Monitoring and Evaluation


Prepared By Sajjad Hussain Jarwar Spirit Foundation Pakistan - 2012

looks at inputs. processes and outputs 2 Prepared By Sajjad Hussain Jarwar Spirit Foundation Pakistan .2012) Why monitor? • To see if we are on track • To look at strengths and weaknesses • To make changes if we have to before it is too late • To make sure we are not wasting money or our limited resources • To make sure people are involved • To help look for areas for staff training • To pick up other areas where we may need to look for funding • It is easier to evaluate a project if there has been a good monitoring system Monitoring & Evaluation within a programme framework Monitoring .Ongoing .2012 .Activities on track and changes taking place? .What is monitoring? Monitoring is the systematic and continuous process of collecting and using information throughout the project cycle for the purpose of management and decision-making (Spirit Foundation Pakistan .Early Recover .Done through supervision .

efficient. outcomes and impacts .Did the programme achieve its purpose? .Overview to a point in time .Recommendations for future planning? The black box approach 3 Prepared By Sajjad Hussain Jarwar Spirit Foundation Pakistan .What has been achieved? .Evaluation . and effective? .Were the achievements relevant.2012 .looks at outputs.

what are the benefits and to whom? Example Activity – dig a well Output – completed well producing adequate water Outcome – people using and storing drinking water Goal – water-borne diseases reduced 4 Prepared By Sajjad Hussain Jarwar Spirit Foundation Pakistan .Logical frameworks • Activities – what activities must be achieved to accomplish the outputs? • Outputs – what outputs (deliverables) are to be produced in order to achieve the purpose or outcomes? • Outcomes or Purpose – what are the immediate effects of the project.2012 .

Indicators • Specify realistic targets for measuring or judging if objectives have been achieved • Provide the basis for monitoring. reviews and evaluation • Indicators can be process or impact • Indicators can be direct or indirect (proxy).2012 . quantitative or qualitative Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators SMARTER • Specific • Measurable • Achievable • Realistic • Time-bound + • Enjoyable • Rewarding SPICED • Subjective • Participatory • Indirect • Cross-Checked • Empowering 5 Prepared By Sajjad Hussain Jarwar Spirit Foundation Pakistan .

2012 . quality and time • number of health workers trained in preparation of ORS and holding at least one community session per week after six months Impact Indicators • Impact indicators measure impact and are usually used at the Outcome level • What are the quantitative measures or qualitative judgements by which achievement of purpose or outcomes can be judged? • number of people using ORS as first line treatment of children’s diarrhoea Direct indicators • Used for objectives that relate to directly observable change • Usually a more precise. • What kind and quality of outputs and by when will they be produced? QQT: quantity. how are things going – use to measure Outputs. comprehensive and operational restatement of the respective objective Indirect (proxy) indicator • Used when: • The achievement of the objective is not directly observable (quality of life) 6 Prepared By Sajjad Hussain Jarwar Spirit Foundation Pakistan .Diverse Process Indicators • Process indicators are used to measure the process.

2012 . how you are going to measure and whether your indicator is Process or Impact 7 Prepared By Sajjad Hussain Jarwar Spirit Foundation Pakistan .• Measurement will incur high costs (laboratory tests) or resources for measurement are not available • The achievement is measurable only after long periods beyond the life of the activity Example of proxy indicator • The objective is to reduce water-borne diarrhea but morbidity and mortality data are unreliable • Proxy indicators could be: – 98% of people use drinking water from the protected source – 75% of faces of children under five are being disposed of safely – Hand washing facilities are next to all latrines and are in use To re-cap • Process indicators Can be quantitative or qualitative Can be direct or indirect (proxy) Impact indicators How to write indicators • SMART and SPICED often refer to quantitative and qualitative but should actually be used together • Think about what you are going to measure.

Avoid vague/ambiguous terms like… • To increase awareness • Appropriate use • Beneficiary involvement • Increased participation • Good understanding • And so on……… • You may know what you mean. others may not!! Group work • Look at the indicators for the Output and Outcomes of the project • What kind of indicators are they? • Are they good indicators or can you rewrite them? • How would you collect the information needed for each indicator? The End 8 Prepared By Sajjad Hussain Jarwar Spirit Foundation Pakistan .2012 .

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