J. Fluid Mechanics (1997)

Geometry of cross section of liquid beads (1) (2) Bead’s cross section transverse to x-direction—segment of a circle with radius R (x) (3) .

– Bond number is small– the transverse curvature sufficiently is small . – Incompressible. – Gravitational effect neglected.Present Assumption for wave perturbation • The liquid is: – Inviscid. – Quasi –one dimensional flow.

. t is time. as expressed as: (6) Where β is a coefficient that corrects the difference between the longitudinal curvature over the centre-line and the average longitudinal curvature. ρ is the liquid density and p is the pressure inside the bead. given as (5) Where σ is the liquid’s surface tension and 1/R’ is the average value of the longitudinal curvature of the bead at a position on x-axis.Dominant instability wavelength • Motion conservation equation: (4) Where u is the velocity in the x-direction.

(7) • Mass Conservation Equation: (8) Neglecting convective terms.From equations (4) to (6) (neglecting convective terms). (9) .

and ω is the angular frequency of the wave. .Wave perturbation • Considering the perturbation of the bead as a complex quantity. e is the amplitude and k the wavenumber of the height perturbation imposed at t=0. (10) • Where h0 is the bead's unperturbed height.