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Protection Application Hanbook

Protection Application Hanbook

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Published by crgoliveira

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Published by: crgoliveira on May 24, 2012
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02/07/2013

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For resonance earthing an inductance calibrated to the capaci-
tance of the network at rated frequency is chosen. This leads to
a small resulting operating frequency earth fault current and it is
only caused by the current due to insulation leakage and corona
effect. An arc in the fault point can therefore easily be extin-
guished since current and voltage are in phase and the current is
small. Observe that a strike through a solid material like paper,
PVC, cambric or rubber isn’t self-healing why they don’t benefit
from the resonance earthing.

The resonance coil should be calibrated to the network for all
connection alternatives. Therefore the setting must be changed
every time parts of the network are connected or disconnected.
There however exists equipment, e. g. in Sweden, Germany and
Austria, that will do this automatically.

At a resonance earthing it is often difficult to obtain selective
earth fault relays. Therefore the resonance coil is connected in
parallel with a suitable resistor giving a current of 5 to 50 A at full
zero-point voltage, i. e. a solid fault. The resistor should be
equipped with a breaker for connecting and disconnecting at
earth faults. The breaker should be used for the In-Out automatic
and for the thermal release of the resistor, if the fault is not auto-
matically cleared by the protection relays, as these normally are
not designed to allow continues connecting.

The theories about resonance earthing are very old and were de-
veloped at the time when only overhead transmission lines exist-
ed. In cable networks, high harmonic currents are generated
through the fault point. Even if the network is exactly calibrated
it’s possible that currents up to several hundred amperes ap-
pears. This of course leads to difficulties for an earth fault to self
extinguish.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF SYSTEM EARTHING

System Earthing

for worldwide cooperation

63

BA THS / BU Transmission Systems and SubstationsLEC Support Programme

Resonance earthing can also be a way to fulfil the requirements
concerning the standards for maximum voltage in earthed parts.

Through resonance earthing a smaller earth leakage current is
obtained and consequently a higher earthing grid resistance can
be accepted.

In an unearthed or voltage transformer earthed system the risks
for overvoltages at transient faults are not considered.
Generally it is recommendable to avoid unearthed systems. In
the British standards this is explicitly stated.

TO OBTAIN A NEUTRAL-POINT

64

BA THS / BU Transmission Systems and SubstationsLEC Support Programme

4. TO OBTAIN A NEUTRAL-POINT

In a three phase network the neutral-point often is available in a
“Y” connected transformer or in a generator neutral. This should
then be utilized at system earthing.

If the transformer is connected “Y0/D” or “Y-0/Y-0” with delta
equalizing winding, the “Y-winding” can be utilized even for direct
earthing. An “Y/Y” connected transformer without such an equal-
izing winding shall not be directly earthed but can under some cir-
cumstances be utilized for high resistance or resonance earthing.

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