ~.~MO·::.:-:.l. . is A"._.~. I~. - .-' ..r.':·. Cascales is using a vocabulary that is "11 d ~ d that .resses.' I " .JW.I·.\.. ...l'Jbl·.. ~.....--. " '~' .['o w.. .. A"""~i~"~" ._ _ _e · e__ __ ~. . . . 1Ij"" . :14: -5~'I'O:" b) covers scarcery'-.'.__ ~_ " ~.d'-.-.:....tI' p'I . .' ~ •• _" .. C' f' I. - :".- ..0 whir ." ..:::.·'t~ v"e yo .~'· loll' "-:·I..'...' '. (..':·~~I. '.9.serve as the plot of anything li h +.. t'1L..... quiry the subject 'more' strictly belongs" ('1.·~·..-. ':"":' '. '-__ . -'..-':1'. ~.·." y __.-:---: .. JLIL.: :._"_ '. .. .~.rl-_·]:· ~ 1 . 1 • T. c":·O"U. .._" _". .._ HILI] ll" ._ :rh.. I~"'".m\.•• ·-9_..~-u\ .'Ii"r~. I·. ·. [ ..f..correspond to the equally Aristotelian""""..n .:. ...·j'cds (1634): lyric poetry" says Cascales apropos of the sonnet.e." S"U" .: '1-1" .. . [([.epto)."e..· direction ~~LJI .Ii" ..f~ surely (no literary theorist ld be f -hJ! ~ 'J but couic b unaware or t__ rmmense corpus ". -.I. covers].ia l eh I.. . ._. :'I".. : ••• :(. U-· Jtterlv banal_ .IS. term ~ dianoia.Ii.[~.u.. .3 ····:·0·:· '.._~=_= Thris disrortion of os_~_~ __ . '_..S-CO.I(i·~' P . '!" J [._-: I~la:n h ch .X. .- ~. - ....... . .:'Ies..· . . namelv.... _. ." ..stenlaticall y rep resse·d be ca'usle it cOldd n.. '." .•rthodoxy ...:J<..'-. . - . · . I I "~J1.-:-'~'...ll. '.:· .... ..Ie :h··· 10 _ . ':" . .!'~o .II"... -~"I': I( Copy" 'gh ted m a1..h·::.rea~_ from 0 rthodox as nossible.I.. '. :."'. .'_' . o:r ex.' .. .. [. rrsrorre disr '~I~: .-.4'] .~....1 ... .':"_--. ::"'·."·.0 h ".. '.\ orlC.~~'--a' ct -"r.has 'for its "plot" not an action " as . .. .' .. ne ~O.. Cv. ..··'6-:' '1.~ ji.pl/:'I...:·-~:I. l. 111· ::..U .. . "..l_~~~~ = .. o~·· .c....:...I:' I I: ~. c·· . __:=...')·· ..J._ . in his ~a'-. c - j' .:i]. . a-I'h:':e·t··.) 'i' ]-]~i·~. of 1 . p. .....Ai ' C'~th"e faculry of saying' what is possible and 'pertinent 'I'" t -...d y ·as £. e_ mained not unthought o. .-"'-. . 11d' ..I. .r'.. .. .. ".n. . 1-'.' -.ost: :sy.....- c.. .Il.. ·..." .".~. " .. ....'. d ':. aentario.1.~:-Ir:~_..e: '[ -:it . . I '-C'.-.. . a' ·dJUl " -I . .'):2-6 and in vhic .: _I. ..14"-·5_-0' ". but a thought (C'OtlC. which explicitly defines plot (m:~td.':.("":"'~l" ~. : . t '--...~_~ ."... ..11 ~l'~ .-..c -' . f '.1"y.. ."..' I..'C' .: '.: '. ...'..' :·:'·... :3" n d.c.. = . W'··. ~ . - - .-'-.y anen to tne spmt or ene . "~~::' '.....F:rye.......h..I .cria . I' ..of that cannot constitute a.:._~"" for centuries this idea _ re.·:1 .· ~ .'7--)1 an d IC::a"-:"'..1.'''..'..-. n· rgu n'.r·istorelian sense..' :. rerer ..". . \ .ICs.. "more ".l-~1 '"1':- ··-····... -I-I'~':" · ..': .JU..ge-.21 extend the definition to ..I..0 !u·." '_' I c..~. ~ ···-:."·.. 1 :. tech . .-.' ~.m to":have been m iade 'U :.'.-' . .rliP'~It:.. '~. _ H" ..'-:' ..···-·1--·: ":'. . ·L...··1--· -I-'·-I"~.'~. .r.r .. I r"-~"~_"i"· .~:...:I':.PU:. w h atsoever IS tota. " -.'._. tn .. "·:j·. it simply exposes..g. .~'..-:.' the Spani ard .. e term ~·h':".' is sig nificant:__ the term .~.. 'Ib ls jeer a thought OIl' feeling that. -/.11. ":- "~.. -::. ms .incidlen ['s' ('. " . like Northrop .n. l . .'~ . ..aU..'.'" .1 .'..'.1 '"' I~' ...r'[\..:. .._:': .:[.· .'._ .'~ ~ cusrmsses the . rr at is :3._"" _" _ ~ the idea that a. .lolrJg....' Fran cisco Casca .:. ..ot 'be' '~"'J ... 10." " I.....:. ~I-' '-':'. . . "" .oglca. '1'-' " ' '.~> risco ·I":·e m. "'F' '11..:.~ 1. "] t - .. epic and dramatic poetry do..._oet..' .' :~.456 a) ~ Even though some critics.fth. o.- t.1. . ..II'niq -'u'e' o' a··.. I '..1_.-:C Il.s .... _ __ .~ :-.1:O'S) as.. . ~ plot ._ today.-1....~""' __.ven circumstances.. ...-.eh ererore.. "ea.d~ '" .i. =~.".... ".include the tho ught of the poet himself obviously . . _.... 1' a.-:- ... .-... IL.. .

n:g th. ' - _": - .' ...C. an..".:.:" . 'T'h t .~ . ~-..'} Y _Ire. D I ..'" things true: first.e:m.'" d imagmanon excite d b art" a. ~ -~.'aVl_ ? t ne . ..lon." :_._...-" 1" Copy" 'gh ted m a1.... _ ..0·····" [-. [a d. :..-'. IG··~.'" .......iI. his aim in chapter 1.'. as." .the biblical h-·.....-->-'.[ ".IIJ.• !~. ..Qr3.[C-·_-h-.~I:JJ~ therefore consists.W"".3.0..'... '...n.tdl:y felt gladness is something to sing about. . ...loy."' .'".vy rmn a. ':_. "''i:" em. 'e-: ~. - I .'1 - ._IIk.~. 'ij .. -'.''.101.o d L imiscif d'~ .• '--'- 1""1 .m...'I ..!IIr. ---..__.-.----- - -.\r. ".''-'' 'It:O. . " .... . of attempting the impossible: retain .- ..- '. art ..~ I [:::" "... " til. t. a Th-"IUS" It is saio.' ':~ hi '.IS plur-e eX.a.. them ... by' ad mittinzD' that 'I looked _ at -. OIU[. .-- 'I' . !t.are'..-":. ' ~I " . w ng i·: . therefore._... d'.-··_-· .~I'· ~-.'l~.Illl_.'1. 1 .imirating noth in.. sec.1 .'bH.. _ Jj...-. . '. "--" -. . S. ' "'-I . c_' __ . . Itse~_ _.. '.0 acknowled --'0'.. ["_ l~ [i..Ir --.3".t ~\. . .." .. ... " . ' .' :'._ .t -1.'f rrnnar ~ .are O[lly .' II [.I. . '1.... he creates.f: au tne ras -arts) ._ .. ..g.3-. ... - -. I ..... .' -.s.. .'.'~: -'. '..n.rst in wmcn nature c oes everytmng -_ and art nothing.~ a en . ...-." .. _ x's . lIlsplre_:y bv ._es to leo_.' [I. Ii! :ii. ~'~ he poet.- l... _ the 0 __ _ iecies _..' t .....:. " . the '1" h b~ contrary.. non.". cnaractertzec:-'d-. £. That is. .. _. tne p'sa:ms 0'. ..-.'.. H'W···...-._'~II-IJIJ:.- :~:... . '. 0...____.U.. 'i...-. I . (I. .. ("" ..( I .-._.-' lyric ·p-··.• it' g.'~h---. t ch '.. "'.eti cs _.- 'L. -'.-- : '.SQ.satteux.' ~ .'[...' ...I [I. . is expressing his T fe elin Q"C.-....' . . .. . . 'mn . ..I i.-" ..' . 1 ...-. effort-e-the" Iasr ~ffort-_ classical 'p-'o.e -'p'-' .. ..'C' "-..I)res.... ~~ . "_-. m [ rakes two.et.'."_ but e xtemdinQ! this 'I~.U..-".. .) . l"~.'.o ita 011:. .-u._'a 'they' may have re..-. J-.'..-:.... ..ictate-·d.... ._:~ .: .e-Ulgs._..· -. . If .JLII._·:.'.inspired ness 'I ~'[ "':"-'1" '._..~U·_·oxu:a..U31:." Poets. [ [-'.: ' more e.tlc. .p. 1-:.-- . art' must ·'·h ..... I . and.. makes to survive 'by' opening itself up to what it has ne "V·'. an .n.I.\~ d.t 'h exa.'I.tne.. '~ ._ ..:J .ess __..' [- ..\ir.." • h·' .-.- J \r.-.' bi.[".-.~_.. mg imitation .sup ._..nly one or [W[O couplets.."f'".__.td '-"1.. w h .lUI'" _ .. bezins .- ""-- '-' '. Let: :na.:c": ..[ . . " "'fi> ..31 ~ h integrate d.:...--. n u~..' .] JI(. '. '. 'B':' '-'.l1 1111 . ·t' rhes ..t n. DU..' ._--.~ Batt eu . ...'p~.on.. .' .-.·.1 t~.. L~ I. .'-:::--. a.. . '-.-"-.[e... this '-.. 11 God ~""h[31S no need tO imitate. . ..-:seems rr 11.C[. e~ .'-'-.- I . ":~ ~ . .e fi...' (' .[e e'.'.3..-.a..~ """. :'" _:.:-.1' 1 -". .nSlve 15 . 1-1:."'-: ._. '._. 'that :fi-rst clot:h ne:w feelings 'res. .¥ ..l.ea. '.: ..cria .-. hi h '--~'-I .-..o'...oetrv itself .-h .s ta. . ded a poetics rounded [on th ae .-'. e ···f-' managed either to ignore . .. 1 ...~ mira non.. t·-· .i .1'g'. II-IJ :._. .(1 I .1'1." .._:_.-erficiaIIy'? Iyric -'0 . b de coeur.""_ . ac s. .o U flS.._-. ..o.id the .. ...es.- 1- --~ . .l. .11.1"'-1 -p1oe-t:ry-. that lyric poems are true poems...._ ".."-i·:·' --:'...'" I.--.: .U. ..at I..t.-'I-~' poetry "-.'I " :.H..-. .- .[are' 1.. .pec..... -_ . ~. 1 .-Jl.lIn !II. 0'0.. .-.. l~. II I. IS up 1to ~~. .xte....r-iie'r o':n.'.··'·"0" 'im"1~t-a"iom ij' ··' r al. admiration thankf 11.' ~.' .'h" t 0 turn ~ .natnrar .~. Ie 0 f" n _'0' .".'_'·~ll:. ' I __ ...Ce '..' sion.l~ ~~.. '.·C..'0:' -'-~d"1hec 'OUe'S10.'. 'e system dogma of "imitation. .oIL'.[O~... '.'. l ':wante d It .( :(0:[. ""1"'" _ 1 . -'.t:o stitch to. .raw 01: 3. .. j. this true poetry withour imitation is found only '1-:.: .. i into 'leI.'~-'~ c . 1Iir.~.:~.l"'" ..[ an.. _ .y. d itself les than_.~e_ t-10···· thegen eral law tha redu '("AS' ~'V~~A'r--'-y·:-·'t--:h-'··l~'1-:. ..-.1... . '"SUIi' Ia poesie lyrique ~ Batteux t.._. ...' ~ .reignea rapture. :' .c '. ~ atl d s u...-. _. nave nownere ... d '.."" s... ..I.y.. ~ ._.~.. '_ .um. .-. to rh --'"'. .' .'" -" _. _. .ture lig'ht t:he fi re:.. r "esc' poenlS 'B'-"" a..lla ." ...'.Iill . '1-"-" .p'e''''''''''''' . . .som..1 I •. 0f' ~ c.. - .·-. -'.e other S.. . mallv answers .._10n...g.-'-'.-'11 gl'i"fl"'t.= ... -.

.~".--J.:. _.. ~Jr. . ._ -' . ." . -" t '. is imitation: it imitates [0ne could consider tJ~'if]-a. _. and. proetry '.I. __!!l...who sang 'without imitatine -.. " .'.' . . with 'b. -. ~" . . .don:'S·'I '1. . therefore.1. ..J 3. :>_ . __ ' _ . Therefore fe~111n.. zuish it: its particular object. olating the... in.. with 0 ut vi-.gs pretended through art. I .. ..-'-'...~.. 't!' --'-.. . r.Il. to be set to' song.. . .11. pressing fictitious feelings=-which moreover.".V .ery on.7J ~ J' J'\r.J . . '~~~'r'e-"ft r0·' chara cterize and d '1'·__.etry ."'2' . not be susceptible' of it: in an ode? Wh'y can passion be imitated on at stage 'but not in a son.-~ . !!!!""!J _.. the .. . l~.. . lyric poetry. susceptible of imitation in a drama. ". l·~t .. 'O". ce u" ..(lJ. .:t.. and Chimene a...iI!" one. ~._." ..__'-'. .~ .li'. dram ~ a .. ~..'. itself is Iyric...n'~' othier '5· Pecie ··S:. .:1· [C:·' po yr . n the-.... roo. v.are. A"··.._..j[I: _ llJ .' irs chief object ~ C)... 1Ilr~ _ ..g? So there is no exception.dlL." \.. '" ' __ l'! ." ._n.'.law rhat 'g-'_' ove '1I"'.-. .. .':..311d epic ha...mgs: rr . --:~0_ the other spe cies of p oetry is' ''l'C.. a.'. .-. --.- '. which is..ti.iIl"_ _ _ __ __ . 11.. ' ~ - I '~' ..ty of ex.:e. d·. that: case why should feeling. .' proves . '.~. T'~... Camille. t. '. .o:ps and the poetry portrays nothing except 'tile' unique state of the soul. .ey .. . . _l . .. . rhe pure feeling it -is experiencing." At least ]11 part... feclim "._ I..'i. since it s.-:···· ro..'1 . to separ ate the m. : I' . ~ ~ notnmg agamst poets as.. "'" .eed. So long as the action [in epic or drama] moves for . l_.-.. '-' ... L"""!L"""!~.'--: .. .ren ttex ~. done right from the start: vc J__ .' '~. ~. . it' need 1~:1l1y be given the appropriate 'Ii.. . . lyric po etry ens ters naturally and even necessarily' into.. ..1. g.-'.QWS the po.the.'-.D... ~ I!. ". .. - ...~. 'l. tee .But the .re lyric: fragments.. _ -. .All poets have the' sarne 0 bject ~ which is to' imit ate na ture. the poetry in. ·S'["1". .1=. .[ J. . ... ... imitation.._" .'.' .. . sPecies apa rt..--:_.....il.• The rnai .. imitators. ' • I': Copy" 'gh ted m ater] a .h._:=_ ~ ~ -~ ~. .-----..".!"'l l_ • I . and 'this.U. ..-h -:'F" ----. -.'..:' e ric or dramatic: when the .--. . obiect -' c f -. a· there I no n. ~l=. e . the feelings expressed by' p'o e t s a re feeli !l. I£S [" erne... ."".-. " ".) 'P'-' ..1'1. .. ". part carries the whole.-_ ..'.. C--..irsthe '.rd.ssJb'i. . _= ..' ..l P rop hers ... .. and all have' to proceed in the same manner to' jmitate it.._.a 1.c tion S[.ll _. _ _ ."" form. The monologues of Polyeucte. 'wa··~.leteh -'.-. " . rocuses com pie ."._ ....

·.0 _.l.~ 'rI.t he ch a P' en ti tl cd .' 1._ '_"'..1. . 1'.y.r ~"lJfJ. . .' . 'r' .r··'0·"1 ." ~ '..O . ...tbe' end [nei._. AJ~~ .A '_' .-htat 15 W.. ".PI.t . '.'.~.' II r.'iIi"". .c.C1l[' s l'·CS .. lUI"''' 'C' ette d·.J1i. t-·h··~· " -""-'oe"rcs . r. . flo···..-.."...: - - -- .. -_. .tnlg.rg=.:J .~I. ~.. On '[he one hand.. .-..'. I .~_. '" '1·~· ..." don .-·.l o.':.._:.-a'"te.. ~ '-'-'." -t Jll\. 1 ..li't-".:.~·'fi.! '_".' --.<·..-. ...' (:...llU ad '-/ ~ U1.c·.lLi\r. .e .:" .._..!Ilr_I. he asymmetry remains obvious T and · of A·~.. -'._ :..lLyrH. ~.. ~. . __ _ __ = __ ....---: ". _' •.11 .d·.r. "I '_.".-.d already' .genr. . .[otllsness 0. JI.. 11.~(Dp·.Jj.._.'._ ra ".._". """"~I'..11·d-' '---. ev'e.·.:3.~(.c -~ . . 'L'..-..n....-. . a 11. __ .a ortho . "".. "'-:11 SU. u.*"itlj.eo '_ ·_.. - -]1 •• " "-"-'. -- '_.-c_ _c-'. .:_-'. .1.._~ . e P:' ' '-' c_._:0 Ie . _..") ~ ..'_ '_-_" " c._'egra'-l_'n.otle .~. d' [ -·t "essary.. -I[~ -]':..te~"~~Su'rIa 'p·. -1. I..que-.' C" . I.a. .e .u .el..·:-"n.~ .-"'. liJ!i..-c" '11_~ '1.ta. ' _.!} broader term: imitation. '~ iiiI '1' _' "J ~ • ill ...'" -. '\p'I~ '1I'.-.-'''''''0''''' ha V"~ _dC"I. 't-.I._.' . *" ~. *=0'-."'r... 'i '-.t..tne '1"-/ _'-'. .. .:A._. ~'£1' d "..(fe (.~._. . ~: ano customs.n'.-' d ti f' ."-I'---"b. .sid.lt..d-'arnl..cria .1ll1e in't.···· S-ll~._j C '..-ed". A~'J . '."'"--''' genres into dithyramb.-:_. .ur e a_ on.." • '." .Il ..'0 ee --.". .• 1 ...e [0 '. _ 13'.. .. ~n.g:~t'-'):·0-'-f~··C··.. .'.r con.-·_.. H1 thiJ$ .!\r.. ".. -::.'rs of . .'-'~.".. fiction wither t..~~·r ""'"" " .'-.1I!r... ___.. .l_· ··.:.---. I" -_'.""".-I . .""'u'V'-'l'lk"~p'p~'n-'g·O-. the id ea ofi rmitanon 00111 ". .0' . _.·t-' elied _-0tne 11 '-". 0 asccales had a'lready .~-ira·J:s\~~"l1~..."'. poetry•. __ U" . .e'r. _ _._.-._':__" ~. .... Slfl... ."" ~~I. _.c.I.-. '"-'.p •..-'..]11 1 t-h'."I. e.. '_"""'-=.-' .. -"".dJl '\.gS or irmtatec [eeJi~.'" tragic mo.' .----..'I-.ry' :Ih" -.' -_. .."..." • Q.... '-~'·'·C·':_'_'_·:I!' ..:!! .....~.I:.......-:I. " :~..p' 'a"' C··-." The principle' of the operation is simple . . eX.t-. u. "..ne '"Y." ...-r <P~l"'+:o..' h. epic and dram aric poetry one imitates C.:I~. _. - = - ..--.~·C' obs erved th tat }".r..1. . other '.': _..'. '.en·. ~ ..au'tic :sentimen t:atis:m".·. -c .- '.. ": .'".'.- ·····~-:'-"..' ' •• ['._ "0'" <-'c" - I -:" - ._.... en r""'~led ew ":'le-'ifY··' 1i'!li :'t'. . I.- ~..j " "iI.JI 1.' '_..:..asn. '8· .·. "J. ." _'.:. I-'~' -' .." h .U:.'(> ~.a""Y :.. JJIi-LI'.iL""..'. _ ..'[-._" _...IL.ib)""" ~J. ·V· .ed ...'.._. ..' ~'II:1 .~ a.gs expresse. ..c'Uc'ctll..' _'. "...~.li![. _ _.~. "..o!~ ''''6''j~.istote'". _ : .... ':. .···."1. ... -t'.•... _.:_I ciassicar ..a. ues oe '" d "a.."lyrIC "--.. "0--"""-.---..--C·'-·~··'_'.-.0[' precaunon '-....rar rrom a f .'11'1 '1: . one . '" '-".( lie ..Q...O~:·IP':posi te vo J '.JVl·1I! tlon .._~...-.L "I'..}._ " '~'_".110._ .~.~.. -. .'e.. anc ... {'"t-:'.--ed" 'h'.··-.":'.--:-=is g...lI.OIal-. the •.dox term imuation . .. [I '.0' .~ ._.. -S' _.d·. __ . .:t-·I'~O·. . di stortion ~S' ]"n .. I. ."'.'-· .rd ...Hs'm. '."'"' creation ths ·t' screen 0. -.".' '/:J ': '.I.." .-" . ' "~"'I"~:-'--- ..'. '~-' h and h e h ad '..'.__ .3"1]]-'. of th e ._ rections.. .h--·..': :"-1--1'_ ~' .-"n ..~.a"nl.ol:.' I .~ I [.._ I .-"'._' ..d:"..I "'"' . . t _' ..1- ...: ." '.e COU. period. ..''I-C"_ Qt ix "s a d···· ' ~i 0'-'1-'" trine est conforme a celle d.._."_ us _ -et " 1'-.. -.4 '~'.~ I I .m .'.._ r '_-_'_'1. ".C .c-...e .-. ... = ~._0' as readers m .. '" ...110'''"'' 0''1' ~-'l.. 011..re. '.·_:..:_"!l. ""~H' "-... -:-' .'- ' I. :..1J.ie 'nuri.[l._.a~ " .'': '~I... .. irecnon. ""- I . I:.' ':-... _' "'.- .'.... : ·S···-'now . .t-.. r'~a··. ~. r-" : . .'.~ tior ..:"c' ..::---if" 1"·.L" .au...·.JI !I.[-....'V' of fictitious ex pression to an esP·:.1 ..-G . at. '.O\S)1 .·t·v . ..l! .. .o.~!!___..~ .·--·· '"I)'I'""..' '.OI" be app iec t .-!lJ. -- = 't--erp.ncc be1tw'ce:n ba . n.u'!I! ..But we . W.·If'· .nolog.. )" d guarantee ..= __ -~'}-'-'-'--'-.r "...' . ~:'lh~. I. . 11..:.~.·.''i -.·t -I ...ilL .. ....~l"" Ic1las·. tncd'ieeo nJ~C~'S .[.' . .b eh~IJ. .....['11. .. Copy" 'gh ted m a1. lleellln...nl':]" 11.n' rainy marainal stvlistic comment :3"-'"trinartition of the' poetic ..' .-.. ·t·-"-d-.rlll[l..ood_ :me. :.C[... the ".... ' 1" 1.~.:J -I I'.·· '-' tl" '~b-l lit···· I'··.-._ " ..-u•.'V''p 'f1I. which 'brings .111. '=~ . ~..:-~-._. ~" '[-·0.·-.fla.. .. . \ "_ 11:.'. It) "'r:-o. ceable . .rc' of the di:s.ue" so th at-he I~ -.·:f' . a '."c c_ '.--.· -' :·t-·.....-._.' .on.._].oes..·-·n:'..Ji.l. I..(~:- •. ". -~'tl =-:' '.. A -__ _..t the -S-'--'U" If recti ti . It.ai.__ . consists nrst 0' uerrvmg f '._.'-.plp'Ji.~ ~l~. ~ -.. •.l..II.'''_____ .---: '.· .'ri ' .. :. .·.•• mregrateod into classic Lr poet .III I I ..~.an. to slip silently fro m a. p-'--O':"'I':~ 0. "_"c . :___~=[. s_"" _= _] =C _ =""" e __ a. ~I.c" "'f'-' tJL.. '-'..' ·..I". .A. _ _ _.had. '-.r.I~.QWS :.".._-' _. . . . ..."'.__ v.U:._-' '..-:I·--I.-... "_ _ .... .£II''J''"" (.'. d: '~''''J-'-'' ..".- . 'Y" ... _~. t.'.IS ··'-~·--·-·--··r· . ync. mere . .a·s au.'0' . n.- A . __ __ _ __ ~ro-t...s Barteux himself says "In .-"-'d'.' _1. " ~L ~.li. 11.l ._ W~...!-.: famr"I''"1'' to US. ··.•••••• .--·-. rync ..··. .0 e of .n . -' . and prero:m.S····· tle Tln rs r-"l~ ~.'h-.f'.Ji.0'..."iI.rAris.I: ".ln..):" the reassuring mode .!!o....'I.•. lIl.Ji. ".. "B'.jl . -'" "'..c -"i!! ".'" The' chap._.. .·" 1. ..-"-". I" . I' .. ..-'I' .A 1'18.·.....l'y'. 28 '-'.lUI. "~_ . "".0 a trt..-·."..' £:':("o! . ' __ . osslbiU'.... c· C·". I. "'""'jr-ar'l..ngs ~ Of' passions ' '~~a. '._ A._ _ b..o.=. t.a.r.. ' he neart t ta .. __ . Batteux had.Ji".os.. Oil. WI_.h.t:~ h .·II"::.[':. .~l it· H duce ~'1 lyric poe~'i.r:....." -..e . . 0.:R·lL ..·:hr'i:h..:pic" and drama.'. '" _.'" '..se.. """". I I.'.' -.. .c'm:enta..·. ' ..'-'~" t .L. ~it-··h-'l~ . B"'1..rod A..Ai. 1i.'t·.1.li. I .~. -.. ~ __ _ _ _.. h\...-·:~" 1'.' :''".·lIL. d..Ol( actions . 1.na "f'~ tenon witnour which o 31..:"..~....= __ " _. 1.U.1n .

..'1 1 -: ..O C:.' ken rh 3.1>:. ..'C"3. ' '. .' - '['" .).'- e.. '.. [ : . h . an Italian adaptation of Hugh Blair's Lectures OJ~' Rhetoric and Belles Leures ('l783.I -~\.l..·(' rha: in_ 1..'~:" [L.'-[. '!. ..itial d efinition IIj. ~ .-uo'tes this '~~'ve-ali....r :'. 1..... ]". . __ .d~.0 __oxy.-fIi. ...'\$' t..'C to: .".'- [-"J:'::-:""-'- -"'-".J •• ~ I •••• L'~"IL....ap['.. hat oens i[...pen. t.ll -.t.e. --. ... 'i ".- 1'··.:.."1 '. -' ..1 ""_-."" -'l'- .'..$Slca.' -1-1 -. ".... 'Hi. [I [I .__ = . .. ~ n .J. ":!I." fA ".ai. "'1- '" \o.. dramatic.'" rre narr ative m od '-w= .' IS "'[ .ne·:"JI. d'" .'.n '-°0 d.1\' :>.'.-:-:-.. j' ~.".I we'.':' '-I' ." _-.. .:fC mo d' e: 0 ''' .-.-rh". :. ·.-.1~1:.. J '.': I "I'" .ifig.IJ~..O yo" f:~'h :'> cnaracteers l 'p~rlnc~.r.--.1C~ ]. ca ch'.. !Ii. which.~.'i. 1C _ . __ " _' _..-' '. .'I~ ... r II ._.1\.. " -" -' "C" 111'1- '1.[1l.--...a._ong to ~'~.. •• t.n ' eh. P... with the' latter in.u.. ~ .I.~!I! ...·-" .' I ".. '1 d· lSt.G f the ." ..t:ii-:~ '.an" ~ . " - I [I" .OJ ~~ ~ .-.~ "People . _ . .' - 'C I' '-' -. .. 'I :: :' Platonic modes purely.-. [p' "ro·p-ia . . '.what . [I 1..- .UI.. _ .' s.:-~.l.s.'\.- ..: ' 1" '''' ._. enu nciano sn a ~ ~. I.-C'i' '...n.=."" neither narrative:". [Il..'.' .~ 0·' "..e.tlc"...1 I':' II . get ·· _. ".:".' '.Ii.'.'... ~-. '. 'If'' ".ed'. c tio m U ... dal P.8\. ". " .ne less I.[".-:.. 1... . _. .. I'. I ..' " :-.r. .... "..' rati '[ the jnarne ner .' -'.U. \ve over. ".J.. "'0 'I! .11..diate. . _ ._. . e~~.·. a' a'l'~. ""V" er-' IJ.1'"~I:": 'W: l' the fl' rst P'[0''si tio ..'I".'".':'.-.l" l!lrl.'r.. ·iI. ~ . .. or _-_[. [."" 'II.n11 Y'.g -._ rcmemrb er.I.-.0:11th-e 11 ras '.. '."" "2""9-'.-fin. "':j! t. poetry: epic..L-=\~ U-' 1 '. I".' _)l sentence from.s. _".. _ .I.iJj'a"in the work r\. ..d ". not :'lI'P' __'p. not. 1(. is.. e_·..__ ooem __' c e.. ' [\.-v- . '" " I ' ..ner nor d arnatic) 19 on.. Soave'. 0" .".~ .'.' '..'." 'g._ ~ . without ever *1"" :"" it o~ Il."'11'~. voted chiefly te express ing. 'm'::I'm'(o. c.' ". .i.". m " ." ' • [ .""" ~ -.: . ideas or c: .-o C' .:'::'!' 1-..I - ~I I~ " ...l.1 I' " en 'U cOJ a no reserved fo '_' 'r·the r .:" "..J.t- .cria ..epIC"YIlC '~. .II ••.' ". t~' _-'.'Ji . . in terms of enunciation. -_.ry~ . ) arn P~ .":::"..·' I . -"1 1·.~. pastora_~..•[' m s n an 'y..' distinguish three "1-1· co ". "1'" : J" "'. monopolizing speech.". it lS a negative __" c •au ''.-. .. no purely n ar fa tive gen re exists the first position. y: D ef JJ. -.-.:q.". .-.'1.'.......iur 'h-·"-..'M·····'~[--'l~nl Fubini "Genesi e sroria.'1' '0._--' -. ~~.. . was that t__ poet constitutes the on. just the right place for any 'kind of' genre d.-·.- '. -' k k : ndm .. . J " I. 3···rn m 'l:·S'. H-b _~era. .~ .1_ Y . .'\. []_..' ..' .I.. . can e--:-.~. "·S·"I' n c e d "W'::' ': e.s. sincerel y 0:[ not.. ahernatin g"'. 1 !L Gil" I ~.~ .---":·"':._ '1." '. [ '..J. - .' . level'1' .'n f' _. that this g._.. is teenngs: .. ii..II. -. 1. 'lmse. herentty narratrve.- .R-..flC" t'[ speecn III qucstron '..1: .C" ._. r.n.-: . _gen:re.-" .pu~ this an " IS ch --act .cep. ~ -.!_. . : ~ . " . ('.[L. .l[or eve." .y enunciating subject. d "d" "ac"d d [lC"cSCrlptl.Ii _ 'h he · h I ~>..11 .iL" '" .._-lLil[ .gU~..ulng-U"a.oser ~.'..J' __ " .rnln.~ ".. the following tripartition: .-. ' d': I'.. d ::.Lli 'B111:"'.-:II£'· whc bein :'~' . It .' c..Ve.1 II '. ~'.""".':'UI 1.. ':']"'-. ciuemg '~ ..~..:....=. ..• ~.'_~'ene[ic s.~11 ~~ ell 'be purely narrative [or purely "expressive" or can blend th e rw.. mi r ..~"g." '. ~.' '. .'" "' h" .h. .a.. ". "'.1..:JiIl!. '" poet reserved for the characters enu ncianon .. of ..· •. '" .-.1."'. ~. co:m.. C'.'~~<'~:I' ..00 .' '. . . _'.[ "II(.t . ' c._. .. .ppe __ .1J11. 'f!. thin I_.rhe ~~-ri poe.-'-c... [ . t _ ...-::--. _c.1'" .L!Ir"l.~.' th aces UO _...~n s C y..=~ W_:.... <h .:[-. ")I...'. I "'-"" I (] I. -... :c:red•. .. ".' ]':"'Iw i Copy" 'gh ted m a1. liS Pc-bO.] u does .1.••.IS t.'.' D I'd' 5=101. nrss two. __.. 'Ii-"" '".a. fi1In'" ".. .5 W"..1 ." '"IiIS"... . .:: P--ro P rt . J ••• I . ~.0...." .:'1" -::-.. ~.. 11. I. l$O a!". c .--". "'- - - '.r .. hi '"d tor non h sometnmg to b stir".34 must irnmedia tely add..' .. noted ea rlier.....'--t be :1·'---· !t.-"~:' every_.-=-"_=' '(.=_ also " .' -' _- I ."U l~_. _ ._ue name ararna ncr W. . ".·I~l 'If'!.-h': in..~~e·Ie curee t }' •. 1" :1' 0....i[':'V.:"I!. . ". . . and Iyric.f.~'" . '\....]':>5··· ').I '·1"" . .' .JJ.]"" it tiv . poetry as"_rama.ng c. '.-...-'. "" r ".o OJ..g: th t" .._~.

--. -- ·1 ~ .r.J.-- ..-.1 .. at.· ~.11 Ir.'.1.-=-..--:-':. .'e'_. ~ -. 1. ~ '... I' I .. . .n..-. I I _. ". ." ....' -r... . . .'.--' ·0"' '...-:..' w_ . -...'... 11W . II ': theater in the style of Rodrigue's celebrated "stances. "]. e :'.nt~:"c..and th disti nc me i'l' .:.··l'b'. _'" z r.".-t.x S .. oil .'... I..".... . whether to sing of his lo.--.0''..entury ..a.!"""! •••• ' _ . .·~' ." ." ••...L' -30. C.3_. 'iiiiI sors do)" That (transjhistoric compromise....e S-lxte. 0... J '.: ~) ..~ l. .toI 'Ii..5(. . . 'll. who speaks..1!..s' not'e.' -(:.'. .. it ~. a 'I d .' '.I ".ways . . b'..' "-. .. markers of·I~...: ~\r .every...' '.. .- .rans3. miporrance tor ~..l'U.~'bl.J~L"r-.-'d'-~ "... U".---." .'.r _ .. comes O'U.n. .. .'. I.-.._y:r......" . :_. .'-'-"'g' ('" _.."..1i1' re'. prominence' for rhe more genera] . -. - . then ....'.Oln.'~I('-..l1 IS ..~. .n~'~d' h.-11--.lO'.. . J. ~o:rlgue not a''I· ..Ie -". .. 11"'C' " I II . "- 1· _=. UZ ...... '·-'--. 0 •• - f':' se.. : .-"'·-·.~ I.~e..Q..jl ~ :._.~lcct to sucbb an accommodanon d One WI _.-'--:-._c..... : ..-.d-I ••• irs prestig 'e~'. ... _ 1:. [" : -. .d:_~fj::'-.:.ItW:· ventieth cen tury:...-t-~ A.. so mucrh im. .-:1i.. . va-I:"I.ed lyric m ncnologues in the g_r. il'· _ .n1. 'I: .'. • I •• ~.~.I.e..... .C -JJ.. ::.-- ..lJJl.(: _ :....as. '."pab :-. of' course. 1 '\....._ .~·.a_cc.llc. . ..~."'r'-t·-. • '/..l_·n. _..[orm. 'j1 . r -..no.: \..i ~. JJ. I.'h-' -.lI!L. .0: ..·'Ji'IIriHn. . .. continuing tO slither along.."'1IIc-ik".. '''- -' -'~ ""'1'. rna -'1' .ch '::a~eux :" '[' ures '.~ lU!i... ~ .--'Ii ' w"ereas --' th_ ~'O"" ..'..-..iiIr-fl':l"S"U I iC-t-l..L.s".ll ...1 . '. . J_" t. no... the e u.11 . '.." ".:. ". '~..II.no.=.. :C'. ".. r- .LY o....' ..'._:_ th .m· in h h the en u ncia tin g: 'sou' be and .' .:...--'. . :.-.w"..atio:n (religious". *1'" '.. . ~.. C-c.- . _ .'p..a ~~.. attn ib-. I~ . . UQ .'.'.0 --" -. not be applied to the 5--"10·:-C"". . .... a·~.. .. - '-'I' .)- . moid ~'11.:.~. .~'s •. -t. ". " R. arwayss ·R-· d..ve or to provoke .1I.e.. .. '". _l."'. 1..-.r stro .·.-'·"·'·"1":' -~" out . ..~A.'. i- II - r." ..... 1 '~. I .'-thr(t_lIC...--:----:-'" ..p.. . ... - - "... . ·..1'-._ '" _'W.. .. ~ n 1.' . I .•.Hence [)L 1:11 .'~. I ... e .._. . . the' expected chart: -/. .--'--::f--"' lh..S .n . . '.. " . : ·1 .)..-..--t.]"" Copy" ·gh ted m a1.n. .!_1.': . ..·.' _" ithout rh..'~ ...'0".. '. 's:0.' I..6 iff~.. .-'...1I"or h..1 [..' 'I'· _..[e U i' 'iii" "I'" -----'j' -... mtatter of the "Iyric mon "O. . . ".I~ .. -oiJ' "'i.... ':"1 . . . .f'. ".. --"1 "._l. ":-' -..' .'On - 35 . .= _ 'I ... . . '...'.. ~' . hegemo ._:__..·"...e' .....-'.._I.is mo d'.1".:~ .." -."~11'1-.' -.. ens an ...--=-- • I ..thi anc generic ae mmons do ... .......1.~ '-- fi'-'--1.".. ' .:' a. . 6" :Th.t· m. "~ 1. " ... pomtmg .-rn. once 'c.. 1.y.-:' --. t"h at t h._. h1 aware £"c ..t tne prOYQ.' _ '::..'-'· '.ll . .~.·_.. e 'I .:....gl'Ven SU'lCe' L_. [ ..-. •••• _ •• ~t. comcioe:"--.'~.r .rt IS... . ..r. i-I'··. i.rlg~(It :.~.f:.a.0 "-'. jece is not the poet~ But we must remember that this ----. '·lIin>'('e'~' ~S 'i!.ys ...-I VIle. .. '. natu r"'_:_'" -. x D 011 G-ormas.. ]lo'n".-'--.wh ncr B·..ons '"we are a..e .:ae mmon '--=-"1' ryrrc canY -"'.d-.!. e t" .om.."_ .~.t B:.. . . 1 ·1'_ '!!I'll! "I----~d.a't·-"eu.' ..} "h .-...---. 'I . . I. "..-..'. . . . ~l!_l!_' . .cria ..... eround. " '_..:k·1Ii. :C'_:~ -.'.. l..' the 111 -e'r'im rhe 't:..I .'I 'e' ..I!I".' r:-' 1'--:""1'-" 1. . -...' h] 0 1. ...... !II . speak.g.-rf. . '~"c :.VIP!!...e \"y'~~e.."'I' '.('1 T: -.1. I ..]I" ..els . ':' .O::' gue" receded ·1"..' W-"-:: ".-orntlJ!.-d-. I l _:.1.g.5 cu.'-. Iii I·.o. defini ~.i:'\i)' d"-'e " .'when_--l. ". ..._.-A-:. I ' ~..1.C'.-.poe-rnsto _ ..[ into the open t'1I].e'i~:.. .l'lt n.'.(.--._. .. .! = -I .J'''''~J!.y ..'.:-.-....-'f Inl. ~. tha t mO_3..'I!l bestow'_' ''...""p.. .'.Ii. and demonstrates..-=:. .F..ar.. eter 0--' ~ -'p-'h·· ___ meers .".Q ral~ ele'_giac) 'c'omposed -in a ~.I..... fi".=. - .. .."f[. .. ..''*:'5.' ••• '. '~. " . -.Y" 0. " . f]..~. nOI:"_lng r eise.gains.U.tio --..' .. .. 'II I ki d ."0'-'.rlu re 'aison we hav':': seen ... .nam.. -J"I:..I.us .:. no.'n-~=y':'-' a HII ...d:. Ij...' .s.'. •."...Y' bi '. th e 1L. 0..0 Sl".:. to mo dC:S . '.:.'.'t:'~ d £'~ .:1..--d . meter ..-. ."'II'. .. d -...-~.-nciatin g:: situation again . m.._.@J!e . It remains intact.)"·. r • .'" .-...' [--. r ...al==. .r lvrie 'w'''':'!.pa. " :..--. gelle.!tiI.' ._Jllg is vnramatic I .'h. 'J.. ' • I..-."h.=~em. _ l~ l!.0 '_ Ie ':.) .:' '. .a-u~e. :id~ '1 C"": I.r.~ 0' - ._any more tr an h~ romantic succes tenno .:.-.'--.. W . .'.e:-... ··n-0nly In .ll"ve ='Di_"Wl.. H Ule' rious :insp:ir. _!L-' ..: __ WI_.. so to. - ..ro~..-h .er .\ ... ' . . "... . .'_' '-' '''- '" t '" " . . -- ". .---. . " •..aauy.Jl!l~. lyrical ep ical.. ..1.-. e . .:...t'-lC l. I.

.o.M.ugu.!I:.-'O(). . of the next stage.d through a subtle interplay of unconscious (If unac ..!!. '!\.I~ Comeille: The CitUltJl~ 'Tlte The. who is also-e-tehcitous conjunction-e-the father 0 f the two grea t romantic theorists.~I ..~ .'. _. as is said elsewhere of "revision.." :~a""l""5" 4' in keeping :"~wi th c·~'I'.. ':"8'"~ '0'1.A'IId fll rth er 0 n'..' . typical example of a transitional move or.." ".. ~ " ~--. Johann Adolf Schlegel.. 8'. 't.sical the ~ ~JJ _. :_ch. not without error bu W' 'i th "0'. apparentl y [definitive) abandonment of classical orthodoxy...g.'.I".. ..'~. H' ere. '.. J".. '. attica l. Imitation ofnature is not the sole 13'w' in matte-rs.of poetry. which will mark the .. t . in..'U'tt s cand"'.. monologue is perceived as ~. and reinterpretarions [hat . VI. both..s crrerry.'_'" to' 1.: '. Copy" 'gh ted m a1.~-y. '-1 .w the' new to be' presented. .e.. . " " . lead to a decision). although it is no more integrated dramatically than Rodrigue's.. ..'~·· . easily 'be so perceived.' It!' A" .1 umversa l~ 111 pOf't:ry .r..". ":' d'.' . b . ". Schlegel cl aims that the law of imitation is not ~ .. 'S-'-· l~. can be the obj ect 0 f poetry..-. The terms in which Batteux himself sum .. '1_. can.'ir.. .. and conversely..y'fic (A. . :_...:~'_I.J.~ I' c' ...~ r-e.: 1 g:u_n. if nature itself without: imitation."')l 'I.is M" ..:]~e.~ 't" ~ n7'~')" '3" 41 '9.' I'U us..i~'o""trans ~John Cairncros s (Harm onds worth: Pen.-. J1. kU. 3']"" Le 7'.A authentic (and. it:1 the objections made to his system by' his own German translator.:- ory-a.~"n' Ut. ~. The new system therefore came to replace the o]...:. .' _ 'T :: .36 T·1·~ _ .IO'w ledged !ihi£ts.. ~'~ sign..~.·."".. cu. or .. su bstitutions .'_'" _.I .<"Ii'S. Pierre cu.:.a.'.. u reasoning.ste·'s in the :fifth act of Cinna is not. a dialogue on love C~"OI miracle 'of love! 1 0 crowning: woe! '.: "__ ." .eria .U. change within continuiry." d...:X. marizes and then refutes Schlegel's objections are' these: ~".:.. '" . . of which in deled. comes rig:ht: [01:1 Batteux's heels...

....' .11'1.."'.._r.. .' ".. 1j"i-'~~which . 1.. .may be" and.' free rb e. [IJ.!II. the -ttu'rh. d. (a. _ .Ul1 eo.-~' 1."'" '.. .... Copy" 'gh ted m a1. like everything else~ I think Mr .-. .' the law of imitation (for in.·. .. " ' ·h·· ."-·'.:.. and finally.shIB '~i-: b a. not repro duction but is in r".> Ii.i w ~JI1. .- sh 0. __ luJ1 g. 'C 1 BI . t:taux ' 3Jl'_ S'ell legel manifee srlv : t':t·: -a~'~ .1i.._.. Schlege] cannot understand how the ode or . Second..'. !lir.~~ .--. .v.l W'O'~~~'~ U have 1~"~that in 'a: hole 1--'10.. """ I'~ ... _" "". I···.Ii ." f.::OI £Jto'l!J:ul~n.. A s we see. gel the fact t-~'hat ....II the charms and all the vig:or of 'poetic utterance.~.. ..==" '-=.. '.'i.F .\c]'.r. _ etic imitation. °'''il'1j"1 ·W··.1l_nc_ "...1...iIL'IIoC~. g'····. ".C· ".. .· sh ared ._'"=.·l.[1I~.. Batte'~""" I..-" '1J III c.".' ....."'.I' '. _ .__ '_ "'".Ii II.. participate in. 1 acknowledge as. II .fictio.11 .d. 'whole' classical tradition-e-imiratio n is. is enough.b ." C' .. m.. .. 'I. that is" they must be' probable. .. _ __ y . .-.~Ir s :I~S-: m .'et.b e' '-f'' that ""h-' is d":'--'~n'-'--ll" . that feelings m. c.:. . "'b '' - b ".:enre 'f.'..y.. .. ~. :'IU·' 'X.. .~ . iti '. In that chapter ] :had. .l " . ..I re :i.. I II .. This ~"".c poetry can claim to.:".·u'I. . Batteux's view-s-end 'we I'... ect~.'" ".' the fa t t~'rl"llt-~ these fe ~. h' 1 •.~.' st .or _. .cria . sings of his real feelings ra ther than of imitated.. gLl. ." of .-. ["0" .=~r= __ 'Dl..'.. being parr of 113ture they can... that all the feelings expressed in lyric. ... feelings. .\P. ..':.~'"' :"3 __'-'__ _' d __'" _.. reality __ ."_.o l "'~ I~a. _. a.\ . - ._ ..~... ." '.- .IIa._.. . M:r.r . ::... . u n r I'~l. __.> "._ .c...:t . .' c·' .Iy'ri....---. '.ss:e" d'" '~. J. . IL". to prove only two things: First. real. To SchleU n.Il... . lll~ .. . '.:'.in': obJ..~ "'~'_"_ u~ ". that. I. ... be imitated. this is its p':' dri 'it _. expressed with a.1Iai. 1·:"ii''i'~~. '[:0 subiect the: entire lyric genre to ...~-'..r . I I. ... th I .H"~..": " _ '.of this..b'. sustained ~ as perfect as they can be in their' g:enre.11:1i·nlg~:p(a"·n':~..e~ ten ~dflo.1'-' propriate.Ill. ..eine TO". V-~:"'~W·'·w as '.3'7' '.P' ._....g:h'l. rr hi ~ on . Th. l ..ended' In .!lw-tJ-=_ .'~ I' . '.. '.Ll y :rIC :'~. :. m :1"t'~' I"I'' O n: th .. ii1! ~~...."."~~ It-hat g . Iny S .i. _ . '1 ""'0 "~"'6'-""'!II-----~ ~~ ..t"llP. .t.'" len c r !Io-. . .. IL.:~-:..d.-I oS . nere ·-". . much even in the chapter he attacks. .n...Y:"FQH ... . . p:r..l2... "-(111 . 1.' • .-'..'. . . vy._: .. " ..€ aning of the law of imitation. v __ _ ..dnecessarily) agree in recognizing that the "feelings' expressed ina lyric poem can be either pretended or •. "I . .1 • !II I I ..0:"'£--='ases th e Poet ._II .3'[.d is eno. ~. .'-:'.'. c. ']~ a ~ r .3. the univer . g. I • . '. ti . ~'l' :r'-. "' - '.are . rrom ... tne nasic rupture 15 expre.D. Schlege] will agree to.retend')'I: . 'j. :. '".d. 1.'If·' 'p':'O:_' or .n: ''':0 imitate is top··. Vy" l.d."h·I···~:... rn ust be bound by the rules ·0· ...'C: ."" e . I[ [I ..ay 'be pretended like' actions.'JI WII.: l ~_~rjfl '_(_I'_~ ~ ~~f'\r. . . . .. [[~_~Ir. WI .- is the 'S·._ '.

...ch--.. 1. nor did ..: -"_'I"'..' '--' · sutJ}e.-. romanncism (and "'h-~~.'... inth m..... .I .3..cria . more .'~ ...'.i i j'" ...I. e nl 1 .m..".tior .. '~"". . .ob} ective..- " .. c he piane jectrves obviously di '1 "..:" .' .--.-:-.. --...• " ~ :o:ses its rO]J·eas ~sole "1 " 'TL '. "" .ed iately 1 hus I '.. rno.~..· .'" '. .~..'.' ' "".. ..'... _' _ .:_ . otners.-..d ivrsion intrmsicai '1'1 m VOl I....I. :"~ ..i9..~ J.I!.g w..-.. t' '1''U''Ii'''li.... ....'~ ]-: 3 'i... arrear we ·:·~·i .~. or ".'IC' hi In t heory is purely ae . ' •.:.~. _-.ed Ern st B eh ler' 6" ' " "'" f' ('M' :. the' drama tic is . . ters bly' both poet and." 'd'~ ""'1'" .l . .]J. ..b" .'...'. !Ii. _" .. ..l. _-.-. .'...i . ...chleg~-el __ ~ __ '_. retains or-.' d '.. .. "'.. .e~'t'. "'.'. the 33 Kri tische Friedri.-'.1 '_'~~"~" ~l. .h enuncranng situation..)" ·h' '. _".e r s u ·b··.'" .' .a..~ .~ wei "f 'b·: . afu.".11..'."..Aristo1tle· were diamerricaU. ~'~ H .:-11 .'''' '. a '.):.".1:.3.IOn '("""""1' ' . " ~"..: .. but rhe choice of ad.'.WIt "out uncd:" ergolng:.....'onlng. l' ·6'···· 1 '1 '1 I(ii' "'...'.n ·1' : spea.'. . '_not.'. "0. 00. '. .' '. now...e . b ~ . .· JO-llS an.pre:t.langs Ul t. in..erefore.-:..:!j.eccnl.-ory or vserrnan ·'i..s· _Y..'. . 'none' of the modes seemed de facto 'or de jure hi "" .• balance a whole poetics.~.:.. xano "'_ererore >·. lOS .chrucar....'1" 1l.an ~.VIS... "..:...~:U..:. ..' 'I. -·"d··I·.. r: . turn.n.trac aromc di bot ".r' .. ' 0'" u$oab"c'. Jl ... the epic is t·'· ::. .. . h ."'. .rc:.'. 1. .. " '.. "" ..'. .'..~ e "'1"'1 .[..y-... '1" s··· R· '1'~"f1ii ._J.tl Th.. I' . i!l-·h'e .' 'iIi-'_".. l' 9: 'S-"er).-. for m is s" bjeaive..· :.ra..--:'- ~'<'I I' .". J'.'..7·····I.-I. -.-'. ~ . tonic ' di .~:\ Inuee_.at..~I-.ot b. . '. 'b' his cr arac. :.' rorogicar .onlC_ out ." . 1i. -..er..mixt~tr·e is Il'ot ye t possib......_. rh..o rne i . l!' ... b ...'j! a' ..--::. apparentt y fi'a·'res tne nrst shot.g. !f • Copy" 'gh ted m a1. " .. poe. ~ vo 1 a. ' " '. '1"" ~'. ' .--.'.·.. '1 i' \. but he . characters). ' ~·-N·-·~. 1 ." ... -. ··'1'1 i' : -. .I""h·. _' " .1· :"."..n. A ..' tratI 'pIane. . ..o~ ecuue ~ 'T'hl c..'' unlC 'h"~ ·s··.of 'G'!i~""'>:'1 .-. ~.'_. ...e..-t··· fie ~~esea.gher Y~ value: in.S dd eatt'._"" eadiy know '""-··rnn the same s· ..nll. ma.. ".' teet '. .·:L.~'.~. Iimension: to b h '1 ...~ .. Y ms zhar .-' c isp.=-- ..~··JiI"'''..C' "".._: ' ""j')' 'T . ".1 ' "·t·1!.~ Wl'i'll'l .u...lS Cl. ..."..._ .i:l"ii. "t' .''".. 1! .. ..tu:r.utex t ::..' .. ._. _'."._-·"'.... :.": . ie gives '...::'-e' ... yona "U[.~ F'_'...est .~ . WI.i't:h an origi ... --' .. -.':'_. 0 ec ~1ve~..w.Ulg 0..-.: I· I' .. '.i'. .ealin..1'1..:J1. ~C ' ' ..' .ato and A ..i ·not:"".···t-'~'-'-:-'" 1 ~..0 rm~ te 3. 'I o f' t..1.". I ".1_ 'h.:'"'.1".-.. :i ·t· t'lh··' ~'h' li-... 1"1 ' 1--' :.'ed "form in ~lnv'case'.e ITy -'~ IIv .. 'r' . 1 I" '_" _.a..'. r. theory none of the modes was superior to the ..': -. new rem ._-.'k. .sa ru.' .X""1I:C·"t cent ent of this n o te] tha t-· the .'.1]-"".. .. ..'-:-.thir . .(.' . mterna '1 mUIL. . 11'" l' . .h e ot h ners.'. ."..'." . u re .=-"'·~t:'.. C' utera ry' t'h c na te. . WHO ".'.. 17'::9:-'.' _' '_' "_'" .. I '.1 h ..~JU:Strtous .. .le for . _... 'both. "..' d' uvision.1. "3" :2' .y' opposed.~.y' d-'· h ve '..'" "..':~ll-e:k" . h ~.se e-c e ..ve an y urdicanon 0.". .". ..1i' 'W·:. "·. J ..'--I '~J" •• J •• .....J. .1. h" ..!I!" e._.· " ec _.'1 I. ~..hi '..g~ 'I:" t . ~1111 ll h 1" triadd win d'. 'I' .1." I. :.1l. ".:.." _·:·d." (.:ege. ." . state' 0 f n.I.'.• ".' '....-_. ·"_-·b.Y.3.. " . .._..... ...re 14·'~d·.~·"·.. 1'..1.'' '.' .. : ". sornew -har . ".. " _ .'--.."".. 'I"" or existen .'..c . ..' =. and. aces ttre cntenon rrorn t. .__ ()"t' ~ ...' _ .t ..eanIn.-' i'.'". otner two"..._ .. I '.1 t'. _ "}' .l. ... ~·t: --"1 r'l a.. f' '~ . F' l t-urmerrnore tt C ancient divisi rvtston die not m .'. I. .-}!W'.... is t: ~'-'I'....~·· ..poet.-.~... .ions..a.ne T":h A' . ·d·." "1' I i" ~ I.. ...-..·i"". ~ ..ill.·rreorrcnch :S··•••·· ·'h···l.without : ':.'" "" '. ..c t"s. \-v.b····.th . . '. .g'.~. (enuncianon . "..h'e p-·11.. whole aesthetics.." "pl. . .. .• l. 'w'e cann.' 7 .]'_"'. C . did .r. ...• :1" •"~ s. rou.p:syc··h-.g".Ie' ancient .- .. an··d'In rae ~as '. .".. '_. to rb e .lC ciairns.'·· terms of th ". nd ~ .. .... ' I.' " '. . ·t'· .. .. .. .ry mstorica 11 ear li t:ih rer tan t.'...' ... m en . it new .~ra.. ... ~ ."..P ··':r istotle. ~.e· d..~ I' - "1 )._' . ' __ "" :. . Th ~ ..~ e]J.-. ... counts Schlegel departs from the ancients For him '["he ·mix.':y rne ..'\. towarnd ·3.urn In . . ... ':· reoiscovers ..man i11 d. ".'.') "I'" . _ = : .. ". ~. system tile' biases of Plato and ...'i'::'".

'L~.e. en 'i." 10.' ".let'~ 1.state is exp '1-"~t"Iy given h'"-'.:.A:sBlair 1. ~ ~ .R'h etotic. ed.~ ..: .....I. ". Y f.o _..cria .e ~*"i1m'·i1.fll .~ ..1.' [1'_ . 'For' him.. a."...'!t. "..: 'c..n It'l' 'iCi ichm et ('~o"'-' 1' ". . Copy" 'gh ted m a1....r.' .' !\r. .r~. ballad. aU ehe different kinds of it: lay confused. "During the infa:ncy of Poetry.n0' "t. 'We know that Goethe found..'" '" - "". \.. of genres" the un differentiated matri x of all subsequent genres.'h' . . OU'[ ft·' f" . to be the U.rama = obieceive-su biective poerr y-.it..J1. n 37... ...I.~ ' ' E. h e"r' j..'.. a.I.~.'!ir-. ":. rer form 1'1'1' or a· .. JIll.at .....'-.-.:. :~·'t[DIi'.-. ~ -.J~ nn." ."". 1-' vision.. ._.1"There exist an epical."'. ". . -" .:C' th is.. w'ould natlJ. t ne .usg. '!.y...". '1[9S7). n.IL L - L ~ ~··L . mon g""'"... they began to .-t-" . ' '". . -.'.'.I II oIL.. from ich sirn . 1Il..'.. ."O' . whatt over thiIS·· di".322) 111.th at.'..'. '-...' "".. it . . .." ""' ".navor 0. 'I' __ 'i ...: _ .c.[Ill. ": J • • .'..I.. l' .... so.. . ."'. '..b.J~' '"'. [68 below) 35.. '. I".i!.".-' ". I ."'11.. ..ieaiv on '1'-'y" '..vK. even "in ancient Greek rragedy.t'-~:d".'."I~I~"1~'_ "t"'I~~S'.'.. ~j .rY1i ~ I.".Iyrical. . .. we find... ~'~'..!. D. _ .il. Kri tisch e A.1 ._ "d'"'~'I~~.. ". L".]b.:JlLdta t_! .__=..e:s e··. only after a cerrain period of time do they draw apart from each other" (note to West.~ " immediately proposing that "odes and from ~~l.".g. "'("""1--"": -'-'I' .grt. I .'..'~7' J . .. . ' th lea."" Schk.I:nns of every' [[~y..' ..11er u· 'p. je ctive poetry. ~'. ifiP '.1" s. . .._ . . ._ ....ive poetry.~ . I W.~ ~ = .':h···)'1epical m. es" bur . directed the Poet '5.. ' .._. I~_:."-" ~.0'" 'n..h i ~.. d"A . see n..I[..' iii' ..-.13. 1'1. Ir."' .l'.IjIS-"~~u-'m'-I-~hose a t .6.." .'.. no : e. jQi.hemselves bv a definire a t . !t'·t O"I"~':'V:D' 'I' ':'1"1' "ilr[H" .. Beh.reric state [J ".I.l~ n'111' sync . . "_ I... or casual incidents... _'.[}. 'f. . a.' " ..'... ~'~~'.:'1 J •••• "'.-.e.0]1 . thae rmxe _.~ orama ~ := 0 b~ ~VH .. .: '. d'.' ~....•.g~~...ve U.. . 1965]'jl 2::320-2]. ~'..... ""u~Jw\r.'.Q'be._ . .·v nd Arts. . "':iI': ed-•.11. for example....third note.. assumed (.I..c. .l. ~ ~=..el~ .. ...\oo..r:..' . from 1799" attributed the mixed state to drama: "Epic :=~ ()~ject.~P ie =. . ._I... ' ae -...~. ~. '-"" . and were mingled in the same composition.Illr'0'-':: m l' ._.ois University Press..L~' ronto: Uni versi ty 'Of Toran to Press.'.ated ".. ....' .'._...l_ (" '1"9::I'~-1··. ·' '~11 ecti . with-= ~:' ~ ~ ~ .ric] s. . . .'...'at'a later time. ~ ~ - . 'V"'"J11.the contrarv. epar -""'. enth usiasm. h vaiue as sucn:.strain ~ In th e prog '0·: f S socie~rt:.. IIL . ... A . according as inclination. ~ .11 •__ ~ ..JI..' ':.lC 36"'.-" 1t.0 .. .·00'.~\r.' dlifferenc A"'..~. _.''..• ~ ~~L:-=.Ltcttu·es on ..:..". - • . :~:'~I'~ rlt ~ lUI".1 .""'" ....-u oore t h e tos r am .:1 " '_ ".1."" . .. ..C..'."..' '" I '[ 'I' .m. The lyrical is ~1"''-"J-l?J~'~''~IJ~>'-.. 1Ij.~ ~"..I.·!L.b~'C*"'~~ve " o..•... t .750." '.lin-Q~'lg th:c first compositions").hY.::. . _~ .lL.-.. 'Pi .. . . 11.Y . anifestly ": e"I.I. and according to him.y ~ ~g'enres.00::": co'nf 'I'.ri::l! d" . 'H-".- ill LiliU"..w . .1~J different regular forms...S.~'.. I' .. d eternal _..- Idle-- -~'.U.' .C..Ii.. me =:u."":r-lI Noteboo ...~.:: (frag ~ . . the three genres combined.0' . Harold F:~Harding [Carbondale: Southern lUin. ..e. I' 'I • . Ibid.. '1. :.e.~l.0 .." I ..)..'.~"..'~ ~t. '..·-··.~ '_.~l' HJ6 'B-". . "I :'.''-''''. = :!I' -- -. seems to have ''L.lll'. 206-5.. It is subjective-objective.- . no. - . . I.'-' ve.y: ..'.. for a..ally be· ~...) . .35· A·..:U~ has the best of it.':.. ferent names under which we now know them" [which does not prevent him .._'. . -b ec uvev d---~1 ~ U ecrr "''t Iy ric ~ S'. a dramatic J :fO'Ml.a. ..34... ed. ~""'_""_ [. e. . ... _ ..'.~~ . ~.' _'."...... o.s'Iorm.. r m..."_.. .' ..n. ...'1 LJIJI.~ ~= \.. o. _:C.. . '.l poetic ~ ~.6stl i er DJ1'van.·. '1.' uci ....0..'1"" h ixed · ..[ ."'. ~.10 .' .. . allegedly broke away". .3.~. 1 __ :.lyriC' ~: sub .'." . 'it:h. ." .'L.J . and to 'be disting uished by those dif-. ~~~.

cnronic :scbenla~ one tha-~~ this :iu.---.' __ '.1.' .: - .- -' :" " 'I'. urmtec aiacr ·-:._.::.. -'.. a ree I'1In"g. ~ .. It is the meeanhcor... Ko" .n ce. .~.."' 1[-0:'· Peter Szon di.I. . .'.- 'I' ·1 ......[.. '." ril~'..' ~ t: .:...' 'i'-l~t~.'.. • - e. m'l-~lri. . . that we will meet in other writers: he' distinguishes "in novels .1].. "'-'~.. l l..--: 11 .. . .''r'~ . 1··. is heroic In rts significance.. T:------:h-..: '. . ~ t= . "v·._:""". '[.: ::__.-.a-sed 'by Sc-:helling ..owe'V.e~..:..-'·)·.._. .derstood as the (roman tic] nov.a'u!' the' sc'h. ". _C".'...-11'1·lg~'·altt. _..9-.I . JJ. ...0.. -'.I. " -.g.o~···t-~·d. ' _._".QlS an..11..1SnC ~ .q"" "~·o· 't.". ~:. !.- '1-" -. . .ex.. ~"..-'! .. d la.._""".:-. . ' . .--.SSnCIr :(·"S-:···t-"-'t-··t-··.divisi ._ "T".'. . ~ ~ 1!.tin" <..=~ 11111 1-' r a.\rr..a:g.. '''''1' 'W:OU 1d :S~'ee m···. -d"-'.~ " I '~"'" 1"-'1 .:" '..y ...II'_ ~ _' VIV"I(·.d·': _.:m····.te Univ. -·· Ij..1)-/"'.lI'Jb'·\""t1I._... 1"g:'CI.. ._ ~_. ":!Ii 'l~'-n~ p:.0 . '..~ •• • I _.l"-'. ..: ..'~' ~ at ames _ cnieger nas rmn . _ l.. [l' ..'f"u. en e .t~Jnb~~r-..a. -._.'·:··-. '.!i... ..h h asic ..fony.~'.Sl_ :8':_'l~')'-~ .we' win in.. ..d'·~ ·2.'." +.. ..~dl--''':'c'''h-.cri a .'n·ll·e·: C--:l:iO.' 1.'t=C ·_fl.....'1'1' .r.l rein tro d~. .' \r '..'0 V~'_:"~ '. M"~.' 's····· h'I~..J.'1: ..c....en.I"'Ii~ .~ times Schleeel has In minda limited dia chrorry-e-tnat .. .e_geJl.}. 31 ieas t-.~' ~ ~.~.'. .~3Yet Sch -ll~'g-. ~ .. 'tt-'.th ..r ""_ .·.'" .··.1 gre'a" aspira tons. .'.. .·· ·4-~'2••• ··~·.I '1'. l!li. it':" '179.-_. he d'.(o'!!I·d'7 .~.0...... ". ..··.~O.. "" [I " '!' 1 'i.-' £."..<C' ~ fi..~' til_] l ~ ."'.[~..::&I •• s..:: :... I._!"..'" ~ '" ~..'l.' ·._:_..-I.LU? 40 .r.j[:t.er.IH] '~""" . .t.·.._c__..s~~S1gn.-.t'...'. 'c' '. _'" 1 ...m··.~ = . __ ' '.= ....:z:..e . J .' ~ _~ ./:. '1'·.' ' •."~I _~~"...· .i ~.._: ": "'-. ..an.I "I'~ .... ic ':-'>..:_:.iomman -.40 !!"!l~. " .a.~_..~ _ ....lS 11 eaUJ.- . -:. _ b.ap.. ':'_'.h -'. p ..~-:''CI.t..l~. ..~.'.... nat ve In 'Il ts s"f-"""-" "-1-"." " ..he . d...~ dl.-r-.rl.~~ '~'I-'-' -.4 :_.~. .o· '!I'i"·d...·. . ~.. tflfTlXf.IIII.'.:_'t:)1 _2l·':_. and June 1. l\.. ~~ : _: G. :. .tay' in Hambul""'-. £!O C :ne with th e latter (the epic)..'_~ ~ . +. -··· .[ a..'. u\..~ano 4.. CUtTS _".an.."_:'Ll!!!!___:¥~1 __ . .:. _ .1 ." h".'.."-11. inituition )~40 'H'ere .s-c311. '-1' . 'I l..[111 .. an irt tellec :a1...' -1'. ' .h.<. ~'r- ~".~·[.:!l.[A]'b..··E-'".' •.. the h·IA'S··:l~"C""" n :..-. J _ • .nd'.1.~i th :e~: 0-[' ·d' ~:[' 'C}.~w:~ . ..' 'J ') :"":.f'. a.eeplng with .-·.' ~.\.. . .. the fragments he devotes at: about 'the' same time" to the question of genres. whi ch is not surprising..ne metapr . '_. ~ l. ~ .o-. .. or 0 f'·. (.-'. ~I.if.-. - ..pn T'I-'"-''''.to' ...-.•..~. pe. _ .. ' .".. ._css. .... ~ ._-'tl .I..'.'" ')-. . .g'.~ -'::1 . 'B :"·-"-:-·.-): . _ .] ith ....·:_'_:. '0 ': .111 . .A:O.. _ '_ '. . . .d'.'-'. 'poetry.--·.. ~ ~.'." '.tl..· qu-..""!.- " d' oramsnc.:--:··...-.· nficance -1'.. ....'.2:6-:-:'1'):-.e 'r' ·. basi tripartrte '_1. = ." &[1· .I... '. _l. __ l".-''''' trans. .: . all.d-I 'b'-.' ".' .~.--.:3.~'I~ I . >-' tfIH.I ...t .. ~..lcrage:.'L"'!I! '....'.6···:..'...'" .'.[ . ne notes '!i:.' ··d· "It' rimes a..-SS.~.". ev 0 uion orf Greek .' ··· 6 ..In. " ..yrH: .".~.')·~.. . !(I..l]Can(~c._--:.--:-1_ '_. c':" I' :'..t.::1 \-..e:nl:a to be pro'p.'""".I.'"n. of zreat -:-·~i-·t:~ -:_'-.l~ _ = . . J. I~ . .. "..'....od }I·i -I.··_[A.-. .. ' _ is the m etapho ir '0--: .uici In '. .o. ~i 1 d' ..I'lIi·O··.~:~t1.~ _'.!I!. '-. g... -.~ .-. ll" 'Tho'mas Ffau ..._:.mucn biroacerc.tl.Ai ltext h..'0.0. .:_1 u . . ":'-'th..u: . "'.••. .~" . .--.[ senuence.:_. .p_) _' ~g.0 ·llt!" Copyr 'gh ted m a1. .. .~_:. . ~yIt:'hl' e.'."1.--.~. . . !Po . _ ~ __ 'I the 'pr-eslence 'Of a _.!\r.'oertrv Whi C cuimma -.-" ] .'1-.' " IS."" ~" "" ..e'1'.. But Holderlin in.I. " "'-.r-..poe·m""J .'.'-I.h "erOlC . A' . . g:._d·.i D' [~.. '.varuanon :see'ms . "' d .._. ... '.0 '...-· . rises b ·~C: ause Ac-: .1..3. :1-1"'_'0·---:."'\-... ." " . J ! !! '..'.!I!.IS ~.o_....-'.···'l'..-'" - '." m ..1.. 'F--'. . that of the evolution of Western.. • •• = ~ .!l![.. .n:Q.-. 3... s·····~~':'. -I' endlessl nove" anU... - .I. - '[ I -.'.. -IL~ .-·""·. culmi ..1e'~ an CplC .r . d~ ..'I·a" te .~ .' .' ]. .p.....-._." ~ ~. ..p~ h .appearance naive .--.. tt mucus me c:.: e .l'..S. ~ _. ~ ..' . d'~1~'" .afe:I~'f' :inrer fronl =~ _ ~~_ l.'.~. on ce wit In t..._ b.(B.an ce ice a.._..". "d'e' ". . :-..genre. ._. 1 ..cip. ..-: .~'\."'·'li" H"':"~I···~··J.· '1.e ··v·-:)·· unon ··-·' .e .." _' 13:." \r \r...C.. .:rft... . " " ..~'.' .' .. 1....ee) wou 10.t4:er.. 1'''--':' ' :..-.]hla. . e genre orr'".. .'.. ane l a d ...Jl:-J . '..._ "'n'· .n a... :ne:w' dia.:U:: .anV'~Sta.'_. . __ ." ... h.~ "..'--'·y·' ~S··.. res in P 1 ch ..'P'I" e" un ...-r-·e·--[-..r'l .'-..-" ...r ee.(.~ .' . '.. 'T"hI:e epic ]poem]...I In. _'-'rJe~.Ce (a...l~\.f. .800.ed y.' F i'·--d. _.-.s. con. -'" '. iii . 'which...q~:r.g.-_:___:'''' . ..:_L _'_'.I. s. '=1' . ..... '~'.e ·. I)' ~ ..t-.ee..__ . . does not: share that varuanon: """T·h-··· ".. i3. ...\4·-··6.-::-..'. _ _}' . ..-"...."". ..'t:Q. .I!..8 " ._. t:\iv:JOen I!. .an en. _'.' Pais -'.C ..o:1I:t'jI.. ~' · U.....:AO..·. ·O·.vunon. .. .. t::" S-ilip.~J'8 •.' ~'..::' A t. '.yrlc poem].. "I I . '1'1.!\r..-. nate s in an "e . . " ~~ ...' u:~ory. tL. ". . Ifl.. _ ... u''--~~ . ".""-::". _ _ . ¥'. .-t·. ·:·'·'.'' .rurca . ·11. .I~. M" ..1 ..'" 11 ."'-':" d '. ... 1°.'D'IU"I=ing)' his s. •••• .'.h... +.O·' :5.. ..··it. ·8'-<' 3. e. I..'. cord "1' n:1.' genre"'~I~"cl:terary a..structure '..i[' 't. .."L".6'.·d':L.' " .-\.... • ..'·. .e~rs~tv of New' Yorl{ 'Press l " . '. 1 1'."1 0 ·r"11l.pearance .. ".'b"v -S..-..

.yru:-· poet" t" e.~...__. cr.' ' ~..:[ 1 ~ . . ". p. . ~"..42.ugust " W' '....en u'ua B"ride'.:'.t ". ".I. ' . . I•( . I I .V.~.. ":.. c . l I1 IC' :~ ... a.." h ' i'rh ':.~.£.[s"ln.IS ...m.'J1. .-~.ree gen. ) - ..-moanc od .o. ~11' . _" . .'. I. .. '.-. ep:ic:al...-:an..'-0. mustj...' the:5··.g'.s() he one N'oV'.ondi ~ 26 9)" . i .. r I" .. -" '0' :·'W~'-...:·i-. each genre alternately 6 'Th .: 'l£1.. : _:'."E'i:I-. 43 ~ J{ri fisC-'le' Schrijt.'1": "'T. " .)-_. l ."~-".p~. dra.ag...r ...-r'" . -_rroroer in s -agree that drama is the form that is mixed 01'. A al-JY superior. _. s= J' I '-- _ ".~ I :'-I·-~.hiarmomc rota '1".dy He'g:ers A...~ ed.'~. ~ [:~ :"1-1 -. ".'1-: :-'-1 ~'.~' . pure..:____. he 'P.(-. -.0. .··I·~··I I·-·~··I_::·:· ...~ec IVl¥"._.:.'bJ." . .or''f :.~.r ' .I~ '" l~l .:~. _'__ 't~''-~'\.Y aesrg i rorm'I 0.alIls by stu d.alis m. syn~t". . ' .- . I... of the epic... 0' 1 "I ' 1.".1! an.····~. • t..-)':_ l '---c 'I' -C" .1 I l l :' .':._.." I" .bid. 'LI'... I. :.. • .. . ..... 1- . ...I . "IID ieht d en . .' anouthe -.' -".11 0 'S'~~''~.. this case ravora'.- I ..successors . ' :-_I _ _ ~ _ ~ _ .'-'r'o.'f'eo'p.e- .8'.".gl.. -- -. ~" ...I.' mthesis.. ".. J • ... (: ...:: .".311: t . ' ".-:-:_ -I' I '''~'~.'hI' eel.t:-' "ra ~~ 111.11.I. Ed gar Loohn er (Stuttga.0" 'd'-'~I( 'l--~-.' ~ . • • _..I. : :.' ...o+"ll. _. =~ ~...:_[..in neree ..d"-Ijil ~ II exp licitlv d '~. .n ...... "'._ "10.2i 9.m d.'.bid~'~4. . I ~"____:"_1 _ ..n I· d':U(tlIOt1 r.~.~-.~'.J!t ~'Y':' ~l!ll.'".fstheti. I.-:-.--~ .'. (-... .. : ~.L~.II.~~.:..o ~..Jc J..-.l our er e g~sts rather rhe . 63) ~ 2::305. .cat." . ly:ri.~.~c .etl'C.l~ .y d'· 'n'.• .' " e -~:- ... . ..-~~--.l~.n~~ m~-~ '!ii"'i'l!!. '" ...res'_ J a.e. '.I!!! L ~!Ii ~~ -..' .::": .e.i ~ -.is.. ·s..' .~ '.'::-:-.. .."-'1 . . ' .-. .~- :ii :.~ !. _:... . . ::.I . _. E.Ij.. fr. ' :. "ii. 19 6t... who writes in a note from ab sut 1.' m a~.t~-:.: . ". 0....-~.i<i'"'.I. !Ij.'1 aanon .- ~ ~ . aecommg " . . '. Co' 11:- = .. .t iess chain in. _. anti ...~.~' In. . ..-'.."' '-" '-- . c. S~..-. th . ~ .. . ~ ..r ragment rom..•. T1l. ."r '''Ii .n.':J:'"'"'1..--I·'C: ..cpoet g...d'l~ .ne re tne iramauc (. '" :.'-' 'I: of t.d"-.> .." '." _' .etati. ".1 ~..1 '" .'.-.I". -".-.~. ..~~et~ag~.' ~ .'I'J'r eim 'ocmew " h 1 S'.:..". 'with..~ J " ' •• 1: '. ~.. clearly syndlesizing inter. '.1 rather (the " -. d.. th =p~" d':. I" -'.'~ ~ .a_.. ~ 1 I .". '.~.. ~. _ 1 .c'r'.. ~. .. urs ..on of ._ .--to th dra -'~"~-~ ~.. "t~ I~.-. . l 1 . .starts witn A..I-j lCltJ.tro A .' "..11' h .. ~. . a ring 0]1'" a spiral..01_ erun :.'~ /:" I·.. "'0:' !Ij..202 (Sz.I .a ~. I .r :."..1 yrlc poeti-. 'T~lh'"e-" eprcai.- ~ ~ - -- -- ~t"..Si.f-_' . ._. ". .-:.I P si....'. ~ '. I' ..[ :..'~ ..'. II. I'· I .m'Pletion of th e 'I·'y!' [I'"C' "~'~'l _..g". _I ra .3 .. - . 'a'b.-' I . 'H: II'·-:.. \.:. 'o""u~.~.<IS I['p..biectivitv P ~yrh. tonic d:ivision of genres is invalid .".~4...rh~.'"y.b.'_=.. en l5 _.I'.t:''~h-I'.• "..'~ .l.--'H"~-~l~ nnan context e.This :arra:ng:em. : .:& 1 Copy" 'gh ted m a1.. rne e.' ... the interpenetration of the two j'htl 'The 1 • .''.-.:273 (Szondi~ 266) '. .'-'w__ '.\v... .c course it't h e . ' .e ..-' .the' ter.~."I_. ri 1 tP rin cip~. which in the . 111...___ dat ..a J. I ~ - - ~ .-. ate r sug ..c poet the tragic Pioet. .~6 (one 'would 0bviousl Y' like 9 1 . .' e [eplc[:" poet.. 'I". ' '..[."" :. 1'-" '.on'I"~).C~:poetr-y (this is alrea._ _'t_".so.~ec gUJiarl -y~.'l~ .c one.'" _ Ing th. 13.-~ '. I I ::. ~.=.".!I._ . . h-'.' : I ~'~..0 l.' .is .. :'__.C' ueger10 S' an d~ H' old ..:: .-...g among tne u .~' obi Ity -". '~.m:".le in r hat d:ivision. uP·~·~'a't'.~. .IS b -.m:atic =' :sculpture..'Ii.-ure -. The dramatic. .p:r.~.'.~ '--. .: . jh 'Hamburg period rejects all hierarchy Rna lev en"all se:'-~' h th d-'l' quence~ esta bl hi . in the lyric: the compl etion of the tragic".' I.. ' ~ A ctuany . .am(Jtic:: .=_-_.~ JLIJ.'l"IC' 'd:' I. 1..me t-l-ra'. I 41 ~ ~. !_ I I .)4.Il.los:tt' o:tle:n t adopt'ed~~wieh.)I'I-~'1'.: "Iiiiiiiio .~ ':I"':~-I::' : .·US unavoic .'fi~::-~..i'iII. in the_· ep'l"'C: th e C"O' ...h "" resis...~ 'mu ....l·:t--y-:. 1 I 'I : I':' ..oemlJ~" bt '-t." :: . . ~I .. ~ --:: I~": I: '..II.'J " • _. .- ~.. :-:-:'.~-.>..a. - ~... ' _:. ...f' j"~ om [ e ' ~ -~ .cJ' iu nHce).." ---..' . re .:.id '"'' wored.~ ~. "''.ent . I. a. !Ii I ... '.'.. " . . .' " _. ." . 1 Jt'\. ......--'. 0..' tivity in he human spirit Th e '11'<.. J _ _ _ I~~ _ _ ~ •~ =_ ~ !f I .-'_..cria .._~..' .hig~her value of the Iyric. I.. "'.--":'1 :k. ~ • -..· itv -. For in the' tragic lies the com pletioi. . ... .Il. ~ea_~~~g d_~o~~o"In .rt::'Kohlha.1L.iLl I: t..' .... -nd th . .m..a~...__ _~ .. .1I. ~ ~ _ _ _ _ _.' ~Ir .I .-. b e.-."_. - x __ . No true poetic .nates as early as 1790 as the Iink between epic exposi tion '-:-d tragic paSSIon: ~ -. in.~'.in fra.. -'._-·~·..C u"'h~-".

!: r .l . 1 .· grves th-e SOU..~ '.il..l.~3.. . a.": I .' ii.rag~~.e'de fa .. w-h~'". _ "_'. 'C.. ..-. 2.' "."e : '.~. g._ •. ._. _ .' . 'T: .n-"[-:'I· . ' ....r__ . mma..p'..I".560)..' _-"1'"1.$ both.lfom.~.:--.I.' _ 'h. ...::I..11fSt expression 0. .l. "1 _ ' '. verse.'" __ __ ... ~d-:' .I --~ . . suejectrvr . .''''.. T~ Knox (IOX'M..-"" ~...ran~l.~. -'-' :··1'" 'h +.". is n OW' clear: epic-Iyrio-dramatic.r··.t: . m's P .:r.. I-:·..t:l.:3.. .. . "k .. .. :C-"V' 'e!<..I: 1:.' '(.t..on .1ia leer. .' ..~'. '1 . pu b Iishe . A .e':n the' individual 's spirit becomes disentan~ o~ d .' ..: ---d···~_-·'·-· .= moldin 'D of the infin 11~foe': •..ync ~-~b.1.ou sly in '1·.!l.. _ . '.' "'_11.._..:.o'u' gh L· I'A.iIi-- :!!..: - . _ a. . " .nsa. .. .-.--''!II6:· . '--'.~l:u.n . . ..e l.ng. poetry. ·n\..-" :p.V··"U.IJ.' "" ..chi tectu....g 1$.'~.3.564-. t'I'" f :C'.C..~ ·d~_.F'io .. _.~ ..Ii . di" ' ' :nl. -:-. __ I.~.~. _.'..I".o.ge:Ps '.t-~" 'F-' . [.ss:II < .:l"e.. ~."0. _"-. _ n ..".::l .:.'. pa ttern ~S' 'In."..' -..'.I'reslen:£ ~t ~o~'J.' "- c_ ~ phlegmatic. Y. n' . . .. _.' .·"~·· .' . ne 'w _" o... 1 ..Ii _ _.~ -':1" _"C Ii.-W'. .2~589... . :' .n ~ ~..r ' .Y:'··: L:.t-'·-:·d''-:' .rev..59. -. ·d-I'1.In 0 . .'':"' . or e= \ _ __t: . ."-"' '&..r--d':e-:r~ f the f rst tw-..-.3~. ~ . I II. .ma.j1l._ '. 'il nto. ...S . l.Ai _. '.. l' ....l~.."~".vh ':'1. • i' "..'H: 45")--"(T~a'-~s]a·t'o··~~S". . . 1 ..L· . :'1: --: ._ •..' '.m. ' :~:1': U'~r ~.re~e "..' .~ ~ WI"" '~~I ."-.·.-.' . . I • _.yI..un..-.• Ab.. pleap. _.... t~-~-E'-'"D. " '..('II_C'Q..lyriC poe-ry.' ..A_.....' ".n:~~t... _" aU fhe visible...d... t.:' re.0'.:.}·." ~ .' I ~Ji." '_' .y'-.n._:--." '6. t ~..:1:~d'-n' ... _.. 1978] .e . _J.'" .~] __': _ .' au ...-' .. 1-'6"'0--: VOII...~"". -.-t._.:s:.. then canonical)...._ d" ~.-7'· .':. lUe-a.45 .._. "c~'-)-... " ~"'~ Ilr. . tne con .. 0" ''''h.i:PO etics.. .~~si'lil'''~1"'_'I~'tJ'''''rlt'ti':e' 'has be'e'n' __ ' .~''Ll.. h 1!.. .: Leetft:res ... II I'" m.lnau"y ..I'" _..'lt1!.~.-~.:1·' S r.94~1k .. :rm an ...it~'e r~~. .-~-"1..lil!".e" '.. . '"-I". so arso in trag. Hueo's.' . 3.. TI 'hus: ~'i.e.~ :'" ec. lyrical-epical.a.'.".-~.-ar_ S] d ramanct ('N' . . lr~:t~e-'»th Aristotelian attribu _tion 0-: f.G·~:e-·' -. .".cria .'· hich Friedrich Schlegel le.. :PO:~5." I'" _' .-"'1':· w.r'.-c·..I. .~l.. '~" ~.finJaII'y' attains dramatic synthesis 01I" "iden . '__ ..~...~. ~ '1- .~. ..I.··I···~ :-: 1::..".c.__ .:1' __ =- _..I " 1. Ii. I' ":. .\ .'.a. J (..·f: e .:'I~h·:. .. ... I .'"... a~..eo''lI:r...Fl'ru!' Arl'~1 trans '..st--h---'~'-.:C . '. whi h " two. ..esth'e. ... . ..an '..0'.' ." . _ ~ ~". .3 wholesome mixture._. an u nexpec red [-.....J '..-I. .r"". "" -~I" I..1 IIIii I. I .·'W'~~in"place and it works t. V·-··"!S. ". [' .' .' .' ..: I :. [Stnttgart: Kohlhammer 1981..~ 57'.r.. . _ . . "i ·0"3" .~."..':. m s ..~ .11 .lC. :.> ='.'_~ . . .. I '.:. '::' - ..".... . ...'·.11 !I!'t ce.'..• iilI'Ik-.. 104' -.. Sch elli n"g~-. ".. l~ ~ ._' _..~ova. I .1_ . of 1]. e '1' ti -'.'0:2'.. J._-_:---. revives (d tand by.... th .n. ch co'n-JOlns £·.. fi.I I 1I!Ii ..' I i I' H .'"1'0-1 '"t''5' I.rans'l~..~' a . ".".. ic"a~~I h . ..-£'!'I~I~~'O-'''--"~' ·c-. . ..." 2:" ..'"..g~:st.~.' [I J •• • I <..~.J! .·I""u" eg tel retu "..A.-"."1 e': tnen .a-''.. h ..r. .. . 1L at the b .' _:: .lI" 1i'O'-' J! -'-3'8"" !.' ~.'a'ti o·~·n. -: '. IlL .. ... 1'.gJle.". .0'" '." . .I.t~: v ·0-' te .8:'._. _"'~' L ..the . an objective' development and also its origin in the hearts of individuals . e consciousness 0f:I: ..). _ ...n"'. lI!".' Kunst '('1:8.' •.f·" ..... B =".-.!.. -\. .i'. - A.~(~ --:'·l'~' 'o·····--·· ul'. fISeS-Q epIC 0-bi eglns tivity. _ -11..~ JS..__.~..~...tlc -.ra.g·c:_:. I '..d·: '.finiee =: the' particula r" (French translation in. . a n»: .--.g g.' .'.. t-'·-·. h dl Samuelt et at. -~ "~' '-j .~.'I ".t ~ ~ d h . Iii..J' ~.-but .n.. . 'Ii I I r- :.. '1 ~ f'-' aedvantage O'i~ d . '. • •J • .-.1..Y.~ .Ii' U '... -.::J. ___ _ ~_.~:ra."'!I!'II~ -e ~ ••. -./~'~!tl~." ":.1. ..'.···ii:'.t'· seouence _ ~"~-_ ~".ex.-~ .. ~'lil· 'a. in frag.' "".. " '~. drat 'i. • I. ..·.tl~C-$... . C' CiL. : :.~ R'..~Iec b~. .." ~.1.... ' '1-7:'6· '0-'· 11 ' . _'-: .P':-·. l.... .. '.tr!.cussed"In [h 'b 'k] ..~.' 4-5. value The . ~ ~ ..... . n:v~ 1. ~_' " " .. ['e. ~.'..I. J~ .uc Nan "C."'d' . dv -. :. and .--'-.1. '. "_ .- 1:9"7·:15")' . __ .-. .' H U' "U· __ .... L.e IcOo. ~~..:111.ism ..·W··-..."(.m··· '3/ -.ll _...' . epic poetry...'.1 .. ii'h ~-. _. ..• l~..p. .'i.:".J~ 1. _ .~'.d'~' posth 'U· ..o· ~·n..es 0" . . d ~ " .·-11C. ." . _. which we see in front. ii.{i'ttera. __~_~ .~_.· .I.~ _ ~ . -'1IIIiiiiiiI .l re fotnan:tism e III Iiemand [Paris: Seuil.'-.: . .. .y.not... ._ U ill to the . ." "1. ...]!1 ..~ 'W'".•ut P~arttl Y'~'m c.o •. at te rn '.':-.. ·t----·' ...~ .:-:0.~" 0 rs.42 "d .. .ivit " t ~t t -~~ ". 'PhiIippe Lacoue-Labart he anndjean .!I!.lous [[" .:". its Copy" 'gh ted m a1. .1L a u...: 1'11'11 " -e- -... I' '" _ ~'_'.... .~ '-. 'V~ '['.Jgr '_.:".". '-I:"':: ~ ~ ':. _ '..' • '..~. . .' ~--ari n~I'. ' ram.--'~ " .. :'~-1 2~' d ~-lC'..'f' tne ··egllnn'i.... . incidenta '1Iy..tlji V'O.. .' I' iii iii·. "'11 d~ ik '11 .'. h.' -. . ... ' _ order (Schellinc's_ then.··O-' ".. .-~" ·"I·''''. n' 0' t'e"" A:'·'.re of He. '.....~ -c··ll-d':' ~ "e 'IF: ren.ilor.'r'l·. . .d~ ".. . . __ . . ie c: t....-·· na.' . _ ' • .. . :6 _-' ~.OU . .:'-. ....'conc..~..fen on p...~ .rm s: ~r-. :.. then. ~. ~"9·· ~ ." " "-" [.a. .IICtn s ._' .1s.. 't...· . .. ~ ""'wID..IS .' c..'f. _ I 'I I . .J! . ~ __ _ _ ~ _ 3d ed. thea .. " . '__ '" L . n· .. . n.4".....: ' .:!. . (A A.:·o.'L1eI.-<2···~·~7·····. ·d--'~~· 1:0 . I. .lJJ1I_: . .. rousing. erses the . .'.

e·. ~ ..h" vthmi .... A~:iIi1..· nd intangible esthetic life.~" 1_ .. ....' SO t() Spea. ..:~ \ " 'g'" :'·:_.. .n ~I P~'OI'~ ic'.' 'T"h'. ..es a"bro .. . ."".. __ .I.' which h .. .~.aut.- . -" . novel.. . 1[ ..rgmanc wo rxs or .' .. .. .e a 'i r . '" _ .··.._ '·0·" :tl ': .. on ~.. '0"'" "w·· J~. U .11._ ..·""IC"~I'~' ..Ii .' 'O:!! >.'j!Jd.llj· establish ..t11·· .w" . '-'1' ~:.- "1 : .: . .c: ....'.:....aEC~.r'.... . ... iii' .. "'1'1'1" 1'-"'" '. Iu ho d': elib "c. '_' ... . .•.··p'·.that is more a.seJJ·~ ~Le rh . ..' ..t. n ei d~ iachrony '."" .". "1 II.the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. For :i'nS·ao nee t to -H'"_'_". I_ .46~ Preface: ·to C:ro'. "1'. ~ . ~\ .e 1. The.:"~t. .·j·. .. when..ad'· atec ... .. ·I··_.:. a. -.""" .'... . ~. •• . e 1 .. . '''.:__:." '-'1"" ..fP'. ' "'OJ'!l.rag'le:dy) hich it 'm" st em~~·ral...· lam rbent ·n-:'a. w hich crystallizes into the phenomenology of ._~:.f.: 'I: ':". themselves ex.:. '~'~'-:=- ~. --:I"r' _.._Q.··"· •• _:_:..-. ~... _. " rrr u'_.'. '.'I:Ii '. f d ."'_l'~1 -~_ .. . .':' ..-:.:'ree_:~ '. already encountered. -I~ .Ii°S····IU··'P··· slope '$'''''''0'· "T'(--h. 1.h r and O~ a mood and then ..iiiii ..fr'b..cria . ·G··· '~....··H.c'."".r P :11.. ~" ....· or tne artist. "b-~. ific ' so·:·'m··I·e:.na up" ~the .ii.te 11u' . 'i icisrn is the utterance of primeval 'rimes. at rirst a cry or ... " . .. phane ~.~..':_ _ S'r '. existence."'il ~i .h..' ._~c H.. epical event.. 'I . .. " ..u/uea roun d eac..~U.'i.0' .:_: .·.'. ..: .cs 'G~ -..--0. . .··"r'·_· -. when "man awakens into ·3 world rh at has.. ra ..' ernonon. .• '.1 ... I_IS nas noweo I anc e. . .r"·-r~:"III. ' '~'~'cC"""-~'" '.".·~' .'n. body'..... \. ..".of an...ru. 0..t.827). u·~..&. .1 '. ..""'t.1"'. t .. The a ... ....JJ. .•. ".• . .. troduai ~I"JI" A~ I.. : _ . . .· '~ .· . '~'I1"d" ar ·~... lSeS ~..~·.·· ..~_~_""Iu. .'~ ): Sh'"kesee:.> ode.~c -.· ca 1.I·:..iI.:·:·:"".·._..: ".·····.""""r· VV 1". P. ...n·J·~6""'1'!!!'~·~ '" risto ~t . artist p··..i!.h person 6····~·'1'1 every person 'with such vital force that he or she assumes a ... .r.~ __ !l.. .:. r. simples t ve r-b'3..!I..~ ~.. '~"'f.. v ves "~. marked by Christianity and the sundering of . ..:.e _" . 0..'...' 1 ~...'. ... .&.. .'-:C'.• '." _~ ".··.·.y. . lyrical form is_ in £~IC [I': 1. just :s:p..":= -. a ". Greek .K . ~..... :~.:::'. .'-V··71~~ fIna }'y rennes userI' f" '. ...~I_I1.y~ is the utterance 'of ancient times.·. ~.e dramatic form is reached when the 'vitality. the oar or drag ··'·g··...3 fluid a.• 11.d .e :"1·'····.. ._..ddi ed . " . · .r~-.I.'._. ancient comedy..hi""..mweU (1.. . 1.'k -.. d __.t'VJ~IIi~""L~ .e sim plest ~pical f~rmiss~~~ "emer._' I'''_' " : 1'1' " '.- rea] content._~_"_ .. cac ence tty r-."''''-"'' enic . . aO'es ago 0 cheered on the man who pulled at _~ .il"l..(.ing .." - . ...-..~ .·. .OES: (.~ '. however. . cry rnymrmcar such as. . 11.I': !\I.·:'it .~" " . -.on e .<..~ .'1 d fl'ro m some pa.·_·}..'. :...~~~ lyrical erasure when th. th a·'~ .'.[. ~' '..3. "everything comes to a complete srands till' '.p:ro:per.······ ~·II·:····- "1 ... .rolon gs· an d broods 5 i p.I. '.'d. lIi'U'i!! "'. ·'~. L ...~~eartIst.'""and soul.' .. .•. '0· •.t.. ...". . l. lit- = _~ . modern tragedy).~ ". 1 . tragedy.-. son 0".'. _..•. genres .. !.. U.. .' ..t .. " f···· ~ '.' ..} f...I... and drama is the utterance of modern times.'c'.·IJtel:"'H.._..'~ I' :1'1' fIJ. ..G'-.1'. s.. ""'-'... .'C"Ii-.'.'~.." Tojoyce whom we fia V ~... 'impersonar .:" '~""" 'j" ".'_. '".. be a'dded '~<I. .AI.'.."-.'··k~".·.-~.. ·IIit·dA' ....n. . "t·· or oti ture 0 msrant .lUll .- .' dl .e ep ieal (".A '" . .~ ..it. . · k triaPOI. out'.~_~_~~ __ .U: 43 It is. _~ ~u!."I"'" ..0.persona..~ Copy" 'gh ted m a1._ .·'·e~·d·" n ("..·o····eii"h. Schelling's sequence that holds the le'ad :in.Ct ~.r!ll.:. himself as the cent:re' of an. '.. ~ '_. ".'...'Th._ J' ..""" 1_ =\0... .'.II!. '.. .I.:_..1.lomeric ""'-'".-' '. ..01 ...·.~ :._. ··:...':1 < .' _ =~ c~.···. .

indifferent. _ ...".0 this seductiveness.. ..-'~gr.-.o.k I{Zu rich: .. '. _ .. d -!i.. _ .' I' - .ls ' '~'" ''''.-'-":'.~gr. mtercr an...h .S.lffede.m thte sp. invisible.1. within or behind or heyond or above his handiwork.' G. '...a: receptive ·[-'0'-'-' an' 'v' of __ form mea ning at .._ WO-U. Ponrait of' the A'rtJst'~ 21-4. ... Po..·:dlJ.1111-·n.·· / .' . __ .._JI! ..~ trans .' th -. lyric rh. transition . .I_-:t.. " mat . _-'_'_'.y _.'I.as. 47 * .. --. 'boe . 11·-:_~ objectivity. .:I '. refined out of existence. -". ---~-'-J' . '..I!-Jb-.1.. _ _ =...ung) marks a.-·-1' .' I 1!.Il ~..r this taxonomic kaleidoscope in which the 't010._.:' .mspiranon .P"P ..l..morph ~ thro .pOln.~-.....ar.""_... I..II' =- .IL.·.'--. fro.Illd.. '..!!' in ()':'ob scrvation ._-. -.11-'- . =_ .'. :.'-'h ere-'..I.. "~ ... iii 11.J_ •• ~' •••• ' 1..~._.." .lon...-' .~~ ~=.." .-I.[I . tr ~. £.-'." _- . . bie attrr ... . . l' • " l.)..···I _ _~ . ect: < l" 0" "I.Janette C ~Hu ds on and Luanne T. [' :0_" .'. . =. __ .1-..."_-:. nd others.... 'with no trace of an "overthrowing of rb e --..= _' ".:_-" ".~' "... -T-'.'.of progressi ve dis sociariou bet ween "subj ect" and .C!! .I." ... .-.. .' -. tor w.. _. .] 5. -"""_ .."' I' '...' ~" e ".-.:--'~:~:.' r. the m 0-'.on y a nnear .J! ·:'t- . '. E.owara ad u.i3'C.---'. the crest of dubious reckonings (1...~.1'1'1. ·lIlk:_"..~ -'.."-.~ 1".e~~u . JL ~" ':. 946).""~:s--. ·1--·t ern has entirely 1]0' "'5(-0 its "diale ctica ..a. "panora rna" ..1-'..1.fHt_ to epic '~':t or -- - " .' '.. "hth pro.. ' . "'[oJ 11. _ ..-.-. 'f" -' ..:'.-··I-I·'-'. _ _. . l~. <:'eductive P attern v= the ~ 'ir:ria··:id·''*9':_. .na.us.._"_ - _...-:'. mctoenta 1. '1i.'..I... '::It-:t"--:I'b.·:·. ·c·::· a .y...ro~.-.. ' (Spa't1n.u:e. '~._--: i. surviving on.~ aect.: ' sosing ...:. I l!" • (. r .ss~ 't~O :\vax .. aavancemennt__ :. "1.48~ G'rundb.1 ~" .' about ~ ~ " ..." .eti.:' 1.. .c.I!.. me.~. Ji.ulVOCtl. '-:J'--.' J '.II..-··· . '. _. Ull.P'oe. n' Copy" 'gh ted m ater] a ..-". __ -- . a. -: e a.991)'.~~~en.:" .I . 49...- .:-. .1...wh=0 m rr ."::. '.t"1 -:···._..) and then to dramatic . '.ana . .. .._.. .. yrlC._ .. .-:-'.."'.-"'\. . ". _' \'_': ... -..::- R..1Y..j..... .' ses.:g '" end . Ic.·..!."C same. .. == __ .:_ lyric cry [:'0 the godlike impers 0'1.'.gea . : =. Frank (Universi t~y'Pa:r:k: Penn Sta te Press".44 of the' creation. ~ .1 .. .~'b1 ectivity" must perforce be as sie n. 110te) ide .t-· "sub Itriective" rno de ~'IC rhen .0' one can be: certain which genre' historically preceded the ... remains. ""'.. . iUbers ell au..'-"::".e :~-.ry p:atL '. ... -.1'.tJi'(:s. -' -.3lity 0 f drama there is ': .:.c_ .c. _ .~":. cf Gu.'..".L.~ .'.b . tle '. rd now ·. or .neq." ' 'Le-. "'~8: 01b .."e.t ie evotu t-l.iUcrt~1 "Literature as System ...s.. _ __ _ __ _.1\. " :·0.n the hardlx ly surpr._.--.1..t-h-'_'ne con.. Su..Basj'e C ou cepts ..:: . . . :·':':'-:·~C" -"~'I]-I advar . . I.e ra to:.. " _'/ ~1Ir.:G.e . '.:11...c_1.ve.d 'to O . 'paring: his fln.:1. """~. .': -:-.- .. 0. '--... ~---_ gne_ ...__ that such a..'..m s tal ger. . . . ~ . _-". jntei "hire --' •.A rlan tis.Ji. tc.:.gernails .". sustained process ofobjectivization...:tension ..: '_'-_. . Ironl. question_ _ can_ be_ asked) a...~~ .

find.I~ --~=.. ~. .window may .. 'ro---... I '! .. h ki d .. are con S'I"[..ere ~.~~~.a ~ D . .. deduces.'..-. occupant.-~ .and.V.' :. .cisely W' -'n-. -.' '. Jess-e-quire the contrary .·· "I ".XJen.--~".3.~I'n-'c.1'1. :"~l " :-.3 genre of extroverted-in teUe'ct:uat ficcion tha t he chris tens ~JtJatom. the__ existence o-f ai.45 one [of the other two.• they are taken as such. not.e!li _~ ~ ""' __ ..:. 1 J' J' ." ~."_ I •.' . The 'whole history of rhe theory of . ...-~ . Iow narrative that .--"b. Petronius..]1.3. ~ .atural..:11 '..~.111 .. of a._'.r::. much later.".•. '----W'":.'..~1iS··'iI". I [I.1:.are 0.-' I I '1.ce '~O'-I:[-' t.. I~ - ..1 ". .~.~:-" • . 'by implicie-eor explicio+respecr for the.1.p'uleiu:s..~ Prye. p"'. .e) e-'xtro 'Va.·.'·'r'-o.." linear [0[' dialectical..~n.. r. f verted '... ~ _.. ~~.. .-[.ii'. istence =~~= .r)'·e' 'o--n'' al1 (the .•.' . necessa rH:y' going to the one that is left.' ~ . Varro.. high 'narrative. .'n'::""_'-.... "-. with these fascinating patterns that inform and deform the ofeen rrregular' reality of the literary field-e-pattcrns whose designers claim to have discovered a n.·11..~. '~'.I..ill.cri a . •• ~ ~"t ~1I!ri II . the choice remains basi.. they ofte S'\.•...!Ij._f.JJd_I Copyr 'gh ted m a1. IA '._. " '~ ".'''''''': '16-'1. A.' e exi _C··....." and a Iow drama.'...genres is imprinted... . n . :.. ~.. 'p-' . ro. through abhorrence of a vacuu . ..~ 1I.1 . realis .1 i.. .C""'C. ' "..I! -'-o'.I. \o __ ~_ _ A . Whe:n Aristocle. little does he know hte . the false..~)". !IIi..'.ted!.. Rabelais...IL " ]. .I~~·11.IJ\ir.. I . .l .~[. Swift.. -he CII.. __ __ __ _ _ __ he sionally identifies with the parodic epic. ..II . and p··. Burton. These strained configurati ons ....1iQ_. gitimare .• ~ I ·.." .a.. .'r"s--' 0-. such . il.tic 'In" '#iII:1: en he ov I......~. taste for m balance. _: II].~ 0. 1_0.p...:m-.. another great craftsman [of fearful symmetries.-_ .." ".. . '11'] '1 .-:J. le.."'P--'>'Ii'' C. telle ctu al (the in confessjcnr-e-and deduces the' existence of . ~ ..'._.~._ ~ II!J. ._ [I IL ~'. ~ they "'".. cally' deter milled.' [.:'.value... Ill.. 1 false windows.'.r and.I ~~-~_ ".. . [II ':1 '..oiorina the' Ie ..:'Y":0-: f '~ .1.. d~.j: . : I j ."\ :'. that draws together and promotes some misfits of allegorical-fantastic narration. (the realis tiC' novel] " and in troverred .: I. I J. I U-' .. Like all provisional classifiest ~_. with the middle term._ .:..'.. - '_ ...' ... -=.":. .port any claim ..: but because here rio evi.. '..... a."._ _.... f"I trrree em ::~.!.C..." -I: ."_'" ..~. iii _ __ _ ~ __ _ _~ . '-. the' slot lefi empty OIl' Iaborio usl y filled rna y. Q a" plat .'~ " . I' ...:. ··--. In any given case. inhering in "progress. "'[ ._' ~ll---'\.1 .•.. '. a high drama.cf. true light and revea] the' importance of an unappreciated term.' .".IIir.~t. < }'.[. "system:. .. " -.\_~t': _~~C __ ~__ _~ __~ _ ~~O __1 deuce can su.I... ''in "11"·5" .1. -... titious svm une erv with th ~ help of copious sup "p-.s Lucian.ope~nonto '3. . :.----.:" . .-'..~ savin.:_ 11 11' . : ' ·e' ".._" J . in. ~ •• ~ ~~ ... unquestionable heuristic fu~n crion.0'[ always 'use. [I[ J a..'..cting :~l .rIve ions wid ed ~ __ __''''_~_ " _ell I:P' _ e an..

'1.111.-1.. _ ..·"t'· ..:.f(.. ..o._' ~. numeric..art: 0:f' tne sU:igenres '0'f'.o.m"-'"r. ..'1' .~ ~ _~II!.cc~.' t': I' . l ~.:.......: . ce.efe:rred.1 I" :.. 4if"\J 'T.- "l~' ..~ .·'-··Im. I •• ." I.·. "-r lh V.. .!I '_.rren.. ..._. ". Jl. Il '-"" . I ".. an.'..~~I.' ":: .- I . 50~ ..· b 'pas. r Ir 1 l. ~... "_. .n..-...' genre '. ' '. .~.'-'.obson~ "Randbemerkungen _.. . '-'1 " . .-'. .we .rue :f.~.p. ··.'...._.!t~'il-~ .tt· -'. _ .. I' -'" by Austin W-~····'··a·-\r.• I Re 'W '.e-en ..e'. '.. ._. mentioned s ~\ .".... '("~'8113' ·-l. _. .t.·~.. .lOW mimenc.' - ']1"':::' . ad :..' h h :--.:' ".' w··. "" . ·11.etry· (1920)~Roman Jak.· .:.'.~.. .. ::- I..-ave a h d . 1.Auatot. u'G':'-~ enre 'TC-: -L. . :.'\r.".i a:n._.. b h "'0'" c'o'm"-p'-a"--e nine S'UC~~. .v'· _. "..Robert Scholes.i'tenuure-1935). £Ii. E"i'D .· . ._. .. "modes" '(. :. tl.' :.~.~."." :'·m....schu. .."1 . .·. t ! ... -I' =-. QI _ __.[.S O~' ~ hi '1breanh takin . y.' ~.~ '''..it£. S.c'ge-'1. Kunst (1.. h rave.. OJ... ~_.·e··e:nl...a. ' '.r:e:. h.:- "-it' ---._[. von Humboldt....:he ::::1's · t·t john • [.g·-iin'· )"."c' der )\$'-' :!It 1-'1" L...N··"..' .. __ . ..i k· (1946) .•.'. r-i .. .r in· triad ..~.1.I!J! '. ..... 1(1- ....::..tur._ .ny.. "ae . (:' \r..6·":·.: ·~·~W·~··O:: doub 1.. l[O. :' '1'.n... .iL ' '"' . '. 'Va -.h la. JL ... . ___.·.. -bot... .~. th .p .. .ime · k llng I.re·" There .1 .O giv e it . _' ~..··e~' W~e"~Jl .vthr r .2:1136-a bout '1. 1_ . ..-.... l ".. 11.'hich ...' _.lu-:. perhaps.ry.'-' . Ph..(. ose m.Grun'dbegr:ifff! der Poet. pFesell~.-.- ~ " ...•...'ib".r·y· cha rts. ..' '. I ha .ti . ~. the hIlg...m y aoap J.-:: .tle.. ..cri a . .e of wh .._...."" Hoe:...... ·b··· It····we ..: uu .rD..".ak.~1:. l~ _~.. I('V-:~'O'" ._... onlv some . J. 1~·kl·:5(2A:··. ' :. ·.. :-"'[-"'" :... ..mc..~"in unR"lage 1'. " ....1'." Va.n.' ""-. . . 'that of the three aspects of Sterne .. 303...n. 1 '. ._.ry 'G< en:res . --. oubt b._= y _~ .. ..." I ._~~ .r '...". "' ~~U' 'I!'" _.'J'" l~. ·W'ilhelnl.'.. .g 'r'rye. d'..802-1805).. ."C( .nyc fo'I:···· ietic ~. ..1 ...· can no··. t~let!lK.... d e not rhe benefit that accrues. nere h: will1 suffice W .' : iah i' :•.$' of p~.a. )'" .... th .. :0 allas.. '._..'£I. ' ' . ch r.~.a···n...... challenged bu .-l '_ . _T~eju.. . ../.n.'1.. '_.ne. ".. .3. an "..t-:-h' ~:~'11 'ProsJe of the 'Poet ·Pa..'._::_:A. 51~ Sltnlc.o.. Schelling.1. anorher venerable trio.. .th ~ '~==~r'" ~.u.U . Fri edrich Theod 0····[· V.4 .. theeory or '1t:1r-·-·: .J: :". r '.. '_'·I<·' . ~~.g-~J o:.any perrormances One . E. l'. "'i'~"'-: " nave~ eva ·'k.. 'WI k " ~.s.r... .bu ·t' endur.'J- ".d..IIir. '.51 'we: no._. ' ..'!' 'I I'·' :-: ' 1 it' .l..r tr " 0. ·. .-..52}.ilosopn"i.._.im i'n'.' ·.' . 'Pa.'. 1 _'.." L. ~"['~ ~~ll.--.nge'1Z' ..m i tJ: Literature. harder time drawing no insciration from it" The: same is .' '.of the triad's most curious performances.11 .Js.~ -.g_.1][ . 'n" "-'. .. 1Lc'" 0. u ' 52 W~ ..820).'-."...e·' .. est: sencs.' I".. "" ~ll.a Us...··ar':'·." 'W.~~. A·..c .'·lS 1. ._~ .':h-: . ..u..flo· . UL"'t' The texts r.. 'H'"'.: g· b ficti d 1.I"-. . Poetia (1S.···'y':' .~~][. ...'" . .. .:-..[1] ".he. '..lel·..·h' des _ uers P'a··~·ti'ern3'kl!t :('IilI!. ._. '..._. . a[ ]I " I :0:·:' " • ~ ...e de". ~ ". . S of me ave mo _.S-::IO. "'''' "I"". . ..narc t reir necessary evoiunon. 'm ..1116.. t'.staiger l ....~"" . ..=. 'I II • ..~ ch er.' ~.·.·M··. '. even . __ c. ...."iI" ' d ·Fo"~''''·-i-·-'·-':....e·d.1...~ '. "" ·IL. me . ~ - I~.~ J:5<:":t.ea:c '1' tense eacr aurnor attrroutee ·d-l . .' _...··· :~....l~"' m "_._. ..··):· 'E)·r·s::k·l'. '1"':")' mance. -. " '.eo..'[ th c·:O· narison f"o)::'r ·f..~ ~~. ". Copyr 'gh ted m a1.~ o •..'c :ellY neera '1'1''... .···s. cKi'id:... ·'T:h first shows'. .. . ..29·-38. '-'1 ~._. . ·'T. .' I nere.'.:.. CQlm. ('A" : 'st. _. 5U.. ~" '.·n.. Jean...r_ rune "'--"1 :.:.e cuu.'5-.0·. '11:'t'_.'lir... __ ~' .. ." ·"'iI'V·'''C.... --'--!I' s ~U.JI:~ __ Prosa u' '_ DI'j1c. _.-' ch a. ".'~. c. I offe'.. ~..-~b a "f:1'O· . : " .I''::':~ ...·. offers ~U-. ~lrv~' iew .·· I -'··r. . II.er..._ .. tIber' Goethes Hermann uud' Dorothea (17'99)1. . to are the folIo-wing:.A-' rcmtexs the procedu Ire·.rt: .. A···. .~..>"t-l~_-..rderly newh a '"~ more arrancemenr. .' _!L....5 i'l8-. consists of the various attempts made' ['0 pair 'it with. ..'... ._.' "-. ' __ ~" _."'. FO . ' "" . . w..::em.... ".. ..' ncnon ane ~ 'L th .: ' ...' . 1 .'._ exam tple..' ···1···..1'· ..' r..er:a.

-::plca 'I E._ .. -.adab men .• ' _'. 1itI IIirlIll II I . .Drama... enrirery with the 1yr-._~-_.-:'..' 'J .·. G "I Ii 1 I.1l. -raractensncs are C ear: th e ar rr _.l).'ii.-.".L.("''-' t'.. ical ..~e:L.1__ ..•• :c"I':": .~ ~Ar' . _._"" 11_ 1 ':t: '-"[r·I~.num ier 0. :.. me.' 'I~ • I II " [:__. __ .l.I. ..3tio . ' Ir. ~I~I "_". ~. i 1.aUas.IlY "pasr" In snbi ~.-\ "... _. _. .. __ I ' _-="_" . " _. '" .~.. "V"~ -.t. :. be. ...a·· ar 'H~ u m bold..1 (past) with the tragic I(presen:£) within.=.'i1'.t p:re:sent..' ..ra '..--V·~·.> ".. " .• t:1"'3 V.n t .•.I' 1 I.I. t.·.. • fi rs t.I.cria . _\ .J' ..ves t.) '.d· H-m-':_-".".'.''.. I I ' D... ... "a~."'~" 'if".[ i'CI b······ of Ir i . a... I._.1'1"" !'-- A I" ._.. . i.. to I(omp ete in '3" snnuar way ..'. _ ~ -'1_" I~' =. •.t 'he designates . '.. two C._ -._.~ ~ I' !il Y. " ~_. '.an d. "1:. present --' S'.'r"'~~~n". 1: - -+ -~:\·::·r·.' e names . 'Iv._" '11'1 :'. ..C "gel' ' . .l 1. _.n his nam e the ~'[" u _ _ . U--I!f" [-'...I.. ~'>'!>">'-:I ch'" f' -b' .1'" t" ".'...1 .. " ' . . .. '.auuh ..' _ u .·. I I~ "'i . .__ r form a.~ 1_.' I '3" '~'~'.o' ".· "'past II " Dramatic _ .' ' _ •' _-.---:• Copy" 'gh ted m a1... r· I .n._IL".._" __.'. -" . '...ati2e.'-'. d" ms th . _ ·~I .: ).fieacr.~:. I' . ~ .11 _' ... It·· -')1 .unurec reie _ance 'was attributed successively to each of the three zenres..' I .:._ miry sensed 'between epic and the past and between lyric' and. ery tense'.C' '''" '. . .ul I -H'. fu it' ire l't-)_'"""_:"!.e-.::_.. .th 'I. 1 '. - :-1' "'V'I: "._ ""1 'W' .. .0'. 1:"'. " _ ....'··c·c·" .11.'· .I . ". _. past . :fCp.. .. d t·.' ""':~'. .:'[ '-. . .'.'.': .. ired '..-Ce'.'- '-". .... Jl~...'.".[II. : mb -..~I ..'_. ~ su .. b o·...'"J. I ."' .. ·ffi·-'-=-- :".. _". .1 1 .' h '.<· -I: .".... 1 ~J ••• ""' . •••• "~ ••• J."1.-'' i'd· .._. . _.... ...'W._.I~ IL~ ..:..'.pl(lS'ti'(' and con trssts in its. .. "'-..·~lrc·:h···... jakobson..'.. ano .".l.~.-' ." "...1. a:b.. ".'. . II present Schelling Jean P. ·p~·.~ is on the 'W hole rather com . uticul ..__:..".'.." .I .1L~ lists are dlefective. ".a.u. .I:IV.As. _' _ .' rer.. ]: .... '-Ience '1" . I . eo ··n·.note.r~". '.. . . 'I~" .c. valier ~ _ ~ "__ . r·.... II I . ·:1" ..::-~'.' .•. gi yen the temptarion to s:yste:m. 'ld.·._" obviously "present" in 1'. (clearly j ust 3" different presentation of [hie' '-'h' ...vrrcar'1.·I~_· - -)" I::'.1. .· . th':~" V \[1\.. " 1 . sus th e eeieal . . past future past '" 6u'€u're past Jakobson Staiger I'- I a P· st - present tutu re The second..'I fl' uture.': . "1.J 1Iir. .reSe~n. some 0'.' 1 " '." 'I ..3l. nors f"' 1".1.. '" .. . ~_n.' u~ du 'c-.-i: . . _ ".~~. ' "~ . lSC. ." .!! -P'ne ":11.: .' :'.C'1j Ion. . . ol .' .':- II.. l_ '5::1:. .~~~ " ..':' ~. IiI.". '[0 note simpry"'. .-~.~ - - -- i_ .1' ....1l '__ '_ ( . .'.·C'...r_"\..' ~'\r~'IiIr. 'o...1' 1'1 .' _--'I" . th e .. equIV3. .'. 'p. e 0.IJI'_' wo .:' o... n.'. -.1.~ :! I present '......47 I I I L' . tn __e..er .O·".-" illus Ira ting each 0 f these attri butions (see next page).. and Schelling. ..m ~'J. ~'1 the divisions' made by' Heeel..1.' ' ."1 "1 .lyr. .. ha .broader catego:ry dla. .: . 'with the famous "color of the' vowels it would .. .gl._.'.:..".. I".....

-.~ ... ..":'d"0 \V~ th .-.. ~ 'S--' ~. I." ~ . -:--_g. ...1II .em.: .ence"th. 1 '.L~::_~_ ".ld .c-'-_.' um.' .-.ptatlol~ [..'...c. ._."<'1 -.._.03_ _ :IJaJlas !I.g.0 atrrm __ it to a tne ". sop.- the dram "t. 'Iir~=.~ ::' -:.l . Ers k.l.. :. '..' .. ~_ ~ _~]~I' .er :'':' uiv. "e:q-c rivale " .: .n Pa. '.···'~scuer ...-. -I ... '-... _. U ._-. vith er e '-1-'..' .J~ _.]'"It "nnxe d or vsyntnenc 13. --:-.jlu -.11-:.__ '..w iat do0 we_.- .. creating . every time !54. ~l "IL~'_ . an _. .geFures an··d-I_ ~~ "UO :".I\.ger' ----~ remained harder to.'-_ l'-'ll . 'i_ _...5 genre W.:. -' and s.·14 A.." ~ \.1=.-·:t·-·-OC""::P-I there.. _. .'-'":...-: -. be.]... tibl -"'-.~t 'V'" L 'D" . ·..' Jean P'aul..---I-"'~"·.·:'1 Ja.a~. : -e".:..:'.. Un fortunately a third tense existed.ewn..-I' . ~ .'...' . 'VY.!iii]. 'i!' .i. __ ' _ . .kobson I Vischer :1 Dramatic l Erskine 'IH'__I ...c-:·'. ..-':'''::' I' -.-..·C..48 Presernr-: ..l .11.1II l~ . CiI~·. ._ .e~' . - .istic. --.. ~. " . h-:..1. }.:: _"...(..C cies..-._1.r _"n~. th '. -' - -' -.A. _ \ ..'. T11l'. two or three ... !IIir. : Jean Pa..' i -' 5. ~ .. ~~llt.n·d 'rca: me II "11 and I the future as well as._.-_ [ -'..... _ _" . match tlP~ The wisest course would .n __._ ]".i.. -:: .·-····rcl"'~1lJllt·~."'~ 'Iiir'llr.·.~_ '.."_ . .I "l:-C~/-' I '.le A' . '-"'-111 :-".'!i. .. ' hetic" perhaps h have b been tlO '~b.r '.l .enc:et. !IiI "":_'.' Vl S~ on IS second-person singular. rhar '.'1"'-' . _ \".. " Copy" 'gh ted m ater] a .:-..'[__ .! . stramed .. 'd... '1'- :'." 'J-".. ]~ . i ' ~. to' . ·0.. .e tw "-'e·p..!I~ III C. diverging on tenses) '-a"0'-Ae'~.u~ ': H'.a" .!1'J!\Llll'.".. ·l .:~h·.lIt.':"1 .... '..:. ...:}..ih.g..~.r~I .. .e 'c'--..--.ra mati cal :persons" has b een proposed.···...:. Lyrical Schelling Hegel Vischer 5 ig·_-.rrresistrme [.-VIn .~-~ .. '.'lL. '-' ·t· _.A..":. V~. "U..I>~L ias Stai '_ ta.:J. Schel ling. . Dallas adds.n ....~..~... el II .eqUl . '" .. ecuates .l1'C jako bson Humboldt .. .-' .a. -.-: -.--.'I ... ':·z.It---. ':rIO b .13. . '. ..-- - -- -- - ~~ - - i .r.'~ JI]~ . . -\ .'.o.:::L•.r.- '" . ' I. _..i..)1...w.n] '.. '. '.rs k. >:"'1"- 1 :- :':'''C·.:I.'raute ...: t .. = - " -- - - - . '.'_-'. ~ .:li.'::_.-:.\ ~. :.e som.~ ~ U'A'-- ~>~~ Jlb~"r .ILIi. . [)aJlas E.. ... .~_t.. quite logically.urair ram y m[rlguln._.Ie..Ul. . A··"··· ---".· -'1'-' nd Oller "".__ OL~_ b-'1tW'. P '\...atrriburing the first-person singular to the lyrical and the thirdperson s:ing:ular' to the epical.ral? . -' " '~'h'li'I\}le 5 e· __een.-.. '. I --'.-:·ne can i'i[ ..-'..1 the T1. '---':"-._.. iii .-'~ . at leasr by Dallas m and ja ko bson who (alrb·'o·'-u·O'. .--' rl ..[.nboldt Je.' . t~] 11..-...-." .rme..c' di. ~I... 11 _ .'11.

.H'~'U J._. .nlz.lp.e'.<.~ _ _ . Seui].[ u. II. needed.~.: _ _. .0" .lleas'ure Off""'jusntymg tt_al~numcb en ~ "'T'::.. .3~ ..' S.".'C-:k. d .'IF·--.u' one A' ·.-t-._ap. .r..ga."....._... W7-"1. -.. I .. v I -.)'._.. .~y" '.'.~e1<--...arie . _!L..1 I g'-e'-r... .are o._ is. ~ ~ . ....t.r..c ._ _-...~:.~see the "Note de red:iteur'~'in the' french translation.e·. J. " -- '-.. --:estem s Iike Arisrorle's -n_·i-~ the 'various Poetic eenres that .IY .]....301). ._JJj!L"~!ilI '1" I•.. . ~ll __-._.: .".' :S··. nd --. .'-..o-..-' -"-'-..:'-" "'--j'...1 . Ai-"n· :d'-"" jo lles .'S :S'Uf~P'es._ . • I 'h- '1-· =' _ _ _"_'_ . under the ly:r.. j'"....::...:· 0'-:-::[--' at 1in __ confused _~ . 6_ nr"".1.". '. u d': .ZfO'UC.. .. l..-:-.'[.·5~' .~ '_'._ undertakings ..' evok red " .t.. neither 'more nor fewer.. . comedy.. sy~~. '" '[ . 1._ _ .1. --.~ reast ... 19--· .... .= . 11 '5 ....lnc.: .·S··-.. .. i ..__. • "1- -)'-1 -"'i .lg..-.-.... .~."iIj' (..:OiU. ' lop-en uo us enu'I' meratronIn1'ike J-. 'C:.. .m _.··::t-: 3···.. '. "... bourgeois drama..".'11 l- .: under the dramatic went tragedy.~ .. 15:'5.. --.ll" I ..:. -. h...E....~' -.[.['. h mean the c. O-H 'H'" o·W" hard it .0 ._. 't.-' 'will find it..."""~ 1. y y.. .]. .~ ... ...lC ..-5. B--PC'''''~''t~'p h ~ roo.-'p. .r!i_ l~ ~~~ .._ . · :1-" ~l'r"-_..[ -. '. .'. ··.... :__ . . .' ..J~.' t.' .. is for 'us to admit that jolles simply found nine". .. J I _ I. - -. .". _ I _: 'I [j[ I _ ~ _ ~ ...72-' !J" ...".' . sic categories like' so many snbclas ses ·Under the epica] wen t epic.' . ~ the ".-..n. ..~. m A:·.. perversely. Batteux .-- - - 'II ~....~.. Copy" ·gh ted m a1. U'· nseemly..__n.again.. .. .-.-~ .constituted . ..the' terms of 'the' well-grounded trip ar ti tion.. trans.J ~ AII.... ". I · -'g" ot ..1. ... :-..--.Ul.~~.II '. ·I'-:~' .-·I'es "5 nine su"po .~n' zer (. •• " . '. far . sh..=~.~~ [Tu 'Ib.' I" ":.Q n-----' . _.. j'. '-" ': __ .. from I.ass:]"fj" 1. ... . 1.tl I..". .-~c.~I ...[-'ar. -' :".. _ . ..1...t~tl':Ul. 'I':' • I' '. .1.IC dl bv a.. _ .. ronfU. I~ excuse for these dubious_. A: ntoine B .~. : I.I~.. '1 ~'I" . 'I' t.r. ___ _ ..'.·. p'[.\.-c·.. ._' '.'O." _ I_ I.. correcrio m exerc-:1' ~'P'S. ' -:.. :~ '(-:.empiricism e ".sucn a CJl..:g'e.IL- .·' ax N·····I em'·'~Iy.... ".'" z.'. hierarchical _ .:1·. I c" -.~·:. Fi _j -. in the: fru stration we feel with 'an.__.-.".~l.. 19. __ ~ .. .. B--.r " =.-. [ II . ~ ing J.-.' -5·····:·. .Y·_.. ..'~.:[.".l. I .- --. l~lllir~ . '_' ..".0: ". 3-: . _~I!!.' ....--..".·. _..-" n:ns e .:.'.-:A...1:. "_" _" _. Nine simple forms? No kidding!" Like the' 'nine muses? Because of three times '~.0. as._J.. ~'h---" ':. 1.' ""Ol:'~. I.. .-..~'. . ..cri a .-:'.'..lLI.[. __ .:-y. novella etc .==~~ ')--.. corning nor his only merit. . _ IIir. · .I .= - -.uguetl.·. .j''''' '~~I~l". wiehin each of =. .plg'ram" ere."s.'._ .dIU.. ~ Q.! 1- . -:.. .U~'. 'il9-.J~ ...~.'1 II 'ill .. novel.1 -.--.. .3" ..1-...: --:~~ ~.'Ii." .!.". .any···· all-embracing... . r'Ufil' .r ee?.....'~' J' list .. h 11 -' lcaJ~ went ooe. etc. ~...... ~.ldC·:·I.. . ".. impiosed I '0' '.I .' " --..." .:..i'_'A-··..ut cation remains very elementary because.1':'. ' '. B(-'F) '. . .. Ir--' .. r 'I~. .:_'_ :'. _ --== -- - == .:1 the theorie I. t I~ ]'\r- . '~.. :"I~ 'l~l ·..m"i' _"..__ __ __.._1I. ... .e.-.'..'-:'an enumeration that is certainly neither his only short . 'SIOI m. M' .'" 1 ".r·C" ..-'~'.-.M~~. always as b···..__ ___. and scorned the facile=-by which I h 'I ~f" "..." .:.h "' di ib h iree b wit ". .. an !f .. .[~._'ymn..I... .:-: an ' T'·d' Iorov. tll~ o:Ji U di. '" 'VII ~ AI.. __.11. the partie1i]1 a: genres stil 11 com r together ~_= a ~ _ ~. . '.. c -.-..ai\...• " I._. . .. srrseone ... l.. .. . .' ' "". In-I~ M-..CiO··'"..'. . exception were mstnnutec d among the th ba.

nCf".:·. ~ I~"j..'..1. uiustranng ea en term witt'h lone.. uerarc 'I..C::r ]n. tor ..".~f'A~....If . 'i"'" "1_'1'·.:. '-H'i HI'-]]~t-'71 ..iQ.. c'~..~ ~~ -...lea.plc..-.._. _ -~ _ _ ~ I'~.l...' I' . .' .a[UC ."..I'~'.-.: . I .I.(:.. _~ ~ _ _ ~_ _ _ ~ _ ~~= '-'I-~'"'' I ..yrle-a"..~ >U . \ir...!.=-: '--'1 ': :'Ij"'-'-I" '!!_': -'1" :[-'_'. .._teature.~ ~ .'n u'f.itself is based.. -- ..: '.ca" lyrlca "~'.mIXC'.il 1 •• 57" Albert Leon Guera. :' ..l~~ long or "nrosaic" n.--....' D':"l·S·:·· '..[J~ I l.·'-l·.'.~ more rig' orous .. l. ~nx . '.']~ -'1.g~ th ~ rriad·! wi thin each :0:.. = It.." ..•• 1..'.~.J....~'...._ pure ano th . one s _~_e'". terms (Iike lyrical-epical and epical . r-hl"iiplre.r"" ~ on .on wh ich the.~.. '::. :\·..~ - 1'1 · rl. c.. ..r si m.'- . h '.k..".' th..O.ply:.' ._ J.f"i.:'i'_' '-.~:.. _" lyr cal...ac~.-. . . ·'~~I--' ..ee'l e. ...r!lr~ ~ \. ..-c e_Plca '1 d~-_-.. edy versus domestic comedy. .'.- _~_ ~ '--10·"::'-'8)' '1- O·.· ]/' G~"'.: .-. .:.A Midsummer Nig/l t's .-:..)' j I[.' p rosa..' . ··I'~' d-"' ~1(nO'If'tl" 2'-·d~..".~ ." "A:: ·t-. l.. ... '~" . t .- ll.0:-·:1: L'T1r~Q' :I "I'. __ ..s" [.:Ii' __ ._ : lJ' ~ I .. H"C "- ' . •._. . . '1e 0"f a.~ Ptefate to World L..• th ~'d istribu ~'~n .'."" = ~ .-:-.:.J~. ~ "~'~A - t_' S' Y' .. '--. ~-. -..T3~'e' U (... ry"''.....···:·" ". " -.d.'..~.I. rhe JnjenUJ or The ·L'Pof' I".····:".....1'"flngen. "~ .11"" ~. ._.~~.. VCll" '8:..er rlU ~..I~: p.-"..rC. .h at cxtenosdl rh = .'.__ J.".. f' urama . term.. -':. '~ -'-.) d.I unlike .._.I ._= mixee ~ A. ~'. : 1'-:-]' '1' I :-"" ""':'1 -" ..-."'... :1'1 t= -."~T·h~o [LI]!Iir.'.. Jl ".. ':-'I-"~ .ra.-' I -.. .f.~.J. for dramatic-epical.(..e. .I..r.3 n .e· I'· --. __ l ~l~"_ _ = ~ - .-' enr'fS.J.~:..' ~. sp.J (-'B"'-'~_']~'~~L-::.-.~. :.ecies.:.·-:=_.e..= ..itu:atu:r.t:=~<'.0 t' ies :. . 1.Jr" 5. .!. IIV ". Robert BrownII 'I 1.-.n~ntd'U'..~ . ~:h._... 'The' most common w'ay of doing this consists 'v'.3.[~ ." W".e . ..-' '::1 ". d"os0.-_ . .m ~. hieh ~ trag..ery .c" C:'."'_ :1. [ -~ . '..'.1i.l:..·' -:..H""" -.JUext Th-' A ~ J ~...'..or""iiI . .-' . orre D'c. E-'or oenerwise t he....:d~TU' ci n .---. 1':'(::- .S" cl_'.--.. \ . .~~ g. =c_:'. 0..l. . .' I " . '.[ [>.Y ~ ica-epicar.~'.: '.." C. -. .'t. 11 ~ secon da.d~1 three ed ·G·':-...JI : " ····f· 'So '~~'..-.L [!. .." .-".~b"0'1"1.~ ".-) . . _ •.O.1. ....r.. tor 1 ..~ .ramanc.:.J-' j~'_ tvaens liederr '0.Qm.JLlt.~b ..: ".~ ~ ~" -.[I.l" the 'b'~111~~. same prlllClp..nown to srx ~n.ng"t c.:"..k' ]0]..tramanc.H. [I~ ••.'H .~). J~.. .'·. .. ' -" ~.r '" '" taxonomy t.50 '...- '.-··!I. 1 ~' J..'.__ :. of r 1fI"~1'n~ :-. .'1 ~~..au:._ :::-<I'~': -:: : -.: 'IS 'I . ". I~ _ " I ..· ·1" : epl. '-i~ _.' 1. epic... ~..'. would '.). us.:'b-'.. I~ ' rripartitio. D'.~..rd. ..1".f' . P .. .. ~. the . .s.~._. epical.6"97" . "'~..e~aJj.:_~ . .. .. v L.~ ..-:--.".'I .-~ 1:'1'.. '~ .Iiii'.ow. heroic .. "_"" .'-=-~' .l.rl. ~''.~_.' 73-~"8:'''' '.':":'1""1'·..- ..~ " ..:-. '... Th _nus H· -iartmann proposes disti nsnnguist hi ~--:.. mverte d jni d: . .' .m..1.3~-7~--3'-"'8' 'C' -.~sa . .. = ~ ~ ~ ~ ~_ _ _. -.. ..[ '..C .' [... \. . !L" ' II.-ree..~ir'h~:· for dramatic .D.. 'l''''7i -ical-drama tic_:) e-P"ical-d ramatic:. '. " ..luue ~. . :·I.~t 56' " ._.. II Ily __ . " mg .~\ -1'::0"-' .S '"-~ the system __i.1 .dnl -~a_' ruc."~ un ''G."~ "10" vella r. ' ap.._.Uli:t~ows. ~'1 ''II '..~..••-~._.c. :'t= hie cfK=~"an. " - _.~. dramatic-epicaf'<-cwirh each of the nine' resulti).i' .' . __ ..li. nC... ne'.~. atic".-_j'.J. .3[:i.. -·:f.c" H'"i.. _ --.'... f Copy" 'gh ted m a1.u re epical " ."liiiiiiii' . for .' . i1'~.-~ .. pure d' '~'.. and so forth.".pu...:_-_ "...'>'..yrlca.J 'S:" 'h' ...:.~'I~U'~.' .f 1~ts tro .· u. .~-'~.1d~~Osop'lue_es-. .~: .lyrical) would be " d do 'W' .yr.'.!l~ ... . It'"' . .es"C-'. ·.~:-... i"''- '.. - .r ~ D. '.. .-' R:" .C:ll~ .(1:. ..rln... ~ '._..'-O':l- I'-I[:":"---:-'~"~-".es~ {."n who . un '.re terms._. .' C'" .~·l:- ~'I=- I --.' - _ •. . lyrical...C."-" ' :- ...r p>]l.(New' 'Y:.or· 111 ~ '... _ " ..aL~.·..'\.Ome[. ""-. -'.~"".'~ .' [-. 192~4)'"t. . P" ure d _... Jlyr.'i""'.cria . -: .'. ._o~_ys....'- ing classes obviously defined by one dominant and one _-. ~ "U?' Faerie Q'u.'~..er:arTSCr~eH r'.e l'~..' '--.._ T'hC"._. v"'"'... 'yl o· .a.. ts ann tne :'..:' I -':'1'"' '..."· ~ .versus .~'··l...: severa '1 eXlatmp.. ~C-~'o:" 19-'-40'.1' pure e. _ .:. '·d--..:- -'I'!" 1.I.:eal1!'.~'£. 'I '-' ... i t.~ OJ" N'~'~' "._-_. .· ..: ..- -: ~ :...0· f ..' 1iI.~arz. ('B' . l :"--~..' P':1' t hi prlnclp=c..~ S ._·o.)U. ".-:-:'1 ... 1·90·····n).'.-.'IIi] . 0' -'" .. . "f.~ J. ':~.--" 'LJtI".'".p.'-C"I~:S' = - = _.''~'.--.' . ..--. ·_'n~·c o he.c:" :~ .1·:-"t· "~~. . . lor C." M:"-' 1'_iere.< cu. 1 .:. ~. of differentiat . A.r- • - •• [.uen..u ~. one sometimes feels '[he_ need for . a...' .'7 ' . pure ryrica '}-. mn:e· t '0· .a.~ .'".! 'I----·-'-~· .---. c }I for 1Ir~' 11 LT"~" sense'~.-d~1 th Gern: .~ s ::".ry £.:.equlva!h ._.""II ·--·f' '.' o •• -"k" ..'t:f-'~. G--'-··~.' -.: -'1" ~.llrli'O L'I..."boert t.... A'"".R':-"l~t:iIJ'k.o..: .~ __'__ ' "' __ '" _.' " _.· ." fOlr ]yricai--d-ra:m.'ii --:." . _1IIr~ .al .run. .sentimental Il...ll~ a. "-1"-1 0 1- 1-' I -. i'. ...- '1-'" 'd' .'.'.e. . .nge He -::.. :-. anj' '... . IG·. '..:e short n -v L. i . 1:0.'-~:: 1 '{'I""'~ --...rers N~..7. "t.

J)._-: ..j D'" ..•..1-"" .I... -.. . ty b . . .i&ll:-t ~._.'iI : . "_'.'. :.. ..._'-'1. ~ - 1i.' ha ·d.I._lIIi.~·. wo . ·s·y:.... ).) .' 1S _.e .-..-~ ..I . th rorm 0' enuncianon or iii" prese:nta_lon .. ·..• ..I~~IIi.-:III • --' . ' .:..'dd.." }!l1 O·~t·h:'e·'!r.'f it ~. -.'_'=.7-·8..... __ .. )._~...r' .. '....~ . . :. __ - '_ _.e·. _'. .e '. 'with the' whole looping back on itself in a '.'lng...'\ ·t'h ..'--... equidistant from one another. -. ~_____ ___ ~ _ P. -I~ ·'1IIr·n--··:· i'e .:_ l~~::__~ .. [!"_""_'~'I.t nnod a tess I _l_·~ ~ .'= .._-'C'. '.._' ..1.. 'h-_. :'.. . I '."_ '.." .'....'_ot..a·".' . "_~: x·.-.. ~S". '\0.: d.e . .I!IIII!I' ...:l~ e eh·'-. .:~...IS SO '" .' '..le.:.. ("'~I" t~·'i..-stra tes rh existence ure r :.1 .g·· .: I. .and the a:m. -_.... a.. r.. 1IIr..le' (modal and/or ~..I..~_..r.e.!.. h ments 0.n.··.~. y.:0 .-'..... " t "e r "basi itud ('G--' d~' I t ... '" .L"-=-Le.. .3tntuc es . _!"'!l ~.. ae ::£.l·~·y· I.. _ .. "".. been proposed by G:"'-"'b...-~:.. _ . .... .&~~ .. . 2 tiplies the basic division ir also '-U'·n-dn 't'~1I1~1".~:'\r..... en . '_'_ ~ .'j nfii:h tu"1 in _I.l:.'(. .--~-~·i~· ens. ...:al"'.·lllo . .3 sort 0"C-' unnre . . .~ r _.~·.. i~ -}.. . . = _l __ .~I~'lS ioea orf .-~:ypes..' .. Copy" 'gh ted m a1......s -'-'-0:'.)"".'-.!!!!"!.1.It·.n_.c·m:t-.g :.._· can ~n turn . t· .y setung t. !iii.Ii . tc ."..Ii. Ii.-..d t. " .of.~ th ::e:..r.ceo :50.i...."cnres .. ""'&1.~.. sem nble exam P. t. '.. exem r ~ ·W·'O··' rks in which each elea '.'C"~" howe -·-··c··..ioU.._:'vlcrY'I..res had..-...~. Das sp. ffi" _ . _.-." .'11 £0'0-:' mpletely .(:' .... '19-4··0'-: . IS W _.·. H· r' _W' e· find 'b·-b "h" ·trIa.-: -. wev r...l •• _ _ '.'.i-· 'I "I"I'''~: '.' -"~'~'is based on 3'D apparently'..51..cria ._...'l·<I·'·< I·:. b id dO' '.. ' . _. - ""':' ··'~'·'I""'·~··_·>.o.--..: .....·.~..main . 0-:.....'J d ... . ~i.u.. . ... 0. _ ...~~...--' .·o··.. .--I..! .:-.-"....~".}ll:4J'sCfle' rfi' h . . s fo'hQ~ ·.'~ N·~·' 1'-:.-. .-i .... I' .. .':.z:. . '.~. .:tL _ if'"_ U...o':rd'jn 0 to eith e -r' ..:.b...•..E.'""u'~At1~1 :n··a!l. "__-. ..(:for I "·ll)l.....-·-.• .-I. III... ~~~.• . -.. h _:. (lAO)" ~ f..3 \" .. · J. ~ an ". .-' . -~ \.tree.clical spectrum of the g.se '~h·· eIe rn.._-"I! .. ~I'._ ..II ..mul_c· I. "" .r.-". _'_ II!.' this emibeddinc 15 ...'~--:"l:'~.-" ---.ra. ioU . "[J[]':":: .... ..enrl."_ -\'~ _'r '1. . g. '_'. D arb"·' letu~g~.II :'.'-.cd" .'..J..-" triad.··.. rom r':11e d'..·t.::." ·F· fa ...-._.-..1Ii.n...'"I:. ' prmcip "1 m W' lfilg:-ang"K-' aye ... _. n ents f' O'n. '...r.. · . .. .'''' onlv ..'<."'. _" I I' . ~.. .t(-. _. . n -: t. f ~ .__ L·····.6'8--".. _.. I .~..". '.JI. C:Ke ~ l'."). -"'i ' . . ..-.::. ..-.Uls'Uv'erk: eine 'jli! .'._ ...•:-.e..fill·!!i.'''-th._.ID·· I· '''11''0· I.I. . _.en.II.II.7-+-0..--.'. .I_I .··t·-.. of triads . a circle.. . J 'C-~ -"-""-'" -- 'C c ..arme'-) or (for t._.r.-. : I . _ _ .C:-. '. .. h tea'1' d ramanc _ ana get In'fuute varianons 'on tne _.-h -.r .I . -(. ....lntermediarv .c:.. o[.--'.:.e c_pu:a. ·'b:·_. '.tu'.a.'''0. .. 1...' ....· .1bdii rvic ·e' -..e'·~"lo:-I'-w-'-:.'. ~.:.e' "'~'·h·'·'·-· cb'. .•in one dlirection. .. t..n.an'. I '-- set 's handbook........ .:.i3_r __ L _ 0. d' Wlt:lD t."'h·· ~e'''.• !l. u ' B······.: .~. _ .. 11 co:nte\n't~.. lC. " .· . ~'_'. "'res.··'tl·. ..-" i' el: .fOp:o..~ .exrric -an.'-:_'..a was taken..." c' (ll .... _ . ern. _ use _ _.·.. . ..·p.•.=. .-..-···U lvrical ... . whose system of ·..o...-e ".'~ plary ment predominates separately .: :: ::-(.._.' "'dbk AI trrangte or Cl:rce".. """.i& .d" seeking : ""~'\r. trans .e '.:._S:Sc'.'' _ -__'. " . .. '.."e·=le' ~ _i_'_·I__~.... -u ·t.. .. ·-'C'·"'.-. ·t..3~..to ·l'lT7." . ( r_IJ_j.' omoeeneous . 'ij '8~1119:-.' h i·' .Tb'. .' .~~ -II OJ' ~ ·(·'n.:' ·c···1·0-'·S--:-'Ic-d'i 58 .3Ii._ osf .(...>[l. th .~'1i* . f hi 0. I.. ~ cy. ' . seemane .. .e rh..1__t.e.li-' .'-" -'..j. ....: -::' 1 _G. re ·-[1-'~ eei cal-lyrrical ere. t. order by' which to classify them.'_ '·_'-'-='[0 c. I _ t: .:: :.:. __ ' . .. --.__ r I.. _' _-~.'... _...'~'I.••.... side by side: 0 r .. _ _ ~. "._. I . . . . " . .__ ._..' ...~gen:..-'..enres" .'1:. t ne.-. f..11..···~r·CTe_r:'Ll'1i'i!'"~~"A-·iU<b-· .u ".81.It.." 'C. ':."_..vatl..<. r.. • l ..poctllt:. _'\r.... .. up in the twentieth century by the German aesthetician Julius Petersen..: :___~. _. l :.. _ _ .:0.·:'I~~_'_~! .' · The id. 'H' .. ~..ten an. '_.yrIC::l J-")-':..• '. . C·-'I~[_"c-'lle" '11'5' . o a__ ~I..nd I~ .Q. I ~~.:'..eieie ..'" j. .I..r. .l'·-y: rricak .O· nally dem' "". .._'"..-. _. '. ' 1IIir. .IIl an. ..ramatlc.chl ich e K£..-. -...I·~ 15-"S'b. e an....e-... "x"-:r ·. .. __ ~_~~_~ ~.emla:tlc.·'.-~' ~ "':':::"~:.. r-. . -3. ~'. I:':I! _.m.'.states betwe en th·.. .. ..·_... ...L· ..I.n 0-·:····: oneself s·ucceSSlon. Then one can 35.er ·rh· .-.p'h~r :"h:' I~ !_:_ _.-'. .]':I~~S·' that tend.':' ··~·:· e ':b..·h . .":. .I .. -.. a.&.. . ree-' . .ee ...-:. . can corn'. leu... .. . " I '-:' ::1-.biguity of :its pri:ncip.gu:aJ).. (: -Th-.. . A. I ~'I.." J.. ~ ~ :.C .~e. . .. ... . . ~._...ny end '1 5:·s·:.

$_ "ch"'j~"q s '~J' . .".ung).:. t6~ Peter0.. . an··d·-. I'l't.-t.. his rno .tl'~.nn cs. ..IlCrearurc ~..'.'IS mono 'I."".i' :"1 '': i' : '.a crama rs '.::'. e d.deoicn . Iyn ~ the repres entation In a m. . . cf Fubini. I :.'J.n. P··I.--: "'-'-'1" . I '.uel' 'L~ k .fl. '.e.'...S....h're' der Li terQ'. Goethe.g..': : dissvm ·-··=f· ·'. 1. 2.'""..t.- :_-:. " ___.. d ..(. : ' ' >~~ ~ ""n . t either 'by rhe poet 0[' by the characters. _' :~ •• -. I -1-: .' I. . t exp res sion.:.ypes·< 1..n....1y.. . f" ~ sentano n.'.· " .]nlllaIIY b.:...eMs eh..·:de mcnca ' :. e. .. R' ' _.....ur .n. refines rhe system and mode].' '.~Wl (.1C__ _ "_.-. --. ·. .· iar :··~l-:".~. r oerh aps inevitable . h ··ree '. I.~ actio.': ·:In·bE·' ...-:'.' stan-d..g epic"..':/ 'i-· . Ivri .!r'.ese reran ODS.-."-_) :~"'" ".'...' '1'11..g . i ns i common ..-----.CIS m.' I.: . _ ' -..'._ge_" .~ dialogue DRAMA E..-. LYR1CI:SM narranon mon ol a.. .. 'I-:I":_-'I -'-'.'-'h sine ''''.ry it"'Flo't :'.. . -" .: . I. '-.~. - - .'. ncntuneseattuneen.. -.:. . lS.·I··I·· an d. _' 1-': : .P . .-Je 6=--'to.. •.( ~.'. .e .. .ts SpeCI...__~.. ·t "'..~ an d d '-"'-"".. eacn .' d· rama rs rep res en tanon t at is. ~.: I . .' .g....' I _I .1.l'Clsm an a"I .fo". -_~~~_~ ~...''[l 'I: I ..u..- - -..r.':-'. trot ibli i":' .. .. .:.. 'it" 'l:i" ks 'L'nkilng.". ~ "'.'._. :~ ':. ':'~. each angle bearing a basic g. ... .. " ..'.. 1.'.·'·9···· I.1~d Meth.P'I~C .·. '" (' D..t~ " . resent in. c': -.I I::" :.~.onologuc or Oi'ia situatron tz ~f 'L:·· f".g=e..a .". '-'..Sf's tem f.... .. 1 '..Dee '[Ings]~"."ofIj Copy" 'gh ted m ater] a .=:-:-=-.d..-..' the rea " .925')'"72-1.a· 1"[·.' It"" ...''I'.it·:. of thoughts lor " 'L' k '.105 mod_e".'.' "-'13 "Id -!llJ. was alreadv...'. '. L:' ".-. (.-.gu e situatio n el . .odelJ~/'e. .. . --.<_. T..re_ on der D-" h t _.t-':- '-'::. .i 't ·1.). ..' .YflCJSm.. ..-' . 'W.~JI. ' y ':" . IC"·_·-·I 'ritica .PS can. - ""1' . . "-1' :'~:-"'I I c'" - -.':-' ...' I(Be'rUn: junker und Dunnhaupt.i.939)~.. renre labeled 'with a t... .. II ' . .1::1.:··'1_·6.. _'" .. '. '... I'.In..ure .. tr'.. Lin ._._[OU_d.a .-'.4'C'. '!H] '. rne two . an acnon..' I .' C:'.' ' ..D."-::'.'.plct..r .'1 . I'~'" . c' • . .(I.. I I.!l. .ep'lC-.e.' . ano ·':.o'[~. the repre ._.. ":' ." .C'.52 group of definitions: epic is th.A"r ··ta"st ..UI.' ..aji 'fl..nvfssen$cJJafi. ishi .. .6.: :-. __ . ..9-26. ..'" ..u I .. .g g.....'.-" I "..0 th .'.: .-..~. .a:U€f' (Stuttgart:-. . . sen..~ .. ii ) '. : .- '~I '-.. ". .°i_ . . --:' I I: ' .._': sarsten ung'~ m d-naio gue 10'.m.c"..-. . .'Z.: . narrarion (Be.M"etzler..····'_ [ ae re -'. - ... .b e··.'I'" .S In..·. .1' I~"'-': t' .' _. drama.- II .-)...or' der Di'chtung. ~ .'11'" I..-.'. tvne . '.'.. . in Die 'Wis's".:. . ·. rel .ri"/~t) in a e monologue of an action (H~n1dl. p..-. '. .. '..-.'.. _ _~ =!lr 59' ~ "Z 'L hi _.a_...: .: 59 :T''hI. . ~ '.~:-_:.n. "'.'. . reveais acissymme I. '11 I" . ._1 !!' . ..

.an". formal tarratio .C-.. Q.. I I =JL ~ '---:'1 _c·-· .' .'. _' ~-'=·~I'. ':I" J '..:.···· .a..'.. 1 layers fro m 'the center toward the periphery (see next a P.g~ D:n. 1.' . g' .cria . _...ll._ ".'..1.'.. l [I -0·'· .i - I _.~~.'.~ ..o:gu. :.-n.. . - 1 \r.._ . "' '1'.".I '-1'- I' . .'IU.e'" Copy" 'gh ted m a1..".rams .d. see -)'.::_ --' I.am. J. _-.". r....e speer f. .the novel in dialogue) and. lyric dra'ma. .·v:: ':e--I0" ".I. iii. ' '. iQ... dialogue) . e':_.~ .. 'I.ge) this d-'"'." .1. .-. t t .)~i th . . . owing h " i "1'1: :-_ !'. -e'-'''X''''ii 'm: .ir-'o-:::p··-.-.·.'..1.II reu r.. ".5U._ 1'.-. [~. fined here 'by :3. I.0norf' ~ 6-' orrns.-.d ind icate the.ctI011 _-. . = -eL!- 'g--- ..0.. ':'_~'.. the 'idI..'. '.• I .' h ereas . " 'I .th'e mterrnecnary -. crama tr .I. 1". _ ~s:dIevncism ItaIl!. .a.Y..t":-:··--I--:' 1-- q S~.Yfle.tS.a. ::l I'.-:. '" "I.' . '.-'.".C.:l .ing'~ firs-t:..ror. '.-. . I. ..c"'e'. "'-. 1'J= .m . I' . ' . '. I..1.bv . .' . the Vriii'Di~'c:h:I~.._-- I riJI'. rc as we WI'·'11..It.. ~.g rorms fj--'inal Ut~"D'i:C}Z'tUtlg (also mherited from Goethe) to themost highly developed "elaborated forms.QVlng. J "" '. ~.. ")' ~= .'. (.~ i itern ·-. ~I .:. .. '. " . d rlg'31.-or:-intermedi ...1.'.ipho n al ch oral orhant-" h-y~'mn-" 'd:'-''a' . unsteady triangle is only' the starting point fo.-". .J1l-_ --'~~ '-- -'.:' '.ative.~ 'id'ylI in.Ihrose purpose' 1S on th one htanc to Hie .ut.:.-'I"a'-'ry--' "..-.-:. p. '-h--" .[' IU b C.. ~ _" _." Dj.·._..II. .. Ill.". dirge. __/'.1Y'I:y ricism treat s not 0 . O'D.• ·_:··I .I~~:./.·u}ld··... . .1:1_" a lr. CI'-~'-_..an.selv •. ._" I.~. _. . I I .. '..:".!.· '-1"'- :". ..iC-I~I--d'-. a.' :'.--V ee t . .-mi I' '--.-:-"1'. It W·-· '0·._ '. b' " .:~ .n...b":-"V""l:':O-'U': s.--..- . ls_'.. G. hei.. . __..li.'0". '-'-"0' \.I!.·try:... : .f".' . dia:l.I.''_ ~ j I '~'In.'" .·...·. :_erm.. I .ld':e~d'.-. 'n' . .'I . :... '.e' sleoond.is thematic (ac [ion) . _-:_.'s~ efe "'..c:'r-:' loca.._e~~c terms... 'W hereas b f h teatures 1..' "1 .. " . m ime an .S3 ." '. n"Co[: 'eon 'w:: .. '_" •..' <i1-·-·· r ·I·-: - :. :. . rin l~.. 'i. :'c. _ \r "5. .[]j.I.1 _. I'.. -- ..]:-' ..(. .. . .=.-. eVQ.I.'I' _'. t!I' --.'_ J '. J. d tn " .II -'.0· I •. . nne mixed 1.1o..C· "'. ~.'..r."_.r_ .:.~r. m.a.._ -.. -""e-~ -..dO' d .'.'_. zeneric . uH.'"'r. . ~.'. •• _. " .e:rsQn n." _:__ _ '.. ~ " . .r... _ . ~=JI . _.: _.':-'.'..-.' .m" .1. ':U' sed bv Peter s'. snuanon..-.'-'.\...:: I.r.' a. '..·'r'I._". ..fean ire ~. . ..' .~e: ntric [._. thema tic fearu re ::. : .." an-.". t mar --.' compiex system W._.>Ji'livc . :r.en' '. .. -.. -1 '0' .~ I .~'l"':""~.1'·0 ~ : Slon. ".. _~ . wheel at whose hub lie's..' . _"Ji".. 1 e·'mi'I '[b"-e' "d.. --I' I " = . ...e 'G"-.'i· ..' "'~ 'k ._<'..1... ~ _ I].ncanta.!I 1:·. . . or (s rch -'._ [. ':_." Thereupon the triangle beco mes in.. 'Y.:' '.ge=. . ' •.lag..'p·._ 1'..<' -"I ..c.[1.y~.-<.iare . a m tistak e '1"10··.. . ansla ..- n..gcnreS.. _" . _. ..6'-'... ._.' ..ol. '-II ... _ . neigh'b .>. '. ]i.-.' in ernie ··t . '1f'Iia·'Irr'a:lt~'v:.M'IJ'i. secnons rhat remain ..I...r-.' -' -') rne teature comI mon to' drama and epic .--.:..r.r. .onsequentry. ".. .. In.' _..u~g nd a whose three' spokes are the three basic genres" while the I-:h---I'ree -.1. "1 ".l . " the £--'11 Ir· . _.·. h irhi .'_ .l _".11..·W··' .~~.. .-..: rrom an o... e .. ...... .·· iI.I..epic. I.:[' _.itl. :1:1." (-. moving clockwise from epic" ler us v enture on the first ring.....U.1 ".' "."".... "..····..~ I'.1.. to ao.. . ' tion on each side £0-"-.I .'1 '11-._ .I:. CO:I-.. . _-'.' ~'.]'Ji.-:' ._..I '.. i ."x -. ".1Iii.]l _ G.. ": :m..'.· ~. ~...C' !l..'11'.1. -' ._ ll---=L!"'" '\r.lUI. 1._ 1-" l count f th e evotunon 0"f~' i tor nterary f . -'] -.1.'to t-. r.ra. .~ e~'p-':I"e"It""o:-c.oc"-v'···.:·I~~-· ~·-'l··--' - __ .j '.'-.""-...). .- . .. _ .3·:'n ..If"'- log:ule~ dr.1..:J • .." I" ".: .5~.:'_ .-"1. .IL.-" .'Jt"" O..:. I l [ - I' .. outward J.. ~~.-_" ' ' ~ __ ' __ .a:rr..atic ta'bleau.'" ..." '.'! • I. !Iii.\.0_ n t. 'U ~.'..··-··[... --. .. _-'_". rh .. :ma. 'O-'C'-"I 11 . ~. ".ll. "I._"_:' . . --m-. --1'-'--'1' J-- ."' . a"...~-O-:::-I-'-l-'g--'-' _. wor:"~ s.t...C'htlflt:lR'~ For the' others. '. ~.. t'h.r.U.'0.•' I]..' "..s-. I"· .. mors bootn O"~ tne e: yrrcism snares W1E __ .'--..:'.drama ae l .ng":I' p~'ra'l'e'r" maUle' :l._'r'_'=..:. ''-il~ sectio 'n ed n 'C" n.e · th .." e 1'.. the other hand."-.j:" "... ----. ballad tale'.:"[1::' :.t~Oll~ep'1C: . ~ = ent s and Prenich '[1-0-' r Eng Iishl equivalents are not aIway s . as '~"..-' _...".._ d repi r es en ratio n 'J' B''Ii'11+' this are lO:(". '.~. _ ~. t. .'~'~.llI.[ a more 11 . i"-: rhie. ~. 1[ ..I. II.'d:-1i~-11.. keeping with Goethe's suggestion.

-E·':-'" :''''~h''l'' '( ".. . -....' .·[··:·'. ··Ill:.__ch Or-Oe.'.--- .3..UJf (". I~·-.e.' 'utnc..". ....sseau ..""...·_. " .. e. .54 Festspiel d .S.." eth e s P~'\"I-''-"l~J". . (B: d' Of' .otl.eux 1:( ~~ la"i" •.eria .... ...''.'" an . .. A s we' see.~·h"..fna. c....Vih.n. _". . the second part._.l.-"".'. -._.g~ verse .".'1-1.1.'" .l~) .0'>gu...mono di .tt:h· . C'o..1.. 1 .1.' ' ·'.'.·r·····_1- '[I' -·-'I'~' I '"'I _'-. according '[:'0 Petersen belongs "u.e :"G' "' .' _.S ".... :vI' . ep.' ogtcai C~aracter j.. '. .-' .eg"e.poem.' . . ...l.'.$:~'~_"r. . epigram..ng '0-" .. .:'1 1l3. didactic P oem. ..-.·-·" '.' u. ..U..m f'a'r) narrative idyll.' . = '1-' i '!I ~> ..II." ~.:)~. cyc]J.1 . 'R'" .lio'. . ..).'e festi1V~'-_' . ":- p' ...'UI-· ague" -.ne Ileus.]'" "'. iii .. ·d. '... D':-::"~.rra . . .e'.~e.dia1. .. the mnermost circle is . Roilenlied is a lyric poem attributed (:0 a historical . .. . 1yric novel (the' first pan of 'Werthe:r. I. .1 lve" h. 1·-.~)" -.'1. H'··' E='/' .." d' fable ~.. gnomic " .--.. '! ...'...s[' e.' ...y...· .' icle.-.d ... pk IF -."YO.f. "ast.'-.e 1·'" ". .-:!! . .t1.'. a.-..·.·h. -":. ".."'_.I.yrlc . 1-. ...'.._.rln.-')".:".yg.:'.e[.ted witrh g'enIes 'I'.. rnytrh 0 1.--" j(e g".: : . I.n .vrsion '.mma e .. -_.. satire. '~~ .G" _::~. Copy" 'gh ted m a1.ync uia. Stu. "1-'- :"J" ·[·." . c~"ron. . (. " 11>. ["11"'- ".. -.... 'I' r» 'C:' . £..gO[lCa. ~ .'.:. h .-. : ... _.:-:§.f.o.th e S"O.-..'-.rza .treranger-s L' A'd"'"' . philosophical ." '·c':.1. e dialogue among the dead.e::.. " '. . '. ".·"er th . ".'. :lae.".3.. - .

..~n--.'.e 'rormer-'....Y mentio .. ".....l1.-'.riptive ..::: ... .· h ous es In L+ una ': one admires their ingeniousness '.~- -. '. 'In.' "p' c...:..~e'cJJ.y~"W'" .'It. .'I. ·'1: ~ -"--'-' '. . .J.ich adorn certain ' :c.: ~ t" e Jl. ·.:-:" ntim ental n . .... Jd bdd nele'.'... l .---....n...:~ _ . -e.. .. ~ -'I 1'-"":'" " '1'-' . ... "···I·'f'j\..--(-=--.I..'.. .(.. .. . . claims h ma k £" 01" I. I I A!.t -err . '1:.').3." 'which moreover.-. .. I. I . service '._:. .. .-. . .. t.. d-'' ... " •• ~- :.SS for finding one's bearings am . '-'-.. [ ..L.' '1-: 'fi"I'i~'" .Jl novel) wi ....l-._ .m....-. I 11" I .v-'-·--'.·· . .ng: N o'rthrop :. .-'i of g":'e"n' ires 'l~e perh:a D' iei .''-'''':.-. ..j ..11 . the O'fi. ~:':I">" -1 . -~:t....".·. .'..Slon.If.J. .fa...~'S'~ .I. ':C'.... .' d ··bt· d':II'l re.' .r.ft._. . Th:-'-'. '.l:S.'1 as . ..~~ .or" ..·'.' 11.. ~ " c ··i:: al.._:... in sid . er :-". ::e ersen a lr ms th _'1 ' can serve '..or even.:--'\.~ th ..Cllf. . res are obviously <'1:rrang...." . . of cork .._ ~- I![I '" ..' '~i-.ve P-:"'-' _rye '. ~. _ .!Sr.rent '-:' .'' '"' '..-' . .. . leal ilJ r .n.]':c tantamount I e ""I.t) .-. ano · despi.ofammcy' wirn . -.. ach circle.- ...~ .'-":-"'-'~d'-' oe' .c' ."_'.' "" i ._.-:: .f":' a message.alng -... sue.. I.e 'seve.t."'...-'t 'n '"." proachin P' jolles's "simp Ie forms. h .-. .. Ii]! ..:C'.'. J • I • ~I.-.--..-. . . .. . _ Ltl .. Fo-'-. owe[ '(>" .~ -._.'-:' ':.. ' tar.".. ua ...:.....-f' ~X1St· .-. -.. ..:::~:d( ._. --:!t :'1.1.e. "--"'1'-' . . ' novel . ~_ ~ . ..ltttl..'\ir. .sys :e....17' 1iJ..':". 't-·'h 'W'"hol e r 1-:1'n· 0...":...1 .g ' toget tt".::..e-' ·compass or false 1.:P-'U'E at the . ..._' ."'>.'. r" ".-ous.'"'... ...nor so useie S.~"""~'1:'JI...-":'..' at·".e ..f oats e ini 'h .··t' -. "_"_" d"o:t.".lll~ lll!r~ •• ~ •. .' _-.'o. 'W' 'ind O' . Manifestly sa tisfied witb his dla. -lier apt:h:"'-' 111 tneory are m . 't't Jl\..r "h'.'''.".~rother.p!11Cl-i.... -- ---.·······..· e Il~' D~"" . discerning their fu nction..ato:ry . xt .. .ner". .~.a~.'-_i.' iJ.--~r ha:I1's a"notller cOlm.. 1':'-' --. 'I c.-eca. r:: '--'1'. ... M oreover. (.-c-c..~ ~"_ ..:'"D.__:..'" ". . 'h~ wou.rh the_ .y_ "1" ." as.en:res" like the ode the epic" d A db . at romance (h"'. ". " 'T"h-' e m. ":' "I "d'..-".verse rhe .n.n." . "'.'t")C lar .-.i! ..--:~ -. su.:-:--'~i..~... .' ore spon~a.gges~.. suc. " ' ro "applied ..'. .~. lnae_ -. _ "':.:~. • ~. '..._ou-. -... d 'UD.).e"" a:' b 0·'.. ~..ex.t'l. tter .. ·-······ .. -F-'bi .en... .' .. menlons.n eX.. ccordii .ngs ~ ~ . ...'" . ev'en.. 1 ~ ..:. It b'y d .. Copyr'ghtcd ma1.''.3.. . '-PI. ong the various paths that " ... p"hlOSOP"-h--:-lca~.. d-·' hei ~ . Tf··:.-'-'--~---'I- -:-.--:.."f( the .':: ch _.":r'- _'~. • .. . . I.\.n': '. ~":"'-' ... _-.1'111. t--h'L. ·-"b-·'1e as tJl1J. '.....n.. which 'the .' 'iii 'iI' "'il '-...'...:. _.:-.". '-..' . -ca.• . .": .c·'o·'·m·--·'·'IP"''II--'.I'.y..I._.an. . .n. (rea listie .._':::_ \:...c..·..--'-.~_.-:'1-''1'11 ':" _tIlleu . "'._f". no '_" .vesse.55 d·· ". _1Ii.0 va'.. :-1 "..e. .11.m OJ -...~S..'. \" ." "'_I'-'~:-' .·_4' II.. .~:l. ~ -r~ ---...·: ....-·1J... -. (' . jig .n' . po.J.' w..n··. ~. rormai. n-':-~:r--._":lhl'.- - - ... _ ~ • ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ •••.:-..e' syste. " without ..· the. .' n0·····clear ....--. those contrasting tragedy with comedy.us.g " "0:"'-." s.' -.i_ ...: t'! -1-' .....·-']·-t"' If).' .-." "= "P- "!i:L" i.... :..' '.0...~.····1'11 o . 0.. __ .. terse e .wo I~O -'-""'h--" 0.r3.. . ._I. ._ -_._ [I ¥~. te h 1...'"".I.gree 0 ..o.re... ". c ..e.. d'· -. . ~ = __ :_ '_" '. .. . [. ~ l. ne xes . def 1OII trage . .e _l..---.-.·· . ad --. F"" ".I I~ ~..0t i' I" :::"'l-"'"'-' -:~JiIi-:. el _'~.erse.' a._.e .~ '-.:. '.-'.. -' -. ~..l:!! Petersen's ~ ro'. '_ .:--10::-" ige system•. S as rhe ~.".4. ·'·:t·... ~ no me a ns cov .f":'" eac. ..y . U Wl_.ln:g'.--.:.-...' ..:=.-'h.-.. ~" it .':-"..ing:::.I._.~con. """" cannot mas"k'e "tnematic .Ys C"o:mp'atible~'grid:s COll1:pOSl... "O:-C ..'.ve a' 's·· ma :"1[-' _. erOlC or .r t'ha~' p.ilI . ~ '. ~f'Ii.. .an..w3. __ . ..1.a.. .or rel tier shin '[:0 the three basic: types.e usdenmng crrterra are mainry C" ····1'·11 "'.... -.1 \or. -.-u'.-.-' '......an.oeticdiscourse :is .-:' :IW'!' '. _.._.. '.. cc~ "1[-' .:Cf!··" 'I '1... ... . disnncnons..- I.m.1.:[~[lIj..e. th ..-.of representation provid .' .as~' t· Jr.sen 1. .cria ." ..·H''"e..o[' .·ffi····· -. as-.'_:'. d"_'.'" forms forms in... ..''.' .G~.'v".'~'.• 1 -.. ~I I'..er .1 iA. I . '.-.-.. wn etner moral.aCII. .C_.'f' m'e .5.-··t·h--'·-' won...l..-. ·.- '~_. simply desc." . ~." ...... I!~~ .prefers to compare t'h-ms structure to -'those sal"I-b.m. ~.. co" m 'S"~ th e I'ast on. '!.c'·:'·I· "'" :h-" at. \i..'..e'x:pla..g ram.' "-'''-.e..n"...--:-.' a. ~~ .. .of genres~. more-caurk ".neousI' anc P'OPU'.' ttle wh..I". ". "_ .1..t".-'. .':-'to their deer . '[ retanons lp acco. ..1. wh th . t--··:-.·o.. 'd 'd~'-.' genres: tts 'ers ie .. . pla ce for · rut the most canonical "pure' g'. !L. nat ~.. .-.c.··.. djsti .. '-h ":·" p. 11..scends .-. j... .r.e C3Il"on...... .Il. """.. I' 1 c:'.o·~·. ...: '0:'.. '. '.~e-c~.····.

.'o.".L..'~... ~ "" _~r-"'"'-' C . 56 A: .:-1·' .. ' . en :_-. His starting point is Hugo 's Preface to Cromwell. :':_'-_~. ..DIp. . '.a. made of other national literatures ~ ...e . l But before Ieaving the curios department. c..o· m ll . y General E volution).·1.ati ':. TI_·h.1.:. :.·r '...'y level of " ufl. 1'. U. .chu )-.'" :-t1.' _:'0...1 . .le.... precis~ely. -" --~.. Lyr£s:-: ~.~ 0..1:.'.." which he carves into three major eras" subdividing each 'into th ree periods (the . '__ "c_' ..G·. .. .. I 'JI''Iii.....-. L'.iI. . .". before..f!iod-I D"· m.~."'i'y' rS t:: a f 11:EJ id ehe un ive~"!&. -.!L.lution 1.' i6. in endless reduplication-e-tc each phase in...I I '!\r.~':b' . Or:. I'~. . • • ••• •• I ~ _• l~ ~.."I· syst 'e:'m.. a¥ir as . as."'...11 .-'.r ~~l I • • •••.-.n ".' '...ettl ap...' III I.·-·>I~:". ··· .·.: ·fji'r-·-..-.."t...0.:lillt.t..lut Bovret skew :"S'..r -_.Ii.drame: . 1 . 1l..1'.:: '_ _':___.: . .._~.-"..:J r3 ~._. '.._'.~"... 'E~ c "P t"e'/:'f'~ Q-Vp:·" IIllq·. for the birth of French classicism.· -"lli. . ' ..'.·.'0 LY:-:-''Ii'"l'' ci sm....!L..'" :. the evolution of each na tional literature: thus.-o-s~····e:s·.V'i'l~'~iI! ~.~..T'I:"IH!." ." . I ~. l~" 0. '" .0bsession witb trinities.I. -_'~_·. is Petersen) but rather "three bas 'I" c W':-:':'. .. . .·"[HI·'L.. 'To Bovet. the rh... r.... ".'e. "'" '\.111 .. . :. 1. • '-I I ~... . ~S ture...'W of succession can be applied-s-here. .-men . '.''-. I. as ['0 Hu _'.. " !L..'-' ...1. _".~ " 0. 'bottles are good for-e-and sometimes antique compasses as w e]l."". ~-"" '...-... . ~'.~-.-. c 1! .x. we.] is.' d" ....' rse ~._ ". ext' .er'm> _ _ __ _. WJ~.·. _ .a... pheus-Homer=Aeschylns.'" ~.!I!t.· I.': doubt 'what ships. p:.. '.-:. The 'title of his work" published i:n 191.~. ~ .X". .:.ese th e·0. one' purely "historical.e'va.. and w hich therefore function at an.1 (..r. a man. 'j I .'-~~. ... as. ."_: .'~N. . g·--·'e~'" e""'~A ~.:___. serves as.. ····l~ N"-".I .0. The evolution of Iralian literature.}·[~V'..I. lhl'l!i.. '. .1."·:._'. 'in.:.. . l. ee ch ief __ 0 ~_ ___ ~ ....0 IS _. ~ O~ imag ining life an *0' '.'.. Fr-...10J r . "I't.. ~~=I ~ .":_' '. UI.3 (~Oun -erc.r -. " _ _ "" ~~ .rcis--r'c.... :. .m is ~e~~ . new hteigh ts) 'B.. are not merely forms (the mos t formalist of h t.'. 11"3:' . I.cl__:_..1 1..-' c ~ g'-:" H et I ~. national umr Y.'... '..-.'. Malherbe-Chapelain-Comeille.... .'_'. ..'_-.. phylogenetic._ '::'~= . in which Hugo 'himself suggests that the Iyrical-epical-dramatic l3J..···.-.f' L it"e"......·...'-'r-"'"ii'ry:~ E.- IJ_~'-/ ·..1IIir. '...-'-'-~~ :_:_:.• and the_ G· _ ~an rornanti_ cs .' era .vo' luti 'fi-] E-..··. we have alrea dy seen.I.:"'1r. I .iC-'. .QIis quite forgotten today 'but who.c'h.f nanonai " .' ' '.I~' Bovet -..a·· p._'CII.V:tte 1'0 i de.' -~m . .~·I.'.~t:.-.. reac h ~'S"." biased on the romantic tripartirion: rhe system of Ernest Bovet..I:. 'will glance at one' final system this.·'t· -.e 'hich corresp ond I.:. . blocked by the lack .I'. ~'~.. "d.. _ . -: . . ..c "1' ':: I~' " .'_.. ~~. did not esca pie Irene Behrens' s attenrion.~ .. fOI' the Bible. Genesis-Kings-job. .'" e· ". 60.. pla ~"n...I·_··I:"'" U w.·Ii· '..-_ '1]11- t· -:. "'IW· s _._. [_ .1. ~..:J!:." ". e ~·x-::..t:'. . ''fetll'. -. bv . ~~ ~. three s rages ·0····f AV'QI ut ion '3'S· mu Ic'h 0" nt 0''g 'c.. ~.- 1" . for Greek poetry.e genres .a~ A'-"-.

~):""" :".r~.and Henry' .. ~..0 I'.~ a.789 to the present d. d: .a t that tin '__:_....t· .llaSSlan/.p." .. In.l£ . '''·I· __ :'i"I' '-~.r--l~o... em· b .(.' I" .£1.. ::1 [. '~"Il ": '1' - ." ..alS" the ~.ntic .5'1'-':] y.. .. • obviously 'this 'Wa... -d "_..·S..o..'-' .··. the third.L'[I. '" ' _ . 'h fI ishi was not we I'll receivecd) I.r:k.:P··J:'c·· ... :o'm-'~(Il~nl"'a~ '[by':.. ~ . d or unsuccessful. is n . popul 'lyricism" almost all trace of which is now lost). . ]I.'.._. . . wr lC'h: bu b dom rin ate s this entire epoch a..a_~. .5"7" :"..'...1["0" rne d.'~ '-'_' '1". ....e:' :e.':C: .'.:.a. A.-OdC~ '1'-' . the' third pe~ . tales '0'-'--:':[..c •..-eS~_l.on. 1.c...paclry . ~'.~ "R' :.' M-' .[ ·:l·:·r .:_'A ...'..oJ" . .. '1" '.'tarts in.. .enerroc . exception...(. presages lurceret. ':' !Ir. . JI.5) is exemplified not by its official epic (Chah 11 . " . . ~ _ . "'... .. N':""":(' . ".11 'I .' Iustrated by and Corneille (Racine.. 1 .1S lost its ly':ric 'vein.-. . . '..." ..'.ated until ']840' by roma.-.. _ .~~ . .... ... e···'nd r.I. . .1._e li». . hJ C" P etat "") 'W'.." __ _ . ._..e ..". d" .. ..P er '" < 0" .ed.···rbel:..I.a:y and..11..J.r'b.." ':". . ..·..1I .-..: _..:' 1- 1':'·"' -. ~..··'O· :'-~l' .. .11... 'riod non... ''-.:). '-~.cria ..).." .'.'. ' . .' ~'·'.:n oral .SO!.. _~~. -'.·=~_·_~s n...:··):·.' ...1."'Ii R [) .' C· ..:"'. "I .flO ··d· 1'(' '1' 3'·"2····8.te monarc ·'h·"y. 0_ er ... - .. ".tle the splendid 8Qlw'ering' lof d:ram.. d'.'" 1ic· 'p-e~..l pe..."._~.. 'd. 1-···· I ' .. -:~.11 . rrorn tlhe b...r "era. 'S'~F"'O'I-'d-I """... It s epic p eriod (161'0-'171.I'-a". and lyricism (Villon '[he exception that proves the rule) into Grande Rhetoriqu ~T"h'I..F~'-'-""" .0' n d perio .: as ""'. wors .._-_. :.: .~.' h rasts until earr y In tne twcutr h cen = ncn ]-. <_-:.. period (. . '". perroa.c.-' '..e...Ii.c': A ..~~._·:t"1!]I" ". . whose genius is not novelistic.::. .... .·· ·"ra._ 1.E' . 5.1]-"'.~leveue '..~ ~" ~ . " '1"· '. "..ch. an~.·.ss'ea.:<_. Wh '.:]·l~'S-·. (-. ~'1:' . :is :maii-n]y' lyric (o. 't . "....t'es "~. ... h ·a 1'0.. not onto eras...\ lP.:.~':.l'la" .. ..~_ a ·tim·' 'w'b"~ n ... e. .__"h-" :IS wo rt.: "!II iii '-C-:.'.a in.~_'lI... . extending from 1.0 .ne . ._." '! ." r ~... " .. while' A ubigne's is..t-'.R" e·vo~u~'. . . .' . 'C'::' th ..'.jI'i.d-:' .f."il..'n-it-~'h~rest.ar. . .~ . t:--'~ _.r.. .1 '.' I ".··1'S··.~' '_" z. na '~'U' .'._' .. .' "ou..'.-.Ii" . In. iln·..·'..-. . ..: chiv al (V':·~ "lyr .'dhal ina:ug'ura.'. '.'.". c.• Itiai ran (me epics o ". fo:re'vle-r.m.. ...tas are a O[I..171.pr'esages rne Hourishing rere of drama in./.. _ .. " .ar. -'d..'Iga'ro." ~. t :"u..'_ . ._. ....I. ':_ ..5 xemolified e. .e..llr' ..._ .h e ._ IS t.'.-'C :h.... ._=e :: -. i. tury.d.... #".~"o'u..' . "" .:. Du. <e.. .m}as fils. 1'885'-3 period :ma. rn n. __ ~'ll - . while' the epic degenerates into prose.a S 11 . ~A~ . the period of' ~ ~" .gedies of jodel I. . b..··:~ '. reuaar .··.~S.-""" .I. Copy" 'gh ted m a1. • '~J 11i . -~":' ..-.. ':'1'1 b '. _... '6.'_.~_I_ ~f~ __ .. . from 'I='~' -:2'· "0''-'".1.. ....":-.'1..' .'(:.'.ess.'11·0-')"'> ex em Pi!' ~ '. Idomin.... 'D'I'I' BI. ··to"rali "t·i··~· 'V' -'I .~:·Y--II':'-·-' -e '.. ~ riod.s. hi . . c .'." .'o·lc_ at"..'r. lyric).' ."..t:. .5 t"hi. t··h enics ofRo "'''''''''~ . - .·_ .. ~~ :~hit d' n:he next per.f1[5[.:.ya'R.- ..and rur tnermore..ly..~·:·_·~\.">1.'e~..... " "~h·····-with th ..0..liod t. 1.Ii. . l-"..~ b t_~y tile novel.-" . . .' g'1.1'1 dee. "-il"l ." . . . :_.: .~. .'" I..' ..•• ~..3'····2:'·:··1·8-..' '·~h~r' .-.~'1 1(._ .. . ."".1!.·... d "...Bc'cq.5-'1789).. J ... an: d '...L.:1. 1 -[Ill .IJ e. n'~" e'--""" tr~~~= ' 5::' . .aiU.. ano fiirthermr .I...'.. .I.." .' d'1 I ~ 'It 'Ifi' .' t' : .1:8..l"" " ds. mystery prays an". zork rnarnme .~ ~~ . '..-...···S:..' ..• ~ •• ~_~ _.J~. .'atne.t._ roo ('~::f'~.. 'I' .. . ...t~~d': : . d-i· . ' .. ~..ryonlc. M.-"'i". OJI .' I. at.t 'W hi. .... \.~ ~."-::.- I...'..]I.n-"~h'\' .."0" rs r.nn~ngs un It a: ou ·t 1-5"'2-. geste...". .( ''IiJ.' ab .....: II . ' ..:r.. y r~ .~Ic:. .ij'. • _ .._' '.. r .(- .-' .c era". an era 0".C penoo 1("~ll' 5~-'2·. ~...-v __.e :""..t.'..:.:J .. .. . rs ...' .. '~if'. .} .[. is anathe ot ~... ". .. .'..). 15""2":0'1')" erama ·fl..'..-" '. • .ricis:m"p' Steo.~ .······.l.'b·.d.. th: ""' the ··"·b.>it!{\-..'hI n..1[[ ..'"".e'a·.: the start by projecting the evolutionary principle only Th' nrst e: onto ._...''''':111 "'1 ' .. R·"···'· '.··..-.... : .".. · vst -"-. ~ 'I·' j1"I'c .u anid".th~e -..ule initia.r.." .e esse nt ially ly 'ric tra .-.p. ...•_. . it's sec. 1.' =..a"nsons d e.. .th e uur d era.rls~:. fro m '1 "11 ·0-0···· to 1L..'". c" .·.ii cis 'i1·1·.

.. nd .:~_'.'_'~.. ".ti:".. .. . d~.. " . .....r ~U. ep. taking note. .J. Rose.'.~".as a s'ys te m 0 f genres 'is neith er c ... . r...c..qtq'ic I . ' _'__ " __ .n.[( narrative .. e J U Fe .1 '_ _..'es a .d·" ed bv "... . of cOU. . flL" L- .C:~ """.-'.ogue. d b! t'o d " ~ e tl. . . and fi···.' 1...t hi 1·· . 'thus can a caricature be ignorant f its m 'O·~":IJ U.g.-''_-'.'.f...lS[.'·'b-···~·· ..d·_ 1..' I. 1957).. TI. 1_.." ... "I [. "_.- i... of the fact that it is impossible ".:: .1 ". rne trrrec :g.... 'W' ...iter:atutf'.1.' • 11.uave rea da sUlgJ!.C. c Iaims not 10 1J."- .[S...·.'li.--' P .... '. however.aIlJ.1.'..3 si or 111 ~'_ a.. trans...6." ...1._"'.~<· ~'. . Lyric poetry.. Bernstein.urger.lI.. adds certain forms 0. or .~~ . .. His '. ..U!1H '"..lu·). .c.o..ll.}.. book is dedicated tO his teachers Henri Morf and jos eph BeI we may assume."th e system 0:: mooes is nettt d 1'3... 'i an ." ".~. .II _' .. th· at efin -'aU.j. .f'ge 1 anoa iC'orttori.~.deiureth the ... .-. poet 'f'-Y'-: like the ballad -)."'.- - . '.L~~g'ikder Dh:Jdul~g (Stuttgart.·-t-· ~.'J:· :'.uJ'. _. I....: . 62.h• V'lt. "'" .II." '. .." supplementec d b other t: by rorms 0'". . e oic '~""~::'-'-i" I.. .'..I.__.F' .-. ..•..3- ..te IH' .. enu._'y bv ~[let"l~':.:t..(0 m P arable two-part division: "There are two gen'f.'~' "'·1····-.1 .. tr. . ..::_! '".l1ong: 1. . ..a" l~. -'i-·· ~~l.3 . SyD:1bolist decadence=wi rness VIII ion 0 tr f d '~'e' Th romantic remterpretanon of.i~~ '..lIC tt h f genre.:rjl'.'.."I _-..'rand. ·:·:·._' ·1.a..go h . He ' r '~H d . 1.. '·.0···· ngo '..~ all._.11Q·..~'.persona l :'" :". declines into 'I ""i.: ..-'.ler~ and [despite the ~ controversy over the relevance the idea of genre) Croce..I.n_a' reveals n '0" '''r'''1IIc' '0"""(' its source 62 A···· . I~.- 6 '~.c!l.:...~ Die .. .:3.I.:I: l [·III.llC y'cars a. dier.e two opposing terms SUr..o.. --..0..:1 ~ ·.oog story. d ramatic g"_. 'Volss.'~.. ".. Marilynn j.' e nu 'r'~ at'. '.' .~. :3lS it were.S. .-.-. • .-:J '1i.- .ty an'_ Oytf'" _ivud: h H "'..eo SOI'I. - ... "...c -'.I.)'c. ·. . .. :2d rev.-.~j • .~··.. ···h·· nrstexpression nxe--.al.person novei).gu.0"f" irs . .nn:s.1jec.t.'ILJ ai· . :. cornibine s the old.~lln. .Ii" . lid '~1 ~ . ed.'_" 1 ...3)."~ to re duce tr e triacd to two terms: I":>'r.-.fc (hre oro ~ Y'[. . ...d·1.. . .-.. -[I M~'~ me _.. .ll~l' . He declares himself to be in full intellectual communion with rhe antipositivism of Bergson .I: .t1 (I vh . ".(.Y an even tr e ~.-~'i l-...-.-..n..lsc_-_... .:'.(:['0 nor I.0: _.".Ce:in·...'.". auto aogra ···h···. ished 1. . "-j" .."' c.. " .. ..58 more b'y the theater of Daudet and.. ~ 1 = '1i 11 dO' ~ __dO..' -"'-' ..."1' 'p'L. 0 r S cbellin.e Iine 0:1. .l..'!. and '..j •.. '.a -~ 8' . ".- '''0.f" ': .~.. 'n'~ see the m "!"ii'110" 'roo' 'O··U...-... Ern est B ovet raugh t at the U niversity of Zurich. _' .' ...es" And Copy" ·gh ted m ater] a ._.c. '-'... b . of'L.C c." :T~'h'us 'K"""". Lavedan... and other giants of the stage.'" "".n.lf L. (Bloomington: Indian a University Press. J •• ". . -..97. .Henri Bonn et 'propas ed a .. ' .. 1iI"J.JliHIIIJ ..Q.. . .l.la J..

I . ooesie: .. . defines a..: (L ..t·r!~I":...' .- 'I' .'j...'. -.3)"gln.r l.~.'.. more ermnen 11.y .m.11 ooetrv .•. . . tnem -.'s. ... .. " '..'..... o se" I'W'.ot'~t.:at ..~~Jf...e.. - I' ii' [...'."-. " . ...'-.-.' . . .-...' iennmon P"-"I' ..trh:li: £'.._ th.is b .u.e' spontaneous overflow' of po."' ~'''. ... fe. a''n.-_[~" ··"i'i'--· ·'1" .' _' .I and.~'w 'uork·.we:rful. troc ay' a 'l~.. d -:C'· .iii' .1 .....1 ' IS P..'" -.at .> --' [-'-"-0' g"'·-. llg" ._ ".: '-' .... 'l'~ ' wrh at..'h"!......li. -.. l._. an Y' oth. S t.es ..'. re r: -: _.".) the field.!]:[Jtld~.J)_L.'O[I.'a"o's d.6._ .''-'' ..~Ot.-.. '. Poetry' iSI 'th.'. .e 'l=---~. . t.. :5-=-)C. "'W'j'L· I·· . ~' .(.1 ".. . CtlJ1Seit_' now'..•. J...'1 ~_::~ \ 64~ J olm.['".PL_ e'" . b 0 list an d ist B '3. I' .y [1 C . -.n.l:_~_J. --.Je.IS e.P ..aon. (N.com:p-ro'mlses l. O..• !I- i'IJ."I"' .c.S-..' d nocnn ~.. .a.utne moe ern vulgate unc er tne catc 'h'rwonrd. .._...l~r: 'arD. e' -.' ." _ I" ....) d. j ncluding ' .').'.. ~ ~ '.' ..~' la . s" ..' romantics-s-by poetry?' Most: oflen.-.'i.. '..stlC ..-""'_... .: 'Jl h . 1.. . ues hal f.a ....'Q··:o·····.11 emotion and .~ _. ...-11~-'~ ~ .... " II! . the :fi.the first [0 tb e secon._.' . .......1.an..·_.ar '-/)1" are tne . .IS no _poe:.-_ _ _"'.- . .'l'· B" . rne lm. II.: ".'..-'e-'s c-1r .-..oS .·. .a .'e mes . :_" '-'..~ d·..d ~ . lft1u_O"'... i:t'h· ._~ l1:.~ -. .-'-d' t". .-:. __ .11.-.th.. . longer the same..] -~. or' didactic statement to 'be anti .r ___ e: :I'J' [... -.. '.a· n..-11 0[' mysncas. 'P rose.Jl.' .~ . <>'. for every thing tha t: is real can he envi saged from either .. . .. "h. ['p: "iil'.."~ . ~-. ." d so E'.. ~$. ".. .Qm.l poe ry mo._ _ _. '_ [.. -.d. .'.. .. I .:"11. in P ..·-... . - ~. .._'.--.lci. 63. .. ":i! .ff .th _. . (1n E' 'h ·'-yr. be'l' . ~d-I-~..J~A i'lil [ . : •. .-'i . :-...[." - '_ .. aJ~" literature _" _. -_. •1 -]. the two basile genres (grounded in the two "re.-. I _ ." JT B:-'·. ut '.. .' :. of 'I!'"!IiJ'i!:O' .~i... ~61·' '>"1 1..ry at all.. B'· .-atti .nut _.. .. . tA·M!~'~q'.E'I-SSi1ys -..P Qetryl'~ ..'.}"idi.. '"..n.id .[O our sym.- .. 195.'. enco_.. never 1'1' .:':C: L' · . -.t:'i.' ". -.tJnl~ ..~ --... eh . description..Ifitm'e:._ . "e' '~::-:i!ind--.nd ='~I!!' ".c..- ~_I:'_ "..30 subjective or an.. ..: o [ -:.I~.. .. ('R-..yr:u=:. W!['s·.._. ' _. me. '.·· '..'.t. U . M·"·~'I"·J _.d'" In. . cal.. the Poetics -..!).. et .. ..···..'e.' "__ " _'. VI..'.. S ~ "--'.. 'L' ~'" ."-" -"~' . ... ... -.( rks ' merit t . . loe .'~'" .so .plc lar .'......' _...' . 39-40) ~And for 'Gilbert: Durand.. II~'" "~.. ..:n. d I ' ' -.'.Mill's.('..~.. ~"J" S'~~'hn' I': .' '.~ .. " t. . 15 11 ea pass'e.:J.'..-. ". liarly poetry th.ii1:. S t. ne C·"O-· s' . .-...[ . ". ~'The' Two Kinds ._'" _. _.'Hen._.U.~..'. o sassing.'-..( "..1.-..._. "II~i~.: t.. 'C·-::..~e tran~Lno -' ~rom t"eJI'st C He second "· d' ~..10.-.f .I '. ... _.-·'O'1:tri'_:w1ti'O~j~ d' C· -b' '~e D. ..rh . _ . ~ P_ii ..l.. :.. p".'.' '_...". . !iii! I. . . . we mean today-e-we ..~[..-·. _ _ . ..'~-~ '" _1Ir- -" I..of 'ploetty-.'.muc h rasen 'I -:.~]I._ ontaneity r unlike .'-'C'·-C·-~U'·:_. 3J' --e' :g. ... . .~' somew zh -._ .Y. ---.--.l.' Jk.01 " ..' ... objective point of view..lcIdits elf is no. a. d . ..CUI.'-" . a'·~·f:-'\~. .iII .·lI' 'urnar'II ano n····turnal }·'t -. ..'"". ._."'. '..' -r....'q.-"--' .-.'.JII. the pre rom an..J.""'.-.I' . .a"'i." '... .. ·' de 'Jaire..' - .H ---1-' -.J) .~l.'" ." 1·']:.".el.•.. '.' "n_. -'.U '" ~..~ _~..·:.. .cri a ..1=..~-.__I_. .fli''':.":.at m.. "~' _.lr'reIace' to tl. "'9-' · .-.1..-'I ep'.'. [j-. OU.'...' _.~..t"IIIQ··:'W··'"'..--0-' " 'D" .. '_'_"·'C_'. w 0 rt .JI~ 'Wi- l_' _. . \.-. poetry. "" ".-' .nO'V"'!'.'. ~"I' " ..f._:.. '-1-':' II.~. " .'~ thr :-.' iI'.. _ 0' .-"-..".....1.t3~ Copyr 'gh ted m a1. ... ----d-. ' _'..-" .Uf .-['1 80' '.rl" "'IV"""'~.' ".23" ]..::!e' l' C-" 3._ ...~ I.'r" und Ie' d' to' -.-' ing's' '.n.-._...). . . Stuart . _ _ _ _."..s rormuia It·······I'6J whichac ._. J S" .. .iI._..111.~' . _ '_' __.'.. I think. ~.-" asserts that every" ep·ic poem "in P· etic and.az~~u~. ltY..a.._ ~ _ '.'.._.-'~ --11..'.-' I"'~ l less as Batteux's 'translator defined only lyric poetry..--." .a rno . ". '. OC!'1._a.lca" ..i e:st'n-''" . .etO-. __'.1'..j.jl". .·...". 1. -'. "r .poetryY r.... ...ta'rttet~se I~:e It.. I cas ['. h d out ~ll.'S·'W· veet reven. . .' :." f tarmsnec b snll ettecnve') ot "pure :pole'try'-:: 'to P Ole" ) I"" L '_' -''''"1'-::' iiI.' ".~.-· .~r~'-..~..:__~.iuart: Milt.6·.I].n. .....'. C)'" '("~8'~'3: . isiti '"n c. _" .' 'S'PI.'. .~se. .'-: __ yr~. !Iir-'" II! . mpasses.tics meant by 'I'... True. £..~lI._ .'~Jte.m ' rea..0]-'j~ . '1:'. \..' ' . " '" john .··. 'there are only two..:_ .-.".- ..' U 'C"io"'r-r~ '1~:. '·'f'''' :"h''-...'-: P'_".k.post... ' B". .-.-. 'V' ".'.: .or . dque' des geti't"t!:s [Paris: N'iZf''E. 'we mean what__..-its elf b . W."-'-.1.1..putting . .' '.~ . ...4 " ... ·'e T'll"' :...as .y -h gl. . r~!-::· ~ r-or M···.~". " ...i-~'.' .'.th e" 'lj"Ii"lI'ure 0····' . ... ~d.-~ . 1..~:~.Y" narration._ .'-"'I"~:~'S'm'" 'W'lO' -d~.:: "I~" I"~" ' '9~·.k ... ·t-Jl '._.

e'L B I' '1. 6."~..' . -. - - - = 1.eri a .~. . . vu".._.. ..0 . dl.~y ..~L-_. 'tl106"-"4"-~' .c-.I.(.. 't~h. ' . :)._... . concept of lyri.. • .-. ' . . .( M" d [._ ." __ epic: and d".' = .I.. '-'. '[O~""" .za te O'-:-·U'"· r im. ·.h..iliarly p' "0' errnnen --It--'l-.c· . .." _.·· cc •. .IL[..-: "-1''''- . '(:.~ -.oem does ~v'" 0. :ljf'\n"" ". .I.. '"D··:·'.I:"_""[r-A'V_il"'.."..·1···.navetriec tc I hav .. fior more ..J . . " . -." ...:·.iJ!.a:r:re'~: LTI' .-.'.f a true versa.·-.e_ .in [ of devisin g and.es on..0).long p·.-:-:.._ar " .. '_'. ~...I d'I p: ress.:. u.e:n."x'a 'e·'·F-:-""i. . re .. P. >-'- - '1' -. indeed merge with the old.\. . .1."-' _. '1-':9'~1))-'.].~.~ U erated ..'7 ()3--'IJ -.. -:: ...a_-.ry t"--·:::. tne n '" :'__~!Je d' ·o-"tl:~i:i'.-._..j.r _ drsnncnon tactic ._::: 1 -'.r' -.~~ [. rom ..nO~.- .I Jj.d..'". "a.~ 'B-.c '-' .: ':l's' _--t ICI£.J! . k-'" . 'C'I'- :. .".' ~:.. .. ry..I .... ...'._'. I(··P.l..' .~ c._.5:c\.I'. "'iI-_--- :('"lIS: '. ~.Le Haul' La'tld.' llA.: ~."e d ' Poe" explic ]""t-..'-'.I. .... ._.1.. Q. .=I...~= . "I' .····.. ~ even berween " . "Further ..."Of].g.'~'I~ 66" Self .i"~' e'm:po.u . I. _-.au.-.'.v .' 1 ':_ :IJ' 'll: ..ar"~A. "".'==.' .. .. ..-.a.'O.'1u t e rs P'e r 1l. r _.c Iy .c"y ~"..L. t· __ .'-..·.l~(l. .S not.c-·..rJI.··... '}~"~~' . "... -. ~l.-- :' ~ '~..·.=c"".._..h an Mi·· ay_-'1-'" ~ .~.~..."_' '-Id· ..1.'--.1 I = I: .== II..:.Ire more 0 bvi vrous my pomr b ier :'1'-' .- - .1:. : .~11.. '-'['~"". - iii . r' : ... ..__.. !..'-or exist ·. .."dp'[ -:.' _ _ "l..c poetry" The outdated or inconvenient C()11. gar .g. -" ~'. ~..-0. e. __...e .hat A-""""srorl ' . _.".-·.. ....~." --''1'.- l' . y -_-: a': :-.LO [..'-. " l SOl'" a... '3't _-[-..I '.:C nrmer g.··~' does.h wor d s: -I' t. '_. - Copyr 'gh ted m a1... "=e.. -N"'-lew '\1'. division of the "Iitera ry' glen. u -'.:1 .U delai . writes .Point tOI be [chall-eng ed.~!I.''11'' P ·····h[·. 'g'c" a .3. ied 1. 1'>".. 1 __ -.S'o:~:..n~"n.OS[O. _.-..9. aJl~.__' _-'.C!I" v. _.L" ..."'...d ·0.. " r 'N:: ores 0"... "'f"'~ .t.1 • l I " rx o . .. an d. tr e .glv.....[ -~. -:-. l.. " '1] Edga .il 'am.. ai'~"ress.ptJ e . p'.res" that the whole "unconscious poC.~. a.f~-...~'!I! _-.t. .."y.:. Ill" ".' _I "_'.l ..':'-' "1':':. took u'p' or shared _ " . . LIr." I (' .. n~::..---ar.--. ~ )0. '.-'·~.' and absolutely con ide m"U. ..' i[n". .I 'I" '. Aristotle. '.l.-'.po sthurr .Jur.1:"(I...····11']..iIL " eration) of attributing: to Plato and...'. . I.."~~"PI.~.':.1.'' ."'~-[~\V how S~10_'_ =.'C':' [-.l~."'""" '::'[-'"'~..-:-.ltetq.._- :-: '_-._ e.. .:' .as :).~.." '-'. .-.-.'..alre~ [""'-"F:·" the Note ['_. eaos CO...r " ". CS 1 'iI".'I .. .! .I.p '1.~.I[illJiI! '.-"r'. .' " '-. pners It.".·'. ~. . a su pplementary eonsid .'W'"' h._' then ~ .:.:)-.-.d. "..nnClpe ..1····1.:-.Ii.::----...·--.--.'' of both philosophers 0.16f.-. 'I· his 0.----.= .on ..: '....:l. '.-." .' . _'11._. .lS~. 'So . ' view. re---".=. ." ..- .~ e"."!\..-c ( 1j j ··.-. -' -'... ·P·C. ".'___:' ~.c· '. in 0[. _ Baudelaire's . O. -.'-:-: -:.'" . an d'.. .·._'.l!llli[.".a.-. A so he si . --.... -.~ CO' nsmerec d as.'-.. .-=_... _1 ':~-"' ". ='=.J .6~O·.:'iIi).... ani d"I.ury.S:OCdC.: tf!:e:orie' de la~'-.\. emar cipa.'.:"-::0--onlv . -...· " . .. rlv the t":-:-'P-":.'"e .[1'_ poetr. I. .--" . ..res. ". d ~ ~ ..'J'ec~s. . '-. '1" e~1" """ ". _ ·'.. an d . .fl.. .. L -:0' . or . ". d'-I '). _.."1.more ."... .-.-.L=Gll ..marlon."". !Ii. [-_.' "" lor .. "'1'Th e Poe-ti ~'P' ·"""111·· ' ~5' "E~··d·· ..a~e. tra n..""G... oe 857' nl-rla:r~e$' l ..t..-.._ ./J._I.[.. -.[-- . as not 'y':le' been [O_'~.'.'..".0 ....'.. 'C- ~-.g·'._. 1. c."'_ - '... '.g...'-.-_-...ohen...cen. .-. 'II' . ----~..e~ ur~" lef " ..[ -'. .~ --:"Ii:!.~~ ~. rose [[1. .y-" : _. ".poletry tnat ... _ ..'cr.oe.l~.-.._.also j'ean C. JQn.I'" ":_= 'I'll - 'p··..u... '" ....'·a'Ut~:e:..ap'o 'B ('.."!!' au... _'-e navee' ·. ab "'-0' . .to t..a. .".:. "p. ..Edcar ~I).." ..0\: ·d···:·w . ~.".~yl" a cool'" receptio m but in 'l'n'IY":' opi --'1'·'0-"'---' he m o"'--".I!t "..!t. Mill's .y" ano w hv theori sts rea ched eorisrs '.'''''' ....·"'~' e _1..··..J grn 0.~[IS roue excmc eo . ".. dact poetry . "\~~.1.~o~::'ern...-.plicit concept of "elo.ra..s "'.' .ra:~'y poe ·t-·" r ... ..'.v. . one . ''1'9-''7.d·' ..th an a ":""1" t..-:..p.' " I~"'" [I -. rm the.' ..- . nt .. _. . "lil ' r d" .~..'.. - _ --:'. .. .j. oecomes.'. ..- l'lj. .r-pt.~ ..'.u-"y.-:- c-- - r "" (ID..e..I.' a'moll.__ '-'."'" .)~~.n.' _..). III .' _. d' f..r ll:-..·'-r..~. ~ '..=:: .OllSf the term o poetry will no doubt cause this .:'t:.:-."-.n.11.c:}.' 'i' '10'" '_-'..es'pecu.:s. UDIOUS edition .' r ned __.

c:c. 'V'I" '1.. .. ..._.. 'i!! .-..: ""1 ~·. . in J !l..::_.'.. :~ . ' :'-'" "..-at. ... I' "1'JS. •.:. _ = O I!l...1_ ...' t:... .e._.ll . _ .." '....d th same ".'. v.. . =..~:m· :Ii ~. ..11_.." _.. .." "1' J' ! . I.1. ···:···.[a.'. . '. _' I .' I._. • • J[ J • I.··:n'. _.d·:'I·:th· "'y..I:!t..h':-'-1 .·..d''.0.'."m··· :..af. . ~...'--.1.. Im. '... "_' !II". the extent .).... _. I ...' '=c.: 1:- '. [I... .' .. A.I. .-."" ..e·"r"'''' ..' itncult) . 'ell"'ll'u' ·n·'C"~la·'t~'n·':e.. e theorenca~··I. . ' .' ..}~. "'. . Batter '. .need .: '_'. -:c .. I I G.3.. -.. ~ on t hisn '."t·tio·.·t' for e ·····1·· tnatt' '.. jakobsSOli"...re J..nd.~. . ~: . _: '. . 'I ..cr. . .II. ie tact... 'ii-.' .ria··. ~"1 .r.~'. ..h ~ .-"". penocs an d· b.d.r--·r'·"a. .A..." d g' e"n" "t'PS' e an " co ·:'l·L. . the' romantics and postromantics were not overly concerned .•• ·. . '. A~' "':'.r C' [ .. IL'.t . 0..~" ra:". 1" ··0·. ...r _ t ." v .. '._... n .." .t.U. .... an."":..lerican analytical philosoplry-c-aggravares reti ~..t. nat the [['.':"...~.0"•.' -. eac. ....~ ··o·.. ' _ . _' . ...·.~ ciaimeod .I""c_. ". ...~ e..• . u ..to treat it: with C··:·:l're::'~ mn. no doubt make :"':1'. e .__':doxs :....' 1 '. -.••. re.._ ..ln . '1" . tieth century. iii . uld '''' ".: ". . d'" 1] d'~oerent . .: . '.'~~:'~.···'fo:I'···' .' "Ib' ·p.cria .a. "- .. lr. ~I '. t'·'! .. '::..·:. ". --:.ons 'b'· d" ~ llO't p:reve'._'~. '.··h··· ·"" th ..'. gain. .F· : ifj'h':' e c r...~.··:0.gi .':·..' ~~ ••• • L!' .ge'ncflC a:n·.'111'_ .:.::.~ '.y~.. • ..'.'~ie msroncsr11 realitv W··__: S. .' tho.": '..e...'PI'I ...e..• .. :~'I /u. ~ "h : "': letlL ."''I"'-_'- BC-:· ': '1mI ..1".(. . . ·. . .• !!!"""!l _ _ ~ I". 1.'..p":.c.e '.. ds ..1 _. ..• (I. __ . ::~ .Y :----" ."~-.: r .. :'.'. Plato.~_ ~...... 'v. '.I"~~."~ ~ . plicitly .' to aerrve .' _. : . '.: .ato an.a =_~I.: (rc ·d". 'I.:.V .m. = _" .! ' .'d COlrn ed '.'. .d~IO"Jf~' .. r . l I ""·':'~I as .. .'C:. . " .....II _. ..'." .Y'••i ore . iuusion u'I' u . " ~. g -I' ..:1' rea.~r'c:..:':'.-.. .t .' I [.' IV.' IS so 'W··:"'1'1' "e.1..·I... " " .e.:_J~ '1 I. ".•. ei estan 1"'1""'.I~ '1 1':1' ···~I_:'--:.a····t:'l~...: I: . .... ..t~h t:'well .'. see. ..·t:"Ii!'n" ·c:e·..' .[ 1 . time wnen it did not exist IS 'very' d"'re' 'I ') . ·.c'~'at .." .ty"" e ···h·· ". cI_.' .[ I' .e 6'..l.' ·e~:"x "e\n ..ILG... tIle . :'-1 Copy" 'gh ted m a1.':'cks .'~l .'= _ t1r'· .. g ... .'.' .flo r__ attnmmon .' _~ -. ' . ..0.." ..·· ..''''' ." 1. -'.. lel .·~.lIi.:'· .' th .. •• •• ~ ...-a·.r '. .i:O·' ".'_.. en m 0' des d\.11 the enunciating situation. _ .•• • •.d"d···'.~.· fl : ·S. .. .··· _ . -..' genres in rhe proper sense of' the tC'IDl were taken into consid erario :(n: (very lit t' le In Plat 0·'.t... . " ·' rospec[._-.~. '" I '" . . 4 '.._ I.y_"n. .~.l. [~ a' 'm' '·e·~·· 'n'~~r u _ • '1[ I' . ..~"tl..'~ -..~ . for example) the legitimate renewal of interest in..'..'.>.~'::-·:i··~':-·:""·: was d" .-'" Jon~.. -"'.". ....s we and A'ng::Io-. A: . .:'-"n.'D' 'g" "Ib's'. .: '.. as w'e have seen.r ~'.. ". . _ .r.: .. I '...-. .. ' :. lei..''::'''' th.-.:.n" .~. . d..- '.':._"".. . 0 < .' .' -.I •• . I._.gate .~..1'e' re.. ·. ".~' .1. __ . . classicism it stem med fro m . .')'.. J~'" I ..:.11.~t=_="' '_'. 1 I "" . In.-.' .t. ~ .. . _ ...."". I" '." _ [IJ [. '.Ii· .. _'.~ To...lme 'lram .•. '_" __"_ ~[~ ~.r'·l~"~':[·':'.. I.. d [.s:~w:-:-'[~n':"'~'~:""rr.". uch :WO ..··~:~':.. " __ .iouor maxe c ear. ..]. _ . _. ' '~'I--'. ect for '. . deri ".':11-.ve '·"11 ...". t' 'h'. ·~l··]·".. IJJe a '["'" a.~·l '[--·a·.0 _ itself .d. for it b . • [III 1'~'h'I.'.' b'.'. ...-' ..f: nus erroneous a i1t1' 'II . passed tnrougr ..: . . .:' .. . .' .• . m re so ~'.' '. __ .f!' :~~I_:'-:!l1 In.d·tl'v['sia. ". ..."'...... (' .. i'n:~S':"'m":"u":c".I.r'r'_.____ .n·...' . t"'ag·~.:~·['_"'··':'~·~~1·~." .·.. u. '1"':". .' .'. .:_.."". '. _ .' from two ver y:::' distinct m otives A· : .. [Ji.il . ".'I" . t' .-.x.- o'···n· .". Between the two periods.'. ...~. -- . I. ' " .. . genre .' " l" --..~. In status.._ .h. . envernste.I"lne !l.).···..' '_" .' IIti.~.' '.d:·I~'r'--' . ~ .:.cc .·.g:.•• : ••. "":'.' '. '.·d'. '~. on a text's mode oif·enunciation .. ..':o·..' V'·e'· d:.C c.[( .·:dclh. l ""~ 1 . th '. __ -. an interpretation nase '".-~~l:p "'d... -.~·~I: .·n·h ad clearly definred ~ status ...JOU.:- ': '. .." . '• • _1 . '..S" .hie :e.I'·· (" 'h -.d t ·:c.' b'l .:'..S 0·..e.I-I r'b"" --~t'r-~ IS '1.ns to t .):.'m. ~ .I11 ...c. • :3··11. ". P enomena 0"'r···'gcnrc-e-tnat '[S" ". IC'. " .:. '.s. .' rmagmmg a...·~·::-_::·:-.' '' .I _'. '3·. the a basic . d ~I.'." that :' . . c l'~" ...m.· I. cc.~I [~. . == = __ .:·c·~ ". l 1 .u.O~ example.' . .'.1 ~..l c··':rl+. .' r..~n"de'" d..11.G ."\.n t.'. "I.". Frye.. ..I.r Eo.1...y .:..5...'..-l.A" ".""..: :.: 1•• - ..:. _ • I I .. auenont Y .3]. -.. 'h'l I. a·:mo·'n"-'.le " ..'.at 'h '.'. ..' . ." th"ese rna tters.i ~~' .. [llIoilIU'I!.~~.. _" ~ . WI· . : . oretic 'I" t·· m.'C' ... '1ir.0'__ "c:a""'["_. . · 'I'] " ' ...1...: ..~d.. .'0' r "1in..15 confu 'l~on b etw.-:'r'r '0 r.'I· ·.i\r. . ~I~ 'I [!Ir=~' •. stemm ed .. ed .e···)··y·:. . a b 0 ut drag gl n. f1. . .o·'}u..'.'..-'-'~. 110. (_':'I-":'.I' .eu."IIS~" :t~le::y"':' a. ::' ".". .a"... _~. Sch.""'. :.. .'.:" ..:' b . ~=.U5.~ ~.oetJ1le .... u.ca"e."' on. [ 1.!l .. S· ..~" . '1 :.io :' t attrrmmon.__: .~.e mto a..._. _. '=. in Aristotle..o.· '1 .. Of" a.ial._ thir 1-5... '11"::.. [I. :··~I..._:~'.nrawrb:. But the present telescoping of these various posirions-« rh '. .-'" I: --'I' 'I'" .".I[II..'.Inc d' .61.:_'- ll]i~d. still deepseated res p. ~ . ..". ' . ll. • • l' • • .~j'"' 'lin''.':. Y. . ..lr]_ ._.J ' •... I·G···.~ 11 ~ 1" 'it" d l:n CJ. ~ . _. ······t' [ '_...n. " : '~' ':."'o"·th··. ~ '1'[" "IS. :: ~. and also (as is evident in. J!I [. . til 'm':" iii" :.." tt:'h····~·y···· 'w'~!r~ ~"'~~".'·r'-~''n'·-·. • I I .:' .'..." ac . ".eo. -.·.'..'.'."" I. '.- " . ' . J.c. a 'better reason for the attri bution is ret. :..I.' - -_\. a modal interpretation 'of the' '..'-.:: r [L ..

Ie· """. '" '.10D. ....:. .reS'1l su ch as the novel. Na.01. . 'S··· pee ies" .~ " '...n·.. .~ . for whom real drama.' ".. lJ '~"...' . • "" _ _.. _ m._' ·"t"h·t'-r des": tne "y rrc ~ " ..·.._~. . ."" rel __ ".:J ~ l'! .·: . r: 'I ...urjormen. particu lar ge:n.:::. . !!l.~~AIt....postromannc " di .. . \r.r .. _'_.-. 'C'.' . )..Ji"~.. '.I 1'1:_. d ···. .c:··'e.' d".-...'.' ". I. .> '1'· - .~'.' ' . .u . I .. SpeCIIl..~ . .I" . . . ." AI90:" U'7.I~A..-.ck"e'.( ..g an. edue ~e-.. d.P o f social aggreg ate .- - - 11' -'--A :.I .. _.._ ...._ I _ ' :..a.:...:.~. E'! '.iV~n·"..-'~ but -.62 .have . u.m (G:rundha. .'y_y 3.: :~: .. L:--- --.:.D_."..."..r' 'Ii' .!.u'l:~.. '... . ' .eria .__ -._''\r.·_ .essag e.'I·····:_" [·-'·:_·":I]I.' tent I("'t'he: • • .i n'a. lyrical.".'1_ " . '_" __ 1_non 'Hi' 101"" . · th ..~.~." mree . ~ fe..t._...'. V .:...'C - 1 I·.'·. 'H"-ugOI_.. . at Jl..-· .. "·o··· unr 68 H~' 'I'e" ":r...' · ."" .r····'.-h.. " . 0'1i '~t.'·'t..r '_ .''D !II1r. 'f: t'iL~ 1'. ~:". dramatic milieu "made ..·. . .-~...... t. '... .It' '.:_.n. .. I" .' " ·. x genres ' express '['h'· -'.506~'We ..0'" .)1 3"f'I. . .' actaon."~.h ..····.. . ennnciancn b .c_ = "'_'...] 1 . I I .c:"...~.oe f.' .. . r. . its . 'C" :.·.' 'COI. ' Isc .( _'. O'_" con."'. .[ the e:n··..r wrho·'m.'_ .e'.C3.... . tne eJ.• . -. .=....I"': . llustrated '-.e :. "11'· . . n. W !I!''''~''' . " .. L\r ..r····'IV'.eclSlO'._" 1"1 '1-:1':':'" \':_··.-:.---~ c···'._. '1~.'.I. rhe "three genuine'" natural...~"1t w. -1" .":":l"I'J1J1 ":eh··:C' .." ..' l'~e:. h...'.In ..'..._iii. The transition from one' status to the other is clearly "~if.moaes 0.c " .o's_::aJon '"'".fiji".3..I.-.e' of ~"j'b3'Si.-.. --. l " ii'jdi. .1 'I'~' 0···· ·• •.'. .'" - '.'..r 'y':: .·...'-'a r.C: .r..G-". .. .: I.-._".' _. ..~ '..~ ..... con . .. ' -\.. . .'. .e'-UlU'.. .' tions already inevitably include thematic elements. in .'. ichtanen-. Q . 67 'V:i~": or t_l_ us 'r-es."... I yric ton.:'·"g:'· -·' epical knowledIl "_'... Y. th e C .'y' prescribed by the definition of its mode."".-I...' . by a specific tvne n . :- '. ['_'..7'-7')'" "t'_ ". "..~~~t'-~h:r __ _"".""":" I.II. ..s of. ' . .~tra.. a. "D. .lenta rl'e.e. .. unes ~" DY' -. .. art d".O:On.'·1.r.. l_ •..'a.:"1 it"t. ·.' a .." 1..r..en. . . I....guei' ~.-..t... .." '0' :·w:······n·.C' 'w'.''C.. c_ ...[11.....· 9·~.n d.rte.'. I.eto~ thu _ .~t:lU -. .". ~. ."..:lS In..tl ...:. . ~'~'6. .~.qule S"'-' .': _" '_. )' "t . well-known texr of .ny. '!Jt .. . -w.I sid .n 'e' . 68.~. 'c. VlCWSth eavision.1_1!l.tS". .t.'.' "basi '. a..t··· in -.. ' . ' him there exists an epic world defined..f1 .~ . ::. i' . .) .Bo· . _ .t .~. ...~ t:: "h '" essentia ]'1. .'··.. £ mo-d.. hu man relations hip.j'.' atntuoes c the '1·' 'i" a'I ex.-l . .':'I"'lli..'-. '.' .1..:[ ·.. .'I.r..>~'-: D:...' .... .e s.. - .·o....-'~ ..i ..1 '1.1I.. _"" "_. . -.... (sep a"a +'1":0' ··'n'·· of h··.-----: c. .. : "'" .·_· .ow'ever v3. ....<..'1' '9:" ~._tt...' '-'.uc__ ~ eels t_l_.e_~~n..: 1-' . see ~i.-. _.. . 0: _." .:r. . Form I:B. the ballad.I. _ _ _ _ _.l..0.·'I:tll··''')·:·t1-11""".. w rose de nu '" . _oe[ w . 11.:.1.'·1 ··t·~ 1.· -..~'c··:h'•.".. "' th ~ d ramatic .:..th ~ three m..t . . . .'. ·W.3' _.3S.' -'... It:[".Nr. .ern::: :Fr..1. i cit tl' (r'pt. ... r~:e -.' .".~'. .I_C -. " .~"Le-..iG.. "'we ~..a'n.. -..vet wh.hristian m. ]~ '.. .··.".and. . .. .521~ "2-"91'. .~ I.·'esee t h.·-" 'g' 'e".'." :-'F~e". Viecor. .. .r.'..~ '. . ""I~'_" . ~'~l.' . a 'dl· -'h' l "v erse". -:"".i .'I1'I4' p' ::'.t.'- I ''-'.. Wl.am.'= G····~·o'· .-"[ '.I~(..~s"ch'" 6'7.I. for example is Inseparable from.·1")'"''''iI''I· ...ramatic._.'.tratnSposlng. 'The ro'I d iews [...lil~e~u .f' rnannc. --' _"1 ':'.' '.. 1('l' 1·9~··· '1' ~ 'J" '3 '.and :'h'.lu'"u·.1 ["1 __ .. '.:.···..:..~ 1n ..t'-. __ . .·.!1 "n1~-: .-...~.'~". .erh ·e·. . individual subject") .•.' I·'....iii P1.f . . · '.p:assln.Gei:st 'tl t ..l.'....1' 9:' -":":I!~\"'''' ." '. . _ __ _ _ __ _.. . presses ."'.'h' '-.. '...I~e_N'~h'!J'~' ... • .td': ~HI!I_ .~Q.e ~am.'.e 0" ird."'1: ..' 8:' D" _ " Copy" 'gh ted m a1. or sat.. .. I~""'D-':.(". I -C.IL ..O)·"~ "r...'on".. . distributi deer. "r".e'plc' an...'-Y'~nd so ul) W1e:-' r >:. 1Il..and.!LS-"·"5·'.seen the s. a_so see It .by ...g_ teentn century" bout . . .ec. .'"..n.I. .... -.".-:'. [ .ene . 1l..n.Ill 11.-I' .p."'.·f··-..oe.~ t. ' Ge'istesgesc. a.<:'C). a.U5..-.. "".].'.1. __ _ _ .'e'...eferring '[0 two :notes (D'....~.' .. -.iii .~ wh..e..i""~d:lj.. . 3""'2-'1 (..'.. ' -.r~·"~"" 'a'" 0' u""'" d er D:/>h··'·-t.:e·. thI".~.tlutS) 'in :K.. '.·"1 . -. . f'· .I : ".' ".."..:. and. .'9."·· . ·Wi_.. -t.d .. ~ In contrast. ·.. ...u:ts......"..". forms" (···t1:'_. ..yser . .·········1·.. .' •• 1 ••••• '..f··' .' '-.cc Ilt-'~~::-· . .~'I~n. . .. "1 .ame 'ter.. no" ..' .' ....n·...: Jl~I. 'Vlcwlng .' 'C.g"'IC· .....1....• . " ... iI1I .fli. ·.. m" ""'Iilld'-e'" 'p" .. j •.. "'. '" -..~..DS ~ W".~ . .'". .n....t... -'.: .·. ~ -: . "1 .'.' ".' " '.t a.aJor. '.J.r"i..o' 1'0'..1 11.-rrrects ..... .....'e .~... ed ~ d G-.. .'. -H'. 1 b . . .. ..-':~c·"'h""~·c·'h.·~ ineentio na. . i'.o st1ok.' . m:-.' '. . . setic w.vw c· '0' . G· .. ~I~O··. fo ".''...leI].n:ilitJ~ nin· .'.d d'. a -"~i-n '''_':.I.....c_.. 'f" .' "h' . I: 'e.'-" 1'[..o d~..~.~ 1..h ..~[lave '.. ·f' " coneent tnat 'was m no O 'wa..(.1:'In . the epical.as rea genres... _ ~ IJ .....·· 10.It: 'lL.. " "'1 [. a' c··(' . • _. the' dramatic no longer simply as .ege among otth ers~ £I-lor ~-. '''1'' [:"'1>" - ··1····[1· "1 •..p~.. : .av. . venture .

mean.senta'tion.~gte)."·':'"t.'..In.ess!!..... !IIji _ '. ·f·' the n.'''iis's'iAt:' rhe d istinctio .. .o.e .~-. :1..".' I"~' clea r lv ..··.. n (~~'I-'£ir-'mthe. 'P... an_..Ij."cp.. e Hoa:r.·n. .. " ""..-c···:::. ::. . eegy"'.. f.t'. m ak.. .. ~ . .···· . didactic :po-e.i["l."]])·..S._' l[leq .. mg. __ ".n"['~'rp' retatio 01 .m.re[3[io-.t "ca :'...~·: ' ~ .. .. ." ". - = . .' d" J ('"Iii .Ul[JU'·lr""I~1 "..DlS. emsne......: " ...' :' -.a r erz. .\r.i"'i' ... . I"~'. 0. vers e. . "nut (3.•"..n t·.. -.:.u-'~lce'lv ~'P'l~:~"'1.r.. ....'. .11"[0" im arely applied f'I!~O·.. modal intlerp.-.' 1:""'0' ~r"s" 'V' '1._. sive than my translations (~~arra tion pure' [pure narration] n and ~"epresentadon vivante' [Hfelike' repre. ·n·l 'A:_" .'I.~ iii ..:n!:o.~..':_ ..~".y put l'"'b -'1 . ~l iI: . IjiIl. . ' .[I_.... n."".an" moces. 'G'-.d". • ""~ '10 .Q'IC ir'[ ..1 I "j"-I _:. whic 011.. :-~. .lr'_'L h a.'. :~L II .(1· :1:3. . The contrast between Diduanen .)~.-':": '_ .. and the drama.jt. :m..~ ' .:: . 1..t :t .'1 I-'"- _' I' :".'1". ' _ "'-"'-'" .I'. I' ~ . 'which does not . '11] -'.....- (.u'A _ ~ .1: · 't .. . . In Ctichtenbef"ger~s bilingual..r•• ' [..I..'1-) . '~ ::.... ..'4p:-O' '.l_' '.d:r..a.J" -.. - I.V·C' . ] A'· ~'J :d..1......"11. A . -.."[~'" .:-'. 1. nOIi..omeric' .&9 "These three poetic '.' cr.~ J'..'. ·c· 'I' .'.m".1 .o. _""'iI.····. ILH.\r. e·v·· 'e'f1l.".·· have >'. . t .-.Di'f)'a'l~....'. no doubt.tr..rion" ""The :H.t..·..p:so d-'~ :fi' :.. .-_...5 ~zQ:"at. .i'll..."".. ~ . dot ibt me term '. ...I ~'Ir" 1·'~.he I. r that .u.'J ..~ "d~"' ::..· .:..-. ..n.'.lLII!\..J ~ l~.. .Ie.I.anc It IS remtorced d b . f-" N"· 'I' ·-t··. .: . . .£':' 1:'y"" ri c.. 0de ~parody. " u .ll"i. F''[lenc'b t:ra.' ..--':':.._d--I.1~. precisely..~ d"'e"to··1·'[-.:~:rVI("ls~n cles l-'.un· t" it'h...~. -:-.tes . 'j. -.· sa··:~··t-'Je!"~.'1..0···· -·s . But the whole lr noint is. b --.~"e' •...1d ea evant -.c-~ '''.r:..'. .'["1.c]u··.' .-.~. A"lL.~.:J) '" N ev'e. .ue ..'!h-. ..'-" :!" .in 0 the t erm '.. -.. r ."".h . ~ D·'ht untwessen rrre I .ls13tl.'--. 1 _' • l".".".'~'....L >_ ..11.r jointly or separately. ·t··'h.at.~..". _. -.~a ' rae. a ·t·· ' WO.l.:1.'I·....c. .: a' I)..' . _'[' ..' II" 0f"I.Ii. .I.:'{_I".' _ . '" .'First.•• >..rten' ".:are _ I I:' __!Ii.' ..p.Clsen.. :_·c' and d '£:0" .~_~enj' 'widl .' '-.'t gr'li'[I.I~'"d.:..-1 :. .. .e. edition of the .• ' I '_ r• ~d · •.W..I'lilt..-1 :: . :"1'- . . [D·'-··"·~···.. ·b· . 69 :' ~ q'l + I"·' nst D'. f"'aut"::I:i"'iotl'~'1I!!!e "ft A "":'V.U. - -._ 01 -I .' .: .'.e "._ ••• l~ .tll. of :. the "I3I._' ~. i. .~.._. ~ .urcl·Y···· .'1''.t he -~aguer.. J' . T'.· ll. d drar .- -1 1........ .. ~_.~..e...X0. . ene ['w'h.'Ii-··-d' . . :s.·an.···II·~--'~~··~·-'·-':·:. ~. narranve ('B-~tZ..1].::"11' . .'-.~_..~ can s.·: . .sofy._ '. I__ 'I ~.cases ..~c: . m.--. A· . .i1 ba..'.-..' . '~'~In. eXpOSLUJ)1.".~.. t aat reason.r:od"·UC'·UlH .o.Hell' -'-'-1'-'" .m._ .cria .I.'ot.":!! •.-..li ep icalldratnd'l'i c once tha t triad 'n as been c." '_'.:n. ..e:'l1 uently 'use..~.~ "'._:_·[-' '1"'-"1'" . ' dl e'11...... ef : ··n~.i':' 'M-I.··.a~J. racontc clairement ~"[who recounts clea rly] and "qui a gi:t: pe'..O.g ·W· '0'""r'"d': '.n·. ... epic. ts ~.an" .··d··.. ~ __ '"" ..'1: .u.iiiio' 1!J..n '..e .'. I ~ ~ ••• _.r~I~.P~IODJ..'.~!\.': . "....- '.'·.·' ....'1 .!j.an '".s. cc·-:... :~.:~::-:.. .."/-:._ .·. I.... . commentators ave d rnose .fil"ut:n..".~'I:ni.lc:alna.lJliI'L·'. tween genres ..le.·· eith mo_ es.(~ ~1 - "1- 1- 1···..~' I_ '. ...j~"] L .!.e' a Il.:'.'.b ..r . 3'n.'!\. /.'... ... :... Gi..t'b.d ..hl~r\.(..~. ~.u:tjorm:en:) of poetry: the epic defined as pure narration (kl a-r Ifrziihl en die). I s..- I..•.'_.'-'.·····. ~_. no..n.. to know whether ~ the term ~..lUll: ·· 'O'if" e.• '.c_.·a··.. pa.e '. ·u"n..'·:1 .... IUU. h jz .!o\s 1..." p.A. ItIi:' '" '.... '". '.I'n b....." -' b".'.·..::. "..ictl Y' .. -:"'th ..~:·J11. id yll.J.. :"> us to . ...' '. m'O'·13J "!iin··d he d .e th.a ' I '. . ms·. .' .. 'l~""' p·. 6. -.e.._. n. .- j . . .I!.ons...1. :. ~I '":C"'.. '] a I'II'er.. ·l. _ .: epic a l dram do. lS ep. ..-... ..<:=_' V'....'._.:.t'-'· I.-.IOe'S ." ec .III...... ...t'... "_-. .. ...:_.'.'...-. an d' sen...l'I"d' cancatav urama. __ .. 1: .t'h-'-"'. .. .'fA~.~. I ~_ Copy" 'gh ted m a1. " . crite.-.. acts ....1·.1.". '~1r'f.~'. 'h 'tl..·'Uif1.I~~'·.. 11'>.epic [.!I\'" ""I '.'e'r.il~'u. ~~....It:td.'· -. Ils't ~ him 'h.'["G' .e .. 'f-' .a •. ... + :!'!] • I II" =: Iii"'. .." .. ·~.." u" .. as a burst of rapture (€I1:-' t'h usiastlsd: aufg. .i.. ._'. .:· . to'-.' - -. -. :53. ....· 'i....W·::·C.is' _'" I "'!ii "_ . ..ica ..' ..'-'-'-~ .:: .__ ' _" ..'eti:€ and p ers.'" r.'..:.'.c' m.·.I·:·'~'I '." . in.!!' r~'lb'Oll. . ''''':r's. i:!! 'i!! ~~..-/·.OJ-·-.the _y tne .Aristotelian.. [ :. '.'.·."~.th.=er.m...' ito.[..lrst g:l've. __ P.:-. "e he ..~ "d'-I . 11 tiLl] _ 1 11_1_11.. .d £ .: ..( .s L ~ t.. ~. :·.-:ef nition . '_ .. ~ . . . novel ~rom ance. the term. .at.1.' ._en.."".0 ~r..ive' [~Ja"Qtij].'< ··1·.. d'~. ..' d' d ..zde) ..1aiJi"e~f".. T··'1"".'£'" ire.. '. bI ep igram..-.- _-.u.:.' " -. . _..na'n:a't!'l t.eS'j.. the Iyric.-.".'...CI. .:. 'h····"O·.es· U : II.. 1 ~'... as lifelike' rep resentarion (p ersiJnt:i'.._ "'I adds '.'"". ~ -..'J I : :h- 'I' C ':- - '" !l ·'·.t:~.ee..-· r "t.0. rodes .. """n.". . . lezir. '...· 'r8IC" o.j + I'r .l..... -... O:··. I .e.'{:' 1: .. '..."-' "Cn.' ~ l"...' II" .aed:Y·':7.:~:un.I __ .'It...'Q:ur.. ·:·. Y· . Cil-_... . 'pe.. ' .." .'.....·'·-·----3: _ ..~. •• "' I -.-.. I·-·h .'.··.3 N'a.i'iI.... d d' .' II~ '-'1: 1.I!· .-1 ~- i: . """'. . !\r... the triad I )lri ca.1. .I.1. 'II" t.'ii'~·w:''::.. . !Iw.. I Jg~.-. .r..""~.u.e I .·: ·t.on:n..·1..77 78) 0:f' ft.O·.>. .~ : ".· ver is eh marie. ' p h anencar oroer.! ~y" Yl..-- -1'-"- '-'. [..J Diehtwelsen ~ ···a:rll y A'-C-'o'''m''-p-.llr:~~· ...

l..: . -'J r . .. &...- ..' sl-..<' ".c'ue 'Ii~...• Is-or).~ ~.:' .. 1-' '.. . \ . ~.~.'. lud ~'S p"ure' :i"Y" £'0'.Y ativ sense nd [ l . ' ". to.~ill " :: ... g •. "'.3'fts.".: . ~....:]i :.. . __ " _I "J.. . l'!'!![ ..utter... A~ '-'li.. . .~ [. can....' "h. edef .. .lS~.. '. _ _I'--" __ ' .: .·a. .. ...(orm.~..""t'. i.-. .' ••• '..·"J~I .~...'.....]1] ~" •• '. d e umnon b are externa 'I to any li ..ne . - .. "'.': . .an..~.'" .· . 1U.__ . ~~_. the' extent that: language' and its use' appear as :facts.. __ .1ngulSU(~ ..':(:_1. . the Ianguage user is constantly required-s-even (or especially) if unconsciousty-e-to to .·· :.-".. k)! G.' ha . '.tcrcnce 0'f" status b between genres an... '_..1.... ._".Q.. direct quotation and indirect style ere.••.: . aest h".- -" .n._ ....·as.'.[I_I""I...-"":. ~ .: ". ·Tih"-·.b "[" ".-' h " 'k ...• alr e'-i"iid y' '). 'we :n'QW ca.•. "..e.."". .. .' '. '~"]1'1 . ·'f It" 'to ... r: ..Y"i to Co)' 'W. . . .''... __ .1IIr. ' .. ".~ t= ~ . .h:ares 'Wl~t..:~: '....1SCOu.. .il '.·ec.': .... L""'! . _..("'0'•.._: ".I~<. Copy" 'gh ted m a1.rcs".".' ...'. . '" .'. e" 1"' '~ l~~".. :'. '..irerary :. "1 ..' . [i' proper. . .1'".JJo. '\' ".~I.- ." an" storY:ln. ' .a.".-:-~ .. ance S'U. . · h f' ~ em ~ A' J.e meo .. d. __ . .' '..-.· . "-' <h 0...L"l . ratrh er... e." hich w"" e spea k iF'" I~.. I.a thematic B'l-em ent "r'h' e.:t.:. . tria d ano i sue .' ..'"'.r.. ... :'.') at leas t in '0::f "na tura li lang uag '~S" '~'~ E"iX' .. rene c." .r .. "1'~ . T' l!' J.. '. '." h ..·c '. _:_~. 1.*'_. .•.s 0 f"~ . .] more precise. i"~ I.aJl ..- .. :. =. I.of gen re' is. -'...I! _' = ...h '.. 1... f :_.us~ ... 0'f'._ _ .... ar.. .\. u r g'" ."~ '(""::' .- --. ' ..._il"" - ". ").' ."ave · ..' rcmtext " A' 11:.. b'."[ £'. -h .. ~ ~ 'natural forms '. .. ""r" .~[O 11" .al. I 1_ 1 _ '_' _ .":.l. '~... .1. I.. I" - _ -- : . _ .. .. .o ·.·_) ~ .eir amp I'..-..._ 11~Q 'J • . ~ '_' '.1 ..r." I' I' . I l:li '. f. l~ • 1~1~ ~ .. t.:eve.::..J ..~...re:s . _ .r ' '-7()' .'. [ I· .. as ruscourse ._ - .- ..re ir th ""I' S·''...-_" -:. pinch be' termed th C'C' nse '1In' w: ....I..""~C" h" b ecause eacn O:b" th ern is sup .. "" .. as ki d1_5....'i ~" .:. . ·. " ". . .': '1' "C ... . ' . .'. "'he ....1C'h ..b.. ' "".. ..•. J--JI '.'" h"".. .- .'. mooes: '~r'~' '7G genr"'e:~i properly literary categzories . " :~\~ •.n'lat.... .c . :":1' ...' -...r li n guisri c d escrin '..'.. at "" --..'. \". _ ~'- '-' ~ __ ~.' .tef.. ".(~ k now..." ..'y re"alV e ':". .._.1 .64. ._1 J. ~.'. '.-1 e0 II I '.'. : I': ..t! . _ Ion 'g. we snou ld 'say I'. c·_ .. .~ er f verb al en nciatio m rha ..'.I ". '" . . '. ~."". d t.:.IUeratl!lI'(. whereas modes (" are categories th t...' ..'rna d['_:':'. """ . '. Therein.·_.. ~"_ l_ "I ..O-:(I.t..g JJl.~"p'rag. '.o h . C. .'-' "C'~'" 'f-'..L I h'· I. "1 '.... eoical..:" .rs'e. .·e·: oen. "".' rherefo . "··.' " .. "_" .I" (he o[.! ."..' !I' I .'.." fl"' '. '-: t?u."...'. or potential i1 C' rtude.'h h d'·· -"atu re s. 1Iir..n.. I I..". \.I\r. in a.. .d.-".. Ill_.:m. B" ut t5 e romantic.. .. )11 . s ." se) .gU..:...I I ..1. ".J- :-. _ j".. b thetic."-r ._.".as oppose..~:_ cept when using language for literary purposes.. . of nature vis-a-vis file conscious and deliberate elaboration h d Its b o f aest heti torms.~ gene. 11 ..~:-. ..) . ._ ~'J~'Jg!\- t. W h atever er . '... to 't.on to all the' .W·" ~··h.··roose. -.flc ·t'. I 1 ..-:'....•• _~ ..~ _. are natura" 1 . . ' '..3. I I I "... 'T'I' . r· _ . _l .::'" (. I I~·. C'om.'~I.. for ~ as 'W. e 'I· '."-··· re terms.. "-" or 'jrnore ex~". . .. ...] ". . .' ..c:s .s".:... .. li]·.. ·c .. 01[:.\i.eve. eve. ._1 ~-:.actl.....' '. t'h e fact ...].I _" _ . . . 't" "t.':. aesy ] ~~ ... on ... .c "'..eria . _ ~ . -!Ii' '..._. " .11 .[ . . .r type. .o.. : _" .. ".:.erly:' Htera:ry::·1' m c'an s p~t'o'~'er_ ...~.J. -. .'. ~ "1 " sequent d erivatives no ionger occupy th~ terrain: lyriat cal. 'T: i:.'I W _ -..=...ocnvemste s sense"..._. d '1~o:nge'vi(y.d:"'.: .".... . and dramatic contrast with Diduanen no r' "'"~ ... : . posed to overarch and include. .CS.._.·' ·t... . .'~ '~' .•. . bee .··'.s. ..I . "1d~ffi' -"' d d essenna . . lies the' .. enunciation . .er arts.·· '. B'-· . ""..--. :..:.es Wl..-': . 1 tor recurrence-e-are a p p arently pheno mena of culture and '·h'i.." .• . ". . ..oJ I ~r ...'.......'. .'b·": .. arcn :~g'en'res ._·· .' :.r"l'~-·.:: "_. ""1-: .ey ."". . . 'h'" ~ .ed in · .. -". '. .~_..'.' .. ·' [I. W"[.C""=.' .'. . 1'.. ranked 'by degree of irnpo rtan ce a certain num b "'r"" of empirical b _ ~~ th·~. -'.". '1!iIt mod ps o.still .. '.. Here: therefore'" "p"'rop·. _• _ ' ..··rm 0. nerween rorrns 00.G·.._' I I ~ .. jrut.. iste' .. (-.:_." .' - .. f'" '1"uerature. we seen)" their defining criteria always involve ..._ _ .r~.'. pr ecede an Id: t JI.

.ith no Iimit :s'et a priori to this series of inclusions.j. have been completely unforeseea blc [0.'. .~ chapter 6.' vn ted m to mo re specm c species'n ta1.da ai cO"~ A.i '" '\ .. But the' example of Kate Ham.'-w.A -!H Ir"I.'... tne example ~ '0 {:' '1- U . In short. ehat respect 'the archigenres of the romantic triad are d. and m. .I sUP'.. '1 tnrn011·_ e- t j.n.." '.. etc. a literary theoris t of the eighteenth century.)..-.. and that' no one can set. In.. as .yspecies yet to come are still unimaginable to us today). of w~ Ruttkowski shows that one can alw'ays.11.. .a:n..gu. sifieation then in. We all know.~ '. d. enes l 'I ~ (police procedural.n.posle. ner I .'eteetrve u 11.i !l.'i:s:hed.o posi rion is essentiall y more 'natural ~" 0 r :010re "ideal'·unless we :a:b.ngen.o"n the Iirerary criteria themselves. corned y of humours. . propose anot h ummate posinon.. and V. At most they can be' described as the highest-e-the most capacicus-c-posirions of the elas. '-'-rc:..ry picaresque novel. burger shows 'us that a new reduction is not to' 'be ruled di d ble-s-oui out a . ~']... ~I~ _ ill" _~:tll 65 don. etc. 'into several vari· d h ' er.[0:f cih"' i e •. ... this case the di.nd.... 71. "genre" like' the novel or comedy ulay also be' subdi . a fusion between the lyrical and the epical rhae would [eave' the dramatic as the only form with a ~ ' bi ecnve" A .a.i story a.. use.'adSr'tlC""'.' ~c. ~d· ~_. 1.p.'itlerarls-chen GtUllJ. enuneranonj.istin.r lntroduaion ilr~.I'1U1":.d so on. Ia Simenon.v. for example.a. Di e ..' . and in. '-b'l ~. just as reasonably. ehar with a. It woum not b unreasonatae-e-qmte ee the contrary-e-tc envisage a fusion that would be the reverse of hers.'0... . 'by' no natural privilege. several genres.: cine mo difizierte [G'atun:g:s..po erik.1' t il . d 'h '11 rrgorousiy1. for a. Schlussfo rde- Copy" 'gh ted m atcria . the' c] assifi cation. lietle ingenuiry one can always multiply the positions between rhe species and the individual. This dual status is no t peculiar to them.. any genre can always contain. of literary species as ill the' classification of genres :n.n>~. farce" vaudeville etc. a limit on this proliferation of species (the spy story would. '_"n-'.iv'ided. that the species detective novel may in turn be d.rlorl:~a. :rUllge..

. ..d .c'. " - ".' g. ~ . implicitly - .!-.--.£0 rms (s onnet S " ."-' I co'..: ·:-.r' VJ.!I.~ ~Ie·.11~l-..-'.. -·:-.-... _ones. .rye. !I ..... .'----1 "··i..~ ... h F . or supergen=. jolles T--:-d· . ---.'.: :·'-~'-.:iI _ernnec to In VIS'l.·.. IS '-"0"-...~.. minor forms and. rov )"·' _-_'_ rerminclo gicalco '-'-P' _"..d··..~ b a II. "t . .that "!.basi.. ']".~(J. .-.'. ": -TfN2 A.".'h maj~ 1.·-t.~--~-~ 1~1~~.. 11 b 'd oretical.iI."'~ ··V·' . with the ~= ...'. p:o .. cD c . 'jI'. . ex plicit ·0".c. l~ ..'.__ '___ __ _.go .....at .~ Type is sometimes one term of the opposition (Lam. P .... J . enre .'" "anatomy") '. ." lU .more ~ d be "deductive method. and so OFl~ are uni .iI.1. deal '. .'r."... :-:::: .-" Copy" 'gh ted m a1..~:""~I11 hav"e' .. trans. _ iIi. ·01 n..__:I!!I "natura]" forms.'."ll.' _ In ehe Dfctionar-uL"~ other .°""1 ~.i"I" ..·.'.ur't!' (To dorov in The Pentasuc: A Structura! Approd. ·..I·O··· n .. :::. .. wr ere t.~' .l_gente:... _.iI.--.-. even."..P' . h 0. \..n' '~I"I -' .-: ie or id '~'" since Goethe.. 'l~th soirn e slig h d. [ . II' -li-~'. ".u" bility 15 that lyric: poetry.t:hecJrre.._.. the past" a ttC:I1l.One I..'.J ~':..S ha vie' been made to distinguish t ' .. I -:- -I'" 'f '.classes.ti'ca.-'y: ... .. '. t'h..·-. A. = . p' iI. .Tenltext with the modal position. . -1--.··I·' .. been.r-.'n.. .pl~..an d the I·. ly 'ric.... ..! . epic 0-'-' -~ .. ..c.....].r : ~'... _. ~II--··.J)~.. ~ .. . _ ~ .' 'O·····I--~' +. ways inductive . H' 0::1'.r"'"..1." "· .'-_._. '-'... d d ~ ~ ~"b~1I ~ .o::l-"a···' I _ n IIr __ ~_ ex r-'3l.:-t.eria . estanns ae I es a.I~:· C" "-:-.-'/:~ _..have b . an empty compartment (cornic narra tive. ~. ~'-" ~. ~' 'h ..-..... from tho.' 66 ."[-1-' imn plicit) o·..ng h ere: ...!!"""!= ."u.· JIIl. '"' (utl..'-' (W·' _. ..~'--.~ e__ . w· '... . ~ . __ t-:!o·:·.. .. . 0_d es)..-:-."" 'C~'''III'' ..a. :-'._.1I.. ~!'. 10. analytical... 1. _" .'.Ii.· ..--.'i.l... J .. ll. t J '- .""".. '-."...". I."-.es simp__ fi"~lr. . __ to. or t hiat can b attamecd by a. ._" . s current position IS closer . dO."'_--. s W'[ need __ __ _..-d:-'H~: ""r.". 197....g". . __ .n:re (Vietor) . ..n "" .d-.!Ii- .aU.'.... as we have seen in." ..uch ..ere ..j ).species and all subgenres.: 'r'e' erntiiri~c al .g. ~... . I l ..rI level _.In be d··-I~"C·reed m :r""-. __ assertion 'n~'a··· ... can . __ -. --. . «. 'T.·1. Th -. neen userd are k·' d'I' .tf.. .~.t '.. epic poetry.11 ~'I'rh--..""1 ._""....- .r..0···· wh a"I. g'en're :(Scholes) .··.-: ".Pt.. ~ ~ _~ _ _ _~ __ .C' ..~ '. :. u les " 1.--- -... - --~j ~ - - Jl~'-' t {}..try'" to S~. 'h .:':'(:"... ...elge.. contrasted. •. ." 0.t' levelJJ.. '_ Pre... a.·.l. intermediate :8>.I.SI10.an.... s'~ tit.. ---=-..0 oro . . '" I .. moae I ..f!t1re or basil' typelgenre (Petersen).. [ 72. _. ext I-.' "i..··S~: facts=-ehar is bv a. .0 me one u am "'p:·1···· .-.:··-.ldi . nc . oward I ." .d.."d: genres.' -:'.-..v ~"iI. ---It- .lll.~..':.glft.:· ..iI...llty. '. -..- . he.oi·."~'r-·-. b lish (.-S'S·l·..>'c.m.~ t _. 'T"·.lP_c.a.'" :-._ ci__ '1'~: ~" the ancients did.~ ... exrroverred-intelleceual) h elps one dis= _ '" _ __ _ __ ~ \" __ ~I _ l· .. Richt -.I__b<=<_.n reIn iSIf:ori'ca:i: ge._ ~..iii' .. +..type s th at. enres 72 are simply more .'--5't.. rouorov PO. ~ _ .'".~ ~-..\R '!or"". .·t . ~ have so o ft:en._ ._ ...Cornell Universit _. baslc a·:I~'.:~ :--.er to. the cha rts (whether .(1: ...' I l~. ...u. e existence 0.-.I.3.-. .J~ . "-' .-- . _ !IF .. --~ --= .' . _ .' · er. """t. of poetryI 1(lfor example. .--------1. _ 0·'· I . 'by' t.'~ eneric. -..A . than the others: ....' oth erwise ....':..t. -0 r even to oppose' [th natural ._..~·II--. -. .. 1:11 k anti 'W'arrent.iI~~ .C·. _ _ _ ___ _ __ _ _ _ -.-. t. ~.·f··· . . I... r dramatic po etry) fro 01 its conventional .~ . deductive _ Y __ __ ~_~""'__ __ '" ..' _' by observation of the historical facts or if need be'.:o'··I·n:I]I 'm-caning ..11.-- ~'.' I activity supenmposeo d on an miria] activicy th at' rs ai. V'\.I .A· istotle an-d .-." "'iI.""" . . 1.W-:lr-"/"t"~~/:~~~.' .l'!IP. '" t .h to a .'U' . .--:-.1'( ~...Litera:ry Gen1{.~. 'W:~e'.-- --'.'~:- :':. ~ d ae conventional].

.~·-<·.... la:." '..I .: ~~ ~ ...olon. ·"d··· :t3.CtS.ualirativelv different DI I on.~ or (. ...J .. mres s rt of n·iarural" and tran sh ·. romantic. __ 'b. antnropotog _ e 0..:'e .'.. e -..'.I~ . ...~\.e -'s. tl .."."..' '.3.·.d·' ". ~. .':.y .Discourse.'. _ " '" '.i:" . _. or t" e d ramanc or... ~\ I. _' '.'"...~ _s ~_elt _.b tJ'[·.U : .'.-"".J1.· ."[.. " ney are more lik e. a.::."'..i. .e'.': . 'us.'... ' d.C:t . . 0..'..e_ ('-.f·" an. :'..S3"".:...'he e..l .]'c..1D..'-.Fa.'-i ."" '_ " 1II!... -at b.~ emoo di_~.' ~o". 41"' c: ". '_.. __ ' '_. " ':. ~I!I'H"'~. ':3' .'1': '~..'.. .'L versal categories and thus ..".ii:' . . is .es.. m'.:'[ :'. _c. _ _. i '. d ..' . .'..." .-..... 'V:':". - I .~ ' .N. .ii:I!l I I 1Iir.. like dra.h . .. --.C···.'j : rd..."). . I Iyrical ."'s. .'.." .'._e...' " 'IMArwoA!~.. ' .P.'I'd.Q:.' .re a istonca erinci [~:I. '. .") Copy" ·gh ted m a1.' The to histori ca 1-: P .'''''' :"'1""'- r: .._ _" ..'.I ..'.f'' oical .U". bridgre 'University Pres."'l..". ~:.. _.. (alb eir v. renne '. C .lg.Of. orf' " _.r"e~ wh0. .: ~ .cu[~.. '. . on.: ."d' . from. .. ". :C':t :ct....I .. "::. 'S"'oil _ .r.U' e.'_1."_-'. ..ese 0 u_ .erine' 'Porter [New Yhrk:: C:am .cria . I't·.p.pres ence 0 all exis eenna a.' ••• ..'.." . . ['Ih·. b-:.'" [~.I-.bet. _ .' :'. in.lne ..c. ..····.~~.h .'" icea __ "e . .'._.. '1'1 -.fo···::~-'--.:. ".paclO[us~ less .. '.d! -11.> -.." '1""."'-. ..'t~~e ~__~[-.I.~""l d. '·'''b "' ~ I~ car.Empbasis min.' ·d·"··._. '.' ." .. .Ii"..' 'e __c_::_:.... .-":-::'. . .:': G·'····-"-.. .__ =' _ __ _ . .-..0'[ than the genres of novel and epic that it supposedly encompasses-s-unless we define it .-._0...c.[ .. -. &:: ". ah . Ither ""["".. '.>: 'part IS .... •.'. '" .. d ciasses.. .p.." __ ~'." .... h. . _:_ H -'·':1·· . _i_."~'. " y. "".I... . __ Ij.~ 'me". . ".'.-. ..."" ~ ':j' i1111 .."..(. . I I· I I .~..d ceai . .'''' I(U'[...arlS.":.:. on .' ." .': '. I. .'·'. continned.:<~"']!. course..'.. ..": ...'f'..' . .' - ~.. -._ 0__' t...' "I" ....' . ca .: . . ..c·f:···· .rreS uu"tSCO..1.-~' rer ~.-h'~'r'POtS:L"".- '...:].e nature.::-::--n. fantastic.. . ~["-. . 'I. .... " "". reC31111ul.-. ..J ~ . . I" __ ~-=... - ".-:. ..as the ensemble of 1""'-' ·t. basie stance ... '1.. . neither mo.":' ._.~ 'A" .~.• . ..i[o..... -.···'si-bl·iJli·t.": ..'" constraints. ~ . '_' . 1'..n Ir "y: '~O' me an oth er obv ti ··..-. =.. ..tr _ I .lc . . . not 'q.:0 nave a 'uroand er ell uu [[ai.h-._"(""M"': -..' _~ .'11 reacn.~." "-.. . ..o~g l't.' " .S[f[.: 1 'I by no m ean in ten d to den literary '-'e'" an :'Y'":o .plc. ". :-'it.'.._. '..:lit aI so tragic comic. . .r ... - '.'~·.4[:-··I' no.. '~-::. '.'i:sXOUr...'-w:hos.UI-g..~.:- '·'1'.". ..[ca".:"·t"1." the tr ". ... '.gS. ~ ' :'..').. the.! 011 en d'·I.. __ l_ ._"" ·._J~ r: r'. .. es[ genres" ·. . marie... IJ_ ..'-'.. lg..' '.&'". . " :!it [1' ·9·~:··7.r· ··l"c.Jy " 'IS ·th~t su . the' romantic sense of these terms. .-··d/-'~.... Den" . .~O·...' -·:. ". \ ·-···'I .en:0" mena th th epic '. ". I ~I d aramatrc+....e't..(I. 'Ii-'IO""" ~" ..'-r...s .""".pe.:.. -.'--" .it-: rh 'a._"o!u.I .1-'J". '·'11 tl-':"'" '.'" .. .~_j ·G·····enres' i'n . : :co..auron. th . [.~---"~" _"". .··~hl·en .In .. "T'·~·h'-:·-:e.. g':.. "...' " "'.basically [ ['. .·'"' .. elegiac.6··'1 . ."_"iIi" "1-:"·1.'. existence and relation to history (among otheir ".' . '-'_=.' " ' .:. .. '.- _.'..-::". more natural . . . n :1. bu t their .r.":.·t"r.'. .'.. ofren cnsregarnec .'If.'.d": ". th . h Ch.I.e._= __ "." .~·-:"."·:·"d·-.D I...-....w_..}I... m secon'd': case...s" 1990]" '18..1 :'..-.~ ~ ina with genres but these are. 'an'll':'_. .-:. " c-.[ I' [an" :so.. a g'enre like the sonnet' :-. ..'" __..gth . __~.0: .r. ~ ~. imagmanve oesign n "...'.obviou -. ." L" .p. l~r"" .' . ".:' ". JJun a.' . tin everyday "". b aes.~OUSUIl.•.-."'ro>.') (I.. _ A.!ltL L_:_C~. . •.S"'-:: what Hom er ~~ '-".'. 0.Ii.t_leiy_..~.r less ..' ._.o.li...f1. .. 1ji"I!i. t" hr .. _ '.:."-'. . .:'·"". ~. d-) I" d.. . .... c'-.."..: :"'::1" :. '11'1i~[ I'U~ . '-". ..·i.' enunciation=-which --_--~D'--~' -.~au: '.·. origin.' " .'. ".le 1"'·-. '0:C:'" a "mentaimsp OSltJ01n.III 1'0 .. ." .'b". _' Win reg:ar ~".·.:. '~-- -'-"_-. :'. ntu ·d:-··· of an. ." r ..ft'J..." ..' '..a:se.0. leal'I structure' 'n (:D" zuranu). "'.'''I ".. . . d"' '['..Precrser Y d.ivie level.. .~. 197"8] '_·50~' _._f.": ''-.· u.'"t..:.~Q..ItS "'. !iqill . ')._ __ _."".. we are moeeo dee ). the dls.'.:' 1-".. C1!.. reason . " -!II ' - --- - ...a._~. .'" ~....::ma tl. ..]1..:11.that is properly epi. :. . ct i5. the lyrical.'..':'"C".dialoeue. t •.. ':".f= ~~.~:..J.-d::' . tran:s~ Cath. '1' 'i" - back eo the division 'by' mode For narrative. .11."· -.IS neitner more "i. --.~_.-.:~ [ ·£s ~::"' :._.terrns '. _..'" language) ': of a "feelinzz.

"...'(':.I .d..ftld'. ."~ .i. I ~I :.' ~~'. in English..~ere.que~. ~ and for~ the Iv.d epic Io besic d' [Copope'e:1 (understood as specific genre's).g..h'... .ac~ eh e s' .··.... n...::!! III. I d ... " ...6..' lc) ..d. " ...~': ' ..~eth :": .....:..:... anc given a speerif t'] c h . ~I'.. ".e.lc~ d rc aemanc L... "iii.' v~:.:I~ ~ T..[. the' comic -.'. meant as mode ( nar rative I rra t'if]) .an1:at.rt [epllqu-e'~~in the modal sense . ...' 'i' th ere 1·"""'' ' '· "1 ens ti theae f ' .. .!Io." meant as genre..i'.'. '-' .1:_. I I ~ ~_' . f nate_cy~~..utext ._ '_~" '\.'. ::'1.I. -:~ ionai -" ..: '-.'1 c C..:.s {or dramatic 1'... .' ':I1J~:- . .~".t~< an. :0"'.':'"..enote..' de:'ra. 74.-·f···· h".""/lit ...~..'''"''' . For as generic -·-" .n eep ·t'..... historical thematics is....e'p...: ...hip between atemporal archetypes and._.' . '1:' ..'" v'~.1. if it is.'A'r--'pl ac ... and unfortu1d b he generic = . -'erm... . for example. etc.I. ". and no one will mis s it-.is.."" ifJ'I.Ul''H' fp".''''~_.("':1:- =. '0'-" r Ch arles r Mauron's ....rafl\fatique remains ambiguous.. co.• ological analvsis of e.t."..~_...'. psychoanalytic reading of a genre that dates.I'n")1 A"····· iosto. ~" 1 th:'~. msreao l 'alii.~..*. ''il ."'eser v e 5 ":.cp. - 'Th""-:.' [' d-'.~ -~ ---.'" '._ ..l:' fo ."'..~.'. etc. r f"X··· am pl e.-' m IDI'I:9I:e' that seen 'jill· lg.~ ---'.".r~ " "" di" . I~.-.".Q rrati] (the only 1.~ .English or] FrenchI o nly the limp ly-~rlt:p-j'''i.Ii "11 73..and the modal (~.' .~: n. e ... ' ..~ . and it alone.. ~"" -"r·. .• -·. ic l.' ~ . tne ceneri ('h cnaractcnsnc 0: drama) . adigrn wi th the adj eceive n._ __ . "'"'" __ __ if X .I III : ~ ~1:1 ~"] '.~ 1/.• "'" '11.!l. . and '[be' third term.y idiomatic..not . "'T" ser 'b.~= . 'I~ '1. ~..e .a rmas ._.cI'.] 01vocal term) I.' '_ '.Ubr t IS..r-. = _ _. ('= '. __ _ . '~! '-':':.A'"_1l. terminology reflects and aggravates the '~ "11 c:· -I .. ~'V'."".\..tiq.S like Gil b crt 1)1l. l.. rra 'd_':11tiona 'I tria id ' d''-.~ ~') ~ '1- II.~".op. from Menander and the New Comedy (Aristophanes and the Old Comedy.~ic-·.' /' '':jl ~il..u1e au gen::'l~ comique.-.Ui. ~".. a...J .r-. t• ieorencat contusion.~_.~e-'1'·'\J'·r.~ '~~b~' .a.1].t~' ranrastu . "I'~ . it truly...'~":":"'-'-'I' 0. '- """"_:"'~' ... .' .'''':1 . In this case'.]I.. It 'iIF'--"- O·'" ". t'311. nov1 ... . . . ."]Y" d r ~ -:fr'':O-." ..'j .. etc .I'=. [in Fren ch] we have' no th ing to.. - - -- - .1" -~.e.!t.1" ~IC.. can be define.Psythoer.e:. .. "'. 73 characteristics) are still to be studied .-.:.. hier arc ... automatically raised (although not: resolved) wh en one reads wo rK.'~'-l-. I!.. . 7'.'~ .1i. we can offer i:n.d. So at th e ill 0 dal level.a:'.. .. _ .'. not even the word '1a:rrah 'vc' is univocal]: d. _ .·d .'rever. l~:... I "-::".. in terms t... _ '!I. is totally lacking. .'0.it :is a Germ ani SUl ~ and we gain nothing 'by-san c-' tioning it.--l ::1'-'.l ~ arches th e .h..-.alions. the novella. \.~:~·:{"~.'. ' .('~'~'e. : l..'S'''''~C. characteristic of the' theater). ~-.'Mf" . "i1(IP' tale..th .".-.".:" J ..A.'-1"':' ...:n' 1:y" V~U".~a.pect to' th~ .. . The problem of the: rel.. '_C..s .. -~ - '! . rical with re_.res.'1i"'~. '.~!Il I~ i Copy" 'gh ted m ater] a .1 Iv!i!J R I ._I". ~.e C:: '-1" ...ne.~ ' ." '-··.(rS De:CD'r trr-vt'itiq'uc" an anthrop .J.~:' rl~' ~. . -'.re'.-::::_ n...' C]' position. .rlC gl. of course.·. ".:It1'~JD] :I:'"P' . 0" 1..f:.. ele ::" r ..~·: .aH..... align in :par-. spec .~l·. . :..:I ·.ny O!lJ.=e__ ="".~.68 ..-1.ree te --.sa arrear.Y tnat '._.it] _ l "_' ~ ~.: . Likewise £0:[' the dramotic with res:pec[: 'to the' tragic. . th . _ -. if it is na '. 1-'-.-.Ii.-._.". it no ionger contains the nov'_'. nviV.. content (COlas witn Hegel}. do nor quite belong to the same "imaginative design").. .1.s~oL6h concepts.'_' '='='_' ."-t.!.1.

t···I!I! . i ..:O-'D"S·· e'[" ·S'· m '0..' .:.• ~·t···... . .!"""! .···. ltv to sustain m.is less tb. 1 . z.. o.< h •• I. L-. I...' cmce 3!L!L.· m e'·rg'e· th pheno ···._" ....' a.0. II.t m.-"" f'._ .· ]'..ce (w1t hout the' :S ti.l. . ".···.'" '~"..-..r :J.3.l --:-..I.e·. _ ........ . · 'Ib' .·.~ · .' II :'. e..'i' ...' .' I. -:" -. '. .illV~'~endurlno . .' .othic novei are unaema 1.. e e .111.~:~ I'11 :(1 .~"~' I"'___:'~- '_"·':.·y.' .U" st ~ · '·:-'11 c: -. .:.. SlObS de ges. _.:...l~ [. :·:I.In W. 1 - -_...y." '11 "._. 'I-['-.".~'n"· . a ..... ".S ~. " -. eren e _.~. ._-. ·~_. ~..~.:~ ~~-::. - "_~\r. .._...··:[ ou·r·· fi":h~or~tic:al r~'h·' . = . .•. ..~cy... ..1 ._.-~l... _'" t- G\.I_I:I....~. .:'l .~.11. C'lont:rast to ..r'. . or c.. . "".t~'h"~' : . ' '-__ II. .:\rl. .··..::.~. between comedy" 'and.. - .0 •ser .-'. . "o'...' t-· w. ep-'leal in ...· and i. l':.a. _ _ . P''1:[0 b. . [Il. " _ :.-1: - ·-1·:-·-· ." _. . ...r histo:rical rhyth.' ~i" _: I' 1i". ..:. b hi I...~_!!!""!..In...-"~-I-" ... ""U'I re an '·d·" ·'f'".at cx:.Ol~ eric JlJ ..s of su.:S~._ b r.···.re'.'...m. A[]I..n... = ~ __ .... '" . ~".[" ... " --'D ·t" Jio:J' .. .. . _: ..ojISI~~'' l'-'a'~):'.-: me __ ion .~ __. I. I!'..el1.:y' ustory.' .ty· 'w.. ..d '~"['p_with the . fo ferences ofdegree=-for r example.'.. ".. 1 . a..D'~-'):' b..[y__1l.on . a' s··.~ I. ..1[.~ :':-:'1'-1-] .'.. -.ir o'w'n doing 'r:han [h. " .f·-· dura..-I Copy" 'gh ted m a1.' ~'.n··..']' ..-:)·: eo n o'... '_' .1[o.t. _t stands gotr rc novel-e-at '. gi ·V·...nc. : "h· '.1. 0. iPf.ion than long:levi. -..' ...I:'. hi B·~ <.. " I. l~d...a.·:). r.. . ..."~1-· ["-:.. eoq .-. '" ... .. ..... . . '. .... bne h.····' : .'. 'more signifi. uct r... [I· . t'LI'~':~ :" ..." _ I . ... ..... s . _ · _ = ~ =_ ("am on g d..' _ . th« 1._ de finition of ~. S'U--'~I-C'l"e~'./.1 " : •••• '..~. ··hi.Dlml lf U!.·D···.. "lIiD··· ..ulus of ..es.".:m.'ason r ideniab _C" :~L1..r.u': 'n"'·d.I ran .. that .o'uld.e:. __ __.. .. ~~':::< . I .·d. su"~ec.jl..... __ . P' . ranee.1["· m·· u:-. ':'1' . ":'·1[-. .'.. ..-- "..h-~ ·C·' .. of 'In' "1_. ".: 1.. .m·PI-··): e 1~-:""·n[l'O· lj1.cria . ~.. t. revival. .. :. 1._l}1 SlZ_ s.ca~..._~.~I·'~~~ ['.. the ." .'.l . --~......"c.'lIP"I"··p". :.· ....[ a b 1. .'-_..~ ..a..' observable..'n usroncu y~.But t" he a.(I_ '... or .·. .·m[1 ~llta:'lly::' :0·.I "..[. E: ..H] ." ....• '.ea·J!.xam." ~ . r.. "oi"'a'" .: c. [ = .I..' ~'D..".e_ is b. oroadesr conceptu]:"". '..u-'ch dif'.[~..·. L 'j" i I..'. . I...._ •• ... F ..sreturIl .. . ·c::o' ... fhe .':' se _cntee_~. and who·Uu' relative.diti · several c.···1..c. . '" [Ii •..ld·.U...!I.n.·..-.." ... G· . .11 .:.. vary IS:!._:___ ..11! ...e caSSlC~l ep].'...Y. 1"-- '~I: .g'...at of anothe·. A[ 'l J ..W.j :[.... I . ....:: '..(. " ..eOlll.: 1·' i.1.···..:C'..d· . 1 Ii _..e but . ~~ ~~_ '1'" .. o· • "" 1m.''I'ed'"."[-"". . · '"v~rs'..."~ ' ....ever ieve . . de ....10-:' n c· '0-' ta '... .' t only" [of our historical kno'wIedg:'... l'~"""t·· .. 'y no ....> .. or ~.c.. ~..···..I.. l '.y. ~ .' l' 'lli··k·.:-.. ~ __ .. '. S'p:~OI~.'n.. ""'I'O"s'.. ..p It._.la. ·u. ._e ":"..ical .. (a.. r·g'"~1i"·m. ...re Tha and the 'Il' Vp""~' to . r a-. . ~ d' .' '..~ " ~_.C..~. ".Q a.te~1in. 1111 y' I.. 1 .. .. 'S·· :3: = _ __ _~ __ _ _ ..r~.'[.l c .:.-. 0'" 1. '"'.0·"''if'·e· '.C...IL."_'_. -.l ...- e.."-'~~_." 1(0' . r-o.~. _ ~ __ .-~.'p-irical.. ·l[.n..·o·.__ _ vaudeville or between.11.. .. . be [h.. F<·..'' II.- '. ...!"""!! . = ~I .'~ :hi .'".~c. S-':':'. 'v" (> 'I ~. de. ·".' :: III..a··r:.~'. ~_."·ishi st '0'" ..s.' ... . rms.I.. . .~ 1.'''1 .~I·k...' ".•ru. H] "-'.. . : '-. . ca e·. to a.' _ . ~ .J! ...1..to rI·' exam.. .. I" .1 .~I._.l ·ra:n..cant -crite-. ·histor...it". l."....- '. :·t: e rl.l'.-...r.' b .b'''. c·h~l.d'["'mC(. .... '. [IJ [I ...h[ .0•• " . ent tion m"_~.. ren..oj'g" Ad'-.the labored.. QU· I.. . I:~ Ul" .\"."nS~.or d: '" '. '. ~~f..e. ricity > fi" .. . . rhe novel in general and the . . .ji .a u [J:l.. .. C· . ].lsa~JO". .-.~la.~...A. :I·····U''-'l....]In... ii' .~.."'..i!:!!...) ... t '1-':' [~""'>'''.. ._.__. _i= __ .!I:: roportions :.I.·)s-:o·.~C-IU-11"'U:. •. .. '' "" (fc . •• '1.rea__".. .ypes.o·· be o '·n·['l"y:~ . " . " :'.[' L!\.·inextri .·.e t 1mes .h-·. -. ~ o:J' o:J .' [-...l.oiI'.. .~.J= "... t· h.r~."..= _ '_" . 'S:. u··.._ .·. t:ra·dltio'n. . '...:.... :[: .. .: . 'h-' I sources.r. t a :_' I. 11 .JJJJ... ···r·..'..i"" '["'.. ~ .' ":: .. 13.lo·.'. 1:1: .:... .mmCf.c·ll:a·:~J.Q:.t" ...._I.. '. to w.. i·"~·' tionshit itself of."'. t".1. ". .. B-':-'-I[_ in . . . .115 [r[f..'t:~-tll.:..Ii "0·-': . .erosio:n. . ·.~e' l""a' ._['!Jf.'.her ·s·. ..Set. early". ~ the 1{\\'~ gevity o-f the clas .' ·. :r. _"'" -._' . .... _ _~ } " .~ .epi c' t---.-·. . Comp-"a.~'----._.l. ~":'[-. ..~·t'. 1.'ec.. 1II.I it-' l..): a~nd no:r sp"lonta'neolus recn:r .anne. ~::.. .._ . .. '" of the·.Ii!.' " £< era._ 'U _ ~".._: th Ja. ..g...:_ .:'·:·l..[e capacjty' for dispe:rs .. 1... . ta. .netl .1.I .. 0.'. L l~" ' .· = ._....\!lg.d with f()[... '-. : '..-. (_"... [.!"""!~' ~V[I!. ir·. .'.aul arl .:. "I ~ 0.• ··· hisro.·'-_ .'1·'·..· .. . .. .'.. .~ U~. .... . t·i'... .e a fa ct b. ".·oW j'"I.._".t IS pro '.whatei .. ~:...a..= _e Jf'nltu.. .. minn+-as none is totally d determinecd'._ . . ·JlI. .rms .n. :' '.r "'o.. '''i...· ·ClI:.".. d ~...~g·.~ '£...·. · =: .:rms'. ....~~~.[:UI t·· th ··S:.:-:.. ..n of .... -. __ _ __ _ ~ _ _ __ = Ur~t-"[-... 'n: ! '0' 'nO"CO':l" [". :..-1Iy .. 01..II.en.. < < •• LL!_'~ .' a ... _.. _'lAo" Il. .dura. 1h ..":1"".entu..' '!"""!. y re.[ll .".t:':'~:Y'".. r. ."".stand e to r'. ""[.lon._ n ..:£r~r·" J!. . -. .t-·:·:.' 1."' :e· .. " .. 1-"" JI.. -..: one places oneself the phenomenon of ·c'··'enrc. l ."~.f the cl ssical "·'V:'l·t~ . t.t·" ... .ch.~ ._.1.' II..-...~. ....~ .' '...··~.r·a..' :·t. \..·. .n. e ":Vi·~11 :"<·:nl h':'._...11e-.:. _:> ..n.I ..n.P _ne ln presence. ..... .il :: [ :[~11l . .-...' ._..6"9'~ ...i.· '"". .·':a. ".. rcs[UJ"[lcctio.p_c...:. e·'x"'' ' 'm".. ..:~' "1""01 zen .. I . 11"""'.. _=.-... ' A'l ...' e n the . :~."imes at m[..'w_ ·.. =I .. . _ __~ _ _".._ .f~' SU. cab ·.:J tr.I! .~ ro 'd~: 0-' f" na t'IU' r eo' '0""11'" -· u...·C."::iL'i. 'P"Je-...o...··I·. \..·S·. ~. p.u__ in dlicat o· :~n..L~ Lli. 1 -- - - - - \ir.t'I ... o m. -. ..genera~·'l' -y 1 .. .uld •._ltu.3 \.. ·h··~· ···..''.1. or relatrons .l.. ...._'-r..._..c In ·:h···.s·:·.'.r.........._ .". e.. I L ····1 .:' l .'f'~· .- -'rl=y\' ._.

y .(:.... .. .111...~ . . _' .."-t-. 1I-nl Jie. de gesre b _~. ...-a u ..th ~ epi ca '1. .. an.- c'.."".-d"-. . _ l.-'..'. .position to spell O'U[: the' theoretical drawback of a fallacious attribution that could at first seem merely an U'I nim Por tan (. of communication with the public (see A. "Chanson die geste OU e... '---".. . or archigenres tY'f.aux de 1i #~gj:..A:_-'-. ._.. .··· •..i110: _!e-rn.--.n lL" "t· ·-t-.'" 1 gen-rer . sense de . I..l'·: . narra ._-' C U1UC tation C'" there are and there can 'be only' three wa.. I e- _. : hi" .. _~ _ ". . AI." I('d'.fi:ft:S.J 'dhif"'~=Otal 0"1'" :Pp'.tn'."there are and.tJi.._a[ e ci ...I'...' [t"a"a't:ifl-'writte..-1" -.ene'fic definition.mouei ano t -.'~ u .' .'·' c a no' the I ._' " .noith er ex G.--. 1_.1\ '-l:.~-V''. 75~Cf Daniel Poirion. sung: 'to oneself or [Er-ri'e)" In Frye only the second division is.0 \. . [L_"[_. . a. 972)1.I~·_ ..' ..-._" nd ~.·.0 called. _.IS toric [. _1"'=' __ I:jI ··.e species cnanson. • d'e.~ a. •.. .1u2'tolnY't 24611 .j::> is rh onlv-s-orr l\.. . (i 1..as-"...._ . '\r.·.f.rra .popee? Remarq ues sur '[3 definition (run. . ..r- II! I I I." .:__:' ~~.:~'. .-".1 kn _.1'-r..ra.--..~~l~·_:'~.ILI (0'" :~lt '__!_l·.~ _ ..e 1 nea:r')" t~ Orl-'Y. ditic -"''15 11]<.~ like Copy" 'gh ted m a1. there_ can be only:' three basic. he names modes what 'we ordinarily [can genres (myth." '"~e .:is~ ti'q~U! et . .·.b...-oe'11..'z'Q'rr:at. irony)"..'1"'..e .. .'~~ji 'IIi 1. '-h. . I.JL~ Now vee are in a...lL. '-...)' s..on tOI t h rna Ii 0.f¥IO·'. _ ixed ~-arr..."t.." the attri . .....iowledge.. -'" ~ 0'---). .--..... _I·J=. . '~.(iit.~l.." ample~'~ h II ··-..m:Qte l_y i'n the .I:(I:r(1 m~a (." the Horn eric _".. genre.-. '.'€Jn.n. ~.. _ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .ma u'~.....I~ IIa'r rati ve 1Ib -.. .. T".fera..=¥ epical be define.tUJUl 1.'7'0···· :. 0'1 W·. .. -do' -~.:.<. ____ __ __ _ __ __ ..g'·. "'. .·_:J~I. .. and (referring to Frye with a felicitous su bstieution of term s) ''''p resenta tion al . PS... _.. S·· .: : )..: privilege of naturalness that: inheres .' . es:peclau.. part 2::7'-... 1._\r...[:A......1...lI.e I1.')'"C". '....Il. '. .-[ -'~ "-' .II. ~ f-' g:[t.':"on/m.0.0 ('1.' '" '.?47-)' " 10''01..t 3"'8'"6" cO .es p '''--1''-' . and genres w'hat I would lik..J .-·['u' ~ attrib 'U'" '[":1'·0.... coes -h' . ~~. . romance.: Ij. '!w- " 1'. IIItr..::Ji:~_."'.u:a'c:"--'l":O'. ".. In wh.·..-.' ianguage "'!II et. 'fo' '.'." -. ' te .... ...i ctsml ep 1'[.__-5'~ _ . t .[1.0 . D"Y d-I l' I"' h.eria ..-. c.C' to call J 'ij'i1'rr-. __ ·..-_ -'.10D.'S~.'/I"...fure '1.011S m 1 _. J. :: C-:"I.:..I."'rr.~.je"..'n .. ..J!.." ".... ·_'~!I.'~.n~ or fi'lcti. '" t..0: .n.r.ch --. Poetic outlooks '.r:' not msignific ant) his. -:t! ~ 'IF. Even 5.. _ -"S!II e ln." . ~ '_ .._.. ... surreptitiously (and unconsciously) 'backing: borh the modal definition and rhe g. .-_' 11.) . . u. "../." I "l...era.~·I.li't.: 1..ra m tir~ n "3.... representing 3. .. _ ." 'Tra v. I .l. mimesis.-1.ff"odes:. 'I~~.. ...Q. lirA ._ .n p-r oiects rh. m OIU. . based explicitly on Aristotle and 'Plato and takes as its [criterion. _-~~ ·I!""'!'. metrical forms.Ie.-.legili. die 'G-'~'--·"il1:.. ""''''''."li m istake . --'g> ..ree mo .n. . .'ys of .-.Id: witho ·ut'::3-···-'I'y·-·: referen .'. ..~'__ Northrop To r F":II"'. ." .~[~ 1'-"1 ... .. C···!J. l."'" his own w'ay) the distinction between mode's and genres.A >... ..0. :88)~ for his part" distinguishes three so rts of classes: genres properly 5.20" '7··_-:·6.'11'..-..\r'_" I. the: "radical of presentation...htera ry' thee rrst wno mamtains tm =.I that is.t. .

.). are no t entl[e~I~ ~ut.~. .. ~I'~~ . therec. . .J at ~ ~"Il we kn ~.I: believe that type is "an idealized projection" C 'na[u~-'1"~.'.O.tro d'.. - . . · .: know that a novel is not solely a narrative and.'" ffi:.. idea.n.'~It*.--~ wouu more~ rea uy .cri a . ···iiiiiIiIIl fr····~· '~) .or·-.. l Copyr 'gh ted m a1. . I.' " I a: . ~:b~\ll".'_ ~ -:-1 -:..1.~~ 'L' ik .:iI ant.L'i '.1.. ~c.. ' .) ~ .. ' . ~ ...--~ --. .GI ~ ..·r·· u J •••• 1] .in my "... the '.~''...~~'''~'~il-f.'~::..:r3J:p·.~- ...~: . - . ::. '. -) • ~.-' . form s · ····. .'h'l .bifJia:r:tI:t'lIJ.lest I' ..n.. h'V'. ..~"_' _. -~.oe. .. ..'.a.::" nanQdve.~:.~-".." I." and that."ex:"c reSS10n. Ir·_·1 ['I .. -' ." '-' -~ ·1·····-.lp:.·"~:·- -1'1-" l"I'-"~'~ :"~.. ..".~-~~~." . it 1. I ..' . -:-.e..1> '-·'.n.1..' .~".. n . an.leu.-'-:-1'-' - ~ 1:.' '1 suggests.lji .re.".':3uV' with.I~...or.re.-~"...~ - I~ .... across g'.. :pre'._.. - •~ be ~ better o.].-. "di ·B····I..-'~l ~-')". .-:-.~._ .n:a.~.c' "'-'I~ '.' e] ~'"' ~"~. pe historic '~~y-:'-:' ".nnV"~'~· unh~sit'atinO'ly···'ronc~de': t~'o' LiD= G.00 mucr ~. ~"" ".''''. ' 01 . ...'.[. '.. Jl.. the' relationship between. a - ~ . ~ ~ . -.··· ~~. ' ..I( " . (for examiplc.nO'~ lain every. is not a species 0._."J.I.at h .·· c ---cj'fjl..2.C'C"~'':' A II.". ]s[..~ h . the novel)..- . 71 bution sets u'p these archigenres as .t ~~bou:rg:eo. ._. I do not think." 1 th ' . ~ .~..1._.".c'~.I .V ... t:Ii - ~- t. old and 'very 'Y'Qu." _.:. 1[1.).. ...-.'. one 0·.....u aee 11'':':~~: uistic .. consciou~snessu does.~. . . 3.._I ..". -... Vlew tnese forms..pta."1.. " - :~' .~. ".' '. I'D.:. of lite .-:·'·-:-·..t' IS'....Ii~_y m m od 1...o. .~ ..'" (. .·~ou.·· ." ..:b':· .'-'. 0=.~~. But :~..~ .f extra'l~"" ~-" . '.m mltmCllts.r' ·d"'e~:h-t1..s.at.l:e' .iJ! -[ ~.. . 'b" . ".~.'~dl-~ --~ ~.~s" ..11... -'.~ ifo'~ .IS ~.~' ~'". ":. ~'. '.~ ~b.] .~ .il h:isto [1::L 'E-~t.-. ':--.. . '.T..~~ .. modes is.-.. 1:-'1 '.l . urerary ': ..ul''iJr''crp~v en ''_[. '" "' . T: ~d" ..- . '.' ..... r '11')['-' II .. 0.Its t""nema tlC CQ.:!!"!I 77. of-y.~-:~c/I" '*"h~·t.....on.. '.... "'-1 !1M.-.Jicl. ·.3.'_l·.-3-4').'.. complex and :. . . ..:_ ""iI.." Ail.. Pi~..lat 'V'--ery'.-~ ..':~ h I it... - Ji.'w'h·.\.~ .- -- ..'--.. ~~'~'~'~'.!'n."" . 11.• :." H. genres and. Philip._'_ "I"'~.~~.:~ e" (ILe Paae .'..-... ' ..:~ .. - . '''' narrative .-~'I would perhaps so metime ..'':'''0'' .uo w... .-".. ·II·'.' . en. '...· 1".~.Ii-I:· (..rge'... . mere . . 0'.f".tl" '.'ou ·.'[..le:al 0:[' natural ty pes" which they are not and cannot be: no archigenre could lly...JO'W.:IDILI..narrative ." an d'" t...•. . . the: ..ll.id.' .. . countec ' is snu cragrc " pernaps jne. .I. w. . '" • " -'" • . -.- I -1' :31 -I . '~i~' ich . here a:['IP modes ..t.. ...· ..~'" -.-'id-.. so 'I~" .I. ". . 1~lforgetting l~. .._:'.fl.divid . _R crideism of the ne Leieune's III ~ .ac .ln.. .. I> . n.-'II:~I--I-"'~. -..U.:elli.- - ~.. .~ . :._. narrative): there' are' genres (for example.. "I'~·.-'.. course.I.. I' c." '. ]..=_1:_ ~ ~ _.'. ..-: -- "'-' I." . t~u: ." . "C'. . 0' worxs cut. ei ~ '~'"rh. cl'I~~_U.':) "..~~ me "'cell" th: .(:.1CS...i'llue~t.llte:nlry cad.lik.o. 'Tt ·T.1 :l._~""". '.tot e e elusion._ .d .'. wh .L..I . .' . .lS.··l'· - . rh. . these modes constirure the' central princi ple of all generic differentiation... ~. . . t· h .:____-=___~~..~.. ':-... gen.J'i..p''-e.<~. is.:.o:if·.~".t t~lem". g.. a' 'y .'. I.J .r: sua c~~.d . r ".'"'OiO.5'···l~"·" .-.1:t. ' the 't Tfii Iv .' ..' .~. . ..' 'k t."'t:'~ :II '~':i! . ·~·h'·· ..:-. [ I. . e jeune.1 .Qu.nutt~· he . 'I' . "" I .. !\i.~.... Genres can. .J.~1 .··d the .~. ·:'.et :' . . The italicized phrase is no doubt the' onlv noinr on.' .t '. d ranzeo.~._'.. "h"i ~.-'. can m 0:f' .' '. •..·· '..:-: fo· .. '} us .-:"!E~:-.~"". as A· '. ' I' .~ . "simp I·' m . -1·····--.. ''''1'' ..' ~..... .r...d ..::' ::"1 :.1 Like 'L~"typ .1 '. esca . an":.-15 area.erenny.- p'I'I:O[.. - ... ...~ect.~_... . " even. . .'c" ~.'" ..". " - .'.~g:orH.-:- 1 C3 '1'. 1 -] .-.J.~ ~ ·f··.._.. . . are to be found ' .rans".." ~ ' ~.J.·11 m.~' 'wlz-i'/':'"at the sallte time "'.. "'"" . p"~ >~:~~-"...1i U.ay moiviouar ." . subi: .is.'- 'I'-j-I' ~'. vUL.·~. - ~ _. l£c'rary .ps. 1. "Tom a "~rei '.y b I maIn tallD...~ew even ~. . e aces no d zith . /.~'.I!" P~' ::> 1.rI. .-' t'ota . 0' 0 .." .enI'eS-p'e. .' 1 that "unlike Frye.'. _ .iI..~ ~tics . ..:.. "ow~v.d . - .".' '-.': '~(>: .: .~n. ~.l: .. .~ ..... ~'\'" ~ 11-·r-·:""'-··=---:::-:... _. ..3tter'jl W.6 .3.... :'. k h ~ d'. W. ".l!.'. a k-:.' - ." nem.~ . ~"'--'-I £' rorrns..r-.~t:r .'.': ds .. .' 'ii' > n' I IlLs'.~1 A". . I.un '. cut across modes (Oedipus re..II.. ."'.~--.... 1 JI~eune [ba:[ au[obio." rore. that. ""'~'.~'iIl"i \. so and tha.mo d e s ...' .' -" .u...~I [I . '-:. '. ..[i:r"' d outb Iess not.gUlS-l". ~ _.3. but we 1.. I \ " .~.~ .l or .Ou'""iii" 'reason.:/ y . . H ii' ~.--. ~. -" .11.].'1 [.-- " ".5su . .r.'".'I"-'-'~ t·.'.'-~ ~ .. d' . .1 .. . " ri . . _ .15 .... 4 . ~' re ..~.. the a p.h"ere eX."" gQ~:D:~.5 . l'_.' .. .IO'V~ .ll].__. ..."~' .. 'AI' .. . I .6. " ' ill - I' --:-.exp 'h'· 'b 'b 'ti-Ing a. '~'' "...I which Ieart comp.0 '.1 . Ir 1 I .I. = I--. .~I :'.~. .fr~..A~ I:'~ ~ wc.e' all oen.f-" ."...g "science": the little it "knows" it =._.:11.I"" a. ".. 'I' .~ 1 _J .~_~.

iI...:111 .1.no"" C···:-:··-.. . d b·. .." [. . moe e... . .. . •. . S·)U"~· rc hence the prud..=.." I .d AO'O·"~'y'··: '0"':"['"' UjlJi..Jj.' on." - ~~ - - - - - -~ -- - --- -----.. 'I ." r.._ =(.y. . .genres and modes.. ". 'but..'..I' s ~ to.' ".eOI:rlS[S.• _.wou.. e C3 ctassica"'1 O[ . 'I!w.:'<:'. nterary tr . i. [._:. contra. .: gen..·. .::... .t:·i...W 'vc_!!""'__ *'.I. torical error that ..-..- .7""'2·' ..-:'rist otle 'I~ a" hisres' d" .g.t ...nlre··' "'In' th e catego [.. iI.." c.. '1' ..._. _ " ..aU.g·. _ . an. .-'" " " ·.. al. .~ .. }" .a. and. .~I~:none ''''.. or-' . the c (" "".' ::.' ..' '. that is." ...~ . sense.. 'g" .1...0.~·c..1. ·. ."1.. '1'. -NI>"-...ain. .cria .~ b orne '-'-.. . . ..1-'-"'-' ....1 ...:=:-':" a"p c.-.". .-" d In most.."~ _" _" _....].d' _' m p"ct. 1 .1us ie...!"O':"n'" "'A-'s A'~'··ris "'0'-' tle C'U' ggests' is I realize h . .. auarantees . 0.b '.·c.':'~":.a.'If "»11 d..""".-~ .!""'!!....- _" === .._ .."" . .~~:. ~""I . ". ''''''. ..r"y··:..how do I n 0.'tion ·W·"__ ar :IS 'I.ent "su gges . ~ _:: ~. . '1.u...J.Ill" ".' '" '.. \o...:_.C . . . was "dot btless not .."".. l and eh ... '. c. ... .. ." I" •. -.".. I wanted to say-s-and that too.'-. !L. . _'_' I '..Ii. A. jI I J • ••• • I..ss " 1"":::-:" ..- .... .'_' . '... :..'.. . .· : '._" Ii.'".~'" II'>~ '··i' .·)111 "mod .."' ..h" ~ .. . 1' 1!._!""!l .-".-.1 '[':_ r. thae retauonsrup b .tnen . _. "of course.. I· .'"' ·'... and...'-' ' " . "Types.· l...1 '..~ly " h d . ~~ understand them better to avoid falling into them all over .not .n._ sienificant mishap should be both shaken off and.. t... '. d" 'I Iet " "" hppe L. - . .lS e seemed to me then that he said._[ .a.l.·'~· In.'.'.. _.. I·· l."-. G. ".oerween '.~. '" .1. . "fo rg r --_ -_ _ _ .. ... it is.xceSSlvey 'rnppant." 1-' ':. '"I 1 "'I "'""-'-1'] u "_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _... .".: to 'wnat we 6.i. ...I·d·:I-W 1. .... "" .."."'t or r iew £. · 'C' . £:. __ equivo cal .....:2i '" ..."-. ....'h'-." "'... 1.. th e "three 'bl~IC"tIC'" ·"ein· to Pla ·'0·. '\" t 11.: ~ ..:::...~.oe5 '.. ..J..." .-:o.I _-J _' _' '. ("c.~· To the extent that attributing thetheory of .' was e.: '....[ 1977 under rhe tittle "Genres. ....I' ."'.. . ! . ._:_~_... C']U'. ".In -"'.' :. . ......• . .. '" .' Modes..e.. '1" ':1': . -::'~". ' :.-'::. ... ..a theoretica . .. '"_ . _.'. ktee ... .. one of simple in_.1.ml. l"' fE···"'l·CU.\Ii"II.. 1 -.' .-._..~ I.:'uisi nee e essary (but is it:?) to be' lite'tal. ~ I. as Aristotle suggests." ' th ..n:~. . "' .. I..·: in _ Of". • . 8' . " . '. . ""' __ .._.. v 11. .gUIOIllS cons. __ ' _:...• I ... usion m .. .. trs cone '1usion 'C':'" ::. ' .aI-'r . ." I said. I. "' "_"... . tne '11(··· '. undoubtedly [ '·W'.e .'I' '. .c\~y ann somew h:' at unwittmg 'J'.'~ U . .:' '_ .. '.... ..'fl"'"C I: szon 0" an '"1-:'·-'1·· arncre .Q. .:f'.g ''''''1 Copy" 'gh ted m a1.I.~ 'rsut ._. _ .•.. I nguranve 'Ifl' t "".-0. naturally n.. ..:. .."r.'.iruanon st rucnon.....eJeu.!Iiw IL.[ I ....•. './t~.'. .I •.aln m.. ._' .' _.Jl.' • .. ! .-.re. '.:'...==-:.." 1.:. ': '. .'... .".":_: _.="'. atter al ..'.'_"." . !Il..-.....••• _....--' .:. ..' 'f' .[...-." h .pu'b." ...a...'..·d'.• ' .='"' · .' "I..II.. ··'1...'tr'. _... .• :... ')"...l.y evasive cone '1" B'" . as.. _ . .f·"lL later 11'"". '. "c .v em ber '" _0_ e.I:·'....n.'y of wha 1[' in his name ·.:""I'I""f" •. I.. .n d e.'.. is still too much. n..0. .' ': .1" .. .1 . theo r-eticaJ confusion I obviouslv believe that this ("'[1010)': ..(or present) errors but.._ _ ..._'. ·e am b ~" U1..-'"':.' ·c.eimmediately l me k know.:'<:. ...s_'~.J[e.t.._.1 : :111. . ". .' " _ _ _ _ _ ._':.':' (> h e term """" ~':!! ..". .. x ... _!!"!J..'!Io'I"'~:~" h". .'"'"" -.. '.... ..AUthat precedes is :a slightly refined and expanded ver1'"I"'h·.. . ....". " ca. D""'" .1 . .. ... . . "....-"..as a _'.1. ..-" n10·er1... ·.:.. what poetics has to do is rot zet" its east. As Phi11" .iIi"I.::' '".-'...'.·"vl ..ow .. . ..."h....-~ 11.' . '.~.' ."... .'- ". ... places a premium on ..:r. L iI" does A· .. tot I' Suggest t" at It 150 0 r tu at :It IS not "':~..D ...1-.. .'.c It.dlv nd I will now try' to confront 'by' 'way of this detail: "The relationship between . '.. ...": : ' ...' tend that_in Arisrotle .

. . . 0-·' 'f" .l' ~ ". rlIO"~~ ".. '. . .· '. . .· .:. .."A'..=~ '-".'.. 'with each genre belonging tO both (at: least) one modal category .elv 5-~~:1I-(1.CO'-'[-.. '11~'1... tomlamo Copy" ·gh ted m a1._ J A:--·-'· "'.'..£1. ~_ ~"O:'-" '_' m. ·:IJ~· ·. theme neither includes nor implies mode) and it necessarily :fb]J. .'.It.' ..3. 'd-Ie. .. I. "[1' .:_' .at this. .'I . "' . ilrf!ll ." . _. I .! ~ .i 'J):" : II ~':. '. I .' .'&. _ :.-.·II.... and epic as both a-heroicaction -recounted and the-narrative-of-a-heroic . . . _-':Ii' then by and la'~geAristoele's system [once ag ain._-' '__ _ '(I--~rl1'.. _ _ IU .._.: I._ ._- ~.different reason 'but: to the same degree.. (is I"'·t-'?:'·-'. ".. arrangement of univocal and hierarchical inclusions (individual works under species" species under gen.d.-:_.~llu~l...:'\J' t. : is' n ..table' that is. -. w here :it belongs for a..._-' -... :ldl.. :1' "_: ~~. _. __ '__. both the category of mode (dramatic) and the category of objecs [superior)..I. J e- t. : _.0'.. o-n.. . enres lu JL .. A.".r.1 1. "". _"'. themes.: ~_ .f~l. ... . sort. ~u.'-.....I... implicitly presupposes a.'.~_ whose-subject-is-noble. or more "p:. :1fC-_' 'I'·"S---. .. - :: ' .I.. I.. ction. . ~ _-z:. is defined (I:'. Thestrucrural difference between Arisrotle's system and the systerns of the romantic and modern theories is that these latter generally come down to' an..' aeed ..~':~o-n' he.~.rL- [i.-. .I:._ . -. intersection. .a:. example..·__ '~I~" __ " ·d'.:7""IO_'''':r'.. _ -. . : I. a etc. a:nd. jointly in. "t7y-'~s-t"':o<.. other res:pects" is im. ti'. ..' _. '.QWS that 'the sp parial ~ .". '1..~...cn:res 'under "types") . I."_. . .s the first chart in this 'book (p. ... .I._'.--:· [-: I. ._. _". ~ I ." _ I·.'._.and etermin e g. ·~·[. .:' ""'.II~~.. " . is not inclusion" or rather there is (at least) ...> a '_ .·J."._ _ . t·-_' _.II ~ seem I-·.d'ouble inclusion-c-rhat is.: l~ . _I..of the table could be inverted 'W' rith he ob ijeers along the abscissa and the modes along the' ordinate. _. ..1 .iI.._. >r : '. to .Ii .1"" . _ '"-_ :"1 : _-: .!'''''----. '~'. _.!I""""'" _-_..73 pear in the Poeti'cs) is not one of me'rif indusion. .' '(ft. trag ._. and this .!. '. e thema .. ..I... ._\!.":.~ I _..'y'.. The modal and thematic categories are not related to each other in terms of subordination (mode rieieher includes nor implies theme.. til.: ..._...-. _'._i . .. .C'. of .p licitly ta bular._'.. JI T' I 'I .]1" ~l[e-il~ . ". makes very clea r-s-and this to 0" 1 realize only after the face=-the category of genre (for instance.... .." 'ec _..--i~y"--~' e that _ """.ll~':..... Bur modes and.'. :..'-.r-es~ g:..tic ca tegory ~ ·T..~'.wo rk-p.".. ·r· cise _1: y._ . (at least) double entry. level) as both thds-so rtof-work-with-a-noble-subj ect-that-is-presented-on-thesra. :s ageD...included in.. _.. resented-on-the-stage .:l "'~'~~"'...'·_.\. '-.m--Yo '. __= :.Ii"it .II .~ ...ol::0' ~ 1i1' c. inters cering.. ._"_ 1l1.· dirnentary i'o. ~r'--D' ". constructed according to 'the' text of the Poetics.J" wh ereas the'.']: risto celia n system...r-Ie tati ..'~':'~''_'ll'" II~III)' .J.. ." .:1][1 Jlv... ~~ :'a.""(n···d.on .. I . e_' i :H<I:e.ag"e' t 4). '~..···[.IJI.'-. ._'.ho W' re»'er ru .cri a . ed:y) is.~.. p..

_.'" -...r'~L~"""'l'I'""'I ..--.he--. :1\S..' .' l...• .(-7!y' -p.:_ ~~'=.'-:'['1' Y..lOU.. ""..:' of n':!'l'f. '.y.'..''6 -'2··17: .__. 'me rodes=-within the =~ .r example "firs ·-t·-_:na -~'l '·'1I"'s'O"'i1i~(h'0-'m '.:. ~:... .. ~- ..'-_ .. " _..: . m . )~ despite its no longer justifiable exclusion [of the nonrepresentational genres is in its structure' somewhat superior to (me aning " of course...--"'- _...IO. .erga ('-r.. .....~.. 1"": -. " Copy" 'gh ted m a1.'' 'W":':'" .r example. ".' (":-. ... 0: - - [I " j -. I.:'-:c'hl--. --.." " ..-' .lCl..-. " D~:' places d.-. .----:[.' .II .--.'J'_ 1 iI .c:.--.:.: '1'" '. : . chical system. -: "[1.'-'..'..of-' h._ ."~.. '-'1..'L.IC-:)' narratio n versus 'a' 'U' tho ." "_ "~" -" di i ._: I.::·. . ':1 . .•". which each time immediately 'brings the whole g:a'me to :3.7. :. ' ' . I .:.. ·•· ..[ &. ". ~. /1l... an ·U".e ci f-I'II'""''''Ii ·tl·--.atrrac_.~ c ..fpC..~..[ .:.-.:. l..!!. .·t:]r ve (to th ose :·:-h.odes~fo. . ='. "'-'c_.. t-.neorlll. "'_c__ 1 . ._"_' \r..".I]. of thing) " 1niti .__ .-. ::~I~.L":o···. produces an ..I. da:m.)..n S. "- :'. ::1 ""'.1.'" ..[v:' c.J .! .'.-PIg->"'.-_ :._' __ -_:~:_~_..-Jii '2.l:er proploses an. -.--['':' .".'-.ocri')-· .. . .I. . . t1: t.~ those the stud 'y. I.o'~. '1- .. ..: _ ' ]:..~"~'l~ ':... would be "modes of writ:~ ing" (Sc-ll reib ujci'sen).' '-. --" -_ ~.-0.. " . .' .. :-.b mo ra'1 speclll... o _.~_.. d... .-. .. GtJ'ttung'st.t -.~ ~ ic ]. : '~'~~:.""~' iQi.". 0.y :Haw.. •• . "-..:'I '1-1·" wmcn In my 'V'~I~:~ .'- n ." ·t- !I:~I •• 1 ..._. .-_ -_'" 'C'-' ". of avel) ' .[". . .h [eg"ory:: inasmuch as it is based on the' transhistorical and translinguistic fact 0 f pragmatic situations. .:. . .'1.'~''L "---. _. . H'. 'the' recent work of Klaus He'..-_---.···hitext . f'" -' "" s Y sterna:.:.:_.:·r·[-m·i 'h_-I --~' :___ ·1\"a·· I-I'S''_' __ It_·· ."..I·'- 'h- . 'C 1~1l.' .. C'_'_' :..U.-.. the more limited specifications within genres (like: the -.. '.... -.. '. l .i:Jj 1-:. ". _-_ 'J. -. '.: .-..' .t.'-..-.:'_..'-..... -H-. ··e ~~.I:. ' ..:'Ga[t ttlH~n'e.".pfer....1_ 'cc .a. narrative versus dra ... . sur ----ca tie _n.ono'my'..··rC-J"ex" all'.: '" . claims to 'be' a synthetic clar ification of the m 'a. ."'kind .11'['" 'J ..---_ -~ . ._.il '.nti'c[fJ' .'. : 'b- '" ... .. I I _. e [Ie. '....)." I HI I .:'.I .-' nc " ..d . h a re S U. .H .'-n.'II'~' C"'"" . i --.~.. be.-..._.":" '( '-'1:'- . ' __ . ':_:.I ..-. aI.:8"'"<"'.J." l heeer 0 dieg eric) nar ration: .... . ally':' .[ _......)1 are attra cred by"_: that. .'.cria . _..'.· t· '.~I"J "j' •.[lZeS.e..J~" ~~:.:" -...---. A-~t·'6.' '.1 .'.. A:'._:_ ~I:"__:~ I" . .:c . .. . d . -.I u ...c..arc the concrete historical realizations (novel.:..Ii ••• _. _. whose inclusive classes" going from the broadest to the narrowest.x.".:'_ ~·:' . r [-.'('M"·"" .' 1 .p[Jj.W' hi: ch re s 'P.... [1111..-[I . -" . .pe~...e[tl._ IIII ... .'~."'" u Iemost uncemaory uruversai carvtew 1S . ... ' '. . _ ". IIr.·1.[.b[ -:6 f'! .ed..:.' ... stem'.:.:_- "1"'1 I:.S healn...':..plca..~ (.. autr .0-dieg "lii"II'Ii".' '..!"m... nove lla. .~ su ch a. " - '_.existing theories 'U-' n_ in . I'~ ..~ rst gl an ce this :s-.'( -'- '::!II ._ "'" b.~ 11!!1.." .)-. rrative mode £0. :'.".-.nov er -.. "._ ...-.iIj..-' ['. .•• 't. .)'" '-.._... -.. der t.... re -.~.-'" ·1-9:'--7:3' . .~_I~.-.~-h-: . more effective' than) most of 'those that have come after..' cause ~". JJ : . J..-" 'because it.. .. as they are 'by' their inclusive and hierarchical ta. fun..--.a ti c-·c.g. '_ .-:-- '.._ .tll'::' L ...: .ermlnoogYt . '.)~..eg. W hich eenres' :' \. ..1l ..~ 1.. .·'~i·:-h-:~ t.:o·-··· ..." .:-.' . ··:·······" I' -- --- C 1 ••." th e ca 't·. [' <co : . .'-~c. rmipasse I find a.:. epic..74 'T'M' . ..-':1 - ::--'1.! --.(.. It:.' _. based on the enun ciating situ arion (th:es'e are our :H1.! .··~·.·. _ ... .... . .. r -.(I.'.resq_u[e ."-.he me d· .."._.. h ierar.·if. _ ..e"S.K which.nIC '.'II"'ia··]H . .!!l. L.. new example of this in.o]~"'" ..aU.:: ..- .. ..I '_ : !liP' . est ."''\../: ..-:.-.e:n.)II 7.J.... - .-:.. [. .yet amrbl[. -' 1.e.··. .ory of t~'.. Next.'Y'p.- -'I .. .~ 0"11: .. standstill and. ·~_II·.~.m.~~'. W.." . _.'.~:"":I __ . .t the apex of the pyramid the category . .of mode.: ".genre s .~ ·w·'···· .-OJ I..- ". ovel 'wit _ --' the genr[e' oi nove t+ In.'. e'm:p. ~'.····'1 ".'k rln.

" For 'whereas the narrative mode ineludes .: -.. ..iL."..' '.... seems '0' bviou . .. ' oe ~.h"']j of suh.(:.:.e nover.._'.' m..I tano this ~ nave .IU. .oj.'rr .>-:':~:: .aren.::-:~:. I. c~ . = .:.' h notrh ]l.ln P.'(...---_.' th 'a"''t' an overall theory of genres has to incorporate the submodal specifications of narratology.JOn 0 . .~. _I_..' .>' ".more\~".'· ': .'. for examele.~n eric reg 0' ry'i It'. ~--"...aJ.n.-:: knowledi ed) mar a :gen.' h.:-:. "' u d b '.in some way.0..u... and of course 'the . •.. !Ai .1"1" tions '.:'It·VP· ""'~ ..s.' . h 'l. 'L .~' ~ ...on r-eq··· uires '~l .' rrative mod ='" "·f' . ... century (if the narrative mode is .I.=.eta ....' '~J t"''lI . IL. in._u.:'~c-y r-h. :--:~.· latter from b elng .. highlighting :for a.I":'~" '.. -.~ .._ an. . sentrmentarI nove ld'~"etectrve nove 'I"etc~.G~1~'. t3" t IS..:'-:J we see .n...·· IVl.' r. o.' '.. 'Ik:)· .._. '¥~.ma. clearly the genre of novel cannot go wholly under either of these 'I I..1 "'('" "':'1"':"':"" ew 'J .res~ 0[' of s:peci~s."...e f 'h d "' t~:e :."C\.' ...· . "~!l1 --.u. "::~'I'-. ] ~ I '_'!lir.. . '~'. there "'-. '_'.."~-..~. L '. I . ' ':__"'". :~.-' II. ·~~ln'V· ~ 11. a sub'L' ._lvt:~e·.''..e .'. C. '·L FlO. IU&IIL&d I'" A .__:.e'~.' "" '11'--- :: I.t (su b ):'mo ~d~. .'.~'·O'-I'O'I:t'.'Y (.aJlt-. __ .I _'. " I·"" " :. .!J..e~rre..I ..'.n th ~ 7"9" Le t us note .ri. .1:.':..' that . '_'. fo .~· 1--..ca.)" ""'. l' -:---~ :~'" .....: .. ". .:O~~-!Iio. .ac__ .... whereas type is.c---.-:-.. ~:.re.E..3.:':'~.aplp..r(ul..en C' e W'" 'I"t~h~' th rA re fo~.tIA·c· ·t:iO:-::iil~I~S: d~' n~I'~.!I ..JI"""'''''''_.-:-.Sln.. s 'Itrue tor an specl"fi--.. :ll.'·' ..-· ':"':_i ....~.~' I '~UIC" h'l "3· S' P .~J ~. the categories of ~"'.--..\".er. ... 1..J:ec~ge.~ f:li " IO~·· t ~'''''r~. .··.. H 111 r""" :··.· _~.oug~·. .~." In short. 'j":I'~." _.._..~ M]i.. .I.SUD·g.ea. ·~:-I..·0" '11"~ ... 11_.\ ~·~'fi':lr~lt'. ~.&I" "lllli .. H Q"._'~ 1 '~'.gen. ~ .' 1"--' .':.•..- :.S. one would scarcely recommend the term type either for its . '. symmetrical)..~I '.3". t hiese 6'.~'.. the narra.c3're'sq-uej' stenifim.g '_al..1"/..e. 'v·]·· re':l. Copy" 'gh ted m a1.': . ".~. . .nres.1 '.~.'.-..".' SYSI. 1).'ne snoe ':'-'.. '" ..ge. _.. are le'SC e"'X· ten S·'I~V·". :::-':r'. this case... ~ ... _:.' ._: :_:_.e.~ne . . g ""'":....ILl!" ._:'" _. :'. "T·'IL.:'_"" __ '...]d"b . _.·I·~·-I: 1.J'" .~_-.~=:-:--"J."lCthat is._.o· :p< .!l:_.ti. d 1 avoidably car__ their own subdivisions ana natura '1~Iy .:.--'.." "genre" and "rype.in.-" see" t.p:nlper''Y.C. :._'."...~ ·.~.. \ 'I··.~. h ld f same . ' . ..."' __ .·'. "third'-person. ...lc caced .' :'~_I':"_' . - I .'U elll r t.gories :a:rc' .""1"'1' rrstenecd' .bc rh clea "-. Oti[ler-~~ ."'.t~'S' co n g' ru r ' 'e"parad ig me t~ '_' .::-'__.r~-.. . "1["" I..cria .' '1' '_ 'I' "'r·.a_Ie.~ do the' :pI. novel cannot possibly 'be subordinated to a parricular ""..' _- . "".ramatic moede) s' ' ~ -I 'I tt is mdrsputa hi' e (' d~ e. the categories of 'both mode and genre unid bi 11f'or h ~ bdi .on.- ·I~":-···':' . \~ Iii.QS e:r . \i. =-= -. es when we try to d~raw _ ut.e ".o1"" we su.ere may b 0..-r .: "(-I'.J." u' respectlve\a.~ .pcp:""...-._~-' -'.de. di ~'.other words. to a~orV.'.'.e: ·[:~U'I~ s~...I~...".=._ . hat "t ' . I' I i··. . ca'te.~ . ~ an."'t novels. -..e"" is '~1'-"" ". ~.· ~~ ~·1.ays co-nne1cted to thematic s:pecifica'ti.. a' leg 'i-...]'iIC·~_ 1"11"'d 'e .. _ ." ---".t t:'-ues..t.. "( .I :.[ and .....I. ".....' -~I .·:~. 1··':·. 1"".tly aJ:w. .. ·d" 'iL..o:-:'" ·o~'r~~:~:0.' --r"""1 '1':...:" ." I' .-~ Qenre of. ".L.'.~I·. ' . . C ...'.··.il·J .:..105 this SpeC11J.:-_: 1·_:.Ii.-. c..-'.~·.'...'..:_. to nraw together in an inclusive relationship .-:\':·. iI. ._. ""." -:-1 "~ " .. C'l. ~ r.~I--.'_:.. l~~':. '. ..·.'.~ ·0' <1":'1 .~''. '" '_' ".~'':h~ c-v. vst .: [~'-".':"" _ "1- "-"I':-"I-'j "."'_. .'1 .·:~·.. ._r. '.. . : ..__::.. "_. .:. _ ~.'cification tbdivide ._IS I' have .' "._I.'"....he sh~' pine.'... canons th . ."l!\d _ .''':J I II.-.._~. ·C. .I·:. novel the the 0.··· "..''.1 · :.d.":". _ ~ '.'_' ificati gory lik tne nove I caneb S'U bdi ~d d mto specincanons like h '.. " . . '" .J ." I ".el1:tal~ as ..I-I.'.0 rrna l~ '_..75 been.s ~ B'ut t:n. 'I h 'types" a:o:-.neru:'.:-.iL.: :('" '.ng . .'·1 -. I'.1L.'~ Sirm ariy.... h " <'·'I"~' .Ii...I I. :. a't t' ra 'Ill' "'S~·Q". ' . 'e but m ore d.a. ---.ex:am. __... now.SUaIHOuf: WOU .a~y .'. ··-:.. mode into homodiegetic and heterodiegetic.- 'I.0..)" l.'. .''. ::..c n u<7 Bur.~.' = . as '~-"'~.prevents th esc I...'.' " . .".S C'.[I~ IA. .'" ~.''iI . "'''''''-n'sp'a' n'cy or Jl1I'_ .. ~ resq._- .' '.' '.ve mo."..

'·:s'~d'. ilJlLIL . 0[' otherwise] the elementary antitheses Aristotle posited . -.al. "'¥-~~. _ J Gil!\.· -. . -. . l . _. '. .~ . I~ [I 1 l~ 1 'I~i'.. on . ". 0 f 'W'·· ·h··!"'IIlt··e. ~. l. I..3.. 0 : J' .1.'.-. .G. tt o •••• r .'h . !"""!J •• !Ii L...J~JlID'_.. of modal and thematic categories. l • '\. :'.1.Q the Arisroeelian category of objects than to that of modes. u]'ti. ..I:g:l"··n·.-:_~' '. '01....1 .1. " I.VI IL... ._ .11-1~\. 1 __ I :':~::-. : . .. . class that is christen cd "modes of writing" but intol which there seems in fact a ten dency to pile indiscriminatel Y' all "consran ts.g::·· :su:p-:er-l.. .a . e1q... __ " .. I " I..: ... . .:"m . tions only one 0 ther.V·. . I...~.. but its. .. some major thematic categories.r-.... .~ 111. _....." II '.. ..= """':. The categories would simply 'be more numerous on both sidles than. . .:-y...1 ""-.I'I~~"'-:@i. ."--.·P··. \. l" II .: . _ . ..r. so homogeneous (so' purely modal) as. ~. .:.'··. .CfUaU'l.:. . no._e[ tra nshist with..:p'ectto the modes of enunciation but also with respect to.h av e said kin S··· I do indeed . . _ I . .. .. Itl. and the chain of inclusiomts br eaks 'i"IIl.-' '".. J"'- •. J_ .Or .' ..: s.r. cot..'II "" - - ~ .J.. such as the heroic.. presence is enough to unbalance the whole class: the "satiric" mode whose determination Is obviously thematic in nature-s-and which is therefore closer [:..' ..m..76 mode.. for it inclu des 0 ther ""ahistori cal cons rants" 'besides the narrative and dramatic modes.~' ..r..~ ..... ~.ate 111. a_. ~I. . .'l'l"'f.'1:" :n.··· ·'1 ". -.'rii('""~ . is directe d only at the taxonomic incoherence of a.:" I r 1['- . intersecting<' U.::'~ categ ory '0-: S-..eria . . :'.I.c. ~ '. A.1 o.. " .of a chart of the genres ~a·. :\.a....1 \r.' : ... .. :' ~~ . the comic. · .A'n.~... ~ ..O[lCall..J~~I" " 'S-: . Hempfer men .. '... .... _ J _ . I have suggested. izh t· heere .I!:!II'r· d A" '1.I!p-.: an d q'l UI :a:·. implicitly leaving the less "eminently .. ventory of these categories would perhaps serve only' [:0 diver sify..c.r~k·'nowled 'g' e rhe existence (at least the relati ve exis renee) of ""3 his. JJ.. ~.. t the m ain part' of the a Poetics is devoted to a more elaborate description of the tragic subjecr. G I '~' .. Copy" 'gh ted m a1. the sentirnen tal. . I~I...culties 011 yet another point. b·' h amo·n." - • . not a.ristotle perceived them to be: the thematic categories would ob. ..' .'(...y. 111 . necessarily compromising for the moment. ~ _.b'weisen. .11 I.$....:' ". ~_ '. .I ~I~· t.r1!.'o:r.... ~ .. on.~.. . nstants -rot ':~. genre is... . subtype. 'This criticism ~ ] hasten [:0 specify.".. anc d i It:... r.'. '. .'._"" . _.·t. viously increase (and I recall '[b. wrtnout .. ~!"""!J.-u.~= "..ects.le.I.ll .i e creates diffi. . . .. ·. A. • kJ .:g~·'UI-r-ili ehte 1f-*p'h"e-c.R .. ..._ o:t'ioQ ..--.. the prina 'C::.r ra '.odes" ' (along 11.".. . the Iines~ of Frye ". . 'res. Ol II Bu t this Sf stema tiS'C'll e Termi n 01og. et c.'j.'1" not 'n"' . one tbar untilnow I have avoided b ..

'.~ '. .I .1. ...... to: gin~gerly '")1'1 the various models and Proiection .::J '~ rhp.'] "medium" of ':"---1.•.'..'C .g: this dangerous game.lC"... " . Gin."= tj. ['. whose rhythm of variation is perceptibly slower I .-'e·~m-:~[--t"A!l:.-:f an"-:-' truns':h''-' ·IS .:·':lt. .. .ay ~:-.t.g~~a . Histo. .'.I. 'il'..'._' : "~.-[...o. J'Iii. ~ re ..'iI' r. :.-..u 'b· :'1.'... as.A' . [...-....'-.. '.r·-·_:':":_·=...". . --.. _.J_'~. "". .n s t-'h'-I'... cre'a.-. .--.... bt I' ...'. -' '3 [' .~: . WOUI.[Qt'..-.· .e 'parameters [-.._= [IL!J ['.~ . q'u'-I'~it-.'.I.1. : . i"-'A --.t."c.' -.·..ar :I~'1. ::.: ':-.-..:'~I--" :____'_:=.11....J:: ".Y.e·. ._._.'. .r uc-iii'...e .~.". '!I. . .-.'D:H11.01 ... - [' .e:~r--(joc-'a. modal. r"e [ ex -_.~~)J..~ '.1 :-11.:_ .-:-:rl:.-.. we..lnc' -..'..-_ - ..finr:mit.'e.s. .:I· _=. (). _. fl!"Q.0 '~~ III '. '1..'.-'.'~ " am .·h>l~ .'_··'_'J· __ ··_"._~I "_ .r . ".t ~i ·.-' -4' .y turn at pl:ayin. nate in. .:.." 'U·I '''':'litJ'i:[O':'1 'D·~: :0':'"' U'I'n'. '" 11.U remem 'bier. ..- ~ -H_:__:_ _".... I···· seeUl a pOOl car1.' r< . U.i. : .[11 "-.r.y what m. .oo _nme nan . :..or" c..'" -. thJ." .-. .A..e. "'..:.. .11_ ~.......1: . - 1 ._·_=~~'d.~··-II!. .. 1<' ..".c:.'e:r..1: (th. . _-. the ian iscape in wh: -h [-'ne eVQ.......:·_·.[:.--.'J..). '. . _ ml:1 .:.IIIr"'I'~. 1'." _IL .unon of the it ~'-'-'-'-. teast ror ....-..11-_ .'f' .p.e.." . :' '-::-'1- :---:-.d....a tiv[e .rnr -: we s Itly foreseen 'by Aristotle with the question in what? that determir .c'h...o[f''y. I' [Ie_ e.I' __ .C'\. ' •...m.. -.. ...1.. ..at is". copin a with and 'a·. . .n1ot [c'.f" ..I.=-.a ..• " .·""~C-"'O.. --'.' 'fj'< " -' :' . . h-'-" evolution 0'".t.was llmpIic" [. .'..eVOU-lo.J." ' • ..·'r.. . : I 1 ....'. ch-'I" "c V1S....h". .'n.-..'h.:. th.. . n ere.-..". .r" .o··. :::. '.' r.. . .'gener~c. ". 13· [g"..0.~.' it"_ . .:. ~ ingenious predecessors to take 'm. .""r '0. '--:-_"-""'. -_.n ..I:iI2'.a.[ t... - ~" _ o.·C .c--:hl.): d eIin. I . .c.~ _..-=~ ~- - - .~..'w. a. .-. dl . .. ..:J·'.'J..'d·~.:. w~ . .'. -'.':. f~""I'" :-. .' Q. 11... I.. 1.the .(..s anc tnat 'man agreable (and less p leasing ':)than Peterse on' ':5' rose '.+'.'1'1'" '':_:-.' ..o .zan to'.· '.lrstory m. . :na'melYt t'h:e. _" .-.. -- --~). " ". _ . d·: ..._.: ~ •. and formal deter.O:." -1-' '." ..c~.::".. I'.~'~I··~ ' 111('.:. '. l_e .rm."._C_' Ie . .h t:.f. :c. ~_.a... U. . .LIlIE- . f "Jl '" 'Ii...~.. I. a.=:-.~~'c.".-1'.c.1"1. . . at History ·_·1 .y [L" (JuStt... ·f·.J'. :-:.et ... : I -.h r.'c po [:entialities .. ~'e·· a..e:ln· . the major jmagjn .s _.:'. . .:'\r. " 'LI idlins /. ' rormai .'... _."._ '.: 'u··s. _' . _. think rr ..u '.". .. .'~ ...""' J.ons~ ~-.hik .f..-.-. 11. .. .1 ~.u'id:.:__. at s:-£.A·..~' . .1 d ---_-".·!Lll ."..m. r. .I ..oir 0f g... . _.. ea-tOe: n i llJl .· 0.1. W... th e thi -d--'. itarion rm vhat ian g.a. .. [I.' to' u J. ·t.".." -0 de ry s " x-'1UUJ.t .. I~ic·-. rc mensicus.._ _.-"b--l .. ...shaUI.l_·_ ~ .r d in.!". 'V':'I~"[ _\': l' '~' I'"' .U'_I""" __ nat '-' .k.b e ·C··-·'·O-<g~' n'. th ..'.. . .sion al :s[tlrp··rise.. .. r:~p..- _. " . it were.:I-fl. ---.. 1.1._ a '. --.~ 5 __ ca . __e~ermln.':' ['(- . ."._d.~ . a" certain number of thematic.I '. t.: -. .--'-".···00 this ·kind of .... f1".:'..Ie'. .• - _ :-..1.~:"- It· C' 1 'tiD I .= '-(Y': .h-.'[. G...tram.. . 't. ll.. .-' [-c. I"' it" ' ._.' .._ "1 __ ' ..I' ~JI.'Q!"e~eral" -'m-' . -1._. '-'.s.. " • j 10 •• I :~ . ". - . .."". ~.---'.:':....l-.landscat rne in wnicn .r":':'·.• : bl I -1.n~..:.'u···· 'rs~: >' wit-"'hl o·'u.::[ give us. three--d ~.~"..l.e th.. 1 a ron (ir wn 1 . ·s:·'·' we ".ible -I . .S'h-leer..'e rese-rv'. ".: . .1["'$".th a sort 0: translucent cu ee.-- I' -"1 (-". In wh "'t" meter. .. ... cu. I am no ·t-' --I' ':. a·. :.. ----""10 ._C' tA ..On 0.:.ii' ..'i' _.3.. ': . .JllS."' .. ---:- -- .e" tne iuusion 0.~'''i_0....[ .".: ' . 'I'I. :I[~I J _". . .:-\p.g.I. and --:'f'..d..·'c -e 1-'--' '. nJ_d[ t. .'1... ¥..: -. . ~. "":'... ".and." .[ :s. . _"-"} a. .at per :h'. . u re -'·'f-' '. of m 'Y' 1[J ...~'.a"ps" rr _r..- I -.:__. ---= - -- - --- -~ J - -.·I. .' ."". il:.' .-). '.: .ura.:.sue -: a -" . . M.. ~1.· '..._. '.s.: . . .. ~ " .D'~b.lUg \...!I..p.. ~ :....' . [1 _ .y of the human mind.a" m."'- . -~:.1. ·_··c _c· ... '1d ... .[.ure Wit....':.' .. .k.I' .a:rt.. . '~ .at IOrEu" .at ier ~'-".:'1' .l"'Y irred.t ". 1.. rhr .' .me meed".Ir~....~-.:· '. r- ['.1 .r-c. -..['" '._" choice of ~JlC=]l.sure anaId· I h-'.. iil11r. I:e .I.."3. '1' WOlLl" .~ . -'.a[:..r. "... ·····1· ." --.e c Olee 0 fj'r-..:.. . I':'" .. " [I) '"'1 \ .. :.-.. .1- ':.'b[ '.are. ._. .:..' ...own to those three kinds (If "constants" (thematic...m.t-:a·.-:-..'..-'· ..·:'p-.-.. J [01] •.I. -'1'1 I-oj ["I::' . w." " ...: _ JJ..c. .ca. g'o. ..t. [ 0 "or no .. .-1... 'C..1. :. .akes..bo th "literary" an. ." . ' II.~. at 11... . _' ·ec/"')~._.'.. ~'I' Ug_ca.. m. I .'"_.'.• ":. .e_J.3 .· t han the rhryrhm 1s '... t 1-' ..' -i .oug .'.Sl .us simp "1Y suppose t.en. .lI. nave spent ...·'·I.-':...·.I. i ..'l.. ..~. 'd'..~[t 'res . .:hl. ..c'-t 11-.--.um 0_ 1m .:.. m...' .I.n.e . . [en t.or ex. ' c =. .. e·'t-: e.. !""!l •• ~ .-" h()lding: cheap :precis1e). _.'.I"D~o't. """. - :d.h..·······w .)~o..'.' .Ii..IJl_I.h....ct 0.. .-. . . ~'\r. ". _..-.a.-h·"a-. .-' be. . 1.. 0" nterature ~S set. -. .I!~. CiI: ....lje-"r--.no IUOU.lna. 1-.-lIe...a. --.__.78 ld I--"d~' " 6:'. ·r-' h ~ :-':~.. ..m'ui.mem.. t .eter ... of d ow._ . '('::_._J.I.es l£S sele'c t lons-'." -'.I .'~': ·"1 -'..:. 11. : . . . muc 'h-...-:'-U-'· nuing 60'[" them Bu to.. . modal.l. . :(..'1 aw.thliZ'.~ tne genenc system come ... a~ "·~ A':".£..mething: lik...n-.o-cc-'3. '11Id' -h '''1111 ~. '.

'1' I "~.:.. ' .5s'. ". U[. .rtlcu]a:r' on the' development 'of his. personality") in. ..is nstory t alI'·'·.·.... that.._ .. .. comedy...!I '["I'ii' '.' ··'· . who 'views autobiography 'l no . l' --I' i II .".at hil:S toncism k'·'III H__ . I".."')..~ . ... t. .:···d..la [J[~~~[l.'. 1 " c" c'. ::: I . I: '_- I·' : . ·'···'1 .:____ . rea] per'[0 ".. is]. ~ . .".._. .: ~ .' 'i jm1 .-.:. :" -..-. ra sossibl a~only .. Iso'n. ..I.0.-. .=. ·\· ._.f.~.r.' . ':e'" ...' ~ -I·". .t~ _'.·_.-'. ~ ."" '.1" .1r!ill "..:_. 'p. · efinition-e-combining feat'he m·0"'· d ern age.-. of course.. ._". ...I=.' !.:__.. .:.'" son conceminz his own existence.~ ·1··"p."..."I}Qd'~')'1 .h.~' ..focusing on his individua] Iife..!l:b ••.··' '1~.. is 'P•.. great extent guided 'by' the navigational lights of the combinatory chart: before the bourgeois era b ourgeols d ~ orama was l... sails...:::.'t" the 1.( :-.'.:" . rr ere.. 'b"'DI .. ~_ .'. rerrospective prose narrative produced 'by' a. '" ..I..1 l~l .li: A. 'but also to differentiation (one' cannot.' ".i~ '"'dd '.".-_.::.. ..I..'w'hich. . . dr ..cria ..1~1!l..~ .aJUJY .I= . Philippe Leieune.I.. th."' opposite of " .prose rormai :(t":':"' ".I:~. :_."c.}l.. '1 '.-·I"·. ':.'.. do ub t co rrecrly. -.-.. ......." '. . ~_".' rrsrotenan an.11II1LIJ "~.. .> mutates -')" an d-..'ore . . r .. . Il 1 ·h- 1(. ~ h ie.' I 1- --I' :".._.>1 ~ ".." L_. m 0-_ a1 ( a rer rosp ecnve autotuegenc narration ') d·" 'hl1h~' . 'to a. of continuities The course of history is obviously not determined but it is.-.I I..pOSSIibl b as we " ave seen. .. ". __ I.·O·:11'IU_~.."1 ..··ora'11".!l .. I!._. (~.l.. '~'a)::5:''-0:'' = persist in ·t:'hl unking .t·..ir.=- ._c I. .. '"'(...'.!~ :. " -' [. _ ••.n _' . . :: t that the study of transformations implies the examination.. and therefore stagnation.~~... _: _. - ~-~ Copy" "gh ted m a1... And I note..' "Delve ~. .~ too.I"'".. heroic . . .!""!!! __ l. . ': . lQ~~"_ ll_.. " I~' _ ..'" .".I : _' '-... but b ourge ois drama can be satisfactorily defined as the diametric .' . !"... '1 ". .. .pe'at 'what one ~ .I. :'. . "".....-1 ''''i g..'-t···I:.: ..to a mmnnum 0 f...'1 ..<l. this 0" '"' ' .• t . tures that are thematic (the growth of a genuine ind. only to imitation. and thus the taking into account.'-"~ lS'.~_ . .- II·...:82 ~~~ ~ II -·-'1 ..!"""! •• •••.~. that ab .d strictly a em . terms free' of all :hisrorica] deter minacion Un ··d' oubted I'y·..'..~"'~ W.. " -..' '_' .... J'!Ii .1··'1 ana s: 'I ..... '... .' ···. ·'1 B... ~ "J.~ relativism is J~.. . 'I' I . - .. ~. "" I".'. _" .."'.. in pa.' .b nnanne witnL.:' J u P.- .:~'.. evo-'1unon.g'..'..." ...:"':' a-utob :toi..0".m.•.. "' . .. .1c._~. II!. as a.. .79 '0'.. .'1.-:'1": ...'. l!. [..1.. re.:..' di ~ ~ vrouar)-) . ' " \r.£-.... 1[1-'-' - -:... c'"'.:1: ...._ . L..~..:-_. .... ' '..-.:·_.••.::_.S:···..-. recalls :.1:'-. .1. I'.....·-'r::'·I---->·~ ". -. d' SU. ·''''h ~\. .~ .'j <i : . --_'.. .':'. I I'" ".. _: . I ... . _'!l.-:y.'j ...h-'-"~'c-·'h'. . relati vely recent genr-e defines it C~a.

erna"..~ iii.Y u L' ..'.-..' -"-'---". ingly a :.y . :" certami1·':Y..Y_UI"".. ..·t..prime .eJ'cu-.. .. ..80 .e" ". ."" ..e a . items you ve namec are-. ". I _. .ii. . ] '.. although Diet all the' 0' (..-.nlS 0."-"'.-.. h-I : . '_"_'_ .nJ .'..IL. tonans ':.exa. --~~ . 1 .'Csq~.."'-=:" _"'.". I ~".'...' .. ..= = ._ = . '..'i'. ~ 'I sntuuons: t:h 'R" te ="... . d.il~.'. "I ..~-. .-.~.. II . h it: 111 picat.. importance.: '-' good .. • J .proper.UI." ~ .. ":. _~.. . . . 1. tmee "" '. on anan doni .so ..'I . ..h~ 0 .·..".' :i. .. 'E. vra rb ~ .fChiit!.' barzain " for everyone.A.. =."'.. :=.·.'I. '''1····.. • '.M-·'·:·..-.' . .J."'-.. .eld.. with "'.' "r..'l. :.xt X"'·"'~' . . 1S W . But we have already' noted that.I .. . ollln:g: . •."_"..' .onlan.'.' __ • • • • .' anyth.:C' ovel I tnere IS novet.pertinently writ e the bist.paoe oper... _. as Cervantes already noted. .' 1 "Nonetheless .. . er call Aristotle.: -' . l~.)1 S ·11 rues of _gell.'.-..' n. an d". .... f' mane specmca trons mevita b 11¥ 'L JJ' ~ ... seem"That would be '.'="' h'! .srem.. ".-. .. .-___. anc assuming th.'[' _ . ow pro g ress ..: -. .. bet ..-ne.) h did d . ~ ll.. exacuy '0.'. ".. .. • . ..-'' .'d -..an .. .I.at tne n picaro is.r: ae rel Jo""Y"" 'lo 'W'-:' D': arrat ... I... heir termm us I. in.'.. . "...~.-. .0.~ _ -- .. err termi a ("::.-f' _.--: '~ ~ _. I" I . A. l. "I c.1• .: . . .~" .. some cen.:" "·'h" ~~"'. .~~n S..· b: . 'Ii:..se.'..• ... . '·'11 6"" d ".'.1 edv.. -:--.po.-. I·'..... '_' '"1!_ _ '_' I [I [I " _". . -.en .: " --" .e .eo'boo -.-.•.'. '~~. ~. f '_ ._.- . ."-_-"-td ". If.'" -..re ·t"'Y: good wav '0"'...'--'_"'·':' ....[iy~ ._ _.- '" __' .· fa..hrat species m €er.• ' 0· I..~..-.. ...-'..C)._' -. .. l • LI'! ~ - ~'."'·'-·' ' -):' do tne empmcar st -.....' .ce:pt for one ) ae '. -.".a~ or."~ ed . nermc t. .. • ..:i!"k_ .'~.'I:A.x.'. t h ch re aanson d-I gesre t ne oe '_:·-·-. Id defme t h mooern 11'Q've:1-' rrom :~"O"" d L S" detai·'1( "pro..11. the : entimental cornec y" etc. "we..:. .'.. ~ '.bi t. turies before Fielding..._g-'" inc Aristotle defining' the western."."...31rlv s.' -' . . ...... .> ". . U 'c..' Since then have we c m.• it':. elegy. I.._...:~... the tale' of chivalry.. "-.". : quo ~':. '" ~'L' .ristotle docs not foretell Lejeune alld.A. t.-d._. '-' '. :..-..11 " .. In . .nd··.. ing ...A II !f.-' - ' -.It..m.. _ ~ ". -"~'..- ..0!1I rerrospecnve. . -I' .. -..0' theemni . S manzinal ("inthe economic '_' sense)_. ~ .. ...-... .t..ive. But 1 doubt thar one can very easily or very.-. /t-". -."ypO.- :._.' .ct :1am not sure' that tvith autobiography I have chosen the ·'fE. -...•• _: ". .cavalier' linking ie-J'" . . Id d b be harder most d i::. m . __ up WI '.-'" - ~. : ..II._ ._ . oear e h-e marx 0: .• ."'-. __ :0" .' "_... ....--." .-..vetr picaresque never. unknowingly and ex'. 1 " d .. ''''h':·'1 se. '_ . ..-_.' . . Certain the'. -.':. .' . "this-. " ..." 'iiI':' ["1... .~u..:-' ..'-' a.. . t rma..'.- :: t.~l. ..~.-' _:- .1ClJ '1.-r ":.. _ .. .---"-. a social given of the period for which literature bears no responsitnhcy ("ta supposmon t h at is a 'nttte ex"'11 • ." '=."(it's t ierr · . .. " . . . I . . tne sennmentar -"-"". ·--[-:1"..erpnse [nat..lnLI0n -"-".." e defieI'..gr-e'..." . -. = . :-·L. ..~' .""'r~''-I''ft' exte 1"-] to th .'one will obiect.~.t WO. ' D ..-.even. ".rt. and-_ letting literary his~. :'_-- . no doubt b h _j to .~ '" _' _: .w· -. ' ". wu:. automogra p. nla.~- P" "'I!i._ •.'-: ~Il.> .ory 0'£ an institution wzithou t first d efining .'. .. fh cessrve ) we must sm. _. ... . .e'.~ The .. eve-:r de £1.. the s. r ~. (hy ._. _ ... ·.' A' n. . ~.'~ - .. -_.:' '. C"· :." .~_. " ._·the " . better ---ff'''''.. S their J:Oib. . .. '" .e[lCS".". I.Il.r... _ .res' or m:ary be subgenres-e-as sociohistorica 1. .p. . 1. ':::' m iuch b etter?" ' _''__ . lL· '. e :__::-. ' '!Ii'' ..I~ltlll~ ..~ . "'.ro'": y :1·· " --.y'e -I' ... . ~ II! ll. .~. ne ---.

.-... ..g 'ver..d i st c: a change or.".•.-U('CB ~. e .. ~~ . d efin.I. carle: w hatever it is. genre 'Ly way of mode of the ·:.g':: : els.e'ts allOtl. e·nre· .iJ. I":__' _: ~ ~. -y.'.U1S" on 'W. '.' .tuality in the strict (and. •• " ••• j !f 1~ l.re Frankly 'Y'mr disc .I. 'y. 1 '.0 j/fl.~ '" :_.:l·~ B rr ..C:O··.:". " domg wuhout th t . ..'..0.. ."_"[ [I _ . heaven S sase. I[I ."1 D.cria .' . ~ I. rrme.. .'f (onJ.:·o-. "..-..rrorn tm . of .. 'i-~.' .•.'.. ~h id 'this h l' aem: you.:: _ I_-l-J.Ji 'L ..W"':"hat counts' IS lh'" :n..·" h ·." ....'. caH that transte:xt:ualit}'" and I include under it intert'e:x.- .. t. just' to get out of the 'W"ly on t. "" s···.. it: irtt0. it ~ ". Ii:) t!i . . sin ··g·:·. ~ '._c "".7...._:_:..p'~I1j""e·' ·s· ~ . nouel:' ._. tha doesn't-care-a boutO'~n:··r·~c. .. 'L' s d10 cnncism..' •.....m.1 .• I.Jl...~ ...' and be done with.!I! I 1 . .Ii . relation (manifest or hidden) 'with other texts.~\I. and at the very moment when :i. .:·.'~ I. .' --' :c' ~ '..y 1 wor k s.seess quesnort --1----.~ mo 1'.. tie ...._...-.entary .:..' he lte:r.l :. t" .u'~v"!"'.": ··:' .n "You are t... s·:' ..' .- 0'" '.[.. t h l~ h .j.my own 'way. ""'What genre?' "iP'l1"~ t" .' _' . don't forget that the demonstrative spa:res us '[he need .:0':1 know where _ 11'0·'1'.ror . ~. ....:·II~..·~ '---' 3:' su b''': en . ".iLn!li.Ii.1:0 '_:'0 'be exact. . .'h-:: shurting you rself u P insid ..n genre.m e t· -" k .• " "I I~ e·'"D"'r'e' " the g.4: I [ ~ I • Copy" 'gh ted m a1.l& J .'ne' If .. .ry. . .. .. the thick.. ..:a-. . '..lL~i :::=_:_ ~" .e"..e'~_._ .Q.3.At best.... _ get this rage for R'flting ou...~~ [.- t' --!... 't 'much.'S.' .':r."._ ::_~..in "f..t"e". "" n-'·..I~n tor'.~.l . l.· '~~"'.·· :". phenomenolog ."..11 .:..5 t. .. .ex·t. ".f· :. .. a".__ de he ...:. '-' ium I.'" 1" hat's .Ir I . 1.. _".e-"'[':I~C"S": _"_"'_. sinceit resorts to them without being aware of it and without recognizing them.~~I\.I~'X ~ua-l'.a'I presence teva.o). textual-co m.. et . arm JlI.t of the text by way 'of genre..' '1'["0'..._.._:"". I can always shut myself u..\.".. fro.:': .'.. I. sense-e-enat ... fro ' . " ._..·':. exisrs-e-th at 1':"...' ~ "It gets along very poorly. at another level. '....m.g..·o··methin .' 'I·:t.Jlll... . an.1I.y) :in its textual transcendence.. _.ll ". ::: I. ' 'l ]J\..' ".( .. .lB": 'y' wav o f':' th t.I."".~ ests me -" "Yours interests me ro '0·-:'· I'd like (-.' .. .I. Kris .5'..:_~: • II! !f "-_:_'.81 .1..' II· I "I t· e·r .. 1.o'Ve".h' 1.. I . 1:: . But it is true: tha t jo:r the nU)nU~'2.p inside it and comment on ir in ." ."' . .' ..j.l. Ill'. .... '0" . since Julia. wha t is Id text?' "'I: don._do'" : _..-crassica l-~'~')·· 't. UI:.' :::'_''''' "Let '$ say "this text.t the text interes ts :m. "I'm not sure the change does you much g[OOd'4' .. :. _ ""'-'-' -' .][] ..and here 'we: are (again) in.-l....m tsm e to . ..• II" .<lS' 1 d '. cnn. an d even t -a..\"" "ilJiI [:'".. .::__·.-=..'.... 1:1:.~e novel?" !ilI!IIA'" 'u.'- '0'· 1...v: to ._:-' g ter. .I I_. .._.I'-Jr.' nicely wirhout universals..t claim.'I com.'.'. cism 8.~ g. .._ '.ll. e_ ~ "1..-namely.··m··.'t" '1'.t::!' ""'_. 5..ll. _.:. ~-" .. to 'be .ition'" Let's f'-O"-"C'... of poetics: what "i--: he n_ ." rs..] . everything that 'brings._-..

e..h' ".'1L. a'i '3.0._-".' 'fi~'t.'c.·..' __ ... '_ .have been producing ~ metatext "'' ' ... '. . ··t 31" I.--: I. IL.~.1.-:}-:"'.:. . '. I_ _ ". xtua _I:Y "-..n_s ".0. """ "'.~1 00 'I' ve. "1' "I'" 1 ["" critics .. { ."" .. . "ou. 0 a..otation marks-s-is the' most obvious example of this typ...' '.'..::. '~ ':.."_ ~.~'.:. .. :.:: .ng.. 'G".....'.. 'f '.-.n toit p""" . . :. •... But let' 'me finish: under transtexrualiry ] put still ..':" . . ..II ..-."1" ~ ..me l.. _." .' " ... .er . ".'. ~""~'.:_:.'t. ~_..' Wll.1n. . ... mO. t..i~'C"o_. ".'-.-d .' 1".y..: ith. . .-'_:'.. " .lSO . pas icr .":.' ..y"I.!: tds ot"i'. .some .'Ih-~ 'w:··::.100 0) .':: .'"or rat . C'.I uxe to b neiprui 11 ir It d..'1'1·. '. . i!" ._. links each text [-..' '1-1i:t . Id'" ' .' ~ r aenr oenar "Nothing [0 i'[-i. .~. tr '.-'1 '-'1 ~ ..-.. 01 zithin anoth er .': 'I '£:..3 . d -. 1 ' '1 ::.. i' h- . II"h'I~ t" 'we.reianons . I". e c_c.._ I .. III .' . '1' ....".t W·· .. f' .. " .... I' tterary ~. .. :a: '. ..'.. . commentary to t hie text....' seems 'I'.· ['. ·~···"':I _'. t' th:a" ..~ I' t h .''-'' '. ve a I.·· .1I. . .. : I'''': 1"..i'€xtu(i'li. _' ....": .ltsorrierrh. ext .: "1 "-j .ey. '.' ·d' ····1·· .:. monmg U.') ano pernaps 1111.'.' -.'C'[[cn.··1· .' ucn ":-It' iche .:'~' ': _-.'k'. g' I'"t ". -- "'..a.: both "'"..'. ..' mva '1 ble . . h ']''1k '. b -h'i"il]£"t..e. . " idea 0' .': '[ _-._c.au. 'not)': of one text :'..' to' -'..~. .:I::-.rea.'.. icea '.WlD ...n.......'·:U'·I otarion-e-th ar is the explicit C111im_' '-.'~ tne -_.•..... .': . a:t'lhite..".·u~' ...:'.\ - ~i.." '." s.. . '~llt'h"-:.erne ·ft:.· a.'..3. "' ._-' '~-. ... ·d: ' .···· the 'V'" arm D..-I' a. .. .'.g"" toe ..·.en .n .e r . nd transrorma . _. '.. d r '.' _. . .l..t'_-· "..'.'.·0.I~ .. o nn) -(I. .•• :.'".-.[ ."...D"oe: ···d-i Dv[erwor..."(1\ I 1- ..it.. presence d . '. ···d·..·· WIJLI.outr '.... to. ." .g . IpS shi .[ I.". ..' '. _.. " '1" obligato [Y' term metaiextual i ly ~ m odele d on la..1..k "They'll know it: as of tomorrow: what a staggering d ~ '1 _.:-:-.~ o:r s:im'ply i ~~vo'···.. .:· '.. 1Ie-. :'' .Oreason.. ".'1.... de transi .:'. .' .. anon O. For' lack of a better term.a.'.. JIJiI ..Jguagel m e-talanguog'e-th.'. .."h ' .~. ..' ".'. . .: .. ut unaer t" e xt 'I-)'I"'t rr a relatio.~_n< '. 'rd. I .lIS" "Ie. 'i'" . ...·~it"· . matio 'w:h'''.'-. "_.:.lm'.. ..-"..~.... ·h··.'."o. which comprises many others as ..:..· . ii ~"~ . .' ui .". ...'D[ '~." OU..·. t "'0. :~..Q.'-'< _ -: .lo'r.1_.'.).: .t e.. ':' I' thi .·. 'Ik th ~ -.. ltho .. l I I . '..····...' . .. " '...e'l ..'C ano paro dx can .:..cri a .. I"l!~ '11':.A'-' r'. . .pS 0.•. '. . =~ _ ~I . '.· "... r":' ... ·· . .··..' . ..:.._~_ u..hi" . A'll-' '. 1'''- . '. weu. on.\ '-1 . .J. ca .-". ' . '. "'~~I'I . ". l g.ance by' qu..1'~ .... _..e of fanction.at 'W'e..: :. ~...r:c.. .' give u. ~". ..".o mctuce-e-usmg . J "'. . "" In.1.. ..i·."..· ':." . ' .' . :... '. " . ..lSC osure all d '..'..··:.~"~ _..ll ." '-d: ' I. ['-.' . ·.s. "'1 .~ .'¥ Ul& .le' transtexeual relationship that Iinks a I ...' . -' ..'1'-'.'Ii. " a. esnt take ee h '11 e . I.'k '·d" t········f·-..x~jl. __ with each other air incorrectly differentiated .f . .' ".. . ·'..C':-." " 1(··. nuer " -_.."-")".e>:. ... ':1Ill~il'..:·"'·"h. ... ..eas.' . u tea Th'.genre t.:. -.I""lm' Ip' j.--. .. tr..10 n. j'.promotlon.. . f "'1'" :'1" .l'u:re' ~ ·.. _ .' :-'.s an. ~. : "..' .'..'.~s~' 'O·'C.'.nrest Wit t"herr d'·termmanons ~ t.111. Ion ~...... erhaos -.. o much.' "L."d' . .·. . 11 . d I. ..' you on uame .-' -:.. j' "~.. k an d' you k a cnow now . ": s .for centuri es.. . ." ···d' _ ot. . t.n.:· my rmncd' rs transtextuanty v par exceuence).-.. 'I... 1 '. . " ~I . . .".. t.': 11-'-'1.'."iQ!. I'" -. . ' lor -. .I..n..e:ss ('" .: :1'. I']] christen them pa. '._.Ii..1..l . two id ..1.'.1. ~ .'".~.:.a. ~ ious types of discourse it belongs ".orm to ..·'11.. transtextuanty . wo r. .I.I . "'._. t. . conruseo ··dl the re very'.S\l. . " ..]." "r '.. "'".['g merely terminological fallout. '. . '" d'".'.'.m~_"'9 .]. -~-. ..-.-<'t· an".' .comments on. . rh .. 1 .x..>=_·". .' .ay. '.·" I I. ·.r -.".' h: ': ("). .3 . . an. ... " ~"imrk re :1......P of s te .11 J:e. ..-'1-..-'1' :-::: .. '.".'1 'I '. .ty (which to ~ . i\ '.tr.th"'~' t'>h'" a····· ]''-~:r··· :·.'.."" .." . '".82 (marie' or less litera].. 1'1·:"·.s.I '..r.'..ath eri K.PU.. :. .': ':. . . - .).-..J. ..~"" ~t .1:'11 . 'h' 1 a:n:h~~texIU'lJ I i'ty.Here' we have the ~I F 'I '~. ··:I:··"r' .ok . y ' e . I'::' ' - • . . .'I:o··'·:d'd·"-·'l~'.'.cc-.C. '.' d~'.' " Copy" ·gh ted m a1.".y .."ec.. " ..:·.:1 . .••• ..uY.' anrd• distant ed "JS .ra.nn~. ship '0'£:" 'tl'trl" clusion that. . I 'j! I t • ".---':.. '. ...:' "". (-"..[.' ' .. whether integral .''I·"ld'" s :a.. . .-'. 'e'c's' 'l'S~'.pSle d:'li [I"ematlclf...__ 1.' '. '! ':. 'iI' ."1['"[.'" ge.'·h'(1"t t: .'·.".

.3(ssag:e' I-U. not rhetoric.'.. ...~ . .. .1"-n. pr om~ses.'a: ... .•. ---.1. .ave b een usey 'b''' _:_~a. .f1. ha'. is part of it)...g [or scorning of' g'en.' Il...':..X .I~J. which spins its web only b...IE.'..t. .~ Ma Y' ~..c·"". ..d. (-a· hiers de' e.d' M':~ ---" A-" -. j Copy" 'gh ted m a1....""&.....:.h l." [83~" The term ardutexture co c. d' " A n . .b -. e Prefe ..-. _.~ '_ ' ·m--~y-· system.•. I. ... 'W·'-.ry-.- .Ass[ociatio'.lI!. n ~it_ '. int..ki. .a· ....'.'.. '_ " .0 'ts ':-S-:. theory 0 f figures-e-no... th lack 0.fran"(J'i~$tj'.·L·· . .'uctton ' one.text'.II:..-'.. I..it here and.P in the system. rak. is omnipresent.'. . 'w'...-saio aoou u rne .·:· ..' _. _': .-"'" .~'. -----.'.:..-" ..I...111. .. '.~ i'y: _ n .f[rncl't[iot.. W·'·'h· rat e callI.l}es is one genre among others.... others may have aid" .. network of architex . I ." [ .. ".do . ~ :. . and that no one can either avoid this very crude schema or 'be satisfied with it .~ ue .ive [4'r~{'IL:'~t~o-·~·..-."1 .and narratics. "'E)' . one' more simply" that the blend.I.U~I-Ie-··..tro_. The architext is" then everywhere-e-above beneath." '. v rre _ Jill._' . "' ~.f". literature and elsewhere. there onto that.. few others. 'wholly' different sense which escapes :me.g .~ . ·C·_. theory of 'modes (I propose modistics. u ... [g-" :ve:ry·.I'·' . :-. "t" ~-[' f~f" t .1 [.._ac.-. I .. -'0'-.Ii ""'. . .--: ha :J' . I I ~Ir' .' . Of' na"a·tol~gy" the theory of narrative.in a. __ _.ul-Id'-I I but ant.~o 1] ..a~.-:. ". l n 0 m ."ii!~..!IV. . '"_" .:: 225 -43).architext. [".11.gen. whatever 'Croce and._> e . .... liditv .·e'xt. - . .p is ·sc Ji'et 1 h"·... W [101.~n[~.. • "'"-'. around 'the. 30." "It's okay with me' that you're caught up in ir..'.in.t[~'r:e< "_" ~ one I' __ ' -... ..• 11 .. '- ·.p~' d" ..978" no. ..e reianons .11cau.. thing int 0.' . nd th e adiec....ij.~ ..-....· ._. ...-. 1. uld. . ·1 -- : - . .. V3l1Y 0:1fth e.ology (Van Tieghern). We can dismiss the objection by' remembering that ever since the I..._ ~ 1i[n. [ar.Q. . 1 .. d/I '" ~ . like the Divine Comedy.. :Ii':Ii' 83 "I :agFeie~So' I: would gladlv pro pose to stop 'with this U'~' .u. and LU'~ -" the ". ~ ""-' k~ (J' . ~lWS... theory ···-fl' genres. that quite a.'.n..- I ~.-y' ho[o. So . i .·. that the contrast between these two groups in itself sketches out a system of genres .. '. 4.".. . 'between the text .. '---'-- :' 1 ~. .afY. - ..ii. have at first bung back from it.I·--!'· --.• I •. ..' l~ .. -..0"'0.l'£ad~ quite a.:'. le'-" ·n . _ 1...t·. ." -: ..'.3'_&..[.. .···. could s. .. it's .' cha DD·e -t-"h-[ . poeme j[:. .hy '··h." That transcendence' I' ...er--a'lll'll P e'0' ple can't W"'.. who's caught UP' in.. -~ :.: -- --. . few works have rallied to the generic viewpoint.ill' 'm m. _" ..' -: ·..' '.-.z€fie des' etudes .wrong:. -.. it.." "You're .cria .f1. ... ·····. or ..U "So 'W" o.nn ..and it'S.)1--.generic vtewpomt t· in.•. one is caught 'U'.: 0. ace :.

. navigate in it._._\.la Spitzer. _I.:_:_ '_:' -. lessl ::-'~' . _.-.:. " d. not eo b.._. whos e ne crology . Jl J ['1 J •• ' ..:'.".~ 1 .·-I·.'1 ... '_= __ ~-_"'_'\"' __ . ~'n""c' .ahead..··I. '.r".··· 'n'_-' g... ..'_" ~"'"_"" ~"I C_' _' 3: I -I.rc11Jtex t .. 3' ·m·.."'.II. ~ A.J" _' . '1'· g.. '. . '_'.".easll. theory o... d othe . and so Ion: the whole point is to rna-v'€._ poses " the general stu dY' 0 f poetic for ms) ._. iat would you say '['10 figJf:r:ology?"" I...._ "..11'" .' " ..~p·S" " .mea:ns.1 111 1 '-l l .0' tee.... . The .O' '-. 0" bie ·C·~'~". \ ll... I I ...·c Il.. tyles. .Ii... 'Ii sh o' : .II. '.)"".g y. .-=:. I .. ." h fs 1 it.o·.I." ~ d ...u.'. ~ ..._.' . "Ji.rs st .': ~V!..rcs I' \\.. 1i 1'.' --'. th ere ve harve something in common I: Bu t Q] 'dis .rm.. . transcendence.-' . '\r \.. J. a..s__u". .:.~'l~.'.U . . . W". . _._~ . "- ..:-. and to' contrast it with stylistic criti .. " ~....'-·n 1~...:.~I_:·_. iJ .".o-'n. .:.' ..•• }. '.1. :'.1. _. 'u..·::··~. .. or architex . cism a.' II·'~...: with that"" id ea u happy __. ~I·n···. ' .hy transcendent?' "To be stylish."h: I Go'n> .-I... . II I ~l I.'\r.':':_ •• _'..' ...' "One good turn.. .... . _ _ __ '"" _ __ _ _ .. which i:n turn " ~ ._: I "I.' h ieh ..~...'" :.'11 t'. tural.'-. :_.1. 'p' I} ~.. .. ~.Il..-. ..~ . th e···· . .. d re-fosrm n poetics w'_-h~O'IiC'-jOI. ..A. the-ory of forms" o-r morphology (alittle neglected today but tha t coul d. 'y·. n·.. J not having to. ~ t .".n::-. tarion a.5'·-'. ...I.l..hat _ .\.. stuck WItith w..··e:-" f~.<: way:/ up " l. [another 'discipline'). _'_' ~~A·- IP c"'ii]Y'li Q.. marks•..-:' others.·.. .Iet co:· y r-_ ..g-: ' .. _:___..[ _'" 1111 ".' "" . _. or thematic: (criticism known by that name would be' simply an application of '[he' theory [0 indi . ". thea l'y 0 f themes... lL "". ' at _.' ~ "rm not '~orcrn..3-_"n. :C~:I':.". U~II-se q '--U~.. " . J~I:'d. r'~'.~ 'JI~ t us . I . . ~~ .." '.. to.".'S-'['" . theory" of discourse..>II.... ..il:__n. which overarches everything.. more modestly.. _. ~I~' U'lP f.' lIHlllll..dont miss a A.. '..iii.: I':I!! "t ".)Ii.· .I '\r.ou to say Ii ..-'..~ .'"::··ia. . ~ iJ! ~ .."(:... ~~p.P some discipli nes. [ . a transitional means that's abolished at once in achieving its.-'..till. r I .d~ _~"-'" institutio b-:-·-u~only '. discovered and scrapped in.F -1-' \1 . 'We have aIready used U. ..· " __ as 0_ ce k <.'····. 'but Y'ou. '...·. .'·'. . _" . their tum=-rhc whole end .. _ . '._:._. . help us explore that architextual..u te die mieux.'...··.'. . ounted c f':'h·..A _..·:lo'-:u···---r·· CAn···t.firmI"'l state ~ is t'i ot th e tex I? bu t t-h e arch itex t. I I .._..!.:_:_ I ~ _':'_:."~:-:.' "I'm niot too .. .."iI._~it-!I't' ._'."".'1'· s·•c·... : ._ can ~ fa. deserves another: you didn "t: finish."':.84 0' ."..-. _".fi'-''g~ r~_t. ~ . at P-I:·••ro ...e Immanenr in rhe text.-". it: in eludes ~ metria m caning. PI 11:1·' _ ... _ '\.. . _~~__ _ ~ _ _ .:. . 1'·'U..t.I ·1~ ~~ will spare' y'o. .._:.'0:£1 protest) isn 't ·0-"[ a _..' .\.. or transcendem s t_y Iis tics ~ ""W.J. Or..t . u 01... goal-s-which may very well 'be' only another .._ I.g"" an. which aims more oft'len than... 1~'~'S···. ~n-'t b _-U... .S~: Mazaleyr...~ __:__ n ·-rumerit.."...at-"~....\1 I .. change." '~ II.·g·. vidual W'O rks): all rhos e' dis ciplines '.~:~... _ _.

.•_ .-y:...to.i '~ l_l [_ yon d thettext. 84.v -. . __ _.g: out b dill .:" say you're s . ___ . i"My dear Frederic. ".' • ~ '!Ii~l .. P-oencian. . II' ·~'I 1-' . board a. '.a. " pretty venturesome: flo.' the c... name. float _ in..t. r ae "'-'YOU.I was starting out?" .a Ing " . I' :-. 'di scipline' bOIU:I1.' modest I se'. somewhere 0 u .I" .~t~ ·~-.eric'!"t is the author's nick. ..s -:' -. ion) '. S'...ar . '.tor scra-p-' h eap-..~ .cria . -.Ul..._~ it _~ew .] ~'~fred._. ." - -- -" - .'. Copy" "gh ted m a1..85 IO'r.re :. [Translator's note.I" .-... re-tormanon) ._ .d for. t:.'._ '__ __ _ _ _.:o:r c.. transcendence on.. ." (... .. _ _e [ :in.a'"~.-:-: ". I'" d Sir ."~ .y .. - t.'~'m.~ - - ..:.: b.-. _...." did I :sa.. sril] more modestly. ".

57 Behrens...JfX. -.ditto: see I:.7.JI. . E Beaumarehai Ul' Ariosto _..:. ..A.IiJ Copyrighted materia .'-.:J! '1Ii~ "-PIi..Henry.~ ..gne'" Theodore-.:r.m P.e ---~ ~l. Jean.Arts ridui.':_'. 8. 'R' aere.9::n .. . " n ae'".'. 1 . t.1' . .J.~ Guillanme de Sallusee du.t!." ..-. .~ ! 68n -- .!I' ('M~"".. ..pr~'ntipe. .u. '. __ .' d' Pt>etry Blair..[ Inaex d i. R. __ en. 13. .' .5. 5' B'-I~:_(\--. ?A.' .uu . 51 .. '~' 2·~.. .L'.. 11::.lIiVlJUIi..0 .j'ann:iau (Racine) I' 18 B .. d 'D .ubi.. . S'9~ ® Baumgarten.l:'l:e(Bc.0 -b t ~ 'R': obert .P··_ _ '!~'.auM. 26 j.~ :···r·~iC'.!. Hugh. AT.. . tUem~. "1.yomarh ~. 6'1 M Beranger. ·4:3n"68n Al':~stottle: HO.i0 g.. .. .-.~ . ~ ... .·: ~~ 15!:·' 'D1'1'~t[IIlifi'.r:1nl I \r. (Horace]. .bier . Boileau-Despreau x.2.. .. .II~..i . E mile.·erp:son.t ~.t"".' ' : .aph y.a£t:eu.= Baudel aire.B'..'8n~ ..vi. i41n~ 28.·"'I!. .51 Bible ~ 3-. Pierre . 0 _____.. Sec' B. '''Ai.26.''li: '3-. lcI"'n'r.L"A. I~:-'l YL A lu:oh..a's.de S t£.~.~J.t'cin. _..es".54.." 0:").r.. S" Pierre-Augu srin Caron de.~.o.' l.a.ji.:m '· B~khnn. 6: 5 Benveniste.. 3. Bever Ernest . 34:n.' . .po:itique (l3 oileau) . ."....:l-i. I ~"l Alexander Gotdieb.m'.'~':l·... ~·Y.~ '''.. Ii iii . Irene.&trach.u. Le .1.D.111.cO.'... ch~l'is...ene~21 . 7'tnt ~ Bra y:~.-~·_t en \1 ~ ~·2'·!i:'i~ '~"'Ii I~gtli .'I1'en.' t ... A· ~~. Charles.Henry:~.'r'QiWnlng'i .]'1. ~. . de~. 'H. -. t A. ~ .l ~·UII.'. iL'11 -01 on ne t' "1i _.g:dplp.lLiilll. ~ Bart.Po e't ilj' (A:d·st:ot'ie)! '11 t'I. ..U-. _.."'! - II !to 5:' .·~·I~':~ ~ I~'F '1:$\ Berns.!II"n. . ~n ~ .-:' '7'~·..Brl.''''lli. .... .'.x:. Baueux.U 51 AX'iant I~Srude[Y').3I. 39t1. ~.5:1 B'ea.H.. Nicolas. ~]"'n' ~u'-rn'.a. ' .. .u d .~·a'~ i~e..~:'jj:.Charles Becque. Charles (abbe) ~ .) t 8n.'10111 R'11-~ if' .1.: '__':__'~ 5-'=:H~'n-' .t~'·ri""·~n~. p·~j!I... 2! .Ar~stoph:an. ~I .I) W·!l.

49 Goethe ~johann 'Wolfgang von.rd. -.: .'-r.:'.. 2_'n Dallas.4r" ." "(.i~.:o.paeme drll'.0'1 •• ..4·-'l'[i'..~ Callimachus...p~eti(:(J' (G[~. .. lS. £.philolagi:(aJ (C ascales). .J.56=.44 Didactic litcnull re.A .~. - .":-::. . Cixous.1"...l()..! . 111111· .~ .AL" 1. 'ISn. 3J .eennth-ecell.M'igue:l de..~B3ft Cervantes.w. 'Helene .'ll:..l u. ~I.' " ".SO-5S.n'einc)~ '~. __ ..en~.. .~ 'II:. G.9: Enrip edes '11. .Di:$'c..e' ties .t:' 4. • ~ _l. .~ 72.DotJ: Q~dx'e. I.... .en.H'. .O'mau poencs.:iI Pi erre tU .~.11.~ ~ JIl"'l" ... egc: " . m.. 8J 11 .3n Dithyramb... 24 'C~ttas .29 .mn~alU' '" .." '1 • I' ". CJ:j.oIHweU ~ 'Ptefa. "'7 :."].5! 5'9-. -. : : l'_ ~I ~"l:'n. ._-. C:___~ .83.A_lbert: L. '-r.ll:S:~ .. I 7'I'lfl.1-]. '.'!J - - •• ..' (D" :rydcn)t. J} onn. ~<-« . .vin~)~ 29 De Poet« (MinJu rna). .~. C'. :i.~Pau]. ..11 Diachronic schemas.1 reex i.: .~2.l.54. I..femme3' (Moliere). ury'.~ :1::"". 5'8n. 29. 'j . 58.. E. ICII:. ~ l'-~Q~ '~ . d"A r~gQn (Corneille) ~ Drvd .. • ..'1'...~ 50.1-d' naex l f ~."'!! _ _ _ ~J _ •• _ __ . 21 Tlu~ Di"&'.~n!..('IJ..:. . 4. G'ueca.9' 2 D~. _ ~~ . B. Kite:~._ II[).r~. !C ~ ·5: ~ '11. 46-.col'4rs. Di derot.J:.t.. 6.Of'$m _~.ine Ccm'e:di".. I ~'.i.e'" :l.. 36. F[ancis:co.... .. _ [I::"l'.· u.rdgiof."td:ique (Cor. 2.M.. '-. .:. Jean.' poe tics ana seventeendi-.J-' h. 28~:29..--'II.-11.Uhl' (Corneille) . . si. . a.:1ir.annl Vi~cenz:o! :2!l1 dR" "4 .udel. '. 43n. 'sOn Le C. . . ...e..!.'. F.·t· .E.~ 2(t 51 ..':' -7·..gc m CHl~. .r D P A-n . res. mdio.t.rd" 9nt.. Gcncue.r'Y' .LL Crtsp/~()"ue:s. 56~ 51 Empedocl'es.. 50 -·'· jean. 58 Aristode: eiglu:eenth centur )'" S~ 7.~'. ~ Genres division of!.". ~ _ 1 . L.. S.~ 'Ge:r~. '-_"_'~ ~ .~ ~ ~. Dcnis.".}" .. .te~. .'_c 1 t3n ... '0 6''-' !Uc Hamburger. S G enres and mQd~5'~ 72-'2. C.~J'~I .-.d (C.H::t:1 e p...5'8 74-76... .~n..ne'!.. 54. ~ ~~ 6:2~6.de l« 'rag'ed'ie {Co:rneiHe. .nn. Friedrich " .11 ·'.1II~..~gn.3. C .esy'.orneiUe).ilry _A.iethcentury. ·C·· G'jU' ~l-'~e'~'I'Ii-.(.. 83 Dauder..n~uu~.'_.i':.:. on :genr.... ...6 C'i. ' t: '-K'] H'"e:m'P:~:'~r.. atrribured to Dante" :~ 5:111. _ ~. j...... .~~dy' ()j'.·-]'I. . Dio medes .. Alphense..J. .[ ~ -b--'~ -"'~:)" L'·4·'" ..': ..4 76-79 Gen res and time .4 Classifieaticns: analyzed by GeJ Chapelain...-.:] ..:5 ki l 'h 47' AiO . extended by past theorists.. i . -"~". ~..:.~ 3rt 13 Caws.-E-:>~t-·.d~. 5. ·.n~ J YWIL!!ir1 PT]lI. Diseeurs .~'E:' . 50. Delia .Iill.J!bll Croce. -:' .i4 ~ 7~ .3: Gt3vina~ Gioy.~ .Ecvl.(1i: ~ "7' dtll\. .11.~. eorg.. Benedetto. 6S Hartmann Eduard von 11 . ~'." ~ 11n. . "'\1:.m L..rUI 1._...I . _'. 43n~...[iI."J:Sandre. 13".• nne. 39n". . 1 n... "W'. :214.~ 10 'E.m" .'G-' . ?. ~ _..l.....\...:[[J!.:.51]: 190 . :38~..ce' eo (H'Ug:o). .0:. .~.-. 28 -!36 'I' - C ascales.:11'~'!i '3-1 ~ ~ "lI:'~1 .50' ':H' '.! j 1 '00. .1-"Je" '"' ~]''''t "lIJ. ann ". ... 60n C..'.

. 4f2n P. Gouhold Ephradm.~ 25' Lucretius.. Jean" ~~n 5 . 4$j" i A MjdsutUn.25 11 ' Houdar de Ja ..22 l." 65.P't.!lJ.ii' ·"et:e[c5en.8·····'9···· . 2-4 Mal ~~'''''_'Il''iL..-.lft . .. Wlt. . J~I' ~JI.. 2n sa '.Dame' ~:HU~O:~isn Modern poetics" 58.va .and gen:tes 72.13.. Mauron· Charles.i g. N n-v:iHs.. " i -. :!lS P.cques.2.ialJS P .. :9 . . 7'11. ._ . " _ II U Ii. . Philip'pe.R.·.~ 50.c ..Al1i1)():in.1td. ik~' i ~. )111 .-'[1 '. '[ .'!Io.. ..n"4ln. ' .1.NPo'r~ .Alaln .~"1~ .'-·njiDift-J~ lPo. .'. ""I D. '1''0'. 34rn~ 3r9n Lejeune.... d'II_':O'.:::.. <Ii .. ''iI'1 "'li3..H(lme.h ~res 'tl "l e= ._· . 22n.3~~" 43n Plate: R:.'r. 62n . .t'l Mihon.~''~ f'l :systrem~ ~""-:~'_ IJy-'J4 "I' ': "_ .7. 'Iio. luc:ian.4.~ .-to. 24. Horace.r~aIE3!!l' .NigJJ'. m~t '~.~~.~lU --"". r=" • .in" .Po a U~'l.-. ~. __ ' ' . "". La vedan ~ Henri. .a.r. .:f:1Stot . 7!. "Ii Ii'Ii AiII[ll.L ere.: .••d.! .! Ant'O(llio... Sti 6.''''''..\""1I''I''lirn..1j Pindar. 82 n:._::rn 25.C3 mbridge... Lacoue-Lebarthe. . roman .~ .22 .'2-4n . M:e:mei:'re3 d ':Hdi/'rie".' lif:>' Ld~res I(B'~air).K . IilL Horner. ~ '_:I ~ ". ~.. V':ictor~~~g~u~ so.!":29n Melon~~.H:. S9~(j[) Minnirno..40-41.O". " . -4.-. [{YQU'l:\oenar)."".36. . .L_~i'I''''''. ..--.U~l'US1i '.I uha.. •.1 Monrchresti an.RJutlort'{.M enande ['!' '68n Metarexru a'HEy:~ 82 Hugo. Gk '.Z .DrttJffl. Lesage ..60. ."' .. 52.31llS ~ Ja.6 U an 1'"'1'"' (.~:W"":i:'~~.5. '24-r."'J Larnm .'4'Nchback .' .aralt'eLx:tualit}. .8'-'60. Hesiod. . ien.. 4:$.. ert Eberhart UU" . Je'jl1. seventeen rh- Copyrighted materia . .~ .! ss Modes.'u~e$.1.F(~'a'rQ (:8eauma.ifJ~I"':'J·iii' .oj .n'!~o IJ'C .. John._ 25"t .. 6:2 Le ll4ari~gt' de . luc.~I'" d R-0" m" 'iI1!'-"i .~ :47'i ~ Peletier du M.A_.·IlI-"-r jI . . .~".ri( Problem.Ll_ LaUQt. tic._ n'l .. ---' M:a§leyr.--. ~I ~.'__ '" .:'iQ' .9.m.:'. . ~ i:.:-. mo d es~ comp~_r:le.~.51~ J I" 81' . 51l 1-'1umbcldt..68]1 -' .5. .a.~ ~ 59-60 1.iII. . syslem of modes..". Let.~:r~'[-'\.0:).IQlJ r'm"'~' :">'~"". a~ndBe.79'1.~n.ul~. Le Ne.Aes'chylus) ~ lO. 'N'" I _ ..:IO~~1 ~'I de ~ tes 'i .-~4. Wabelf'!Irll von.HQlder~.. 6b-!65.rres' (a ttrjbu ted t:o Homer). ~I y.1.!R. f .. J ean. I" .JL.:"-~~-"! lD"!""'"V b~ 'N' I'~c""".'l~:'~:~ - .I1'ib""'U \' .L.~'~U~ll 1~~1 ~~_I:J. '"II I.a.::.0.Mone'. Antol:n(: de. The .45!. ~ .epubUt!. ..)'{!!='.A:rthur' Wal. lOt :~..!!. 'II I IP·f..~rga"fig~ n.'-t' k... 7n. PliiUp"pe~ l. .ene~ 51 Lessing. ~! .~."-I~ S:-: itpn'h· M-al .'1' P.-. 1. 8-.. ~ MiU~ Jollln Stuart. . 56..s' (A:ri~tiQdel.../f. modern._·~. "~_.'7···TI' an i"':V' jea ~'_. :1..r" \v:o.e~ .i·.r' e ii:.!I. laee.47". 67..~.-::t ~5-"-' ...:J~ 8_11. _7j)~'19' .~ :P'()~ Edgar .Ma fR.~ [i:::: '"'. ~11 Ka yse. ~ ..--. 50 ~..l. system of d irh A' . ._1.t. Gll.rls~t!. 3.Friedrich~ :~8. g~'9.28.et:'roflli tIS! P:ick.tr ~ '" . .t'~. 2S Perr.All~Ul._ '_.... ..t. 1_-t.~ ]" ~II" .iHus.J..' .

48'i ~ 1 'R b ~..:. ..!C2 un V~·. _ _ ~. W UU.C---I'l:~~." l. 'Ii .M r'~ eti s -.. .~." !. J acqueline de.P.. F. 7n. -.presenraticnal poetry:~ ca.'i!l1 .and eighteenth ...a.:.iIi'~IA'') ~.~.eili. 16 Si xreenth-centu ry poetics.iJi..46.-sOn.lJ...' ~ TUe ei' B..J .:.:u:'ue'i . ..hod es. . Y-. .Fresnave jean 2~~ . Sidney" PhHip'!."7 Rtl'gia.E:~' . thcury of~ 16~2. is-' v. 51..r~i!:' .L.u bUr f Pla to)' .' - .Ol!-m. eter. ...~"~.a.""""'" . .r c III ".:ris. d. " ''"''1'' ." -~ '~: ~ ~.' ~'1')' v-~ I "'~'~. F-:i. j and eighteenth-century.''. ..p-' .~'~' .. ma.JJL~' Szond ~~.tio:n of) 30. re._: Romill y...:0..i:(J11S . .. s..-....t/~eJ#J' (Goethe). Poe. .. ..~[U J~ cr-ifiqu~e (Houdh~ r r l~b'/:as p Qfl. slxteenth-ceneury. Ed rn und.::.o~ ~ ..S" . definition..-'4'5. \:' .epic. ::l2 . '11.~.r-ct~. 66n~.~J.. '\ ~ ~ • . 50 Daniel ""'[0.u:ro~~... . 47.le.. 76lj 77'.j -~.[ 8Jdl2 'll~'r(a'ret' [Les age)..F. ~~_ '~""! .() RJretoric.~]~lo~.4~ 62~.PygllJ:tlUQ.'[]. .~.' .l.Q. -~ 't =::.ll'ne. R~1ltx.S! Spenser. E:mH!1 .~. .-. T' ....4: '1- i' ~ c: Stendhs 'II _ . .:' '~" ~ .1...] ""'(ffi'-" .:. .:t.""'" " J._" .'h·." 2~n. eategories of..I'~.ep[.tO:.-J~.0 I'] _ Proelus~:. d .....~ 71:[1.30._ . Staiger.~ 1. ~ 4.cs) ~ .ues :54 5]' ll:uuk:ow. J.~n~~..t.1...tonic :&1Stern. P :'1-Ji" ll.~O].-~.I'ouS '.!'\. .~ " _...~u. _' ..h~godes..I.. so .:lI_ .2"_o!II·j! i U 'I . :- 'I.67n.. A ugus t Wi] ffi1. Sterne ~ Laurence.. ~ILI ~~3J.-. 25-. 5n -49n" i' 'i "'1"7 ..~. fRous:sc~u) n..y tire Iirtis: {:u a Young ~Wa" (Joyclel~ ~".:.u. . %.. ' VaunueHn.~cdrich W~lhd in Joseph von.' su.nt:l_ eX.g:~ Fr.3..S ....E.!I.r" " . :2 5 -:">8 Sop. 'rc:j·'i-. .. '"'1'0 I.o.~.}.m.." de ~a.. Swifl~ Jonathan. 5.. " l:)~~': -_= _ "1.. 24. . !'" to Ai 1:["'7 inc '.. '~-': ~6 '1)0"" :~.. Tcdorov.1'.IU~ . I. ' :'.' fi] . . .' traged'y' '~ .. --"1"· ]-1-' . 1'":7 19-20 43n _. TeU.I.M. rancois.:n :" SA._ ~ ~. R. ~1! . d tor (CIJude1h.':"'''I~' (Corneille) .".'.~c~.~ ~ R au ssea u jean-] I a cq..~ j _'II "31t ~ A .~rlene: '('C:"""._ '-V:'::" d'.fini.r""~ .....I'dU!f..elm von. ErF:']. t O~ re...oetrv.Z &.~i'-.:._.44.ar. C~l-'SCO ru R'[o.:I . 6n '\...=R"-:'!l'IC'. [century poetics. t raged y comI 1 '_ Sapphe.!. Johann Adolfj[ 36-38 Scholes Rob elr~ 4. (A.. uro .~\U\I·.:' ..p res entation al po etry.]. ·.' .K' .'ca'j -('Cascal." ' 'J-'a.~ I '. .. 6-_ ]:e~. __".ll Ii PQrl." ''i!l... 'Ioreua 1i'[. 'F} .. ~~'~I~ . See also PI..H~eto (joy(. p~. .! 29 ...a.Lcrre)c. R>I'\i. .I~Jll'eS_."~ -'~ The SO"O~V$ oj 'YQ~'~l~' :~. '.28._g: V. ~." . ~!. J co ~\Q' .M··.)1: !LI.._. I ~ ...~l""il' .A ristotle): plot".i. if. ] O~14...rther (Go~th~).1!1p.'l~.U'l."'at~..~ ...'i..~ .ep". ''C'-- 'V~·n: T'!IJioj')-. .y.I'iL!'D'.~ .._ J'-.r:.- '65~ z: _ L . ~ Roman poetics.! eU .~3..etfid (IGra:vin:a)..I .I " . .tode)" lJ1 so . dc. (. (Goethe).ery~ Georges de..11... ...]< I''!. ~~I.. de la .menite (Corneille) t3n 'T1..o.n'dU ..rll'S (Aristeele) Pnetits (. ~ ScheUin.~ _" _ "h '.~n.ski~ 'Wolfgan..e)".'J'.]L "1' V·lr[p.c.pc.vet3Jn~ .25! _--- ...~. 21:-2_l 61-62.' ('-·~R iFl~ :' ~".90 Poetics -(conti utted) 18-36. 24n. 36 ~..~. of.~... '.n . 28--36 _ .~ . lrIuin 'I Shakespeare..:.d-' 10 _...-c"~:''''(:. 4fJn'i 42! :4'7 :48 Seh lege]. of co mpared with P.~ ul "~e. I~'o-._~ 1Ir~ ~I ~1V.iI. V'·l~'~1 .. .~'u :t2J . .""I~ Pr'O"ne...iIJ '" ~ ~.~.·-·:l Sddegel~ friedrich 'von" 38-40 Schlegel. ~ap_-Od'. 14 pare d' wit -.. RO[U::Hl ri c n.__ . :rl'~..! ~ _' ...a._-_.oue}.:. 66n "j~ S('Ud.IG' .e~!EUS. 443. .~'.." ' • . 5. P"'l.iI" 0 ..':b.__".'i!ir.]g Seventeenth.1. Trans tcxtuaHty..)' .'0...ili ""'..f'i. arco s.nu" 4-Jn!..~ .~.

" 66" Copyrighted materia .'~ ~ Werther' (Goethe)" g '~.ene'. 24n. r" l~ ---" .· 1!mi. C."n.' wes· t.'il 9'..t 'h'.thtlitder (Goethe) ~50 'Wafrm."' (:'Goet'h.-.Nd.a 'D-'-':""" Vilil 11. R..ort"h.. I . [f.ch Thecdor.i"1.. 4..52 j.:-)' '3'l'h.···1 'Vi..ln .I'.Kad" 58:n Wanderers' ..'~·t. WeUek!.elm Mer. . ".-...e'\. Wordsw.~ 24'n~46.sche r.-". 'William'j . ~.'U'U'I. " .~ .:- -.:H" ('i2nt 6111 WiliJ'.." 46.!l 'Voss1el'l! .riedrl.". Mn .' [.as .'!!' "".~ AU'stip~"t..

['1'][(... C o t.. l'I)'r--= .-1.npOSl tor: 'Icxe: . 5/:1 z..' • Bembo Thomson-Shore..Q. iii • (1..ILl. 1. [)~'~p:~l"..'.. ..':.ylor . . '.l.cri a .'''iir• _"III~ . 5: Bembu Inc .~ ' B-1''''' .·J'i... 'Wi lsted &: 'Ta.:. Copyr "gh ted m a1. 'Th O~nS{)~lf-Sh(lr'C~.~. inter ...I'[I. .1..

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