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x@q:1*dEF(9.x@Q2/3H.R>F:)&134*0KEF*O3`2z:)(¥KQ:1<d>A@¥>F:1<?> ¨b ¹ª S>`2%ng±m]@QKQ262 – Kq* – 26K+@ M·rX.x@q:)*dEz:)E?¸A*d&¶¸?2.  Q¬G¬ ®9 ¬U°+¯ ®9 B & & < &126s @(Q“`¡`@QK+262±*0sºEF*f3`2z>J.0(3`26<dK+2/2±>F:=<?>`26K¥¡OM ™ KQ:1<?>?@j.x@q:)*dEF(6U  '*d“`¡J&12DKQ*L@}.R>F:1&)3*0KEF*O3`2:1(¥KQ:1<?>?@>F:=<?> ¨hBjª Kq:=<?>?@(+“`¡`@QKQ262±>J.0E @q* +I@q>`2%ng¹m – KQ* – 2/K@ M?U      .0(j3`2/<dK+262z>F:1<?>`26Kj¡AM ™ &126s´@.R>F:)&134*0sºEF*O3`2z:)(¥&=2/s´@9>F:=<?> ¨ ª KQ:1<?>?@j.x@_.x@q:1*dEzs{*d&1&)*P¤ 2.LKQ:)&=M @q>`2§KQ*O*L@..x@q:1*dE~U KQ*L@}.LK+2©K+'2 f“F:=KQ2/3 ž E.(T.3*0K – KQ2/.0E%ng¹m @QK+2/2©*0s^>`2/:1<?>?@ • EF*r‹*0K+2¹@q>J.M¡2z¸`:1*d&˜.U K : IF:1E`< @q>`2¹%ng¹m – Kq* – 26K+@ M‹:1EA¸?*d&=¸?2/(D3F*d:)E`<$.3`2/3¡OM.G2.R>F:1&)3*0sºEF*f3`2z:1(¥&126s´@9>F:1<?> ¨t%±ª &126s´@.0E?M4EF*f3`20•«EF*L@'E`2/. .'KQ:1<d>A@ KQ*L@}.£(2/KQ:=2.62/(+(Q._&126s´@³KQ*L@}.(¥*LsT(+:)E`<?&=2§*0K 3F*0“`¡J&12¹KQ*L@}.

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!# 3A .y) x - y T h { T1 T2 3 } h+1 } h-1 or h Height of tree = h + 2   !#" $'& $ ( 1?"2!?<# 3 A  68%: <>!#" "21 (  " T. E* ® ¬  Q¬G¬ B »R» 2 y \ h { - T1 h-1 or h { T T2 } } } x } 3 h+1 h Insert a node into T 3 so as to increase height of T 3 y \\ } } } x h{ \ T1 h-1 or h { T2 T } 3 h+2 h+1 LeftRotate (T.

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)!? 3 y x h h-1 T1 h+1 T2 T3 h Deletion of element decreases the height of T1. y) x y T3 h-1 T1 h T2   !#" $'& '( "20" <# 3 R  68%: <>!#" "21 (  2" .1 or h T2 h h-1 or h T3 Double Rotation w - y x h+1 T1 T2 T3 T4  !#"%$'& '( 1#" !?<>3   A698.:=<>!?"2" 1 (  2" T. E* ® ¬  Q¬G¬ B »R»  2 y x h T1 w h+3 h+1 T4 h. Left Rotate ( T.1 or h  .)!#3 h . violating the AVL property.

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EF3F:1E`<*dEy@}>`2u*LKq:=<?:)EJ.@q* @q>F:1(/U * A    .L&j>`2/:1<?>?@*0s • @}>`2u>`2/:1<d>A@*Ls_@q>`2H@qK+262H¤C:)&1& ¡«2-2/:=@q>`26K¹“FEF.LKQ:)* (vM`r¢r¢26@QKQ:).)!#3  ¬ ¬Š°+¯ x®  ¶¬  ¬6®  Q¯   C2 – 2.0E`<02.3 ¨t>`2/:1<?>?@±*0s ª'0* K¹<d2G@}(§K+2/3F“F.R>J.ªŠU^NO2/= 2 K :1<d“`KQ2šfU fU S>`26K+2±:)(.$(+. E* ® ¬  Q¬G¬ B »R»  2 y x h T1 h-1 w h T2 h-1 T4 T3 Overall height = h + 2 Double Rotate w y h-1 x T1 T2 T4 T3 Overall height = h + 1 h-1   !#" $'& ( "20" <# 3 R  68%: <>!#" "21 (  2" .62/EJ.62/3l¨t:1sI>`2/:1<?>?@±*0s  —.

-(vM`r¢r¢26@QKQ:).62/EJ.  B   (  (  ( @  @ ¬ =¬Š°+¯ x®  ¶¬  ¬6®  Q¯  NO262=K 1: <?“`K+2©šfU `U³%'(“F(Q“J.LKQ:)*`U A .L&b•@q>`2/K+2±:)(¥.C(+.

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¸?2/(/U ¦_EF&¶MX@}>`2z:1EA@Q26KqEJ. 10A¬ C“Fr£¡26K *Ls ¡J&).0&)“`2/(9.0.0&)&=2.3.0E  BIS :1(j@}>`2¹¡J&).LEF3·@q>`2.¸?2¹id2GMX¸L.£EF*O3`2 I @q*-.EF*L@Q2/3¡AM¡J>n¨ I«ªRU B8&˜.0.$&=2P.0.R>F:1&)3‹*Lsn.xs :)(.L&EF*f3`2/(j¤C:)&1& >J.}i‹EF*O3`2/(¥*dE·...0E?M – .qiX>`2.R>4EF*O3`2±*0s ..•d@q>`2_.:=<?>?@*0s .xKQ2/E?@ žhs .x@q>Xs{KQ*drH•O¡J“@EF*x@¥:1EF./.LKQ3`2.(2.( – *0EF3F:)E`< – *d:1EA@Q26K J2.£KQ2/34¡J&).L.rHU       4 .0(+(+*f.6:˜.0.6*d&)*d“`K id26M &=2/s´@ KQ:1<d>A@ – .}i‹@QK+2/2±.0EF3H:1(3`2.x@Q2/3¤C:¶@q>·@q>`2.}i>`2/:1<d>A@¥*0s IH.C¬6¯+* ° -.}i>`2/:1<?>?@*Lsº:=@q(jKQ*f*x@PU k8.L:)EF(D@q>`2¹s{*d&1&)*P¤C:)E`< J2/&)3F(6U .LK+2¹K+2/<?.. /.&13¢¤C:)&1& ¡«2 _m m ./&1“F3F:)E`< .6*dE?@R.0(&12.0.3X@q>`2±¡J&˜.zEF*f3`2_3F*O2/(IEF*L@IJ2 IF:1(@.6*0K+K+2.

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0.   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬ »+¼/» blackheight = 2 2 14 black 2 1 16 black red 10 1 7 black 1 12 black 1 1 0 red 15 0 0 0 0 0 black ( leaf ) black ( leaf ) black ( leaf ) black ( leaf ) black ( leaf ) red 3 black ( leaf ) 0 0 black ( leaf ) black ( leaf )  !#"%$'& '( 6 !?"  0 .0EF3 šfU˜—)-`U M    B V % %' .3H*LK¥¡J&˜.  <>!?"2"4<  0 .    "2  U < S>`2¹KQ*O*L@9rX..M¢¡2±K+2.qiU WA@CB D%F%' 5INO262 K :1<d“`KQ2/(CšfU’› .

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 /  <>!#" "21 1 0 0 0 .   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬ »+¼R¼ 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Black height = 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Black height = 2 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Black height = 3 2 2 2 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 Black height = 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0  !?" $'& » ( + *.).0 "21 3 5+!#"  0 ..

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LEF3H&12G@  .0(EF*¢:1EA@Q26KQEJ.!#"  0 .}i‹@QK+262§¤C:=@q> ²:)E?@q26KQEJ.(>J.0EF3@q>`2z(+“`¡`@QKQ262±KQ*f*L@Q2/3 .0.0(>`2/:1<d>A@.   <#!#"2" ¥¬ \° %!K+2.R>F:1&)3`K+2/E #¨ K :1<?“`K+2©šfU˜—d—Pª C*L@Q2§@}>J.62¹@q>`2z(+“`¡`@qK+262±>J.Š@q:)*dE*dE@q>`2¢>`2/:1<?>?@z*0s  U¢žhs $¨  ª `•  ¨$ª  :)( &=2P.(6• .x@Q2/3¡AM ™ o— m~26@ $¨  ª -.x@ @q>F:)(j(Q“`¡`@QK+262±>J.|@ $¨  ªR• $¨  ªj.0".Ls .(  S 2¢3F*@q>F:)(¹¡OM:)EF3F“F.0&EF*O3`2.0(9.   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬ »+¼) x x1 x2  !#" $& »R»)( 6 1# -/.0(v@ ™   — :1EA@Q26KQEJ.x@  U S 2z¤C:1&)& JKQ(@C(+>F*P¤ @q>J.x@9r‹*d(v@ ™ &)*0< ¨ —Pª *dEF(+:13`2/K9.x@9&=2P.0&EF*O3`2.LEAMEF*O3`2 .6*0K+Kq*L¡*0Kq.0EF34>`2/EF.0(¥.0& EF*O3`2.3feh¡J&˜.LK+2¹¡*L@q > .0EF3  ¡2z:¶@}(j@ ¤¥* .

(+“F&=@j@}* ¡2±@QKQ“`2 s{*0K  .0&)& (+>F*P¤ @q>`2±K+2.(+“F&¶@9:)(j@QKQ“`2¹s{*0K  U C*œ¤•  ¨ ª .0EF3  U S 2(+>J. $¨  %ª  —LU^%'(Q(+“Fr¢2§@q>`2zK+2.

0EF3  $¨  .  $¨  ªo. ª —  ¨  Qª .

.0(9.0& EF*O3`2/(  &   .  $¨  ªo. ª — S>`26K+2/s{*0K+20•O@q>`2±@QK+262§¤C:=@q>KQ*O*L@  >J.x@&12.0EF3  $¨  .0(v@  ™  o—  :)E?@Q2/KQEJ.

@ 0 - @  $ $ @ $ ( ( @ - @ (  @  @ @  @ $ @ @ ( .

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.   <>!?"2" T2 T3 ¤C>`26K+2P..0& EF*O3`2/( S>O“F( @q>`2¹@qK+262§¤C:=@q>KQ*O*L@  >J.x@&12.x@9&12. x) T1 T2  !?" $'& »¼'( 3 < ./*0r – &12G@Q2'@q>`2 – Kq*O*0s •`&12G@ ¡2¹@q>`2±>`2.   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬ »+¼ y x Right rotate ( T.0(v@ — ™  o— ™  o—  ™  o—   :1EA@Q26KqEJ. <# 3 1   .L(9.L& EF*f3`2/( S *$.0(v@  ™  o—  :)E?@Q2/KQEJ. !#"   0 . y) x T1 T3 y Left rotate ( T.:=<?>?@9*0sn@q>`2¹@QKQ2620U³S>`2/E  ¨tKQ*O*L@}ª ™ S>O“F( ™  o— ™ &1*0<¨ —Pª ( .0(D@}>`2§@QK+262§¤C:=@q>KQ*O*L@  >J.0(9.

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3 – KQ* – 26K@ Md•O¤ 2“F(2 V %   F   .}i – KQ* – 2/K@q:12/(6U S *$K+2.x@Q2C@}>`2¹¸:)*d&).0r¢2¹.x@Q2.LK+2/EA@£*0s¥@q>`24:1EF(+26K@Q2.LEF3 ./*0&)*d“`K£:¶@£K+2.(+“F&¶@}:1E`<4@QK+2/2-rX..0.LEF3 x*0K V " B &   ¨t(Q.:1EF(@}.3feh¡J&˜.0.3~U žhs@}>`2 – .0(C:1s³:)E .3 EF*f3`2:)(¡J&).M¸:)*0&˜.  M ? @ @  @  ( &    V %  F B  #&%(%( G  !%(!     S >F1: &12¢:)EF(2/K@q:)E`<H.}i• q@ >`2.x@Q2£@q>`2¢K+2.E    .(65INO262=K :1<?“`K+2©šfU˜—P™ ª &126s´@ KQ:1<?>?@ 3F*d“`¡J&=2 S *X:1EF(2/K@_.LKM jB NfS .‹EF*f3`2 n• ¤ 2 JKQ(v@_:)EF(2/K@C@q>`2EF*O3`2 .0E *0KQ3F:)EJ.HEF*f3`20•n@q>`2¢K+2.0(:)E%ng±m²@qK+262.

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  ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬ »+¼ $ This need not be the root k 10 k 8 Fig. 3 just inserted 10 10 Uncle is right child of root k 10 k Fig. 2 Just 9 x inserted Uncle is red 8 15 y x 20 9 15 y 20 Fig. 4 k 8 k-1 15 y just inserted Uncle is black x 6 Right rotate k and change colours 6 x 10 8 k 8 k-1 10 k -1 15 y 9 15 Fig. 1 15 y k 6 x Just inserted k 8 k 6 k+1 10 k 15 y x Uncle is red 10 10 8 Fig. 5 just 9 x inserted Uncle is black Double rotate and change colours 8 x 10  )!#" $& »'( 1#" !?<>3     <#!#"2" 1 (    "2!?" J<41  " T.)!? 3 1 15 .

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0.¸?2/(¥EF*£¸`:1*d&˜.   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬ »+¼ 11 11 2 14 7 1 1 15 7 5 8 y 5 14 y 2 ( Fig.34..0E42/&12/r¢2/EA@D@q*$¡«2©3`2/&12G@Q2.62/(8.xKQ2/E?@:)(¥K+2/3~•@}>`2/E·@q>`2±K+2. 5) 7 11 2 1 5 4 14 8   !#" $'& »( 1#"2! <>3   A!#"   0 .|@}:1*dE±:)E¤C>F:1.G2$EF*dE`2$*0s^@q>`2  B – KQ* – 26K@}:=2.LK+2 3F*dE`2$(+:)EF.( JU ”d” JU ” OU K :1KQ(v@.(6U + + V %  F B  #&%(%( G %9F%    NO262=Kº:=<?“`K+2.x@Q2/3~Užhs8@q>`2 – . –F– &1:12/(6• 2.R>*dE`2D*0sf@}>`2I@QKq.0:)E?@j:)(j¸:)*d&). (+:¶@}“J.R>4&=2P.0EF(st*LKqr‹.&1:)r‹:1EJ.R>*0sn¤C>F:1.LEF3¢..x@q:)*dEF(:1WE K :1<?“`K+2/(º”`• F•AšC.0EF3 šfU´—Pš:)&1&)“F(v@QKq.(9¤C:)&1&T¡2 ¸`:1*d&˜.x@Q2.0" » 15 ¤ $2 .0r – &=2.0EF(s{*0KQrX../*dEF(v@QKq.. ./*0&)*d“`KQ:)E`<d(³.x@q:)*dEF(6U K :=<?“`K+2.x@ r‹*d(v@º@ ¤j*§KQ*L@}. –F– &=M:)E`<£@q>`2K+2/. –F– &1:12/(/U S>F:1(³2/:=@q>`2/K³2.3~U NO2/2=K :1<d“`KQ2©šOU´—/”`U ž Eo(+“F.L(+20•¥¤j2 ¡J“`¡F¡J&12u@q>`2 ¸:)*d&).•`(2P.(n@q>`2¥¸:)*d&).|@q2/3F&=M .3~U M   + +  .   <>!?"2" 1 ( + *.R>o.x@Q2'@ ¤j*£U2 IF.x@q:)*dE¢*0s K :1<?“`K+2‹—±*0K K :=<?“`K+2£™£“FEA@q:1& :¶@^EF*z&)*0E`<d2/K .R>·s{*0K9./*d&1*d“`KQ:)E`<@QKq.. 1) x 15 8 4 4 x (Fig.(CšOU´— -.LKQ.( ¢¨t&1*0< nª K+2/.x@q:)*dE “ – @q>`2@QK+2/2 ¡OM K+2 – 2P.x@q:)*dE©*0K – KQ*O3F“F. .x@Q2.x@q:1*dE~U %'E-:1EF(2/K@q:)*dEK+'2 f“F:=K+2.

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0" ¼ .   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬ »+¼ 25 20 30 10 8 15 x 9 35 28 y Just inserted ( Fig.   <>!?"2" 1 ( + *. 2) Recolouring 25 y 20 x 10 8 30 35 28 15 9 ( Fig. 4) Right rotate with recolouring 20 25 10 8 30 15 9 28 35   !#" $'& » $ ( 1#"2! <>3   A!#"   0 . ..

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.   ® & ¬ 0  Q¬G¬   !#" $'& ¼/» ( " 0 " <# 3 R R!#"  0 ..   <#!#"2" 1 ( + *.0" » »+¼ .

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