Lynsey Williams

Technology Report
Unit 15 000622628

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Project Outline 1.2 Client and Funding 1.3 Programme 1.4 Urban Context 1.5 Location Map 1.6 History of the Royal Bank of Scotland 1.7 Controversy 1.8 Bishops Square 1.9 RBS Headquarters

6.0 Media Skin
6.1 Combined Photovoltaic and Media Wall 6.2 Media Wall Precedent: Green Pix Zero Energy Media Wall, Beijing 6.3 Initial design of media wall 6.4 Combined PV and media wall 6.5 Media Wall Panels 6.6 Early diagram illustrating different panels 6.7 Structure and Construction of Media Wall 6.8 Media Wall Structure 6.9 Connection to the existing building

2.0 Design Process
2.1 Design Concept 2.2 The Parasite 2.3 Design Strategy

7.0 Treatment to Interior Space
7.1 Main Gallery Space 7.2 Main Gallery Environment 7.3 Internal Media Wall 7.4 Media Monitors 7.5 Lecture Theatre 7.6 Cafe Area 7.7 Services

3.0 Treatment to the Host Building
3.1 Treatment to the existing RBS building 3.2 Treatment of the host building when meeting with the first form of the parasite 3.3 Treatment of the host building when meeting with the second form of the parasite

8.0 List of Figures 9.0 Appendix
9.1 1.100 Floor Plan of first form of the parasite 9.2 1.100 Floor Plan of the second form of the parasite 9.3 1.100 Floor Plan of the second form of the parasite 9.4 1.200 Floor Plan of the second form of the parasite

4.0 Parasitic Form
4.1 Entering the first exhibition space situated within the parasite 4.2 4.2 The parasite connecting to the existing stairs within the host building. 4.3 The second area of the parasite ‘feeding’ from the existing circulation. 4.4 The cafe/bar area with open shop and balcony area. 4.5 Circulation from the first form of the parasite to the second 4.6 Circulation

5.0 Structural System and Skin of the Parasite
5.1 Principle technologies and materials 5.2 Initial Structural Ideas 5.3 Current Structure and Construction Process 5.4 Facade and Structure Precedent: Kunsthaus, Graz 5.5 Structure and Construction of the Skin and of the Parasite 5.6 Skin and Structure Construction Details 5.7 Skin and Structure Connection Details 5.8 1.50 Section through the main gallery space and theatre. 5.9 Structure and Fabric of the Parasite 5.10 Windows 5.11 Structure, skin and window elements 5.12 Connection to the existing Structure 5.13 The Skin of the Parasite and Media Wall meeting 5.14 Spreading of skin

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Outline
Today, the banks are constantly making headlines for a number of reasons and are causing a lot of controversy. Because of these controversies trust in the financial system is lost. It is a highly complicated process, a process that is not easy for the public to understand. Is this a system however, that has intentionally been made complicated in order to make it impossible for anybody to monitor, let alone the public? This project aims to allow the public to understand and to see, for themselves, what is happening within the financial system. The project spans across the City of London where new social programmes are becoming embedded within the existing fabric of the city. In doing so, these programmes are all connected with one another and report to the main communication centre that is found within the RBS headquarters in Bishopsgate. Each programme within the city is connected to a host building, and together they create a co-operation that allows us to survey the banks. Within this report we will be focusing on the communication centre of this co-operation, which sits on the RBS headquarters in Bishopsgate. It is a building that acts as a parasite, feeding off the existing building and in doing so, regaining some power and control back from the banks. It is a building that aims to use advance technology with a combined media and photovoltaic wall, which allows the public to read the building and to interact with it.

1.2 Client and Funding
It is a building for the public. Financial System. A building that helps them

to understand the complicated process that is hidden within the A building that allows them to gain back some control over power within the financial system. However, this project only exists because of the way in which the banks have worked and the trust that they have lost along the way. It is a failed system, one that requires a new system to be put into place which allows us to survey the procedures within. Because of this, the banks will fund the new social programmes that are found within the city as part of this project. The Financial Disparency is an architecture of consequence.

1.3 Programme
As mentioned before, this report will be focusing on the

Communication Centre of the new social programmes within the surveillance system that is found through out the city. It is a place where meetings can take place between the people in charge of each programme and it also offers a meeting space for these programmes ensuring that there is constant communication between all programmes. However, whilst it acts as the main communication centre for these social programmes it also houses a social programme itself. Due to the media skin of the parasite, this will also be mirrored within the programme of the building as it will hold a gallery for media and digital art. The building will offer a small lecture theatre, which can be used by the programme representatives as their meeting place, or it can be used to screen films. The building also holds an open plan space with a cafe/bar and shop which can be used for day and evening events.

1.4 Urban Context
The site is situated within the London borough of Tower Hamlets. The area includes two different worlds and the area that we are concerned with is the being of the transition between the two. To the east of the site sits the area known as ‘Banglatown’ where the majority of the population are from Bangladeshi descent. The Royal Bank of Scotland head quarters sits on the corner of Bishops Square with Broadgate Street to the West of the building. When walking from Liverpool Street Station, the building is highly visible and acts as a beacon for the entrance to Spitalfields Market. The market holds a traditional market of temporary food and clothes stall yet it also holds shops, restaurants and bars that are permanent and so with locals and tourists, the area has a constant flow of people, many of which will pass by the RBS building. The RBS building and Spitalfields Market begins the transition not only between the different cultures found within Broadgate and Banglatown but it also marks a change in architecture and building fabric. Many of the buildings to the west of the RBS building, including the building itself , are large buildings made predominantly of glass whilst the building to the east, including the Spitalfields market are made of traditional materials and are of a much smaller scale in terms of height.

1:5000 Location Plan

1.6 History of the Royal Bank of Scotland
The RBS headquarters situated on Bishopsgate, was once owned by Dutch Bank, ABN AMRO. However, in 2007, the Royal Bank of Scotland offered £49bn to takeover ABN AMRO which resulted in RBS becoming Britain’s second largest bank It is believed by many that this takeover was the beginning and a large part of the downfall of the Royal Bank of Scotland. For example, due to the recession, ABN AMRO did not make the expected targets and many people believed that the takeover was not the right action :

“For Royal Bank of Scotland it looks more of a challenge, especially as it is acquiring the business most affected by the recent market turbulence.“
Christopher Wheeler, Bear Stearns Along with the takeover of ABN AMRO, RBS also moved into their existing headquarters situated in Bishopsgate. Completed in 2007 by EPR Architects, the building was designed for Spitalfields Development Group as part of a redevelopment programme for the area.

BBC Business 2007 RBS secures takeover of ABN Amro Monday [online] Available at: <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7033176.stm> [Accessed 15th April 2012] Robbins, Mathieu 2009

Was ABN the worst takeover deal ever?

[online] Available at: <http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/analysis-and-features/was-abn-the-worst-takeover-deal-ever-1451520.html > [Accessed 15th April 2012]

Wilson, Harry and Aldrick, Philip 2011 RBS investigation: Chapter 2 - the ABN Amro takeover [online] Available at: <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/banksandfinance/8947530/RBS-investigation-Chapter-2-the-ABN-Amro-takeover.html> [Accessed 15th April 2012]

1.7 Controversy
Many branches of the Royal Bank of Scotland, and in particular the headquarters, have been the focus of many protests. include the bonuses that have been paid to the staff. bonuses, although they had estimated a loss of £2bn. Recent controversies

For example, in 2012 it was reported that the bank would pay out nearly £400m in

The bank has also been involved in the latest controversial headlines where they have In 2008, RBS was bailed out by the public due to the recession and Tensions are high between the public and the banks, with

been selling a service known as ‘Payment Protection Service’ which has been sold to its customers without them realising or when they don’t need it, and because of this the bank has received a £1bn provision. many people calling for a change in the system. The Royal Bank of Scotland has not only angered the public with its large payouts but many of the protests that took place were due to the bank being a part of “the biggest environmental crime on the planet.” Activists criticised the bank for their part in funding firms which were extracting oil from Canadian oil sands and called for a change in the system.
Treanor, Jill 2012 RBS prepares to pay out £400m in bonuses despite expected £2bn loss [online] Available at: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2012/feb/22/ rbs-400m-pound-bonuses-expected-loss> [Accessed 15th April 2012] Arnott, Sarah. 20120 RBS accused over funding for tar sands ‘blood oil’ [online] Available at :<http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/rbs-accusedover-funding-for-tar-sands-blood-oil-1914354.html > [Accessed 15th April 2012]

because of this, it is estimated that the taxpayer now owns over 80% of the bank.

1.8 Bishops Square
Situated directly next to the RBS building is the Bishop Square. Designed by Townshend Landscape architects the area Providing a small grass area, a water lily pool and seating, the square offers a great space for public events , temporary art exhibitions. The square acts as a meeting place where the business people and workers can meet, yet also a space that is used by many visitors and tourists that are visiting the rich market of Spitalfields. The square is integral to the design concept and strategy of the project. This is because the project is aimed to engage with the public and so the square offers a great opportunity for there to be an interaction between the new building situated on the RBS building and the square, creating a stronger link with the financial system. The square also allows more light to hit the RBS building, an element that became integral to the use of a combined media and PV wall.

1.9 RBS Headquarters
The RBS Headquarters, situated on the corner of Brushfield Street is a large predominant building in the area. The building is predominantly open plane office space. The entrance of the building sits on the corner of Broadgate and Brushfield Street and is highly recognisable due to the orientation of the building and also the pointed structure that projects out from the building. On entering, the user is welcomed with a large open space that spans the height of 3 floors which hosts the reception area, seating and security. Two sides of the entrance foyer are predominantly constructed of windows which allow passer-bys to view into the foyer. Once you have entered the building, only employees and invited guests are able to penetrate the building any further. For each person to reach their desired floor, they have the option of the escalators which allow acess to the first and second floor, whilst the other floors are all accessible by the glass lifts. Behind the lift sits a large atrium. Earlier floor plans suggest that this space was also used as office space, however, today the space does not occupy any specific programme or use.

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4 1 Entrance 2 Entrance Foyer 3 Escalators 4 Lifts 5 Fire Escape 6 7 Main Atrium 8 Retail 9 Bishops Square 10 Broadgate Street 3 2 1

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1:500 RBS Ground Floor Plan

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2.0 DESIGN PROCESS

2.1 Design Concept
Initially the project began looking at the way in which we perceive the city through the eyes of Michel du Certeau’s ‘Walker’ and through Google maps. It then began to look at the way in which Google Maps has become a form of surveillance which eventually led to the ultimate surveillance system: The Panopticon. Designed by Jeremy Bentham in 1975, the prison is designed to imply surveillance. Every cell is positioned around a circular tower in which the watchman is stationed, and with a particular use of light, the inmates cannot see this watchman and so they can only assume that they themselves are being watched. It is a system where one person can essentially watch many. However, this project has reversed that role, and the one watchman within the tower, who had power over the inmates, is now being watched by the inmates. And by replacing the roles with elements from today, the large banks of the city, are now being surveyed by the public. power back from the banks. The public are gaining some

2.2 The Parasite
As the project started to develop into a system that would gain back some control and power over the banks, it also began to look at gaining some physical space. Therefore, it was at this point that the idea of a parasite was introduced. A parasite is defined as “an organism that lives on or in an organism of another species, known as the host, from the body of which it obtains nutriment.” This parasite would attach itself to the existing RBS headquarters and due to the nature of a parasite, it would begin to feed off the host building. Therefore, as the banks are funding the project, they will also have to offer some physical space as a form of space tax, to the new programmes.

Dictionary.com [online] Available at:<http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ parasite> [Accessed 15th April 2012]

2.3 Design Strategy
When developing the project, it began with the simple idea of placing the panopticon on-site. Positioned on the RBS building, the paonopticon started to deconstruct, and whilst some cells began to inject themselves into the city, some remained on-site. By deconstructing the remaining cells, and In doing this, the process began to answer a lot of design questions. For example, the way in which it pierces the host building and where it makes contact and also the position on where it sits on the exterior of the building. At this point of the project, ideas began to develop where the parasite would connect to and feed off the existing circulation of the host building. Once a number of critical decisions had been made, the programme was inserted and then the fabric was built around the programme.

experimenting with different forms, a system began to develop where the outer skin of the parasite was made of a series of planes.

3.0 TREATMENT TO THE HOST BUILDING

3.1 Treatment of the existing RBS building.
The new form that is used to survey the banks is hosted by the Royal Bank of Scotland Headquarters in London. Because of this, the new form penetrates and interacts with the RBS building resulting in a number of areas that need to be adapted, removed or redesigned. The We will begin by looking at the immediate effects the new building has on the existing RBS building. areas highlighted in red represent the elements that will need to be adapted, changed or replaced and the The main point of interaction is within the main entrance space of the host building and also the existing escalators and fire escape stairs. The facade of the building that surrounds the entrance also has to be adapted and to fit the new building. The images below represent the changes that would be made to the escalators. Requiring a small amount of work, a section of the barrier of the escalators will need to be removed in order to allow access to the parasite. images below illustrate the main facade areas that will require the most work.

These areas will be removed and demolished.

3.2 Treatment of the host building when meeting with the first form of the parasite

The areas that will need the most work and attention throughout the project will be the facade and glass elements. Before construction begins, areas However, glass will be removed to allow the new structure to be built. back into position once the structure has been built.

panels that are not directly affected by the new structure area can be placed The panels that are in direct contact with the new structure will have to be replaced with new elements that have been adapted to fit around the new structure.

The highlighted area represents the elements that will have to be removed during the construction of the parasite.

These areas will be removed during construction but replaced once the new parasite has been completed. They will be removed in order to allow easier construction.

This area represents the area that will be punctured through by the parasite, illustrating the panels that have been adapted or simply put back in place.

These areas will be removed and demolished.

This area will require more work as it is at this point that the parasite punctures through the host building. Some panels will need to be adapted whilst others can be replaced with the original.

These areas will be removed and demolished.

3.3 Treatment of the host building when meeting with the second form of the parasite

This area will require more work as it is at this point that the parasite punctures through the host building. Some panels will need to be adapted whilst others can be replaced with the original.

This area represents the area that will be punctured through by the parasite, illustrating the panels that have been adapted or simply put back in place.

When the parasite punctures through the facade of the host building it meets directly with the existing fire escape stairs.

4.0 PARASITIC FORM

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4.1 Entering the first exhibition space situated within the parasite.

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4.2 The parasite connecting to the existing stairs within the host building.

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4.3 The second area of the parasite housing a second exhibition space ‘feeding’ from the existing circulation.

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4.4 The cafe/bar area with open shop and balcony area.

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4.5 Circulation from the first form of the parasite to the second.

4.6 Circulation
The circulation within the building is integral to the idea of the new building acting as a parasite and feeding off certain elements of the host building. system that this is most apparent. In order to gain access to the new building, the user must first enter the existing RBS building and use the escalators, which up until now, have not been accessible by the public. to enter the new building. On reaching the first level of the escalators, the use is then able However, in order to gain access to the second area of the parasite, which includes a second smaller It is within the circulation

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gallery, cafe and open shop, the user must first re-enter the host building. Climbing the existing stairs, the user is then able to enter this area.

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As the parasite ‘plugs’ into the existing circulation of the host building, disabled access can be easily adapted as the existing lifts can be used and allow access to both areas of the parasite. 1 Existing escalators of the host building. 2 Entrance to the first area of the parasite. 3 Re-entering the host building by gaining access to the stairs. 4 Re-entering the second area of the parasitic form. 5 The cafe and shop area. 6 Ground floor access to the lifts for disabled users. 7 Access to the first area of the parasite from the lifts. 8 Access to the second parasite from the lifts.

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5.0 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM AND FABRIC OF THE PARASITE

5.1 Principle Technologies and Materials
Ribbed Structure
The main structure of the building will be a number of repeated ribs that are connected together. The ribs are in a decagon shape and each one it twisted at a 450 angle which creates a vortex shape to the building which can be seen on the exterior and interior of the building.

Combined Media and PV Wall
The project aims to combine the use of a media wall and cells as its main external skin. photovoltaic

Existing Services and circulation of the host building.
As the project is about gaining some control back over the financial system, the host buildings, where the new programmes now sit, not only have to offer physical space but also have to provide services for the new buildings. Therefore, the communication centre will ‘feed off’ the existing services that are found within the RBS building.

As the fabric of the building aims to

portray the amount of information being transferred within the financial system the most sufficient way for this information to be shown and understood by the public. The more information that is transferred within the financial system the more active the facade becomes. Because of this it allows us the opportunity to combine it with photovoltaics which will power the LEDs and so the facade becomes self sufficient.

5.2 Initial Structural Ideas
The initial concept for the new design was for it to be a self supporting light weight structure that was made up of prefabricated panels. These panels were constructed of a steel Another frame was then connected frame and held a glass panel.

on to the steel frame which supported the LED’s on the interior of the building which were exposed, allowing the user to see the structure of the building. After researching and experimenting with this idea, a few areas

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became apparent, for example,

a ribbed structure would need This investigation into the

to be developed and also at his point it did not offer and environmental qualities or control. structure of the facade. The second idea developed along with the development of the structure. A series of ribs were created in order to support the parasite and individual panels would be made consisting of glass, photovoltaic cells, LEDs, a steel structure and insulation. With the insertion of insulation and the vapour barrier, the building started to develop into a from with an internal quality. At this point, the glass panels on the exterior of the skin were water tight, however, after investigating this further, it would be extremely difficult to make each individual glass panel fit perfectly with the other and the cost of the project would soar. However, this led to the development of the current structure and skin of the parasite. structure and support of the building led to a change in the

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LED Support LED Glass Panels Photovoltaic Cells Steel Frame

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Photovoltaic Cells Glass LED LED Frame Structure connecting

6 Vapour Barrier 7 Insulation Synthetic Barrier 8 Rib Structure 9 Glass Connector 10

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Initial Structure Ideas cont. 1 Circualtion 2 Floor Planes 3 Walls 4 Main ribs of structure 5 Connecting frame between ribs 6 LED Frame 7 LEDs 8 Internal Panels 9 External Skin

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5.3 Current Structure and Construction Process
The main structure of the parasite will be constructed of steel and will be made in sections off-site. The prefabricated elements will then be positioned and placed together on-site. Steel was chosen for the main structure of the parasite as it allows more flexibitly than concrete and other materials as it performs well when in tension and compression. Initailly made up of structural ribs, the ribs are hten connected together which creates the triangular configuration of the steel beams. This configuration strengthens the steel and it allows the structure to span long distances. Because of this, the main gallery space can be be free from any columns, enabling the the space to be flexible for its users. The steel beams will be connected through high strength welded joints.

5.4 Facade and Structure Precedent: Kunsthaus, Graz, 2003.

Project: Facade: Completed: 2003

Kunsthaus, Graz Realities:United

Architect: Peter Cook and Colin Fournier

As mentioned before, the facade of the parasite will include a media wall, and within certain areas it will also combine the use of photovoltaic cells. by Peter Cook. The main precedent that was used for the structure of the parasite was the Kunsthuas in Graz, designed Completed in 2003, the fabric of the building Similar to the project, The Financial includes over 1200 panels and an area with 930 lights designed by Realities: United. Disparency, the Kunsthuas also houses media art, yet it was the structure of the building that has had the greatest amount of influence on this project. The design, process and construction of the building was highly complicated and had to be adapted and changed many times. steel frame. For example, many configurations were explored for the layout of the

5.5 Structure and Construction of the Skin and of the Parasite

As mentioned before within the report, the use of a media skin is integral to the concept of the project. configuration as the steel structure. Elements of the facade will be made off-site and brought together on-site. However, the two layers of synthetic membrane and the The parasite will consist of triangular panels that follow the same triangular

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insulation (3,4 and 5) will be combined together off site as they can then be placed within the triangular forms that are created within the steel frame. The other elements, including mesh, glass connections, LEDS and glass panels will be constructed individually off-site and then positioned in place on-site. The Kunsthaus uses acrylic panels instead of the glass panels as

1 Mesh 2 Steel Structure 3 Synthetic Membrane 4 Insulation 5 Synthetic Membrane 6 Glass Connection 7 LED 8 Glass Panels

they had initially planned. of the material. plastic panels.

This project however will use glass

panels on the exterior of the building due to the characteristics For example, when comparing the two materials, The plastic panels will weather and crack when the glass elements will react better to the weather than the in use, creating more damage and therefore more maintenance than what would be needed if glass panels would be used. Also, unlike the Kunsthaus facade, this project will use glass panels that do not consist of any curvatures and will follow the same configuration of the steel structure. Because of this, each panel will allow easier construction.

1.50 Section Interior Mesh

5.6 Skin and Structure Construction Details
The sections illustrate in more detail how the structure and fabric of the building are constructed and placed together. Exterior Interior

Synthetic Membrane Insulation 150mm Cavity Synthetic Membrane (Bitumen waterproofing sheet) LED Support LED Glass Exterior

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5.7 Skin and Structure Connection Details

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1 Mesh 2 Connection between mesh and structure 3 Structural rib 4 Synthetic Barrier 5 Insulation 6 Synthetic Barrier 7 LED frame 8 LED 9 Glass 10 Connection between glass and structure. Detail A. Scale 1.5

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Detail B. Scale 1.5

Detail A

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1.20 Section through the structure and skin.

5.8 1.50 Section through the main gallery space and theatre.

5.9 Structure and Fabric of the Parasite.

The glass window sits on the outer edge of the steel frame and so the structure is exposed to the interior of the building.

5.10 Windows
In certain areas of the building, windows have been positioned within the facade to allow more light into the building. They expose the structure of the building.

5.11 Structure, skin and windows elements

1. Initial ribbed structure.

2. Additional ribs create a triangular configuration, strengthening the structure.

3. Internal Mesh Panels create the interior skin of the parasite.

4. Insertion of Insulation and weathering elements to control the internal environments.

5. The LED’s create the media wall.

6. Glass Windows and external glass panels.

5.12 Connection to the existing Structure
One of the most integral concepts to the parasite is the idea that it feeds off the existing circulation of the RBS building. Therefore, the connection between these two structures must be explored. The parasite will not be physically connected to the exisitng building but will be placed extremly close to it in order to give the illusion of a physical connection. By not creating a physical connection between the two, if there is nay movement in the structures it will not put the exisitng structure under any force. The first image to the furthest left shows the connection between the existing escalators and the parasite. floor. The second image illustrates the connection where the parasite re-enters the host building and meets the existing fire escape stairs. Here, an additional two steps have been added in order to join the existing steps. The steel structure is also visible along with the supporting elements for the raised

5.13 The Skin of the Parasite and Media Wall meeting
The structure of the skin and media wall are both constructed differently although they are meant to form a continuous skin. Therefore, the connection between the the two is extremely important. When they meet, they will not physically touch but a 10mm gap will be placed between them. If there is then any movemnet in either of the structures, the other is not affected.

5.14 Spreading of skin
When the parasite penetrates the RBS building, the skin begins to grow across the facade of the host building. skin begins to develop into the media wall. This is where the

6.0 MEDIA SKIN

6.1 Combined Photovoltaic and Media Wall
Similar to the media skin of the parasite, an additional media wall is positioned over the facade of the host building. the existing RBS building. The media wall sits on the facade of the RBS building that faces Bishops Square and it is integral to the project. However, whilst the skin of the parasite portrays the amount of activity that is on-going within the financial system, the media wall allows the public to interact with it. The next section of the report will investigate the treatment of the media wall which sits on the facade of the existing RBS building. The skin of the project has a constant theme of a glass curtain, however, there are a number of design differences, for example, whilst some panels of glass may have a LED light beneath them they may also have PV cells integrated into them, whilst some panels may have neither of these components. During the design and construction process of the media wall, two precedents were used in order to understand how this PV and media wall may work. The first precedent has already been mentioned in this report: Peter Cook’s Kunsthaus, Graz, and the second is the Green Pix Zero Energy Wall in Beijing. This media wall acts as and additional skin of the parasite that is slowly beginning to grow over

6.2 Media Wall Precedent: Green Pix Zero Energy Media Wall, 2008
Project: Architects: Completion:

Green Pix Zero Energy Media Wall Simone Giostra and Partners 2008

When thinking about the combined media and photovoltaic wall, one of the main influences was the Green Pix media wall that is situated in Beijing and completed in 2008 the wall is the largest of its kind in China. The project uses photovoltaic cells that are integrated into the glass curtain. power The wall harvests solar energy throughout the day with the help of these cells and this energy is then used to the LEDs at night.

6.3 Initial Design of Media Wall
Initially the media wall that sits on the exterior of the RBS building was positioned on the facade that faces Bishops square. It ran the whole height of the building and started to protrude out and touch the ground of the square, forming into a seating area. However, due to the seperation between the media wall and the parasitic forms that house the interior spaces, there was a disconnection between them and they felt like two seperate entities, when they are both part of the same parasite that has invaded the RBS building.

6.4 Current design of Combined PV and media wall
The media wall plays an integral role of the project. as Acting

large media wall and also a harvesting system for the sun, Initially the wall was designed to act purely as a

the skin combines digital media technology with a sustainable technology. media wall, however, because of the nature of the wall and the energy it would need, combined with the position and orientation of the wall, it offered the project a great opportunity to use a system of photovoltaic cells. These cells would be combined within the glass panels of the wall. The photovoltaic cells would harvest and absorb solar energy through out the day, and then it would use this energy to illuminate itself during the night. The skin, is a self sufficient system.

6.5 Media Wall Panels
Whilst the media skin of the parasite reflects the activity in the financial system, the media skin acts as a point of interaction where the public can engage with the wall. The glass facade is used consistently throughout the project and is integral to the concept of the design. The media wall that is positioned on the exterior of the RBS building is constructed of a lightweight steel frame from which glass panels are attached. However, depending on where that panel of glass is positioned, the structure of it and the components that it contains differs. When designing the media skin, enough panels were needed to show the concept behind the wall, and how it acts as a skin feeding off the parasitic form and over the existing host building. However, to place LEDs behind each panel would see the cost of the project soar, and also the use of PV cells within every panel would be irresponsible if they did not receive enough daylight. Therefore, there are 4 variations of panels.

1. Glass Panel without LED or PV cells.

2. Glass Panel with LED.

3. Glass Panel with PV cells.

4. Glass Panel with PV cells

6.6 An early diagram illustrating the combination of the different panels for the media skin.

6.7 Structure and Construction of Media Wall
The media wall will be constructed of 6 elements all of which The main frame and the support for each panel, will be prefabricated off-site and made sections that would hold 5 x 5 panels. as the glass connections and LEDs. Whilst on-site, the rest of the elements will be placed in position such These will be positioned Once the panels hang. panels. 3 LED support 4 LED 5 Glass Connection The main frame and the support for each panel, will be prefabricated 6 Glass Panels on-site to ensure that there is no damage whilst the elements 1 Initial frame from which the are being transported from the factory to the site. positioned. connections and LED’s are in place, the glass elements will be 2 Frame supporting individual

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The structure begins with an initial

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building, allowing the wall to become a curtain wall that hangs from the host building. Attached to this frame will be the supports for each individual panel and in between this support will be a support for the lights. The LEDs will then be positioned upon this frame along with connections for the glass panels. include photovoltaic cells. The panels will then sit on these connections and some of these may

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6.8 Media Wall Structure
The main frame will form the basic supporting structure for the media wall, and will also combine the supporting structure for the LED’s. It will then be constructed of glass panels, some of which will have photvoltaic cells integrated within them.

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6.9 Connection to existing building
The combined PV and media wall acts as a curtain wall as it is hung from the host building. Although the wall is supported from by the roof levels of RBS building it must also be supported a number of areas, not only due to the weight of the wall but also to stabilise it in order to ensure that there is no movement. When analysing the existing RBS building it became evident that the exterior columns are attached to the building at a number of points, As it hangs down the RBS building, the lightweight steel frame is not only attached to the roofs of the building but also to the attachments between the column and building. evident that the exterior columns are attached to the building at a number of points, which would be prove to be important to the curtain media wall.

1 Existing Columns 2 Existing Connection between column and facade 3 Connection between main frame existing column connection. 4 Main frame of media wall 5 Glass Panels 6 Support frame of individual panels.

7.0 TREATMENT TO INTERIOR SPACES

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7.1 Main gallery space 6
1 Entrance to gallery space 2 Moveable walls to allow maximum flexibility for artists 3 Entrance to theatre 4 Small Lecture Theatre (55 Seats) 5 Double height gallery space 6 Media wall with monitors 7 Connection to existing circulation

7.2 Main Gallery Environment
The main gallery will host the main exhibitions. However, due

to the nature of the art being digital, the lighting within this space will have to be controlled and therefore artificial. This will then allow maximum flexibility for the use of media screens, and also pieces of art that require a darker setting in order to increase the impacts of light.

7.3 Internal Media Wall
Due to the nature of the building and the combined PV and media wall, the gallery spaces will be used to exhibit digital art. Because of this, there is a need to include monitors within the main gallery. Also, this space will include a large number of access points to electricity in order to allow maximum flexibility for the artists using the space and exhibiting their work.

7.4 Media Monitors
Within the main gallery space, a number of the mesh panels can be used to hold media screens for artists to use and exhibit their work. However, to allow maximum flexibility these panels can be adapted and so when needed, the screens can be displayed, and when they are not suitable to the exhibition they can be hidden away. The monitors will also offer the possibility to be removed Mesh panels hiding area for a monitor. Panel being removed to show ‘hidden’ space for a monitor. Panel with a monitor inserted. and could be used in a different position within the gallery.

7.5 Lecture Theatre
The positioning of the lecture theatre is important as it sits within the atrium of the RBS building. By positioning it within the existing building, external noises from the busy road outside have already been decreased before any extra sound insulating elements are used.

7.6 Cafe Area
The cafe area sits in the second form of the parasite and offers view towards Christchurch and also over Bishops Square. as it allows more interaction between the two. This strengthens the connection between the public and the building

7.7 Services
As this new building is a parasite and it feeds off the existing circulation of the host building, the parasite also feeds off the existing services. The area of the new building is less than 10% of the existing area of the host and so to supply the new parasite with heating, water and ventilation, the system would not see a great increase .

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Although the new building will essentially ‘plug’ into the existing services, the use of the gallery as a media space would bring into question the need of an extra ventilation system. Due to the type of art the gallery will be

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exhibiting, such as the monitors, and other digital media, combined with the users, the gallery space may become hot due to the heat that will be produced. Because of this, a new ventilation system may be integrated

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with the new building. This also allows us the opportunity for the warm air extracted from the gallery to transfer its heat to the fresh air parasite. The services of the host building, will be the fundamental system for the parasite. that enters the building. This warm air would then be used to heat up the cafe area of the

Warm Air inserted into the gallery, cafe and lecture theatre of the parasite by the existing services. Extraction of stale air by existing services that supply the host building.

Fresh Air Inlet Extraction of stale warm air by a new system within the parasite. Supply of warm air, supplied by the new system, recovering the heat from the stale air.

1 Connection to Existing Services 2 Warm air inserted into gallery 3 Warm air inserted into small lecture Theatre 4 Warm air inserted cafe area 5 Stale air extracted from cafe area, by existing system

6 Warm stale air is extracted from media gallery and lecture theatre 7 Inlet for fresh air 8 Cool air passes through heat exchanger where it absorbs the heat from the warm stale air 9 Stale air outlet 10 Warm air outlet into the cafe area.

The run

services under the

situated raised

within the parasite will floor. The air will be inserted from and fans extracted situated

within the floor of the structure.

8.0 LIST OF FIGURES

Images that are not mentioned here belong to the author. 1.3 Programme Image 1 Steinkamp, Jennifer San Jose Museum Shows Digital Art [electronic print] Available at: http://www.artknowledgenews. com/New-Media-Digital-Animation-Installations-by-JenniferSteinkamp-Jimmy-Carter-Digital-at-SJMA.html [Accessed 23 January 2012]. Image 2 Shelley 2012 A Bigger Picture: David Hockney [electronic print] Available at: http://shelleysdavies. com/?p=12488 [Accessed 23 January 2012]. Image 3 David Hockney at RA 2012 Paris Breakfast [electronic print] Available at: http://parisbreakfasts.blogspot. co.uk/2012/03/david-hockney-at-ra.html [Accessed 23 January 2012]. Image 4 video_dumbo, briefly revisited [electronic print] Available at: http://post.thing.net/taxonomy/term/294 [Accessed 26 January 2012]. Image 5 John Nousis , 2009. [electronic print] Available at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nousis/3733469474/ [Accessed 15 January 2012]. Image 6 Aniden Interactive Designs User Interface for Guggenheim’s YouTube Play Digital Gallery. Dexigner [electronic print] Available at: http://www.dexigner.com/news/21768 [Accessed 26 January 2012]. 1.4 Urban Context Images 1 and 2 (Maps) Google Maps , London [electronic print] Available at: http://maps.google.com/ [Accessed 15 January 2012]. Image 3 and 4 Bishopgate Tower. e-architect [electronic print] Available at: http://www.e-architect.co.uk/london/ bishopsgate_tower.htm [Accessed 15 January 2012]. Image 5 Fahey, Fin. Commercial Street, Spitalfields. Wikipedia [electronic print] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Commercial_Street_(London) [Accessed 15 January 2012]. Image 6 Bishopgate Tower. e-architect [electronic print] Available at: http://www.e-architect.co.uk/london/ bishopsgate_tower.htm [Accessed 15 January 2012]. Image 7 Image print] Author’s Own Image 8 Spitalfields Market. e-architect [electronic Available at: http://www.e-architect.co.uk/london/ Image 9 Google Maps Google Maps , London [electronic print] Available at: http://maps.google.com/ [Accessed 8 February 2012]. Image 10 Brushfield Street, Spitalfields. Geograph [electronic print] Available at: http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/221029 TQ3381 [Accessed 8 February 2012]. Image Old 11 Spitalfields Market. London Visit Places [electronic print] Available at: http://www.londonvisitplaces.com/ shopping/old-spitalfields-market [Accessed 8 February 2012]. 1.6 History of the Royal Bank of Scotland Image 1. Nylind, Linda Guardian ABN joins in bank cost-cutting with 2,350 jobs to go [electronic print] Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2011/aug/26/abn-amro2350-jobs-to-be-cut [Accessed 23 January 2012]. Image 2 Drumaboy epr architects [electronic print] Available at: http://www.flickriver.com/photos/tags/eprarchitects/ interesting/ flick river [Accessed 23 January 2012]. 1.7 Controversy Image 1 Wermuth, Stefan Anger at further RBS bonus payouts oalition. Lord Oakeshott has attacked the £1m payout to Stephen Hester [electronic print] Available at: http://www. guardian.co.uk/business/2012/jan/28/rbs-staff-bonus-davidcameron [Accessed 25 February 2012]. Image 2 and 4 Climate Camp RBS Protest [electronic print] Available at: http://www.lbc.co.uk/climate-camps-rbs-protest---photos-12390/album/climate_camp_rbs_protest/270 [Accessed 25 February 2012] Image 3 Mitchell , Jeff J Police react to G20 protesters as they block access to a branch of RBS in London [electronic print] Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/ apr/03/g20-teenage-girl-jail [Accessed 15 February 2012] 1.8 Bishops Square Images 1-4 Bishops Square, Townshend Landsacpe Architects [electronic print] Available at: http://www.townshendla. com/projects/london/bishops-square-10/ [Accessed 15 January 2012] 1.9 RBS Headquarters Images 1 -3 ABN AMRO City [electronic print] Available at: http://www.epr.co.uk/practice/notable-projects/abn-amrocity-london/ [Accessed 15 January 2012] 2.1 Design Concept Image 1 (Black and White Image) The Burns Archive , Panopticon Prison: Inmates standing in their cells, Cuba, 1926. [electronic print] Available at:http: http://chocolatealaska.tumblr.com/post/2309220563/ panopticon-prison-inmates-standing-in-their [Accessed 30 January 2012] 2.2 The Parasite Images 1 Woods, Lebbeus Parasitic intervention in a postapocalyptic world Tricoder [electronic print] Available at:http://tricorder.at/?p=439 [Accessed 15 January 2012] Image 2 Lebbeus Woods, Injection Parasite, Sarajevo,1992-93 Sanna Johnels [electronic print] Available at: http://www. etsavega.net/dibex/Woods_Parasite.htm [Accessed 15 January 2012] Image 3 Woods, Lebbeus War and Architecture Princeton Architectural Press, 1993 Images 4-5 Prefab-Parasite. Calder Flower [electronic print] Available at: http://www.calderflower.com.au/projects/ competitions/prefab-parasite/ [Accessed 25 January 2012] 3.1 Treatment of the existing RBS building. Images 1-3 (RBS Photographs) Google Maps, London [electronic print] Available at: http://maps.google.com/ [Accessed 25 January 2012].

9.0 APPENDIX

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9.1 1.100 Floor Plan of first form of the parasite 1 Entrance into the parasite from the existing escalators. 2 Main Gallery space for digital and media art. 3 Moveable gallery planes 4 Wall with monitors inserted 5 Small Lecture Theatre 6 Connection to the existing fire escape stairs 7 Existing Lifts 8 Entrance Foyer

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9.2 1.100 Floor Plan of the second form of the parasite 1 Entrance into the parasite from the existing stairs. 2 Circulation space which can also be used as a second gallery 3 Moveable gallery planes 4 Open shop 5 Small cafe/bar 6 Existing offices 7 Existing Lifts 8 Existing Atrium

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9.3 1.100 Floor Plan of the second form of the parasite 1 Small cafe/bar 2 Open shop 3 Seating area for cafe and bar 4 Exterior Seating Area 5 Bishops Square situated on ground floor (3 floors below) 6 Existing offices 7 Existing Atrium

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9.4 1.200 Floor Plan of the second form of the parasite 1 Roof of entrance into the existing building 2 Entrance foyer 3 Existing Lifts 4 Existing Atrium 5 Existing Offices 6 Connection into the parasite 7 Circulation space and optional gallery space 8 Open shop 9 Small cafe/bar 10 Seating area for cafe and bar 11 Exterior sitting area. 12 Bishops Square situated on ground floor (3 floors below)

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