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Photolithography that allows us to translate on screen computer drawings to a physical structure that replicates the patterns defined by our CAD package. 2. What is photoresist? The process starts by coating the surface of the chip with light sensitive organic polymer(i.e., plastic) called photoresist which acts similarly to ordinary photographic film. 3. Describe the process of ion implantation. The process of adding impurity atoms (arsenic) to the silicon called doping and impurities themselves called dopants.To force the dopants into the the silicon wafer, the atoms are ionized and then accelerated using ion guns. This process is called ion implanation. 4. What is defect density? Defect density describes point defects on the wafer surface and is significant because a single defect can ruin the circuitry on a die. 5. What is annealing? In the ion implanation process, the wafer is heated in a furnace to heal the damage created by the impact of the ions on the silicon crystal. This step is called annealing and is required to help the dopants set correctly into the crystal structure. 6. What are the two categories in the region of chip? Region of a chip are divided into two categories,depending upon their usage. i. active area(transistor section) ii. field region. It can be written by Active + Field = Chip surface. 7. What are the different integration levels? The different integration levels are i. SSI(Small-Scale Integration) ii. MSI(Medium-Scale Integration) iii. LSI(Large- Scale Integration) iv. VLSI(Very Large-Scale Integration) v. ULSI(Ultra Large-scale Integration) vi. GSI(Giga-Scale Integration) 8. Define yield. The yield Y of a process is defined as Y= Number of good die X 100 Total number 9. What is SSI and MSI? Small-Scale Integration(SSI) with less than about 1,000 transistors. SSI includes chips with individual logic gates. Medium-Scale Inregration(MSI) to around 100,000 transistors. An example of an MSI chip is a 4-bit arithmetic logic unit or a basic calculator. 10. What is LSI and GSI? Large-Scale Integration(LSI) to around 1,000,000 transistors. 8- and 16-bit microprocessors and basic digital signal processors are in this caregory. Giga-Scale Integration(GSI) as an alternate. 11. What is VLSI and ULSI? Very Large-scale Integration (VLSI) to around 100,000,000 transistors. This includes the current generation of microprocessors that have 40-50 million transistors. Ultra Large-Scale Integration(ULSI) with about one billion transistors,which some have coined. 12. What are the pattern layers needed for nFET masking sequence? The pattern layers needed for nFET masking sequence are i. Active. ii. Poly. iii. n-implant. 13. What are the pattern layers needed for pFET masking sequence?
14. 17. the reticle is optically transparent except in those regions where the chromium metal regions exist. Give the advantages of IC? The advantages are i. This is known as Process specific rules. vi. 23. p. State Moore‟s law. Print the pattern onto the surface of the chip. Active iii. we introduce a length metric lambda. 26. Reticle consists of a high quality piece of glass with a chromium metal replica of the pattern on one side. Exact size 21. To achieve this.in units of lambda. Describe the term „reticle‟. 25. The mixture is then excited with a radio frequency electric field in a manner that drives the ions/chemicals in a vertical up-down motion to etch away the surface. 15. 18. Create a mask or reticle. 19. other sizes are not permitted. Design rules must be followed at all times during the mask design procedure. Minimum width and spacing values are specified for every layer on the chip. Use the printed region to define the material pattern. Define design rule check(DRC). A routine called the design rule check is provided in the layout editor to help find DR violations that may have been missed. 24.the reticle is opaque and any incident light is reflected by the metal.Where we introduce length metric lambda? Scalable design rules that allow us to construct layouts that can be moved from one process to another by a simple procedure.The pattern layers needed for nFET masking sequence are i. An exact size rule means that the feature can only have the dimensions specified in the rule .What is minimum feature and minimum spacing? Minimum feature is a smallest side length of an object on the layer.well ii.then this specifies the minimum line width. Minimum spacing iii. Moore‟s law states that “The number of transistors on a die will double in every eighteen months. In photolithography .What is surround rule and exact size? A surround rule is used when a feature on one layer must be embedded with in a polygon on another layer. In other words. Minimum spacing rules govern how close two polygons can be placed. v.implant.passivation cuts define the entrance and exit points to the outside world. n. 22. If the object is a line . What is meant by Reactive Ion Etching? Reactive Ion Etching in which ionized atoms of an inert gas such as argon(Ar) are mixed with etch-assisting chemicals. What are the classification of design rules? Design rules can be classified into i. Poly iv. What is the use of passivation mask? In CMOS fabrication. Minimum feature ii.the passivation mask is used to open holes in the nitride that give electrical access to the top metal layer. What are the sequences we used to create the pattern? The sequences are iv. vii. Size is less . Surround rule iv. Define design rules(DRs). 20. spacing and specialized situation that may arise in constructing a CMOS layout. Design the pattern on a computer. 16.What is process specific rules ? To assign numerical values to every important width. They are part of a larger group of geometrical specifications that collectively are known as layout design rules.
Define body bias voltage. the effective channel length Leff that is measured between the edges of the n-type drain and source regions. Cut-off region. The device transconductance is expressed as K= k‟(W/L) It has the units of A/V2 The process transconductance is expressed as K‟=μ Cox It also has the unit of A/V2 6. i. 8. Write the current equation for cut off. 3. More Specialized Circuits ii. the positive charge is found at the top Surface of the silicon (at the silicon-to-oxide interface) is referred to as surface Charge.Oxidation iv. The body bias voltage is expressed as VSB=VS-VB 5. Qs.Assembly processing & Packaging UNIT-II MOSFET TRANSISTOR 1. ii. Systems-On-Chips 28. Define mobility ratio.Photolithography v. Give the basic process for IC fabrication. Qs. Less Power Dissipation 27.Diffusion vi. Silicon wafer Preparation ii. Semiconductor.ii. Saturation region. How to express the device transconductance and process transconductance. 2. 7.Isolation technique viii. High Speed iii. Epitaxial Growth iii. iii. ii. Poly-gate. For cut off region. Gate-oxide.Ion Implantation vii. What are the three different regions of operation using in square law model? The regions are i. Taking the ratio of both nFET and pFET process transconductance it will gives the kn μn Cox kp = μp Cox μn = μp = r where r is the mobility ratio. In the structure of MOS capacitor. Application Specific Integrated Circuits(ASICs) iii. Qs=Qb+Qn Where Qb _ bulk charge Qn_ layer of free electrons in p-type silicon. Triode or linear or non-saturation region. triode and saturation region. Give the variety of Integrated Circuits? i.Metallization ix. iii. ID=0 For triode region . The exact value of r varies with the processing as many factors affect the mobility. Define surface charge.How to measure the effective channel length? In MOS capacitor. 4. What are the materials we use to built the MOSFET? It consists of i.
CGD. 19. CGB=0 2 12. Vds=0 For triode region. Gate conductor material. Vds>Vgs-Vt and Vgd<Vt 16. Threshold voltage can be defined as voltage Vgs(gate to source voltage) applied below which Ids drop to zero. CGB=CG. CGS. MOSFET capacitors are defined between pairs of terminals. ID = Kn(VGS-VTn)2[1+O(VDS-Vsat)] 2 9. including the bulk connections. For triode region. This is known as body effect and it is otherwise known as substrate bias effect.Insulator surface. 10. 18. Vt=V t-mos + Vf band 17. CGS . Write the capacitance equation for three regions? For cut off region. Gate insulator thickness-Channel doping. What are the different regions we can define in MOSFET depend upon voltages? For cut off region.ID= Kn[2(VGS-VTn)VDS-V2 DS] 2 For saturation region. C SB and CDB. The remaining two C SB and CDB are due to PN junction. CGB=0 3 For saturation region. v. iv.What is the total capacitance for n-type source /drain? For n-type source or drain the total capacitance is sum of bottom and sidewall contributions in the form of Cn = Cbot + Csw 15. Impurities at the silicon. Define MOSFET capacitors.Q(2|S|)] Where VT0n is the zero body bias threshold voltage and is called the body bias coefficient. What is body effect? Threshold voltage Vt is not constant with respect to voltage difference between substrate and source of MOS transistor. Voltage between source and substrate. How we find the threshold voltage variation in transistor? The threshold voltage of transistor varies according to VTn = VT0n + P [Q(2|S| +VSB) .What is the possible modification to change the saturation current? The possible modification to change the saturation current is I D.CGB. ii. iii. What is Enhancement mode transistor and Depletion mode Device? Enhancement mode transistor is the device that is normally cut-off with zero gate . Define threshold voltage V(t).5 for submicron devices. This gives rise to five contributions such as CGS.sat = Kn (VGS-VTN)T 2 Where T varies with 1. Vds<Vgs-Vt For saturation region.CGD.2 to 1. CGD=0. What are the parameters in threshold voltage? The parameters are i. 14. CGS= 2 CG . How to express the MOS capacitors in terms of gate capacitance? The MOS capacitors can be expressed in terms of gate capacitance is CG=Cox WL Where area has been taken to be A=WL 11. CGS. Gate insulation material.CGD=0. CGD= 1 CG.CGB are related to MOS capacitor. 13.
Write a short note about complex logic gates. What is Latch – up? Latch up is a condition in which the parasitic components give rise to the establishment of low resistance conducting paths between VDD and VSS with disastrous results.the time constant is given by =2RnC2+RnC1 The first term is due to C2 discharging through a total resistance of 2Rn. It can be drawn much easier and faster than a complex layout.Low delay Sensitivity to load. 8. Define rise time and fall time. Define Threshold voltage in CMOS? The Threshold voltage.bias. When the channel is said to be pinched –off? If a large Vds is applied this voltage with deplete the Inversion layer . What is Elmore time constant? In a series connected RC network. Also it is the cartoon of a chip layout. Define time start and time pulse.e. Example is f=a.Polysilicon iv. UNIT-III CMOS LOGIC GATES DESIGN AND LAYOUT 1. VT for a MOS transistor can be defined as the voltage applied between the gate and the source of the MOS transistor below which the drain to source current.The NOT is a characteristics of CMOS logic. The time interval for the pulse to fall from a high to a low value is called fall time.i. The pulse width.These are especially important tools for layout built from large cells. What are the different MOS layers? i. 6. the length of time that the pulse is kept at the high value. This is referred to as an Elmore time constant. Draw the circuit and layout diagram for parallel connected nFETs. 2. Low Input Impedance v.This Voltage effectively pinches off the channel near the drain. 21. 7. ii.Metal 24. Draw the logic circuit diagram for NAND gate.b+c which provides one AND and one OR operation. 25. 27. 3. Draw the logic circuit diagram for NOR gate.channel transistors has greater switching speed when compared to PMOS transistors.the output can also be in a Hi-Z(high impedance) . n-diffusion ii. This is useful for merging functions and designing small circuit. Draw the circuit and layout diagram for series connected nFETs. 9. Low power Dissipation ii. 5. The time for the signal to rise from a low value to the high value in a linear ramp is called rise time. 26. p-diffusion iii. High Packing density iii. 23. 22. What is tri-state circuits? In a tri-state circuits. Depletion mode Device is the device that conduct with zero gate bias.What are the uses of Stick diagram? i.while the second term is from C1 discharging through one Rn. 20..What is Stick Diagram? It is used to convey information through the use of color code. IDS effectively drops to zero. The delay from t=0 before the pulse is applied is called time start. 4. Why NMOS technology is preferred more than PMOS technology? N.Bi directional capability iv. Careful control during fabrication is necessary to avoid this problem. What are the advantages of CMOS process? i. Complex logic gates give a combination of logical OR and AND functions in a single circuit.
5. If a chip is engineered from scratch without the use of a cell library.R)=(1. What is cell library? The collection of cell files is called cell library. This is called crosstalk. If s=0. Simple cells.L. What is the operation of SR latch? If (S.when the devices must accommodate large-current flow levels. What are the different cell levels in cell hierarchy? The four cell levels are a. 12. Moderate complexity cell. 2. This is called as custom design.Q)=(0.What is the characteristics of cell library? An important characteristics of cell library is uniformity.R) changes to(0. The simplest technique for implementing a tri-state inverter is to add two additional transistors to the basic NOT gate. d. How to design the simple register using transmission gate. some times the existing cells will not give the desired characteristics. 10. What is bistable circuit ? The closed loop consists of two inverters. Primitive cells.0).giving the circuit three distinct states.such that both a=0 and a=1 are stable states. 14. then it is called a full custom design. and it appropriately is called a ring oscillator. 6. then the latch is in a hold state. What is meant by positive edge triggered D-type flip flop? A positive edge triggered D-type flip flop loads the value of D on when the clock makes a positive transition from 0 to 1.and the input a is transmitted to the output so that f=a. Define Full custom design.R) changes to (1.state. 16. the outputs are reset to(Q. 10.both FETs are ON.Q)=(1.0).Every cell must be designed with compatible geometrical features to allow interfacing at the physical level. What is the operation of transmission gate? When s=1.1) is not used. If (S.then both transistors are OFF and the output is in a Hi-Z state. When there is a necessary to design transistors with large channel width? The transistors is designed with large channel width. In a complexity of modern digital systems.1). Define layer-to-layer crosstalk. which means the Q and Q retain their current value. 17.i. The edge triggered property is indicated by the “triangle” at the clock input. The TG is capable of full-rail transmission since the nFET can pass a strong 0(0V) and the pFET can pass a strong 1(VDD). 11. It is made up of both primitive functions and large macro functions. they will hold their value. c. 4.like adders and memories.The combination (S. What is meant by ring oscillator? Any closed loop that has an even number of inverters will be a stable circuit. So it is a necessary to design new ones. UNIT-IV STORAGE ELEMENTS AND DYNAMIC LOGIC CIRCUITS 1. Conversely. .. If an odd number of stages is used. . Design 2:1 MUX using transmission gate.full custom designs are found only in very specialized circumstances. the ring oscillate.if (S.R)=(0.that form the basis of the design. Higher complexity cell 15. A few layout problems arise if W is large compared to the channel length. Different levels of metal interconnect are stacked according to the process flow. 19. Define custom design.Draw the circuit and symbol for transmission gate.0).e.f is undefined.1).In this case. Draw the transmission gate based XOR circuit. Draw the NOR based SR and D latches.Capacitive coupling between successive conducting layers can cause unwanted signal transferal from one line to the other. the inputs set the latch outputs to (Q. 18. 3. 13.This is due to feedback and can be verified by tracing through the loop. b. In cell hierarchy.
the circuit is in precharge(P) where pFET is ON and nFET is OFF. This allows the output capacitor. The most widely used design is 6T(six transistor). Wl. . Dynamic Rams are the most widely used memories because they can be manufactured at the lowest cost per bit. When the clock=0.It is designed to use the clock pulse to synchronise the precharge event. Write the equation for hold time.the master accepts the input.7. 17. 13. Static random-access memories(SRAMs)are highly repetitive VLSI structures that are used for read/write data storage. The hold time is expressed as th = Cs [Vs(0)-V1] Ileak Where V1 is the minimum voltage that can be recognized as a logic 1. An SRAM cell is different from simple latch. Explain about master slave D. In static RAM. 9. 15. both transistors are OFF.Write a short note about static RAM cell.type flip flop when clock signal=0 and 1. What is evaluate? When the clocking signal=1. the circuit is in evaluate(E) where pFET is OFFand nFET is ON. When the clock makes the transition to 1.Cout. 12. 11. Modern memory design and manufacturing is based on the best fabrication processes.Cout. every half clock cycle. 16.is subject to a problem called charge leakage. The master feedback loop is closed to ensure complete transmission. and the cell is in a hold state. to go to a voltage of Vout=0V. How to estimate the leakage current using I-V relationship. both the feedback transistor in the master latch and the input FET to the slave are open. System memories are almost exclusively DRAMs. The leakage current is due to many effects. When the static RAM cell is in hold state. 18. there are two transistors called access transistors and are used to provide conduction path to the internal bit storage circuit. corresponding to a positive edge. How charge leakage exists in CMOS circuits? In Negative edge triggered Flip-Flop. The logic is performed entirely by an array of nFET that acts like an open or closed switch. Write a short note about dynamic memories. 19. What is meant by self resetting logic gate? Self resetting logic uses a feedback network to automatically restore the charge on the internal capacitor after a discharge event. During this time. in that it uses the same lines for input and output. These are connected in master-slave configuration. Domino logic is an extension that adds an inverter at the output to Overcome the possibility of a hardware glitch. uses a single clock controlled complementary Pair consisting of Mn and Mp.This is possible because only one type of FET(nFET or pFET) is really is needed to provide the switching. The access FETs are controlled by the word line signal. Since size and speed of a DRAM chip relies on the resolution and electrical characteristics of the silicon. What is meant by dynamic logic gat In nMOS dynamic logic gate. What is dynamic DFF? A dynamic circuit operates by using the parasitic capacitance on a CMOS node to store electric charge. every half clock cycle. Write a short note about domino logic. 8. but the sub threshold conduction is the most important in a submicron technology. to charge to a voltage of Vout=VDD. 14. the master input is blocked and the bit is transferred to the slave. What is precharge ? When the clocking signal=0.depending on the inputs. When Wl=0.charge storage on the capacitor.the operation appears to be straightforward. The leakage current is expressed as Ileak = Cs \Vs \Vt 20. This allows the output capacitor. A dynamic flip flop can be built using two oppositely phased tristate inverters.
11) Give the different arithmetic operators? Operator symbol Operation performed Number of operands * Multiply Two . 1) Function 2) procedure Only one output is possible in function. 2) What are the different types of modeling VHDL? 1) Structural modeling 2) Data flow modeling 3) behavioral modeling 4) Mixed type of modeling 3) What is packages and what is the use of these packages A package declaration is used to store a set of common declaration such as components types procedures and functions these declaration can then be imported into others design units using a use caluse. end.and2(ex2) port map(a.d:in std_logic. end. However in this case different values can be assigned to a variable at different time. Ex:variable ss: integer. q:out std_logic)..c) a<=‟ 0‟ . 10) Write the testbench for and gate entity testand2 is end entity architecture io of testand2 is signal a.Vs(0) is the initial voltage on the capacitor.‟ 1‟ after 100 ns.b. b<=‟ 0‟ . end. 5) Name two subprograms and give the difference between these two.b. overloading of subprogram should be performed. „1‟ after 150 ns.give example for variable An object of variable class can also hold a single value of a given type . 8) What are the different kinds of The test bench? Stimulus only Full testbench Simulator specific Hybrid testbench Fast testbench 9) What is Moore FSM The output of a Moore finite state machine(FSM) depends only on the state and not on its inputs. This type of behaviour can be modeled using a single process with the case statement that switches on the state value. Many outputs possible using procedure 6) What is subprogram Overloading If two or more subprogram to be executed in a same name. begin g1:entity work. UNIT-V VHDL 1)Write the acronym for VHDL? VHDL is an acronym for VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHSIC is an acronym for Very High Speed Integrated Circuits). end process. architecture dff of dff is begin process(clk.c:std_logic.d) begin if clk‟ event and clk=‟ 1‟ then q<=d. 7) write the VHDL coding for a sequential statement (d-flipflop ) entity dff is port(clk. 4) What is variable class .
d) begin case rst is WHEN „1‟=> q<=‟0‟./ Divide Two + Add Two . Give the different bitwise operators. The expression value must be of discrete type or of a one-dimensional array type. Case is the statement intended exclusively for sequential code(along with IF. ii.or PROCEDURE) Update is not immediate in sequential code(new value generally only available at the conclusion of the PROCESS. The case statement selects one of the branches for execution based on the value of expression.Subtract Two % Modulus Two ** Power (exponent) Two 12). rst. WHEN value =>assignments. LOOP and WAIT). The syntax is CASE identifier IS WHEN value =>assignments.d:in std_logic. Explain „BLOCK‟ statement in VHDL with an Example. EXAMPLE entity dff is port(clk. or PROCEDURE Updated immediately (new value can be used in the next line of code) 14.FUNCTION. 15. To limit scope of declarations . WHEN „0‟=> if (clk‟ event and clk=‟ 1‟) then q<=d.FUNCTION. Differentiate a signal and variable? SIGNAL VARIABLE Represents circuit in interconnects(wires) Represents local information Can be global(seen by entire code) Local(visible only inside the corresponding PROCESS. WHEN OTHERS=>NULL. It can be used for three major purposes: i. End case. including signal declarations. Explain „case‟ statement in VHDL with an Example. end behaviour. The two kinds of block is . iii. architecture behaviour of dff is begin process(clk. To represent a portion of a design. Operator symbol Operation performed Number of operands ~ Bitwise negation One & Bitwise and Two | Bitwise or Two ^ Bitwise xor Two ^~ or ~^ Bitwise xnor Two ~& Bitwise nand Two ~| Bitwise nor Two 13. … END CASE. A block statement is a concurrent statement. end dff. end process. To disable signal drivers by using guards. end if. q:out std_logic)..
Begin SIG<=guarded waveform-elements. on which a device under test is stimulated with waveform generates and observed with probes. thus creating several instances of the same assignments. PROCESS(clk) Begin If(clk „event and clk-„1‟) then Q<=temp.1. It is characterized by the presence of IF . Give the behavioral model for JK flipflop. Explain „Generate‟ statement in VHDL with an Example. Begin Temp <=a NAND b. The syntax is Label:FOR identifier IN range GENERATE (concurrent assignments) End GENERATE.] ] Begin (sequential code) End PROCESS [label]. WAIT. Example: Architecture behaviour of example is SIGNAl temp:bit. K. SIGNAL z: bit_vector(7 downto 0). 18. J. RN. . What is Test Bench? The test bench name comes from the analogy with a real hardware test bench. q:out std_logic). … G1:FOR I IN x‟ RANGE GENERATE Z(i)<=x(i) and y(i+8). End PROCESS. A VHDL test bench consists of an architecture body containing an instance of component to be tested and processes that generate stimuli on signals . SIGNAL y: bit_vector(15 downto 0). simple. terminals or quantities connected to component instance. 2.clk:in std_logic. entity JKFF is port(SR. 17. End GENERATE. Explain „Process‟ statement in VHDL with an Example. 19. Example: SIGNAL x: bit_vector(7 downto 0). 16.CASE or LOOP and by a sensitivity list. End block BG. It is equivalent to the sequential statement LOOP in the sense that it allows a section of code to be repeated a number of times. A process statement contains sequential statements that describe the functionality of a portion of an entity in sequential terms. GENERATE is a concurrent statement(along with operators and WHEN). The syntax is [label:] PROCESS(sensitivity list) [VARIABLE name type[range] [:=intial_value. guarded. The syntax of block statement is Block-label:block[(guard-expression)] is [block-header] [block-declarations] Begin Concurrent-statements End block[block-label]. End example. Example: BG:block(guard-expression) Signal SIG:BIT.
21. q:out std_logic). end fulladder. architecture behaviour of halfadder is diff<= a XOR b. b:in std_logic. // half adder Entity halfadder is port(a. b. diff. carry<=(a AND b) OR (b AND c) OR (c AND a). b:in std_logic. end behaviour // half subtractor Entity halfsubtractor is port(a. Give the dataflow model for full subtractor. Give the data flow model for half adder and half subtractor. end behaviour. borrow:out std_logic). b. architecture behaviour of fulladder is sum<= (a XOR b) XOR c.end JKFF. end process. // full subtractor Entity fulladder is port(a. Give the behavioral model for T flipflop. elsif SN=‟0‟ then q<=‟1‟. 22. architecture behaviour of JKFF is begin process(clk. // full adder Entity fulladder is port(a. borrow:out std_logic). end fullsubtractor.t:in std_logic. c:in std_logic. carry<=a AND b. end tff. end process. entity tff is port(clk. Rn) begin if RN=‟0‟ then q<=‟0‟. end halfadder. architecture behaviour of tff is begin process(clk. sum. diff. . 20. Give the dataflow model for full adder. c:in std_logic. carry:out std_logic). elsif clk=‟0‟ and clk „event then q<=(J and NOT q) or (NOT k and q). SN. borrow<= (NOT) a AND b. carry:out std_logic). end JKFF. architecture behaviour of halfadder is sum<= a XOR b. sum. end behaviour. end halfadder. end behaviour.t) begin if clk‟ event and clk=‟ 1‟ then q<=d. end if. architecture behaviour of fullsubtractor is diff<= (a XOR b) XOR c. 23.
End component.B: in std-logic. A format of a component instantiation statement is Component-label:component-name[port map(associaton-list)].e.s2.component instantiation: N1:NAND2 port map(s1.borrow<=(NOT a AND b) OR (b AND c) OR (c AND NOT a). Event triggered i. end behaviour 24. 25. . they are executed whenever there is an event on a signal that appears in its expression.. Sequential signal assignment statements concurrent signal assignment statements signal assignment statements can also appear within the body of process statement called sequential signal assignment statements signal assignment statements that appear outside of process are called concurrent signal assignment statements.s3).. -. Example: -. It associates the signal in the entity with the ports of that subcomponent. Not event triggered and are executed in sequence in relation to other sequential statement that appear within the process. Z:out std_logic).component declaration: component NAND2 port(A. Differentiate sequential from concurrent signal assignment statements. What is component instantiation? A component instantiation statement defines a subcomponent of the entity in which it appears. *****ALL THE BEST***** .
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