ARHITECTURA | Gothic Architecture | Renaissance

1trilithic system-the first building system created was the trilithic system made of one stone lintel

put on
two pylons

2basical profile-building with the central profile higher than the other 2 lateral, because the lightning in the
central area could be natural

3megaron dwelling –belongs to Neolithic age. it has a rectangular plan, with two rooms and an entrance
space called ante. The building is made of unburned bricks, put on a stone circle and surrounded by a defending wall of stone.

4tholos building-the first prototype of dwelling used in that time, a circular plan covered by a dome. 5 Minoan-developed in Crete, is very important because it was for the first time when was achieved a multistorey building. The building was made of wooden frames with the filings made of unburned bricks. It had 40 rooms, functionally grouped. The most famous palace created by this civilisation is the Knossos palace, with many functions like: festive, dwelling, depositing. The theatre was made in open space, with linear step footings Another type of building is called Stoa, which had commercial spaces on the ground floor level and dwelling upward. For the leaders building, the bathroom had a device for hot water.

6megalitic civilisation-was developed in France, Scandinavia, Spain, and Britain. The megalithic
architecture is characterized by the use of the trilitic system, which means 2 vertical slabs (piatra) supporting a horizontal one. For this civilisation this is called dolmen. They also used only vertical slabs buildings called menhire and the space between these vertical slabs is called cromlech.

7mesopotanian architecture -this civilisation created the ziggurat, which is a tower made of 3 or 5 volumes. Each volume has a different height and is different treated. The height could be 12,5 or 3 m. The first volume is made of soil and stone treated with bitumen. The second is which one is treated with burned bricks and the third with blue, enamel bricks. The most famous ziggurats were built in Ur, Uruk, E-Temen –An –ki. On the top of the ziggurat was placed an altar or an astronomic observatory. The access to the top of the tower is achieved by a step system on the exterior side of the tower. Another achievement are the palaces: sargon 2, nabucosodor, Assurbanipal. The architectural program on which these palaces are based on is the dwelling characteristic of these people, rest rooms with doors which are opening towards on interior courtyard and the main entrance decorated with bas-reliefs and on the upper side they are decorated with arches and ceramic plates. 8 the evolution of egyption pyramid -the Egyptian architecture was developed along the nil river
because of the very fertile soil, and because there was developed architectural works, people had build longlasting building. The buildings created by Egyptians had a monumental feature, created for religious activity or for funeral buildings. They are created for pharaohs and for the aristocracy. The first type of funeral buildings were called mastabas. -steps pyramid desen -clasic pyramid desen -the doser pyramid desen -keops ,kephren,mikeninos desen

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This kind of building has a name Atrium.9 parts of egyption temples the main parts of the temple : a)-entrance yard b)-the hypostile hall c)-the altar The first part.made in ionic style. -Propylee : made by marble. inside are 4 columns in ionic style. the naos and the altar. The hypostil hall is made of rows and columns. the column could be: -palmiform (where the capital is made of palm leaves) -lotus like column-the capital is made of a bouquet of lotus flowers of buds) -papinus-the capital is made of papinus buds) -the hathorique –hathor -ossirique-represent the ossiris god. the architectural ordins losttheir own characteristics. giving to each other some elements. It is decorated with base-reliefs featuring religious scenes. the religious building decrease. is consider the most important achievement at that time. The Etruscan dwelling had a hole on the roof –having 4 shapes toward inside. entrance yard –big dimension-surrounded by a wall and a straight gate=pillar. 10 egyption columns-depending by the form of the capitol.dedicated to Synagogue to protect the town. The dwelling realised by Romans was inspired by the Etruscan one.has 2 ports . perfect adopted the slope terrain . 3 rooms : left(mother-goddess) .without access of ordinary people. a) the hypostile hall -made in basilical system b) the lightning in the central part of the inside area is better. for example basilica was building for commercial transactions –it has a basilical profile. Each column has a base. c) the last part –the altar-the holly part of the building . for athen goddess. Inside the altar the lightening is very poor. In the central part of the town there are religious and civil centres: forum-had different functions corresponding with different building. -Erefeion: 2 ports on toward V and one to S. One of the most important achievements of the roman builders were: the dome and the arch. ionic style. column in Doric style. -Temple of the Athena Nike Goddess: the town were developed both for the central and suburban parts.right (sun god) .centre (the god) . 11buildings of acropolis-when on the Athena’s acropolis was built : -Parthenon. 2 . On the upper side the pillar has a Cornish. The roman builders used for the very first time the concrete as a building material. made by marble. a shift and a capitol. 12 the demos dwelling-was developed on the base of the Greek one and of the Etruscan on the Etruscan ones. the administrative and commercial function increase.

and all the buildings are put in a symmetrical system. is a conventional representation of the universe. in this process. The scenes in the forum is made by the triumphal entrance. arts were developed very slowly. the massivity of the building is reduced to a scheleton and a filling material. desen Along the longitudinal axis was placed the basilical ulpia traian having also two axes. Petru. in the central part there are 4 columns in an ionic style .caramida tuf vulcanic -iluminarea spatiului: partea superioara .unul circular -material :beton . This dome in the Christian religion.austeritate . 15 comparison pantheons –santa Sophia church -unul forma patrata. and the Greeck and roman libraries in the middle place was traian’s column.prin ferestre dispuse la baza cupolei intre nervure -estetica : geometria spatiului este severa. The Constantinopolitan school used stone and bricks.and on the end part was traian’s temple. the first part of this complex being the open square surrounded by a porch having on the left and right parts on apse. also the gable is decorated with base-reliefs and on the cornice there were little statues. is dedicated to the synagogue goddess who protected the town.curia-for curt law building macellum-for a meat market the city also included theatres and amphitheatres and thermal baths. The last part of the temple called Opistodom is the hall part of the temple and also the place for the fortress treasure. In contrast the Eastern school is characterized by massivity and by small windows. The size of the temple are: 30 m 67 m . Initially was a statue represent a bird. The inside division of volumes is very well marked on the facade by same elements which give some effects of light and shadow. It contribute to the achievement of many 3 .one of them had 1 main feature: the main dome concerning the central space : naos. naos . 17 romanesque architecture-after the collapse of the roman empire. Inside the space is divided into pronaos. today it is the statue of St. On the most important urbanistic achievement was train’s forum designed by apolodor of damask.and the altar. The central part of the temple is divided by two rows of columns having in the plan the shape of the U letter. 13 the train’s forum-traian’s column is a Doric column put on a paralelipipedic base. The temple is entirely made of marble being the columns in a Doric style. Is consider to be one of the most important achievements of that time. The roman architecture has some rules: the composition has longitudinal axes. being perfect and without equal in this field. The columns of the temple the architrave are simple without decorations but the frieze is decorated with trigliephes and matapes. the relation between inside and outside environments being very pure. the role of the catholic church was very important. 14 the pantheon building-the moust important buiding is the pantheos building. In the central part there was placed synagogue -150 m height. 16 schools of the byzantine architecture-another period concerning the byzantine architectures made of the architectural schools between 800-1200.alternanta de baltice dinamizeaza spatiul. On the capitel. The Greek school is in fact a synthesis of all features of the two schools. -constantinopolitana -orientala -greceasca Even though the Constantinopolitan and the eastern had opposite features and the Greek is practically a synthesis of the firs 2. This project coincives in order to activate the urban life.

having the same form in the upper part of the window) .double -another window is placed above the main entrance-circular shape (diamentru >10m) 18 Romanesque church-after the collapse of the roman empire. the churches have in length the shape of the Latin cross with unequal arms DESEN 19 features of the gothic architecture-the main features of the gothic architecture are: 1)the folded arch 2)the buttress 3)the flying buttress 1)-more easier to be achieved than the semicircular arch because the pushings at the base of this arch are smaller than the pushings in the case of the semicircular arches -the height under this arch is bigger in the case of the agival arch. this is a feature that gives to these buildings a higher resistance and long lasting -the surrounded walls were provided with wooden gang-ways(pasarela) -the towers placed on the corners had a square circular section small window organised as defending points. Poland. germany. surrounded by walls wout (sant cu apa) -building material: stone -the walls have 2 m thickness. It contribute to the achievement of many religious buildings and it created a new form of art=the Romanesque art.Poland. castle Romanesque: –impressive -built on high place. This name was given by the art historians from the 19 century because of the relation with the roman art. it is conceived as a place for the last shelter when the enemy enters the fortress -the ceiling of the castle –half cylinder bolts made of stones/bricks -the main building element-the half cylinder arch volt.transilvania. Italy. the vaussois on the top =the key bolt. arts were developed very slowly. 2) -the buttress=the walls perpendicular on the facade.france. developed:England. the folded bolt seen from the inside part seems to be like as a skeleton and a filling.germany. -the windows: simple (desen . 4 . result in that place where the arches are loading in the resistance element. easy to be defended and difficult to access this place -are massive.Scandinavia.religious buildings and it created a new form of art=the Romanesque art. -the half cylindral bolt is a smooth surface. france. this arch is made also of avulsions. Scandinavia. transilvania. the role of the Catholic Church was very important. The geographical area with this form of art developed: England. having its own foundation and placed where the loads are concentrated. This name was given by the art historians from the 19 century because of the relation with the roman art.Italy. In this process. inside the light is very poor -the most important tower –don Jon. the geographical area where this form of art.

Renaissance was born in Italy (florance).national schools of French renaissance French renaissance of Italian influence renaissance was known later because of the gothic tradition. these castles kept the gothic appearance.basilica santo spirit.3) -the flying buttress-is an original solving of the structure because they ensure the bolt’s stability. The role of the man kind in the society and the glorification of the nature were the values emphasized by this new ideology.he designed in Florence many buildings: santa maria del fire. buildings: dodges palace(gothic style) .san marco cathedral(byzantine style). It is very important cultural phenomenon for the European civilisation. the most buildings from Venice have the foundation solution of wooden pile.santa maria del angeli. building of Venice (venetia)and their architectural style Venice –the gothic tradition was very powerful. They are elements placed above the roof. the stairs had a winding shape placed in a tower detached from the facade. Many of the gothic features present at the castle buildings are :the high roofs with many skylights and chimneys. Another gothic feature: the facede with many windows and the use of brick of stone alternatively. It proposed new form of culture based on the study of the classic antiquity.basilica san Lorenzo). During the renaissance period.strotzzi). 24. It appears in Italy at the beginning of the 15 century. 22. French renaissance of Italian influence-renaissance was known later because of the gothic tradition. because it has a very important role in the economical domain. Characteristic for the gothic period. 20 the gothic church DESEN 21 renaissance features in architecture-it is characteristic for the period 15-18 century. 2 periods: 5 . placed in a special place called the stair case.chenonceaux.the clock tower and some other administrative buildings(renaissance style). the urban composition of this city is made by 2 squares: san Marco square . castle from Loire valley: Chambord. but they renounced at the defence walls. 2 periods: -early 16-17 century -royal 17-18 century early The main architectural program: the castle. piatteta. the social class which was important were burgees. the stair were solved in a single flight.campanile tower(Romanesque style) . one of the most important achievement of the architectural solving is the ball hall which are free of pillars.blois. usually mounting from the courtyard. this kind of solving of stairs were used in the architecture of many palaces (medici. 23. Because of the geographical discoveries the triad activity was very much improved and because of that many cities were developed. taking the pushings and distributing them to the pillars or to the walls. the stairs had 2 parallel flights.the most famous architect who created in this style =filippo bruneleschi. This class has its own ideology – humanism. Concerning the stairs solving during the Romanesque period.

The most famous building university from Salamanca is a combination of the plateresc style.-early 16-17 century -royal 17-18 century Early.the square and the clock tower. features: -the facade’s plenty of decorations -the solving of the last floor with attic desen ex:luvru building. b)the first church built :saint Paul cathedral. especially for the town hall buildings which have a porch . 26. gothic and renaissance. ex: the alcazar palace (Toledo) Escorial(Madrid)-architectural assemble complicated composition 17 court yard. in this geographical area these are found after influence :Moorish (arab). long galleries with the ceiling in the gothic style. Spain-renaissance appeared later because of the gothic tradition. The Spanish architecture had also an influence from the plateria .which was an original process for the decoration of jewels in flat decoration. renaissance features port less the flat roof with attic.tuilleries castle . the tightness superposition. ex: lipzig. the project was inspired from the church with the same name from Vatican. These are some renaissance features. the Alhambra palace(has a circular court yard surrounded by a porch with a tightness superposition for the whole height of the building). 25 renaissance in England a)the early renaissance b)the late renaissance style having the same name with the monarch a)-Elizabethan style -Jacob style b)-strat style -Georgian style a)some achievement for the ball halls free of pillars. 27 renaissance Germany-the gothic tradition was very powerful. this is why many historian say that renaissance in Germany was not known. koln.Bremen 6 .

Raccoco is an style for inside decorations .very important is the care to hide the constructive structure behind the inside decorations.the pinions were placed towards the street. The geometrical shape used frequently in this style is the elliptical one. V and they have intermediary spaces that penetrate the building on the grand-floor level. sguares (are organized architectural .it has an oval shape with a big inside volume.a 7 .raccoco is a new type for inside decorations.paintings. belvedere. concerning the plenty of decoration of this style. desen Conclusion: -renaissance was as inspiration source the roman antiquity -was developed because of the borzois -the humanist ethics -the byzantine architecture was not influenced by the renaissance (because the catholic and orthodox church). Baroque comes from the Portuguese language.except france. of castles:drezden(zwinger) . ex. usually this space has an elliptical shape.theatre. pearls with irregular shape used for jewellery. -in the period late of renaissance some counties adopted a new style supported by the catholic church (baroque style) and some countries(france) adopted an artistic style classicism.resut it is very difficult to frame it. it was developed 1718 century. desen The raccoco church is very simple outside and was plenty of decorations inside. 30 the raccoco church—has no more the cross shape.sculptural elements and water games) the plans of the building are compact. Famous building classicism :cripple dome=a huge architectural assemble. 28baroque style-was born in Italy. complexity and expressionism. In order to create an unusual thing. having in the middle a cathedral with a big dome famous building baroque: hofburh. The baroque style was characteristic for all forms of art: literature. representative for baroque :the palaces .architects conceived the buildings with representative space placed transversal to the main access. The features: plenty of decorations.the raccoco style was developed evolving from baroque . having the shape of the letters T.the German dwellings for ordinary people are usually placed with the small side parallel to the street and the roof has to slopes . after that the style was new even in the architectural solution. Later on this word has another meaning expressing an unique /unusual concept. sculptural treatment of surface.town planning. This name of baroque was given by the arts historians with a depreciation meaning.postam (sans –souci) 29 raccoco during the second part of the 18 century appeared new styles=raccoco. Characteristic for the classist style: symmetry and straight lines.this style was known all over the Europe. it was the only country that knew a parallel style=classicism.the churches. this space irabled the relation between the building and the street/garden. raccoco has its source in the illuminist thinking and it was developed because of the necessity for a private life.dominated by the pulpit.

curves lines. raccoco=a sophisticated inside decorations and a graceful architecture. 8 . we may say that baroque equal freedom.continous spaces.graceful architecture. To synthesize the features of the last architectural style. classic style =horizontal lines .an architecture dedicated to reason.

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