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page Basic Rhythmic Concepts For Jazz and Contemporary Phrasing Special Effects Heavy Accent Standard Staccato Standard Legato The Shake The Flip The Smear : The Doit :.~ Up-Gliss ...........................•................................ Down-Gliss ~ Lifts '.:.' ; Spills \ 1 •••••••••• The Plop ; Indefinite or Muffled Sound .........•....................... Be-Bop Phrasing Rock and Soul Phrasing Latin Rock , Blues Jazz Technique ' Jazz Articulation. Movable Patterns and Variations Chord Studies Scale Building Chord Building Chart Order of Keys Dominant 7th Chord Blowin' Dominant 7th Through all Keys Minor 7th Chord Blowin' Minor 7th through all Keys 7 flat 5 Chord and Its Resolution Blowin' 7 flat 5 Through All Keys Minor 7 flat 5 Through Its Resolution BJowin' minor 7 flat 5 Through All Keys Augmented 7th and Its Resolution Blowin 7th #5 Through All Keys Diminished Chord and Its Resolution Diminished Scale Vibrato Flexibility Studies-High and Low Registers











3-14 15 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 21 22 23 23 24-26 27-32 33 34 35 36-46 47 48 49 50 51-52 53 54-55 56 57-58 59 60-61 62 63-64 65 66 66-69 70-72 73


Phrase -#1
Basic Rhythmic Concepts for Jazz and Contemporary Phrasing

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! Phrase #2B Dooden Doo Dah .:Jlf% '0 § 4 .. 01 rqf~r_'_1-''' i ! =11 Je2l Study ~e rarE . IEE r gE I r r jbff '" let r Cr Port' 19 I @ F Eberl II ~f1 I cNl(If' I ~e WPH Easy Peelin' I !f IEfF g - ] I Jh:rtrfJ.

iFf fli¥tt. 'f ~ J -Eli '1 -' It b 9fITr f t f ptllr= dj I I § GO! I i I f' b . Medi urn ride ~ (! jj J --. -_ II I I 1& ElF 5 i- !Ib n 'furrErl . 'tIm EE Em ' IP uf r ~- etar I I I I I M~J...Mixed Bag !efF Up tempo I' 'fPF ~ b.i =R p r-ily b. Slow groove I ! • I ~ b - < ~ - :J II I . .

. '_ ...".. :'.>. . ..~'::.Phrase -if3A 000 Dit Dall 'Tis Di2 ~~.. .'. ........ . .'. ." Doc-den 000 . . (Phrcise·~#3B ~' ....~.. ..:' ..~... ..~~ 000 Dit Dit Flyin' High 6 . t.' " . .:. -...

=fir. ~ M I..1Iti:§/~t l' g t ~ t 1~ Blues niff (t pip pJ:EI ....rQ~e#~ Oit"''''.-. r P Dit I~ ( ~ I P F . W Doo Dit Oil Oit 000 000 Dit D-oIh :U .-<}..~"..-J~.". ~ P~.i.~±k..1 Ivt .)''''rr"''Df'Doo Oit I~li~iifiij IE t .:.~":.~.1::"b~_'..(l wf This phrase can also be written: it94~r rl ..t"f it !ii.\.j' r it of f~.. ! f.'.I I I I 1 I ~hrase #4 ~ rFWf¢tfItFf .: 10 t (£.._-_ 7 .i. .- II 000 Oil f""' f~ '.~ ' " g I r r.~::"::.\ .'}. gta. r' I <)t :1)· -M : ..

...UU~J for much of jazz music.y=±=--.g 'p F . .. ...____~ g%rFE:=ffibEfLgj pEEr=2§=:F3=F.• ..• Give all notes full "Swinging.±--+±±..=====:t.iP ._. . )~ ~ ' Slowly Pot $- 000 not meant to be • • • Smooth legato ....•. '~po 'Eifu¥f ~ .:. " :U. .~ __ ~.uOWlguing" I ~WEtrIn' • II .' f [ F Ffrrff( -~ -Eb. wr p ~'.~ . oth-ooc. J te them with very light tonguing and keep them • ¥*TEtil • Slow ill ..

... I J F I t==P$-l r f E f1¥' t~ ~..--. I ....' ~ @ Ir -~~ ~ :1 f ~ &2 r' 1J) dtff: F r FiE Gi l'I\T r-3~ Phrase:l!9 "Swing Riff" ~~ r g Fir tl'."((.lx ~u .IJ' r 9 i._.Il ~ ~ Phrase #8 ~oo "SJow-Doo-Dof" Dot Slow I r=r 3 000 Doo i I I r-=--) . J i .. r 000 ! :tl F dl J'-----. ~ Starlight Sounds .. hd J r Ir M ~XJ (?:.

'j) \/:./ t .8..!. V ·t~M ~~.r. I i j". i ! ! i I 10 I . II Use "Doed-en" tonguing on the eighth note phrases.. ! . ~r~~gl~r$F~j§a·~I~lr~· ~~€r·~ftpg~g( f' ~ E r It f ~ f' In.fq\ 000 Dot Dot Dilh I j{~ \ :. Phrase #12 h) " ..) ( DiIh ! Dab) ~.\1 Dol (..~~~~~~..Il~vU !l tg F' ~e § g..-mg m I I r r it @. i :11 Fast =r~~.~"} i t: 000 \' j. Dot \. Dot \'. r ~j': 000 f' \ Doo Doo Dot 000 Doo Dot Doo Dot :11 l"(. (.Phrase #11 \_.. Doo 'j'l ~l~t. iII .~ I . r J IF r ibJ. --=... if 1r~i p I~dJ m otEFl-.. r Jersey Stomp I I jI i ! U 1\"" A I -:> ijJ._.

- __ "l ~ - ::U 11 .A bv l>~u ~~A }. Soft~inds - I Mi a ttl - Phrase #13 :i:_ !@ e h 'r 1\ A Dot Dot "I Ir 1\ Dot Dot 1\ DuoDah :> =-_--.Phrase #12 000 000 000 Dab \)I)DAtl\j t~r\ill S@I! ~ ~I! ~ Fr~r=r=tta~m' ?--:> :> 000 000 Dah I'.tffi Q.\J b~vl 000 Dol) Dah 000000 Oil fp/."r\ Oah) - : I-I Medium dQg ~m!1{ E f A:zr.

... . ~ ~ j.-.1 .. ~~J.\ If " j Phrase #15 Doo 000 000 Dot "Ooo-Oot-Doo-Oot" It _ F _ r Ilf "1\ m I~ ' A 12 -_.Phrase 114 I "3/4 JazzJS ~~bgj. --- .. ----. --.. Doo Dot pta 000 1. f©lr pD If 'J'jall<in' J I ~ If rtf1rrFrJjj It! Cl Gj4!gL3~1 'i ".__ .

'(. p r K@-3tij . I @ ~----rr: --. --- W· g OiiMLcr=tf I .. Medium I Nova Style the eighth notes are played "Str-aight".AW ¥1 Latin Holiday ~-e-Eft~OOt· 13 . . and all othes latin styles the "Swing" style.--- BO$SQ In this style. . and not in .lt% we "Yo Carlos" tr! $5lf~fF=lI :~ sg r> .. ~-e=-i.: 1Y$f1ff1F-l1 Pg " ~L ttl' Li~ht ::.

i ~kiTm'-:---J 2] .Bosle Style I Easy slowln' Medium blues 1- J J ¥&tr. r W¥+b.f f f.~ t ~E t l gt=t~i 14 .

o 'J rJ THE SHAKE A variation of the tone upwards \NY ~ \I'O'~ v k~+-o wi""" tk ~ rs: . . * HEAVY .o.t'() ( J'-l'-"'~ """""t¥1 M I() ~-r- pitch.j. 1/1.much "'" I • I/IIV'A'l ~ "J. I r: * NOTE: ! when g + DU False or muffled tone. LONG ~~~rz~~~ asLIFT ..vy . except longer t::'A~ I • .... THE SMEAR Slide into note from below and reach correct pitch just before next note. "" of'ri . V() I-'-r (J tf.. ~ tAl ~D s..p()f SHORT GLISS UP Slide into note from below (usually one to three steps)."h k hn...~~( I&..not muffled.M" j V\f~o THE FL1P Sound note. I LD'" (d! - ~ SHORT LIFT Enter note via chromatic or diatonic scale beginning about a third below. The reverse of the short lift. I ~~~oss::~. of~"""l.Jro. I LONG SPILl:: Same as above except longer exit. .. 1M"" o: LONG GLISS DOWN gliss up in reverse. ~~~rs=~~~ :: ~ I' SHORT SPILL Rapid diatonic or chromatic drop. more lip control. \Poo( I -g== o WAH Full tone .\o~ ii. p~"...~ ACCENT pocc (I' I .gg-~ Same above entrance. raise Y~uh WIDE LIP TRILL Same as above except slower and with wider interval.not hea. . tH-~ u. Same as long . r>O. drop into following cote (done wi~h lip on brass) "". L I A-r~ <. THE PLOP A rapid slide down harmonic or diatonic scale before sounding note. t~./#01 '-- ~(PD~~lt J STACCATO Short . I c-«I" ... Used by permission from th(ZNational Assopiation of Jazz Educators 15 . I..q LIP TRILL Similar to shake but slower and with.- r--- P't~o 1. ~ x~ F ...Special Effects I Yhe stondcrdlzctlon of Stage Band Articulations > I M HEA VY ACCENT Hold full value. THE DOlT Sound note then gliss upwards from one to five steps.. F? t_.. The reverse LEGATO TONGUE Hold full.. rt. ! No individual executing notes are heard a gliss.indefinite pitch. INDEFINITE SOUND Deadened tone . p-u'O ""'~ pc-~ 'f ~" J ~~~ t I /.. SHORT GLISS DOWN of the short gliss up./ ~ \. Do not rob preceding note...0 . like a trill. li'l-. TO~ ~ HEA VY ACCENT Hold less than full value.. value. LONG GU~S UP Same as above except longer entrance.... ~ "'"""t...

A rticulofions Heavy Accent #1 (Hold Full. 1F It. ::> }+( r II f .. DIE I I I I lrS. :> . i .. ~bg.f.r=4:Jp r f 1 ~- Heavy Accent #3· (Short As Possible) /I..VQlue) . It.

. .-e----+-i"-[5 b Bossa.I would be played as l-rottRt:t:bft= I I I A a minor third (three half steps) from the . &IUt . but lightly'. ~=Ef# IEW:i:-.IF' @I . .t5£t I I II Sfandar~ Legato '(Hold Full Value. . Latin 1..-. - 0 I~ WErl j BWt I rile Shal!e ! r Eft II - I Like a trill.-:.IF' ijlErt- A ~ ~ » A 17 . -----p EJ E1 f] I .. and not with a heavy tongue. usually done written note IttW by trillingl t' . the staccato note Isplayed short.standard staccato In jazz and contemporary music. 0 "l . Use Light Tongue) i-E e 4ff :cir'_'_fJ~I.

and is some times notated as:.\ Yhe Smear .-0 This techique is also called "bending". by relaxing the embouchure and slightly dropping the jaw to flatten the note..~'. and then bringing the note up to pitch close to the end of its duration. . then slowly bringing it up to pitch just before the next note. r - II 18 . ' II Sounding a note below pitch. F frftlE ~ ~ / r~ i - ~J I .. The Flip A type of "turn" involving notes abore and below the written note. This is done. gI ?--. The smear may also be achieved by half-closing the key one-half step below the written note. while also fingering the actual note. :-F Fast r= would be played ~e I ... i '.

:)= Slow blues PI- _) . II '--'- "Sliding" into a note from one to three steps below its written pitch. Long Up Gliss Same as short gliss up. The notes in the -r . . the gliss must be played "before the beat". . Fingering the notes would be neccessary.~rff trr If . then "Slidell up one to five steps. This can be done with the embouchure and jaw with or without fingering the gliss notes . " tI - . .Yile Doii Sound the written note. Sfart three steps to an octave below the written nllt!> 7 In both cases the actual pitch should be reached at the time that the note would be played if there was no gliss.. "Slidell (or gliss) should not sound individually.. In other words. 19 . /-: / ) p IShort Up 0~iss /1 A . but from a greate r distance below the written note.

~ tP e f( . Similar to short gliss down except that the written note is held a little longer and the gliss goes lower and slower. "I (2. tsr=tr* ~ J _ .ff EffO I! 1 . The chromatic notes should not sound individually J and there should not be flny particular pitch in evidence at the end of the gliss I i J LOl1g Down Gliss Also called long fall-off. . Jj :l. F ft-i· ~ff¢#QE!' 1Short Down G~iss lEl 1\ Also called short fall-off. I 3 .&bfrfutL§If h~f_@J8JQ]I~ 3.. i " i t- ?() .. I ~~ (~ (§iD-t-I--' ____. I ! I I ~ l@ ~~e I r . ?i Basie style blues ['Ss. Play the written note for about one-hal! of its value them quickly "Slide" down chromatically.0li$S study It.%f--y: .

I· I'" COWlneciir. use the chromatic scale to connect them.Iej the first note sound for at least half of its value before starting the gliss. If the notes are more than a third apart. t II ret· ShorfLiff I 1 tnt· I start about three steps below the written note and "rip" into it using chromatic and/or diatonic movement.. I A pp .g cuss A gltss between two notes. Start about five or six stepsbelow rnd use diatonic movement to "rip" into the I I. 21 . i I Long 'Liit I I I note. If the notes are no more than a third (two steps) apart.::::-.. use an applicable major or minor scale.

- The reverse of the Iirtrkeys should be heard moving after the air has stopped. Short Spill Long Spill .tuMP=[ FTC'I M E~ I rrfif37 -rlY{r':l h fCit@d ! ..

..~. .J f p t bg I . Also called "ghosting". . I I i I 'I 23 ! . .. a="l~gl'qtt . and is ' "inferred" rather than actually played out. .Plop A type of spill. . which mutes the tone'r Do not press hard against the reed as this can close off the mouthpiece completely. r r b ~ ~ --'rilE I $ IT F - II Indefinite $ound . done from about a fifth above the written note.I~. . The effect is produced by laying the top of the tongue against the reed. I~ P t .. l?lopping Along - r r . The scale is played very quickly and clarity of scale notes is not important.~ .. Th~ note is played with a deadened tone... r .. g \ - . ·b I .

24 f 1 . Use breath accents for phrasing instead of a lot of tonguing. &1F ri "r$'¥¥J J ] HJ Ehd Up tempo ~ I! 11 EW i -- I ' \ Very fast . They should not sound mechani cal.!: I Be-Bop Much of todays jazz remains undertbe influence of "be-bop" phrasing. tfrttt fF ~cffiitr H% Ef FYI iJ mi '#i ~ t£1if (f Ft. Rememberthe studies should swing. Changes ~ ... All of the following studies should be played slowly at first. Keep the tonguing light. -' =r-tJD £J13 r rt!~rrttfJ ~ a J I I I :1 1 M II I lf (.

g:~Pfi1W. .. ~-H-~ fJ ~O t~rH:-t-~-~'-f=¥fM groove Be-Bop !B~ue rP tEGt4j&$¥1-:f~ . ~F .==="" I ~. 't '.fh!§=g. 1c-h-E ill Efr~rE@. /y .. 8J1 ===ll~...~. 1 I" 2S .~J3EftrErl1f~~ ~# gjf&r r F I_~j I :EJ Ir1:¥ I • • i Medium ~ ..


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Rock music is characterised by hard-driving "cverr-e ighta'' rhytnms , The swing-style eighth note approach is not used in rock.


is a rhythm pattern f requently found in rock, The rol lowing exercise help in understanding the rhythm. "



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Soul Groove


Detroit Dance ~m - Atetha j :hI t bEt@_ . A m-J=@-t¥ m b-) *-+Eft=~E@--=~~jdI&~ J J ~tt=f=I=e1 r~Y =t=I:~=t=J ffZp IJ 29 t 1/ .

I i $. It. ~-rit)r I 11i .~ Il4l3-$@.~ - 30 .§m ~ .. ~¥ ~ r~hj.

.1rf .•r · > Soul Prelude > > F '- r r r rti > 1$%[ 11 Motowr. Groove ·W rrGrif~EfjSPtF1Mm¥=tj! 31 ~ .

+:r=========!=[B t. '~P - I g' .r--r j- - I C· ! r - :i .=rrrrUfrrfrprF ...ctir b. > > > > Very fast ~=':::e=-:::r-~' §=-==_-t-r:==' ===-~II+=F===1.Basically Soul Rhythm .f:. ~ r OJ M . te· pM -J-t-T----IW_ t I~t Chicago .

Cow Bell I 4 Latin noell \ I Medium me It d~E . 19~f I 33 .

I c:t'1 D r r - IK l f4 II ~ ~ Ei'1 D t E " I-g'r~-~ Slue:... almost no tongue is used..t~. frbrftr rtFICrl&EItF lug Far ~ :J) 4 I Ia t i r t=j gqg:g aU I11t~EimIT f f I ! .. - . by the use of breath accents. Bop I Ef. ~ _ ~ (~ lftr Up tempo rl E[13@j Ictrgg='rU J Ir'~ I _... . liB In a be-bop style blues like this._' b. ' and most phrasing is achieved 34 .g I C±-EFff±F - -' --~. CF...alues Boogie ~ ~' (!"Fg ~ I -.-.

35 . I have listened to players with great technique who played so cleanly and "legitimately" that they sounded dated and square.Jazz Techniques Jazz and Contemporary Music requires certain techniques (especially in solo performance) which frequently are not perfected in studying traditional saxophone literature. I have heard players with great ideas who simply did not have the technique to expressthemselves properly. Remember this-Great Technique is an Incomparable asset to arw style. but keep in mind that in applying technical facility-you must phrase properly so as to convey the feeling and beat of the music. In studying the follOWing pages. There are two extremes to avoid. Also. e. remember to achieve sharp and clean technique.

. .Technical Studies . '1. I Notice the "formula" used to build this pattern: From the starting note.. I II II I. . It is important to have control and technical facility over the whole range of the saxophone. A half-step is used to resolve the pattern. a sequence of half step down-whole step up is used. Movable Patterns v •~ Pattern #1 . while possible. will not be dealt' with in this text.4. These studies will work within the basic written range of: Notes above F.

.go to: If And continue. lowering the starting note one-half step each time until reaching: &3 ~J qi4J &J J¥JifR~J II Rhythmic \Jariations on Pattern #1 Learning to start each of these patterns on different parts of the beat will be of 'tremendous help when improvising. lowering the starting note one-half step each time until reaching.{! 411 ##1 P J And continue.The student should continue this pattern. raising the starting note one-half step each time until reaching: At this point . Each of the following variations should be practiced using all possible starting notes as described in the previous section. .

e ~lZ8!j J.JqJ JfJi#fllP tiPS Sn 'Jariations on Pattern #2 to be played from all starting notes And Down to: II 38 . H H WH W H W H W H WH w'if'# The formula for this pattern is: 1) Half step down from starting note 2) Then alternate half step up-whole step down H Continue the Pattern Up to: .- .

~.(574 e )J I Ere r r r~rr I J J d nJ f J #3 . Third--play the phrase down or up chromatically (Playing it up or down through the various keys by ear or memory is strongly recommended) FinaUy--play in all keys by ear. First-learn the phrase and be able to "swing" on it. 0 r E r*r blEf#& r r r Pf I II II II g e ~) Ir r r! r E &r fl J J d ~J f J)3 I pbe .. ~ It L f E t r Ttl tfI. rQ[ In I . Second--memorize the phrase. ©! e )J I r r f r J J d J !dd W ~JfJ 3D I" II .qr [ [ rtf 0 EOwVtPp IF EE FreE r IjfP@f fJ J&310 II A·4WV>e Plrtft-r erf'lcCnr r err In 39 II . I a II II !e p IffffErbrfltfbrkrr F\WH~ P IrE f Bb .A rticu lation The following patterns are valuable as articulation studies and as helpful phrases for playing through chord changes when improvising.

G.EE 61 I G. 'Wi en IfffffE1IICfJjQr II 0 II II II II B 0 E Wfn ~ _u e j) (! p Jj Ir L E r rn ~E r IIT r gf! fJ J @ I IErr 1MJ .? I J J qJ lEE F J er~rf I j JP#J ££tjj I 0 0 A~ C .. *'e P IrtffrlmfILf[~r f r rgr I . ~ ~ ~ I! a If r= t r Im btl r J¥m UP I cOry [ ref I r [' j ~f!.~&WI (~ P I L en r E r~rF I L [~[!f r rT I 0 [ F'4 ~n e D I r r r F rijE r £ I c Pry r rrr I .. -& II D~ ~ B J I IT r 1 r PPgf I E Pr~ £J J PI . ~ c miL 1J r r ~L~rE I EPft 40 0 .

C.@ I Il 0 II continue 4 e p . 0 II continue ! ~p Ibm r r1t r IgETItjg@§j.v~r e ~ 4 \Jariations on Pattern #1 IbE ffr[ bDfr 1§(r@P j@ I J&3 0 II ~~~t~nue chromatic . c r F (]ftc [ Im}§m I 0 II continue II con~inue I¥ erE r b30 l~clf#@gMJB I E 0 e ~p I¥EX B"r r IQroE1@ jiJ I 0 II continue v~r ~p v~r T I ITE r [m r IgMJg@W.r ~e ~pIt v. v:r .gfffPQ. • i 0 continue v~r@ (! ~p IT Fr Em r IgpJ9 41 I 0 II continue . b 0 II II continue v:r' (~ bp .be fIt r Ffr .r.lIE r fD r«r riIftEr~@O.~ v.

" E( fQj J J J I Qj - :n~Me .Pattern #2 ~n ~ c- ~. lEft tIT r eEl[ r r fgd£11 Cf=f !~n'WW'eplrrrfEr[rIJtJ?qjJ3JIJlJ - ~~n' ~e #: - ~ It rEtE r E r I[ r r f~dJ1ltFj - " ~:n~ e p IrE r r J J j J 14J J 3~JJ J 11).-) ~#~ t II ~~ng 1ft fEn r r r Ir t r f ~tfUEJf= I' " e - II 42 .(! '. P Ir f r r J J J J I J j j J q~ 3 J J I 1) J j '- - II II II II II @ ~ 11ft f f rEt I E r f f qtf WI (f'f ~j r n~n ~!e ~ If @ r r f [ r r fir .

b Pc ME r E r f F r'-"'-r -'--:--1---:--(r--:.ftEtr r f r If r WEfJ1ltfd r rr r[ r r f I II b 13 D I j] J J U J j J I fgJ - II .b c E liEffEttf If rL PDtfIJl en . - II '.in ~.:in~~ e j) I r I rt rrJJJJ I J J J JW J J j I rv - II _ e'lfrtfrr . .in.-r ~~r: I ffi r r [J ~~ 43 II ...~ ~ I r @ ~in~ e ~ !in! ~ g Elffg fft~ kl j I l(jf II r r r r r r r I j J J j #J rv - II .

IS 1>0 ] IJ"S - ~ v~r ~. [bg b~ Articulation 'Jariations on Pattern #2 ooJ tJ ..- ..-- v~r t (~ E Cbr rTt 'r bE~E FqJ bg . Il n~bI rr~EF i8 J J ~%jf bg I eft F fn r IF hIT fqj~6J I&£@ I rbfF f rEr I r¥FcqJtfj v:r .dEl_) - II ~~~t~nueup chromatica v.~.~ I Pc r f rl~F I rite F r~JdJ J IbiJj q II continue v.. e bp I fbfff r tf1' IF bWqJ lwidiJ Ib~J II continue v:r ~ IS hAAg rTc r~rF7Jfrrr qt3} J I&£@ - II conti~ue II continue v~r ~ e bg I ffffi ernt It1N~ 1&J:l§ J .. e bp I e Pr FC r r~t?I rbjbaqj~J tJ Ibf@ - II conti~ue II continue II continue II continue v:r ~ bp 1[1 F [ v~r ~ r I.r . -~---------.r .

45 .

v~r~ e 1lbf~ffRrfFir1iriH~ I I e- ...v~r' .Articulation "ariations on Pattern #3 ~ v~r' r L- .(~ e Pp I &plh [pr E r t r ft I"cr f/trqer IE [I'g c#@70 I rt~cr- r¥ ~f Ern Er Itr :4r~er I j fT EBb I nQrpr- ~ v~r4 e PP IbeLfff tE rID kpe 011 ffi F#QlJI r&!ri p.1~ i i i q . .

Sing the exercise using eithtr syllables. To help develop these skills. effort should be made to develop both technical and aural (hearing) skills. Play the exercise until it sounds familiar.Chord and Scale Studies f-I I I j ~-. or scale step numbers. Play it again on the instrumentond compare. The singing is very Important as It will help develop the aural skillsIntemally. : i . ! I Here is a procedure for practicing in this fashion: 1. Really listen to what Is being played. but serious effort will payoff. I I I . letter names.. and the resultsare definitely worth the effort. is recommended that the student play and sing all of the exercises in this section. In this section. Don't ever practice with your "ears closed' I ! 2. . i 3. Jazz musicians speak of players who have "good ears:' Thisrefers to players who have developed their aural skillsto the point where they can instantly recognize and react to scales. 47 . and intervals which are either played by someone else or that occur In a player's own mind as an "idea:' 'It : I I . I The development of these skillsis not eosv and will probably not come quickly.

I I Note: The student's success in learning to hear chords in this section is entirely! dependant upon his diligence in playing the chord study examples in all keys J . START WITH THE NOTE G. Whole Step Whole Step = 1/2 Step - - TO CONSTRUCT A MAJOR ..~ .. ROOT 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th Octave (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (A) (B) (C) ~ # (! 1 jJ rrrrrr C D E ~F# G Root 2nd 3rd '-.. OF . THE REST OF THE SCALE WOULD ~ALL IN LINE AS FOLLOWS: '" !\ SCALE TONES . . :.J' WITH THE ABOVE FORMULA YOU CAN CONSTRUCT ANY MAJOR SCALE I NOTICE THAT IN ORDER TO MAKE OUR FORMULA WORK WITH THE G SCALE WE MUST SHARP (#) THE F. so that you will understand the musical theory behind the studies that follow./ i 1/2 STEP 1/2 STEf C D E F G A B toD to E to F toG toA to B to C ./ 4th 5th ! '1 6th 7th Octave 1/2 STEP I 1/2 STEP '-. .. IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH A WHOLE STEP BETWEEN E AND F WE MUST SHARP THE F.= Whole Step = ...Chord Studies The important thing in studying chords is to learn to hear the relationship of invervals within a given chord.' : C Major Scale . CONSTRUCT IT AS FOLLOWS: I I I I G Major Scale GAB .._. Major Scale ! A MAJOR SCALE IS A SERIES OF EIGHT NOTES ARRANGED IN A PATTERN WHOLE STEPS AND HALF STEPS. DISTANCE FROM PRECEDING NOTE WHOLE STEP WHOLE STEP 1/2 STEP WHOLE STEP WHOLE STEP WHOLE STEP 1/2 STEP TO ~ONSTRUCT THE G MAJOR SCALE. .JjJrFf Root 2nd 3rd ~ C D E F GAB CI . Scale Building Study the following section on scale building and constructing chords from scale' degrees. 1/2 Step ... .SCALE WE FIRST START WITH THE NAME OF THE SCALE (Frequently called the Root or Tonic).Whole Step -Whole Step . ir~ !' 4th 5th 6th 7th Octave '-. THERE MUST BE A WHOLE STEP BETWEEN THE 6th AND 7th rrONES OF THE SCALE. Training the ear by applying the following studies will help the Sax player begin to improvise with both technical and harmonic freedom..' \vITtI THE C SCALE THIS WOULD BE THE NOTE "C"... . @eJJj.

rna 7 M6. b5th. maj. "7th.m dirn. 3rd. 9th 9"". b3rq. ~th. 9th I 3. min 7 M7.Root. "7th I ·. 5th Root. 7th Root. 9th Root.. 3rd.' 13~ Root. 3rd. 13th Root. . '. 7th Root... Root. . aug. 9th. 3rd. 9th Root. 3rd. The 2nd Icale degree will be th. b7th. 6th 1-- Minor Seventh Major Seventh Major Sixth Minor Sixth Seventh #5th Seventh b5th Major 7th b3rd Minor 7th ~Sth Seventh Suspended 4th Ninth Minor Nimh Major Ninth Ninth Augmented Ninth Flatted 5th SeventhP9 Augment~d 9/6 Eleventh Augmented Thirteenth Thirteenth 1>9 Thirteenth Eleventh Ninth 5th -: ' Root. 3rd. 11th.l. b9th Root. . 7 aug 11 13 . 4th.beth.9'5 Root. ~3rd. 7th. ~5th.. 9th ! . "7th Ftoot. #5th. 5th. maj. ~th."'1-1 ~ . 3i-d.-9 Ma9 gt5.? -Major Minor Diminished Augmented Dominant Seventh 1 +. ~th. 3rd. 3rd._~ 7 sus 4 ·'9 mi9. .' Chord Type Scale Degrees Used Root..e. ~ b7th Root. 3rd. b7th Root. 13th • 131w'" Half Diminished Root. . 11tho 13th Root.. ll1h. 9th. 5th. 131h) eonlinue your scale up 2 octaves and keep numbering. 3rd. bsth"b7th. 3rd. b3rd. ~7th Root. 11th.b7th 'Note.. b9th. 9th. 5th. gila 7·e.. 6th. dam.7 -7. ~th. b7th. b7th. Sth.'. rna]. P7th.7k ' 9~ Root.':: .'mi6. 7. ~5th.~5th. u. tt5th Symbols Maj mi. p~rd~ bsth. #l1th Root. M6.-6'·· " i. b 7th.~ . pp 1>5 3rd.-. • .CHORD BUILDING CHART* I. 6th Root. 5th. b7th. b3rd! 5th.. ard.. 5th Root.· . #9th I th.I3rd. ~th. 3rd.r. Ma7-3 ' mi r'.'. ~3rd.. 5th..6 add 9 11 11. 5th.'5th. b7th Root. b7th Root. 9th. I b 7th. Root.. P7th.. 91h tone as you begin your seccnc octave.. . 3rd. 3rd.S ".To arrive at scale degrees above 1 octave. b7th.' <>. P3rd. #5th.. 7h. 3rd. 9th Root. 5th. ~th. 11 th Root. 5th. 3rd.

! The circle is known as the "Circle of Fifths"because each tone is the inteNal of a perfect fifth lower than the tone pre~eeding it.. I i {-r I I ... i "! i"-- B~ I.. \ E I C~ !~ G~' I I 1 i~ ! iI F#! I ! I '. i A 1 \ E~ \ . " \' Order of Keysfor Practicing C .. "' '\ I i I ! 50! I ... .

ourth.uBu_ally :e~olv~B to a f. Study #1 • . (Play the arpeggio and then smg It..f€Ff€fErllfftrfft.) _ - _ _ :.'e ]JjJj3J IJJJjJDJ . ..====:: Dominant 7th Scale . Smgmg IS esenhal for ear training. ~ e ill J J J J J J J I J J J J j 3 33' I jJ l4f [ r f Ipc r Err I Studyi#2 1 I Ef I r 51 . I ~ ref r cree ItrJttfff.@ I~ g: J J @ I • ~ Dominant 7th Chord The dominant B~venth chord.W3JjtC[r I~EFfEfErl tHr HrA r .

'(C#) ~~) / D ~7 Ay7 ) '-. P 3] j:J 38 IP J~ CHi IE i rr r r ITr:tlrtrfftefl II ! j . I' !: l__ pot on I r I'. -notes in the particular Resolution of Dominant 7th The dom._ Thus: I I i ~-- T A7 G7/ !F7'\.. c. ~rErr f rr I JbJ j J J J JJ I J J j J j J J J 13J toa 3ll 1_ r Study #3 II .~ fEfftjfftlEftrcffS I rEr r r r F r I r r rr r b [d . (uptoand including high F) as determined by the chord.~ _J/ the key of F. Cycle Keys : of . 7th usually resolves to a chord down a fifth (or up a fourth). and down as low as possible. I . Bb7 \ E~ 7 ('7 I ' / \ E7 . start on ~ 2) Play each as high as possible I I i ' . Note: Practice the above studies in all keys! . scales and studies should be pla~ed in all keys.i i' . Cb 7 (F# ) . using the following order and this procedure i 1) start on the lowest possible root: I Example . 3) Play back up to finish on the starting note. scale or study. I~- '. ! All chords. 1 ! i Ii I j.e .

.. 4~b'N JJJJEtdI~FECrr . I I d ~Er r F r (F) 0 .' c_ i I 11~~. "~. . r '-- Gp I i i i I 11#fu#Fr[rgrr:1lt€er=ffi II~ B or CP .' .... ..{ \' .: '. I ' Bay 'S ax ImproVlsmg.~~.Blowin' Dom. See Bill .. • ." For a complete study into the technical and l'iarmonic aspects of Jazz Improvising. ..EJgJJ(FrJl~[Errr . i i i I I I 53 ! I . 7th Through the Keys II .'. s .FrFt£rJI~rrrrg IIgUJ J J J CF G IIJ I 4 In c i I D J J J J £G IgE f F rJ ~ I i . ~- ~4 E f lr ~r[ r F E&J J J Jq~ J J Ij 3 Jp3#d J 3 J I I' j ! II . - :.( .

The basic resolution or a minor 7tl chord. is to IV7.~rrrrrE[r IJJ~JJjJJJ I iI I ~jJJdJJJJ Illj~J. Thus.kJ1J41- .Minor 7th Chord Dominant 7th Minor 7th .· . Minor 7th Scale I I~ I I I 'ri I 'I~ '.' '. Cm7~F7.' .

Study #2 § (l }J m3 J J 1~3J j J j J 3 a I j9J J J r F F r I~FrEF 61 r r . 'I I. PC fE r ErEr 1J~auJJ JJ J IJ qJ JJ 3 JJ 1JJJ JJ3JJ 1_ . i Study #3 I II ! 5~ .

Blowin' Minor 7th Through the Keys .

..e ~e nn~J3dJI_rffj..o Id..B ". IPF ~h ...rerl Sfudy#1 CC&~ilJJ Imal II au J J j J us IJ Jd J J J J. J j J J a Ij J~~JU J J lau :llJ1JJI_ J Stu·dy #2 . r L r~F IJ J JJ I ' ' 7~5 Scale -e- II .: 2.3 J J J a J IJ J j II J all 1_ j ... 1.i-.. 'II '{: jJ Jd J a J S I jW J J Jj J 8 IdpJ b nr r r F . Or to a half step lowerlhus:' C7P5-+.. Play and sing I Dom7 7 ~5 @ I! =1 J =1 j r I) W j Min7 =1 ¥ 11 ~~------qJ®r II 7D5 ~ 7 b 5 Chord 1- I: !e iJd '_ 1 3 b5 b ~~Ir r t = II b ~~ ~E~~t b The 7b5 chord resolves usually in 2 alternate ways. r f E F h L r LI r t r r r LEi IEf r r E E [ r .... I i - r r r ~F ~ r I .-.':"'"'' .J E [·f F I~Fr P F L r r E: I Jb . To a 4th step thus:(C7b5~)F"... J ! F t r r r r r Irbrfr g(Pr IrrrcrfftIffftffTf1 ~ @ fffrftfJr Ir~tft~L Etir IcbeErr IT r r IrE r r E [[ ttl b [ §~r[ f FEr f F IbJdb...I~rr FEE r r I r ~ &JbJ J J J J J J 1)..

I ! 58 I ... i I -- Modulating Down 1/2 Step . @ Il j1 yo j:J fJ IJil WJ cf rJl r f EM [Fa l{frEda I II § ffftrrerlECTHcLJI et[J!iJJJldJJJJJJJI_ . . '-- ·'i· I I i . . . I I I .Study #3 ..

..g# I I j 3J a Efri IQr r r F&r KJ In I(~: • IIQ g I I I I i E eE r fJd J I J Jd 3d. c:r rrwf F BE .~ e I G E rhd i.Blowin 7~ 5 Through the Keys ~ (~J j fJ ]"3 I~EF r pd .._. " "'-....~ J J J J J11? IQr [ .J~JJ I j Jdd I II 59 ._~ I ~ i i . . j J . Ifl 11~1#Fr FE # Bore..

7b5 .~ Dom7 Min7. . [per r r fI r IEPeE rrltri(cltEr£fft f i.Minor7b5 '. . It usually resolves to a dominant 7th chord a 4th above. Min7p5 The minor 7~5 is used frequently when Improvising. i I IbJ J~JJ I I r f r r IbE c r r r Ebr Cl l[mEtEr I ! . Thus: Cmi7b5~ F7 Play the following studies in all keys. 'I Study #1.) J J J J Id l~j J J j·a . Remember-Play and sing in all keg'S 1 b3 b5 b Minor 7b 5 Scale ~'e jJb.

!. I&J9J?]J3dJ Id~JH~JjJljJJ3JJjJI_ . . ~err~ I J J J J b ] : I II II . .Study -#2 c @ e jJ Jd J J J J b}J MJ J J J.~ I! "I Common Phrase Using Mi 7 5 E L1 .(l L .i \ g 1)&CtbfC I F rr ~r I{ r ffl 61 3 . II Study-#3 .I~JJ J j E F F r ~r E r Et F FI r ~- " § ~FrrFrfFr ..

.i ! Blowin'Mi 7b 5 Through the Keys I i..r i r.- .&\ j3 i>J J Db JEfJ? 11'm L E rblid iii _.119 i 1 . i .. .. .1 : :: r-. ~~ 1J~Jj m11~r Erd r 1'_.

'~ErfFrrrr I#JJbJjJjJJIDi3HJJJ "'~ I IJJJajgtJul_ II . the 7+5 chord resolves to a 4th above. i ~ @e jJ3JJJJJ IJJ#JJBJJjliJJJdrrrr " I~FrrFrfrH ~ .4 e 1 J Augmented 7th Dom7th J PF 11~J J Min7th ¥ 11 J d r I) d pJ ~F 11 J@pr7b5 i Min7b5 7U5 As with most 7th chords. -@ ~- EffFrrtt Itrft#rrJJr H~FF E[t EI rr r r e Ef r I I . i I ~ i I . LIr~ Err r rtrs!lffftrrfr IfetffErfl . .. Thus: C7+5~F 7+5 7+5 Scale . r t ( r r [#f. I .. Study #1 i. .--------~ ---------- .

Et Ec (J I Be G1' 00 I. i ~ JBd JJtr tf I FE rlr iiJ.:4 ~ Study #2 II j J 3d J J J J IJiIJ J J tJ J l. .I i .a ill aD waul i f -a- II ~'Il £Jda : ~ Changes Using 7+ 5 j J ~J I BJ J J J ~ I fJ £j . 4 l fEr Ic f#E r r f r r IrE r r r bFr I II I ·~~rFErrrrF I~J~JJJjJJJI J#JBJJJJljJJ::OJ3JI_ . 'e P JyJ J~I@ J3 c[ ril Ef dE cFrt1tftffrfti . r E~EFLlr r r IcPr r riEtlTflrrfftlfffffrrfl Irtrvc :~ fEffilr. ~f'* ~.jD II I I I I J J d:Q Jlqiij t t t II 64! I ..jJ j J r FEr It r F F ~ r r r I ._* ... .. Study #3 • ~ LL:4pr IErr ..g I ~ I d ap tFm t t .

' .Blowin 7+5 Through the Keys ~ ~.. F II .ejjJuJ13SIB&J4D. C v '~JJ3JEEOIEEttEfj .J IP~AF r r r I cc& IrE~r(j d II~~ . - [4 u#t Ed J J J J1l? I Cr~gp~.

' 1 bP7 . A diminished chord. In order to create a scale that will work with the diminished chord-we will construct the scale on a whole step -half basis. because of the ~5. serves as a passing chord resolving 1/2 step up or down. . . Thus: Cdim --+ CU7 or Cdim ---+. CO) The diminished 7th chord could be called a minor 6~5. however. Diminished Scale #1 bb JJJI_ II . .B7 A diminished chord is constructed by using minor third intervals..~ .Diminished 7th Chord (dim 7. to resolve to a fourth above. A minor 6~5tends. alternating whole steps and half steps. The scale uses The diminished chord is constructed uSinr minor third intervals.

@ CT Err rtf . j J IJd J J ad j J Idp93d J El'f E r I Study #2 . u r HI eW Free EQ@ I~T F belT rr ttr I I! I .~. IT...(! jJ J J J U . • . .) ~~r"r§rr&E Err II .JJpJ J J J~lJ4JWd4tJS\& -..her Em rE r r 'g Ff c&& f&pl ~bI>:t ~ . 1 ~.:~J&JtpJ. ~b. iP ~. . F E PeT 1'41ct ErE r U ItT r r dEE r tr1tFr rTtr I ..@ bg fir r Fe Hcbf[ . Study #1 (Cont.J j J Q § I.

. -e- II . 7#9.~ rt([ r~FL r r I rTt r~EF r r: 1r~Ef pfJ J] 14J 3d&j J~J:n !d &J ~J J d J.--------- t : .=-::_. .. J J Ij&i &J J J J &3 J I .. etc.. r~r~fr r~rf l~r~FT r·r~rFIt~E tr~E tr r Irlrrrtfft I r E I . :::. or 7#9#11.. . : ~ ... ~ c jJ~JjJJJ J IJJ~J JW3 IbAd 3J~J ~jJ I rT r F F E~FF I a _'..sounding scale which will work well when played against chords built on diminished type intervals..-. we have a slightly different Diminished Scale #2 Study #1 c. .----- .) If we begin our diminished scale with a 1/2 step. (ie 7~9. 7b9h 1."' . .

@ br PLbF~rgrbEr l~j~E~b fEr I Ell FT FEr I r cpr r j J J j I F~E . : Study#3 -~ e @J&JpJpJ JqJ IJ J~JS E fPrlf IgPederI Egg I . . Study #2 J J IJ~Jd jd~JpJ J IS J~JpJ~JpJ J] I ...~ r r~r'r cpr E r I t~ftr [1 r [ IT~rTrzgct r trJ7rT~rlfrI " .l' --4(! jd&JJJbJ .

q~atois used. It requires daily practice. Do not leave an exercise until the vibrato is under control. 70 . The syllable "wah" produces a suitable jaw movement. Development of vibrato Isnot an ovemight task. Vibrato Vibrato is an important part of saxophone playing. \.. Keep the support and the air stream steady. I The following exercises will help in the development of a smooth and even vibrato. The vibrato is created by a slight movement of the jaw. It is recommended that the student listen to both saxophonists and vocalists to gain a concept of how and when vi.

.---t"-.~ 8 Pulses Per . qe Ue . .e . ttc: bn ..Measure 3 3 . :I .. · 13 @ J! JJ JJ JJ {l I & .1:1Ilo i I bll ~e i !.LJJJJJ. o o II 71 ._.@ e JiJJJJ.Measure i J tJJ J JJ J JJ I .0 r--"'-. ~. vib ~e . h == (! JJJJ 0 JJJJ 0 : 5" J ·J . .Measure I i.H o II 10 Pulses Pef . ~f! ftJrnrnl1.. &0 ~o o I vib 5 0 I ~o[ 5 1 : ( .-/'---.1 ~ .MeasurE vib vib .. I 0 12 Pulses Per .. An A2 ..0 0 . ~ 3 6 Pulses Per . #0 I II ~.\Jibrato Studies Slowly vib I : 4 Pulses Per .. &0 I Izn a vib .Measure 1 e .. 1 1m i I &n o o i I I vib r---:---~ e I qat e . & . l I 4 0 @ ." I .

j:1 " ~l':li.. &e e- '. <:~'E!D~IT~~I~~u~~1 (i~C-~~~~b r j ~~II. ~nnJJJ.. ~1'. "_I at!ll n 11 E! r P I "" i Ii 1 i C! r bJ r---3----.~-~-:-..:j"""':'i·.:1 U..vib 16 Pulses Per Measure :~ ~4...'l' ." ~ ~ I &.... ..----.'.: •.. I 0 II Accelerating Pulse .. " L @ 1 I G I~r" ...' .. n. cr I a II P!r" Pia It aLC IT i II -=@7i> I' ~ 6 ¥ ¥ ill Irm~~7fr i '<'rl"'~.-no. t" l 7~ I .~C~~r~' ~~ II Lush Sounds Slowly .JJJnJJJJI ~" ..'l 11._ '. 11m' Ig .6---P ' <~ ..

.High Register .'-- J J &J5 tJ 1 ~J) 73 P J j: P 3 #3 :1 I I !r-- ..Flexibility Studies.. . g J d a .! J -@ Il J &3 t1 S 1j J I~Oj iii ¢fP j aj #3 :11 1tJ 1$ j j &f:) P ¢f iJ P #iJ :11 4.0< . I . ~ (j J &3 1 J tJ Wi J P &J :11 . . ) 3.~ Flexibility Studies.i> . 2.Low Register 1.