# Tutorial 16.

Introduction

Using the VOF Model

This tutorial illustrates the setup and solution of the two-dimensional turbulent ﬂuid ﬂow in a partially ﬁlled spinning bowl. In this tutorial you will learn how to: • Set up and solve a transient free-surface problem using the segregated solver • Model the eﬀect of gravity • Copy a material from the property database • Patch initial conditions in a subset of the domain • Deﬁne a custom ﬁeld function • Mirror and rotate the view in the graphics window • Examine the ﬂuid ﬂow and the free-surface shape using velocity vectors and volume fraction contours

Prerequisites
This tutorial requires a basic familiarity with FLUENT. You may also ﬁnd it helpful to read about VOF multiphase ﬂow modeling in the FLUENT by reading Section 24.2 of the User’s Guide for more information. Otherwise, no previous experience with multiphase modeling is required.

Problem Description
The information relevant to this problem is shown in Figure 16.1. A large bowl, 1 m in radius, is one-third ﬁlled with water and is open to the atmosphere. The bowl spins with an angular velocity of 3 rad/sec. Based on the rotating water, the Reynolds number is about 106 , so the ﬂow is modeled as turbulent.

c Fluent Inc. January 11, 2005

16-1

Using the VOF Model

2m

1m

Bowl: Ω = Air: ρ = µ = Water: ρ = µ =

3 rad/s 1.225 kg/m 3 1.7894 x 10 1 x 10
-3 -5

kg/m-s

998.2 kg/m 3 kg/m-s

Figure 16.1: Water and Air in a Spinning Bowl

Setup and Solution Preparation
1. Download vof.zip from the Fluent Inc. User Services Center or copy it from the FLUENT documentation CD to your working directory (as described in Tutorial 1). 2. Unzip vof.zip. bowl.msh can be found in the /vof folder created after unzipping the ﬁle. The mesh ﬁle bowl.msh is a quadrilateral mesh describing the system geometry shown in Figure 16.1. 3. Start the 2D version of FLUENT.

16-2

c Fluent Inc. January 11, 2005

Using the VOF Model

Step 1: Grid
1. Read the 2D grid ﬁle, bowl.msh. File −→ Read −→Case... 2. Display the grid (Figure 16.2). Display −→Grid...

As shown in Figure 16.2, half of the bowl is modeled, with a symmetry boundary at the centerline. The bowl is shown lying on its side, with the region to be modeled extending from the centerline to the outer wall. When you begin to display data graphically, you will need to rotate the view and mirror it across the centerline to obtain a more realistic view of the model. This step will be performed later in the tutorial.

c Fluent Inc. January 11, 2005

16-3

Using the VOF Model

Grid

FLUENT 6.2 (2d, segregated, lam)

Figure 16.2: Grid Display

16-4

c Fluent Inc. January 11, 2005

The segregated solver must be used for multiphase calculations. c Fluent Inc. select Axisymmetric Swirl. select Unsteady. (b) Under Space..Using the VOF Model Step 2: Models 1. January 11. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Solver. (c) Under Time. (a) Retain the default Segregated solver. 2005 16-5 . Specify a transient model with axisymmetric swirl..

and is recommended for most transient VOF calculations. When you click OK. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Multiphase. select Geo-Reconstruct (the default) as the VOF Scheme.. January 11.Using the VOF Model 2.. (a) Select Volume of Fluid as the Model. 16-6 c Fluent Inc. (b) Under VOF Parameters. FLUENT will report that one of the zone types will need to be changed before proceeding with the calculation. 2005 . This is the most accurate interface-tracking scheme. Turn on the VOF model. You will take care of this step when you input boundary conditions for the problem. The panel will expand to show inputs for the VOF model.

January 11..Using the VOF Model 3. Turn on the standard k. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Viscous.turbulence model.. (a) Select k-epsilon as the Model. c Fluent Inc. and retain the default setting of Standard under k-epsilon Model. 2005 16-7 .

Deﬁne −→Materials.. 16-8 c Fluent Inc. select water-liquid.. 2005 .Using the VOF Model Step 3: Materials 1.. (a) Click on the Fluent Database. January 11. button to open the Fluent Database Materials panel. (b) In the Fluent Fluid Materials list (near the bottom).. Copy water from the FLUENT database materials so that it can be used for the secondary phase. (c) Click Copy and close the Fluent Database Materials and Materials panels.

Keep the default selection of air for the Phase Material. (a) Specify air as the primary phase. c Fluent Inc. 1. iii. In general.. January 11. When you deﬁne the initial solution. you can specify the primary and secondary phases whichever way you prefer. Select phase-1 and click the Set. button. It is a good idea.. 2005 16-9 . Deﬁne the air and water phases within the bowl. water is deﬁned as the secondary phase mainly for convenience in setting up the problem. especially in more complicated problems. i. Also. where the water is. you will be patching an initial swirl velocity in the bottom third of the bowl.. It is more convenient to patch a water volume fraction of 1 there than to patch an air volume fraction of 1 in the rest of the domain. Deﬁne −→Phases. ii. to consider how your choice will aﬀect the ease of problem setup..Using the VOF Model Step 4: Phases Here. the default volume fraction at the pressure inlet is 0. which is the correct value if water is the secondary phase. In the Primary Phase panel. enter air for the Name.

16-10 c Fluent Inc. ii. Select phase-2 and click the Set. Select water-liquid from the Phase Material drop-down list.Using the VOF Model (b) Specify water as the secondary phase. i.. button. 2005 .. iii. January 11. In the Secondary Phase panel. enter water for the Name.

The panel will expand to show additional inputs. 2.225. gravity points in the positive x direction.. you would need to change it to a more appropriate location. (a) Under Variable-Density Parameters. (b) Set the Gravitational Acceleration in the X direction to 9. Note: The Reference Pressure Location (0. (a) Turn on Gravity. January 11. Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions. turn on the Speciﬁed Operating Density option and accept the Operating Density of 1. This excludes the buildup of hydrostatic pressure within the lighter phase.. a condition that is essential for smooth and rapid convergence. Set the operating density. Since the centerline of the bowl is the x axis. improving the round-oﬀ accuracy for the momentum balance. 2005 16-11 .0) is situated in a region where the ﬂuid will always be 100% of one of the phases (air). Set the gravitational acceleration. c Fluent Inc.81 m/s2 . If it were not.Using the VOF Model Step 5: Operating Conditions 1. It is a good idea to set the operating density to be the density of the lighter phase.

i. (d) Click OK in the Axis panel to accept the default Zone Name. 16-12 c Fluent Inc... conditions that apply to all phases) and also conditions that are speciﬁc to the secondary phase. Set the conditions at the top of the bowl (pressure-inlet-4). For axisymmetric models. Change the bowl centerline from a symmetry boundary to an axis boundary. 1. January 11. (b) In the Type list. In the Boundary Conditions panel.. 2. You will have to scroll to the top of the list. (a) Set the conditions for the mixture. the axis of symmetry must be an axis zone. 2005 .e. For the VOF model. (a) Select symmetry-2 in the Zone list in the Boundary Conditions panel.Using the VOF Model Step 6: Boundary Conditions Deﬁne −→Boundary Conditions. keep the default selection of mixture in the Phase drop-down list and click Set. choose axis. There are no conditions to be speciﬁed for the primary phase. you will specify conditions for the mixture (i.. (c) Click Yes in the Question dialog box that appears...

. (b) Check the volume fraction of the secondary phase.. See Section 7.07 (obtained by multiplying 0. Set the Turb. Dissipation Rate to 7.2.Using the VOF Model ii.. The values for k and are computed as follows: k = (Iwwall )2 0. select water from the Phase drop-down list and click Set.25e-2 and the Turb. which is 0 in this case.92e-3. Kinetic Energy to 2.093/4 k 3/2 = where the turbulence intensity I is 0. January 11. wwall is 3 m/s. i. All of the other methods require you to specify the turbulence intensity. which is 1).05 (close to zero). and is 0. 2005 16-13 . Since there is initially no ﬂow passing through the pressure inlet. c Fluent Inc.07 by the maximum radius of the bowl.2 of the User’s Guide for details about the speciﬁcation of turbulence boundary conditions at ﬂow inlets and exits. you need to specify k and explicitly rather than using one of the other turbulence speciﬁcation methods. In the Boundary Conditions panel.

16-14 c Fluent Inc... Retain the default Volume Fraction of 0. There are no conditions to be speciﬁed for the individual phases. 2005 . For a wall boundary. A water volume fraction of 0 indicates that only air is present at the pressure inlet. 3.. select mixture in the Phase drop-down list and click Set. January 11. all conditions are speciﬁed for the mixture. Set the conditions for the spinning bowl (wall-1). (a) In the Boundary Conditions panel.Using the VOF Model ii.

choose Rotational and then set the rotational Speed (rad/s) to 3. The panel will expand to show inputs for the wall motion. c Fluent Inc. (c) Under Motion. January 11. 2005 16-15 .Using the VOF Model (b) Select Moving Wall under Wall Motion.

(a) Set all Under-Relaxation Factors to 1. (c) Under Pressure-Velocity Coupling. January 11. the under-relaxation factors can usually be increased at the start of the calculation. This is particularly true when the VOF model is used. where high underrelaxation on all variables can greatly improve the performance of the solver. choose the PRESTO! scheme in the drop-down list next to Pressure.. 2005 .Using the VOF Model Step 7: Solution In simple ﬂows. 16-16 c Fluent Inc.. Set the solution parameters. (b) Under Discretization. select PISO. ! Be sure to use the scroll bar to access the under-relaxation factors that are initially out of view. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution. PISO is recommended for transient ﬂow calculations. 1.

.. January 11.. (a) Deﬁne a point surface near the outer edge of the bowl. 2005 16-17 . Surface −→Point.. select Plot. it is often useful to monitor the value of a particular variable to see how it changes over time. c Fluent Inc. Enable the plotting of the axial velocity of water near the outer edge of the bowl during the calculation. Enable the display of residuals during the solution process. Solve −→ Monitors −→Residual. 3.Using the VOF Model 2. For transient calculations. and then deﬁne the monitoring parameters. (a) Under Options. Here you will ﬁrst specify the point at which you want to track the velocity. (b) Click OK button to close the panel.

2005 . Enter point for the New Surface Name. choose Time Step.. In the drop-down list under Every.. ii. (b) Deﬁne the monitoring parameters. Click Create. i.65. the velocity history will be written to a ﬁle. Turn on the Plot and Write options for monitor-1. ii. January 11. iii. Increase the Surface Monitors value to 1. 16-18 c Fluent Inc.75 and 0. the history information will be lost when you exit FLUENT. Set the x0 and y0 coordinates to 0. Solve −→ Monitors −→Surface. Note: When the Write option is selected in the Surface Monitors panel.Using the VOF Model i. If you do not select the Write option. iii.

Select point in the Surfaces list.. Click OK in the Deﬁne Surface Monitor panel and then in the Surface Monitors panel.. x.out for the File Name. Select Vertex Average from the Report Type drop-down list. vii. and Axial Velocity in the Report Of drop-down lists. viii. to specify the surface monitor parameters in the Deﬁne Surface Monitor panel. Select Velocity. Click on Deﬁne. 2005 16-19 . January 11.. This is the recommended choice when you are monitoring the value at a single point using a point surface. Select Flow Time in the X Axis drop-down list. Enter axial-velocity.Using the VOF Model iv. vi. c Fluent Inc. ix. v..

you will need to deﬁne a custom function for the swirl velocity.. All initial values will be set to zero. Adapt −→Region. 2005 ..0) and a swirl velocity of 3 rad/s in the bottom third of the bowl (where the water is).e. except for the turbulence quantities.. Patch the initial distribution of water (i. January 11.. Initialize the solution. Also. 5. you will need to deﬁne a cell “register” for that region. (a) Select pressure-inlet-4 in the Compute From drop-down list. Solve −→ Initialize −→Initialize. (b) Click Init and close the panel. In order to patch a value in just a portion of the domain. 16-20 c Fluent Inc..Using the VOF Model 4. water volume fraction of 1. (a) Deﬁne a register for the bottom third of the domain. You will use the same tool that is used to mark a region of cells for adaption.

1). January 11. Adapt −→Manage. i.66. Select the register (hexahedron-r0) in the Registers list and click Display.Yminimum) coordinate to (0. This creates a register containing the cells in this region.Ymaximum) coordinate to (1.. Set the (Xminimum. ii. (b) Check the register to be sure it is correct.Using the VOF Model i.. 2005 16-21 . c Fluent Inc. The graphics display will show the bottom third of the bowl in red. and the (Xmaximum. Click the Mark button.0).

. and Radial Coordinate. Note: If you wish to check the function deﬁnition. If you make a mistake.. (b) Click the X button on the calculator pad.. 2005 . The 3 will appear in the Deﬁnition ﬁeld. click the DEL button to delete the last item you added to the function deﬁnition. select Grid. button and select swirl-init. (f) Click Deﬁne. January 11. (e) Enter a New Function Name of swirl-init. (a) Click the 3 button on the calculator pad. Deﬁne −→Custom Field Functions. (d) Click the Select button. radial-coordinate will appear in the Deﬁnition. (c) In the Field Functions drop-down list. click on the Manage.Using the VOF Model 6.... 16-22 c Fluent Inc. Deﬁne a custom ﬁeld function for the swirl velocity w = 3r.

select water. (b) Select Volume Fraction in the Variable list. Patch the water volume fraction in the bottom third of the bowl. That is.Using the VOF Model 7. January 11.. (d) Set the Value to 1. (a) In the Phase drop-down list. (e) Click Patch. 2005 16-23 . c Fluent Inc.. (c) Select hexahedron-r0 in the Registers to Patch list. This sets the water volume fraction to 1 in the lower third of the bowl. Solve −→ Initialize −→Patch. you have deﬁned the lower third of the bowl to be ﬁlled with water.

iv. Choose Swirl Velocity in the Variable list.Using the VOF Model (f) Patch the swirl velocity in the bottom third of the bowl. 2005 . 16-24 c Fluent Inc. In the Phase drop-down list. Click Patch. i. iii. select mixture. January 11. ii. Enable the Use Field Function option and select swirl-init in the Field Function list. It’s a good idea to check your patch by displaying contours of the patched ﬁelds.

Display contours of swirl velocity. (a) Select Velocity.Using the VOF Model 8. you should view the cell values. rather than the node values. to check that the patch has been performed correctly. To make the view more realistic. (b) Enable the Filled option and turn oﬀ the Node Values option..) (c) Click Display. c Fluent Inc. 2005 16-25 . Since the values you patched are cell values.. and Swirl Velocity in the Contours of lists. January 11. (FLUENT computes the node values by averaging the cell values.. Display −→Contours.. you will need to rotate the display and mirror it across the centerline.

... click on the Save button under Actions to save the mirrored. (d) Using your left mouse button. 2005 . and then close the panel. rotate the dial clockwise until the bowl appears upright in the graphics window (90◦ ). Display −→Views. (c) Click on the Camera. 16-26 c Fluent Inc.3 correctly shows that w = 3r in the region of the bowl that is ﬁlled with water. (a) Select axis-2 in the Mirror Planes list and click Apply. January 11. upright view. (f) In the Views panel. When you do this. view-0 will be added to the list of Views. button to open the Camera Parameters panel.Using the VOF Model 9. (e) Close the Camera Parameters panel.. (b) Use your middle and left mouse buttons to zoom and translate the view so that the entire bowl is visible in the graphics display. Rotate the view and mirror it across the centerline. The upright view of the bowl in Figure 16.

88e-01 4.Using the VOF Model 2. swirl.65e+00 1.41e-01 8. segregated.2 (axi.23e+00 2.41e+00 1.18e-01 0.88e+00 1.00e+00 1. unsteady) Figure 16.53e-01 2.29e+00 1.35e-01 1.0000e+00) FLUENT 6.06e+00 9.06e-01 5.12e+00 2. vof.23e-01 7.3: Contours of Initial Swirl Velocity c Fluent Inc.70e-01 3. 2005 16-27 .00e+00 Contours of Swirl Velocity (mixture) (m/s) (Time=0. ske.53e+00 1.35e+00 2.18e+00 1.76e+00 1. January 11.

There are only two possible values for the volume fraction at this point: 0 or 1. Display contours of water volume fraction... 2005 . and Volume fraction of water in the Contours of lists. (c) Set the number of contour Levels to 2 and click Display. (a) Select Phases. January 11.Using the VOF Model 10. (b) Select water in the Phase drop-down list. 16-28 c Fluent Inc.

00e+00 5.00e+00 Contours of Volume fraction (water) (Time=0.4sec. (c) Under Variable Time Step Parameters. 2005 16-29 . 1. and 2.01 for Maximum Time Step Size. Save the data ﬁle at this moment and proceed the calculations for Ending Time of 0.Using the VOF Model 1.0. unsteady) Figure 16... 11. (g) Specify a value of 0.8.0000e+00) FLUENT 6.4 for Ending Time. ske.. This will save the time step size to the case ﬁle (the next time a case ﬁle is saved). (a) Under Time. (b) Under Time Stepping Method. vof.4 correctly shows that the bottom third of the bowl contains water.. Solve −→Iterate. (f) Save the initial case and data ﬁles (bowl. segregated.6.cas and bowl. swirl.4: Contours of Initial Water Volume Fraction Figure 16.dat). a value of 0.00e-01 0. Set the time-step parameters for the calculation. You may have to reset the value of Time Step Size to a value of 0. 0. File −→ Write −→Case & Data.0. January 11. specify a value of 0.2 (axi. c Fluent Inc. select Variable. specify a value of 0.4 for Ending Time will stop the calculations after t = 0. As iterations will begin with variable time step method. (e) Click Apply.002 for Time Step Size and a value of 1000 for Number of Time Steps.002 for Minimum Time Step Size and a value of 0.002 after saving each data ﬁle. (d) Retain the other default parameters.

segregated.1000 -0. 0.Using the VOF Model Figure 16. The switch from a positive to a negative axial velocity indicates that the water is sloshing up and down the sides of the bowl in an attempt to reach an equilibrium position.0000 0. and the oscillations appear to be decaying over time (as the peaks become smaller).5 shows the time history for the axial velocity.1000 Vertex Average Axial Velocity 0.8000 2. This periodic oscillation has a cycle of 1 second.4000 0.3000 0.6000 0.0000e+00) FLUENT 6.2000 -0. swirl.5: Time History of Axial Velocity 16-30 c Fluent Inc. The velocity is clearly oscillating. January 11. unsteady) Figure 16. 2005 .4000 1.2 (axi. ske.2000 0.0000 -0.2000 1. The periodic behavior in evidence will therefore be present only during the initial startup phase of the bowl rotation.2000 0.8000 1. vof.3000 0.0000 Flow Time Convergence history of Axial Velocity on point (in SI units) (Time=2. The fact that the amplitude is decaying suggests that equilibrium will be reached at some point.0000 1.6000 1.

the water level would eventually reach some point where the gravitational and centrifugal forces balance and the water level reaches a new equilibrium point.) 1. 0. then increases from t = 0.5. the water level in the center of the bowl has risen above the initial level.. you can expect that if you were to continue the calculation.4. 0. c Fluent Inc. Hint: Follow the instructions in substep 5h of Step 7: Solution (on page 16-28). 2005 16-31 . you will examine the ﬂow ﬁeld at several diﬀerent times. File −→ Read −→Data. but turn Node Values back on. the ﬂow ﬁeld is oscillating periodically. At t = 1.Using the VOF Model Step 8: Postprocessing As indicated by changes in axial velocity in Figure 16. January 11.6.6.6 to t = 1.6–16. In this step.. Read in the data ﬁle of interest.. Display −→Contours. Since the time history of axial velocity (Figure 16.8. (You can read in the data ﬁles between t = 1 and t = 2 to conﬁrm that this is in fact what happens.4 to t = 0. Extra: Try continuing the calculation to determine how long it takes for the axial velocity oscillations in Figure 16.5 to disappear.5) shows that the velocity oscillation is decaying over time. 2.0. 1. (Recall that you have saved the data ﬁles for t = 0. and. Figures 16..9 show that the water level decreases from t = 0. Display ﬁlled contours of water volume fraction. so you can expect the cycle to repeat as the water level begins to decrease again in an attempt to return to equilibrium.

ske. vof.7: Shape of the Free Surface at t = 0. segregated. 2005 .0000e-01) FLUENT 6. January 11.2 (axi. swirl.00e+00 5. unsteady) Figure 16.00e+00 Contours of Volume fraction (water) (Time=4. vof.0000e-01) FLUENT 6.00e-01 0. swirl.6: Shape of the Free Surface at t = 0.6 16-32 c Fluent Inc.4 1.00e+00 Contours of Volume fraction (water) (Time=6. unsteady) Figure 16.Using the VOF Model 1.2 (axi.00e-01 0.00e+00 5. segregated. ske.

vof. segregated.2 (axi.8 1. 2005 16-33 .00e-01 0. ske.00e+00 5.8: Shape of the Free Surface at t = 0. swirl. ske.00e+00 5. unsteady) Figure 16. segregated. swirl.9: Shape of the Free Surface at t = 1 c Fluent Inc.00e-01 0.2 (axi.00e+00 Contours of Volume fraction (water) (Time=8.00e+00 Contours of Volume fraction (water) (Time=1.0000e-01) FLUENT 6.Using the VOF Model 1.0000e+00) FLUENT 6. unsteady) Figure 16. January 11. vof.

you will next look at velocity vectors.. (a) Select Stream Function (in the Velocity. In Figures 16.10–16.Using the VOF Model 3. (b) Turn oﬀ the Filled option and increase the number of contour Levels to 30..13. Plot contours of stream function. January 11. category) in the Contours of dropdown list. 2005 . To get a better sense of these recirculating patterns. (c) Click on Display. you can see a recirculation region that falls and rises as the water level changes. 16-34 c Fluent Inc.

85e+01 1.48e+01 1. unsteady) Figure 16.2 (axi.25e+00 7. unsteady) Figure 16. swirl.31e+01 1. vof.29e+01 1.11e+01 9.40e+01 2.29e+00 1.48e+01 1.30e+01 2. January 11.15e+01 9. vof. ske.0000e-01) FLUENT 6.14e+01 1. segregated.2 (axi.22e+00 6.93e+00 3.70e+00 1.40e+00 5.97e+01 1.6 c Fluent Inc.64e+01 1.55e+00 3. 2005 16-35 .77e+01 2. segregated.0000e-01) FLUENT 6.Using the VOF Model 2. swirl.59e+01 2.81e+01 1.00e+00 Contours of Stream Function (mixture) (kg/s) (Time=6.47e+01 2.00e+00 Contours of Stream Function (mixture) (kg/s) (Time=4.86e+00 8.22e+01 2.66e+01 1.10: Contours of Stream Function at t = 0.57e+00 4.11: Contours of Stream Function at t = 0. ske.4 2.85e+00 0.64e+00 0.03e+01 1.

vof.87e+00 1.0000e+00) FLUENT 6.2 (axi. January 11.0000e-01) FLUENT 6.40e+00 9.35e-01 4.24e+00 3.2 (axi.56e+01 1. swirl.74e+00 3.50e+01 2. swirl. unsteady) Figure 16. segregated.34e+00 1.68e-01 0.12e+00 0. vof.27e+00 2. unsteady) Figure 16.43e+01 3. segregated.81e+01 2.81e+00 2.06e+01 3. ske. 2005 .68e+01 4.21e+00 3. ske.08e+00 5.87e+01 1.37e+01 4.18e+01 1.25e+01 9.8 7.12e+01 2.55e+00 6.00e+00 Contours of Stream Function (mixture) (kg/s) (Time=8.Using the VOF Model 4.68e+00 4.00e+00 Contours of Stream Function (mixture) (kg/s) (Time=1.12: Contours of Stream Function at t = 0.14e+00 4.13: Contours of Stream Function at t = 1 16-36 c Fluent Inc.61e+00 5.74e+01 3.36e+00 6.02e+00 6.

(c) Click on Vector Options. 2005 16-37 . Plot velocity vectors in the bowl. (b) Increase the Scale factor to 6 and increase the Skip value to 1.. select arrow.. January 11. Display −→Vectors. c Fluent Inc. (a) In the Style drop-down list.. to open the Vector Options panel..Using the VOF Model 4. This will make the velocity direction easier to see.

and is slowly rising up in the middle of the bowl and being pulled down along the sides of the bowl. Click Apply and close the panel. In Figure 16. 16-38 c Fluent Inc. and also results in the formation of a recirculation region in the air above the water surface.14–16.15. as shown in the volume fraction contour plots.14.17 show the changes in water and air ﬂow patterns between t = 0.4 and t = 1. January 11. Figures 16. This causes the water level to decrease in the center of the bowl. the ﬂow has reversed direction. (d) Click on Display. This reversal occurs because the earlier ﬂow pattern caused the water to overshoot the equilibrium position. In Figure 16. Turn oﬀ the Z Component. The gravity and centrifugal forces now act to compensate for this overshoot. 2005 . This allows you to examine the non-swirling components only. you can see that the ﬂow in the middle of the bowl is being pulled down by gravitational forces.Using the VOF Model i. ii. and pushed out and up along the sides of the bowl by centrifugal forces.

vof.82e-01 8.66e-01 7.96e+00 1. segregated.06e+00 9.80e-01 4. ske.2 (axi.47e+00 1.34e+00 1.87e+00 1. 2005 16-39 .85e-01 3.15e+00 1.71e-01 6. segregated. unsteady) Figure 16.88e-02 6.03e-01 7.63e+00 1. swirl.99e-01 1.15: Velocity Vectors for the Air and Water at t = 0.77e+00 1.61e-01 8. vof.95e-01 1.08e+00 9.72e+00 1.25e+00 1.84e-01 7.28e+00 1.67e+00 1.75e-01 5.97e-01 9.88e-01 5.82e+00 1.89e-01 2.91e+00 1.90e-01 4.86e-01 6.91e-01 3. January 11.44e+00 1. ske.53e+00 1. unsteady) Figure 16.4 1.55e-04 Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (mixture) (m/s) (Time=6.2 (axi.18e+00 1.93e-01 2.0000e-01) FLUENT 6.14: Velocity Vectors for the Air and Water at t = 0. swirl.Using the VOF Model 1.37e+00 1.98e-03 Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (mixture) (m/s) (Time=4.57e+00 1.0000e-01) FLUENT 6.94e-01 1.6 c Fluent Inc.

12e+00 2. January 11.48e+00 1.32e-01 4.17e-01 1. segregated.17e+00 1.2 (axi. swirl.20e-01 2.91e+00 1.91e+00 1.27e+00 1. ske.38e+00 1.08e-01 2.51e-01 7.Using the VOF Model 2.0000e+00) FLUENT 6.49e-01 7. ske.8 2.26e-01 3.70e+00 1.18e-03 Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (mixture) (m/s) (Time=8. unsteady) Figure 16.14e-01 1.01e+00 1.06e+00 9.11e-01 5.2 (axi.17e+00 1. segregated.59e+00 1.17: Velocity Vectors for the Air and Water at t = 1 16-40 c Fluent Inc.06e+00 9.59e+00 1.0000e-01) FLUENT 6.44e-01 6.16: Velocity Vectors for the Air and Water at t = 0. vof.27e+00 1.70e+00 1.38e-01 5.01e+00 1.22e-03 Velocity Vectors Colored By Velocity Magnitude (mixture) (m/s) (Time=1. 2005 .39e-01 5. swirl.28e-01 3.80e+00 1.12e+00 2.48e+00 1. vof.34e-01 4.80e+00 1. unsteady) Figure 16.55e-01 8.38e+00 1.56e-01 8.22e-01 2.45e-01 6.

stream function contours. you can expect the ﬂow to reverse as the water again seeks to reach a state of equilibrium. January 11. you have learned how to use the VOF free surface model to solve a problem involving a spinning bowl of water. and in Figure 16.16 you can see that the ﬂow is rising up more quickly in the middle of the bowl. c Fluent Inc. t = 0. Summary In this tutorial. and t = 1 second.17 you can see that the ﬂow is still moving upward. As the upward motion in the center of the bowl decreases. These patterns correspond to the volume fraction plots at these times.Using the VOF Model In Figure 16.4. t = 0. You observed the changing pattern of the water and air in the bowl by displaying volume fraction contours. 2005 16-41 .8. and velocity vectors at t = 0. but more slowly. The time-dependent VOF formulation is used in this problem to track the shape of the free surface and the ﬂow ﬁeld inside the spinning bowl.6.

January 11. 2005 .Using the VOF Model 16-42 c Fluent Inc.